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Sample records for luminol chemiluminescence reaction

  1. Catalysis by manganese (III) 8-hydroxyquinolinates of the chemiluminescent reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinichenko, I.E.; Matveeva, E.Y.; Pilipenko, A.T.

    1985-09-01

    This paper examines the kinetics of the reaction of luminol with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the presence of Mn (III) 8-hydroxyquinolinate according to the data of measurements of the chemiluminescence intensity and the yield of light in this reaction. A reaction mechanism was proposed, providing for the oxidation of luminol by complexes of Mn (IV) that are formed in the decoposition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  2. In vitro screening of Fe2+-chelating effect by a Fenton's reaction-luminol chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Komatsu, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Rie; Aburjai, Talal A; Alkhalil, Suleiman M; Kuroda, Naotaka; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2014-11-01

    In vitro screening of a Fe(2+) -chelating effect using a Fenton's reaction-luminol chemiluminescence (CL) system is described. The luminescence between the reactive oxygen species generated by the Fenton's reaction and luminol was decreased on capturing Fe(2+) using a chelator. The proposed method can prevent the consumption of expensive seed compounds (drug discovery candidates) owing to the high sensitivity of CL detection. Therefore, the assay could be performed using small volumes of sample solution (150 μL) at micromolar concentrations. After optimization of the screening conditions, the efficacies of conventional chelators such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DETAPAC), deferoxamine, deferiprone and 1,10-phenanthroline were examined. EC50 values for these compounds (except 1,10-phenanthroline) were in the range 3.20 ± 0.87 to 9.57 ± 0.64 μM (n = 3). Rapid measurement of the Fe(2+)-chelating effect with an assay run time of a few minutes could be achieved using the proposed method. In addition, the specificity of the method was discussed.

  3. Determination of cysteine and glutathione based on the inhibition of the dinuclear Cu(II)-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Ehsani, Mahjoobeh; Khajvand, Tahereh; Golchoubian, Hamid; Rezaee, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    The catalyzed luminol chemiluminescent reaction has received a great amount of attention because of its high sensitivity and low background signal which make the reaction an attractive analytical chemistry tool. The present study, introduces the beneficial catalytic effects of dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2, where TAE = tetraacetylethane; L = N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine and X = ClO4 on the luminol chemiluminescent reaction as a novel probe for the determination of glutathione (GSH) and L-cysteine (CySH) in human serum and urine. The [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2 has exhibited highly efficient catalytic activity of luminol CL as an artificial peroxidase model at pH as low as 7.5 in water in the presence of H2O2ṡGSH and CySH can induce a sharp decrease in CL intensity from the [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2-catalyzed luminol system. Under the selected experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentrations of GSH and CySH in the range of 1.0 × 10-7-1.0 × 10-4 M, with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.7 × 10-8 and 6.8 × 10-8 M and RSD < 4.2% (n = 7) for GSH and CySH, respectively.

  4. Determination of phenol by flow-injection with chemiluminescence detection based on the hemin-catalysed luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwen; Cao, Wei; Liu, Weihua; Du, Kang; Gong, Pixue

    2012-01-01

    This study established a novel flow injection (FI) methodology for the determination of phenol in aqueous samples based on luminol chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The method was based on the inhibition that phenol caused on the hemin-catalysed chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution. Optimum conditions and possible mechanisms have been investigated. The linear range was 2.0 × 10 -9 to 4.0 × 10 -7 g mL -1 for phenol. The proposed method is sensitive with a detection limit of 4.0 × 10 -10 g mL -1. The relative standard deviation for 11 measurements was 2.3% for 1.0 × 10 -7g mL -1 phenol. The method was applied for the determination of phenol in waste water samples. The results obtained compared well with those by an official method.

  5. Flow-injection analysis for the determination of total inorganic carbon and total organic carbon in water using the H2O2-luminol-uranine chemiluminescent reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shun-Li; Qu, Fang; Zhao, Lixia; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2006-12-01

    In the presence of carbonate and uranine, the chemiluminescent intensity from the reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide was dramatically enhanced in a basic medium. Based on this fact and coupled with the technique of flow-injection analysis, a highly sensitive method was developed for the determination of carbonate with a wide linear range. The method provided the determination of carbonate with a wide linear range of 1.0 x 10(-10)-5.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) and a low detection limit (S/N = 3) of carbonate of 1.2 x 10(-11) mol L(-1). The average relative standard deviation for 1.0 x 10(-9)-9.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) of carbonate was 3.7% (n = 11). Combined with the wet oxidation of potassium persulfate, the method was applied to the simultaneous determination of total inorganic carbon (TIC) and total organic carbon (TOC) in water. The linear ranges for TIC and TOC were 1.2 x 10(-6)-6.0 x 10(-2) mg L(-1) and 0.08-30 mg L(-1) carbon, respectively. Recoveries of 97.4-106.4% for TIC and 96.0-98.5% for TOC were obtained by adding 5 or 50 mg L(-1) of carbon to the water samples. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.6-4.8% for TIC and 4.6-6.6% for TOC (n = 5). The mechanism of the chemiluminescent reaction was also explored and a reasonable explanation about chemical energy transfer from luminol to uranine was proposed.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Luminol Persulphate Chemiluminescence in Aqueous Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, V. M.; More, P. S.; Khollam, Y. B.; Sonone, R. S.; Kondawar, S. B.; Koinkar, Pankaj

    The chemiluminescence (CL) emission spectra of luminol were recorded using Fuss spectrograph in different aqueous aliphatic amines using sodium persulphate alone and mixture with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. The CL emission spectra after resolution showed two emission bands at 425 and 455 nm. The CL mechanism was explained on the basis of two exited state species formed during oxidation of luminol. The CL of luminol is found to be very weak as persulphate slowly produced oxygen. The glow become intense with time as more and more oxygen is made available for oxidation of luminol. The mixture of hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulphate is found to be more effective in producing intense and long lived CL glow for luminol. The CL emission band of luminol by using sodium persulphate and mixture with hydrogen peroxide is explained on the basis of formation of exited singlet and triplet state of 3-aminophthalate ion (3-APA). The shorter wavelength emission band of 425 nm is found to be very weak in intensity as compared to longer wavelength emission band of 455 nm. Thus phosphoresce is favored in case of persulphate CL of luminol.

  7. Forensic application of the luminol reaction as a presumptive test for latent blood detection.

    PubMed

    Barni, Filippo; Lewis, Simon W; Berti, Andrea; Miskelly, Gordon M; Lago, Giampietro

    2007-05-15

    The forensic application of the luminol chemiluminescence reaction is reviewed. Luminol has been effectively employed for more than 40 years for the presumptive detection of bloodstains which are hidden from the naked eye at crime scenes and, for this reason, has been considered one of the most important and well-known assays in the field of forensic sciences. This review provides an historical overview of the forensic use of luminol, and the current understanding of the reaction mechanism with particular reference to the catalysis by blood. Operational use of the luminol reaction, including issues with interferences and the effect of the luminol reaction on subsequent serological and DNA testing is also discussed.

  8. Enhancing effect of hydrazine on chemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, M.; Tiwari, A.; Brahme, N.; Kher, R. S.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2013-05-01

    Enhancement in chemiluminescence (CL) signals was obtained when an aqueous alkaline solution of hydrazine was mixed with a luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. The CL intensity is a linear function of hydrazine concentration over a range of 1-10 μg/ml. Several variables on the CL response were examined for the determination of optimum conditions for the system. A possible mechanism of the CL reaction is also discussed.

  9. The effect of electrode material on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, J.E.; Johnson, D.C. ); Engstrom, R.C. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on the oxidation of luminol and its concomitant electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) which were studied at several electrode materials by voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The ECL intensity (I{sub ECL}) was inversely related to the activity of the electrodes. The lowest I{sub ECL}) was measured when luminol was oxidized to 3-aminophthalate (n {approx equal}4 eq mol{sup {minus}1}) at a nearly mass-transport limited rate at glassy carbon. The ECL kinetics were studied and the order of the reaction with respect to luminol was 3/2 at concentrations to ca. 1 mM when O{sub 2} was the coreactant. In the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the ECL reaction was first order with respect to luminol. A reaction mechanism is proposed that is consistent with the inetic data and the inverse relationship between electrode activity and I{sub ECL}. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to imaging the spatial distribution of current density at electrode surfaces, including that of PbO{sub 2} films activated by adsorbed Bi(V). A value of 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} was determined for the diffusion coefficient of luminol in 0.1M NaOH.

  10. Study on the chemiluminescence behavior of bovine serum albumin with luminol and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua; Chen, Donghua; Wang, Zhuming

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the luminescence behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and luminol was first studied by flow injection chemiluminescence (CL). It was found that the hyperchromic effect of luminol in the presence of BSA led to the acceleration of the electrons transferring rate of excited 3-aminophthalate, which greatly enhanced the CL intensity of luminol/dissolved oxygen reaction. The increments of CL intensity were proportional to the concentrations of BSA with a linear range from 0.01 to 7 nmol L -1. It was also found that azithromycin could inhibit the CL intensity of luminol/BSA reaction. The decrements of CL intensity were logarithm over the concentrations of azithromycin ranging from 0.1 to 700 ng mL -1. At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min -1, a complete analytical process, which included sampling and washing, could be performed within 30 s with relative standard deviations of less than 3.1%. This proposed method was successfully applied in assaying azithromycin in pharmaceutical and human serum samples with recoveries from 91.0 to 104.3%. The possible luminescence mechanism of luminol/BSA/azithromycin reaction was discussed in detail by CL, UV and fluorescence methods.

  11. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of dihydralazine sulfate in serum using luminol and diperiodatocuprate (III) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Zhang, Zhujun; Wang, Jinli

    2010-01-01

    A novel flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of dihydralazine sulfate (DHZS) is described. The method is based on the reaction of luminol and diperiodatocuprate (K 2[Cu(H 2IO 6)(OH) 2], DPC) in alkaline medium to emit CL, which is greatly enhanced by DHZS. The possible CL mechanism was first proposed based on the kinetic characteristic, CL spectrum and UV spectra. The optimum condition for the CL reaction was in detail studied using flow-injection system. The experiments indicated that under optimum condition, the CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of DHZS in the range of 7.0 × 10 -9 to 8.6 × 10 -7 g mL -1 with a detection limit (3 σ) of 2.1 × 10 -9 g mL -1. The proposed method had good reproducibility with the relative standard deviation 3.1% ( n = 7) for 5.2 × 10 -8 g mL -1 of DHZS. This method has the advantages of simple operation, fast response and high sensitivity. The special advantage of the system is that very low concentration of luminol can react with DPC catalyzed by DHZS to get excellent experiment results. And CL cannot be observed nearly when luminol with same concentration reacts with other oxidants, so luminol-DPC system has higher selectivity than other luminol CL systems. The method has been successfully applied to determine DHZS in serum.

  12. Determination of ferric iron chelators by high-performance liquid chromatography using luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Tomoko; Imura, Yuki; Suzuki, Michio; Yoshimura, Etsuro

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential element for higher plants, and its acquisition and transportation is one of the greatest limiting factors for plant growth because of its low solubility in normal soil pHs. Higher plants biosynthesize ferric iron [Fe(III)] chelator (FIC), which solubilizes the iron and transports it to the rhizosphere. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) post-column method has been developed for the analysis of FICs using the luminol/H2O2 system for chemiluminescence (CL) detection. A size-exclusion column was the most suited in terms of column efficiency and CL detection efficiency. Mixing of the luminol with H2O2 in a post-column reaction was feasible, and a two-pump system was used to separately deliver the luminol and H2O2 solutions. The luminol and H2O2 concentrations were optimized using Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-citrate (Cit) solutions as analytes. A strong CL intensity was obtained for Fe(III)-Cit when EDTA was added to the luminol solution, probably because of an exchange of Cit with EDTA after separation on the HPLC column; CL efficiency was much higher for Fe(III)-EDTA than for Fe(III)-Cit with the luminol/H2O2 system. The present method can detect minute levels of Fe(III)-FICs; the detection limits of Fe(III)-EDTA, Fe(III)-Cit and Fe(III)-nicotianamine were 0.77, 2.3 and 1.1pmol, respectively. PMID:26874881

  13. Magnetic modulation of the chemiluminescence intensity in the oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Tribel', M.M.; Frankevich, E.L.; Leksin, A.N.; Morozov, A.K.

    1986-04-01

    This paper attempts the experimental detection and investigation of the magnetic field-dependent radical steps in the oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide. It was found that it is in fact possible to affect the chemiluminescence yield by the use of a low intensity magnetic field (ca 100 Oe) and to relate the observed effect to a hyperfine interaction in the radical pairs formed during the reaction. Solutions of LH/sub 2/ and K/sub 3/Fe (CN)/sub 6/ in alkaline aqueous solution (0.1 M NaOH) were delivered continuously through a mixer into an optical cuvette. A block diagram of the equipment is shown. The chemiluminescent light was directed through a light guide to an FEU-79 photoamplifier, protected by a special shield from the action of scattered magnetic fields. The derivative of the magnetic effect was examined and it was established that there is no deviation from saturation of the magnetic effect up to 3.5 kOe. The results demonstrate that in the stages preceding the formation of light emitter an interaction occurs between two paramagnetic particles. It is also shown that it is in principle possible to record the ESR spectrum of these luminol radicals with respect to the chemiluminescence, using the reaction-yield-detected magnetic resonance method.

  14. Menadione-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescent assay for viability of Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro

    2002-01-01

    Stable luminol chemiluminescence was observed 10 min after the addition of menadione to a suspension of Mycobacterium bovis homogenized in Middlebrook 7H9 broth base including OADC enrichment. The chemiluminescence intensity was proportional to the absorbance of the bacterial suspension at 600 nm in a range of 0.005 to 0.15. Luminol chemiluminescence disappeared after 10 min incubation of M. bovis at over 60% of ethanol or 4 days of cultivation of M. bovis in the presence of 40 microg/ml of streptomycin. The bacterium showing the disappearance of chemiluminescence could not grow after being washed, suggesting that the inhibition concentration of the antimicrobials can be estimated on the basis of the disappearance of chemiluminescence. Menadione-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescent assay was rapid and sensitive in comparison to turbidimetry, tetrazolium (WST-8) reduction assay, and the assay using the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT).

  15. Inhibition of superoxide dismutase, Vitamin C and glutathione on chemiluminescence produced by luminol and the mixture of sulfite and bisulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hong; Meng, Ziqiang

    2006-05-01

    In a system which consisted of luminol (3-aminophthalhydrazide), cobalt sulfate (CoSO 4), alkaline buffer and the mixture of NaSO 3 and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO 3) (sulfite and bisulfite = 3:1, m/m), a strong chemiluminescence (CL) was observed using a BPCL ultra-weak luminometer. The CL signals resulted from 3-aminophthalate (the product of oxidized luminol), and were affected by the buffer pH, buffer medium and the concentrations of luminol, CoSO 4 and the NaSO 3-NaHSO 3 mixture. The observation that the CL intensities were inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), Vitamin C (Vc) and glutathione (GSH) in a dose-dependent manner suggested that superoxide radical (O 2rad -) was involved in the CL reaction and responsible for oxidation of luminol.

  16. Luminol chemiluminescence biosensor for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwang-Soo; Lee, JungHoon; Park, Jong-Myeon; Choi, Han Nim; Lee, Won-Yong

    2016-01-15

    Luminol chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor based on boronic acid modified gold substrate has been developed for the determination of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in human blood samples. In order to selectively capture HbA1c in sample, carboxy-EG6-undecanethiol was self-assembled on a gold thin-film substrate, followed by covalent coupling of 3-aminophenyl boronic acid (3-APBA). The captured HbA1c containing four iron heme groups plays as a catalyst for luminol CL reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and thus the luminol CL response is linearly proportional to the amount of HbA1c captured on the biosensor surface. The present biosensor showed linear dynamic range of HbA1c from 2.5% to 17.0%, which well covers the clinically important concentration range. In addition, the present biosensor exhibited negligible response to interfering species such as hemoglobin, fructose, and sorbitol. The present HbA1c biosensor was applied to the determination of HbA1c in human blood samples and the results were well agreed with that obtained with a conventional method.

  17. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods.

  18. Assay of picogram level isocarbophos residue on tangerines and oranges with luminol-albumin chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Donghua; Song, Zhenghua; Lv, Hairu

    2012-12-15

    A sensitive flow injection-chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method for the determination of isocarbophos (ICP) residue on tangerines and oranges was proposed. It was found that the CL intensity from luminol-albumin CL reaction could be obviously quenched in the presence of ICP and the decrease in CL intensity was proportional to the logarithm of ICP concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 1000 pmol L(-1), giving the limit of detection of 0.3 pmol L(-1) (3σ). The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of ICP residue on tangerines and oranges with recoveries varying from 92.0 to 111.0% and RSDs less than 5.0%. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-albumin-ICP reaction was discussed, and ICP to albumin's binding constant (K(D)=1.00 × 10(6) L mol(-1)) and the number of binding sites (n=1.00) were given by the homemade FI-CL model. PMID:22980841

  19. Iodophenol blue-enhanced luminol chemiluminescence and its application to hydrogen peroxide and glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dalong; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we found that iodophenol blue can enhance the weak chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol-H2O2 system. With the aid of CL spectral, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral measurements and studies on the effects of various free radical scavengers on the iodophenol blue-enhanced luminol-H2O2 system, we speculated that iodophenol blue may react with H2O2 and oxygen to produce oxidizing radical species such as OH(•) and O2(•-) resulting the formation of (1)O2. The generated (1)O2 may react with luminol anion generating an unstable endoperoxide and subsequent 3-aminophthalate* (3-APA*). When the excited-state 3-APA returned to the ground-state, an enhanced CL was observed. Based on the H2O2 concentration dependence of the catalytic activity of iodophenol blue, a cheap, simple, sensitive CL assay for the determination of H2O2 was established. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a linear relationship between the relative CL intensity and H2O2 concentration in the range of 0.025-10 μM was obtained. As low as 14 nM H2O2 can be sensitively detected by using the proposed method. The relative standard deviation for 5, 1 and 0.25 μM H2O2 was 2.58%, 5.16% and 4.66%, respectively. By combining the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalyzed oxidation reaction, CL detection of glucose was realized. The linear range of glucose detection was 0.1-30 μM with a detection limit of 0.06 μM. The proposed method has been applied to the detection of glucose in diluted serum. PMID:26695314

  20. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in freshwaters using flow-injection with luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Mohammad; Folgado Biot, Beatriz; Nabi, Abdul; Worsfold, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow-injection (FI) method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural waters, based on luminol chemiluminescence (CL) detection, is reported. Nitrate was reduced online to nitrite via a copperized cadmium (Cu-Cd) column and then reacted with acidic hydrogen peroxide to form peroxynitrous acid. CL emission was observed from the oxidation of luminol in an alkaline medium in the presence of the peroxynitrite anion. The limits of detection (S:N = 3) were 0.02 and 0.01 µg N/L, with sample throughputs of 40 and 90 /h for nitrate and nitrite, respectively. Calibration graphs were linear over the range 0.02-50 and 0.01-50 µg N/L [R2  = 0.9984 (n = 8) and R2  = 0.9965 (n = 7)] for nitrate and nitrite, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range 1.8-4.6%. The key chemical and physical variables (reagent concentrations, buffer pH, flow rates, sample volume, Cu-Cd reductor column length) were optimized and potential interferences investigated. The effect of cations [Ca(II), Mg(II), Co(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II)] was masked online with EDTA. Common anions (PO4(3-) , SO4(2-) and HCO3-) did not interfere at their maximum admissible concentrations in freshwaters. The effect of salinity on the luminol CL reaction with and without nitrate and nitrite (2 and 0.5 µg N/L, respectively) was also investigated. The method was successfully applied to freshwaters and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by an automated segmented flow analyser reference method. PMID:23044772

  1. Iodophenol blue-enhanced luminol chemiluminescence and its application to hydrogen peroxide and glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dalong; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we found that iodophenol blue can enhance the weak chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol-H2O2 system. With the aid of CL spectral, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral measurements and studies on the effects of various free radical scavengers on the iodophenol blue-enhanced luminol-H2O2 system, we speculated that iodophenol blue may react with H2O2 and oxygen to produce oxidizing radical species such as OH(•) and O2(•-) resulting the formation of (1)O2. The generated (1)O2 may react with luminol anion generating an unstable endoperoxide and subsequent 3-aminophthalate* (3-APA*). When the excited-state 3-APA returned to the ground-state, an enhanced CL was observed. Based on the H2O2 concentration dependence of the catalytic activity of iodophenol blue, a cheap, simple, sensitive CL assay for the determination of H2O2 was established. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a linear relationship between the relative CL intensity and H2O2 concentration in the range of 0.025-10 μM was obtained. As low as 14 nM H2O2 can be sensitively detected by using the proposed method. The relative standard deviation for 5, 1 and 0.25 μM H2O2 was 2.58%, 5.16% and 4.66%, respectively. By combining the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalyzed oxidation reaction, CL detection of glucose was realized. The linear range of glucose detection was 0.1-30 μM with a detection limit of 0.06 μM. The proposed method has been applied to the detection of glucose in diluted serum.

  2. Flow-injection determination of isoniazid using sodium dichloroisocyanurate- and trichloroisocyanuric acid-luminol chemiluminescence systems.

    PubMed

    Safavi, A; Karimi, M A; Hormozi Nezhad, M R

    2004-06-01

    A chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of isoniazid is described. The method is based on the CL generated during the oxidation of luminol by sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) and trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. It was found that isoniazid greatly enhances this CL intensity when present in the luminol solution. Based on this observation, a new flow-injection CL method for the determination of isoniazid has been proposed in this paper. The detection limits were 2 and 3 ng ml(-1) isoniazid for the SDCC-luminol and TCCA-luminol CL systems, respectively. The relative CL intensity was linear with the isoniazid concentration in the range of 4-100 and 100-200 ng ml(-1) for the SDCC-luminol CL system, and 6-200 and 200-1000 ng ml(-1) for the TCCA-luminol CL system. The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. PMID:15178311

  3. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) to the optimization of a post-column luminol chemiluminescence analysis of silyl peroxides.

    PubMed

    Baj, Stefan; Słupska, Roksana; Krawczyk, Tomasz

    2013-01-15

    The possibility of the utilization of chemiluminescence post-column luminol oxidation (CL) in a HPLC system for silyl peroxides analysis has been investigated. The conditions of HPLC separation for 12 silyl peroxides, representing bissilyl and alkyl-silyl peroxides, as well as their potential impurities, were established. Optimal chemiluminescent post-column reaction conditions were found using central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The interaction effects of four of the most important operating variables - the concentrations of luminol, hemin, sodium hydroxide and the post-column solution flow rate - on the light intensity were evaluated. The optimized conditions for analysis were the same for bissilyl and alkyl-silyl peroxides for the base concentration (0.03 M), the luminol concentration (0.4 g L(-1)) and the hemin concentration (0.3 g L(-1)). The only differences occurred in a reagent flow rate (for bissilyl peroxide -0.3 mL min(-1) and for alkyl-silyl peroxides -0.9 mL min(-1)). Under optimal conditions, the detection limits were in the 0.07-0.16 nM range for bissilyl, and 0.53-1.01 for alkyl-silyl peroxides. The calibration curves were linear in the 0.25-3 nM range for bissilyl and the 2.5-25 range for alkyl-silyl peroxides. Intra-day and inter-day precision was lower than 5.5% for each tested concentration level. A mechanism of luminol oxidation by silyl peroxides involving a hydrolysis step with the formation of hydrogen peroxide or hydroperoxide was proposed.

  4. Stimulation of alveolar macrophages by mineral dusts in vitro: luminol-dependent chemiluminescence study

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, V.; Wilhelm, J.; Brzak, P.; Hurych, J.

    1987-02-01

    Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) of normal (nonactivated) rabbit alveolar macrophages (AMs) was measured in suspension upon stimulation by various size fractions of one quartz dust sample or by various mineral dusts (quartz, corundum, anatas, and chrysotile asbestos as an example of fibrous dust). The CL-triggering capacity of the tested dusts was inhibited by their preincubation with autologous serum. The intensity of luminol-dependent CL induced by particulate dusts upon their action on AMs depended on the kind of dust, on the dust particle sizes, and on the ratio of the number of particles to the number of cells in a given suspension. The cytotoxicity and/or fibrogenicity of the dust and its capacity to trigger the luminol-dependent CL of nonadherent AMs were not directly correlated.

  5. Luminol-Based Chemiluminescent Signals: Clinical and Non-clinical Application and Future Uses

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Parvez; Idrees, Danish; Moxley, Michael A.; Corbett, John A.; Ahmad, Faizan; von Figura, Guido; Sly, William S.; Waheed, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) is an important method for quantification and analysis of various macromolecules. A wide range of CL agents such as luminol, hydrogen peroxide, fluorescein, dioxetanes and derivatives of oxalate, and acridinium dyes are used according to their biological specificity and utility. This review describes the application of luminol chemiluminescence (LCL) in forensic, biomedical, and clinical sciences. LCL is a very useful detection method due to its selectivity, simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity. LCL has a dynamic range of applications, including quantification and detection of macro and micromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and RNA. Luminol-based methods are used in environmental monitoring as biosensors, in the pharmaceutical industry for cellular localization and as biological tracers, and in reporter gene-based assays and several other immunoassays. Here, we also provide information about different compounds that may enhance or inhibit the LCL along with the effect of pH and concentration on LCL. This review covers most of the significant information related to the applications of luminol in different fields. PMID:24752935

  6. Employment of 4-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenol as a signal enhancer of the chemiluminescent luminol-H2O2-horseradish peroxidase reaction for detection of hepatitis C virus in real samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Lili; Fu, Chuanyun; Wang, Yunshan; Sun, Shanhui

    2015-12-01

    Highly sensitive detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in serum is a key method for diagnosing and classifying the extent of HCV infection. In this study, a p-phenol derivative, 4-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenol (4-TRP), was employed as an efficient enhancer of the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) chemiluminescence (CL) system for detection of HCV. Compared with a traditional enhancer, 4-TRP strongly enhanced CL intensity with the effect of prolonging and stabilizing light emission. The developed CL system was applied to detecting HCV core antigen (HCV-cAg) using a sandwich structure inside microwells. Our experimental results showed that there was good linear relationship between CL intensity and HCV-cAg concentration in the 0.6-3.6 pg/mL range (R = 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.5-5.8% and 5.0-7.3%, respectively. In addition, sensitive determination of HCV-cAg in serum samples using the luminol-H2O2-HRP-4-TRP CL system was also feasible in clinical settings. PMID:25820800

  7. A novel luminol chemiluminescent method catalyzed by silver/gold alloy nanoparticles for determination of anticancer drug flutamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Azizi, Seyed Naser; Heidarpour, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    It was found that silver/gold alloy nanoparticles enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-H2O2 system in alkaline solution. The studies of UV-Vis spectra, CL spectra, effects of concentrations luminol, hydrogen peroxide and silver/gold alloy nanoparticles solutions were carried out to explore the CL enhancement mechanism. Flutamide was found to quench the CL signals of the luminol-H2O2 reaction catalyzed by silver/gold alloy nanoparticles, which made it applicable for the determination of flutamide. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity is proportional to the concentration of the flutamide in solution over the range 5.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1. Detection limit was obtained 1.2 × 10-8 mol L-1and the relative standard deviation (RSD) γ5%. This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of flutamide in commercial tablets. Box-Behnken experimental design is applied to investigate and validate the CL measurement parameters.

  8. Flow Injection Photosensitized Chemiluminescence of Luminol with Cu(II)-Rose Bengal: Mechanistic Approach and Vitamin A and C Determination

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul; Siddiqi, Abdul Rauf

    2014-01-01

    Rose Bengal photosensitized flow injection chemiluminescence method is reported using luminol-Cu(II) for the determination of vitamins A and C in pharmaceutical formulations. The reaction is based on the enhancement effect of analyte in the production of anion radicals of Rose Bengal (RB•−) which rapidly interact with dissolved oxygen and generate superoxide anions radicals (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were produced via dismutation of H2O2 by catalyst (Cu2+). The generated superoxide anions radicals and hydroxyl radicals thus oxidize luminol in alkaline medium to generate strong chemiluminescence. The limit of detection (3s of the blank, n = 6) of vitamins A and C and RB was found to be 0.008, 0.005, and 0.05 μg mL−1, respectively. The sample throughput of 70 h−1 for vitamins A and C and 30 h−1 for RB was found. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05–15, 0.01–20, and 0.1–50 μg mL−1 for vitamins A and C and RB, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range 1.6–3.6%. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulations and the results obtained were in good agreement with the labeled values. PMID:25614739

  9. Combining complement fixation and luminol chemiluminescence for ultrasensitive detection of avian influenza A rH7N9.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Shi, ZhuanZhuan; Li, ChangMing; Yu, Ling

    2016-03-21

    The complement fixation test (CFT) is a serological test that can be used to detect the presence of either a specific antibody or antigen to diagnose infections. In a conventional CFT, the assay result is determined by observing the clarity of the reaction solution or the sediment of red cells by the naked eye. Although the assay conditions are thereafter simplified, the sensitivity of the assay would be sacrificed due to the limitation of bulk observation. Inspired by the forensic scientists to examine blood at the scene of the crime, we rationally argued that the luminol chemiluminescence (CL) reaction could be applied in the CFT to sense physiological complement-mediated haemolytic phenomena for sensitive protein detection. The combination of the CFT and the luminol CL system was demonstrated in detection of rH7N9, a recombinant avian influenza virus protein. The testing can be accomplished within 2.5 h and the linear detection range covers 0.25 fg mL(-1) to 25 ng mL(-1). The feasibility of the CL based CFT in assaying a real biopsy was successfully demonstrated by specifically detecting rH7N9 and the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. This new type of protein detection approach inherits the beauty of complement-mediated assay, such as being fast, and no protein immobilization, blocking and washing. In addition, the participation of luminol CL enables us to quantitatively analyse the intensity of a haemeolysis process, ameliorating the limitation of bulk observation in traditional CFT. It is anticipated that the luminol CL-CFT assay would be particularly suitable for investigation of small molecules, toxins, and short peptides. PMID:26863640

  10. A new reliable chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for prostaglandin E2 using enhanced luminol as substrate.

    PubMed

    Neupert, W; Oelkers, R; Brune, K; Geisslinger, G

    1996-11-01

    A sensitive and reliable chemiluminescence immunoassay suitable for the quantitative determination of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been developed using 96 well microtiter plates (MTP). The assay is based on a competitive reaction between a highly specific monoclonal anti-PGE2 antibody (mouse), free antigen and solid phase bound antigen. The MTP was first coated with a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-PGE2 conjugate. Then, after preincubating, the anti-PGE2 antibody (Ab) and the analyte were added. The remaining amount of free antibody was captured by the solid phase bound BSA-PGE2 conjugate. The monoclonal antibody captured on the MTP was determined using biotinylated anti-mouse-Ab and a complex of avidin and biotin-labelled horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Substrate for HRP was the cyclic diacyl hydrazide compound luminol, enhanced by p-iodophenol. Photons emitted during the reaction were measured using a photomultiplier tube. The assay has been validated with assay buffer and human plasma over a concentration range of 10-50,000 pg/ml. The lower limit of quantification is 100 pg/ml (2 pg/well) and 150 pg/ml (3 pg/well) for buffer and plasma, respectively. The intra-day coefficients of variation (CV) for the range of 100-50,000 pg/ml are 3.2-8.9% (buffer) and 4.2-17.7% (plasma) and inter-day CV are 2.9-19.8% (buffer) and 3.6-21.2% (plasma). The method can be used for quantification of PGE2 in biological fluids like plasma and suction blister fluid.

  11. Determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical preparations by flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection based on the enhancement of the luminol-KMnO4 reaction in a micellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Juntao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanming

    2015-04-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of L-thyroxine in the presence of cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) surfactant micelles is developed. The method is based on the significant signal enhancement of L-thyroxine on the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline solution sensitized by CTMAB. Parameters affecting the reproducibility and CL detection were optimized systematically. Under the optimum conditions, the net CL intensity versus L-thyroxine concentration was linear in the range of 5.0 × 10-8-3.0 × 10-6 mol/L with the detection limit of 8.9 × 10-9 mol/L. The sample throughput is calculated to be 140 samples/h and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 13 replicate determination of 1.0 × 10-6L-thyroxine is 1.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 93.9-105.2%. This rapid, sensitive, and high throughput method would provide a new tool for L-thyroxine analysis.

  12. Determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical preparations by flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection based on the enhancement of the luminol-KMnO4 reaction in a micellar medium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Juntao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanming

    2015-04-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of L-thyroxine in the presence of cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) surfactant micelles is developed. The method is based on the significant signal enhancement of L-thyroxine on the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline solution sensitized by CTMAB. Parameters affecting the reproducibility and CL detection were optimized systematically. Under the optimum conditions, the net CL intensity versus L-thyroxine concentration was linear in the range of 5.0×10(-8)-3.0×10(-6) mol/L with the detection limit of 8.9×10(-9) mol/L. The sample throughput is calculated to be 140 samples/h and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 13 replicate determination of 1.0×10(-6) L-thyroxine is 1.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of L-thyroxine in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 93.9-105.2%. This rapid, sensitive, and high throughput method would provide a new tool for L-thyroxine analysis.

  13. Determination of 2-methoxyestradiol by chemiluminescence based on luminol-KMnO4-CdTe quantum dots system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bin; Wang, Tiantian; Han, Shuping; Cao, Xiaohui; Qu, Tiantian; Zhao, Feifei; Guo, Xinhong; Yao, Hanchun

    2015-02-01

    In this study, water-soluble CdTe quantum-dots (QDs) capped with glutathione (GSH) was synthesized. It was found that CdTe QDs could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline medium, and 4 nm CdTe QDs was used as catalysts to enhance the reaction sensitivity. The CL intensity of CdTe QDs-luminol-KMnO4 was strongly inhibited in the presence of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) and the relative CL intensity was in linear correlation with the concentration of 2-ME. Based on this inhibition, a novel CL method with a lower detection limit and wider linear range was developed for the determination of 2-ME. The detection limit of plasma samples was 3.07 × 10-10 g mL-1 with a relative standard deviation of 0.24% for 8.0 × 10-9 g mL-1 2-ME. The method was successfully applied for determination of 2-ME in plasma samples. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly.

  14. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Wu, Jerry J

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes. PMID:27131144

  15. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Wu, Jerry J.

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes.

  16. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Bornick, R. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Marley, N. A.; Environmental Research

    1998-01-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide are important atmospheric air pollutants in the troposphere. These atmospheric nitrogen species are strongly coupled chemically by a clearly temperature-dependent equilibrium in the troposphere. A chemical method that can measure both nitrogen dioxide and PANs rapidly and with sub-part-per-billion detection is described that is based upon a modified luminol detection system coupled to a capillary gas chromatographic column by using helium as a carrier. The system can readily separate and detect nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxyproprionyl nitrate, and peroxybutyrl nitrate with detection limits in the low tens of parts per trillion with total analysis time of less than 1 min. Calibration of PAN by thermal decomposition to nitrogen dioxide is demonstrated with PAN detection sensitivities approximately 75% of the sensitivities observed for NO2 luminol detection by using helium as a carrier gas. The advantages of this method for simultaneous measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs over ozone chemiluminescent detection and electron capture detection are discussed, as well as potential applications of this method for heterogeneous surface chemistry studies of PANs and nitrogen dioxide and for tropospheric measurements.

  17. Determination of nitrogen dioxide with a chemiluminescent aerosol detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mikuska, P.; Vecera, Z.

    1992-09-15

    A modified detector is described for use in the determination of nitrogen dioxide via reaction with luminol. Chemiluminescence of the aerosol particles formed by crossed streams of the analyte and an alkaline luminol solution was observed by a photomultiplier.

  18. Study on Enhancement Principle and Stabilization for the Luminol-H2O2-HRP Chemiluminescence System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lihua; Jin, Maojun; Du, Pengfei; Chen, Ge; Zhang, Chan; Wang, Jian; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; She, Yongxin; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system with high relative luminescent intensity (RLU) and long stabilization time was investigated. First, the comparative study on the enhancement effect of ten compounds as enhancers to the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system was carried out, and the results showed that 4-(imidazol-1-yl)phenol (4-IMP), 4-iodophenol (4-IOP), 4-bromophenol (4-BOP) and 4-hydroxy-4’-iodobiphenyl (HIOP) had the best performance. Based on the experiment, the four enhancers were dissolved in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF) with various concentrations, the results indicated that 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP and HIOP dissolved in DMF with the concentrations of 0.2%, 3.2%, 1.6% and 3.2% could get the highest RLU values. Subsequently, the influences of pH, ionic strength, HRP, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol on the stabilization of the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system were studied, and we found that pH value, ionic strength, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol have little influence on luminescent stabilization, while HRP has a great influence. In different ranges of HRP concentration, different enhancers should be selected. When the concentration is within the range of 0~6 ng/mL, 4-IMP should be selected. When the concentration of HRP ranges from 6 to 25ng/mL, 4-IOP was the best choice. And when the concentration is within the range of 25~80 ng/mL, HIOP should be selected as the enhancer. Finally, the three well-performing chemiluminescent enhanced solutions (CESs) have been further optimized according to the three enhancers (4-IMP, 4-IOP and HIOP) in their utilized HRP concentration ranges. PMID:26154162

  19. Study on Enhancement Principle and Stabilization for the Luminol-H2O2-HRP Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua; Jin, Maojun; Du, Pengfei; Chen, Ge; Zhang, Chan; Wang, Jian; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; She, Yongxin; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system with high relative luminescent intensity (RLU) and long stabilization time was investigated. First, the comparative study on the enhancement effect of ten compounds as enhancers to the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system was carried out, and the results showed that 4-(imidazol-1-yl)phenol (4-IMP), 4-iodophenol (4-IOP), 4-bromophenol (4-BOP) and 4-hydroxy-4'-iodobiphenyl (HIOP) had the best performance. Based on the experiment, the four enhancers were dissolved in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF) with various concentrations, the results indicated that 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP and HIOP dissolved in DMF with the concentrations of 0.2%, 3.2%, 1.6% and 3.2% could get the highest RLU values. Subsequently, the influences of pH, ionic strength, HRP, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol on the stabilization of the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system were studied, and we found that pH value, ionic strength, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol have little influence on luminescent stabilization, while HRP has a great influence. In different ranges of HRP concentration, different enhancers should be selected. When the concentration is within the range of 0~6 ng/mL, 4-IMP should be selected. When the concentration of HRP ranges from 6 to 25 ng/mL, 4-IOP was the best choice. And when the concentration is within the range of 25~80 ng/mL, HIOP should be selected as the enhancer. Finally, the three well-performing chemiluminescent enhanced solutions (CESs) have been further optimized according to the three enhancers (4-IMP, 4-IOP and HIOP) in their utilized HRP concentration ranges.

  20. The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response as assessed by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differences between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) are currently unknown in cattle. Luminol-dependent CL measures the amount of reactive oxygen species released from leukocytes a...

  1. Correlation between arachidonic acid oxygenation and luminol-induced chemiluminescence in neutrophils: inhibition by diethyldithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Chabannes, B; Perraut, C; El Habib, R; Moliere, P; Pacheco, Y; Lagarde, M

    1997-04-01

    Neutrophils from allergic subjects were hypersensitive to stimulation by low calcium ionophore concentration (0.15 microM), resulting in an increased formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-(E,Z,Z,Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), and other arachidonic acid metabolites through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. In parallel, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was also higher in neutrophils from allergic patients at the basal state and after stimulation by calcium ionophore, revealing an enhancement of radical oxygen species and peroxide production. The activity of glutathione peroxidase, the main enzyme responsible for hydroperoxide reduction, was lowered in these cells. Diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DTC) induced a concentration-dependent decrease in chemiluminescence and arachidonic acid metabolism after neutrophil stimulation. These data show that the elevation of arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils from allergic patients is strongly correlated with oxidative status. This elevation may be the consequence of an increased cellular hydroperoxide known to activate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity and/or an increased arachidonic acid availability, due either to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation or inhibition of arachidonate reesterification into phospholipids. Lowering this oxidative status was associated with a concomitant decrease of this metabolism. Our results suggest that the effect of DTC may be the consequence of an inhibition of peroxyl radical and cellular lipid hydroperoxide production. Thus, DTC may modulate arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils by modulating the cellular hydroperoxide level.

  2. Effect of aggregated silver nanoparticles on luminol chemiluminescence system and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yingying; Li, Baoxin; Xiu, Furong

    2014-07-01

    We found that after silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aggregated, its catalytic activity on luminol CL reaction obviously changed, and the change characteristic was closely related to the sizes of AgNPs. UV-visible spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out to investigate the CL effect mechanism. The different CL responses of aggregated AgNPs with different size were suggested to be due to the two effects of quantum size and electron density in nanoparticle's conduction bands, and which one played a major role. The poisonous organic contaminants such as anilines, could induce the aggregation of AgNPs, were observed to affect effectively the luminol-H2O2-7 nm and 15 nm AgNPs CL systems and were detectable by use of a flow injection method with the enhanced or inhibited CL detection.

  3. Investigation of the radical step in the chemiluminescent oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide in the presence of hydrogen peroxide with the aid of magnetic modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tribel', M.M.; Morozov, A.K.; Frankevich, E.L.

    1987-11-01

    A method employing magnetic modulation of the rate of the chemical reaction was previously applied with success to the establishment of the chemiluminescent reaction involving the oxidation of luminol (LH/sub 2/) by potassium ferricyanide K/sub 3/Fe-(CN)/sub 6/ in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (0.1 M NaOH). The purpose of the present work was to experimentally investigate the radical steps of the more complex chemiluminescent reaction involving the oxidation of LH/sub 2/ in the presence of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The action of the magnetic field on the reaction causes an increase in the intensity of the chemiluminescence. The dependence of the intensity of the chemiluminescence on the magnetic field strength has the form of a saturation curve. The hyperfine interaction of the electronic and nuclear spins of the recombining radicals create a possibility for the mixing of the singlet and triplet states of the radical pairs, which results in relative alteration of the populations of these states with the rate constant K/sub st/(H). An external magnetic field reduces this constant, causing an increase in the concentration of the LOH/sup 2 -/ radicals and, consequently, an increase in the output of light.

  4. Employment of bromophenol red and bovine serum albumin as luminol signal co-enhancer in chemiluminescent detection of sequence-specific DNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Yingying; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Bromophenol red, known as chemical indicator, was found to act as a novel potent signal enhancer of the peroxidase-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescent (CL) reaction. It was found interestingly that bovine serum albumin (BSA) played a role in the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction (ECR). The addition of 2.5 mg mL(-1) BSA into bromophenol red-enhance CL system showed 36 times stronger CL signal than that without addition of BSA. Mechanism study showed that the luminophors in the ECR were still 3-aminophthalate ion in an excited state (3-APA*). In addition, singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and hydroxyl radical ((∙)OH) played a role in the ECR. The possible mechanism was discussed in the present study. The effect of pH, reaction time, and concentration of bromophenol red, BSA, luminol, and H2O2 on CL intensity of the peroxidase-catalyzed CL reaction was studied. The detection limit value (LOD) of HRP and streptavidin-modified HRP in the proposed ECR with bromophenol red and BSA was 0.20 ng mL(-1) and 0.05 ng mL(-1), respectively. This novel luminol-H2O2-HRP-bromophenol red-BSA CL system was applied to the CL detection of sequence-specific DNA based on a magnetic separation process. As low as 0.4 fmol of target DNA could be sensitively detected using the proposed CL system without any amplification process. The obtained results demonstrate very promising perspectives for using bromophenol red and BSA to improve the sensitivity of CL detection of sequence-specific DNA. In addition, this novel ECR system can also be generalized for CL immunoassay, CL western blotting, and so on. PMID:26653448

  5. Employment of bromophenol red and bovine serum albumin as luminol signal co-enhancer in chemiluminescent detection of sequence-specific DNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Yingying; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Bromophenol red, known as chemical indicator, was found to act as a novel potent signal enhancer of the peroxidase-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescent (CL) reaction. It was found interestingly that bovine serum albumin (BSA) played a role in the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction (ECR). The addition of 2.5 mg mL(-1) BSA into bromophenol red-enhance CL system showed 36 times stronger CL signal than that without addition of BSA. Mechanism study showed that the luminophors in the ECR were still 3-aminophthalate ion in an excited state (3-APA*). In addition, singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and hydroxyl radical ((∙)OH) played a role in the ECR. The possible mechanism was discussed in the present study. The effect of pH, reaction time, and concentration of bromophenol red, BSA, luminol, and H2O2 on CL intensity of the peroxidase-catalyzed CL reaction was studied. The detection limit value (LOD) of HRP and streptavidin-modified HRP in the proposed ECR with bromophenol red and BSA was 0.20 ng mL(-1) and 0.05 ng mL(-1), respectively. This novel luminol-H2O2-HRP-bromophenol red-BSA CL system was applied to the CL detection of sequence-specific DNA based on a magnetic separation process. As low as 0.4 fmol of target DNA could be sensitively detected using the proposed CL system without any amplification process. The obtained results demonstrate very promising perspectives for using bromophenol red and BSA to improve the sensitivity of CL detection of sequence-specific DNA. In addition, this novel ECR system can also be generalized for CL immunoassay, CL western blotting, and so on.

  6. CdTe quantum dots@luminol as signal amplification system for chrysoidine with chemiluminescence-chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinting sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huimin; Li, Leilei; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) in CdTe quantum dots@luminol (CdTe QDs@luminol) nanomaterials combined with chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-MIP) for sensing chrysoidine was developed. CdTe QDs@luminol was designed to not only amplify the signal of CL but also reduce luminol consumption in the detection of chrysoidine. On the basis of the abundant hydroxy and amino, Cs and graphene oxide were introduced into the GM-MIP to improve the adsorption ability. The adsorption capacities of chrysoidine by both Cs/GM-MIP and non-imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-NIP) were investigated, and the CdTe QDs@luminol and Cs/GM-MIP were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The proposed sensor can detect chrysoidine within a linear range of 1.0 × 10- 7 - 1.0 × 10- 5 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2 × 10- 8 mol/L (3δ) due to considerable chemiluminescence signal enhancement of the CdTe quantum dots@luminol detector and the high selectivity of the Cs/GM-MIP system. Under the optimal conditions of CL, the CdTe QDs@luminol-Cs/GM-MIP-CL sensor was used for chrysoidine determination in samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 90-107%.

  7. CdTe quantum dots@luminol as signal amplification system for chrysoidine with chemiluminescence-chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinting sensor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huimin; Li, Leilei; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-15

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) in CdTe quantum dots@luminol (CdTe QDs@luminol) nanomaterials combined with chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-MIP) for sensing chrysoidine was developed. CdTe QDs@luminol was designed to not only amplify the signal of CL but also reduce luminol consumption in the detection of chrysoidine. On the basis of the abundant hydroxy and amino, Cs and graphene oxide were introduced into the GM-MIP to improve the adsorption ability. The adsorption capacities of chrysoidine by both Cs/GM-MIP and non-imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-NIP) were investigated, and the CdTe QDs@luminol and Cs/GM-MIP were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The proposed sensor can detect chrysoidine within a linear range of 1.0×10(-7) - 1.0×10(-5) mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2×10(-8) mol/L (3δ) due to considerable chemiluminescence signal enhancement of the CdTe quantum dots@luminol detector and the high selectivity of the Cs/GM-MIP system. Under the optimal conditions of CL, the CdTe QDs@luminol-Cs/GM-MIP-CL sensor was used for chrysoidine determination in samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 90-107%.

  8. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-11-01

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl4 with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (˜25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng.

  9. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-11-14

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl₄ with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (∼25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng.

  10. Chemiluminescent Reactions Catalyzed by Nanoparticles of Gold, Silver, and Gold/Silver Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abideen, Saqib Ul

    Chemiluminescence (CL) reactions are catalyzed by metals nanoparticles, which display unique catalytic properties due to an increased surface area. The present study describes the catalytic effects of nanoparticles (NP) of silver, gold, and alloys of Au/Ag nanoparticles on the chemiluminescent reaction taking place between luminol and potassium ferricyanide. It was found that silver nanoparticles and alloy nanoparticles enhance the CL process when their sizes remained in the range of 30 nm to 50 nm. The data show that the intensity and rate of chemiluminescence were influenced by the mole fraction of gold and silver in the alloy. Data to this chemiluminescence reaction are modeled by a double exponential curve, which indicates that two competing processes are occurring.

  11. Study of the oscillation and luminol chemiluminescence in the H 2O 2-KSCN-CuSO 4-NaOH system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatisevi, Supavadee; Maisch, Steffen

    2010-10-01

    Oscillations in redox potential and chemiluminescence of the H 2O 2-KSCN-CuSO 4-NaOH system in the presence of luminol were examined. Parts of the mechanism proposed in the previous studies were evaluated by substitution of SCN - with CN -. The amplitude of the chemiluminescent oscillations was found to be strongly dependent on the initial luminol concentrations. In addition, the time-series ARMA (2;1)-analysis with Box-Jenkins algorithm were used to simulate the system and the result is well in accordance with the observed oscillations.

  12. Sensitive determination of norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine by coupling HPLC with [Ag(HIO6 )2 ](5-) -luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Xie, He; Lu, Haifeng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Qunlin

    2016-09-01

    Based on the enhancing effects of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EP), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between [Ag(HIO6 )2 ](5-) and luminol in alkaline solution, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with CL detection was explored for the sensitive determination of monoamine neurotransmitters for the first time. The UV-visible absorption spectra were recorded to study the enhancement mechanism of monoamine neurotransmitters on the CL of [Ag(HIO6 )2 ](5-) and luminol reaction. The HPLC separation of NE, EP, DA and 5-HT was achieved with isocratic elution using a mixture of aqueous 0.2% phosphoric acid and methanol (5:95, v/v) within 11.0 min. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of NE, EP, DA, and 5-HT were 4.8, 0.9, 1.9 and 2.3 ng/mL, respectively, corresponding to 17.6-96.0 pg for 20 μL sample injection. The recoveries of monoamine neurotransmitters in rat brain were >95.6% with the precisions expressed by RSD <5.0%. The validated HPLC-CL method was successfully applied for the quantification of NE, EP, DA and 5-HT in rat brain. This method has promising potential for some biological and clinical investigations focusing on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26876580

  13. Nanoparticles based on quantum dots and a luminol derivative: implications for in vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide by chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Sook; Deepagan, V G; You, Dong Gil; Jeon, Jueun; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jung Young; Lee, Doo Sung; Suh, Yung Doug; Park, Jae Hyung

    2016-03-18

    Overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as cancer and arthritis. To image hydrogen peroxide via chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer in the near-infrared wavelength range, we prepared quantum dots functionalized with a luminol derivative. PMID:26857551

  14. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  15. A comparison of the presumptive luminol test for blood with four non-chemiluminescent forensic techniques.

    PubMed

    Webb, Joanne L; Creamer, Jonathan I; Quickenden, Terence I

    2006-01-01

    Presumptive blood detection tests are used by forensic investigators to detect trace amounts of blood or to investigate suspicious stains. Through the years, a number of articles have been published on the popular techniques of the day. However, there is no single paper that critiques and compares the five most common presumptive blood detection tests currently in use: luminol, phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer), leucomalachite green, Hemastix and the forensic light source. The present authors aimed to compare the above techniques with regard to their sensitivity, ease of use and safety. The luminol test was determined to be the most sensitive of the techniques, while Hemastix is a suitable alternative when the luminol test is not appropriate.

  16. Enhanced effect of aggregated gold nanoparticles on luminol chemiluminescence system and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yingying; Li, Baoxin

    2013-07-01

    Some organic compounds containing groups of OH, NH2, or SH, which could induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), were observed to enhance effectively the luminol-H2O2-2.6 nm AuNPs CL system. It was found that the aggregation of AuNPs was an important effect factor for the catalytic activity of AuNPs on luminol CL system. The aggregated AuNPs could effectively enhance luminol CL signal compared with the dispersed one. The enhanced effect was closely related to the sizes of AuNPs. Among the studied AuNPs with seven sizes, 2.6 nm AuNPs had the greatest enhancement effect on luminol CL system after its aggregation. The CL enhancement mechanism was investigated, and the marked enhancement of aggregated 2.6 nm AuNPs for luminol CL system was supposed to originate from the decrease of AuNPs' surface negative charge density compared to its dispersed state. For the luminol-H2O2-2.6 nm AuNPs CL system in the presence of organic compounds containing groups of OH, NH2, or SH, more than one factor played the role in influencing the CL intensity. It was found that the enhanced effect of aggregated 2.6 nm AuNPs induced by such organic compounds was much more significant than the inhibition effect of reducing groups of OH, NH2, or SH, which made it applicable for the determination of this kind of compounds.

  17. Flow injection analysis of ketoprofen based on the order transform second chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Cao, Guiping; Ge, Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores an order-transform-second-chemiluminescence (OTSCL) method combining the flow injection technique for the determination of ketoprofen. When ketoprofen solution was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of alkaline luminol and sodium periodate or sodium periodate solution was injected into the reaction mixture of ketoprofen and alkaline luminol, a new chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was initiated and strong CL signal was detected. A mechanism for the OTSCL has been proposed on the basis of the chemiluminescence kinetic characteristic, UV-visible absorption and chemiluminescent spectra. Under optimal experimental conditions, the CL response is proportional to the concentration of ketoprofen over the range of 2.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9950 and a detection limit of 8.0 × 10 -9 mol/L (3 σ). The relative standard deviation for 11 repetitive determinations of 1.0 × 10 -6 mol/L ketoprofen is 2.9%. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining ketoprofen in pharmaceutical formulations without interference from its potential impurities.

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-04-01

    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L‑1, 35.9 μg L‑1 and 39.6 μg L‑1, with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L‑1 samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L(-1), 35.9 μg L(-1) and 39.6 μg L(-1), with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L(-1) samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples. PMID:27080702

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L−1, 35.9 μg L−1 and 39.6 μg L−1, with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L−1 samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples. PMID:27080702

  1. Study on the reaction mechanism and the static injection chemiluminescence method for detection of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongjun; Zhang, Huili; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Li, Yanqiang; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen, also called paracetamol, is found in Tylenol, Excedrin and other products as over-the-counter medicines. In this study, acetaminophen as a luminol signal enhancer was used in the chemiluminescence (CL) substrate solution of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for the first time. The use of acetaminophen in the luminol-HRP-H2O2 system affected not only the intensity of the obtained signal, but also its kinetics. It was shown that acetaminophen was to be a potent enhancer of the luminol-HRP-H2O2 system. A putative enhancement mechanism for the luminol-H2O2-HRP-acetaminophen system is presented. The resonance of the nucleophilic amide group and the benzene ring of acetaminophen structure have a great effect on O-H bond dissociation energy of the phenol group and therefore on phenoxyl radical stabilization. These radicals act as mediators between HRP and luminol in an electron transfer reaction that generates luminol radicals and subsequently light emission, in which the intensity of CL is enhanced in the presence of acetaminophen. In addition, a simple method was developed to detect acetaminophen by static injection CL based on the enhanced CL system of luminol-H2O2-HRP by acetaminophen. Experimental conditions, such as pH and concentrations of substrates, have been examined and optimized. The proposed method exhibited good performance, the linear range was from 0.30 to 7.5 mM, the relative standard deviation was 1.86% (n = 10), limit of detection was 0.16 mM and recovery was 99 ± 4%.

  2. Determination of dissolved Fe(II) in seawater of the western North Pacific with luminol chemiluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, H.; Mase, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishioka, J.; Takeda, S.

    2010-12-01

    Determination of dissolved Fe(II) in seawater of the western North Pacific with luminol chemiluminescence method Hajime Obata, Akira Mase, Toshitaka Gamo (Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan), Jun Nishioka (Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Japan), Shigenobu Takeda (Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan) Speciation of iron in the ocean is now important topics because the bioavailability of iron depends on its chemical form in seawater. However, marine biogeochemical process of Fe(II) has not been fully investigated. In this study, we determined Fe(II) in seawaters using the luminol chemiluminescence method after acidifying the samples to pH 6(Hansard and Landing, 2009). The same samples collected in the western North Pacific were analyzed by the flow chemiluminescence methods with acidification to pH 6 and without acidification. The results with both methods were almost identical. Time variation of Fe(II) in seawater after acidifying the samples to pH 6 were examined in the western North Pacific and the Bering Sea. Within 10 minutes, variations of Fe(II) were small in the open ocean waters, whereas Fe(II) concentrations increased rapidly in surface waters collected in the Bering Sea. The acidification method is not always applicable for seawater samples, especially in the marginal sea. Surface distributions of Fe(II) in the western subarctic North Pacific were investigated by using a continuous clean sampling system for surface waters. The Fe(II) concentrations ranged from <9 to 42 pM, which were lower than those in previous studies (Roy et al., 2008). The variation of Fe(II) probably reflects the photoreduction process of Fe(III), slow oxidation of Fe(II) and differences of Fe(II) concentrations among water masses. In this study, we also examined the oxidation process of Fe(II) in seawater of the western North Pacific and the Bering Sea at some temperatures. The oxidation rates were slower in the

  3. Evaluation of luminol chemiluminescence based on simultaneous introducing of coumarin derivatives as green fluorophores and chitosan-induced Au/Ag alloy nanoparticle as catalyst for the sensitive determination of glucose.

    PubMed

    Chaichi, M J; Alijanpour, S O; Asghari, S; Shadlou, S

    2015-03-01

    We report herein the development of a novel chemiluminescence system based on simultaneous introducing of synthetic coumarin derivatives and chitosan-induced Au/Ag alloy NPs on the luminol CL system and suggest how it may be useful for determination of glucose. Chitosan-induced Au/Ag nanoalloys in the coumarin derivatives intensified-luminol CL system, in addition to catalyze CL reaction can make a change in the process of coumarin derivatives effect as fluorophore on the luminol CL system. This phenomenon is caused by interaction between active functional groups of coumarin derivatives and chitosan. The interaction strength depends on the coumarin derivatives' structure and their substituents. Considering the inevitable trend luminol radical and superoxide anion radical to absorption on the surface of the embedded Au/Ag nanoalloy in the chitosan matrix, it can be concluded that chitosan acts as a platform for all reagents involved in the CL reaction including coumarin derivatives, Au/Ag nanoalloy and luminol, and electron-transfer taking place on it; Placing all chemiluminescent reagents together on the chitosan network can lead to a powerful CL due to increasing rigidity of CL system. The most efficient coumarin derivative on the Au/Ag nanoalloy-fluorophore-luminol-H2O2 CL system, in relation to interaction capability with chitosan' functional groups, was selected and the CL condition in presence of it was optimized. Whereas the glucose oxidase-mediated oxidation of glucose yields gluconic acid and H2O2, under optimum condition the most efficient CL system was applied to detection of glucose due to enzymatically production of hydrogen peroxide. The linear response range of 1.5 × 10(-6)-5.0 × 10(-3) M and the detection limit (defined as the concentration that could be detected at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 7.5 × 10(-7) M was found for the glucose standards. Also, the developed method was successfully applied to determination of glucose in

  4. On the use of L-012, a luminol-based chemiluminescent probe, for detecting superoxide and identifying inhibitors of NADPH oxidase: a reevaluation.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Jacek; Lambeth, J David; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-12-01

    L-012, a luminol-based chemiluminescent (CL) probe, is widely used in vitro and in vivo to detect NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide (O2(*-)) and identify Nox inhibitors. Yet understanding of the free radical chemistry of the L-012 probe is still lacking. We report that peroxidase and H2O2 induce superoxide dismutase (SOD)-sensitive, L-012-derived CL in the presence of oxygen. O2(*-) alone does not react with L-012 to emit luminescence. Self-generated O2(*-) during oxidation of L-012 and luminol analogs artifactually induce CL inhibitable by SOD. These aspects make assays based on luminol analogs less than ideal for specific detection and identification of O2(*-) and NOX inhibitors. PMID:24080119

  5. Research and development of a luminol-carbon monoxide flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Adaption of the luminol-carbon monoxide injection system to a flowing type system is reported. Analysis of actual wastewater samples was carried out and revealed that bacteria can be associated with particles greater than 10 microns in size in samples such as mixed liquor. Research into the luminol reactive oxidation state indicates that oxidized iron porphyrins, cytochrome-c in particular, produce more luminol chemiluminescence than the reduced form. Correlation exists between the extent of porphyrin oxidation and relative chemiluminescence. In addition, the porphyrin nucleus is apparently destroyed under the current chemiluminescent reaction conditions.

  6. Enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol by ascorbic acid at gold nanoparticle/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongping; Gao, Tingting; Zhou, Ying; Chu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle/graphene (GNP/GR) nanocomposite was one-pot synthesized from water soluble graphene and HAuCl4 by hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was investigated at the GNP/GR modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GR/GCE) and the GNP modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GCE) in aqueous solution respectively. The results revealed that one strong anodic ECL peak could be observed at ∼0.8 V at two modified electrodes compared with that at the bare electrode. The intensity of the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE is weaker than that at the GNP/GCE, which should be due to the synergic effect of the enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles and the inhibiting effect of graphene on anodic luminol ECL. One strong cathodic ECL peak located at ∼-0.8 V could be observed at the GNP/GR/GCE but not at the GNP/GCE, which should be result from the adsorbed oxygen at the graphene film. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE was enhanced more than 8-times, which is more apparent than that at the GNP/GCE. Whereas, the cathodic ECL peak was seriously inhibited at the GNP/GR/GCE. The enhanced ECL intensity at the GNP/GR/GCE varied linearly with the logarithm of ascorbic acid concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-9 mol L-1. The possible ECL mechanism was also discussed.

  7. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of cloxacillin in water samples and pharmaceutical preparation by using CuO nanosheets-enhanced luminol-hydrogen peroxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Iranifam, Mortaza; Fathinia, Mehrangiz; Nikravesh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (flow-CL) system was developed for the determination of cloxacillin sodium in environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. The method was based on the enhancement effect of cloxacillin sodium on the CL reaction of luminal-H2O2-CuO nanosheets (NSs) in alkaline medium. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized using a green sonochemical method. The physical properties of the synthesized CuO nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The influences of various experimental factors such as H2O2, NaOH, luminol and CuO nanosheets concentrations were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of cloxacillin sodium in the range of the 0.05-30.00 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The corresponding detection limit (3σ) was calculated to be 0.026 mg L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the developed method was 2.21% with 11 repeated measurements of 4.00 mg L-1 cloxacillin sodium. Also, a total analysis time per sample was 30 s which confirmed the rapidity of the proposed method. The analytical applicability of the proposed CL system was assessed by determining cloxacillin sodium in spiked environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CL reaction was discussed.

  8. Echinoderm reactive oxygen species (ROS) production measured by peroxidase, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (PLCL) as an immunotoxicological tool.

    PubMed

    Coteur, G; Danis, B; Dubois, P

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in invertebrate immunity prompted the use of this response in immunotoxicological studies in several taxa including marine organisms. In this chapter, we review the effects of environmental factors and contaminants such as heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the production of ROS by the main immune effector cells of echinoderms, the so-called amoebocytes. ROS production was measured by the peroxidase, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (PLCL) method. This method was found to predominantly reflect the production of superoxide anions and peroxides, among which hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite are the main species detected. Exogenous factors such as water temperature and salinity can influence this immune response in echinoderms. However, gender, handling stress and parasitism by a castrating ciliate apparently did not affect it. The impact of metals on ROS production differed greatly according to the duration and routes of exposure; in vitro and short-term in vivo exposures to metals caused an inhibition of this immune response, while the opposite effect was observed in a long-term in vivo exposure study. On the other hand, PCBs systematically had a stimulatory effect on ROS production independent of the echinoderm species or exposure routes. From the study of complex field contaminations, it appeared that contaminants released in the environment, such as metals, modulate starfish amoebocyte ROS production. This impact potentially represents a threat to the sustainability of natural populations of echinoderms and thereby to the stability of benthic ecosystems.

  9. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1 ng mL-1, with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6 × 10-6 ng mL-1. Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50 ng mL-1) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples.

  10. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1ngmL(-1), with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6×10(-6)ngmL(-1). Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50ngmL(-1)) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples. PMID:25703367

  11. Chemiluminescence determination of moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical and biological samples based on its enhancing effect of the luminol-ferricyanide system using a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yeoun Suk; Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Alam, Al-Mahmnur; Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Gyu-Man; Dang, Trung Dung

    2014-05-01

    A sensitive determination of a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, moxifloxacin (MOX), by an enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) method using a microfluidic chip is described. The microfluidic chip was fabricated by a soft-lithographic procedure using polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). The fabricated PDMS microfluidic chip had three-inlet microchannels for introducing the sample, chemiluminescent reagent and oxidant, and a 500 µm wide, 250 µm deep and 82 mm long microchannel. An enhanced CL system, luminol-ferricyanide, was adopted to analyze the MOX concentration in a sample solution. CL light was emitted continuously after mixing luminol and ferricyanide in the presence of MOX on the PDMS microfluidic chip. The amount of MOX in the luminol-ferricyanide system influenced the intensity of the CL light. The linear range of MOX concentration was 0.14-55.0 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.06 and 0.2 ng/mL respectively. The presented method afforded good reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.05% for 10 ng/mL of MOX, and has been successfully applied for the determination of MOX in pharmaceutical and biological samples. PMID:23723140

  12. Alterations in luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence from nondiluted whole blood in the course of low-level laser therapy of angina pectoris patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Novikov, Cyril N.; Siuch, Natalia I.

    1997-05-01

    Addition of Luminol to nondiluted blood of healthy donors results in a short and weak increase of chemiluminescence (CL) from it. Contrary to that in 25 cases of stable angina pectoris the intensity of CL from blood of patients sharply increased upon addition of luminol exceeding that form healthy donors' blood 10-100-fold. 24 hours after the 3D intravenous low-level treatment CL burst in patients' blood in the presence of Luminol was in general significantly lower than before the beginning of the treatment. After the 7th treatment the pattern of CL kinetics was in most cases similar to that of healthy donors' blood. However, after the 10th treatment intensity of Luminol-enhanced CL usually increased and for blood of some patients even exceeded its values obtained before the treatment. Some correlation CL from nondiluted blood with neutrophil activity studied by NTB-test and plasma viscosity of same blood was noted. Using highly sensitive single photon counters it is possible to reveal abnormal levels of CL from no more than 0.1-0.2 ml of blood within 3-5 min.

  13. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Steele, H.D.; Drayton, P.J.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection has been used to make airborne measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). The analysis system allows for the simultaneous measurement of NO{sub 2} and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) with time resolution of less than 1 min, and improvement of a factor of 4--5 over previously reported methods using electron capture detection. Data presented were taken near Pasco, Washington, in August 1997, during a test flight onboard the US Department of Energy G-1 aircraft. The authors report measurements of NO{sub 2} in the boundary layer in a paper mill plume and a plume from a grass fire, in addition to analyses for free tropospheric NO{sub 2} and PAN. Ratios of PAN/NO{sub 2} were observed to increase with altitude (decreasing temperature) and to reach values of 2--4 above the boundary layer, consistent with the thermal equilibrium of the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2} and PAN. Estimates for the peroxyacetyl radical in the continental free troposphere, calculated from this equilibrium, were found to be in the range of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} molecules per cubic centimeter. These results demonstrate the application of this approach for airborne measurements of NO{sub 2} and PAN in a wide range of field study scenarios.

  14. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Drayton, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) are important trace gas species associated with photochemical air pollution. The PANs are in thermal equilibrium with the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2}. Because PANs are trapped peroxy radicals, they are an important indicator species of the photochemical age of an air parcel, as well as being a means of long-range transporting of NO{sub 2}, leading to the formation of regional ozone and other oxidants. Typically, PANs are measured by using a gas chromatograph with electron-capture detection (ECD). Once automated, this method has been shown to be reliable and quite sensitive, allowing the levels of PANs to be measured at low parts per trillion in the troposphere. Unfortunately, a number of other atmospheric gases also have strong ECD signals or act as inferences and limit the speed in which the analysis can be completed. Currently, the shortest analysis time for PAN is approx. 5 minutes with ECD. The authors recent examined the luminol detection of NO{sub 2} and PANs using gas capillary chromatography for rapid monitoring of these important trace gases. Analysis of the PANs (PAN, PPN, and PBN) and NO{sub 2} in one minute has been demonstrated in laboratory studies by using this approach. Reported here are modifications of this instrument for aircraft operation and preliminary results from test flights taken near Pasco, Washington in August of 1997.

  15. Development of a generic assay for the determination of total trihydroxybenzoate derivatives based on gold-luminol chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Christodouleas, Dionysios C; Vlachou, Ioanna; Vlessidis, Athanasios G; Calokerinos, Antony C

    2013-02-18

    A selective assay for the determination of one of the most important class of phenolic compounds, namely trihydroxybenzoates (monomeric and polymeric compounds having at least one gallate moiety) based on their enhancing effect on the chemiluminogenic reaction between gold ions and luminol is described for the first time. In the presence of trihydroxybenzoate derivatives, the light emission generated when alkaline luminol is oxidized by gold ions is amplified several orders of magnitude compared to other common phenolic compounds which exhibit minor reactivity or no reactivity at all (e.g. hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, benzenediols). Based on this property, the experimental conditions were optimized in order to enable the determination of total trihydroxybenzoates in complex mixtures without resorting to separation techniques. The method was applied to samples of different composition (teas, herbal infusions and wines) with satisfactory analytical features yielding detection limits at the 10(-7) mol L(-1) level, intra-day precision of 3.1%, inter-day precision less than 10% and recoveries between 88.7 and 97.6%. The strengths and weaknesses of the method were identified and discussed in relation to its application in real samples.

  16. Cobalt determination in natural waters using cation-exchange liquid chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, E.A.; Handy, B.; van Geen, A.

    1987-06-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis of cobalt in natural waters by cation-exchange liquid chromatography using chemiluminescence detection. Cobalt can be determined directly in freshwater samples on 500-..mu..L samples with a detection limit of 20 pmol/kg; larger samples provide proportionately lower detection limits. Seawater samples can be analyzed on 100-mL samples following APDC solvent extraction; the detection limit of this method is 5 pmol/kg. The precision of the method is +/- 5%. The method should also be applicable to the analysis of V, Cu, and Fe in natural waters. Equipment is low in cost and transportable and can be used in the field.

  17. Rapid determination of isoamyl nitrite in pharmaceutical preparations by flow injection analysis with on-line UV irradiation and luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Naoya; Kondo, Naoko; Amponsaa-Karikari, Abena; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Ohyama, Kaname; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Yamazaki, Shigeo; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2014-02-01

    Isoamyl nitrite is used as a therapeutic reagent for cardiac angina and as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, but it is abused because of its euphoric properties. Therefore, a method to determine isoamyl nitrite is required in many fields, including pharmaceutical and forensic studies. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of isoamyl nitrite was developed using a flow injection analysis system equipped with a chemiluminescence detector and on-line photoreactor. This method is based on on-line ultraviolet irradiation of isoamyl nitrite and subsequent luminol chemiluminescence detection without the addition of an oxidant. A linear standard curve was obtained up to 1.0 μM of isoamyl nitrite with a detection limit (blank + 3SD) of 0.03 μM. The method was successfully applied to determine isoamyl nitrite content in pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Determination of hydrogen peroxide concentrations by flow injection analysis based on the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction using peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, S.A.; Vlasenko, S.B.; Osipov, A.P.; Eremina, I.D.; Egerov, A.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The technique of flow injection analysis was employed in the determination of hydrogen peroxide. The method was based on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which is catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase and enhanced by p-iodophenol. Hydrogen peroxide was linearly detected in the range 10{sup {minus}6}M-10{sup {minus}4}M by measuring the maximum intensity of light emitted. The detection limit is about 1 10{sup {minus}6}M hydrogen peroxide. Transition metal cations at millimolar concentrations do not have any interference on the determination of hydrogen peroxide by FIA based on the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction. This technique is relatively rapid and simple, and permits measurement of up to 80 samples/hr using generally available equipment.

  19. An optimized, sensitive and stable reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle-luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system and its potential analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Shuo; He, Da-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hong; Duan, Jia-Hua; Peng, Hong-Shang; Wu, Hong-Peng; Fu, Ming; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Xi-Qing

    2014-04-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) performance of luminol is improved using reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nano-composites as catalyst. To prepare this catalyst, we propose a linker free, one-step method to in-situ synthesize rGO-AuNP nano-composites. Various measurements are utilized to characterize the resulting rGO-AuNP samples, and it is revealed that rGO could improve the stability and conductivity. Furthermore, we investigate the CL signals of luminal catalyzed by rGO-AuNP. Afterwards, the size effect of particle and the assisted enhancement effect of rGO are studied and discussed in detail. Based on the discussion, an optimal, sensitive and stable rGO-AuNP-luminon-H2O2 CL system is proposed. Finally, we utilize the system as a sensor to detect hydrogen peroxide and organic compounds containing amino, hydroxyl, or thiol groups. The CL system might provide a more attractive platform for various analytical devices with CL detection in the field of biosensors, bioassays, and immunosensors.

  20. Summary of activities and accomplishments. Volume IV. A proposal to develop a method for the detection of HE employing chemiluminescence reactions. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    This is the final and fourth quarter report for the study of high explosive (HE) detection by coupling the chemistry of HE with that of luminol reaction, a well-known chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. Our accomplishments include: success in coupling HE and CL chemistry reliably; the capability to use a micellized solvent to concentrate HE; and the basis for design instrumentation that may exhibit better sensitivity and lower levels of detection than that exhibited by the laboratory apparatus used for this study. On the basis of these results we are prepared to recommend further study.

  1. Luminol-based nitrogen dioxide detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, G.J.; Stedman, D.H.; Cantrell, C.A.; Damrauer, L.

    1983-05-01

    An instrument for the continuous detection of NO/sub 2/ in the sub-part-per-billion range is described. The instrument is based upon the chemiluminescent reaction between NO/sub 2/ in air and luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione) in alkaline solution. The present detector exhibits a 2-Hz response speed to changes of +/-20 ppB and a field detection limit of 30 parts per trillion. The instrumental technique has been expanded to measure NO by the catalytic oxidation of NO to NO/sub 2/ using CrO/sub 3/ on silica gel as the oxidizing agent; however, at low ambient NO concentrations some drift in the NO zero is observed. Interference from ambient O/sub 3/ is elimated by modification of the inlet system and luminol solution.

  2. Determination of Montelukast in Plasma Using β - Cyclodextrins Coated on CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles in Luminol-H2O2 Chemiluminescence System Optimized by Doehlert Design.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Bakhtiar, Alireza; Fatemi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence method using β - cyclodextrins coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of montelukast in plasma. The effect of coated β - cyclodexterinon CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles in the chemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 system was investigated. It was found that β - cyclodexterin coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence of the luminol-H2O2 system. Doehlert design was applied in order to optimize the number of experiments to be carried out to ascertain the possible interactions between the parameters and their effects on the chemiluminescence emission intensity. This design was selected because the levels of each variable may vary in a very efficient way with few experiments. Doehlert design and response surface methodology have been employed for optimization pH and concentrations of the components. Results showed under the optimized experimental conditions, the relative CL intensity (ΔI) is increased linearly in the concentration range of 0.003-0.586 μgml(-1) of montelukast with limit of detection (LOD) 1.09 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) at S/N ratio of 3, limit of quantitative (LOQ) 3.59 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) and the relative standard deviation 2.63 %. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of montelukast in plasma of human body. Results specified that relative chemiluminescence intensity (ΔI) has good proportional with the montelukast concentration with R(2) = 0.99979. The test of the recovery efficiency for known amounts of montelukast was also performed, the recoveries range obtained from 98.2 to 103.3 %, with RSDs of <4 % indicated that the proposed method was reliable. PMID:26979057

  3. Gas-phase chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, P. K.; Chatha, J. P. S.; Vohra, K. G.

    1983-08-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with monoterpenes such as linallol, geraniol, d-limonene and α-pinene have been studied in the gas phase at low pressures. Methylglyoxal phosphorescence has been observed in the first two reactions. Emissions from HCHO( 1A 2) and glyoxal ( 3A u) are observed in the reaction of ozone with d-limonene and formation of excited glyoxal is found to be first order in ozone. The reaction of ozone with β-pinene gives rise to emission from a α-dicarbonyl compound and this is found to be first order in ozone. The mechanisms for the formation of excited species are proposed.

  4. Development of an analytical method for the determination of beta2-agonist residues in animal tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line electrogenerated [Cu(HIO6)2]5- -luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Zhujun; Sun, Yonghua; Wei, Yue

    2007-06-27

    A novel method was developed for the simultaneous determination of beta2-agonist residues such as terbutaline, salbutamol, and clenbuterol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The procedure was based on the enhancement effect of beta2-agonists on the CL reaction between luminol and the complex of trivalent copper and periodate ([Cu(HIO6)2]5-), which was on-line electrogenerated by constant current electrolysis. The HPLC separation used a Nucleosil RP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm; pore size, 100 A) with a mobile phase consisting of 90% acetonitrile and 10% aqueous ammonium acetate (20 mmol L-1, pH 4.0) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The effects of several parameters on the HPLC resolution and CL emission were studied systematically. Liver samples were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure using Waters OasisMCX cartridges. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 ranged from 0.007 to 0.01 ng g-1 and the limits of quantification at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 ranged from 0.023 to 0.033 ng g-1 for three beta2-agonists. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and interday precision were below 4.5%. The average recoveries for beta2-agonists (spiked at the levels of 0.05-5.0 ng g-1) in pig liver ranged from 84 to 110%, and the RSDs of the quantitative results were from 1.6 to 7.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of beta2-agonist residues in pig liver samples.

  5. Plant Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Fred B.; Leather, Gerald R.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1978-01-01

    Light production by plants was confirmed by measuring chemiluminescence from root and stem tissue of peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and corn (Zea mays) in a modified scintillation spectrophotometer. Chemiluminescence was inhibited by treating pea roots with boiling ethanol or by placing them in a N2 gas phase. Chemiluminescence was increased by an O2 gas phase or by the addition of luminol. NaN3 and NaCN blocked both in vitro and in vivo chemiluminescence. It is postulated that the source of light is the hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase enzyme system. It is known that this system is responsible for chemiluminescence in leukocytes and it seems likely that a similar system occurs in plants. PMID:16660587

  6. Comparative study of β-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Vera-Jimenez, N I; Pietretti, D; Wiegertjes, G F; Nielsen, M E

    2013-05-01

    The respiratory burst is an important feature of the immune system. The increase in cellular oxygen uptake that marks the initiation of the respiratory burst is followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which plays a role in the clearance of pathogens and tissue regeneration processes. Therefore, the respiratory burst and associated ROS constitute important indicators of fish health status. This paper compares two methods for quantitation of ROS produced during the respiratory burst in common carp: the widely used, single-point measurement based on the intracellular reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and a real-time luminol-enhanced assay based on the detection of native chemiluminescence. Both assays allowed for detection of dose-dependent changes in magnitude of the respiratory burst response induced by β-glucans in head kidney cells of carp. However, whereas the NBT assay was shown to detect the production of only superoxide anions, the real-time luminol-enhanced assay could detect the production of both superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide. Only the chemiluminescence assay could reliably record the production of ROS on a real-time scale at frequent and continual time intervals for time course experiments, providing more detailed information on the respiratory burst response. The real-time chemiluminescence assay was used to measure respiratory burst activity in macrophage and neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched head kidney cell fractions and total head kidney cell suspensions and proved to be a fast, reliable, automated multiwell microplate assay to quantitate fish health status modulated by β-glucans.

  7. Inhibition by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs of luminol-dependent human-granulocyte chemiluminescence and /sup 3/H FMLP binding. Effect of sulindac sulfide, indomethacin metabolite, and optical enantiomers (+) and (-) MK830

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, K.; Peden, D.; Van Dyke, C.; Jones, G.; Castranova, V.; Ma, J.

    1982-03-01

    A system is described to evaluate for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by means of luminol-dependent human-granulocyte chemiluminescence (CL) is described. The CL is produced using either opsonized zymosan (yeast cells) or the soluble chemotactic peptide f-Met-Leu-Phe as the perturbant of the granulocyte membrane. Using either system, the following drug effects 2 x 10(-5) M were noted: only sulindac sulfide, and not sulindac sulfone or sulindac, displayed marked inhibition of chemiluminescence, following the in vivo data regarding inflammatory effects. The 5-OH indomethacin metabolite was likewise inactive as an inhibitor of CL mirroring in vivo effects. MK(+)410, MK(-)830 and MK835 all showed approximately 50% inhibition of CL, displaying deviation from in vivo data. MK(+)830 markedly stimulated CL, 4-6 times the control (without drug), which is clearly different from its enantiomer, MK(-)830. The reasons for this behavior are unclear. However, receptor binding studies with /sup 3/H FMLP were accomplished in the presence and absence of the various drugs at 2 x 10(-5) M that were effective inhibitors of chemiluminescence (CL). Indomethacin, MK(-)830 and MK(+)410 had equivalent percent control binding and percent control CL. Sulindac sulfide and MK(+)835 both had higher percent control binding than percent control CL, with MK(+)835 displaying apparent increased numbers of available receptors relative to control. MK(+)830, which produces large increases in CL, produced a minor effect on percent control binding. A direct relationship between binding and CL does not exist with each drug. Chemiluminescence is dependent on ion movement and oxidative metabolism and is a secondary event to agonist-receptor occupation.

  8. Chemiluminescent imaging of transpired ethanol from the palm for evaluation of alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kita, Kazutaka; Wang, Xin; Miyajima, Kumiko; Toma, Koji; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-05-15

    A 2-dimensional imaging system was constructed and applied in measurements of gaseous ethanol emissions from the human palm. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide-horseradish peroxidase system. Conversions of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional chemiluminescence were conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. Thus, a mixture of a high-purity luminol solution of luminol sodium salt HG solution instead of standard luminol solution and an enhancer of eosin Y solution was adapted to refine the chemiluminescent intensity of the imaging system, and improved the detection limit to 3 ppm gaseous ethanol. The highly sensitive imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each site on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions corresponding to the amount of alcohol metabolized upon consumption. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin.

  9. Fast and sensitive chemiluminescence assay of aminophylline in human serum using luminol-diperiodatoargentate(III) system catalyzed by coated iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, B.; Ensafi, Ali A.; Zarei, L.

    2012-05-01

    The CL intensity of luminol-diperiodatoargentate(III) (DPA) system is strongly enhanced by addition of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) covered with C12E4. On injection of aminophylline into luminol-DPA-FeNPs system, the CL intensity is significantly increased. On this basis, a sensitive CL assay was developed for determination of AmP in human serum. FeNPs could catalyze the oxidation rate of luminol in the present of oxygen. Also, the CL intensity of luminol-DPA-FeNPs system is significantly increased in the presence of aminophylline (AmP). Based on this ruling, a sensitive CL assay was developed for determination of AmP in human serum. The influences of analytical variables on the CL signal were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions in the present of FeNPs, the CL intensity is linearly increased with AmP concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8-2.0 × 10-6 mol L-1. The detection limit was 9.8 × 10-9 mol L-1 AmP and the relative standard deviation for ten parallel measurements of 8.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 AmP was also 4.8%. The proposed system was successfully applied to determine AmP in human serum samples.

  10. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of chlorinated isocyanuric acids.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2003-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method is described for the determination of dichloro- and trichloroisocyanuric acids based on the chemiluminescence produced during their reaction with luminol in alkaline medium. The effects of analytical and flow-injection variables on these chemiluminescence systems and determination of both oxidants are discussed. The optimized method yielded 3sigma detection limits of 8x10(-8) and 5x10(-8) mol L(-1) for the sodium dichloroisocyanurate and trichloroisocyanuric acid, respectively. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: NaOH, 1x10(-1) mol L(-1); luminol, 5x10(-3) mol L(-1); KI, 2x10(-3) mol L(-1) and flow rate, 3.5 mL min(-1). PMID:12589508

  11. Chemiluminescence measurements as an identification method for gamma-irradiated foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bögl, W.; Heide, L.

    Samples of 19 different spices, milk powder, whole onions and frozen chicken were exposed to a Co-60 source with radiation doses up to 10 4 Gy. The subsequent reaction of the irradiated foodstuffs in a luminol solution resulted in light emission (chemiluminescence). This effect can be used as an indicator of radiation treatment.

  12. Selective determination method for measurement of nitrite and nitrate in water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column photochemical reaction and chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Shigeo; Saito, Keiitsu; Tomiyasu, Takashi; Komatsu, Yu

    2009-04-10

    A simple, sensitive and selective method for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in water samples has been developed. The method is based on ion-exchange separation, online photochemical reaction, and luminol chemiluminescence detection. The separation of nitrite and nitrate was achieved using an anion-exchange column with a 20mM borate buffer (pH 10.0). After the separation, these ions were converted to peroxynitrite by online UV irradiation using a low-pressure mercury lamp and then mixed with a luminol solution prepared with carbonate buffer (pH 10.0). The calibration graphs of the nitrite and nitrate were linear in the range from 2.0 x 10(-9) to 2.5 x 10(-6)M and 2.0 x 10(-8) to 2.5 x 10(-5)M, respectively. Since the sensitivity of nitrite was about 10 times higher than that of nitrate, the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in the water samples could be efficiently achieved. This method was successfully applied to various water samples--river water, pond water, rain water, commercial mineral water, and tap water--with only filtration and dilution steps.

  13. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincée, H.; Diehl, J. F.

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were >15 kGy for pepper and >20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method.

  14. A chemiluminescence method to detect hydroquinone with water-soluble sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangbin; Tang, Yuhai; Sun, Yang; Yu, Hua; Du, Wei; Fu, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    A water-soluble sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex with excellent catalytic properties was synthesized and demonstrated to greatly enhance the chemiluminescence signal of the hydrogen peroxide - luminol reaction. Coupled with flow-injection technique, a simple and sensitive chemiluminescence method was first developed to detect hydroquinone based on the chemiluminescence system of the hydrogen peroxide-luminol-sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex. Under optimal conditions, the assay exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 to 10 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.05 ng mL(-1) for hydroquinone. The method was applied successfully to detect hydroquinone in tap-water and mineral-water, with a sampling frequency of 120 times per hour. The relative standard deviation for determination of hydroquinone was less than 5.6%, and the recoveries ranged from 96.8 to 103.0%. The ultraviolet spectra, chemiluminescence spectra, and the reaction kinetics for the peroxide-luminol-sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex system were employed to study the possible chemiluminescence mechanism. The proposed chemiluminescence analysis technique is rapid and sensitive, with low cost, and could be easily extended and applied to other compounds.

  15. Development of a chemiluminescent and bioluminescent system for the detection of bacteria in wastewater effluent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Automated chemiluminescent and bioluminescent sensors were developed for continuous monitoring of microbial levels in wastewater effluent. Development of the chemiluminescent system included optimization of reagent concentrations as well as two new techniques which will allow for increased sensitivity and specificity. The optimal reagent concentrations are 0.0025 M luminol and 0.0125 M sodium perborate in 0.75N sodium hydroxide before addition of sample. The methods developed to increase specificity include (1) extraction of porphyrins from bacteria collected in a filter using 0.1N NaOH - 50 percent Ethanol, and (2) use of the specific reaction rate characteristics for the different luminol catalysts. Since reaction times are different for each catalyst, the reaction can be made specific for bacteria by measuring only the light emission from the particular reaction time zone specific for bacteria. Developments of the bioluminescent firefly luciferase system were in the area of flow system design.

  16. [The role of cellular mediators in the development of the phenomenon of inhibition induced by barium sulfate luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of blood under the influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with intolerance to these drugs].

    PubMed

    Chausova, S V; Gurevich, K G; Bondareva, G P; Filatov, O Ju; Malyshev, I Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated contribution mediator mechanism in the development of the phenomenon of inhibition induced by barium sulfate luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (SLCHL) of blood under the influence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with intolerance to these drugs. It was found that the phenomenon of suppression SLCHL blood under the influence of NSAIDs in patients with intolerance is mediated by the participation of mediators, and the contribution of H1--and H2--histamine receptors, 5-HT2 serotonin receptors and Cys-leukotriene receptors in the development of that phenomenon depends on the chemical nature of NSAIDs and the clinical manifestations of intolerance. PMID:26852602

  17. Multicommuted flow system for the determination of glucose in animal blood serum exploiting enzymatic reaction and chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Cherrine K.; Martelli, Patrícia B.; Lima, José L. F. C.; Saraiva, Maria Lúcia M. F. S.

    2003-01-01

    An automatic flow procedure based on multicommutation dedicated for the determination of glucose in animal blood serum using glucose oxidase with chemiluminescence detection is described. The flow manifold consisted of a set of three-way solenoid valves assembled to implement multicommutation. A microcomputer furnished with an electronic interface and software written in Quick BASIC 4.5 controlled the manifold and performed data acquisition. Glucose oxidase was immobilized on porous silica beads (glass aminopropyl) and packed in a minicolumn (15 × 5 mm). The procedure was based on the enzymatic degradation of glucose, producing hydrogen peroxide, which oxidized luminol in the presence of hexacyanoferrate(III), causing the chemiluminescence. The system was tested by analysing a set of serum animal samples without previous treatment. Results were in agreement with those obtained with the conventional method (LABTEST Kit) at the 95% confidence level. The detection limit and variation coefficient were estimated as 12.0 mg l−1 (99.7% confidence level) and 3.5% (n = 20), respectively. The sampling rate was about 60 determinations h−1 with sample concentrations ranging from 50 to 600 mg l−1 glucose. The consumptions of serum sample, hexacyanoferrate(III) and luminol were 46 μl, 10.0 mg and 0.2 mg/determination, respectively. PMID:18924619

  18. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of lercanidipine based on N-chlorosuccinimide-eosin Y post-chemiluminescence reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guowei; Zhao, Fang; Gao, Ying

    2014-12-01

    A novel post-chemiluminescence (PCL) reaction was discovered when lercanidipine was injected into the CL reaction mixture of N-chlorosuccinimide with alkaline eosin Y in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), where eosin Y was used as the CL reagent and CTAB as the surfactant. Based on this observation, a simple and highly sensitive PCL method combined with a flow injection (FI) technique was developed for the assay of lercanidipine. Under optimum conditions, the CL signal was linearly related to the concentration of lercanidipine in the range 7.0 × 10(-10) to 3.0 × 10(-6)  g/mL with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-10) g/mL (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.1% for 1.0 × 10(-8) g/mL lercanidipine (n = 13). The proposed method had been applied to the estimation of lercanidipine in tablets and human serum samples with satisfactory results. The possible CL mechanism is also discussed briefly.

  19. Investigation of a chemiluminescent system for the determination of ammonia by flow-injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, P.R.; Crouch, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A novel system for the determination of ammonia based on the chemiluminescent reaction between hypochlorite and luminol is presented. The technique of flow injection analysis was employed to automate the system. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite to form monochloramine in basic solution which decreases the observed chemiluminescence intensity. Several interferents are identified, and the reasons why they interfere are discussed. The effects of interferents are minimized through the use of a double-tube dialyzer where the ammonia is diffused across the dialyzer membrane into a recipient stream of hydrochloric acid.

  20. Selective chlorine dioxide determination using gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with chemiluminescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, D.A.; Gord, J.R.; Gordon, G.; Pacey, G.E.

    1986-06-01

    An automated chemiluminescent technique has been developed utilizing the advantages of gas-diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas-diffusion membrane separates the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream and removes ionic interferences. A novel chemiluminescence flow-through detector cell is used to measure the concentration of chlorine dioxide as a function of the intensity of the chemiluminescence produced from its reaction with luminol. The chemiluminescent reagent merges with the analyte directly in front of the photomultiplier tube in order to maximize the sensitivity of the system. The detection limit for chlorine dioxide is approximately 5 ppb. The method is over 1500 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than for chlorine on a mole basis. This method eliminates interference from iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite ion and chlorate ion.

  1. Applications of chemiluminescence to bacterial analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searle, N. D.

    1975-01-01

    Luminol chemiluminescence method for detecting bacteria was based on microbial activation of the oxidation of the luminol monoanion by hydrogen peroxide. Elimination of the prior lysing step, previously used in the chemiluminescence technique, was shown to improve considerably the reproducibility and accuracy of the method in addition to simplifying it. An inexpensive, portable photomultiplier detector was used to measure the maximum light intensity produced when the sample is added to the reagent. Studies of cooling tower water show that the luminol chemiluminescence technique can be used to monitor changes in viable cell population both under normal conditions and during chlorine treatment. Good correlation between chemiluminescence and plate counts was also obtained in the analysis of process water used in paper mills. This method showed good potential for monitoring the viable bacteria populations in activated sludge used in waste treatment plants to digest organic matter.

  2. Synergism and chemiluminescence of cerium ions and ruthenium complexes in the belousov-zhabotinskii reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karavaev, A.D.; Kazakov, V.P.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies chemiluminescence (CL) in the system BrO/sup -//sub 3/-CH/sub 2/ (COOH)/sub 2/ -Ce/sup 3 +/,4+-RuPbipy)/sub 3/ /SUP 2+,/ /sub 3/. The tests were carried out in a CL/sup 3/ unit that included a light-tight chamber, a photoelectron multiplier (FEU-97), a VS-22 high voltage power pack, and an EPPV-60M recording potentiometer. The synergism in chemiluminescence at low concentrations of ruthenium complex does not appear in the oscillation parameters. The periodic CL of this two-catalyst system may be a convenient chemical model for the study of combined chemical reactions in more complicated biochemiluminescent processes, such as that by which the firefly flashes in the dark.

  3. Increasing the specificity of the forensic luminol test for blood.

    PubMed

    Quickenden, T I; Cooper, P D

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the presumptive luminol chemiluminescence test for the presence of traces of blood can be made more determinative by measuring the peak emission wavelength of the luminol chemiluminescence. When sprayed onto a surface containing traces of human haemoglobin, a 1 g/L solution of aqueous luminol containing 7 g/L sodium perborate gives an emission peak at 455 +/- 2 nm, whereas the same mixture gives an emission peak at 430 +/- 3 nm when sprayed onto a surface containing traces of sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). This spectral difference can readily be determined using spectroscopic equipment that either scans the spectrum before significant luminescence decay occurs or corrects the spectrum for the effects of any decay. It was found that bovine haemoglobin and human haemoglobin showed no significant spectral differences.

  4. Short-Time-Response measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate by fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Drayton, P. J.

    2000-12-07

    The interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in sunlight to produce photochemical smog has been well studied over the years. In the past, the workhorse for the measurement of NO{sub 2}and NO was the chemiluminescent reaction with ozone. This method has detection limits of approximately 0.5 ppb in most commercial instruments, but it cannot detect NO{sub 2} directly; the instrument detects NO and uses hot catalytic surfaces to decompose all other nitrogen oxides (including NO{sub 2}) to NO for detection (l). The main problem with the method is the inherent difficulty in detecting excited NO{sub 2}, which emits over a broad region beginning at approximately 660 nm and has a maximum at 1270 nm, thus requiring a red-shifted photomultiplier for detection. The use of luminol for direct chemiluminescent detection of NO{sub 2} was demonstrated to have greater inherent sensitivity (detection limits of 5 ppt) than the indirect ozone chemiluminescence detection (2). In the luminol system, a gas-liquid reaction leads to light emission with a maximum at approximately 425 nm, at the maximum sensitivity for most photomultiplier tubes. This emission is responsible for the increased detection sensitivities. The biggest problem with this method for direct measurement of NO{sub 2} has been interference due to other soluble oxidants, particularly peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs).

  5. Chemiluminescence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grayeski, M.L.

    1987-11-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) is observed when light is emitted from a chemical reaction. If the reaction occurs in a living system or is derived from one, the process is called bioluminescence (BL). Many articles describe clinical, biological, and environmental applications using both gas- and solution-phase CL reactions. Although the lack of commercially available instrumentation, reagents, and methodology has somewhat restricted the widespread use of CL, certain applications are common: the measurement of total microbial cell counts using the firefly reaction and the determination of oxides of nitrogen with a gas-phase chemiluminescent reaction involving ozone. This REPORT will discuss only a few of the most recent developments in CL using reactions in solution.

  6. A new chemiluminescence method for the determination of nickel ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li Na; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2006-05-01

    A new chemiluminescence (CL) phenomenon described as the second-chemiluminescence (SCL) was observed and a strong CL signal was detected, when Ni(II) ion was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of potassium permanganate with alkaline luminol. The possible CL mechanism is proposed based on the kinetic curve of the CL reaction, CL spectra, UV-vis spectra and some other experiments. A flow-injection analysis for the determination of nickle(II) ion has been developed, based on the catalysis of nickel(II) ion on the CL reaction between potassium manganate produced on-line and luminol under alkaline condition. Under the optimum conditions, the SCL intensity is linear with the concentration of nickel(II) ion in the range of 8.0-200.0 μg l -1 and 0.2-2.0 mg l -1. The R.S.D. was 4.5% for 11 determinations of 250 μg l -1 nickel(II) ion and the detection limit (3 σ) for nickel(II) ion was 0.33 μg l -1. The method was applied to determine nickel(II) ion in synthetic samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  8. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  9. Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)

  10. Two techniques for eliminating luminol interference material and flow system configurations for luminol and firefly luciferase systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods for eliminating luminol interference materials are described. One method eliminates interference from organic material by pre-reacting a sample with dilute hydrogen peroxide. The reaction rate resolution method for eliminating inorganic forms of interference is also described. The combination of the two methods makes the luminol system more specific for bacteria. Flow system designs for both the firefly luciferase and luminol bacteria detection systems are described. The firefly luciferase flow system incorporating nitric acid extraction and optimal dilutions has a functional sensitivity of 3 x 100,000 E. coli/ml. The luminol flow system incorporates the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and the reaction rate resolution techniques for eliminating interference. The functional sensitivity of the luminol flow system is 1 x 10,000 E. coli/ml.

  11. Three dimethoxy-substituted luminol derivatives: A comparative study using theoretical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bingchun; Liu, Cuilan; Liu, Yanhong; Liu, Erbao

    2015-02-01

    In this research, geometrical optimisation, Mulliken charge, molecular electrostatic potential, and the frontier molecular orbitals of three dimethoxy-substituted luminol derivatives were investigated by ab initio, density functional, and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with a 6-311G (d, p) basis set in gas phase, water, and dimethylsulphoxide solution. The UV-vis spectra were calculated by time dependent density functional theory method. The properties of derivatives were compared with luminol at a molecular level to investigate the change induced by the methoxy group. The three derivatives were also compared with the aim of predicting the order of chemiluminescent efficiency. The results showed that methoxy substitution significantly changed the electronic and spectral properties of luminol. Among three derivatives, structure 2 was suggested to have the highest chemiluminescent efficiency. The results may shed some light on the design and selection of chemiluminescent reagents.

  12. Attempted cleaning of bloodstains and its effect on the forensic luminol test.

    PubMed

    Creamer, Jonathan I; Quickenden, Terence I; Crichton, Leah B; Robertson, Patrick; Ruhayel, Rasha A

    2005-01-01

    The forensic luminol test has long been valued for its ability to detect trace amounts of blood that are invisible to the naked eye. This is the first quantitative study to determine the effect on the luminol test when an attempt is made to clean bloodstained tiles with a known interfering catalyst (bleach). Tiles covered with either wet or dry blood were tested, and either water or sodium hypochlorite solution (bleach) was used to clean the tiles. As expected, the chemiluminescence intensity produced when luminol was applied generally decreased with the number of times that a tile was cleaned with water, until the chemiluminescence was neither visible nor detectable. However, when the tiles were cleaned with bleach there was an initial drop in chemiluminescence intensity, followed by a rise to a consistently high value, visibly indistinguishable from that of blood. Examination of bleach drying time suggested that any interfering effect becomes negligible after 8 h.

  13. Method of generating chemiluminescent light

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  14. Determination of trace amounts of iron in water by a chemiluminescence method

    SciTech Connect

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Bogoslovskaya, a T.A.; Terletskaya, A.V.

    1986-09-01

    The authors used the chemiluminescent oxidation reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide to determine iron in waters of various composition (neutral mine, artesian, and deionized waters). The oxidation reaction takes place in a weakly alkaline medium, and the catalyst is iron (III) activated by TETA and DETA. The iron content is evaluated from the intensity of the luminescence. The method is distinguished by its low detection limit (0.04 ng/ml), sufficient selectivity, stability of the luminescence with time, and accessibility of the reagents.

  15. A review of electrogenerated chemiluminescent biosensors for assays in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Gross, Erin M; Maddipati, Sai Sujana; Snyder, Sarah M

    2016-10-01

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is the production of light via electron transfer reactions between electrochemically produced reagents. ECL-based biosensors use specific biological interactions to recognize an analyte and produce a luminescent signal. Biosensors fabricated with novel biorecognition species have increased the number of analytes detected. Some of these analytes include peptides, cells, enzymes and nucleic acids. ECL biosensors are selective, simple, sensitive and have low detection limits. Traditional methods use ruthenium complexes or luminol to generate ECL. Nanomaterials can be incorporated into ECL biosensors to improve efficiency, but also represent a new class of ECL emitters. This article reviews the application of ruthenium complex, luminol and nanomaterial-based ECL biosensors to making measurements in biological matrices over the past 4 years.

  16. A review of electrogenerated chemiluminescent biosensors for assays in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Gross, Erin M; Maddipati, Sai Sujana; Snyder, Sarah M

    2016-10-01

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is the production of light via electron transfer reactions between electrochemically produced reagents. ECL-based biosensors use specific biological interactions to recognize an analyte and produce a luminescent signal. Biosensors fabricated with novel biorecognition species have increased the number of analytes detected. Some of these analytes include peptides, cells, enzymes and nucleic acids. ECL biosensors are selective, simple, sensitive and have low detection limits. Traditional methods use ruthenium complexes or luminol to generate ECL. Nanomaterials can be incorporated into ECL biosensors to improve efficiency, but also represent a new class of ECL emitters. This article reviews the application of ruthenium complex, luminol and nanomaterial-based ECL biosensors to making measurements in biological matrices over the past 4 years. PMID:27611228

  17. The enhancement of iron-dependent luminol peroxidation by 2,2'-dipyridyl and nitrilotriacetate.

    PubMed

    Henley, R; Worwood, M

    1994-01-01

    The generation of radicals from luminol and H2O2, in the presence of iron and iron chelates was monitored by measuring the chemiluminescence produced by further oxidation of these radicals. 2,2'-Dipyridyl enhanced the production of chemiluminescence in the presence of FeSO4, ferritin and haemosiderin but not FeCl3 or horseradish peroxidase. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) enhanced chemiluminescence in the presence of both FeSO4 and FeCl3 but not ferritin or haemosiderin. The enhancement of chemiluminescence by iron chelation may have analytical applications and the process by which these iron chelates are able to generate radicals from the nitrogenous base luminol may be similar to that responsible for their toxic effects on DNA.

  18. Applications of capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection in clinical, environmental and food analysis. A review.

    PubMed

    Lara, Francisco J; Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2016-03-24

    This paper reviews the latest developments and analytical applications of chemiluminescence detection coupled to capillary electrophoresis (CE-CL). Different sections considering the most common CL systems have been included, such as the tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) system, the luminol and acridinium derivative reactions, the peroxyoxalate CL or direct oxidations. Improvements in instrumental designs, new strategies for improving both resolution and sensitivity, and applications in different fields such as clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis have been included. This review covers the literature from 2010 to 2015. PMID:26944987

  19. Two-phase flow cell for chemiluminescence and bioluminescence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, J.L.; Seitz, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to two-phase CL (chemiluminescence) measurements is reported. A magnetically stirred reagent phase is separated from the analyte phase by a dialysis membrane so that only smaller molecules can go from one phase to the other. The system is designed so that the analyte phase flows through a spiral groove on an aluminum block that is flush against the dialysis membrane. As solution flows through the spiral grove, analyte diffuses into the reagent phase where it reacts to produce light. A simple model is developed to predict how this system will behave. Experimentally, the system is evaluated by using the luminol reaction catalyzed by peroxidase, the firefly reaction, and the bacterial bioluminescence reaction. 10 references, 4 tables, 6 figures.

  20. New method for monitoring nitric oxide in vivo using microdialysis sampling and chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dachun; Evmiridis, Nick P.; Zhou, Yikai; Xu, Shunqing; Zhou, Huarong

    2001-09-01

    A new method employing a combination of micro dialysis sampling and chemiluminescence reaction was developed to monitor nitric oxide (NO) in vivo. A special probe was designed with an interference-free membrane to achieve a very high selectivity for NO. High sensitivity was achieved by optimizing the working system and improving the NO sampling time. This system was used in vivo to monitor blood and brain tissue in rats and rabbits. We have established that this system is sensitive enough to detect variations in NO production in difference physiological state. The system can detect NO in the linear range of 5nM-1(mu) M, with a detection limit of 1nM, and real NO concentrations in our experimental animals were found to be in the range of 1-5 nM or even less. Finally, the effects of body temperature, NO donors, Viagra, NO activators, NO cofactors, NO interference were investigated carefully in different physiological situations.

  1. A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Osman; Donahue, Trisha M.; Mitchell, Miguel O.

    2011-01-01

    Because they are dramatic and intriguing, chemiluminescence demonstrations have been used for decades to stimulate interest in chemistry. One of the most intense chemiluminescent reactions is the oxidation of diaryl oxalate diesters with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescer. In typical lecture demonstrations, the commercially…

  2. Synchronization of oscillatory chemiluminescence with pulsed light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Shunsuke; Okano, Kunihiko; Asakura, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    A chemical oscillator, the H2O2-KSCN-CuSO4-NaOH system, generates an oscillatory chemiluminescence when luminol is added to this system. Attempts were made to synchronize the oscillatory chemiluminescence with pulsed light irradiation. A period of the chemical oscillation became shorter by the irradiation of white and blue color light, while the oscillatory behavior was scarcely influenced by the irradiation of red light. Pulsed red and white or blue lights were irradiated on either the non-luminol or luminol-added H2O2-KSCN-CuSO4-NaOH system. Synchronization of the chemical oscillation was achieved for 25-30 min in the luminol-added system.

  3. Method and apparatus for eliminating luminol interference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffers, E. L.; Thomas, R. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing porphyrins from a fluid sample which are unrelated to the number of bacteria present in the sample and prior to combining the sample with luminol reagent to produce a light reaction is disclosed. The method involves a pre-incubation of the sample with a dilute concentration of hydrogen peroxide which inactivates the interfering soluble porphyrins. Further, by delaying taking a light measurement for a predetermined time period after combining the hydrogen peroxide-treated water sample with a luminol reagent, the luminescence produced by the reaction of the luminol reagent with ions present in the solution, being short lived, will have died out so that only porphyrins within the bacteria which have been released by rupturing the cells with the sodium hydroxide in the luminol reagent, will be measured. The measurement thus obtained can then be related to the concentration of live and dead bacteria in the fluid sample.

  4. Improving Luminol Blood Detection in Forensics.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Bogdan A; Bunescu, Sabina; Neamtu, Andrei; Bulgaru-Iliescu, Diana; Foia, Liliana; Botnariu, Eosefina Gina

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop chemical improvements to the original Weber protocol, in order to increase the intensity and time length of light emission and to eliminate false-positive reactions. The intensity and duration of light were measured on serial blood dilutions using a plate reader chemiluminometer. Blood stains of various concentrations were impregnated in pure cellulose, dried, and luminol solution was added with/without the potential enhancers. An in silico study was also conducted, aiming to demonstrate the enhancing mechanism of hemoglobin denaturation using 8 M urea. The luminol blood detection test revealed important improvements after urea pretreatment or in the presence of monochloro-triazinyl-β-cyclodextrin. This approach also eliminated the false-positive reaction from sodium hypochlorite. These improvements could provide a higher sensitivity under particular circumstances such as old or washed blood stains, leading to a better localization for further DNA typing and higher quality photographic analysis. PMID:27329571

  5. Continuous flow determination of carbon dioxide in water by membrane separation-chemiluminescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T.; Ito, K.; Munemori, M.

    1988-10-01

    Carbon dioxide has been found to enhance the chemiluminescence of a luminol system. A determination method for carbon dioxide in water was developed by applying this reaction to a continuous flow membrane-separation system. Concentrations of carbon dioxide as low as 0.04 ..mu..g C/mL were determined. Membrane-separation effectively eliminated interferences from Co(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), and other ions which also enhance chemiluminescence. The relative standard deviation for this method was 2.8% (n=5) for 4.0 ..mu..g C/mL and the time required for the analysis of one sample was 3.0 min.

  6. Chemiluminescence in the reaction of ozone with 6-methyluracil in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimin, Yu. S.; Khairullina, L. R.; Kutlugil'dina, G. G.; Mustafin, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Chemiluminescence in the visible part of the spectrum during the oxidation of 6-methyluracil with ozone in aqueous solutions was found. The kinetics of variation of the luminescence intensity was studied in the temperature range 287-333 K, and the activation parameters of the process were determined.

  7. Highly sensitive homogenous chemiluminescence immunoassay using gold nanoparticles as label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Cui, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Li, Baoxin

    2014-10-01

    Homogeneous immunoassay is becoming more and more attractive for modern medical diagnosis because it is superior to heterogeneous immunoassay in sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, portability and disposability. Herein, a universal platform for homogeneous immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. This assay relies upon the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on luminol-AgNO3 chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. The immunoreaction of antigen and antibody can induce the aggregation of antibody-functionalized AuNPs, and after aggregation the catalytic activity of AuNPs on luminol-AgNO3 CL reaction is greatly enhanced. Without any separation steps, a CL signal is generated upon addition of a trigger solution, and the CL intensity is directly correlated to the quantity of IgG. The detection limit of IgG was estimated to be as low as 3 pg/mL, and the sensitivity was better than that of the reported AuNPs-based CL immunoassay for IgG.

  8. Development and application of a luminol-based nitrogen dioxide detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument for the continuous measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) at all atmospheric concentration ranges and conditions was developed. The detector is based on the chemiluminescent reaction between 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione (luminol) and NO/sub 2/ in alkaline aqueous solution. Development included the optimization of the cell design and the solution composition. Sodium sulfite (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/) and methanol (CH/sub 3/OH) were added to the solution to improve sensitivity and specificity. The detector was favorably compared to two different instruments measuring NO/sub 2/ by NO + O/sub 3/ chemiluminescent and by a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry system. The detector has demonstrated a detection limit of 30 parts-per-trillion by volume (ppt) and a frequency response of 0.3 Hz. The instrument was operated for two one-month periods on Bermuda. The purpose was to study air masses from the East Coast of the United States after transport over the ocean. Average daily values were 400 ppt with values as low as 100 ppt measured. Other field experiments involved monitoring of NO/sub 2/ in ambient air in the range of 1 to 60 parts-per-billion by volume.

  9. Electrocatalysis of anodic, oxygen-transfer reactions at noble metal electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, J.E.

    1992-06-09

    Voltammetry at rotated disk and rotated ring-disk electrodes was applied to the study of several aspects of anodic, oxygen-transfer reactions at noble electrodes. Anodic reactions which involve the transfer of oxygen from H{sub 2}O to the oxidation products generally exhibit a voltammetric response characterized by severe kinetic limitations. Mechanistic studies were performed at noble electrodes in order to contrive strategies for improving the kinetics of these reactions. Competitive adsorption studies were used to devise an adsorption hierarchy for Au rotated disk electrodes. It was concluded that adsorption was a prerequisite for oxidations involving the transfer of oxygen present on the electrodes surface as adsorbed hydroxyl radicals. The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was studied at Au, Pt, Pd, glassy carbon, PbO{sub 2}, and Bi-doped PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The ECL intensity was determined to be inversely related to electrochemical activity for the oxidation of luminol. It was concluded that the oxygen-transfer oxidation of luminol to 3-aminophthalate ( n = 4 eq mol{sup {minus}1}) corresponded to the dark reaction, whereas the electron-transfer oxidation of luminol with n = 1 eq mol{sup {minus}1} initiated the chemiluminescent reaction in solution.

  10. Method of generating chemiluminescent light

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1986-03-11

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  11. Chemiluminescent detection of cell apoptosis enzyme by gold nanoparticle-based resonance energy transfer assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangyi; Liang, Yiran; Ruan, Lingao; Ren, Jicun

    2014-09-01

    We report a new chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) technique, using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as efficient energy acceptor, for homogeneous measurement of cell apoptosis enzyme with high sensitivity. In the design of the CRET system, we chose the highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide catalysed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) because the CL spectrum of luminol (λ max 425 nm) partially overlaps the visible absorption bands of AuNPs. In this system, the peptide substrate (DEVD) of caspase 3 was linked to the AuNP surface by Au-S linkage. HRP was attached to the AuNP surface by means of a bridge formed by the streptavidin-biotin reaction. CRET occurred as a result of formation of AuNP-peptide-biotin-streptavidin-HRP complexes. The CL of luminol was significantly reduced, because of the quenching effect of AuNPs. The quenched CL was recovered after cleavage of DEVD by caspase 3, an enzyme involved in the apoptotic process. Experimental conditions were systematically investigated. Under the optimum conditions the increase of the CL signal was linearly dependent on caspase 3 concentration within the concentration range 25 pmol L(-1) to 800 pmol L(-1) and the detection limit of caspase 3 was as low as 20 pmol L(-1), one order of magnitude lower than for FRET sensors based on graphene oxides. Our method was successfully used to detect drug-induced apoptosis of cells. This approach is expected to be extended to other assays, i.e., using other enzymes, analytes, CL substances, and even other nanoparticles (e.g., quantum dots and graphene). PMID:24481623

  12. Studies on the mechanism of the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence reaction: part 2. Further identification of intermediates using 2D EXSY 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Sarah A; Bos, Richard; Dyson, Gail A; Lim, Kieran F; Russell, Richard A; Watson, Simon P; Hindson, Christopher M; Barnett, Neil W

    2008-05-01

    Further consideration has been given to the reaction pathway of a model peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system. Again utilising doubly labelled oxalyl chloride and anhydrous hydrogen peroxide, 2D EXSY (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments allowed for the characterisation of unknown products and key intermediate species on the dark side of the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence reaction. Exchange spectroscopy afforded elucidation of a scheme comprised of two distinct mechanistic pathways, one of which contributes to chemiluminescence. (13)C NMR experiments carried out at varied reagent molar ratios demonstrated that excess amounts of hydrogen peroxide favoured formation of 1,2-dioxetanedione: the intermediate that, upon thermolysis, has been long thought to interact with a fluorophore to produce light. PMID:18420048

  13. Utility of gold nanoparticles in luminescence determination of trovafloxacin: comparison of chemiluminescence and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2015-12-01

    Two novel sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence analysis and fluorescence methods for trovafloxacin mesylate detection have been developed. The methods were based on the enhancement effect of gold nanoparticles on luminol-ferricyanide-trovafloxacin and europium(III)-trovafloxacin complex systems. The optimum conditions for both detection methods were investigated. The chemiluminescence signal was emitted due to the enhanced effect of gold nanoparticles on the reaction of luminol-ferricyanide-trovafloxacin in an alkaline medium. The response was linear over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-2) mol/L (%RSD = 1.3), (n = 9, r = 0.9991) with a detection limit of 1.7 × 10(-10) mol/L (S/N = 3). The weak fluorescence intensity signal of the oxidation complex of europium(III)-trovafloxacin was strongly enhanced by gold nanoparticles and detected at λex = 330 and λem = 540 nm. Fluorescence detection enabled the determination of trovafloxacin mesylate over a linear range of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-3) mol/L (%RSD = 1.2), (n = 6, r = 0.9993) with a detection limit of 3.3 × 10(-9) mol/L. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of the studied drug in its bulk form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The results were treated statistically and compared with those obtained from other reported methods.

  14. A novel microarray chemiluminescence method based on chromium oxide nanoparticles catalysis for indirect determination of the explosive triacetone triperoxide at the scene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhujun; Tao, Liang

    2013-03-01

    Chromium oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) nanoparticles were found to greatly enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) system. A novel microarray CL method was originally developed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The novel CL method was based on the outstanding catalytic effect of a Cr(2)O(3) nanoparticle array on the CL reaction between lower concentrations of luminol and H(2)O(2), which come from hydrolysis of TATP vapor. The calibration curve of H(2)O(2) was linear over a range of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 3.0 × 10(-5) M with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(-9) M (R(2) = 0.9992, n = 12). The CL method has the advantages of being sensitive, selective, simple, time-saving, high-throughput, and shows good reproducibility. Therefore, these merits would make it easily popular. PMID:23353817

  15. The key intermediates that interact with the fluorophores in the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence reaction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl N-aryl-N-tosyloxamates.

    PubMed

    Koike, Ryu; Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Takaguchi, Yutaka; Aoyama, Hiromu

    2003-03-21

    A kinetic study of peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence reactions employing 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl N-aryl-N-tosyloxamates supports the 1,2-dioxetanones still bearing the eliminating group as the key intermediates that interact with the fluorophores rather than 1,2-dioxetanedione. PMID:12703827

  16. Lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence in articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rathakrishnan, C; Tiku, M L

    1993-08-01

    We were recently able to measure intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide within normal articular chondrocytes using the trapped indicator 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Further studies have shown that stimulated chondrocytes produce luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, suggesting that these cells produce hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen. In the present study, we have investigated the lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence response in normal articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes either in suspension or adhered to cover slips showed lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. There was a dose-dependent increase in chemiluminescence response when chondrocytes were incubated with soluble stimuli like phorbol-myristate-acetate, concanavalin A, and f-met-leu-phe. Catalase and the metabolic inhibitor, sodium azide, which inhibits the enzyme myeloperoxidase, had no inhibitory effect on lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence production. Only the antioxidant, superoxide dismutase, prevented lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence, indicating that this assay measures the production of superoxide anions by chondrocytes. We confirmed that chondrocytes release superoxide radicals using the biochemical assay of ferricytochrome c reduction. Since cartilage tissue is semi-transparent, we were able to measure chemiluminescence response in live cartilage tissue, showing that chondrocytes which are embedded within the matrix can also generate superoxide anion radicals. Reactive oxygen intermediates have been shown to play a significant role in the degradation of matrix in arthritis. Our previous and present studies suggest that oxygen radicals produced by chondrocytes may be an important mechanism by which chondrocytes induce cartilage matrix degradation.

  17. Chemiluminescent determination of 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin and 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in water and in air

    SciTech Connect

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Zui, O.V.; Terletskaya, A.V.

    1986-10-10

    It was found that 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DCDH) and 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethyl-hydantoin (DBDH) react with luminol in aqueous solutions and in organic solvents giving luminous radiation. The optimal conditions for the reaction have been found. A chemiluminescent method was developed for the determination of micro-quantities of DCDH and DBDH in aqueous solutions with detection limits of 0.2 and 4 ng/ml, respectively. The method was used for the analysis of the DBDH content in water and in air in production premises.

  18. Competitive immunoassay of progesterone by microchip electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fanggui; Liu, Jinwen; Huang, Yong; Li, Shutin; Zhao, Shulin

    2013-10-01

    A sensitive and rapid homogeneous immunoassay method based on microchip electrophoresis-chemiluminescence detection (MCE-CL) using luminol-hydrogen peroxide as chemiluminescence system catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was developed for the determination of progesterone (P). The assay was based on the competitive immunoreactions between HRP-labeled P antigen (HRP-P) and P with a limited amount of anti-P mouse monoclonal antibody (Ab), and MCE separation of free HRP-P and HRP-P-Ab immunocomplex followed by CL detection. The effect of various factors such as conditions for the CL reaction, MCE and incubation time for the immunoreactions were examined and optimized. Under optimal assay conditions, the MCE separation was accomplished within 80s. The linear range of detection for P was 8-800nM with a detection limit of 3.8nM (signal/noise ratio=3). This present method has been applied to determine P in human serum samples from normal and pregnant women. The result indicates that the proposed MCE-CL based homogeneous immunoassay method can serve as an alternative tool for clinical assay of P.

  19. Sequential injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for anionic surfactants using magnetic microbeads immobilized with an antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Hirakawa, Koji; Seto, Daisuke; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Masadome, Takashi; Nagata, Kazumi; Sakamoto, Kazuhira; Imato, Toshihiko

    2005-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive immunoassay for the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) is described. The method involves a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a chemiluminescence detector and a neodymium magnet. Magnetic beads, to which an anti-LAS monoclonal antibody was immobilized, were used as a solid support in an immunoassay. The introduction, trapping and release of the magnetic beads in the flow cell were controlled by means of a neodymium magnet and adjusting the flow of the carrier solution. The immunoassay was based on an indirect competitive immunoreaction of an anti-LAS monoclonal antibody on the magnetic beads and the LAS sample and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled LAS, and was based on the subsequent chemiluminscence reaction of HRP with hydrogen peroxide and p-iodophenol, in a luminol solution. The anti-LAS antibody was immobilized on the beads by coupling the antibody with the magnetic beads after activation of a carboxylate moiety on the surface of magnetic beads that had been coated with a polylactic acid film. The antibody immobilized magnetic beads were introduced, and trapped in the flow cell equipped with the neodymium magnet, an LAS solution containing HRP-labeled LAS at constant concentration and the luminol solution were sequentially introduced into the flow cell based on an SIA programmed sequence. Chemiluminescence emission was monitored by means of a photon counting unit located at the upper side of the flow cell by collecting the emitted light with a lens. A typical sigmoid calibration curve was obtained, when the logarithm of the concentration of LAS was plotted against the chemiluminescence intensity using various concentrations of standard LAS samples (0-500ppb) under optimum conditions. The time required for analysis is less than 15min. PMID:18970310

  20. A comparison of the chemiluminescent response of Crassostrea virginica and Morone saxatilis phagocytes to zymosan and viable Listonella anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Bramble, L H; Anderson, R S

    1998-01-01

    If reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by hemocytes of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, impart bactericidal activity, exposure of hemocytes to bacteria should result in increased ROS generation. In an earlier study, this hypothesis was tested using luminol- and lucigenin-augmented chemiluminescence (CL) to measure ROS production. The bacterium Listonella anguillarum did not stimulate a net increase in hemocyte-derived CL, and it was suggested that bacterial antioxidants might suppress hemocyte CL. In the present study a comparison was made, under identical assay conditions, of the zymosan- and bacteria-enhanced luminol CL produced by eastern oyster hemocytes and by striped bass (Morone saxatilis) macrophages, for which L. anguillarum has been shown to be a stimulus in CL reactions. The response to zymosan produced by bass phagocytes was two orders of magnitude greater than that generated by eastern oyster hemocytes. Whereas an increase in net ROS production was not evident when oyster hemocytes were exposed to L. anguillarum, significant stimulation of striped bass macrophage-derived CL occurred. These data suggest that striped bass macrophages have a greater capacity to generate ROS than oyster hemocytes, enabling them to surpass the antioxidant capability of L. anguillarum and produce a luminol CL response. PMID:9617583

  1. Quenching-Chemiluminescence Determination of Trace Amounts of l-Tyrosine Contained in Dietary Supplement by Chemiluminescence Reaction of an Iron-Phthalocyanine Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ohtomo, Takao; Igarashi, Shukuro; Takagai, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) signal immediately appeared when a hydrogen peroxide solution was injected into an iron-phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (Fe-PTS) aqueous solution. Moreover, the CL intensity of Fe-PTS decreased by adding l-tyrosine. Based on these results, the determination of trace amounts of l-tyrosine was developed using the quenching-chemiluminescence. The calibration curve of l-tyrosine was obtained in the concentration range of 2.0 × 10−7 M to 2.0 × 10−5 M. Moreover, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.63 % (n = 5) for 2.0 × 10−6 M l-tyrosine, and its detection limits (3σ) were 1.81 × 10−7 M. The spike and recovery experiments for l-tyrosine were performed using a soft drink. Furthermore, the determination of l-tyrosine was applied to supplements containing various kinds of amino acids. Each satisfactory relative recovery was obtained at 98 to 102%. PMID:22567562

  2. Trace Analysis of Sinomenine Hydrochloride Using CdTe/CdS Quantum Dots-enhanced Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kegang; Han, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    A novel flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was described for the determination of sinomenine hydrochloride (SIN). The method was based on the inhibitory effect of SIN on the CL reaction of luminol and K3Fe(CN)6 in an alkaline solution, which was sensitized by CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs). Under the optimized conditions, the linear range for the determination of SIN was 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.4 × 10(-6) mol/L. The detection limit was 7.5 × 10(-9) mol/L, and the relative standard deviation was 2.47% (n = 11). The current CL method was applied to determine SIN in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with satisfactory results. The possible CL reaction mechanism was discussed briefly. PMID:26656813

  3. Chemiluminescence determination of trimetazidine via inducing the aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiao; Quan, Jie; Du, Jianxiu; Liu, Mei

    2013-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method combined with flow injection analysis was developed for the determination of trimetazidine. Trimetazidine was found to significantly increase the CL signal arising from N-bromosuccinimide-luminol reaction in the presence of gold nanoparticles. The enhanced CL intensity was proportional to trimetazidine concentration in the range of 0.01-5.0 μg/mL, with a limit of detection (3sb) of 6.7 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation was 2.8% for 11 repetitive measurements of 0.1 μg/mL trimetazidine solution. The practicality of the method was evaluated by determining trimetazidine in pharmaceutical formulations and in spiked human serum samples. Moreover, the possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  4. Molecular beam chemiluminescence studies of the NO + O/sub 3/ reaction and modeling of global NO/sub 2/ distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, M.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a crossed molecular beam study of the chemiluminescent reaction NO + 0/sub 3/ ..-->.. NO/sub 2/ + 0/sub 2/ are discussed. The chemiluminescence as a function of collision energy and an excitation function were obtained using a translationally cooled supersonic NO beam. An investigation into the role of the internal energy states using an effusive NO beam and a supersonic O/sub 3/ beam has been presented. The results show that chemiluminescence enhancement occurs when high and low temperature NO experiments are compared. The role that other energy modes may have is discussed. The observed enhancement is consistent with the concept that the chemiluminescence cross section increases with NO molecular rotation for low J states. The second part discusses the role of NO/sub 2/ in preserving a global ozone balance. NO/sub 2/ vertical profiles based on Noxon's (1979) column measurements were derived. The method of instantaneous rates was used to calculate the rate of ozone production and destruction by O/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ on a grid that covered the entire globe. The results were presented as a function of altitude and latitude in contour plots.

  5. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  6. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1987-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  7. HPLC Determination Of Transition Metal Ions By Chemiluminescence Detected With A Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalkian, Rafi D.; Ratzlaff, Kenneth L.; Denton, M. Bonner

    1989-07-01

    A solid-state two-dimensional charge-coupled device (CCD) is found to offer several advantages to the detection of chemiluminescence from luminol. To study these benefits, measurements of luminol emission with hydrogen peroxide and transition-metal ions were made in a continuous flow mode. A mixture of metal ions separated by cation-exchange chromatography was also observed with chemiluminescence. A new technique, simultaneous variable binning, applied to the transient light emission leads to outstanding dynamic range. Excellent linearity and detection limits are obtained for Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, and H202.

  8. NO2 measurement by chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Compact device monitors specific chemiluminescent reaction of heated solid material such as 3,5 diaminobezoic or polyvinyl alcohol after contact with gas sample to detect and quantify nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  9. Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection for the highly sensitive determination of fluorescence-labeled chlorpheniramine with Suzuki coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Adutwum, Lawrence Asamoah; Kishikawa, Naoya; Ohyama, Kaname; Harada, Shiro; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2010-09-01

    A sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatography-peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine (CPA) and monodesmethyl chlorpheniramine (MDCPA) in human serum. The method combines fluorescent labeling with 4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)phenyl boronic acid using Suzuki coupling reaction with PO-CL detection. CPA and MDCPA were extracted from human serum by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. Excess labeling reagent, which interfered with trace level determination of analytes, was removed by solid-phase extraction using a C18 cartridge. Separation of derivatives of both analytes was achieved isocratically on a silica column with a mixture of acetonitrile and 60 mM imidazole-HNO(3) buffer (pH 7.2; 85:15, v/v) containing 0.015% triethylamine. The proposed method exhibited a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 for CPA and MDCPA within the concentration range of 0.5-100 ng/mL. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.14 and 0.16 ng/mL for CPA and MDCPA, respectively. Using the proposed method, CPA could be selectively determined in human serum after oral administration.

  10. Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for S-Adenosylhomocysteine Detection and Its Application in DNA Methyltransferase Activity Evaluation and Inhibitors Screening.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaogang; Meng, Meng; Zheng, Lei; Xu, Zhihuan; Song, Pei; Yin, Yongmei; Eremin, Sergei A; Xi, Rimo

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant methylation by DNA transferase is associated with cancer initiation and progression. For high-throughput screening of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity and its inhibitors, a novel chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was established to detect S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), the product of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) transmethylation reactions. We synthesized two kinds of immunogens for SAH and characterized the polyclonal antibodies in each group. The antibody with higher titer was used to develop a competitive CLIA for SAH, in which SAH in samples would compete with SAH coated on microplate in binding with SAH antibodies. Successively, horseradish peroxidase labeled goat antirabbit IgG (HRP-IgG) was conjugated with SAH antibodies on the microplate. In substrate solution containing luminol and H2O2, HRP-IgG catalyzed luminol oxidation by H2O2, generating a high chemiluminescence signal. The method could detect as low as 9.8 ng mL(-1) SAH with little cross-reaction (3.8%) to SAM. Since higher DNA MTase activity leads to more production of SAH, a correlation between the chemiluminescence intensity and DNA MTase activity was obtained in the range from 0.1 to 8.0 U/mL of DNA MTase. The inhibition study showed that, in the presence of SAM as methyl donor, Lomeguatrib, 5-Azacytidine, and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine could inhibit the DNA MTase activity with IC50 values of 40.57 nM, 2.26 μM, and 0.48 μM, respectively. These results are consistent with the published studies. The proposed assay does not depend on recognizing methylated cytosines in oligonucleotides (methyl acceptor) and showed the potential as an accessible platform for sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity and screening its inhibitors. PMID:27464505

  11. Determination of 2-methoxyestradiol in serum samples and pharmaceutical preparations by silver nanoparticles-enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Xiangqin; Zeng, Wenyuan; Zeng, Xiaoying; Yao, Hanchun

    2014-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibited better chemiluminescence (CL) catalysis activity and smaller nanoparticles have stronger catalysis ability in luminol-K3Fe(CN)6 system among the synthesized AgNPs of different size. 10±2 nm nanoparticles was used as catalysts to enhance the reaction sensitivity. It was found that the CL intensity of AgNPs-luminol-K3Fe(CN)6 was strongly inhibited in the presence of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) and the relative CL intensity was in linear correlation with the concentration of 2-ME. Thus, the silver nanoparticles-enhanced CL method for the determination of 2-ME was developed. The proposed method has a detection limit (3 Sb/K) of 5.0×10(-10) mol L(-1) with a relative standard deviation of 0.75% for 5.0×10(-8) mol L(-1) 2-ME. The method was successfully applied for determination of 2-ME in human serum and pharmaceutical preparations. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly. Oxygen radicals played an important role in the catalytic process.

  12. A novel chemiluminescence assay of mitoxantrone based on diperiodatocuprate(III) oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hanchun; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wenyuan; Zeng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-01-01

    A novel and strong chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol with diperiodatocuprate (K5[Cu(HIO6)2]) was observed in alkaline medium. After the addition of mitoxantrone (MTX) into this system, the CL intensity could be greatly inhibited by MTX. Based on the phenomenon, a sensitive CL method was established for analysis of MTX combining with flow injection technology. Under optimum experimental conditions, the CL intensity was linearly related to the logarithm concentration of MTX from 5.0 × 10-9-1.0 × 10-7 g/ml with the detection limit of 1.1 × 10-9 g/ml (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation was 1.2% for 5.0 × 10-8 g/ml of MTX. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of MTX in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly.

  13. Stimulus-response mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based chemiluminescence biosensor for cocaine determination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonghui; Tan, Yue; Xu, Kefeng; Zhang, Lan; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-01-15

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) based controlled release system had been coupled with diverse detection technologies to establish biosensors for different targets. Chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol/H2O2 owns the characters of simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity, but the targets of which are mostly focused on some oxidants or which can participate in a chemical reaction that yields a product with a role in the CL reaction. In this study, chemiluminescent detection technique had been coupled with mesoporous silica-based controlled released system for the first time to develop a sensitive biosensor for the target which does not cause effect to the CL system itself. Cocaine had been chosen a model target, the MSN support was firstly loaded with glucose, then the positively charged MSN interacted with negatively charged oligonucleotides (the aptamer cocaine) to close the mesopores of MSN. At the present of target, cocaine binds with its aptamer with high affinity; the flexible linear aptamer structured will become stems structured through currently well-defined non-Waston-Crick interactions and causes the releasing of entrapped glucose into the solution. With the assistant of glucose oxidase (GOx), the released glucose can react with the dissolved oxgen to produce gluconic acid and H2O2, the latter can enhance the CL of luminol in the NaOH solution. The enhanced CL intensity has a relationship with the cocaine concentration in the range of 5.0-60μM with the detection limit of 1.43μM. The proposed method had been successfully applied to detect cocaine in serum samples with high selectivity. The same strategy can be applied to develop biosensors for different targets.

  14. Chemiluminescent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and interations with intact skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenich, Jennifer; Patrone, Julia; Kelly, Lisa; Benkoski, Jason; Le, Huong; Sample, Jennifer

    2009-08-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel nanoparticle formulation designed for skin penetration for the purpose of skin imaging. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), a drug delivery vehicle, were used as the matrix for targeted delivery of peroxide-sensitive chemiluminescent compounds to the epidermis. Luminol and oxalate were chosen as the chemiluminescent test systems, and a formulation was determined based upon non-toxic components, lotion-like properties, and longevity/visibility of a chemiluminescent signal. The luminescence lifetime was extended in the lipid formulation in comparison to the chemiluminescent system in solution. When applied to porcine skin, our formulation remained detectable relative to negative and positive controls. Initial MTT toxicity testing using HepG2 cells have indicated that this formulation is relatively non-toxic. This formulation could be used to image native peroxides present in tissue that may be indicative of skin disease.

  15. High-sensitivity chemiluminescence detection of cytokines using an antibody-immobilized CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Dong-Gu; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we used a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with immobilizing antibodies on its surface to detect human cytokines, which are activators that mediate intercellular communication including expression and control of immune responses. The CMOS image sensor has many advantages over the Charge Couple Device, including lower power consumption, operation voltage, and cost. The photodiode, a unit pixel component in the CMOS image sensor, receives light from the detection area and generates digital image data. About a million pixels are embedded, and size of each pixel is 3 x 3 μm. The chemiluminescence reaction produces light from the chemical reaction of luminol and hydrogen peroxide. To detect cytokines, antibodies were immobilized on the surface of the CMOS image sensor, and a sandwich immunoassay using an HRP-labeled antibody was performed. An HRP-catalyzed chemiluminescence reaction was measured by each pixel of the CMOS image sensor. Pixels with stronger signals indicated higher cytokine concentrations; thus, we were able to measure human interleukin-5 (IL-5) at femtomolar concentrations.

  16. Organo-modified layered double hydroxide-catalyzed Fenton-like ultra-weak chemiluminescence for specific sensing of vitamin B₁₂ in egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Rong, Wanqi; Lu, Chao; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    In general, the chemiluminescence (CL) sensing of vitamin B12 is achieved by determining Co(II) liberated from acidified vitamin B12 by a luminol system. However, the luminol system for sensing vitamin B12 has poor selectivity due to serious interference from other metal ions. In this study, as a novel CL amplifier of the Co(II)+H2O2+OH(-) ultra-weak CL reaction (Fenton-like system), dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS)-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been applied to the specific determination of vitamin B12 by liberating Co(II). The CL intensity increased with increasing the concentration of vitamin B12 in a wide range from 1.0 ng mL(-1) to 5 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.57 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine vitamin B12 in egg yolk with simple procedures, shorter time and higher selectivity. Recoveries from spiked real samples were 96-103%. The results of the proposed method for sensing vitamin B12 in real samples were agreed with those obtained by the standard inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the CL sensing of vitamin B12 with high selectivity in the absence of luminol.

  17. A rapid and reliable technique for N-nitrosodimethylamine analysis in reclaimed water by HPLC-photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Haruka; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nghiem, Long D; Ishida, Kenneth P; Kodamatani, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    A fast and reliable analytical technique was evaluated and validated for determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation and rejection by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in potable water reuse applications. The analytical instrument used in this study is high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), photochemical reaction (PR) and chemiluminescence (CL) - namely HPLC-PR-CL. Results reported here show that HPLC-PR-CL can be used to measure NDMA with a similar level of accuracy compared to conventional and more time-consuming techniques using gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection in combination with solid phase extraction. Among key residual chemicals (i.e. monochloramine, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite) in reclaimed wastewater, hypochlorite was the only constituent that interfered with the determination of NDMA by HPLC-PR-CL. However, hypochlorite interference was eliminated by adding ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. Direct injection of ultrafiltration (UF)-treated wastewater samples into HPLC-PR-CL also resulted in an underestimation of the NDMA concentration possibly due to interference by organic substances in the UF-treated wastewater. Accurate determination of NDMA concentrations in UF-treated wastewater was achieved by reducing the sample injection volume from 200 to 20 μL, though this increased the method detection limit from 0.2 to 2 ng/L. In contrast, no interference was observed with RO permeate. These results suggest that RO membranes could remove part of substances that interfere with the NDMA analysis by HPLC-PR-CL. In addition, RO treatment experiments demonstrated that HPLC-PR-CL was capable of evaluating near real-time variation in NDMA rejection by RO. PMID:27423127

  18. Photodynamic action of some sensitizers by photooxidation of luminol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierrani, Franz; Kubin, Andreas; Loew, Hans Günter; Henry, Michael; Spängler, Babette; Bodner, Klaus; Grünberger, Werner; Ebermann, Robert; Alth, Gerhart

    2002-09-01

    We report the development of a novel simple experimental method which allows the comparison of new photosensitizers based on their production of reactive oxygen species. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay permits the monitoring of several substances (sensitizer, reactant and oxidized end product) simultaneously on a single chromatogram. Photoreactions were monitored throughout their course by the HPLC assay surveying the sensitizers' efficiency of singlet oxygen production by the oxidative decomposition of luminol. Several photosensitizers were tested: Rose Bengal, Methylene Blue, Protoporphyrin IX, Photosan III, Photofrin, Hypericin and Pseudohypericin. Additionally, photoreactions were monitored by a standard pO2 detection system. The measurements of the two detection methods were strongly correlated. Rose Bengal proved to be the most efficient photosensitizer, clearly decreasing the luminol concentration and causing a corresponding increase in aminophthalic acid. Our experiments show that when factors necessary for photochemical reactions are absent or are blocked (antioxidants), no reaction can be detected.

  19. Synthesis and fluorescence study of naphthalimide-coumarin, naphthalimide-luminol conjugates.

    PubMed

    Sheshashena Reddy, T; Ram Reddy, A

    2014-11-01

    Fluorescent naphthalimide-coumarin and naphthalimide-luminol conjugates were prepared by nucleophilic substitution reaction. The synthesized conjugates were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, mass and IR spectra. The absorption and fluorescence of these conjugates revealed that naphthalimide-luminol conjugates are more fluorescent than the naphthalimide-coumarin conjugates. In proton accepting DMSO solvent the fluorescence of the conjugates was quenched, while in proton donating ethanol solvent enhanced fluorescence was noticed. Based on the excitation maxima and fluorescence maxima it was found that in naphthalimide-coumarin conjugates coumarin acting as donor and naphthalimide acting as acceptor where as in naphthalimide-luminol conjugates naphthalimide acts as donor and luminol acts as acceptor.

  20. Chemiluminescence of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, D; Boveris, A; Reiter, R; Filipkowski, M; Chance, B

    1979-01-01

    1. Chemiluminescence of Acanthomoeba castellanii in the presence of O2 was of similar intensity in organisms harvested early or late during exponential growth [when cyanide (1 mM) stimulates or inhibits respiration respectively]. 2. Cyanide (up to 1.5 mM) stimulated photoemission in both types of organism by 250--300 photons/s per 10(7) cells above the value observed under aerobic conditions. 3. 'Dibromothymoquinone' (2,5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-p-benzoquinone) (up to 80 microM) further increased chemiluminescence. 4. Similar responses were also demonstrated in whole homogenates and in subcellular fractions; 36% of the chemiluminescence was provided by a fraction sedimenting at 100000g-min, and 20% in that fraction that was non-sedimentable at 200000g-min. 5. Mitochondrial substrates (succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, NADH) in the presence or absence of ADP and Pi or peroxisomal substrates (glycollate, urate or ethanol) gave no increases in light emission by whole homogenates or in any of the fractions. 6. It is suggested that reactions responsible for production of chemiluminescence are those primarily producing superoxide anions and leading to lipid peroxidation and singlet-oxygen formation. Photoemission enhancement and superoxide dismutase inhibition showed similar cyanide concentration-dependencies. PMID:534514

  1. A comprehensive experimental study of industrial, domestic and environmental interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood.

    PubMed

    Creamer, J I; Quickenden, T I; Apanah, M V; Kerr, K A; Robertson, P

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the fi rst comprehensive and quantitative study of substances that interfere with the forensic luminol test for blood. Two hundred and fifty substances have been selected on the basis of modern lifestyles and of contiguity with crime scenes. The intensity of the chemiluminescence produced by each substance has been measured relative to that of haemoglobin and the peak wavelength shift has also been determined. The following is a short list of nine substances that produce chemiluminescence intensities comparable with that of haemoglobin: turnips, parsnips, horseradishes, commercial bleach (NaClO), copper metal, some furniture polishes, some enamel paints, and some interior fabrics in motor vehicles. Care needs to be taken when the luminol test for blood is used in the presence of these substances.

  2. Chemiluminescence development after initiation of Maillard reaction in aqueous solutions of glycine and glucose: nonlinearity of the process and cooperative properties of the reaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Naletov, Vladimir I.

    1998-06-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of free or peptide bound amino acids (Maillard reaction, MR) plays an important role in aging, diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. MR taking place at high temperatures is accompanied by chemiluminescence (CL). Here kinetics of CL development in MR proceeding in model systems at room temperature has been analyzed for the first time. Brief heating of glycine and D-glucose solutions to t greater than 93 degrees Celsius results in their browning and appearance of fluorescencent properties. Developed In solutions rapidly cooled down to 20 degrees Celsius a wave of CL. It reached maximum intensity around 40 min after the reaction mixture heating and cooling it down. CL intensity elevation was accompanied by certain decoloration of the solution. Appearance of light absorbing substances and development of CL depended critically upon the temperature of preincubation (greater than or equal to 93 degrees Celsius), initial pH (greater than or equal to 11,2), sample volume (greater than or equal to 0.5 ml) and reagents concentrations. Dependence of total counts accumulation on a system volume over the critical volume was non-monotonous. After reaching maximum values CL began to decline, though only small part of glucose and glycin had been consumed. Brief heating of such solutions to the critical temperature resulted in emergence of a new CL wave. This procedure could be repeated in one and the same reaction system for several times. Whole CL kinetic curve best fitted to lognormal distribution. Macrokinetic properties of the process are characteristic of chain reactions with delayed branching. Results imply also, that self-organization occurs in this system, and that the course of the process strongly depends upon boundary conditions and periodic interference in its course.

  3. Simple chamber facilitates chemiluminescent detection of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marts, E. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    Test chamber enables rapid estimation of bacteria in a test sample through the reaction of luminol and an oxidant with the cytochrome C portion of certain species of bacteria. Intensity of the light emitted in the reaction is a function of the specific bacteria in the test sample.

  4. 3-(10'-Phenothiazinyl)propionic acid is a potent primary enhancer of peroxidase-induced chemiluminescence and its application in sensitive ELISA of methylglyoxal-modified low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Demiyanova, Alexandra S; Gribas, Anastasia V; Uskova, Natalia A; Efremov, Evgeny E; Vdovenko, Marina M

    2013-10-15

    Using a full factorial design the optimization of experimental conditions of enhanced chemiluminescence reaction (ECR) catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)propionic acid (PPA) as a primary enhancer was performed. The effect of concentrations of PPA, hydrogen peroxide, MORPH, luminol, and Tris on a ratio of peroxidase-catalyzed CL to background was studied. The detection limit value of HRP in ECR with PPA was 0.09 pM. Using PPA the ultra-sensitive chemiluminescent ELISA for determination of methylglyoxal-modified low density lipoprotein was developed. The detection limit value for the developed method was 0.5 ng mL(-1). The obtained results open up very promising perspectives for using PPA to improve the sensitivity of enzyme immunoassay kits.

  5. 3-(10'-Phenothiazinyl)propionic acid is a potent primary enhancer of peroxidase-induced chemiluminescence and its application in sensitive ELISA of methylglyoxal-modified low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Demiyanova, Alexandra S; Gribas, Anastasia V; Uskova, Natalia A; Efremov, Evgeny E; Vdovenko, Marina M

    2013-10-15

    Using a full factorial design the optimization of experimental conditions of enhanced chemiluminescence reaction (ECR) catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)propionic acid (PPA) as a primary enhancer was performed. The effect of concentrations of PPA, hydrogen peroxide, MORPH, luminol, and Tris on a ratio of peroxidase-catalyzed CL to background was studied. The detection limit value of HRP in ECR with PPA was 0.09 pM. Using PPA the ultra-sensitive chemiluminescent ELISA for determination of methylglyoxal-modified low density lipoprotein was developed. The detection limit value for the developed method was 0.5 ng mL(-1). The obtained results open up very promising perspectives for using PPA to improve the sensitivity of enzyme immunoassay kits. PMID:24054611

  6. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Sun, Pulv; Ji, Zhongling; Li, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and simple chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of diclofenac sodium has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between formaldehyde and acidic potassium permanganate. A calibration curve is constructed for diclofenac sodium under optimized experimental parameters over the range 0.040-5.0 µg/mL and the limit of detection is 0.020 µg/mL (3σ). The inter-assay relative standard deviation for 0.040 µg/mL diclofenac sodium (n = 11) is 2.0%. This method is rapid, sensitive, simple, and shows good selectivity and reproducibility. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the CL reaction has been discussed in detail on the basis of UV and CL spectra.

  7. Genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretion System Using Magnetic Enrichment Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction and Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongjun; Li, Bo; Dai, Jianguo; Dai, Jianfang; Wang, Xinhui; Si, Jing; Ali, Zeeshan; Li, Taotao; He, Nongyue

    2016-04-01

    The pathologic characteristics and toxicity mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are different in strains with different Type III secretion system (T3SS) genes. The T3SS gene based genotyping of P. aeruginosa strains is important to understand its virulence and predict the clinical outcomes. In this study, a rapid and automatable method for T3SS genotyping was developed using magnetic enrichment multiplex PCR and chemiluminescence. Three P. aeruginosa standard strains were analyzed using this method. The results showed that the chemiluminescent intensity of exoT, exoY, and exoS of these strains were 10 times greater than that of the control, and that their Q values were greater than 2.1. These results were consistent with the regular PCR and electrophoresis results, indicating that the method was reliable. Out of the 22 clinical isolates tested using this method, 100%, 72.7%, 95.5%, and 4.5% of the isolates contained exoT, exoY, exoS, and exoU genes, respectively. The isolates harbored either exoS or exoU gene, but not both. All genotyping results of the isolates were consistent with the information obtained using regular PCR and electrophoresis. PMID:27301202

  8. Fiber-Optic Chemiluminescent Biosensors for Monitoring Aqueous Alcohols and Other Water Quality Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verostko, Charles E. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); DeHart, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Wheeler, Richard R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A "reagentless" chemiluminescent biosensor and method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol and D-glucose in water is disclosed. An aqueous stream is basified by passing it through a solid phase base bed. Luminol is then dissolved in the basified effluent at a controlled rate. Oxidation of the luminol is catalyzed by the target chemical to produce emitted light. The intensity of the emitted light is detected as a measure of the target chemical concentration in the aqueous stream. The emitted light can be transmitted by a fiber optic bundle to a remote location from the aqueous stream for a remote reading of the target chemical concentration.

  9. The Chemiluminescence of Organometallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikov, Genrikh A.; Bulgakov, Ramil G.; Kazakov, Valeri P.

    1985-11-01

    Studies on the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions of organometallic compounds accompanied by the emission of light are described systematically and discussed. The influence of the magnetic field on the chemiluminescence of Grignard reagents and the study of the electrochemiluminescence of solutions of organometallic compounds are examined. The ways leading to further development of the field of the chemiluminescence of organometallic compounds and certain possible applications of the phenomenon in the monitoring of industrial processes are discussed. The bibliography includes 80 references.

  10. A dual-readout chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test for multiplex and ultrasensitive detection of disease biomarkers in real samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiping; Sun, Jiashu; Xianyu, Yunlei; Yin, Binfeng; Niu, Yajing; Wang, Songbai; Cao, Fengjing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-08-18

    Even though the gold lateral flow test (GLFT) is low-cost and allows for point-of-care testing (POCT), its intrinsic limitations including low sensitivity and incapability of quantification significantly hinder the clinical application of GLFT for assaying disease biomarkers. To improve the performance of the GLFT without sacrificing its simplicity, we develop a chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test (C-mode GLFT) for quantitative and multiplex detection of disease biomarkers with an ultrahigh sensitivity at a picomolar level. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and antibody (Ab) are simultaneously labeled onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve a dual-readout (chemiluminescent and visual, C&V-mode GLFT). A red color appears at the test line caused by the accumulation of captured AuNPs in the presence of targets, while HRP on the surface of AuNPs catalyzes the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol to amplify the signal. C-mode GLFT is successfully used for detecting tumor biomarkers (alpha fetoprotein, AFP, and carcino embryonic antigen, CEA) and bacterial infection biomarkers (procalcitonin, PCT) in serum samples as well as whole blood. The excellent features of C-mode GLFT such as straightforward operation, ultrahigh sensitivity and quantitative detection, make it a promising platform for POCT of a variety of disease biomarkers in real samples. PMID:27375054

  11. Intricacies of Redoxome Function Demonstrated with a Simple In vitro Chemiluminescence Method, with Special Reference to Vitamin B12 as Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Bøyum, A; Forstrøm, R J; Sefland, I; Sand, K L; Benestad, H B

    2014-01-01

    The homeostatic control of the redox system (the redoxome) in mammalian cells depends upon a large number of interacting molecules, which tend to buffer the electronegativity of cells against oxidants or reductants. Some of these components kill – at high concentration – microbes and by-stander normal cells, elaborated by professional phagocytes. We examined whether a simple, in vitro chemiluminescence set-up, utilizing redox components from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and red blood cells (RBC), could clarify some unexplained workings of the redoxome. PMN or purified myeloperoxidase (MPO) triggers formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), quantified by light emission from oxidized luminol. Both PMN and RBC can generate abundant amounts of ROS, necessitating the presence of a high-capacity redoxome to keep the cellular electronegativity within physiological limits. We obtained proof-of-principle evidence that our assay could assess redox effects, but also demonstrated the intricacies of redox reactions. Simple dose–responses were found, as for the PMN proteins S100A9 (A9) and S100A8 (A8), and the system also revealed the reducing capacity of vitamin B12 (Cbl) and lutein. However, increased concentrations of oxidants in the assay mixture could decrease the chemiluminescence. Even more remarkable, A9 and NaOCl together stimulated the MPO response, but alone they inhibited MPO chemiluminescence. Biphasic responses were also recorded for some dose–response set-ups and are tentatively explained by a ‘balance hypothesis’ for the redoxome. PMID:25345916

  12. Emission spectroscopic properties of water soluble porphyrins in hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence system with d- and f-electron metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staninski, Krzysztof; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Lis, Stefan; Elbanowski, Marian

    2003-02-01

    Two water-soluble porphyrins: 4,4',4'',4'''-(porphine-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)-tetrakis (benzoic acid) (TCPPH 2) and 4,4',4'',4'''-(porphine-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)-tetrakis (benzenesulfonic acid) (TSPPH 2) have been subjected to spectroscopic study in the presence of d-electron metals: Zn(II) and Cu(II) and f-electron metals: La(III), Eu(III), Gd (III) and Yb(III). Results of the spectrophotometric study have provided evidence proving the complexation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) cations by porphine in water solutions and the complexation of lanthanide ions exclusively by peripheral carboxyl and sulfonic groups. For the first time, chemiluminescence of the systems containing porphyrins has been measured without the use of strongly luminescent reagents such as TCPO or luminol. The emission spectra of the systems porphyrin/metal ion/H 2O 2 have been recorded and the quantum yield of their luminescence has been measured. The absorption spectra of the systems recorded before and after the reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide are identical, which means that the porphyrin ring does not undergo destruction. A significant similarity between the fluorescence and chemiluminescence spectra indicates a possibility of excitation of porphyrins and their complexes in the reaction with hydrogen peroxide.

  13. A Facile and Effective Chemiluminescence Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Arthur G.; Turro, Nicholas J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a chemiluminescence system which can be used to demonstrate the effects of certain factors which affect the rate of reaction (temperature, concentration, catalysis, solvent, etc.), and to perform experiments relevant to the mechanism of the system. (SLH)

  14. CE with chemiluminescence detection for the determination of thyroxine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaomei; Li, Shuting; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Shulin

    2014-04-01

    A sensitive and rapid approach to perform thyroxine (T4) assay by CE with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed. The sensitive detection was based on the enhancement effect of T4 on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ) in alkaline solution. A laboratory-built reaction flow cell and a photon counter were deployed for the CL detection. Experimental conditions for CL detection were studied in detail to achieve maximum assay sensitivity. Optimal conditions were found to be 5.0 × 10(-4) M luminol added to the CE running buffer and 9.2 × 10(-5) M KMnO4 in 0.072 M NaOH solution introduced postcolumn. In the optimized experimental conditions, the linear range for T4 detection was 6.0 × 10(-8) -6.0 × 10(-6) M, with the detection limit of 2.0 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3). Six human serum samples from healthy subjects, hyperthyroid patients and hypothyroid patients were analyzed by the presented method. The serum level of T4 in healthy subjects was found be 9.0 × 10(-8) M, whereas the T4 level was found to be 15.6 × 10(-8) M in hyperthyroid patients and 1.3 × 10(-8) M in hypothyroid patients. The results suggested a potential application of the proposed assay in rapid primary diagnosis of diseases such as hyperthyroid and hypothyroid.

  15. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of pans with luminol chemilumnescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.; Bornick, R.; Chen, Yu-Harn; Marley, N.

    1996-12-31

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) are important air pollutants in tropospheric chemistry. PANs are known to be potent phytotoxins at low ppb concentrations and are lachrymators. They can also transport the more reactive nitrogen dioxide long distances, because they are in equilibrium with that NO{sub x} species. Since PANs are trapped peroxyradicals, they are a direct measure of the peroxyradical levels and the of {open_quotes}photochemical age{close_quotes} of an air parcel. The PANs are typically measured in the atmosphere by using electron capture detection methods. These methods suffer from large background signals and detector responses to oxygen and water vapor. This paper describes the combination of a capillary gas chromatographic column with a modified luminol chemiluminescent nitrogen dioxide detector (Scintrex, Luminox) for rapid and sensitive detection of nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxypropionyl nitrate, and peroxybutyryl nitrate. Detection limits for this approach in the low tens of parts per trillion have been observed with total analysis times of less than three minutes. We will discuss the potential application of this method to other compounds, particularly, organonitrates, in a pyrolysis system and/or with ozone addition to the sampling streams.

  16. Eco-friendly synthesis of gelatin-capped bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles for chemiluminescence detection of anticancer raloxifene hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2016-09-01

    This study described the utility of green analytical chemistry in the synthesis of gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles (NPs). The preparation of nanoparticles was based on the reaction of silver nitrate or chlorauric acid with a 1.0 wt% aqueous gelatin solution at 50°C. The gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and were used to enhance a sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence luminol-potassium ferricyanide system for determination of the anticancer drug raloxifene hydrochloride. The developed method is eco-friendly and sensitive for chemiluminescence detection of the selected drug in its bulk powder, pharmaceutical injections and biosamples. After optimizing the conditions, a linear relationship in the range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-1)  mol/L was obtained with a limit of detection of 5.0 × 10(-10)  mol/L and a limit of quantification of 1.0 × 10(-9)  mol/L. Statistical treatment and method validation were performed based on ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26781988

  17. Application of chemiluminescence to monitoring of trace atmospheric species

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhardt, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the development of analytical instrumentation based on gas phase chemiluminescence for the monitoring of nitric acid, methyl nitrate, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and total acidity. Nitric acid was converted to NO and NO{sub 2} by a 400 C glass beads converter and the resulting NO{sub 2} was monitored by a luminol-based detector. A CrO{sub 3} converter was used to convert the NO generated in the system to NO{sub 2} to lower the detection limit of the instrument. The detection limit of the configuration was 0.30 ppb of nitric acid. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO{sub 2} were separated and detected with a novel gas chromatographic system which did not require compressed gas cylinder. Air that has been scrubbed by passing it over FeSO{sub 4} was used as the carrier gas which eliminates the need for any compressed gas cylinders. The detection limits for the instrument (PAN-GC) were 0.12 ppb for PAN and 0.20 ppb for NO{sub 2}. Methyl nitrate was separated from PAN and NO{sub 2} using a modified version of the PAN-GC. A 200 C quartz converter inserted between the end of the column and the detector in the PAN-GC, converts methyl nitrate and PAN into NO{sub 2} for detection by the luminol-based detector. The detection limits are 0.30 ppb for PAN, 0.30 ppb for methyl nitrate, and 0.20 ppb for NO{sub 2} The development of a total acidity detector based on the reaction of O and F atoms with hydrazoic acid (HN{sub 3}) was also carried out. Several methods for converting atmospheric acidity to HN{sub 3} were tested. These included packed bed, coated filters, and denuder methods. The system was calibrated with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid and the characterization of the response to various organic acids was investigated. The detection limits for nitric acid and for hydrochloric acid were 0.51 ppb and 0.63 ppb, respectively.

  18. Microfabricated Renewable Beads-Trapping/Releasing Flow Cell for Rapid Antigen-Antibody Reaction in Chemiluminescent Immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Zhifeng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Jun; Lu, Donglai; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-04-01

    A filter pillar-array microstructure was coupled with a pneumatic micro-valve to fabricate a reusable miniaturized beads-trapping/releasing flow cell, in which trapping and releasing beads can be conveniently realized by switching the micro-valve. This miniaturized device was suitable to construct automatic fluidic system for “renewable surface analysis”. The renewable surface strategy based on pneumatic micro-valve enabled capture of beads in beads chamber prior to each assay, and release of the used beads after the assay. Chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay of 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP) was performed as a model to demonstrate the application potential of this reusable miniaturized flow cell. The whole fluidic assay process including beads trapping, immuno-binding, beads washing, beads releasing and signal collection could be completed in 10 min. Immunoassay of TCP using this miniaturized device showed a linear range of 0.20-70 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.080 ng/mL. The device had been successfully used for detection of TCP spiked in rat serum with average recovery of 97%. This investigation provides a rapid, sensitive, reusable, low-cost and automatic miniaturized device for solid-phase biochemical analysis for various purposes.

  19. Controllable copper deficiency in Cu2-xSe nanocrystals with tunable localized surface plasmon resonance and enhanced chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, Shao Qing; Wang, Dong Mei; Gao, Ming Xuan; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-08-01

    Copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (CuCNCs) as a type of semiconductor that can also act as efficient catalysts are rarely reported. Herein, we study water-soluble size-controlled Cu2-xSe nanocrystals (NCs), which are copper deficient and could be prepared by a redox reaction with the assistance of surfactants. We found them to have strong near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties originating from the holes in the valence band, and also catalytic activity of more than a 500-fold enhancement of chemiluminescence (CL) in a luminol-H2O2 system. Investigations into the mechanisms behind these results showed that the high concentration of free carriers in Cu2-xSe NCs, which are derived from their high copper deficiencies that make Cu2-xSe NCs both good electron donors and acceptors with high ionic mobility, could greatly enhance the catalytic ability of Cu2-xSe NCs to facilitate electron-transfer processes and the decomposition of H2O2 into OH&z.rad; and O2&z.rad;-, which are the commonly accepted key intermediates in luminol CL enhancement. Thus, it can be concluded that controllable copper deficiencies that are correlated with their near-infrared LSPR are critically responsible for the effective catalysis of Cu2-xSe NCs in the enhanced CL.Copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (CuCNCs) as a type of semiconductor that can also act as efficient catalysts are rarely reported. Herein, we study water-soluble size-controlled Cu2-xSe nanocrystals (NCs), which are copper deficient and could be prepared by a redox reaction with the assistance of surfactants. We found them to have strong near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties originating from the holes in the valence band, and also catalytic activity of more than a 500-fold enhancement of chemiluminescence (CL) in a luminol-H2O2 system. Investigations into the mechanisms behind these results showed that the high concentration of free carriers in Cu2-xSe NCs, which are derived from

  20. Determination of estradiol valerate in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum by flow injection chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwen; Xie, Liangxiao; Liu, Hongshuang; Xu, Shichao; Hu, Bingcheng; Cao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the detection of trace estradiol valerate (EV) in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum was developed by inhibition of luminol chemiluminescence (CL) by estradiol valerate on the zinc deuteroporphyrin (ZnDP)-enhanced luminol-K3 Fe(CN)6 chemiluminescence system. Under optimized experimental conditions, CL intensity and concentration of estradiol valerate had a good linear relationship in the ranges of 8.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-5) g/mL. Detection limit (3σ) was estimated to be 3.5 × 10(-8) g/mL. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of estradiol valerate in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum and recoveries were 97.0-105.0% and 95.5-106.0%, respectively. The possible mechanism of the CL system is discussed.

  1. In Situ Generation and Consumption of H2O2 by Bienzyme-Quantum Dots Bioconjugates for Improved Chemiluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Li, Xianming; Li, Chaobi; Li, Jialin; Zhang, Xinfeng; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng

    2016-06-21

    Exploration of quantum dots (QDs) as energy acceptors revolutionizes the current chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET), since QDs possess large Stokes shifts and high luminescence efficiency. However, the strong and high concentration of oxidant (typically H2O2) needed for luminol chemiluminescence (CL) reaction could cause oxidative quenching to QDs, thereby decreasing the CRET performance. Here we proposed the use of bienzyme-QDs bioconjugate as the energy acceptor for improved CRET sensing. Two enzymes, one for H2O2 generation (oxidase) and another for H2O2 consumption (horseradish peroxidase, HRP), were bioconjugated onto the surface of QDs. The bienzyme allowed fast in situ cascaded H2O2 generation and consumption, thus alleviating fluorescence quenching of QDs. The nanosized QDs accommodate the two enzymes in a nanometric range, and the CL reaction was confined on the surface of QDs accordingly, thereby amplifying the CL reaction rate and improving CRET efficiency. As a result, CRET efficiency of 30-38% was obtained; the highest CRET efficiency by far was obtained using QDs as the energy acceptor. The proposed CRET system could be explored for ultrasensitive sensing of various oxidase substrates (here exemplified with cholesterol, glucose, and benzylamine), allowing for quantitative measurement of a spectrum of metabolites with high sensitivity and specificity. Limits of detection (LOD, 3σ) for cholesterol, glucose, and benzylamine were found to be 0.8, 3.4, and 10 nM, respectively. Furthermore, multiparametric blood analysis (glucose and cholesterol) is demonstrated. PMID:27223815

  2. PMMA microreactor for chemiluminescence detection of Cu (II) based on 1,10-Phenanthroline-hydrogen peroxide reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueye; Shen, Jienan; Li, Tiechuan

    2016-01-01

    A microreactor for the chemiluminescence detection of copper (II) in water samples, based on the measurement of light emitted from the copper (II) catalysed oxidation of 1,10-phenanthroline by hydrogen peroxide in basic aqueous solution, is presented. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was chose as material for fabricating the microreactor with mill and hot bonding method. Optimized reagents conditions were found to be 6.3 × 10(-5)mol/L 1,10-phenanthroline, 1.5 × 10(-3)mol/L hydrogen peroxide, 7.0 × 10(-2)mol/L sodium hydroxide and 2.4 × 10(-5)mol/L Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium Bromide (CTMAB). In the continuous flow injection mode the system can perform fully automated detection with a reagent consumption of only 3.5 μL each time. The linear range of the Cu (II) ions concentration was 1.5 × 10(-8) mol/L to 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L, and the detection limit was 9.4 × 10(-9)mol/L with the S/N ratio of 4. The relative standard deviation was 3.0 % for 2.0 × 10(-6) mol/L Cu (II) ions (n = 10). The most obvious features of the detection method are simplicity, rapidity and easy fabrication of the microreactor. PMID:26788016

  3. An ultra-facile and label-free immunoassay strategy for detection of copper (II) utilizing chemiluminescence self-enhancement of Cu (II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetate chelate.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Shu, Qi; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Zhenxing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng

    2016-11-15

    The establishment of facile, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective protocols for the detection of heavy metals is of great significance for human health and environmental monitoring. Hereby, an ultra-facile and label-free immunoassay strategy was designed for detecting heavy metal ion by using Cu (II) as the model analyte. Cu (II) reacted previously with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) was captured by immobilized monoclonal antibody for Cu (II)-EDTA chelate. Then Cu (II) was detected based on the self-enhancing effect of Cu (II)-EDTA chelate to luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction. The CL intensity is linear relative with Cu (II) concentration in a very wide range of 1.0-1000ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.33ng/mL (S/N=3). Since the specificity of this proposed strategy relied on both the specificity of monoclonal antibody and the specificity of luminol-H2O2 system, it could avoid interference from most common ions. The proposed method was used successfully to detect Cu (II) in traditional Chinese medicine and environmental water samples with acceptable recovery values of 82-113%. This proof-of-principle work demonstrated the feasibility of the label-free immunoassay for heavy metal ions, and opened a new avenue for rapid screening and field assay for drug safety, environmental monitoring and clinical diagnosis. PMID:27164546

  4. An ultra-facile and label-free immunoassay strategy for detection of copper (II) utilizing chemiluminescence self-enhancement of Cu (II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetate chelate.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Shu, Qi; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Zhenxing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng

    2016-11-15

    The establishment of facile, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective protocols for the detection of heavy metals is of great significance for human health and environmental monitoring. Hereby, an ultra-facile and label-free immunoassay strategy was designed for detecting heavy metal ion by using Cu (II) as the model analyte. Cu (II) reacted previously with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) was captured by immobilized monoclonal antibody for Cu (II)-EDTA chelate. Then Cu (II) was detected based on the self-enhancing effect of Cu (II)-EDTA chelate to luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction. The CL intensity is linear relative with Cu (II) concentration in a very wide range of 1.0-1000ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.33ng/mL (S/N=3). Since the specificity of this proposed strategy relied on both the specificity of monoclonal antibody and the specificity of luminol-H2O2 system, it could avoid interference from most common ions. The proposed method was used successfully to detect Cu (II) in traditional Chinese medicine and environmental water samples with acceptable recovery values of 82-113%. This proof-of-principle work demonstrated the feasibility of the label-free immunoassay for heavy metal ions, and opened a new avenue for rapid screening and field assay for drug safety, environmental monitoring and clinical diagnosis.

  5. Multifunctional reduced graphene oxide trigged chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer: Novel signal amplification strategy for photoelectrochemical immunoassay of squamous cell carcinoma antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-05-15

    Herein, a photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay is constructed for squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) detection using zinc oxide nanoflower-bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) composites as photoactive materials and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as signal labels. Horseradish peroxidase is used to block sites against nonspecific binding, and then participated in luminol-based chemiluminescence (CL) system. The induced CL emission is acted as an inner light source to excite photoactive materials, simplifying the instrument. A novel signal amplification strategy is stem from rGO because of the rGO acts as an energy acceptor, while luminol serves as a donor to rGO, triggering the CL resonance energy transfer phenomenon between luminol and rGO. Thus, the efficient CL emission to photoactive materials decreases. Furthermore, the signal amplification caused by rGO labeled signal antibodies is related to photogenerated electron-hole pairs: perfect matching of energy levels between rGO and Bi2S3 makes rGO a sink to capture photogenerated electrons from Bi2S3; the increased steric hindrance hinders the electron donor to the surface of Bi2S3 for reaction with the photogenerated holes. On the basis of the novel signal amplification strategy, the proposed immunosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance for PEC detection of SCCA, ranging from 0.8 pg mL(-1) to 80 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.21 pg mL(-1). Meanwhile, the designed signal amplification strategy provides a general format for future development of PEC assays. PMID:26686924

  6. Chemiluminescence of the reaction system Ce(IV)-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs containing europium(III) ions and its application to the determination of naproxen in pharmaceutical preparations and urine.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Małgorzata

    2011-11-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by Ce(IV) ions, was recorded in the presence and absence europium(III) ions, in solution of pH ~ 4 of solution. Kinetic curves and CL emission spectra of the all studied systems were discussed. CL of measurable intensity was observed in the Ce(IV)-NP-Eu(III) reaction system only in acidic solutions. The CL spectrum rcegistered for this system shows emission bands, typical of Eu(III) ions, with maximum at λ ~ 600 nm. The chemiluminescent method, based on Eu(III) emission in reaction system of NP-Ce(IV)-Eu(III) in acid solution was therefore used for the determination of naproxen in mixture of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  7. Determination of dipyrone in pharmaceutical preparations based on the chemiluminescent reaction of the quinolinic hydrazide-H2O2-vanadium(IV) system and flow-injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Pradana Pérez, Juan A; Durand Alegría, Jesús S; Hernando, Pilar Fernández; Sierra, Adolfo Narros

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, economic and sensitive chemiluminescent method involving flow-injection analysis was developed for the determination of dipyrone in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the chemiluminescent reaction between quinolinic hydrazide and hydrogen peroxide in a strongly alkaline medium, in which vanadium(IV) acts as a catalyst. Principal chemical and physical variables involved in the flow-injection system were optimized using a modified simplex method. The variations in the quantum yield observed when dipyrone was present in the reaction medium were used to determine the concentration of this compound. The proposed method requires no preconcentration steps and reliably quantifies dipyrone over the linear range 1-50 µg/mL. In addition, a sample throughput of 85 samples/h is possible.

  8. Portable centrifugal analyzer for the determination of rapid reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bauer, M.L.; McCracken, R.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1980-02-01

    A portable centrifugal analyzer prototype is capable of rapidly initiating reactions and monitoring 17 optical channels as they rotate past a stationary photodetector. An advanced rotor drive permits transfer of discretely loaded sample and reagent into a cuvette within 60 ms. Various rotor designs have been employed to ensure effieicnt mixing concurrent with solution transfer, thus permitting absorbance or luminescence measurements to be made almost immediately after solution contract. Dye-dillution studies have been used to investigate transfer and mixing efficiencies. Rotor designs with parallel access for sample and reagent into the cuvette were found to promote efficient mixing during liquid transfer. The hypochlorite-luminol chemiluminescent reaction served to demonstrate the utility of the system for performing rapid kinetic analyses. Appropriate adjustment of reaction conditions allows first-order reaction half-lives as short as 0.04 s to be measured. 13 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Reinvestigation of the photocatalytic reaction mechanism for Pt-complex-modified TiO2 under visible light irradiation by means of ESR spectroscopy and chemiluminescence photometry.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masami; Sakamoto, Hodaka; Nosaka, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    A plausible reaction mechanism for a visible light photocatalyst of TiO(2) modified with platinum(IV) chloride (PtCl) was proposed on the basis of the measurements with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and chemiluminescence photometry. Under visible light (λ > 500 nm) irradiation, the deposited Pt(IV) chloride is charge-separated into Pt(3+) and Cl radical by the excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer. The Pt(3+) gives an electron to the conduction band of TiO(2), which has Pt(3+) return to Pt(4+). The electron in the conduction band reduces the oxygen molecule into O(2)(-). The presence of Pt(3+) and O(2)(-) has been elucidated in the present study. Moreover, valence band holes of TiO(2) were detected by ESR spectroscopy under visible light irradiation. Therefore, besides being used to oxidize organic compounds, the photogenerated Cl radicals likely receive electrons from the TiO(2) valence band by visible light excitation, producing the valence band holes. Because the valence band holes have a stronger oxidation power than Cl radicals, the excitation of valence band electrons to Cl radicals would be the origin of the high photocatalytic activity of the PtCl-modified TiO(2) under visible light irradiation.

  10. A novel chemiluminescence from the reaction of singlet oxygen with β-diketonates of europium(III), neodymium(III) and ytterbium(III).

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Dmitri V; Safarov, Farit E

    2014-12-01

    Decomposition of 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene endoperoxide, which is the source of singlet oxygen, in the presence of β-diketonates of europium(III), neodymium(III) and ytterbium(III) is accompanied by bright chemiluminescence (CL) in visible and near infra-red spectral region due to characteristic emission from the lanthanides at λmax = 615 and 710 nm ((5)D0→(7)F2 and (5)D0→(7)F4 transitions of Eu(3+)), 900 nm ((4)F3/2→(4)I9/2 transition of Nd(3+)) and 1000 nm ((2)F5/2→(2)F7/2 transition of Yb(3+)). Singlet oxygen is the key intermediate responsible for the observed CL, which is presumably generated by the reaction of (1)O2 with ligands of the complexes. The CL phenomenon discovered herein paves the way towards the development of lanthanide-based CL probe for (1)O2.

  11. Ultrastrong Chemiluminescence Activity of Nanocarbon Materials after Ozonation and Their Effects on Different Chemiluminescent Systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; He, Duhong; Wang, Meina; Zheng, Baozhan; Wu, Li; Xiao, Dan; Guo, Yong

    2016-06-20

    Ozonized nanocarbon materials with different dimensionalities, structures, and components exhibited significantly different chemiluminescence (CL) activities. The ozonation time and the weight ratio of hydroxyl carbon nanotubes (d≈8 nm, hyCNTs-8) and graphene oxide (GO) strongly affected the CL activity of ozonized hybrids. Among GO, hyCNTs-8, and GO/hyCNTs-8, the GO/hyCNTs-8 hybrids exhibited the strongest CL-enhancing properties toward the luminol/H2 O2 system, in contrast to previous reports. This study provides new understanding of the CL activity and CL-enhancing properties of nanocarbon materials in signal-enhanced analytical and biomedical fields. PMID:27144483

  12. Balancing single- and multi-reference correlation in the chemiluminescent reaction of dioxetanone using the anti-Hermitian contracted Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenman, Loren; Mazziotti, David A.

    2011-05-07

    Direct computation of energies and two-electron reduced density matrices (2-RDMs) from the anti-Hermitian contracted Schroedinger equation (ACSE) [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143002 (2006)], it is shown, recovers both single- and multi-reference electron correlation in the chemiluminescent reaction of dioxetanone especially in the vicinity of the conical intersection where strong correlation is important. Dioxetanone, the light-producing moiety of firefly luciferin, efficiently converts chemical energy into light by accessing its excited-state surface via a conical intersection. Our previous active-space 2-RDM study of dioxetanone [L. Greenman and D. A. Mazziotti, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164110 (2010)] concluded that correlating 16 electrons in 13 (active) orbitals is required for realistic surfaces without correlating the remaining (inactive) orbitals. In this paper we pursue two complementary goals: (i) to correlate the inactive orbitals in 2-RDMs along dioxetanone's reaction coordinate and compare these results with those from multireference second-order perturbation theory (MRPT2) and (ii) to assess the size of the active space--the number of correlated electrons and orbitals--required by both MRPT2 and ACSE for accurate energies and surfaces. While MRPT2 recovers very different amounts of correlation with (4,4) and (16,13) active spaces, the ACSE obtains a similar amount of correlation energy with either active space. Nevertheless, subtle differences in excitation energies near the conical intersection suggest that the (16,13) active space is necessary to determine both energetic details and properties. Strong electron correlation is further assessed through several RDM-based metrics including (i) total and relative energies, (ii) the von Neumann entropy based on the 1-electron RDM, as well as the (iii) infinity and (iv) squared Frobenius norms based on the cumulant 2-RDM.

  13. Chemiluminescent chemical sensors for inorganic and organic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.E.; Rose-Pehrsson, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Chemiluminescent, chemical sensors for inorganic and organic vapors are being investigated via the immobilization of 3-aminophthalhydrazide (luminol) within hydrogels and polymeric, sorbent coatings. The films are supported behind a teflon membrane and positioned in front of a photomultiplier tube, permitting the sensitive detection of numerous toxic vapors. Some selectivity has been tailored into these devices by careful selection of the polymer type, pH and metal catalyst incorporated within the film. The incorporation of luminol and Fe(3) within a polyvinylalcohol hydrogel gave a film with superior sensitivity toward NO{sub 2} (detection limit of 0.46 ppb and a response time on the order of seconds). The use of the hydrogel matrix helped eliminate humidity problems associated with other polymeric films. Other chemiluminescent thin films prepared have demonstrated the detection of ppb levels of SO{sub 2}(g) and hydrazine, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}(g). Recently, the authors have begun investigating the incorporation of a heated Pt filament into the inlet line as a pre-oxidative step prior to passage of the gas stream across the teflon membrane. This has permitted the sensitive detection of ppm levels of CCl{sub 4}(g), CHCl{sub 3}(g) and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(g).

  14. Fast gas chromotography with luminol detection for measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Drayton, P. J.

    1999-09-30

    Fast capillary gas chromatography has been coupled to a luminol-based chemiluminescence detection system for the rapid monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates. A first-generation instrument was described recently (Gaffney et al., 1998). This system is capable of monitoring nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs; to and including the C4 species) with 1-min time resolution. This is an improvement by a factor of five over gas chromatography methods with electron capture detection. In addition, the luminol method is substantially less expensive than laser fluorescent detection or mass spectroscopic methods. Applications in aircraft-based research have been published electronically and will appear shortly in Environmental Science and Technology (Gaffney et al., 1999a). An improved version of the instrument that has been designed and built makes use of a Hammamatsu photon-counting system. Detection limits of this instrumentation are at the low tens of ppt. The range of the instrument can be adjusted by modifying sampling volumes and detection counting times. A review of past work and of recent application of the instrumentation to field measurements of nitrogen dioxide and PANs is presented. The data clearly indicate that the luminol approach can determine the target species with time resolution of less than 1 min. Examples of applications for estimation of peroxyacetyl radical concentrations and nitrate radical formation rates are also presented. This instrumentation can further be used for evaluation of surfaces for loss of nitrogen dioxide and PANs, phenomena of possible importance for sampling interfaces and chamber wall design. Our high-frequency field data clearly indicate that the ''real world'' is not well mixed and that turbulent mixing and plume-edge chemistries might play an important role in urban- and regional-scale interactions. Dynamic flow systems might be required to evaluate such effects in new-generation chamber studies.

  15. Aqueous chemiluminescent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, Arthur Gaudens (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to novel water-soluble esters of oxalic acid, and to compositions that are useful for generating chemiluminescent emission by reacting said esters of oxalic acid with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of water and a fluorescent compound, and to a process for generating chemiluminescent emission by using said compositions.

  16. Direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassays based on gold-coated magnetic particles for detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiangyi; Yao, Manwen; Yang, Yucong; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Linyu

    2016-02-01

    Direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA) based on gold-coated magnetic nanospheres (Au-MNPs) were developed for rapid analysis of chloramphenicol (CAP). The Au-MNPs were modified with carboxyl groups and amino groups by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and cysteamine respectively, and then were respectively conjugated with CAP base and CAP succinate via an activating reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). NSP-DMAE-NHS, a new and effective luminescence reagent, was employed to label anti-CAP antibody (mAb) as a tracer in direct CLIA for CAP detection using a 'homemade' luminescent measurement system that was set up with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a photon counting unit linked to a computer. The sensitivities and limits of detection (LODs) of the two methods were obtained and compared according to the inhibition curves. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) values of the two methods were about 0.044 ng/mL and 0.072 ng/mL respectively and LODs were approximately 0.001 ng/mL and 0.006 ng/mL respectively. To our knowledge, they were much more sensitive than any traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ever reported. Moreover, the new luminescence reagent NSP-DMAE-NHS is much more sensitive and stable than luminol and its derivatives, contributing to the sensitivity enhancement.

  17. Direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassays based on gold-coated magnetic particles for detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiangyi; Yao, Manwen; Yang, Yucong; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Linyu

    2016-02-01

    Direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA) based on gold-coated magnetic nanospheres (Au-MNPs) were developed for rapid analysis of chloramphenicol (CAP). The Au-MNPs were modified with carboxyl groups and amino groups by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and cysteamine respectively, and then were respectively conjugated with CAP base and CAP succinate via an activating reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). NSP-DMAE-NHS, a new and effective luminescence reagent, was employed to label anti-CAP antibody (mAb) as a tracer in direct CLIA for CAP detection using a 'homemade' luminescent measurement system that was set up with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a photon counting unit linked to a computer. The sensitivities and limits of detection (LODs) of the two methods were obtained and compared according to the inhibition curves. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) values of the two methods were about 0.044 ng/mL and 0.072 ng/mL respectively and LODs were approximately 0.001 ng/mL and 0.006 ng/mL respectively. To our knowledge, they were much more sensitive than any traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ever reported. Moreover, the new luminescence reagent NSP-DMAE-NHS is much more sensitive and stable than luminol and its derivatives, contributing to the sensitivity enhancement. PMID:26031849

  18. Determination of hydralazine with flow injection chemiluminescence sensor using molecularly imprinted polymer as recognition element.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Zhou, Houjiang; Zhang, Zhujun; He, Deyong; He, Chao

    2006-06-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) sensor for hydralazine determination using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as recognition element is reported. Hydralazine-MIP was prepared through non-covalent copolymerization using methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer, hydralazine template and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) cross-linker. Particles of the MIP were packed into a v-shape glass tube for on-line adsorption of the analyte of hydralazine. The adsorbed hydralazine could be sensed by its great enhancing effect on the CL reaction between luminol and periodate. The CL intensity is linear to hydralazine concentration in the range from 2x10(-9) to 8x10(-7) g/mL. The detection limit is 6x10(-10) g/mL (3sigma) and the relative standard deviation is 2.8% (n=7) for 8x10(-9) g/mL hydralazine. The selective experiment showed that the selectivity and sensitivity of the CL method could be greatly improved when MIP was used as recognition element in the flow-injection CL sensor. The sensor was reversible and reusable. It could be used for more than 100 times. It has been used directly to determine the hydralazine in human urine.

  19. Sensitive electrochemiluminescence detection for CA15-3 based on immobilizing luminol on dendrimer functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinya; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2015-01-15

    In this study, we constructed a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for sensitive and selective detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) by using polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-functionalized ZnO nanorods (ZNs-PAMAM) as carriers. PAMAM dendrimers with hyper-branched and three-dimensional structure were used as linked reagents for co-immobilization of luminol and CA15-3 detection antibody on the ZNs to prepare the signal probe. In addition, ZNs could hasten the decomposition of H2O2 to generate various reactive oxygen species (ROSs) which accelerated the ECL reaction of luminol with amplified ECL intensity. Compared with luminol in the detection solution, the ECL efficiencies of luminol could be improved by immobilizing luminol on the electrode due to the smaller distance between luminescence reagent and the electrode surface. Moreover, the electrodepositing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the bare glass carbon electrode (GCE) with enhanced surface area could capture a large amount of primary anti-CA15-3 to improve the sensitivity of the immunosensor. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a wide linear range of 0.1-120 U mL(-1) was acquired with a relatively low detection limit of 0.033 U mL(-1) (S/N=3) for CA15-3.

  20. A hot-spot-active magnetic graphene oxide substrate for microRNA detection based on cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Sai; Chen, Min; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Herein, a cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (C-CRET) process was demonstrated from horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 to fluorescein and further to graphene oxide (GO) when HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein was in close proximity to the GO surface. The proposed C-CRET system was successfully implemented to construct three modes of C-CRET hot-spot-active substrates (modes I, II and III) by covalently immobilizing HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein-labeled hairpin DNAs (hot-spot-generation probes) on magnetic GO (MGO), resulting in a signal ``off'' state due to the quenching of the luminol/H2O2/HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein CRET system by GO. Upon the introduction of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122), the targets (mode I) or the new triggers that were generated through a strand displacement reaction (SDR) initiated by miRNA-122 (modes II and III) hybridized with the loop domains of hairpin probes on MGO to form double-stranded (modes I and II) or triplex-stem structures (mode III), causing an ``open'' configuration of the hairpin probe and a CRET signal ``on'' state, thus achieving sensitive and selective detection of miRNA-122. More importantly, the substrate exhibited excellent controllability, reversibility and reproducibility through SDR and magnetic separation (modes II and III), especially sequence-independence for hairpin probes in mode III, holding great potential for the development of a versatile platform for optical biosensing.Herein, a cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (C-CRET) process was demonstrated from horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 to fluorescein and further to graphene oxide (GO) when HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein was in close proximity to the GO surface. The proposed C-CRET system was successfully implemented to construct three modes of C-CRET hot-spot-active substrates (modes I, II and III) by covalently immobilizing HRP-mimicking DNAzyme

  1. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  2. Study on the proteins-luminol binding by use of luminol as a fluorescence probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xili; Song, Zhenghua

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a new mathematical equation of lg(F0 - F)/F = 1/nlg[P] + 1/nlgKa, which was used to obtain interaction parameters (the binding constant Ka and the number of binding sites n) between the protein and the small molecule ligand by using the ligand as a fluorescence (FL) probe, was constructed for the first time. The interaction parameters between myoglobin, catalase, lysozyme, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and luminol were obtained by this equation with luminol used as a FL probe, showing that the binding constants Ka were 8.78 × 105, 4.47 × 105, 4.21 × 104 and 3.95 × 104 respectively, and the number of binding sites n approximately equaled to 1.0 for myoglobin, catalase, and 2.0 for lysozyme, BSA. The interactions of ferritin, ovalbumin, aldolase, chymotrypsinogen and ribonuclease with luminol were also studied by this method. The binding constants Ka were at 104-105 level, and the number of binding sites n mostly approximately equaled to 2.0. The binding ability of luminol to the studied proteins followed the pattern: myoglobin > aldolase > ferritin > ovalbumin > catalase > ribonuclease > lysozyme > BSA > chymotrypsinoge.

  3. [Changes in Kinetics of Chemiluminescence of Plasma as a Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Humans].

    PubMed

    Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Proskurnina, E V; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pathogenetic factor of many diseases. The control of its level is important for early diagnosis and therapy adjustment. In this work, antioxidant status was estimated in blood plasma. In the system of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride-luminol a set of chemiluminescence kinetic curve parameters is proposed for oxidative stress level estimation (the latent period τ(lat) and the increasing of analytical signal ΔI(CL)). Uric acid and albumin were shown as the main components that responsible for changes in chemiluminescence kinetic curve of plasma. Serum albumin undergoes oxidative modification in dose-depend manner under the action of UV irradiation, it causes the enhancement of antioxidant properties. Changes in plasma chemiluminescence kinetics are proposed as a measure of oxidative stress in human body. PMID:27192837

  4. [Changes in Kinetics of Chemiluminescence of Plasma as a Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Humans].

    PubMed

    Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Proskurnina, E V; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pathogenetic factor of many diseases. The control of its level is important for early diagnosis and therapy adjustment. In this work, antioxidant status was estimated in blood plasma. In the system of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride-luminol a set of chemiluminescence kinetic curve parameters is proposed for oxidative stress level estimation (the latent period τ(lat) and the increasing of analytical signal ΔI(CL)). Uric acid and albumin were shown as the main components that responsible for changes in chemiluminescence kinetic curve of plasma. Serum albumin undergoes oxidative modification in dose-depend manner under the action of UV irradiation, it causes the enhancement of antioxidant properties. Changes in plasma chemiluminescence kinetics are proposed as a measure of oxidative stress in human body.

  5. A validated silver-nanoparticle-enhanced chemiluminescence method for the determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Lee, Sang Hak

    2014-05-01

    A simple and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for the determination of citalopram in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma. The method is based on the enhancement of the weak CL signal of the luminol-H2 O2 system. It was found that the CL signal arising from the reaction between alkaline luminol and H2 O2 was greatly increased by the addition of silver nanoparticles in the presence of citalopram. Prepared silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various experimental parameters affecting CL intensity were studied and optimized for the determination of citalopram. Under optimized experimental conditions, CL intensity was found to be proportional to the concentration of citalopram in the range 40-2500 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the devised method were 3.78 and 12.62 ng/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the developed method was found to have excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.65% (n = 7). Potential interference by common excipients was also studied. The method was validated statistically using recovery studies and was successfully applied to the determination of citalopram in the pure form, in pharmaceutical preparations and in spiked human plasma samples. Percentage recoveries were found to range from 97.71 to 101.99% for the pure form, from 97.84 to 102.78% for pharmaceutical preparations and from 95.65 to 100.35% for spiked human plasma.

  6. Technical note: The effects of Bluestar(®) and luminol when used in conjunction with tetramethylbenzidine or phenolphthalein.

    PubMed

    Luedeke, Makayla; Miller, Emily; Sprague, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    There are numerous presumptive tests available in the forensic science field to help identify the presence of blood. While many articles are available on the effects of Bluestar(®) and luminol and potential interactions with subsequent DNA identification, the research field falls short in identifying the effects these two presumptive tests may have on subsequent presumptive tests used to help identify blood. To rectify this ongoing issue in the forensic science field, the chemiluminescence methods of Bluestar(®) and luminol for the detection of blood at a crime scene were tested for their effects when used in conjunction with tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) or phenolphthalein (PT) at the forensic science laboratory. Six different substrates (untreated wood, pressure treated wood, ceramic tile, shag carpet, cement block, and cotton clothing) were stained with varying dilutions (range 1:1 to 1:100,000) of blood. Neither luminol nor Bluestar(®) affect the results of PT or TMB tests at blood dilutions equal to or less than 1:100. However, interactions did occur between agents and substrates with blood dilutions 1:1000 or greater. Bluestar(®) was the only presumptive test that can detect blood dilutions of 1:100,000 on some substrates and luminol was inclusive on pressure treated wood. These findings suggests that forensic science laboratory personal need to know and understand the details of how the blood was detected by the crime scene investigator and the substrate on which the blood was obtained from for their preparation of presumptive blood testing with PT or TMB. PMID:26990564

  7. Flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay based on resin beads, enzymatic amplification and a novel monoclonal antibody for determination of Hg(2+).

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingxia; Chen, Mengting; Dong, Tiantian; Zhao, Kang; Deng, Anping; Li, Jianguo

    2015-09-21

    In the present work, a simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay was developed for the determination of mercury(II) ion (Hg(2+)) based on carboxylic resin beads, a novel specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) and HRP enzyme-amplification. Resin beads with carboxyl groups were creatively employed as supports for immobilizing more coating antigen through acylamide bonds. With a competitive-type assay mode, the Hg(2+) in solution competed with the immobilized coating antigen for the limited McAb. Then, the second antibody labeled with HRP was introduced, and an effectively increased CL was obtained, which was ascribed to the catalytic activity of HRP for the luminol-PIP-H2O2 reaction. With increasing concentration of Hg(2+), the CL of this system decreases because less HRP is present in the CL reaction. At optimal conditions, the CL signal displayed a good linear relation toward Hg(2+) in the range of 0.05-200 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.015 ng mL(-1). The immunosensor possessed high specificity, acceptable accuracy and reproducibility, and was examined in real samples with favorable results. This immunoassay will have intriguing application prospects for the determination of other heavy metal ions and environmental contaminants.

  8. Chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, Rostislav F.; Trofimov, A. V.; Tsaplev, Yuri B.

    2010-02-01

    The results of studies on chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives are critically analyzed. It is shown that chemical transformations of indoles lead, depending on the structure and experimental conditions, to various electronically excited products and emission of light. Many reactions considered are used as a basis for highly sensitive methods for detection of indoles in biology, medicine, ecology and forensics.

  9. A Chemiluminescence Detector for Ozone Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, H.; And Others

    An ozone detector was built and evaluated for its applicability in smog chamber studies. The detection method is based on reaction of ozone with ethylene and measurement of resultant chemiluminescence. In the first phase of evaluation, the detector's response to ozone was studied as a function of several instrument parameters, and optimum…

  10. Ceria Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoflowers Enhanced Luminol-Based Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Amyloid-β Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Xi; Zhuo, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Hai-Jun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2016-05-25

    In this work, ceria doped ZnO nanomaterials with flower-structure (Ce:ZONFs) were prepared to construct a luminol-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for amyloid-β protein (Aβ) detection. Herein, carboxyl groups (-COOH) covered Ce:ZONFs were synthesized by a green method with lysine as reductant. After that, Ce:ZONFs-based ECL nanocomposite was prepared by combining the luminophore of luminol and Ce:ZONFs via amidation and physical absorption. Luminol modified on Ce:ZONFs surface could generate a strong ECL signal under the assistance of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) (such as OH(•) and O2(•-)), which were produced by a catalytic reaction between Ce:ZONFs and H2O2. It was worth noticing that a quick Ce(4+) ↔ Ce(3+) reaction in this doped material could increase the rate of electron transfer to realize the signal amplification. Subsequently, the luminol functionalized Ce:ZONFs (Ce:ZONFs-Lum) were covered by secondary antibody (Ab2) and glucose oxidase (GOD), respectively, to construct a novel Ab2 bioconjugate (Ab2-GOD@Ce:ZONFs-Lum). The wire-structured silver-cysteine complex (AgCys NWs) with a large number of -COOH, which was synthesized by AgNO3 and l-cysteine, was used as substrate of the immunosensor to capture the primary antibody (Ab1). Under the optimal conditions, this proposed ECL immunosensor had exhibited high sensitivity for Aβ detection with a wide linear range from 80 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL and an ultralow detection limit of 52 fg/mL. Meanwhile, this biosensor had good specificity for Aβ, indicating that the provided strategy had a promising potential in the detection of Aβ. PMID:27145690

  11. Tested Demonstrations. A Chemiluminescence Demonstration - Oxalyl Chloride Oxidation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilber, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive, effective chemiluminescence demonstration requires minimal preparation. It is based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an appropriate fluorescent sensitizer. The reaction mechanism is not completely understood. (BB)

  12. Biological water quality monitoring using chemiluminescent and bioluminescent techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated chemiluminescence and bioluminescence sensors were developed for the continuous monitoring of microbial levels in water supplies. The optimal chemical procedures were determined for the chemiluminescence system to achieve maximum sensitivity. By using hydrogen peroxide, reaction rate differentiation, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and carbon monoxide pretreatments, factors which cause interference were eliminated and specificity of the reaction for living and dead bacteria was greatly increased. By employing existing technology with some modifications, a sensitive and specific bioluminescent system was developed.

  13. Alterations of the respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from diabetic children. A chemiluminescence study.

    PubMed

    Kantar, A; Wilkins, G; Swoboda, B; Littarru, G P; Bertoli, E; Catassi, C; Coppa, G; Giorgi, P L

    1990-05-01

    The respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was investigated in 24 children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and 24 healthy controls. This oxygen dependent, membrane associated process generates a number of toxic oxygen metabolites which are implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial damage. The activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied in terms of luminol amplified chemiluminescence. It was found that the resting luminol amplified chemiluminescence activity of isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes from diabetic children was significantly higher than that of controls (342,000 +/- 174,000 cpm vs. 165,000 +/- 82,000 cpm, p less than 0.01). The addition of respiratory burst inhibitors caused a significant reduction of basal chemiluminescence (greater than 80%). When the ratio of phorbol myristate acetate stimulated activity to basal activity was calculated and used as an activation index, it was found to be significantly reduced in diabetics relative to controls (4.29 +/- 2.46 vs. 8.34 +/- 3.21, p less than 0.01). These observations suggest that increased release of toxic oxygen metabolites from polymorphonuclear leukocytes in diabetic subjects may play a role in the development of diabetic angiopathies. PMID:2166990

  14. Chemiluminescents Light Up the Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashiell, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Provides a general description of chemiluminescence and distinguishes between the two types of chemistry that contribute to our understanding of chemiluminescence: fluorescence and the excitation process. Presents an activity that explores the phenomenon. (DDR)

  15. Dual Enzymatic Detection by Bulk Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    de Poulpiquet, Anne; Diez-Buitrago, Beatriz; Dumont Milutinovic, Milena; Sentic, Milica; Arbault, Stéphane; Bouffier, Laurent; Kuhn, Alexander; Sojic, Neso

    2016-06-21

    The combination of enzymes, as recognition elements for specific analytes, and of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) as a readout method has proven to be a valuable strategy for sensitive and specific analytical detection. However, ECL is intrinsically a 2D process which could potentially limit the analysis of inhomogeneous samples. Here, we show how a bulk ECL signal, generated by thousands of carbon microbeads remotely addressed via bipolar electrochemistry, are implemented as a powerful tool for the concomitant ECL sensing and imaging of two enzymatic substrates. We selected two enzymes (glucose dehydrogenase and choline oxidase) that react with their respective model substrates and produce in situ chemical species (β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and H2O2) acting as coreactants for the ECL emission of different luminophores ([Ru(bpy)3](2+) at λ = 620 nm and luminol at λ = 425 nm, respectively). Both enzymes are spatially separated in the same capillary. We demonstrate thus the simultaneous quantitative determination of both glucose and choline over a wide concentration range. The originality of this remote approach is to provide a global chemical view through one single ECL image of inhomogeneous samples such as a biochemical concentration gradient in a capillary configuration. Finally, we report the first proof-of-concept of dual biosensing based on this bulk ECL method for the simultaneous imaging of both enzymatic analytes at distinct wavelengths. PMID:27213503

  16. A cascade amplification strategy based on rolling circle amplification and hydroxylamine amplified gold nanoparticles enables chemiluminescence detection of adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Tonghuan; Yang, Taoyi; Jin, Nan; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2014-08-01

    A highly sensitive and selective chemiluminescent (CL) biosensor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was developed by taking advantage of the ATP-dependent enzymatic reaction (ATP-DER), the powerful signal amplification capability of rolling circle amplification (RCA), and hydroxylamine-amplified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The strategy relies on the ability of ATP, a cofactor of T4 DNA ligase, to trigger the ligation-RCA reaction. In the presence of ATP, the T4 DNA ligase catalyzes the ligation reaction between the two ends of the padlock probe, producing a closed circular DNA template that initiates the RCA reaction with phi29 DNA polymerase and dNTP. Therein, many complementary copies of the circular template can be generated. The ATP-DER is eventually converted into a detectable CL signal after a series of processes, including gold probe hybridization, hydroxylamine amplification, and oxidative gold metal dissolution coupled with a simple and sensitive luminol CL reaction. The CL signal is directly proportional to the ATP level. The results showed that the detection limit of the assay is 100 pM of ATP, which compares favorably with those of other ATP detection techniques. In addition, by taking advantage of ATP-DER, the proposed CL sensing system exhibits extraordinary specificity towards ATP and could distinguish the target molecule ATP from its analogues. The proposed method provides a new and versatile platform for the design of novel DNA ligation reaction-based CL sensing systems for other cofactors. This novel ATP-DER based CL sensing system may find wide applications in clinical diagnosis as well as in environmental and biomedical fields.

  17. Differential stimulation of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and arachidonic acid metabolism in rat peritoneal neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Cullinan, C.A.; Berkenkopf, J.W.; Weichman, B.M.

    1986-03-05

    Phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA) induced the production of radical oxygen species (ROS) from rat peritoneal neutrophils as assessed by CL. ROS generation occurred in a time- (maximum at 13.5 min) and dose- (concentration range of 1.7-498 nM) related fashion. However, 166 nM PMA did not induce either cyclooxygenase (CO) or lipoxygenase (LPO) product formation by 20 min post-stimulation. Conversely, A23187, at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 ..mu..M, stimulated both pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, but had little or no effect upon ROS production. When suboptimal concentrations of PMA (5.5 nM) and A23187 (0.1-1 ..mu..M) were coincubated with the neutrophils, a synergistic ROS response was elicited. However, arachidonic acid metabolism in the presence of PMA was unchanged relative to A12187 alone. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited both PMA-induced CL (IC/sub 50/ = 0.9 ..mu..M) and A23187-induced arachidonic acid metabolism (IC/sub 50/ = 1.7 ..mu..M and 6.0 ..mu..M for LPO and CO, respectively). The mixed LPO-CO inhibitor, BW755C, behaved in a qualitatively similar manner to NDGA, whereas the CO inhibitors, indomethacin, piroxicam and naproxen had no inhibitory effect on ROS generation at concentrations as high as 100 ..mu..M. These results suggest that NDGA and BW755C may inhibit CL and arachidonic acid metabolism by distinct mechanisms in rat neutrophils.

  18. A hot-spot-active magnetic graphene oxide substrate for microRNA detection based on cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Chen, Min; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Herein, a cascaded chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (C-CRET) process was demonstrated from horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 to fluorescein and further to graphene oxide (GO) when HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein was in close proximity to the GO surface. The proposed C-CRET system was successfully implemented to construct three modes of C-CRET hot-spot-active substrates (modes I, II and III) by covalently immobilizing HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein-labeled hairpin DNAs (hot-spot-generation probes) on magnetic GO (MGO), resulting in a signal "off" state due to the quenching of the luminol/H2O2/HRP-mimicking DNAzyme/fluorescein CRET system by GO. Upon the introduction of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122), the targets (mode I) or the new triggers that were generated through a strand displacement reaction (SDR) initiated by miRNA-122 (modes II and III) hybridized with the loop domains of hairpin probes on MGO to form double-stranded (modes I and II) or triplex-stem structures (mode III), causing an "open" configuration of the hairpin probe and a CRET signal "on" state, thus achieving sensitive and selective detection of miRNA-122. More importantly, the substrate exhibited excellent controllability, reversibility and reproducibility through SDR and magnetic separation (modes II and III), especially sequence-independence for hairpin probes in mode III, holding great potential for the development of a versatile platform for optical biosensing. PMID:25644330

  19. Sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay for E. coli O157:H7 detection with signal dual-amplification using glucose oxidase and laccase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Tan, Chen; Fei, Ruihua; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2014-01-21

    A novel, sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection with signal dual-amplification using glucose oxidase (GOx) and laccase was investigated. The method was based on the characterization of a luminol-H2O2-laccase reaction. Compared with the horseradish peroxidase-based biosensor, laccase exhibited high catalytic activity in strong alkaline medium, which was compatible with the luminol system. The capture antibody was immobilized onto the magnetic bead (MB) surfaces. The detection antibody was linked with GOx through biotin-avidin recognition. Accordingly, the bioconjugation of MB-caputure antibody- E. coli O157:H7-detection antibody-GOx catalyzed the substrate glucose, thereby generating H2O2. E. coli O157:H7 was then detected by measuring the CL intensity after H2O2 formation. Under optimal conditions, the calibration plot obtained for E. coli O157:H7 was approximately linear from 4.3 × 10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU) mL(-1) to 4.3 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1), and the total assay time was <2.0 h without any enrichment. The limit of detection for the assay was 1.2 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1) (3σ), which was considerably lower than that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (1.0 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1)) (3σ). A series of repeatability measurements of using 1.7 × 10(4) CFU mL(-1) E. coli O157:H7 exhibited reproducible results with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.5% (n = 11). Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used to detect E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic samples (spring water, apple juice, and skim milk), which indicated its potential practical application. This protocol can be applied in various fields of study.

  20. Tailoring Catalytic Activity of Pt Nanoparticles Encapsulated Inside Dendrimers by Tuning Nanoparticle Sizes with Subnanometer Accuracy for Sensitive Chemiluminescence-Based Analyses.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyojung; Ju, Youngwon; Kim, Joohoon

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report the size-dependent catalysis of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) having well-defined sizes over the range of 1-3 nm with subnanometer accuracy for the highly enhanced chemiluminescence of the luminol/H2O2 system. This size-dependent catalysis is ascribed to the differences in the chemical states of the Pt DENs as well as in their surface areas depending on their sizes. Facile and versatile applications of the Pt DENs in diverse oxidase-based assays are demonstrated as efficient catalysts for sensitive chemiluminescence-based analyses. PMID:27032992

  1. Intensification of chemiluminescence in the inhibited oxidation of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolayevskii, A.N.; Filippenko, T.A.; Sergovskaya, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    Chemiluminescence is intensified upon the addition of inhibitors (phloroglucinol, p-phenylenediamine, hydroquinone) to oxidized sunflower oil. The formation of a further source of chemiluminescence is explained by reactions of the oxidized oil and the inhibitors. Oxidation initiated by azoisobutyronitrile of sunflower oil using atmospheric oxygen was performed at 70/sup 0/C in chlorobenzene solution; 9,10-dibromoanthracene was the luminescence activator. 4 figures.

  2. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence

    EPA Science Inventory

    •The proposed new FRM measurement principle for ozone is based on quantitative measurement of the chemiluminescence emission from the gas-phase reaction of ozone in an air sample with nitric oxide (NO).•The chemiluminescence from the NO-O3 reaction (with excess NO) is p...

  3. Theoretical study of the correlation between superoxide anion consumption and firefly luciferin chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

    2013-07-01

    This is the first theoretical study of the relationship between superoxide anion and firefly chemiluminescence, in DMSO. Electron transfer reactions between luciferin dianionic/carbanionic/radical species and superoxide were studied in order see if an alternative explanation existed for the consumption of the latter species, without correlating it with a role on luciferin chemiluminescence. Despite the finding that luciferin may indeed inhibit the formation of the superoxide anion, no theoretical evidence was found that showed that this molecule is consumed in a non-chemiluminescence reaction. Therefore, it is concluded that the superoxide anion is indeed related to the firefly luciferin chemiluminescence.

  4. On the structure of luminol sodium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybakov, V. B.; Chernyshev, V. V.; Paseshnichenko, K. A.; Sheludyakov, V. D.; Belyakov, N. G.; Boziev, R. S.; Mochalov, V. N.; Storozhenko, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    The structures of Tamerit® ( A) and Galavit® ( B) pharmaceutical preparations have been solved by X-Ray single crystal and powder diffraction. These are luminol sodium salts possessing immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It is shown that Tamerit® ( A) is a hydrated salt, while Galavit® ( B) is a mixture of two polymorphic modifications ( B1 and B2) of anhydrous salt. Compound A is crystallized in a monoclinic system: a = 8.3429(4) Å, b = 22.0562(11) Å, c = 5.2825(2) Å, β = 99.893(3)°, V = 957.59(8) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. P21/ c. Compound B1 is crystallized in a monoclinic system: a = 14.7157(18), b = 3.7029(19), c = 16.0233(15) Å, β = 116.682(13)°, V = 780.1(4) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. P21/ c. Compound B2 is crystallized in an orthorhombic system: a = 27.7765(15) Å, b = 3.3980(19) Å, c = 8.1692(19) Å, V = 771.0(5) Å3, and Z = 4; sp. gr. Pna21. The absence of phase transitions between the B1 and B2 polymorphs has been established by differential scanning calorimetry.

  5. Label-free chemiluminescent aptasensor for platelet-derived growth factor detection based on exonuclease-assisted cascade autocatalytic recycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Luo, Baoyu; Ye, Jiayan; Wang, Zonghua

    2014-12-15

    Here an exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted cascade autocatalytic recycling amplification (Exo-CARA) strategy is proposed for label-free chemiluminescent (CL) detection of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) by taking advantage of both recognition property of aptamer and cleavage function of Exo III. Functionally, this system consists of a duplex DNA (aptamer-blocker hybrid), two kinds of hairpin structures (MB1 and MB2), and Exo III. Upon recognizing and binding with PDGF-BB, aptamer folds into a close configuration, which initiates the proposed Exo-CARA reaction (Recyclings I→II→III→II). Finally, numerous "caged" G-quadruplex sequences on DNAzyme1 and DNAzyme2 release that intercalate hemin to catalyze the oxidation of luminol by H2O2 to generate an amplified CL signal, achieving excellent specificity and high sensitivity with a detection limit of 6.8×10(-13) M PDGF-BB. The proposed strategy has the advantages of simple design, isothermal conditions, homogeneous reaction without separation and washing steps, effective-cost without the need of labeling, and high amplification efficiency, which might be a universal and promising protocol for the detection of a variety of biomolecules whose aptamers undergo similar conformational changes.

  6. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle catalyzed chemiluminescence for detection of nitric oxide in living cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiliang; Li, Mei; Wang, Bing; Wang, Meng; Kurash, Ibrahim; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Feng, Weiyue

    2016-08-01

    Direct and real-time measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in biological media is very difficult due to its transient nature. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (nanoFe3O4) because of their unique catalytic activities have attracted much attention as catalysts in a variety of organic and inorganic reactions. In this work, we have developed a magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle-based rapid-capture system for real-time detection of cellular NO. The basic principle is that the nanoFe3O4 can catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 in the system to generate superoxide anion (O2 (·-)) and the O2 (·-) can serve as an effective NO(·) trapping agent yielding peroxynitrite oxide anion, ONOO(-). Then the concentration of NO in cells can be facilely determined via peroxynitrite-induced luminol chemiluminescence. The linear range of the method is from 10(-4) to 10(-8) mol/L, and the detection of limit (3σ, n = 11) is as low as 3.16 × 10(-9) mol/L. By using this method, the NO concentration in 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L LPS-stimulated BV2 cells was measured as 4.9 and 11.3 μM, respectively. Surface measurements by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SRXPS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) demonstrate the catalytic mechanism of the nanoFe3O4-based system is that the significantly excess Fe(II) exists on the surface of nanoFe3O4 and mediates the rapid heterogeneous electron transfer, thus presenting a new Fe2O3 phase on the surface.

  7. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle catalyzed chemiluminescence for detection of nitric oxide in living cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiliang; Li, Mei; Wang, Bing; Wang, Meng; Kurash, Ibrahim; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Feng, Weiyue

    2016-08-01

    Direct and real-time measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in biological media is very difficult due to its transient nature. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (nanoFe3O4) because of their unique catalytic activities have attracted much attention as catalysts in a variety of organic and inorganic reactions. In this work, we have developed a magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle-based rapid-capture system for real-time detection of cellular NO. The basic principle is that the nanoFe3O4 can catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 in the system to generate superoxide anion (O2 (·-)) and the O2 (·-) can serve as an effective NO(·) trapping agent yielding peroxynitrite oxide anion, ONOO(-). Then the concentration of NO in cells can be facilely determined via peroxynitrite-induced luminol chemiluminescence. The linear range of the method is from 10(-4) to 10(-8) mol/L, and the detection of limit (3σ, n = 11) is as low as 3.16 × 10(-9) mol/L. By using this method, the NO concentration in 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L LPS-stimulated BV2 cells was measured as 4.9 and 11.3 μM, respectively. Surface measurements by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SRXPS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) demonstrate the catalytic mechanism of the nanoFe3O4-based system is that the significantly excess Fe(II) exists on the surface of nanoFe3O4 and mediates the rapid heterogeneous electron transfer, thus presenting a new Fe2O3 phase on the surface. PMID:27289465

  8. Differential Alterations in Host Peripheral Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Chemiluminescence During the Course of Bacterial and Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James P.; Bodroghy, Robert S.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Sobocinski, Philip Z.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stimulation of the oxidative metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) by in vitro phagocytosis of various microorganisms results in photon emission, termed chemiluminescence (CL). Studies were conducted to determine whether bacterial and viral infections induce enhanced basal endogenous host peripheral PMN CL in the absence of in vitro phagocytic stimulation. Nonimmune rats and guinea pigs as well as immune rats were inoculated with various doses (105 to 107) of live vaccine strain Francisella tularensis (per 100 g of body weight). In addition, nonimmune guinea pigs were inoculated with 40,000 plaque-forming units of Pichinde virus. Luminol-assisted endogenous PMN CL was measured at various time intervals after inoculation of microorganisms. Enhanced endogenous PMN CL was detected as early as the appearance of fever (12 h) in nonimmune animals infected with F. tularensis. Addition of sodium azide, N-ethylmaleimide, superoxide dismutase, or catalase to the CL reaction mixture containing PMN from infected animals significantly decreased the CL response. Immune rats challenged with F. tularensis exhibited resistance to infection and a decreased PMN CL compared with nonimmune rats 24 and 48 h after inoculation. However, the CL response from immune rats was significantly elevated, compared with control values. In contrast to the results obtained with the model bacterial infection, PMN isolated from guinea pigs inoculated with Pichinde virus failed to exhibit enhanced CL, compared with controls, despite significant viremia and fever. Results suggest that enhanced endogenous CL during bacterial infection occurs through mechanisms involving increased PMN oxidative metabolism and the subsequent generation of microbicidal forms of oxygen. Further, measurement of endogenous PMN CL may have diagnostic and prognostic value in infectious diseases. PMID:7228389

  9. Sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for IgG using gold nanoparticle as label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Honglan; Shangguan, Li; Liang, Lin; Ling, Chen; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2011-11-01

    A sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL-FIA) immunoassay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) was developed using gold nanoparticle as CL label. In the configuration, anti-IgG antibody was immobilized on a glass capillary column surface by 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde to form immunoaffinity column. Analyte IgG and gold nanoparticle labeled IgG were passed through the immunoaffinity column mounted in a flow system and competed for the surface-confined anti-IgG antibody. CL emission was generated from the reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Au (III), generated from chemically oxidative dissolution of gold nanoparticle by an injection of 0.10 mol L -1 HCl-0.10 mol L -1 NaCl solution containing 0.10 mmol L -1 Br 2. The concentration of analyte IgG was inversely related to the amount of bound gold nanoparticle labeled IgG and the CL intensity was linear with the concentration of analyte IgG from 1.0 ng mL -1 to 40 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10 -10 g mL -1. The whole assay time including the injections and washing steps was only 30 min for one sample, which was competitive with CL immunoassays based on a gold nanoparticle label and magnetic separation. This work demonstrates that the CL immunoassay incorporation of nanoparticle label and flow injection is promising for clinical assay with sensitivity and high-speed.

  10. Quantitative assessment of rabbit alveolar macrophage function by chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.

    1985-08-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages (RAM) were cultured for 24 hr with concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 ..mu..g/ml of vanadium oxide (V/sub 2/O/sub 5/), a known cytotoxic agent, or with high-molecular-weight organic by-products from coal gasification processes. After culture the cells were harvested and tested for functional capacity using three types of indicators: (1) luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL), which quantitatively detects photon emission due to respiratory burst activity measured in a newly designed instrument with standardized reagents; (2) the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium-saturated polyacrylamide beads, a semiquantitative measure of respiratory burst activity; and (3) phagocytic efficiency, defined as percentage of cells incorporating immunoglobulin-coated polyacrylamide beads. Chemiluminescence declined linearly with increasing concentrations of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ over the dose range tested. Dye reduction and phagocytic efficiency similarly decreased with increasing V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ concentration, but were less sensitive indicators of functional impairment than CL as measured by the amount required to reduce the response to 50% of untreated cells. The effect of coal gasification condensates on RAM function varied, but in general these test also indicated that the CL response was the most sensitive indicator.

  11. CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical DNA biosensor via enhanced chemiluminescence excitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Lei, Jianping; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work developed a CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA under the enhanced chemiluminescence excitation of luminol catalyzed by hemin-DNA complex. The CdS/MoS2 photocathode was prepared by the stepwise assembly of MoS2 and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on indium tin oxide (ITO), and achieved about 280% increasing of photocurrent compared to pure CdS QDs electrode due to the formation of heterostructure. High photoconversion efficiency in the photoelectrochemical system was identified to be the rapid spatial charge separation of electron-hole pairs by the extension of electron transport time and electron lifetime. In the presence of target DNA, the catalytic hairpin assembly was triggered, and simultaneously the dual hemin-labeled DNA probe was introduced to capture DNA/CdS/MoS2 modified ITO electrode. Thus the chemiluminescence emission of luminol was enhanced via hemin-induced mimetic catalysis, leading to the physical light-free photoelectrochemical strategy. Under optimized conditions, the resulting photoelectrode was proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 1 fM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 0.39 fM. Moreover, the cascade amplification biosensor demonstrated high selectivity, desirable stability and good reproducibility, showing great prospect in molecular diagnosis and bioanalysis.

  12. Detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee using chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun-Jung; Mun, Hyoyoung; Kim, Su-Ji; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2016-03-01

    We report a chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) aptasensor for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in roasted coffee beans. The aptamer sequences used in this study are 5'-DNAzyme-Linker-OTA aptamer-3'-dabcyl. Dabcyl at the end of the OTA aptamer region plays as a quencher in CRET aptasensor. When hemin and OTA are added, the dabcyl-labeled OTA aptamer approaches to the G-quadruplex-hemin complex by formation of the G-quadruplex-OTA complex. The G-quadruplex-hemin complexes possess horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-like activity, and therefore, the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme (HRPzyme) catalyzes peroxidation in the presence of luminol and H2O2. Resonance energy transfer between luminol (donor) and dabcyl (acceptor) enables quenching of chemiluminescence signals. The signal decreases with increasing the concentration of OTA within the range of 0.1-100ngmL(-1) (limit of detection 0.22ngmL(-1)), and the level of recovery of the respective 1ngmL(-1) and 10ngmL(-1) spiked coffee samples was 71.5% and 93.3%. These results demonstrated the potential of the proposed method for OTA analysis in diverse foods.

  13. Determination of naphazoline hydrochloride in biological and pharmaceutical samples by a quantum dot-assisted chemiluminescence system using response-surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Imani-Nabiyyi, Amin; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H

    2014-12-01

    A simple and highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method is reported for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride (NH). It was found that the weak CL from the reaction of luminol and KIO4 in an alkaline medium could be highly amplified by cysteine-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs) and the enhanced CL was effectively quenched by NH and this finding was utilized as a basis for the determination of NH. The QDs were synthesized in aqueous medium and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A possible mechanism was proposed for the CL system based on radical identification experiments, along with CL spectrum of the system. The experimental parameters were optimized by the reliable response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method allowed the determination of NH over the range of 5.0 × 10(-10) -2.0 × 10(-7) mol/L (r(2) = 0.9993, n = 10). The precision (RSD%) of the method, obtained from five replicate determinations of 2.0 and 150 nmol/L NH, was found to be 1.0% and 1.3%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of NH in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine and serum samples with results corroborated with the aid of those obtained from a standard method.

  14. Chemiluminescence immunoassay for the rapid and sensitive detection of antibody against porcine parvovirus by using horseradish peroxidase/detection antibody-coated gold nanoparticles as nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2014-06-01

    A rapid, simple, facile, sensitive and enzyme-amplified chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) method to detect antibodies against porcine parvovirus has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the detection antibody were simultaneously co-immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles using the electrostatic method to form gold nanoparticle-based nanoprobes. This nanoprobe was employed in a sandwich-type CLIA, which enables CL signal readout from enzymatic catalysis and results in signal amplification. The presence of porcine parvovirus infection was determined in porcine parvovirus antibodies by measuring the CL intensity caused by the reaction of HRP-luminol with H2 O2 . Under optimal conditions, the obtained calibration plot for the standard positive serum was approximately linear within the dilution range of 1:80 to 1:5120. The limit of detection for the assay was 1:10,240 (S/N = 3), which is much lower than that typically achieved with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (1:160; S/N = 3). A series of repeatability measurements using 1:320-fold diluted standard positive serum gave reproducible results with a relative standard deviation of 4.9% (n = 11). The ability of the immunosensor to analyze clinical samples was tested on porcine sera. The immunosensor had an efficiency of 90%, a sensitivity of 93.3%, and a specificity of 87.5% relative to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results.

  15. Sensitive and selective chemiluminescence assay for hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate using nanoparticle-based catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhujun; Tao, Liang; Gao, Miao

    2013-04-01

    The catalytic properties of cubiform Co3O4 nanoparticles, α-Fe2O3 nanorods, and NiO nanoparticles were studied using both microarray method and FI-CL method. These nanoarticles exhibit high specific catalytic effects on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of the luminol-H2O2 system in alkaline solution compared with other common catalysts. A reaction mechanism is described. It provides new insights into the application of nanoparticle materials. The CL method based on the use of the Co3O4 nanoparticles is ultrasensitive and particularly selective. Therefore, it was applied to the analysis of H2O2 which can be determined in the concentration range from 1.0 nM to 1000 nM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM. The relative standard deviation is 2.1% at 0.1 μM of H2O2 (for n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace quantities of H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) where it is a mediator of oxidative stress and a promising biomarker for diagnosing. The assay requires a small sample and no incubation time, and has an analytical runtime of <1 min. It is timesaving and suitable for larger studies. The levels of H2O2 in EBC are found to be elevated in healthy subjects (average = 0.54 nM), rheum subjects (average = 0.24 nM), and feverish subjects (average = 0.16 nM). Our data suggested that the average H2O2 concentration of EBC from feverish subjects was significantly higher than healthy subjects and rheumatic subjects.

  16. Chemiluminescence from alkoxy-substituted acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels.

    PubMed

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David; Wen, David

    2012-05-01

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels are used in automated immunoassays for clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered by alkaline peroxide in the presence of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The surfactant plays a critical role in the chemiluminescence process of these labels by both accelerating their emission kinetics and increasing total light output enabling high throughout and improved assay sensitivity in automated immunoassays. Despite the surfactant's crucial role in the chemiluminescent reaction, no study has investigated how structural perturbations in the acridinium ring could impact the influence of the surfactant. We describe herein the synthesis and properties of three new alkoxy-substituted, acridinium dimethylphenyl esters where the nature of the alkoxy group in the acridinium ring was varied (hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Chemiluminescence measurements of these alkoxy-substituted labels indicate that hydrophilic functional groups in the acridinium ring, in particular sulfobetaine zwitterions, disrupt surfactant-mediated compression of emission times but not enhancement of light yield. These results support the hypothesis that surfactant-mediated effects require the binding of two different reaction intermediates to surfactant aggregates and, that surfactants influence light emission from acridinium esters by two separate mechanisms. Our studies also indicate that preservation of both surfactant effects on acridinium ester chemiluminescence and low non-specific binding of the label can be achieved with a relatively hydrophobic acridinium ring coupled to a hydrophilic phenolic ester leaving group.

  17. Determination Co 2+ in vitamin B 12 based on enhancement of 2-(4-substituted-phenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole and H 2O 2 chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Zhang, Yumin; Kang, Jing; Tang, Jieli; Zhang, Yihua

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, three kinds of imidazole derivatives, 2-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (MDFI), 2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (NDFI), and 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (t-BDFI) were synthesized. In an alkaline medium, the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of imidazole derivatives with H 2O 2 has been investigated. It was also found that MDFI/H 2O 2 and t-BDFI/H 2O 2 systems gave strong CL. When Co 2+ was added into the two CL systems, the CL intensity was remarkably enhanced. In the optimum conditions, the CL intensity is linearly related to the logarithm of concentration of Co 2+. The linear ranges are 5 × 10 -9-2.5 × 10 -7 mol/L for MDFI/H 2O 2 system and 5 × 10 -9-2.5 × 10 -7 mol/L for t-BDFI/H 2O 2 system, and the corresponding detection limits are 1.2 × 10 -9 mol/L and 1.1 × 10 -9 mol/L, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of Co 2+ in vitamin B 12 injection. Furthermore, the CL mechanism was also discussed.

  18. Chemiluminescent lateral-flow immunoassays by using in-situ synthesis of CdS NW photosensor.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Gi; Kim, Hong-Rae; Kang, Min-Jung; Park, Jae-Gwan; Chang, Young Wook; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2016-07-13

    A hypersensitive CdS nanowire (NW) photosensor was fabricated by an in-situ synthesis process that involved the direct synthesis of CdS NWs on an interdigitated electrode (IDE). Analysis of the photoresponse properties showed that the newly synthesized photosensor had enhanced sensitivity and a highly reproducible photoresponse compared to photosensors prepared from CdS NW suspensions. The NW photosensor was applied to measure the chemiluminescence of luminol, and the sensitivity was compared to a commercial photosensing system. Finally, the feasibility of the CdS NW photosensor for the application to the medical diagnosis of the human hepatitis B surface antigen (hHBsAg) was demonstrated using a lateral-flow immunoassay with a chemiluminescent signal band. PMID:27237842

  19. Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, T; Blumenstock, E; Kanegasaki, S

    1981-01-01

    In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria. Images PMID:6788707

  20. Phagocytic and chemiluminescent responses of mouse peritoneal macrophages to living and killed Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, T.; Blumenstock, E.; Kanegasaki, S.

    1981-06-01

    In the presence of luminol, resident as well as thioglycolate-induced and immunized macrophages emitted chemiluminescence more efficiently when the cells were exposed to living Salmonella typhimurium than when they were exposed to the same bacterium killed by ultraviolet light or heat. This phenomenon was observed whether or not the bacterium was opsonized. The different response to living and killed bacteria was also found with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morganii, and Enterobacter aerogenes, but not with Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Propionibacterium acnes. The results suggest that macrophages respond better to living, motile bacteria than to nonmotile or killed bacteria. The experimental results obtained with motility mutants of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa confirm that macrophages exposed to the motile bacteria emit chemiluminescence more efficiently and ingest the motile bacteria at a much faster rate than the nonmotile bacteria.

  1. Chemiluminescent prediction of service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassell, J. A.; Mendenhall, G. D.; Nathan, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Technique can be used to predict polymer degradation under actual expected-use conditions, without imposing artificial conditions. Smooth or linear correlations are obtained between chemiluminescence and physical properties of purified polymer gums.

  2. Chemiluminescence and bioluminescence microbe detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Chappelle, E.; Picciolo, G. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated biosensors for online use with NASA Water Monitoring System employs bioluminescence and chemiluminescence techniques to rapidly measure microbe contamination of water samples. System eliminates standard laboratory procedures requiring time duration of 24 hours or longer.

  3. Chemiluminescence in the Agglomeration of Metal Clusters

    PubMed

    König; Rabin; Schulze; Ertl

    1996-11-22

    The agglomeration of copper or silver atoms in a matrix of noble gas atoms to form small clusters may be accompanied by the emission of visible light. Spectral analysis reveals the intermediate formation of electronically excited atoms and dimers as the source of the chemiluminescence. A mechanism is proposed, according to which the gain in binding energy upon cluster formation may even lead to the ejection of excited fragments as a result of unstable intermediate configurations. A similar concept was introduced in the field of nuclear reactions by Niels Bohr 60 years ago.

  4. Chemiluminescence from UVA-exposed skin: separating photo-induced chemiluminescence from photophysical light emission.

    PubMed

    Millington, Keith R; Jones, Leslie N; Sinclair, Rodney D

    2012-09-01

    Several previous studies have reported luminescence emission from skin following exposure to UVA radiation in air. We show that UVA irradiation of biomaterials and polymers in oxygen, including bovine stratum corneum, followed by photon counting results in a complex emission due to a combination of photophysical processes together with photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL). The photophysical processes include fluorescence, phosphorescence and charge-recombination luminescence. By irradiating materials in an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen and allowing photophysical light emission to fully decay before admitting oxygen, the weak photo-induced chemiluminescence generated via free radical reactions with oxygen can be separated and analysed. PICL emission from bovine stratum corneum is weaker than for wool keratin and bovine skin collagen, probably due to its higher water content, and the presence of the natural antioxidants ascorbate and tocopherol.

  5. Flow injection analysis of organic peroxide explosives using acid degradation and chemiluminescent detection of released hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Zakaria, Philip; Guijt, Rosanne; Macka, Mirek; Dicinoski, Greg; Breadmore, Michael; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of acid degradation of organic peroxides into hydrogen peroxide in a pneumatically driven flow injection system with chemiluminescence reaction with luminol and Cu(2+) as a catalyst (FIA-CL) was investigated for the fast and sensitive detection of organic peroxide explosives (OPEs). The target OPEs included hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and methylethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). Under optimised conditions maximum degradations of 70% and 54% for TATP and HMTD, respectively were achieved at 162 µL min(-1), and 9% degradation for MEKP at 180 µL min(-1). Flow rates were precisely controlled in this single source pneumatic pressure driven multi-channel FIA system by model experiments on mixing of easily detectable component solutions. The linear range for detection of TATP, HMTD and H2O2 was 1-200 µM (r(2)=0.98-0.99) at both flow rates, while that for MEKP was 20-200 µM (r(2)=0.97) at 180 µL min(-1). The detection limits (LODs) obtained were 0.5 µM for TATP, HMTD and H2O2 and 10 µM for MEKP. The detection times varied from 1.5 to 3 min in this FIA-CL system. Whilst the LOD for H2O2 was comparable with those reported by other investigators, the LODs and analysis times for TATP and HMTD were superior, and significantly, this is the first time the detection of MEKP has been reported by FIA-CL. PMID:26078148

  6. Flow injection analysis of organic peroxide explosives using acid degradation and chemiluminescent detection of released hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Zakaria, Philip; Guijt, Rosanne; Macka, Mirek; Dicinoski, Greg; Breadmore, Michael; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of acid degradation of organic peroxides into hydrogen peroxide in a pneumatically driven flow injection system with chemiluminescence reaction with luminol and Cu(2+) as a catalyst (FIA-CL) was investigated for the fast and sensitive detection of organic peroxide explosives (OPEs). The target OPEs included hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and methylethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). Under optimised conditions maximum degradations of 70% and 54% for TATP and HMTD, respectively were achieved at 162 µL min(-1), and 9% degradation for MEKP at 180 µL min(-1). Flow rates were precisely controlled in this single source pneumatic pressure driven multi-channel FIA system by model experiments on mixing of easily detectable component solutions. The linear range for detection of TATP, HMTD and H2O2 was 1-200 µM (r(2)=0.98-0.99) at both flow rates, while that for MEKP was 20-200 µM (r(2)=0.97) at 180 µL min(-1). The detection limits (LODs) obtained were 0.5 µM for TATP, HMTD and H2O2 and 10 µM for MEKP. The detection times varied from 1.5 to 3 min in this FIA-CL system. Whilst the LOD for H2O2 was comparable with those reported by other investigators, the LODs and analysis times for TATP and HMTD were superior, and significantly, this is the first time the detection of MEKP has been reported by FIA-CL.

  7. Chemiluminescence from excited c 2- -alkali cation complexes formed in alkali atom-halocarbon flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K. K.; Balling, L. C.; Wright, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor phase reactions between alkali atoms and several halocarbon molecules containing C-C bonds have been observed to produce chemiluminescence which appears to originate from C 2-- (alkali) + complexes.

  8. Gold nanoparticles-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer for ultrasensitive detection of melamine.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianxiu; Wang, Yadi; Zhang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    A turn-on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer method was fabricated for the determination of melamine by using bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate-hydrogen peroxide-fluorescein chemiluminescence reaction as a donor and dispersed gold nanoparticles as an acceptor. The chemiluminescence signal of bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate-hydrogen peroxide-fluorescein reaction decreased significantly in the presence of dispersed gold nanoparticles because the absorption band of dispersed gold nanoparticles perfectly overlapped with the chemiluminescence spectrum. Melamine could induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, leading to a dramatic red-shift of the absorption band of dispersed gold nanoparticles. The absorption band of the aggregated gold nanoparticles does not overlap with the chemiluminescence spectrum of the reaction. In such a case, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer could not happen and the chemiluminescence signal was restored. The procedure allowed the measurement of 3.2×10(-12)-3.2×10(-7) mol/L melamine with a limit of detection of 3×10(-13) mol/L. The method was applied to the determination of melamine in spiked milk samples; with recoveries within the range 94.1-104.2%.

  9. A novel sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amin; Xiang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Weiwei; Yuan, Enhui; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-01-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres (Ag@BSA-luminol) for ultrasensitive detection of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) has been developed. Herein, magnetic carbon nanotubes (MAGCNTs) decorated with polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to construct the base of the immunosensor. MAGCNTs with prominent electrical conductivity and high surface area could be beneficial for promoting the electron transfer and loading plenty of primary antibodies (Ab1) via glutaraldehyde (GA). Meanwhile, the magnetic property of MAGCNTs makes it easy to be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) through magnetism interaction, which provides an outstanding platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, Ag@BSA microspheres with large surface area, good stability, and excellent biocompatibility were desirable candidates for effective cross-link of CA19-9 detection antibodies (Ab2). A more interesting thing was that ELISA color reaction was used as an ultrasensitive strategy for identifying Ab2 was successfully coated on Ag@BSA with the naked eye. Additionally, we immobilized the luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA to prepare the target immunosensor. Immobilization of luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA could decrease the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface, leading to great enhancement of the ECL intensity of luminol in the present of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under the optimal conditions, the intensity of the ECL immunosensor increased linearly with the logarithm of CA19-9 concentration in a wide linear range from 0.0005 to 150UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0002UmL(-1) (S/N=3). All the results suggested the prepared CA19-9 immunosensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and good specificity. The developed method opened a new avenue to clinical bioassay.

  10. A novel sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amin; Xiang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Weiwei; Yuan, Enhui; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-01-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres (Ag@BSA-luminol) for ultrasensitive detection of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) has been developed. Herein, magnetic carbon nanotubes (MAGCNTs) decorated with polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to construct the base of the immunosensor. MAGCNTs with prominent electrical conductivity and high surface area could be beneficial for promoting the electron transfer and loading plenty of primary antibodies (Ab1) via glutaraldehyde (GA). Meanwhile, the magnetic property of MAGCNTs makes it easy to be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) through magnetism interaction, which provides an outstanding platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, Ag@BSA microspheres with large surface area, good stability, and excellent biocompatibility were desirable candidates for effective cross-link of CA19-9 detection antibodies (Ab2). A more interesting thing was that ELISA color reaction was used as an ultrasensitive strategy for identifying Ab2 was successfully coated on Ag@BSA with the naked eye. Additionally, we immobilized the luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA to prepare the target immunosensor. Immobilization of luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA could decrease the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface, leading to great enhancement of the ECL intensity of luminol in the present of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under the optimal conditions, the intensity of the ECL immunosensor increased linearly with the logarithm of CA19-9 concentration in a wide linear range from 0.0005 to 150UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0002UmL(-1) (S/N=3). All the results suggested the prepared CA19-9 immunosensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and good specificity. The developed method opened a new avenue to clinical bioassay. PMID:26319163

  11. A novel polydopamine-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer method for microRNA detection coupling duplex-specific nuclease-aided target recycling strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-06-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, play significant regulatory roles in regulating gene expression and become as biomarkers for disease diagnostics and therapeutics. In this work, we have coupled a polydopamine (PDA) nanosphere-assisted chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) platform and a duplex-specific nuclease (DSN)-assisted signal amplification strategy to develop a novel method for specific miRNA detection. With the assistance of hemin, luminol, and H2O2, the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking G-rich sequence in the sensing probe produces chemiluminescence, which is quickly quenched by the CRET effect between PDA as energy acceptor and excited luminol as energy donor. The target miRNA triggers DSN to partially degrade the sensing probe in the DNA-miRNA heteroduplex to repeatedly release G-quadruplex formed by G-rich sequence from PDA for the production of chemiluminescence. The method allows quantitative detection of target miRNA in the range of 80 pM-50 nM with a detection limit of 49.6 pM. The method also shows excellent specificity to discriminate single-base differences, and can accurately quantify miRNA in biological samples, with good agreement with the result from a commercial miRNA detection kit. The procedure requires no organic dyes or labels, and is a simple and cost-effective method for miRNA detection for early clinical diagnosis. PMID:26866561

  12. Mechanism for the chemiluminescence in oxygen-phosphorus systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.A.; Murrells, T.P.

    1986-01-02

    The chemiluminescent reactions of oxygen with a variety of phosphorus-containing compounds have been examined in a discharge-flow/mass spectrometer system. Various qualitative tests and the correlation of the chemiluminescence with the mass spectrometric signals lend strong support to the suggestion that the green emitter is PO/sub 2/, formed in the reaction O + PO ..-->.. PO/sub 2/ + hnu. The results cannot be explained in terms of the PO excimer model. The blue emission seen in the phosphine system is not from the reaction of OH + PO as previously suggested but is tentatively assigned to the reaction O + POH ..-->.. PO/sub 2/H + hnu. 17 references, 3 figures.

  13. Stimulus specific effect of ibuprofen on chemiluminescence of sheep neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Tahamont, M.V.; Margiotta, M.; Gee, M.H.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have shown that pretreatment with ibuprofen inhibits free radical release from complement stimulated neutrophils. To further examine the effect of ibuprofen on neutrophil free radical release, they stimulated neutrophils with the synthetic peptide, FMLP, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), or zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP). Pure (>95%), viable (>95%) sheep neutrophils (2 x 10/sup 6/) were placed in HEPES buffer, luminol, drug or vehicle and stimulated in the luminometer with one of the stimuli. The chemiluminescence (CL) response was recorded and the drug treated samples were compared to vehicle treated controls. Ibuprofen had a dose dependent effect on CL in ZAP stimulated neutrophils. At the highest dose (10/sup -2/M) these cells produced only 37 +/- 7% of the CL response observed in the control cells. In contrast, at the same dose, ibuprofen did not significantly attenuate CL seen in FMLP stimulated cells, with these cells producing 79 +/- 7% of the control cells; nor did ibuprofen effect PMA stimulated CL, as these cells produced a CL response that was 85 +/- 8% of the control cells. Ibuprofen appears to have a stimulus specific effect on free radical release in activated neutrophils. It is also apparent that ibuprofen inhibits complement stimulated free radical release by some mechanism independent of its cyclooxygenase inhibitory effect.

  14. An enhanced chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer system based on target recycling G-guadruplexes/hemin DNAzyme catalysis and its application in ultrasensitive detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Huang, Yong; Vdovenko, Marina; Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Su, Guifa; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-06-01

    An enhanced chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) system based on target recycling G-guadruplexes/hemin DNAzyme catalysis was developed for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. CRET system consists of luminol as chemiluminescent donor, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as acceptor. The sensitive detection was achieved by using the system consisted of G-riched DNA, blocker DNA, and the Nb.BbvCI biocatalyst. Upon addition of target DNA to the system, target DNA hybridizes with the quasi-circular DNA structure, and forms a DNA duplex. The formation of DNA duplex triggers selective enzymatic cleavage of quasi-circular DNA by Nb.BbvCI, resulting in the release of target DNA and two G-riched DNAzyme segments. Released target DNA then hybridizes with another quasi-circular DNA structure to initiate the cleavage of the quasi-circular DNA structure. Eventually, each target DNA can go through many cycles, resulting in the digestion of many quasi-circular DNA structures, generating many G-riched DNAzyme segments. G-riched DNAzyme segment products assemble with hemin to form stable hemin/G-quadruplexes that exhibit peroxidase-like activity which can catalyze the oxidation of luminol by H2O2 to produce CL signals. In the presence of FITC, CL of luminol can excite FITC molecules, and thus produced CRET between the luminol and FITC. This unique analysis strategy gives a detection limit down to 80 fM, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than that of unamplified DNA detection methods.

  15. Rapid method for monitoring N-nitrosodimethylamine in drinking water at the ng/L level without pre-concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Yamasaki, Hitomi; Sakaguchi, Takeru; Itoh, Shinya; Iwaya, Yoshimi; Saga, Makoto; Saito, Keiitsu; Kanzaki, Ryo; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2016-08-19

    As a contaminant in drinking water, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is of great concern because of its carcinogenicity; it has been limited to levels of ng/L by regulatory bodies worldwide. Consequently, a rapid and sensitive method for monitoring NDMA in drinking water is urgently required. In this study, we report an improvement of our previously proposed HPLC-based system for NDMA determination. The approach consists of the HPLC separation of NDMA, followed by NDMA photolysis to form peroxynitrite and detection with a luminol chemiluminescence reaction. The detection limit for the improved HPLC method was 0.2ng/L, which is 10 times more sensitive than our previously reported system. For tap water measurements, only the addition of an ascorbic acid solution to eliminate residual chlorine and passage through an Oasis MAX solid-phase extraction cartridge are needed. The proposed NDMA determination method requires a sample volume of less than 2mL and a complete analysis time of less than 15min per sample. The method was utilized for the long-term monitoring of NDMA in tap water. The NDMA level measured in the municipal water survey was 4.9ng/L, and a seasonal change of the NDMA concentration in tap water was confirmed. The proposed method should constitute a useful NDMA monitoring method for protecting drinking water quality. PMID:27443252

  16. Rapid method for monitoring N-nitrosodimethylamine in drinking water at the ng/L level without pre-concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Yamasaki, Hitomi; Sakaguchi, Takeru; Itoh, Shinya; Iwaya, Yoshimi; Saga, Makoto; Saito, Keiitsu; Kanzaki, Ryo; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2016-08-19

    As a contaminant in drinking water, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is of great concern because of its carcinogenicity; it has been limited to levels of ng/L by regulatory bodies worldwide. Consequently, a rapid and sensitive method for monitoring NDMA in drinking water is urgently required. In this study, we report an improvement of our previously proposed HPLC-based system for NDMA determination. The approach consists of the HPLC separation of NDMA, followed by NDMA photolysis to form peroxynitrite and detection with a luminol chemiluminescence reaction. The detection limit for the improved HPLC method was 0.2ng/L, which is 10 times more sensitive than our previously reported system. For tap water measurements, only the addition of an ascorbic acid solution to eliminate residual chlorine and passage through an Oasis MAX solid-phase extraction cartridge are needed. The proposed NDMA determination method requires a sample volume of less than 2mL and a complete analysis time of less than 15min per sample. The method was utilized for the long-term monitoring of NDMA in tap water. The NDMA level measured in the municipal water survey was 4.9ng/L, and a seasonal change of the NDMA concentration in tap water was confirmed. The proposed method should constitute a useful NDMA monitoring method for protecting drinking water quality.

  17. Photodegradation and flow-injection determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides in natural water with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2009-03-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection method is reported for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides (maneb, nabam and thiram) based on chemiluminescence detection. The method involves the photodegradation of dithiocarbamate fungicides via UV light in an alkaline medium. Photoproducts are then reacted with luminol in the absence of an oxidant. Linear calibration graphs were obtained in the range 0.01 - 4.0 mg L(-1) for maneb and nabam and 0.05 - 1.0 mg L(-1) for thiram with relative standard deviations (n = 4) in the range 1.0 - 2.6%. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of maneb, nabam and thiram were 10, 8.0 and 5.0 ng mL(-1), respectively, with a sample throughput of 100 h(-1). The method was successfully applied to determine these dithiocarbamate fungicides in spiked natural water samples.

  18. Effects of trinitrotoluene (TNT) metabolites on chemiluminescence response of phagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Thierfelder, W; Masihi, K N

    1995-05-01

    The effects of TNT metabolites on the generation of activated oxygen species was investigated by a sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Spleen cell suspensions containing 2,4-diaminotoluene, 2,4,6-triaminotoluene, 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene, 4-amino-3,5-dinitrotoluene and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene were stimulated with zymosan. Aminotoluenes and amino-nitrotoluenes induced a dose-dependent inhibition of CL response. The mixed substituted toluenes generally required higher doses than aminotoluenes for the suppression of CL response which was not due to the cytotoxic reduction of cell viability. CL appears to be a well-suited assay for determination of the immunotoxic potential of diverse molecules on phagocytic cells of the immune system.

  19. Developments and Applications of Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Sensors Based on Micro- and Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hazelton, Sandra G.; Zheng, Xingwang; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun; Pierce, David T.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of recent developments and applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) for sensors are described. While tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)-ruthenium(II) and luminol have dominated and continue to pervade the field of ECL-based sensors, recent work has focused on use of these lumophores with micro- and nanomaterials. It has also extended to inherently luminescent nanomaterials, such as quantum dots. Sensor configurations including microelectrode arrays and microfluidics are reviewed and, with the recent trend toward increased use of nanomaterials, special attention has been given to sensors which include thin films, nanoparticles and nanotubes. Applications of ECL labels and examples of label-free sensing that incorporate nanomaterials are also discussed.

  20. Application of the forensic Luminol for blood in infection control.

    PubMed

    Bergervoet, P W M; van Riessen, N; Sebens, F W; van der Zwet, W C

    2008-04-01

    Transmission of hepatitis C virus occurs frequently in haemodialysis units. A possible route of transmission is indirectly via the hospital environment although this has never been recorded. We investigated the haemodialysis unit in Deventer Hospital, Deventer, The Netherlands, with the forensic Luminol test. With this test, invisible traces of blood can be visualised based on the principle of biochemiluminescence. We demonstrated extensive contamination of the environment with traces of blood. The aim of this article is to introduce this method to infection control professionals, so it can be used to monitor cleaning and disinfection procedures, and alert healthcare workers to the possibility of contamination of the hospital environment with blood.

  1. 3D-printed and CNC milled flow-cells for chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Spilstead, Kara B; Learey, Jessica J; Doeven, Egan H; Barbante, Gregory J; Mohr, Stephan; Barnett, Neil W; Terry, Jessica M; Hall, Robynne M; Francis, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    Herein we explore modern fabrication techniques for the development of chemiluminescence detection flow-cells with features not attainable using the traditional coiled tubing approach. This includes the first 3D-printed chemiluminescence flow-cells, and a milled flow-cell designed to split the analyte stream into two separate detection zones within the same polymer chip. The flow-cells are compared to conventional detection systems using flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with the fast chemiluminescence reactions of an acidic potassium permanganate reagent with morphine and a series of adrenergic phenolic amines. PMID:24881540

  2. A paper-based chemiluminescence device for the determination of ofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Li, Huifang; Zhao, Mei; Lai, Zesheng; Li, Baoxin

    2015-02-25

    Paper-based devices are biodegradable and have been used in diagnosis and environmental analysis field. In this work, a wax-printed paper-based analytical device combined with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence (CL) system for the determination of ofloxacin (OFLX) was presented. It was based on the enhancement of CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-OFLX system by AgNPs. Wax-printing fabrication technique was used to make the simple circle shaped paper device and large scale chips can be fabricated at the same time. Under the selected experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentration of OFLX in the range from 1.0×10(-9) g/mL to 1.0×10(-6) g/mL with a detection limit of 3.0×10(-10) g/mL. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of OFLX in eyedrop samples.

  3. A paper-based chemiluminescence device for the determination of ofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Li, Huifang; Zhao, Mei; Lai, Zesheng; Li, Baoxin

    2015-02-01

    Paper-based devices are biodegradable and have been used in diagnosis and environmental analysis field. In this work, a wax-printed paper-based analytical device combined with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence (CL) system for the determination of ofloxacin (OFLX) was presented. It was based on the enhancement of CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-OFLX system by AgNPs. Wax-printing fabrication technique was used to make the simple circle shaped paper device and large scale chips can be fabricated at the same time. Under the selected experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentration of OFLX in the range from 1.0 × 10-9 g/mL to 1.0 × 10-6 g/mL with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10-10 g/mL. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of OFLX in eyedrop samples.

  4. CdS nanoparticles-enhanced chemiluminescence and determination of baicalin in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolan; Tan, Xinmei; Wang, Jianxiu

    2013-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles (CdS NPs) of different sizes were synthesized by the citrate reduction method. It was found that CdS NPs could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-potassium ferricyanide system and baicalin could inhibit CdS NPs-enhanced luminol-potassium ferricyanide CL signals in alkaline solution. Based on this inhibition, a flow-injection CL method was established for determination of baicalin in pharmaceutical preparations and human urine samples. Under optimized conditions, the linear range for determination of baicalin was 5.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-3) g/L. The detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 1.7 x 10(-6) g/L. CL spectra, UV-visible spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the CL mechanism. The method described is simple, selective and obviates the need of extensive sample pretreatment.

  5. Flow-injection enhanced chemiluminescence method for determination of ciprofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han-Wen; Li, Li-Qing; Chen, Xue-Yan

    2006-03-01

    A novel rapid and sensitive analytical method, enhanced chemiluminescence with flow-injection sampling, is described for determination of ciprofloxacin. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of the potassium permanganate-sodium thiosulfate-ciprofloxacin system. An enhanced chemiluminescence reaction was developed, and optimum conditions for CL emission were investigated. The chemiluminescence intensity was linearly dependent on ciprofloxacin concentration in the range 1.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-5) g mL(-1). The detection limit was 4 x 10(-9) g mL(-1). The relative standard deviation was 1.8% for eleven measurements of 2.0 x 10(-7) g mL(-1) ciprofloxacin standard solution. The new method enables simple, sensitive, and rapid determination of ciprofloxacin and has been successfully used for determination of ciprofloxacin in biological fluids and in ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablet and injection.

  6. Surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence during adsorption of oxygen on magnesium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemann, Ulrich; Nienhaus, Hermann

    2015-12-28

    The dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecules on magnesium surfaces represents a non-adiabatic reaction exhibiting exoelectron emission, chemicurrent generation, and weak chemiluminescence. Using thin film Mg/Ag/p-Si(111) Schottky diodes with 1 nm Mg on a 10-60 nm thick Ag layer as 2π-photodetectors, the chemiluminescence is internally detected with a much larger efficiency than external methods. The chemically induced photoyield shows a maximum for a Ag film thickness of 45 nm. The enhancement is explained by surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence, i.e., surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in the Ag layer by the oxidation reaction and decay radiatively leading to the observed photocurrent. Model calculations of the maximum absorption in attenuated total reflection geometry support the interpretation. The study demonstrates the extreme sensitivity and the practical usage of internal detection schemes for investigating surface chemiluminescence.

  7. Simplified ozone detection by chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Ozone is detected by film coated with solid, such as rubrene, that reacts with ozone to degree proportional to concentration in sample gas. Gas flow is stopped, and film is heated to produce light (chemiluminescence) in proportion to amount of reacted material on sensor.

  8. Chemiluminescence Study on Thermal Degradation of Aircraft Tire Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, G. D.; Stanford, T. B.; Nathan, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Since the autoxidative process accounts in part for the degradation of rubber, including aircraft tires, it was felt that a study of the chemiluminescence from unsaturated elastomers could contribute significantly to an understanding of the degradation mechanism. The study revealed similarities in chemiluminescence behavior between four elastomers which were investigated, and it shows that similar oxidation mechanisms occur. Oxidative chemiluminescence was observed from purified samples of cis-1,4-polybutadiene, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, trans-polypentenamer, and 1,2-polybutadiene in an oxygen atmosphere at 25-150 C. The elastomer samples were placed in a 600 watt oven which is equipped with gas inlets for introducing any desired atmosphere. Chemiluminescence emission from the samples was focused with a two inch quartz lens onto the detector of a 12" photomultiplier which is connected to a photon counter. A strip-chart recorder, connected to the counter, permitted automatic data collection. Diagrams of the apparatus are included. The chemical reactions which occurred from the thermal decomposition of the polymer samples are described, and results (and tabulated data) are discussed.

  9. G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based chemiluminescence biosensing platform based on dual signal amplification for label-free and sensitive detection of protein.

    PubMed

    Zou, Pei; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Hongyong; Wu, Jun; Zhu, Feifan; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-15

    Detection of ultralow concentration of specific protein plays a key role in biotechnological applications and medical diagnostics. In this study, we demonstrate an amplified chemiluminescence biosensing platform for sensitive detection of protein. The biosensing platform ingeniously combines target-catalyzed hairpin assembly and Exo III-assisted signal amplification. A catalytic G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme is further employed to stimulate the generation of chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol and H2O2. These designs together allow a high sensitivity for the biotarget, human α-thrombin, resulting in a detection limit of 0.92 pM, and it is much lower than previous reported studies. In addition, the proposed biosensing platform is versatile. By conjugating with various recognition units, it could be employed to sensitive detect various DNA-binding proteins and might find wide applications in biomedical fields. PMID:26686920

  10. Automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for a nonionic surfactant using a recycled spinning-pausing controlled washing procedure on a compact disc-type microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-02-01

    A fully automated and integrated chemiluminescence immunoassay, carried out on a compact disc (CD)-type microfluidic platform, for the detection of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEOs) is described. The pattern of the CD-type microchip was designed so as to permit the sequential solution delivery of the sample solution, the washing solution and the luminol solution, which are required in the chemiluminescence immunoassay process, along with a designed rotation program for spinning the CD-type microchip. The procedure for flowing the washing solution, the volume of which was limited on the CD-type microchip, was optimized by using a recycled spinning-pausing rotation program to overcome the non-specific adsorption of the horseradish peroxidase labeled APnEOs at the detection area. The detection limit of the immunoassay is about 10 ppb.

  11. Modeling and analysis of chemiluminescence sensing for syngas, methane and Jet-A combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, Venkata Narasimham

    Flame chemiluminescence has received increasing attention for its potential sensor and diagnostic applications in combustors. A number of studies have used flame chemiluminescence to monitor flame status, and combustor performance. While most of these studies have been empirical in nature, chemiluminescence modeling has the potential to provide a better understanding of the chemiluminescence processes and their dependence on various combustion operating conditions. The primary objective of this research was to identify and validate the important chemiluminescence reaction mechanisms for OH*, CH* and CO2 *. To this end, measurements were performed at various operating conditions, primarily in laminar, premixed flames, fueled with methane, syngas (H 2/CO) and Jet-A. The results are compared to 1-d laminar flame simulations employing the chemiluminescence mechanisms. The secondary objective was to use the experiments and validated chemiluminescence reaction mechanisms to evaluate the usefulness of flame chemiluminescence as a combustion diagnostic, particularly for heat release rate and equivalence ratio. The validation studies were able to identify specific mechanisms for OH*, CH* and CO2* that produced excellent agreement with the experimental data in most cases. The mechanisms were able to predict the variation of the chemiluminescence signals with equivalence ratio but not with pressure and reactant preheat. The reasons causing this disagreement could be due to the inaccuracies in the basic chemical mechanism used in the simulations, lack of accurate quenching data (for CH*), thermal excitation (for OH*) and radiative trapping (for OH* and CO2*) and interference from the emissions of other species (such as HCO and H2O), for CO2*. Regarding the utility of chemiluminescence for sensing, a number of observations can be made. In syngas-air flames, CO2* is a reasonable heat release rate marker, at least for very lean conditions. OH* shows some advantage in atmospheric

  12. Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of BODIPY dyes.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B; Bard, Allen J

    2012-11-20

    BODIPY (boron dipyrromethene) dyes are unique materials with spectroscopic and electrochemical properties comparable to those of aromatic hydrocarbons. Electrochemical studies are useful in understanding the redox properties of these materials and finding structure-stability relations for the radical ions; along with spectroscopy, these studies help researchers design novel compounds with desired properties. This Account represents our attempt at a full description of the electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) properties of the BODIPY dyes. When the dyes are completely substituted with alkyl or other groups, the radical ions of BODIPY dyes are highly stable. But if they include unsubstituted positions, the radical ions can undergo dimerization or other reactions. BODIPY dyes also show unusually large separations, ~1.0 V, between the first and second cyclic voltammetric (CV) waves for both oxidation and reduction half-reactions. Alkyl-substituted BODIPY dyes show good photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiencies, and radical ion electron transfer annihilation in these molecules produces electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL), the intensity of which depends on the structure of the dye. The large separation between waves and the presence of strong ECL signals are both important in the design of stable ECL-based materials. The ECL spectra provide a fast method of monitoring the electrochemical formation of dimers and aggregates from the monomers. BODIPY dyes are particularly good systems for studying stepwise electron transfer in their chemically synthesized oligomers and polymers because of the small separation between the first oxidation and first reduction waves, generally about 2.0-2.4 V, and their relative ease of reduction compared with many other aromatic compounds. The larger separation between consecutive waves for oxidation compared with reduction is noticeable for all BODIPY dimers and trimers. We also observe a more difficult addition

  13. Are the bio- and chemiluminescence states of the firefly oxyluciferin the same as the fluorescence state?

    PubMed

    Navizet, Isabelle; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel; Yue, Ling; Liu, Ya-Jun; Ferré, Nicolas; Lindh, Roland

    2013-01-01

    A usual strategy in both experimental and theoretical studies on bio- and chemiluminescence is to analyze the fluorescent properties of the bio- and chemiluminescence reaction product. Recent findings in a coelenteramide and Cypridina oxyluciferin model raise a concern on the validity of this procedure, showing that the light emitters in each of these luminescent processes might differ. Here, the thermal decomposition path of the firefly dioxetanone and the light emission states of the Firefly oxyluciferin responsible for the bio-, chemiluminescence, and fluorescence of the molecule are characterized using ab initio quantum chemistry and hybrid quantum chemistry/molecular mechanics methods to determine if the scenario found in the coelenteramide and Cypridina oxyluciferin study does also apply to the Firefly bioluminescent systems. The results point out to a unique emission state in the bio-, chemiluminescence, and fluorescence phenomena of the Firefly oxyluciferin and, therefore, using fluorescence properties of this system is reasonable.

  14. Using a large area CMOS APS for direct chemiluminescence detection in Western blotting electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Michela; Newcombe, Jane; Anaxagoras, Thalis; Allinson, Nigel M.; Wells, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Western blotting electrophoretic sequencing is an analytical technique widely used in Functional Proteomics to detect, recognize and quantify specific labelled proteins in biological samples. A commonly used label for western blotting is Enhanced ChemiLuminescence (ECL) reagents based on fluorescent light emission of Luminol at 425nm. Film emulsion is the conventional detection medium, but is characterized by non-linear response and limited dynamic range. Several western blotting digital imaging systems have being developed, mainly based on the use of cooled Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) and single avalanche diodes that address these issues. Even so these systems present key drawbacks, such as a low frame rate and require operation at low temperature. Direct optical detection using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensors (APS)could represent a suitable digital alternative for this application. In this paper the authors demonstrate the viability of direct chemiluminescent light detection in western blotting electrophoresis using a CMOS APS at room temperature. Furthermore, in recent years, improvements in fabrication techniques have made available reliable processes for very large imagers, which can be now scaled up to wafer size, allowing direct contact imaging of full size western blotting samples. We propose using a novel wafer scale APS (12.8 cm×13.2 cm), with an array architecture using two different pixel geometries that can deliver an inherently low noise and high dynamic range image at the same time representing a dramatic improvement with respect to the current western blotting imaging systems.

  15. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity as mediators of the neutrophil chemiluminescence inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, L M; Kanashiro, A; Azzolini, A E C S; Santos, A C; Lucisano-Valim, Y M

    2008-01-01

    The tissue damage found in some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has been shown to be mediated by an increased activation of neutrophil effector functions. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the phenolic compound butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by opsonized zymosan-stimulated neutrophils, assessed by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL-lum and CL-luc, respectively), and some aspects of its mechanism of action. BHT showed concentration-dependent: (a) inhibitory effect on CL-lum and CL-luc; (b) cytotoxic effect, expressed by increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage by the cells; (c) interaction with neutrophil membranes; (d) ROS scavenger activity. These biological effects were observed in the same range of concentrations (0-5 x 10(-5) mol/l). Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of neutrophil chemiluminescence by BHT was a result of multiple mechanisms, especially a cytotoxic effect probably mediated by BHT interaction with neutrophils membranes, and the ROS scavenging effect.

  16. Quantification of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in oranges and mandarins by chemiluminescent ELISA.

    PubMed

    Vdovenko, Marina M; Stepanova, Alexandra S; Eremin, Sergei A; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Uskova, Natalia A; Yu Sakharov, Ivan

    2013-11-15

    Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was developed. Varying the concentrations of monoclonal anti-2,4-D-antibody and the conjugate of soybean peroxidase and 2,4-D the conditions of ELISA performance were optimised. The chemiluminescent method based on peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of luminol was applied to measure the enzyme activity of the conjugate. A mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)propane-1-sulfonate and 4-morpholinopyridine was used as potent enhancer of chemiluminescence signal. It was shown that the values of the lower detection limit, IC50 and the working range were 1.5, 64.0, and 6.5-545ng/mL, respectively. The recovery values of CL-ELISA from 10 spiked samples of oranges (n=5) and mandarins (n=5) cultivated in green house without use of 2,4-D and containing different 2,4-D concentrations (10-300ng/mL) were ranged from 92% to 104% that indicated on the absence of matrix effect for the fruit extracts of interest. Determination of 2,4-D in peel of five oranges and five mandarins purchased from stores in Vietnam showed that 2,4-D content in oranges fruits (79-104μg/kg) was significantly higher than that in mandarins (1.66-2.82μg/kg).

  17. Ozone chemiluminescent detection of olefins: Potential applications for real-time measurements of natural hydrocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Cunningham, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    A chemiluminescence analyzer has been constructed that takes advantage of the temperature dependence of the ozone-hydrocarbon reaction. When operated at a temperature of 170 C, the analyzer functions as a total nonmethane hydrocarbon analyzer with sensitivities 10--1,000 times better than a conventional FID. However, with operation at varying temperatures, the chemiluminescent signal reflects the differences in rates of reaction of the hydrocarbons with ozone. Preliminary studies at room temperature indicated that the relative rates of reaction of isoprene, {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, and limonene with ozone correlated with the observed chemiluminescence signal. When hydrocarbons are grouped in classes of similar structure, their rates of reaction with electrophilic atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH, O{sub 3}, NO{sub 3}) can be correlated with each other. By varying the temperature of the reaction chamber, the chemiluminescence analyzer can be tuned to more reactive classes of hydrocarbons. Therefore, the chemiluminescence analyzer has the ability to determine atmospheric hydrocarbon concentrations as a function of class and will also provide a measure of the atmospheric reactivity of the hydrocarbons.

  18. Supramolecular assembly and nanostructures of a series of luminol derivatives with aromatic/alkyl substituted groups in Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingrui; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

    2014-06-01

    A series of functional luminol derivatives with aromatic and alkyl substituted groups has been designed and synthesized from the reaction of the corresponding chloride precursors with luminol. These compounds can be spread on water surface to form stable Langmuir films at the air-water interface. It has been found that UV and IR spectra confirmed the characteristic aromatic segment, imide group, and aromatic/alkyl substituted groups. In addition, for the interfacial assembly process of compounds with alkyl substituted groups, there are obvious spectral changes for the alkyl chains. AFM results indicated that various different aggregated domains may be fabricated in the transferred LB films. For all cases, the substituted groups in molecular structures have an important effect in regulating the aggregation mode and spectral changes in organized molecular films. The present results showed that the modified luminol derivatives may have potential application in functional material fields such as ECL sensor, which may give some insight to study the relationship between the molecular structures and supramolecular aggregation of amphiphiles in organized molecular films.

  19. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2) facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O2(*)) is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism.

  20. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2) facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*) is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism. PMID:26783542

  1. Unchanged NADPH Oxidase Activity in Nox1-Nox2-Nox4 Triple Knockout Mice: What Do NADPH-Stimulated Chemiluminescence Assays Really Detect?

    PubMed

    Rezende, Flávia; Löwe, Oliver; Helfinger, Valeska; Prior, Kim-Kristin; Walter, Maria; Zukunft, Sven; Fleming, Ingrid; Weissmann, Norbert; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin

    2016-03-01

    NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are considered important sources of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This conclusion is, in part, based on the ability of NADPH to elicit a chemiluminescence signal in tissue/cell homogenates or membrane preparations in the presence of enhancers such as lucigenin, luminol, or L012. However, the ability of these particular assays to specifically detect Nox activity and Nox-derived ROS has not been proven. In this study, we demonstrate that combined knockout of the three main Nox enzymes of the mouse (Nox1-Nox2-Nox4 triple knockout) had no impact on NADPH-stimulated chemiluminescence signals in the aorta, heart, and kidney homogenates. In the NADPH-stimulated membrane assays, no effect of in vivo angiotensin II pretreatment or deletion of Nox enzymes was observed. In in vitro studies in HEK293 cells, the overexpression of Nox5 or Nox4 markedly increased ROS production in intact cells, whereas overexpression of Nox5 or Nox4 had no influence on the signal in membrane assays. In contrast, overexpression of nitric oxide synthase or cytochrome P450 enzymes resulted in an increased chemiluminescence signal in isolated membranes. On the basis of these observations, we propose the hypothesis that NADPH-stimulated chemiluminescence-based membrane assays, as currently used, do not reflect Nox activity. PMID:25906178

  2. A firefly inspired one-pot chemiluminescence system using n-propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P).

    PubMed

    Kato, Dai-ichiro; Shirakawa, Daiki; Polz, Robin; Maenaka, Mika; Takeo, Masahiro; Negoro, Seiji; Niwa, Kazuki

    2014-12-01

    A simple reaction procedure for chemiluminescence of firefly luciferin (D-luc) using n-propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P) is reported. A luminescent photon is produced as a result of one-pot reaction, only requiring mixing with the substrate carboxylic acid and T3P in the presence of a mild organic base. PMID:25350893

  3. Chemiluminescent Oscillating Demonstrations: The Chemical Buoy, the Lighting Wave, and the Ghostly Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prypsztejn, Hernan E.; Mulford, Douglas R.; Stratton, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating reactions have been extensively used in chemical demonstrations. They involve several chemical concepts about kinetics, catalysts, and thermodynamics. The spontaneous cyclic color change of a solution is an attraction in any educational-level course. Chemiluminescent reactions are also among the most fascinating demonstrations and have…

  4. A firefly inspired one-pot chemiluminescence system using n-propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P).

    PubMed

    Kato, Dai-ichiro; Shirakawa, Daiki; Polz, Robin; Maenaka, Mika; Takeo, Masahiro; Negoro, Seiji; Niwa, Kazuki

    2014-12-01

    A simple reaction procedure for chemiluminescence of firefly luciferin (D-luc) using n-propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P) is reported. A luminescent photon is produced as a result of one-pot reaction, only requiring mixing with the substrate carboxylic acid and T3P in the presence of a mild organic base.

  5. A chemiluminescence array sensor based on graphene-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymers for determination of benzenediol isomers.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huamin; Luo, Chuannan; Sun, Min; Lu, Fuguang; Fan, Lulu; Li, Xiangjun

    2012-09-26

    A chemiluminescence (CL) array sensor for determination of benzenediol isomers simultaneously using the system of luminol-NaOH-H(2)O(2) based on a graphene-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer (GM-MIP) is described. Use of graphene in the GM-MIP thus prepared is helpful to improve the adsorption capacity, while use of magnetite nanoparticles can facilitate the isolation of GM-MIP at end of their synthesis, and rendering easier the use of the polymers in the array sensor. The adsorption performance and properties were characterized. The GM-MIP was used to increase the selectivity in CL analysis. In addition, the sensor was reusable and of good selectivity and adsorption capacity. The array sensor was finally used for the determination of hydroquinone, resorcinol and catechol in waste water samples simultaneously.

  6. Chemiluminescence system for direct determination and mapping of ultra-trace metal impurities on a silicon wafer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Romertta; Sung, Y I; Lee, J S; Lim, H B

    2010-11-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) system which consumed low sample and reagent volumes in the microlitre range was developed for direct determination and mapping of ultra-trace metal contaminants on solid surfaces, such as silicon wafers or flat display panels. The analytical result of the system was confirmed with ICP-MS. The system was composed of a scanner, sensor and a wafer moving stage. The scanner, with a scanning tip made of 0.03'' i.d. PTFE tubing, was used to collect metal impurities on the wafer surface with 5 μL of scanning solution. A coaxial sensing head of about 13 mm o.d. and 110 mm height was designed both to inject a luminescent reagent of luminol-H(2)O(2) mixture and to collect the luminescence light resulting from the reaction with metal ions of Co(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+). Due to the almost zero background, an extremely low limit of detection of 20.8 pg/mL for Co(2+) in 1% hydrofluoric acid (HF) was obtained from the calibration curve. In order to map the spatial distribution of the impurities, 11 cross sections of a Co-contaminated wafer were selected and scanned individually with a diluted HF solution. A contaminant level of 1.45-7.11 × 10(11) atoms cm(-2) was obtained for each section with an average of 4.21 × 10(11) atoms cm(-2), which was similar to the analytical result of 5.48 × 10(11) atoms cm(-2) obtained from vapor phase deposition-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (VPD-ICP-MS). Although this CL system does not have selectivity for each specific metal ion, its high sensitivity facilitates the monitoring and mapping of metal impurities of Co, Fe, Cu, etc. on the wafer directly and it can be used as an on-line inspection sensor for the first time in the semiconductor industry.

  7. A novel strategy for synthesis of hollow gold nanosphere and its application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xia; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-10-01

    Well-distributed hollow gold nanospheres (Aushell@GOD) (20 ± 5 nm) were synthesized using the glucose oxidase (GOD) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde as a template. A glucose biosensor was prepared based on Aushell@GOD nanospheres for catalyzing luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL). Firstly, chitosan was modified in a glassy carbon electrode which offered an interface of abundant amino-groups to assemble Aushell@GOD nanospheres. Then, glucose oxidase was adsorbed on the surface of Aushell@GOD nanospheres via binding interactions between Aushell and amino groups of GOD to construct a glucose biosensor. The Aushell@GOD nanospheres were investigated with TEM and UV-vis. The ECL behaviors of the biosensor were also investigated. Results showed that, the obtained Aushell@GOD nanospheres exhibited excellent catalytic effect towards the ECL of luminol-H2O2 system. The response of the prepared biosensor to glucose was linear with the glucose concentration in the range of 1.0 μM to 4.3mM (R=0.9923) with a detection limit of 0.3 μM (signal to noise=3). This ECL biosensor exhibited short response time and excellent stability for glucose. At the same time the prepared ECL biosensor showed good reproducibility, sensitivity and selectivity.

  8. A critical evaluation of a flow-cell based on a liquid core waveguide for chemiluminescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Mariana A; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2008-01-01

    Liquid-core waveguides (LCWs), devices that constrain the emitted radiation minimizing losses during the transport, are an alternative to maximize the amount of detected radiation in luminescence. In this work, the performance of a LCW flow-cell was critically evaluated for chemiluminescence measurements, by using as model the oxidation of luminol by hydrogen peroxide or hypochlorite. An analytical procedure for hypochlorite determination was also developed, with linear response in the range 0.2-3.8 mg/L (2.7-51 micromol/L), a detection limit estimated as 8 microg/L (0.64 micromol/L) at the 99.7% confidence level and luminol consumption of 50 microg/determination. The coefficients of variation were 3.3% and 1.6% for 0.4 and 1.9 mg/L ClO(-), respectively, with a sampling rate of 164 determinations/h. The procedure was applied to the analysis of Dakin's solution samples, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by iodometric titration at the 95% confidence level. PMID:18814188

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and preventing DNA damage effect of pomegranate extracts by chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanshan; Deng, Qianchun; Xiao, Junsong; Xie, Bijun; Sun, Zhida

    2007-04-18

    The antioxidant activities of three parts (peel, juice, and seed) and extracts of three pomegranate varieties in China were investigated by using a chemiluminescence (CL) method in vitro. The scavenging ability of pomegranate extracts (PEs) on superoxide anion, hydroxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide was determined by the pyrogallol-luminol system, the CuSO4-Phen-Vc-H2O2 system, and the luminol-H2O2 system, respectively. DNA damage preventing the effect of PE was determined by the CuSO4-Phen-Vc-H2O2-DNA CL system. The results showed that the peel extract of red pomegranate had the best effect on the scavenging ability of superoxide anion because its IC50 value (4.01 +/- 0.09 microg/mL) was the lowest in all PEs. The seed extract of white pomegranate could scavenge hydroxide radical most effectively of the nine extracts (the IC50 value was 1.69 +/- 0.03 microg/mL). The peel extract of white pomegranate had the best scavenging ability on hydrogen peroxide, which had the lowest IC50 value (0.032 +/- 0.003 microg/mL) in the nine extracts. The seed extract of white pomegranate (the IC50 value was 3.67 +/- 0.03 microg/mL) was the most powerful on the DNA damage-preventing effect in all of the PEs. Also, the statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences (at P < 0.05) among the extracts of the different varieties and parts in each system. PMID:17381116

  10. Determination of sulpiride in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using a Cr (III) enhanced chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for identifying sulpiride in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids is presented. The method is based on increased chemiluminescence (CL) intensity of a luminol-H2O2 system in response to the addition of Cr (III) under alkaline conditions. The CL intensity of the luminol-H2O2-Cr (III) system was greatly enhanced by the addition of sulpiride and the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in a sample solution. Various parameters affecting the CL intensity were systematically investigated and optimized for determination of the sulpiride in a sample. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in the range of 0.068-4.0 µg/mL, with a good correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 8.50 × 10(-6) µg/mL and 2.83 × 10(-5) µg/mL, respectively. The method presented here produced good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.70% (n = 7). The effects of common excipients and metal ions were studied for their interference effect. The method was validated statistically through recovery studies and successfully applied for the determination of sulpiride in pure form, pharmaceutical preparations and spiked human plasma samples. The percentage recoveries were found to range from 99.10 to 100.05% for pure form, 98.12 to 100.18% for pharmaceutical preparations and 97.9 to 101.4% for spiked human plasma.

  11. Switch-on fluorescence scheme for antibiotics based on a magnetic composite probe with aptamer and hemin/G-quadruplex coimmobilized nano-Pt-luminol as signal tracer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Gan, Ning; Ren, Hong-Xia; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Chen, Yinji

    2016-01-15

    A selective and facile fluorescence "switch-on" scheme is developed to detect antibiotics residues in food, using chloramphenicol (CAP) as model, based on a novel magnetic aptamer probe (aptamer-Pt-luminol nanocomposite labeled with hemin/G-quadruplex). Firstly, the composite probe is prepared through the immuno-reactions between the capture beads (anti-dsDNA antibody labeled on magnetic Dynabeads) and the nanotracer (nano-Pt-luminol labeled with double-strand aptamer, as ds-Apt, and hemin/G-quadruplex). When the composite probe is mixed with CAP, the aptamer preferentially reacted with CAP to decompose the double-strand aptamer to ssDNA, which cannot be recognized by the anti-dsDNA antibody on the capture probes. Thus, after magnetic separation, the nanotracer can be released into the supernatant. Because the hemin/G-quadruplex and PtNPs in nanotracer can catalyze luminol-H2O2 system to emit fluorescence. Thus a dual-amplified "switch-on" signal appeared, of which intensity is proportional to the concentration of CAP between 0.001 and 100ng mL(-1) with detection limit of 0.0005ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). Besides, our method has good selectivity and was employed for CAP detection in real milk samples. The results agree well with those from conventional gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The switch-on signal is produced by one-step substitution reaction between aptamer in nanotracer and target. When the analyte is changed, the probe can be refabricated only by changing the corresponding aptamer. Thus, all features above prove our strategy to be a facile, feasible and selective method in antibiotics screening for food safety.

  12. Switch-on fluorescence scheme for antibiotics based on a magnetic composite probe with aptamer and hemin/G-quadruplex coimmobilized nano-Pt-luminol as signal tracer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Gan, Ning; Ren, Hong-Xia; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Chen, Yinji

    2016-01-15

    A selective and facile fluorescence "switch-on" scheme is developed to detect antibiotics residues in food, using chloramphenicol (CAP) as model, based on a novel magnetic aptamer probe (aptamer-Pt-luminol nanocomposite labeled with hemin/G-quadruplex). Firstly, the composite probe is prepared through the immuno-reactions between the capture beads (anti-dsDNA antibody labeled on magnetic Dynabeads) and the nanotracer (nano-Pt-luminol labeled with double-strand aptamer, as ds-Apt, and hemin/G-quadruplex). When the composite probe is mixed with CAP, the aptamer preferentially reacted with CAP to decompose the double-strand aptamer to ssDNA, which cannot be recognized by the anti-dsDNA antibody on the capture probes. Thus, after magnetic separation, the nanotracer can be released into the supernatant. Because the hemin/G-quadruplex and PtNPs in nanotracer can catalyze luminol-H2O2 system to emit fluorescence. Thus a dual-amplified "switch-on" signal appeared, of which intensity is proportional to the concentration of CAP between 0.001 and 100ng mL(-1) with detection limit of 0.0005ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). Besides, our method has good selectivity and was employed for CAP detection in real milk samples. The results agree well with those from conventional gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The switch-on signal is produced by one-step substitution reaction between aptamer in nanotracer and target. When the analyte is changed, the probe can be refabricated only by changing the corresponding aptamer. Thus, all features above prove our strategy to be a facile, feasible and selective method in antibiotics screening for food safety. PMID:26592610

  13. Analytical Applications of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W. (Editor); Picciolo, G. L. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Bioluminescence and chemiluminescence studies were used to measure the amount of adenosine triphosphate and therefore the amount of energy available. Firefly luciferase - luciferin enzyme system was emphasized. Photometer designs are also considered.

  14. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  15. Flame Chemiluminescence Rate Constants for Quantitative Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luque, Jorge; Smith, Gregory P.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Crosley, David R.; Weiland, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Absolute excited state concentrations of OH(A), CH(A), and C2(d) were determined in three low pressure premixed methane-air flames. Two dimensional images of chemiluminescence from these states were recorded by a filtered CCD camera, processed by Abel inversion, and calibrated against Rayleigh scattering, Using a previously validated 1-D flame model with known chemistry and excited state quenching rate constants, rate constants are extracted for the reactions CH + O2 (goes to) OH(A) + CO and C2H + O (goes to) CH(A) + CO at flame temperatures. Variations of flame emission intensities with stoichiometry agree well with model predictions.

  16. Evaluation and Comparison of Chemiluminescence and UV Photometric Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O3) that may be p...

  17. A new label-free strategy for a highly efficient chemiluminescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanjun; Cao, Yue; Li, Juan; Wang, Juntao; Du, Dan; Hu, Xiaoya; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-10-01

    A new label-free chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay method is proposed for the cheap, convenient and sensitive detection of proteins through the co-immobilization of a capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase on a sensing interface. The specific immunoreaction on the interface effectively inhibits the enzymatic CL reaction, thus causing a decrease in CL signals.

  18. A simple and compact smartphone accessory for quantitative chemiluminescence-based lateral flow immunoassay for salivary cortisol detection.

    PubMed

    Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio; Simoni, Patrizia; Di Nardo, Fabio; Roda, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    We have developed a simple and accurate biosensor based on a chemiluminescent (CL)-lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) method integrated in a smartphone to quantitatively detect salivary cortisol. The biosensor is based on a direct competitive immunoassay using peroxidase-cortisol conjugate, detected by adding the chemiluminescent substrate luminol/enhancer/hydrogen peroxide. The smartphone camera is used as light detector, for image acquisition and data handling via a specific application. We 3D-printed simple accessories to adapt the smartphone. The system comprises a cartridge, which houses the LFIA strip, and a smartphone adaptor with a plano-convex lens and a cartridge-insertion slot. This provides a mini-darkbox and aligned optical interface between the camera and the LFIA membrane for acquiring CL signals. The method is simple and fast, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL. It provides quantitative analysis in the range of 0.3-60 ng/mL, which is adequate for detecting salivary cortisol in the clinically accepted range. It could thus find application in the growing area of home-self-diagnostic device technology for clinical biomarker monitoring, overcoming the current difficulties in achieving sensitive and quantitative information with conventional systems taking the advantage of smartphone connectivity and the enhanced performance of the included camera.

  19. Chemiluminescent method for detection of eutrophication sources by estimation of organic amino nitrogen and ammonium in water.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Lloret, S; Molins-Legua, C; Verdú-Andrés, J; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2006-11-01

    An automatic method has been developed for the estimation of organic amino nitrogen (CH2-NH) and ammonium in water samples. We propose a continuous flow system in which nitrogen compounds react with hypochlorite reagent to produce chloramines. Subsequently, the mixture is mixed with luminol, generating a chemiluminescence signal. The signal emission at 425 nm, registered as a function of time, decreases as nitrogen concentration increases, due to the decrease on hypochlorite concentration. A large number of nitrogen compounds have been assayed and their sensitivities compared, in milligrams per liter nitrogen. The ammonium calibration graph, expressed as N, can be used for most of the assayed compounds. The linear interval was 0.24-4 mg L(-1) N, with the detection limit 0.07 mg L(-1) N. The chemiluminescence method was applied to the analysis of several kinds of real water samples, natural, lake, irrigation ditch, fountain, residual, and seawater in order to detect possible sources of eutrophication. The accuracy (% relative error) and precision were satisfactory, with mean values of 5 +/- 4 and 3 +/- 2, respectively. This procedure has been used to estimate nitrogen content in samples before and after Kjeldahl treatment. In the same samples, the N found for the untreated samples provided a good estimation of the N Kjeldahl. Sixty samples per hour can be analyzed, and the procedure can also be used for in situ monitoring.

  20. Chemiluminescence Detection of Nitric Oxide from Roots, Leaves, and Root Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wany, Aakanksha; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Kumari, Aprajita; Gupta, Shika; Mishra, Sonal; Jaintu, Ritika; Pathak, Pradeep K; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2016-01-01

    NO is a free radical with short half-life and high reactivity; due to its physiochemical properties it is very difficult to detect the concentrations precisely. Chemiluminescence is one of the robust methods to quantify NO. Detection of NO by this method is based on reaction of nitric oxide with ozone which leads to emission of light and amount of light is proportional to NO. By this method NO can be measured in the range of pico moles to nano moles range. Using direct chemiluminescence method, NO emitted into the gas stream can be detected whereas using indirect chemiluminescence oxidized forms of NO can also be detected. We detected NO using purified nitrate reductase, mitochondria, cell suspensions, and roots; detail measurement method is described here. PMID:27094407

  1. Comparison of Chemiluminescence vs. Infrared Techniques for Detection of Fetuin-A in Saliva.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Suresh T; Graff, Emily; Judd, Robert L; Kothari, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The western blotting technique for transfer and detection of proteins, named following the discovery of southern and northern blotting for DNA- and RNA-blotting, respectively, has traditionally relied on the use of X-ray films to capture chemiluminescence. Recent advancements use super-cooled charge coupled devices (CCD) cameras to capture both chemiluminescence and fluorescence images, which exhibit a greater dynamic range compared to traditional X-ray film. Chemiluminescence detected by a CCD camera records photons and displays an image based on the amount of light generated as a result of a dynamic chemical reaction. Fluorescent detection with a CCD camera, on the other hand, is measured in a static state. Despite this advantage, researchers continue to widely use chemiluminescent detection methods due to the generally poor performance of fluorophores in the visible spectrum. Infrared imaging systems offer a solution to the dynamic reactions of chemiluminescence and the poor performance of fluorophores detected in the visible spectrum, by imaging fluorophores in the infrared spectrum. Infrared imaging is static, has a wide linear range, high sensitivity, and reduced autofluorescence and light scatter. A distinct advantage of infrared imaging is the ability to detect two target proteins simultaneously on the same blot which increases accuracy of quantification and comparison, while minimizing the need for stripping and reprobing. Here, we compare the methodology for chemiluminescent (UVP BioChemi) and infrared (UVP Odyssey) detection of salivary total and phosphorylated fetuin-A, a multifunctional protein associated with cardio-metabolic risk, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these methodologies.

  2. Comparison of Chemiluminescence vs. Infrared Techniques for Detection of Fetuin-A in Saliva.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Suresh T; Graff, Emily; Judd, Robert L; Kothari, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The western blotting technique for transfer and detection of proteins, named following the discovery of southern and northern blotting for DNA- and RNA-blotting, respectively, has traditionally relied on the use of X-ray films to capture chemiluminescence. Recent advancements use super-cooled charge coupled devices (CCD) cameras to capture both chemiluminescence and fluorescence images, which exhibit a greater dynamic range compared to traditional X-ray film. Chemiluminescence detected by a CCD camera records photons and displays an image based on the amount of light generated as a result of a dynamic chemical reaction. Fluorescent detection with a CCD camera, on the other hand, is measured in a static state. Despite this advantage, researchers continue to widely use chemiluminescent detection methods due to the generally poor performance of fluorophores in the visible spectrum. Infrared imaging systems offer a solution to the dynamic reactions of chemiluminescence and the poor performance of fluorophores detected in the visible spectrum, by imaging fluorophores in the infrared spectrum. Infrared imaging is static, has a wide linear range, high sensitivity, and reduced autofluorescence and light scatter. A distinct advantage of infrared imaging is the ability to detect two target proteins simultaneously on the same blot which increases accuracy of quantification and comparison, while minimizing the need for stripping and reprobing. Here, we compare the methodology for chemiluminescent (UVP BioChemi) and infrared (UVP Odyssey) detection of salivary total and phosphorylated fetuin-A, a multifunctional protein associated with cardio-metabolic risk, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these methodologies. PMID:26139281

  3. Selective Detection of Neurotransmitters by Fluorescence and Chemiluminescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ziqiang Wang; Edward S. Yeung

    2001-08-06

    In recent years, luminescence imaging has been widely employed in neurochemical analysis. It has a number of advantages for the study of neuronal and other biological cells: (1) a particular molecular species or cellular constituent can be selectively visualized in the presence of a large excess of other species in a heterogeneous environment; (2) low concentration detection limits can be achieved because of the inherent sensitivity associated with fluorescence and chemiluminescence; (3) low excitation intensities can be used so that long-term observation can be realized while the viability of the specimen is preserved; and (4) excellent spatial resolution can be obtained with the light microscope so subcellular compartments can be identified. With good sensitivity, temporal and spatial resolution, the flux of ions and molecules and the distribution and dynamics of intracellular species can be measured in real time with specific luminescence probes, substrates, or with native fluorescence. A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with CCD imaging is down to {micro}M levels of glutamate with reasonable response time. They also found that chemiluminescence associated with the ATP-dependent reaction between luciferase and luciferin can be used to image ATP at levels down to 10 nM in the millisecond time scale. Similar imaging experiments should be feasible in a broad spectrum of biological systems.

  4. Mechanistic insight into the chemiluminescent decomposition of firefly dioxetanone.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ling; Liu, Ya-Jun; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2012-07-18

    The peroxide decomposition that generates the excited-state carbonyl compound is the key step in most organic chemiluminescence, and chemically initiated electron exchange luminescence (CIEEL) has been widely accepted for decades as the general mechanism for this decomposition. The firefly dioxetanone, which is a peroxide, is the intermediate in firefly bioluminescence, and its decomposition is the most important step leading to the emission of visible light by a firefly. However, the firefly dioxetanone decomposition mechanism has never been explored at a reliable theoretical level, because the decomposition process includes biradical, charge-transfer (CT) and several nearly degenerate states. Herein, we have investigated the thermolysis of firefly dioxetanone in its neutral (FDOH) and anionic (FDO(-)) forms using second-order multiconfigurational perturbation theories in combination with the ground-state intrinsic reaction coordinate calculated via the combined hybrid functional with Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation, and considered the solvent effect on the ground-state reaction path using the combined hybrid functional with Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation. The calculated results indicate that the chemiluminescent decomposition of FDOH or FDO(-) does not take place via the CIEEL mechanism. An entropic trap was found to lead to an excited-state carbonyl compound for FDOH, and a gradually reversible CT initiated luminescence (GRCTIL) was proposed as a new mechanism for the decomposition of FDO(-).

  5. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chemiluminescence immunodevice with the signal amplification strategy for sensitive detection of human immunoglobin G.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Zhao, Mei; Liu, Wei; Chu, Weiru; Guo, Yumei

    2016-01-15

    A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chemiluminescence (CL) immunodevice for sensitive detection of human immunoglobin G (IgG) with the signal amplification strategy was developed in this work. The immunodevice was prepared by covalently immobilizing capture antibodies (Abs) on the silanized microchannel of microfluidic chip. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with a high molar ratio of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used as an Ab label for signal amplification. Using a sandwich immunoassay, the multi-HRP conjugated AuNPs can catalyze the luminol-H2O2 CL system to achieve the high sensitivity. In addition, the double spiral flow-channel was adopted here, which can still contribute to the high sensitivity. Based on signal amplification strategy, the performance of human IgG tests revealed a lower detection limit (DL) of 0.03ng/mL and showed an increase of 7.4-fold in detection sensitivity compared to a commercial Ab-HRP conjugation. This microfluidic immunodevice can provide an alternative approach for sensitive detection of human IgG in the field of clinic diagnostic and therapeutic. PMID:26592629

  6. A simple and rapid chemiluminescence aptasensor for acetamiprid in contaminated samples: Sensitivity, selectivity and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yingying; Xiu, Fu-Rong; Zheng, Minfeng; Li, Baoxin

    2016-09-15

    Ultralow concentration and selective detection of pesticide residue is important to evaluate the environmental and biological pollution and the threat to human health which single component pesticide can bring. Herein, we report an amplified chemiluminescence (CL) sensing platform for ultrasensitive and selective acetamiprid (widely used pesticide) detection. It is based on aptamer's high binding affinity to target and the relevance between AuNPs' morphology and its catalytic effect to stimulate the generation of CL in the presence of H2O2 and luminol. Moreover, AuNPs morphological slight change induced by aptamers' conformation during targets binding could lead to the significant change of catalytic properties. Therefore, the proposed sensing platform for pesticide residue exhibited a high sensitivity toward acetamiprid with a detection limit of 62pM, which was about 100-fold lower than that of other aptamer-based sensor for acetamiprid detection. Because of the intrinsic specificity of aptamer's recognization, this sensing platform has high selectivity. So, this sensing platform provides a label-free and cost-effective approach for sensitive and selective detection of single component pesticide residue. More importantly, this CL method was successfully used to determine acetamiprid in real contaminated samples. PMID:27131997

  7. Determination of phenothiazines in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine using capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; Bosque-Sendra, Juan M; Alés-Barrero, Fermín

    2006-06-01

    A CE instrument coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was designed for the determination of promethazine hydrochloride (PTH) and promazine hydrochloride (PMH) in real samples. An important enhancement of the CL emission of luminol with potassium ferricyanide was observed in the presence of these phenothiazines; so this system was selected for their detection after CE separation. Parameters affecting the electrophoretic separation were optimized in a univariate way, while those affecting CL detection were optimized by means of a multivariate approach based on the use of experimental designs. Chemometrics was also employed for the study of the robustness of the factors influencing the postcolumn CL detection. The method allows the separation of the phenothiazines in less than 4 min, achieving LODs of 80 ng/mL for PMH and 334 ng/mL for PTH, using sample injection by gravity. Electrokinetic injection was used to obtain lower LODs for the determination of the compounds in biological samples. The applicability of the CE-CL method was illustrated in the determination of PTH in pharmaceutical formulations and in the analysis of PMH in human urine, using a previous SPE procedure, achieving an LOD of 1 ng/mL and recoveries higher than 85%.

  8. A quantitative chemiluminescent assay for analysis of peroxide-based explosives.

    PubMed

    Girotti, S; Ferri, E; Maiolini, E; Bolelli, L; D'Elia, M; Coppe, D; Romolo, F S

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative chemiluminescent method, enabling indirect identification of the peroxide-based explosives TATP (triacetone triperoxide) and HMTD (hexamethylene triperoxide diamine) has been developed. Treatment of these compounds with acidic solutions produced peroxides, which were transformed into radical derivatives by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and then quantified by measuring the light emitted during their oxidation of luminol. The method was first developed in the microplate format and later optimized for a portable luminometer, to enable rapid application of the assay directly on site. When the portable luminometer was used each analysis took only 5-10 min. The method had good selectivity, sensitivity, and reproducibility; in the microplate format the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 40 and 50 ng mL(-1), respectively, for both TATP and HMTD. When the portable luminometer was used the LOD and LOQ were 50 and 100 ng mL(-1), respectively, for both compounds. Introduction of light emission-enhancing compounds did not improve the analytical performance of the assay. Imprecision (CV values) was always below 10%. Recovery varied rapidly with time, with an average value of 78% after 5 min. No false-positive result was detected on measurement of a variety of samples; this is an important feature for analysis on site. The method was applied both to contaminated materials and to fortified soil samples, simulating operational conditions. PMID:21249343

  9. Gold nanorods-enhanced rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-04-15

    A novel enhanced chemiluminescence system was developed by applying gold nanorods (Au NRs) as catalysts in rhodamine B-permanganate reaction. Au NRs with three different aspect ratios were synthesized by seed mediated growth method and characterized by UV-Vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that Au NRs have much higher catalytic effect than spherical nanoparticles on rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence reaction. Among various sizes of Au NRs, those with average aspect ratio of 3.0 were found to have the most remarkable catalytic activity. As an analytical application of the new chemiluminescence system, albumin as a model protein was quantified based on its interaction with NRs. Albumin binds to Au NRs active surfaces and inhibits their catalytic action and therefore decreases the intensity of chemiluminescence. This diminution effect is linearly related to the concentration of the human and bovine serum albumin over the ranges of 0.45-90 and 0.75-123 nmol L(-1), respectively with the corresponding limits of detection of 0.18 and 0.30 nmol L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of albumin in human and bovine serum samples. PMID:23434557

  10. Gold nanorods-enhanced rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-04-01

    A novel enhanced chemiluminescence system was developed by applying gold nanorods (Au NRs) as catalysts in rhodamine B-permanganate reaction. Au NRs with three different aspect ratios were synthesized by seed mediated growth method and characterized by UV-Vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that Au NRs have much higher catalytic effect than spherical nanoparticles on rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence reaction. Among various sizes of Au NRs, those with average aspect ratio of 3.0 were found to have the most remarkable catalytic activity. As an analytical application of the new chemiluminescence system, albumin as a model protein was quantified based on its interaction with NRs. Albumin binds to Au NRs active surfaces and inhibits their catalytic action and therefore decreases the intensity of chemiluminescence. This diminution effect is linearly related to the concentration of the human and bovine serum albumin over the ranges of 0.45-90 and 0.75-123 nmol L-1, respectively with the corresponding limits of detection of 0.18 and 0.30 nmol L-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of albumin in human and bovine serum samples.

  11. Plant tissue-based chemiluminescence flow biosensor for determination of unbound dopamine in rabbit blood with on-line microdialysis sampling.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhujun; Jin, Yan

    2002-06-01

    A novel plant tissue-based chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor for dopamine combined with flow injection analysis is presented in this paper. The potato roots act as molecular recognition elements. Dopamine is oxidized by oxygen under the catalysis of polyphenol oxidase in the tissue column to produce hydrogen peroxide, which can react with luminol in the presence of peroxidase of potato tissue to generate CL signal. The CL emission intensity was linear with dopamine concentration in the range of 1x10(-5)-1x10(-7) g/ml and the detection limit was 5.3x10(-8) g/ml (3sigma) with a relative standard deviation of 1.7%. Combined with microdialysis sampling, the biosensor was applied to monitor the variation of dopamine level in the blood of rabbit after the administration of dopamine to demonstrate the favorable resolution and reliability of the system for in vivo on-line monitoring. PMID:11959481

  12. Modified chemiluminescent NO analyzer accurately measures NOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Installation of molybdenum nitric oxide (NO)-to-higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) converter in chemiluminescent gas analyzer and use of air purge allow accurate measurements of NOx in exhaust gases containing as much as thirty percent carbon monoxide (CO). Measurements using conventional analyzer are highly inaccurate for NOx if as little as five percent CO is present. In modified analyzer, molybdenum has high tolerance to CO, and air purge substantially quenches NOx destruction. In test, modified chemiluminescent analyzer accurately measured NO and NOx concentrations for over 4 months with no denegration in performance.

  13. Chemiluminescence determination of terbutaline sulfate in bovine urine and pharmaceutical preparations based on enhancement of the 2-phenyl-4, 5-di (2-furyl) imidazole-potassium ferricyanide system.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Zhang, Yumin; Kang, Jing; Tang, Jieli; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-01-25

    In this paper, a novel chemiluminescence (CL) system, 2-phenyl-4, 5-di (2-furyl) imidazole (PDFI)-potassium ferricyanide, for the determination of terbutaline sulfate was described. The method was based on enhancement of CL emission of PDFI-potassium ferricyanide system in the presence of terbutaline sulfate. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced chemiluminescence intensity is linearly related to the concentration of terbutaline sulfate. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of terbutaline sulfate in bovine urine and pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of chemiluminescence reaction was also discussed briefly.

  14. CuO nanosheets-enhanced flow-injection chemiluminescence system for determination of vancomycin in water, pharmaceutical and human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, A. R.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Iranifam, M.; Fathinia, M.; Hanifehpour, Y.; Joo, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive CuO nanosheets (NSs) amplified flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system, luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets, was developed for determination of the vancomycin hydrochloride for the first time. It was found that vancomycin could efficiently inhibit the CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets system in alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, the inhibited CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of vancomycin over the ranges of 0.5-18.0 and 18.0-40.0 mg L-1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.1 mg L-1. The precision was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L-1 vancomycin (n = 11) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.8%. Also, a high injection throughput of 120 sample h-1 was obtained. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized by a sonochemical method. Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed to characterize the CuO nanosheets. The method was successfully employed to determine vancomycin hydrochloride in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum.

  15. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  16. Highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of pyrogallol compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwal, Shamsa; Fu, Xiaohong; Su, Xingguang

    2009-12-01

    A highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescent method for the direct determination of pyrogallol compounds has been developed. Proposed method is based on the enhanced effect of pyrogallol compounds on the chemiluminescence signals of KMnO 4-H 2O 2 system in slightly alkaline medium. Three important pyrogallol compounds, pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, have been detected by this method, and the possible mechanism of the CL reaction is also discussed. The proposed method is simple, convenient, rapid (60 samples h -1), and sensitive, has a linear range of 8 × 10 -10 mol L -1 to 1 × 10 -5 mol L -1, for pyrogallic acid, with a detection limit of 6 × 10 -11 mol L -1, 4 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -3 mol L -1 for gallic acid with a detection limit of 9 × 10 -10 mol L -1, and 8 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -2 mol L -1 for tannic acid, with a detection limit of 2 × 10 -9 mol L -1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 15) was 0.8, 1.1 and 1.3% for 5 × 10 -6 mol L -1 pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of pyrogallol compounds in tea and coffee samples.

  17. Illustrating Chemiluminescence with Siloxene Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Ray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the nature of light-producing reactions and provides a procedure for demonstrating chemical luminescence using siloxene indicator. Indicates source of this chemical and safety precautions. (SK)

  18. Experimental and numerical study of chemiluminescent species in low-pressure flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathrotia, T.; Riedel, U.; Seipel, A.; Moshammer, K.; Brockhinke, A.

    2012-06-01

    Chemiluminescence has been observed since the beginning of spectroscopy, nevertheless, important facts still remain unknown. Especially, reaction pathways leading to chemiluminescent species such as OH∗, CH∗, C2^{*}, and CO2^{*} are still under debate and cannot be modeled with standard codes for flame simulation. In several cases, even the source species of spectral features observed in flames are unknown. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in chemiluminescence, since it has been shown that this radiation can be used to determine flame parameters such as stoichiometry and heat release under some conditions. In this work, we present a reaction mechanism which predicts the OH∗, CH∗ (in A- and B-state), and C2^{*} emission strength in lean to fuel-rich stoichiometries. Measurements have been performed in a set of low-pressure flames which have already been well characterized by other methods. The flame front is resolved in these measurements, which allows a comparison of shape and position of the observed chemiluminescence with the respective simulated concentrations. To study the effects of varying fuels, methane flame diluted in hydrogen are measured as well. The 14 investigated premixed methane-oxygen-argon and methane-hydrogen-oxygen-argon flames span a wide parameter field of fuel stoichiometry ( ϕ=0.5 to 1.6) and hydrogen content (H2 vol%=0 to 50). The relative comparison of measured and simulated excited species concentrations shows good agreement. The detailed and reliable modeling for several chemiluminescent species permits correlating heat release with all of these emissions under a large set of flame conditions. It appears from the present study that the normally used product of formaldehyde and OH concentration may be less well suited for such a prediction in the flames under investigation.

  19. [Carbamide peroxide as source of hydrogen peroxide for the luminol application at crime scenes].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lothar; Hermanowski, Mona-Lena

    2009-01-01

    The solution of hydrogen peroxide is a critical ingredient of the Weber luminol application for blood detection at the crime scene. An ideal alternative to the unstable hydrogen peroxide is a solid compound which is easy to transport, stable and quick to solve in water at the crime scene. Carbamide peroxide (urea peroxide) is one of these solid hydrogen peroxide carriers which is easy to obtain as one gram tablets. At dry conditions it is stable over a long period at room temperature and even for a short time at higher temperatures. But at 70 degrees C (180 degrees F) the tablets go out of shape and cake after one hour. In the application of luminol there are no differences between the use of hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide.

  20. Rapid quantitative assessment of phagocytic activity of Indium-111 labeled leukocytes by chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Juni, J.E.; Petry, N.; Wahl, R.L.; Geatti, O.

    1985-05-01

    Indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging is gaining widespread acceptance. A rapid method for assaying changes in leukocyte viability and phagocytic function during the labeling process would facilitate the evaluation of new labeling techniques and testing of labeled cells before pt injection. The authors have conducted preliminary investigations of chemiluminescence in the clinical evaluation of leukocyte labeling. The chemiluminescence assay may be performed in 30 minutes with only 0.1 ml of whole blood. Zymossan is rapidly introduced to the blood or cell suspension resulting in the emission of light which is then counted by photometer. The amount of light given off by the reaction reflects both the phagocytic function of the cells and the ability of activated phagocytes to generate activated oxygen species. They have evaluated the chemiluminescent activity of normal human leukocyte suspensions both before and after labeling with Indium-111 oxine. The chemiluminescence assay provides a rapid means of evaluating granulocyte function. Correlations of this activity with image quality may provides clues for optimization of labeling techniques.

  1. Actinometric measurement of j(O3-O(1D)) using a luminol detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bairai, Solomon T.; Stedman, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    The photolysis frequency of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms has been measured by means of a chemical actinometer using a luminol based detector. The instrument measures j(O3-O(1D)) with a precision of 10 percent. The data collected in winter and spring of 1991 is in agreement with model predictions and previously measured values. Data from a global solar radiometer can be used to estimate the effects of local cloudiness on j(O3-O(1D)).

  2. A study of common interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood.

    PubMed

    Quickenden, T I; Creamer, J I

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of domestic and industrial substances that might be mistaken for haemoglobin in the forensic luminol test for blood were examined. The substances studied were in the categories of vegetable or fruit pulps and juices; domestic and commercial oils; cleaning agents; an insecticide; and various glues, paints and varnishes. A significant number of substances in each category gave luminescence intensities that were comparable with the intensities of undiluted haemoglobin, when sprayed with the standard forensic solution containing aqueous alkaline luminol and sodium perborate. In these cases the substance could be easily mistaken for blood when the luminol test is used, but in the remaining cases the luminescence intensity was so weak that it is unlikely that a false-positive test would be obtained. In a few cases the brightly emitting substance could be distinguished from blood by a small but detectable shift of the peak emission wavelength. The results indicated that particular care should be taken to avoid interferences when a crime scene is contaminated with parsnip, turnip or horseradish, and when surfaces coated with enamel paint are involved. To a lesser extent, some care should be taken when surfaces covered with terracotta or ceramic tiles, polyurethane varnishes or jute and sisal matting are involved.

  3. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol on titania nanotubes functionalised indium tin oxide glass for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Xiao, Changbin; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    The titania nanotubes (TiNTs) had been immobilised onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass to intensify the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The morphology, structure and properties such as specific surface area and transmittance of synthesised TiNTs were characterised. The results indicated that the TiNTs was several hundred nanometres in length with the diameter of 20 nm. In flow injection analysis (FIA) mode, the TiNTs dramatically enhanced the ECL emission of luminol for about 25 multiple, meanwhile decreased the requirement of buffer pH and exciting potential. The ECL emission of luminol on functionalised ITO electrode has sensitive response toward hydrogen peroxide, and extraordinarily responsive toward the antioxidant. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL emission exhibited a linear response within the concentration range from 0.1 mg L(-1) to 30 mg L(-1) and an absolute detection limit of 1.65×10(-10) g of resveratrol. The gross antioxidant activity of blueberry and kiwi were determined with satisfactory recoveries.

  4. Chemiluminescence determination of folic acid by a flow injection analysis assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Eldesoky, Gaber E.

    2013-03-01

    A flow injection (FI) method is reported for the determination of folic acid by chemiluminescence method. This method is based on the reaction of folic acid with Ru(bipy)32+ and Ce(IV) to produce chemiluminescence. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.5 × 10-5-3.1 × 10-7 mol/L with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10-8 mol/L (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation of 1.0 × 10-6 mol/L folic acid was found 3.5% (n = 11). The influences of potential interfering substances were studied. The recovery was higher than 95.3%. The method was accurate, sensitive, and effective for assay of folic acid. This CL method was successfully applied to the determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied.

  5. Weak chemiluminescence of bilirubin and its stimulation by aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Usa, M; Kobayashi, M; Agatsuma, S; Inaba, H

    1992-01-01

    Bilirubin in an alkaline solution exhibits a weak chemiluminescence (CL) under aerobic conditions. This spontaneous CL was markedly enhanced by the addition of various aldehydes. The fluorescent emission spectrum of bilirubin, excited by weak intensity light at 350 nm, coincided with its CL emission spectrum (peak at 670 nm). CL emission from bilirubin was not quenched by active oxygen scavengers. This suggests that triplet oxygen reacts with bilirubin, and forms an oxygenated intermediate (hydroperoxide) as a primary emitter (oxidative scission of tetrapyrrole bonds in bilirubin is not involved in this CL). The Ehrlich reaction (test for monopyrroles) and hydrolsulphite reaction (test for dipyrroles) on the CL reaction mixture and unreacted bilirubin showed no differences. When the CL was initiated by singlet oxygen, rather than superoxide anion, monopyrrole, was detected in the reaction products by gel chromatography. The inhibitory effect of a scavenger of singlet oxygen on CL was eliminated in the presence of formaldehyde. Therefore, triplet carbonyl, formed by singlet oxygen through the dioxetane structure in bilirubin, is not an emitter. The reaction mechanism of bilirubin CL and the formation of a hydroperoxide intermediate is discussed in relation to the chemical structure of luciferin molecules from bioluminescent organisms.

  6. New method for the photo-chemiluminometric determination of benzoylurea insecticides based on acetonitrile chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Gil García, M D; Martínez Galera, M; Santiago Valverde, R

    2007-03-01

    The viability of tandem photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence detection has been studied for the determination of five benzoylurea insecticides, namely, diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron. The 'on-line' photochemical reaction of benzoylurea pesticides provides an enhanced chemiluminescence response of the pesticides during their oxidation by potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and sodium hydroxide, whose signal increases with the percentage of acetonitrile in the reaction medium. The determination was performed using a photoreactor consisting of a PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) tube reactor coil (5 mx1.6-mm O.D. and 0.8-mm I.D.) and an 8-W xenon lamp. As the yield of the photoderivatization process and the chemiluminescent signals depend on the percentage of acetonitrile, the chromatographic column (a Gemini C18, Phenomenex 150 mmx4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size) was chosen with the aim of using high percentages of this organic solvent in the mobile phase. Previous studies showed that the rate of the chemiluminescent reaction was very fast. Therefore, a modification was carried out in the detector in order to mix the analytes and reactants as near as possible to the measure cell. The optimised method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantification accuracy. Under the optimised conditions, linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviation of intra-day precision below 10% and detection limits between 0.012 and 0.18 microg mL-1, according to the compound. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of benzoylureas in cucumber with good results.

  7. New method for the photo-chemiluminometric determination of benzoylurea insecticides based on acetonitrile chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Gil García, M D; Martínez Galera, M; Santiago Valverde, R

    2007-03-01

    The viability of tandem photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence detection has been studied for the determination of five benzoylurea insecticides, namely, diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron. The 'on-line' photochemical reaction of benzoylurea pesticides provides an enhanced chemiluminescence response of the pesticides during their oxidation by potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and sodium hydroxide, whose signal increases with the percentage of acetonitrile in the reaction medium. The determination was performed using a photoreactor consisting of a PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) tube reactor coil (5 mx1.6-mm O.D. and 0.8-mm I.D.) and an 8-W xenon lamp. As the yield of the photoderivatization process and the chemiluminescent signals depend on the percentage of acetonitrile, the chromatographic column (a Gemini C18, Phenomenex 150 mmx4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size) was chosen with the aim of using high percentages of this organic solvent in the mobile phase. Previous studies showed that the rate of the chemiluminescent reaction was very fast. Therefore, a modification was carried out in the detector in order to mix the analytes and reactants as near as possible to the measure cell. The optimised method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantification accuracy. Under the optimised conditions, linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviation of intra-day precision below 10% and detection limits between 0.012 and 0.18 microg mL-1, according to the compound. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of benzoylureas in cucumber with good results. PMID:17205265

  8. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  9. Quenching effect of some heavy metal ions on the fast peroxyoxalate-chemiluminescence of 1-(dansylamidopropyl)-1-aza-4,7,10-trithiacyclododecane as a novel fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Zargoosh, Kiomars; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Caltagirone, Claudia; Lippolis, Vito

    2009-09-01

    The fast chemiluminescence (CL) arising from the reaction of bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of 1-(dansylamidopropyl)-1-aza-4,7,10-trithiacyclododecane ( L) as a novel fluorophore, and imidazole as catalyst, has been studied in ethyl acetate solution. The relationships between the chemiluminescence intensity and concentrations of TCPO, imidazole, hydrogen peroxide and L are reported. In the presence of imidazole as catalyst, the entire CL signal was completed in less than 3 s. The quenching effect of Cu 2+, Pb 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Ag + ions on the chemiluminescent system was investigated, the resulting Stern-Volmer plots were obtained and the KQ values were calculated. It was found that the quenching effect of metal ions on the chemiluminescence of L decreases in the order Cu 2+ > Pb 2+ > Cd 2+ > Hg 2+ > Ag +.

  10. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Carney, Brandon; Shaffer, Travis M; Tang, Jun; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish; Zeglis, Brian M; Grimm, Jan; Eppinger, Jörg; Reiner, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce(4+) in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9 pmol cm(-2) of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the in vivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies.

  11. Detection of autoantibodies using chemiluminescence technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Michael; Bentow, Chelsea; Serra, Josep; Fritzler, Marvin J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Context: Although autoantibody detection methods such as indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been available for many years and are still in use the innovation of fast, fully automated instruments using chemiluminescence technology in recent years has led to rapid adoption in autoimmune disease diagnostics. In 2009, BIO-FLASH, a fully automated, random access chemiluminescent analyzer, was introduced, proceeded by the development of the QUANTA Flash chemiluminescent immunoassays (CIA) for autoimmune diagnostics. Objective: To summarize the evolution of CIAs for the detection of autoantibodies and to review their performance characteristics. Methods: Pubmed was screened for publications evaluating novel QUANTA Flash assays and how they compare to traditional methods for the detection of autoantibodies. In addition, comparative studies presented at scientific meetings were summarized. Results: Several studies were identified that compared the novel CIAs with conventional methods for autoantibody detection. The agreements ranged from moderate to excellent depending on the assay. The studies show how the CIA technology has enhanced the analytical and clinical performance characteristics of many autoantibody assays supporting both diagnosis and follow-up testing. Conclusion: CIA has started to improve the diagnostic testing of autoantibodies as an aid in the diagnosis of a broad range of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26525648

  12. Acridinium Ester-Functionalized Carbon Nanomaterials: General Synthesis Strategy and Outstanding Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhili; Li, Fang; Shu, Jiangnan; Gao, Lingfeng; Liu, Xiaoying; Cui, Hua

    2016-07-13

    In this work, three different kinds of acridinium ester (AE)-functionalized carbon nanomaterials, including AE-functionalized carbon nanoparticles (AE-CNPs), AE-functionalized graphene oxide (AE-GO), and AE-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AE-MCNTs), were synthesized for the first time via a simple, general, and noncovalent strategy. AE molecules were assembled on the surface of carbon nanomaterials by electrostatic interaction, π-π stacking interaction, and amide bond. The synthesized AE-CNPs, AE-GO, and AE-MCNTs with 5.0 × 10(-8) mol·L(-1) of synthetic AE concentration, which was very low compared with other chemiluminescence (CL) reagents such as luminol, N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol), and lucigenin at the concentration of 3.3 × 10(-4) to 5.0 × 10(-6) mol·L(-1) used for the synthesis of CL-functionalized nanomaterials, exhibited outstanding CL activity and good stability. It was found that carbon nanomaterials as nanosized platforms could efficiently immobilize AE molecules and facilitate the formation of OH(•) and O2(•-), leading to strong light emission. Moreover, the CL intensity of AE-GO was the highest, which was about 8.7 and 3.7 times higher than that of AE-CNPs and AE-MCNTs, respectively. This mainly resulted from a difference in the amount of adsorbed AE molecules on the surface of different carbon nanomaterials. Additionally, the prepared AE-CNPs demonstrated excitation-dependent fluorescence property and good fluorescence stability against photobleaching. On the basis of the excellent CL and special fluorescence properties of AE-CNPs, a dual-mode array strategy has been proposed for the first time and seven kinds of transition-metal ions could be successfully discriminated. PMID:27337413

  13. Simultaneous use of electrochemistry and chemiluminescence to detect reactive oxygen species produced by human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Shleev, Sergey; Wetterö, Jonas; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas

    2008-12-01

    A novel approach for the simultaneous optical and electrochemical detection of biologically produced reactive oxygen species has been developed and applied. The set-up consists of a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay combined with two amperometric biosensors sensitive to superoxide anion radicals (O(2)(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), respectively. The method permits direct, real-time in vitro determination of both extra- and intracellular O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) produced by human neutrophil granulocytes. The rate of O(2)(-) production by stimulated neutrophils was calculated to about 10(-17)mol s(-1) per single cell. With inhibited NADPH oxidase, a distinct extracellular release of H(2)O(2) instead of O(2)(-) was obtained from stimulated neutrophils with the rate of about 3 x 10(-18)mol s(-1) per single cell. When the H(2)O(2) release was discontinued, fast H(2)O(2) utilisation was observed. Direct interaction with and possibly attachment of neutrophils to redox protein-modified gold electrodes, resulted in a spontaneous respiratory burst in the population of cells closely associated to the electrode surface. Hence, further stimulation of human neutrophils with a potent receptor agonist (fMLF) did not significantly increase the O(2)(-) sensitive amperometric response. By contrast, the H(2)O(2) sensitive biosensor, based on an HRP-modified graphite electrode, was able to reflect the bulk concentration of H(2)O(2), produced by stimulated neutrophils and would be very useful in modestly equipped biomedical research laboratories. In summary, the system would also be appropriate for assessment of several other metabolites in different cell types, and tissues of varying complexity, with only minor electrode modifications.

  14. Characterization of quinone derived protein adducts and their selective identification using redox cycling based chemiluminescence assay.

    PubMed

    Elgawish, Mohamed Saleh; Kishikawa, Naoya; Ohyama, Kaname; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2015-07-17

    The cytotoxic mechanism of many quinones has been correlated to covalent modification of cellular proteins. However, the identification of relevant proteins targets is essential but challenging goals. To better understand the quinones cytotoxic mechanism, human serum albumin (HSA) was incubated in vitro with different concentration of menadione (MQ). In this respect, the initial nucleophilic addition of proteins to quinone converts the conjugates to redox-cycling quinoproteins with altered conformation and secondary structure and extended life span than the short lived, free quinones. The conjugation of MQ with nucleophilic sites likewise, free cysteine as well as ɛ-amino group of lysine residue of HSA has been found to be in concentration dependent manner. The conventional methods for modified proteins identification in complex mixtures are complicated and time consuming. Herein, we describe a highly selective, sensitive, simple, and fast strategy for quinoproteins identification. The suggested strategy exploited the unique redox-cycling capability of quinoproteins in presence of a reductant, dithiothreitol (DTT), to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that gave sufficient chemiluminescence (CL) when mixed with luminol. The CL approach is highly selective and sensitive to detect the quinoproteins in ten-fold molar excess of native proteins without adduct enrichment. The approach was also coupled with gel filtration chromatography (GFC) and used to identify adducts in complex mixture of proteins in vitro as well as in rat plasma after MQ administration. Albumin was identified as the main protein in human and rat plasma forming adduct with MQ. Overall, the identification of quinoproteins will encourage further studies of toxicological impact of quinones on human health. PMID:26044383

  15. Paper-based chromatographic chemiluminescence chip for the detection of dichlorvos in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Kou, Juan; Xing, Huizhong; Li, Baoxin

    2014-02-15

    Paper chromatography was a big breakthrough in the early of 20th century but it is rarely used due to the long separation time and the diffusion on the sample spots. In this work, for the first time, a paper-based chemiluminescence (CL) analytical device combined with paper chromatography was developed for the determination of dichlorvos (DDV) in vegetables without complicated sample pretreatment. The paper chromatography separation procedure can be accomplished in 12 min on a paper support (0.8 × 7.0 cm(2)) by using 5 µL sample spotted on it. After sample developing, the detection area (0.8 × 1.0 cm(2)) was cut and inserted between two layers of water-impermeable single-sided adhesive tapes. The paper-based chip was made by attaching the middle layer of paper onto the bottom layer. Then it was covered by another tape layer, which was patterned by the cutting method to form a square hole (0.8 × 1.0 cm(2)) in it. 10 μL mixed solution of luminol and H2O2 was dropped on the detection area to produce CL. A linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentrations of DDV in the range between 10.0 ng mL(-1) and 1.0 μg mL(-1)and the detection limit was 3.6 ng mL(-1). Water-soluble metal ions and vitamins can be developed at different spatial locations relative to DDV, eliminating interference with DDV during detection. The paper-based chromatographic chip can be successfully used for the determination of DDV without complicated sample preparation in vegetables. This study should, therefore, be suitable for rapid and sensitive detection of trace levels of organophosphate pesticides in environmental and food samples.

  16. Luminol-dependent photoemission from single neutrophil stimulated by phorbol ester and calcium ionophore--role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Suematsu, M.; Oshio, C.; Miura, S.; Suzuki, M.; Houzawa, S.; Tsuchiya, M.

    1988-08-30

    Luminol-dependent photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated single neutrophil was visually investigated by using an ultrasensitive photonic image intensifier microscope. Neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (0.1 microgram/ml) alone produced a negligible level of photonic activities in the presence of luminol (10 micrograms/ml). The additional application of 0.1 microM Ca2+ ionophore A23187 induced explosive changes of photonic burst corresponding to the distribution of neutrophils, and these photonic activities were gradually spread to extracellular space. Sodium azide, which prevents myeloperoxidase activity, inhibited Ca2+ ionophore-induced photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated neutrophil. These findings suggest a prerequisite role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase release in luminol-dependent photoemission from stimulated neutrophils.

  17. Continuous flow determination of nitrite with membrane separation/chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Aoki, T

    1990-05-01

    A method for the determination of nitrite in water utilizing a membrane separation process and a chemiluminescence detector, with the addition of air-stripping and air-carrier, is proposed. The microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) tube was used as separator to transfer nitric oxide (reduced by iodine in acidic media) into a gas phase. Air-stripping was used to enhance the separation. Chemiluminescence signals produced from the reaction of nitric oxide with ozone were linearly proportional to the concentration of nitrite from 10 ppb (micrograms as N/L) to 5 ppm (mg N/L). The relative standard deviation (n = 5) was 0.7% at 0.1 ppm. The time elapse from starting the sample flow until the signal reached a stable level was 1.5 min.

  18. Interferences in the chemiluminescent measurement of NO and NO2 emissions from combustion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, R. D.; Sawyer, R. F.; Schefer, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Two factors which may affect the quantification of NO and NO2 concentrations when using chemiluminescent analysis are investigated. The first is the dependence of the chemiluminescent intensity on competing third body quenching reactions. Relative quenching efficiencies are determined as a function of third body concentration for six different species which are common products of combustion. A mathematical expression is derived which allows calculation of the actual concentration of NO given the indicated concentration of NO and the concentrations of the important third bodies. An example calculation is presented. The second factor which is investigated involves the conversion of low molecular weight nitrogen containing species, other than NO2, in commercial NOx converters. Conversion efficiencies for six species were determined using a commercial stainless steel catalyst at 923 K.

  19. Chemiluminescence efficiency of catalyzed 1,2-dioxetanone decomposition determined by steric effects.

    PubMed

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; de Oliveira, Marcelo Almeida; Ciscato, Luiz Francisco Monteiro Leite; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Bastos, Erick Leite; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2015-04-17

    The chemiluminescent decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanones (α-peroxylactones), catalyzed by an appropriate fluorescent activator, is an important simple model for efficient bioluminescent transformations. In this work, we report experimental data on the catalyzed decomposition of two spiro-substituted 1,2-dioxetanone derivatives, which support the occurrence of an intermolecular electron transfer from the activator to the peroxide. The low efficiency of the studied systems is associated with steric hindrance during the chemiexcitation sequence, rationalized using the concept of supermolecule formation between the peroxide and the catalyst. This approach explains the difference in the chemiexcitation efficiencies in the decomposition of four-membered cyclic peroxide derivatives: 1,2-dioxetanes, 1,2-dioxetanones, and 1,2-dioxetanedione (the intermediate in the peroxyoxalate reaction), which are the most important model compounds for excited-state formation in chemiluminescence and bioluminescence processes. PMID:25831218

  20. Chemiluminescent Nanomicelles for Imaging Hydrogen Peroxide and Self-Therapy in Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Luzhong; Gao, Jian; Wu, Wei; Hu, Yong; Jiang, Xiqun

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a signal molecule of the tumor, and its overproduction makes a higher concentration in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Based on the fact that peroxalates can make chemiluminescence with a high efficiency in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, we developed nanomicelles composed of peroxalate ester oligomers and fluorescent dyes, called peroxalate nanomicelles (POMs), which could image hydrogen peroxide with high sensitivity and stability. The potential application of the POMs in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer was also investigated. It was found that the PDT-drug-loaded POMs were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, and the PDT drug could be stimulated by the chemiluminescence from the reaction between POMs and hydrogen peroxide, which carried on a self-therapy of the tumor without the additional laser light resource. PMID:21765637

  1. Sensitive detection of tumor marker CA15-3 in human serum by capillary electrophoretic immunoassay with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Yan-Li; Cao, Jun-Tao; Chen, Yong-Hong; Li, Fu-Rong

    2008-04-01

    A new and sensitive non-competitive immunoassay (IA) for tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) by CE coupling with ECL detection has been developed. This method is based on luminol-H(2)O(2 )reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The optimum CE separation and CL detection conditions were investigated. After the non-competitive immunoreaction, the free HRP-labeled CA15-3 antibody (Ab*) and the bound Ab*-antigen (Ab*-Ag) complex were separated in a separation capillary and then catalyzed the CL reaction of luminol and H(2)O(2 )in a reaction capillary following the separation capillary. The calibration curve based on the peak areas of Ab*-Ag complex plotted against the concentrations of CA15-3 is in the range of 0-250 U/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983 and the detection limit is 0.035 U/mL (S/N = 3). The response for five consecutive injections of 125 U/mL CA15-3 resulted in RSDs of 0.83% and 3.1% for the migration time and the peak area, respectively. The method was successfully used for the quantification of CA15-3 in human sera obtained from healthy persons and from patients with breast cancer.

  2. On the interaction of luminol with human serum albumin: Nature and thermodynamics of ligand binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyon, N. Shaemningwar; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2010-09-01

    The mechanism and thermodynamic parameters for the binding of luminol (LH 2) with human serum albumin was explored by steady state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. It was shown that out of two possible LH 2 conformers present is solution, only one is accessible for binding with HSA. The thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy (Δ H) and entropy (Δ S) change corresponding to the ligand binding process were also estimated by performing the experiment at different temperatures. The ligand replacement experiment with bilirubin confirms that LH 2 binds into the sub-domain IIA of the protein.

  3. Application of a novel co-enzyme reactor in chemiluminescence flow-through biosensor for determination of lactose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Zhang, Zhujun; Shi, Zuolong; Xue, Pan; Chang, Pingping; Yan, Ruifang

    2010-06-30

    A novel enzyme reactor with co-immobilization of beta-galactosidase and glucose oxidase in calcium alginate fiber (CAF) and amine modified nanosized mesoporous silica (AMNMS) was prepared which incorporate the adsorption and catalysis of AMNMS with the cage effect of the polymer to increase catalytic activity and stability of immobilized enzyme. The enzyme reactor was applied to prepare a chemiluminescence (CL) flow-through biosensor for determination of lactose combined with a novel luminol-diperiodatonickelate (DPN) CL system we reported. It shows that the CL flow-through biosensor possesses long lifetime, high stability, high catalytic activity and sensitivity. The relative CL intensity was linear with the lactose concentration in the range of 8 x 10(-8) - 4 x 10(-6) g mL(-1) with the detection limit of 2.7 x 10(-8) g mL(-1) (3sigma). It has been successfully applied to the determination of lactose in milk. PMID:20685473

  4. Assessment of antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts of Psidium guajava leaves by DPPH and chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M R V; Azzolini, A E C S; Martinez, M L L; Souza, C R F; Lucisano-Valim, Y M; Oliveira, W P

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β -cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH(•) method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells. PMID:24822200

  5. In vitro inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its major components on chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and its major constituents, crypto-chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, were investigated on the respiratory burst of human whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. The chemotactic migration of PMNs was also investigated using the Boyden chamber technique. The ethanol extract demonstrated inhibitory activities on the oxidative burst and the chemotactic migration of PMNs. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, crypto-chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isolated from the extract, expressed relatively strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of PMNs with IC50 values of 4.1, 6.7 and 7.0 microM, respectively, comparable with that of aspirin. They also demonstrated strong inhibition of chemotatic migration of PMNs with IC50 values of 9.5, 15.9 and 18.2 microM, respectively. The results suggest that M. oleifera leaves could modulate the immune response of human phagocytes, linking to its ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The immunomodulating activity of the plant was mainly due to its major components. PMID:24427941

  6. In vitro inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its major components on chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and its major constituents, crypto-chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, were investigated on the respiratory burst of human whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. The chemotactic migration of PMNs was also investigated using the Boyden chamber technique. The ethanol extract demonstrated inhibitory activities on the oxidative burst and the chemotactic migration of PMNs. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, crypto-chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isolated from the extract, expressed relatively strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of PMNs with IC50 values of 4.1, 6.7 and 7.0 microM, respectively, comparable with that of aspirin. They also demonstrated strong inhibition of chemotatic migration of PMNs with IC50 values of 9.5, 15.9 and 18.2 microM, respectively. The results suggest that M. oleifera leaves could modulate the immune response of human phagocytes, linking to its ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The immunomodulating activity of the plant was mainly due to its major components.

  7. A molecularly imprinted polymer based a lab-on-paper chemiluminescence device for the detection of dichlorvos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Luo, Jing; Kou, Juan; Zheng, Hongyan; Li, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhujun

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based lab-on-paper device with chemiluminescence (CL) detection of dichlorvos (DDV) was designed. With the circle-shaped device, the MIP layer with certain depth was synthesized and adsorbed on the paper surface and DDV can be selectively imprinted on it. The adsorption and washing procedures can be achieved well on the paper-based chip. The paper-based device was fabricated by a simple cutting method and many chips can be made at the same time. On the basis of DDV enhancing CL of luminol-H2O2 greatly, the proposed MIP based lab-on-paper CL device showed better selectivity to DDV and it has been applied to the determination of DDV in vegetables in the range of 3.0 ng/mL-1.0 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL. This study has made a successful attempt in the development of highly selective and sensitive monitoring of DDV in real samples and will provide a new approach for sensitive and specific assay in environmental monitoring.

  8. A molecularly imprinted polymer based a lab-on-paper chemiluminescence device for the detection of dichlorvos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Luo, Jing; Kou, Juan; Zheng, Hongyan; Li, Baoxin; Zhang, Zhujun

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based lab-on-paper device with chemiluminescence (CL) detection of dichlorvos (DDV) was designed. With the circle-shaped device, the MIP layer with certain depth was synthesized and adsorbed on the paper surface and DDV can be selectively imprinted on it. The adsorption and washing procedures can be achieved well on the paper-based chip. The paper-based device was fabricated by a simple cutting method and many chips can be made at the same time. On the basis of DDV enhancing CL of luminol-H2O2 greatly, the proposed MIP based lab-on-paper CL device showed better selectivity to DDV and it has been applied to the determination of DDV in vegetables in the range of 3.0 ng/mL-1.0 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL. This study has made a successful attempt in the development of highly selective and sensitive monitoring of DDV in real samples and will provide a new approach for sensitive and specific assay in environmental monitoring.

  9. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. R. V.; Azzolini, A. E. C. S.; Martinez, M. L. L.; Souza, C. R. F.; Lucisano-Valim, Y. M.; Oliveira, W. P.

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH• method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells. PMID:24822200

  10. Confined chemiluminescence detection of nanomolar levels of H2O2 in a paper-plastic disposable microfluidic device using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Lebiga, Elise; Edwin Fernandez, Renny; Beskok, Ali

    2015-08-01

    We report the design and characterization of a disposable light shielded paper-plastic microfluidic device that can detect nanomolar levels of H2O2 using a smartphone camera and a light sealed accessory. Chemiluminescence reaction of H2O2 with bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate in the presence of rubrene and imidazole is confined to a paper reaction site where the individual reagents are delivered via plastic microfluidic channels. The net photon emission from the chemiluminescence reactions, detected by using a smartphone, is correlated with H2O2 concentrations. With a total reagent volume of 25 μL, the sensor system was able to detect H2O2 concentrations as low as 250 nM. The smartphone based chemiluminescence sensing system has great potential as a point of care diagnostic tool for monitoring nanomolar levels of H2O2 in biological samples. PMID:26057240

  11. Real-time chemiluminescence imaging using nano-lantern probes.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2014-12-01

    Chemiluminescence imaging can be performed without excitation light sources at various spatial levels ranging from a single cell to the whole body. Thus far, chemiluminescence imaging has been primarily performed with long exposure times because of weak signals, resulting in low temporal resolution. Recently, the brightest-known chemiluminescent proteins--Nano-lantern and Nano-lantern-based functional indicators--have been developed. Nano-lantern probes break the limitation of temporal resolution and enable chemiluminescence imaging of living samples such as cells, plants, and small animals at video rates. This unit describes one protocol for observation of a freely moving unshaved mouse transplanted with Nano-lantern-expressing tumor cells, and another for compatible use of optogenetic tools and a Nano-lantern calcium indicator. Both protocols utilize the synchronization of illumination and camera acquisition sessions, thereby enabling real-time chemiluminescence imaging.

  12. Microbore liquid chromatography of tertiary amine anticholinergic pharmaceuticals with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Holeman, J A; Danielson, N D

    1995-06-01

    The post-column chemiluminescent reaction of six anticholinergic alkaloid compounds with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) (Ru(bpy)3(3+)) is applied to microbore high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At flow rates less than 200 microL/min, the capillary mixing cell in which Ru(bpy)3(3+) and the analyte are mixed directly allows for good light detection. In contrast, a diminished signal occurs at these low flow rates with conventional post-column mixing in a tee. Optimal chemiluminescent pH conditions for atropine, scopolamine, dicyclomine, cyclopentolate, cyclobenzaprine, and procyclidine are determined at moderately basic conditions (pH 7 to 9). 2-Butanone is found to be compatible with the chemiluminescent reaction, whereas tetrahydrofuran and propionitrile cause an increase in background noise and a chemiluminescent signal loss. As 2-butanone is more nonpolar than acetonitrile, it assists in the elution of these hydrophobic anticholinergic compounds. Five anticholinergic compounds are resolved successfully with a PRP-1 polymeric column and a slightly basic mobile phase, but a C8 silica column is better suited for the more hydrophobic compounds (cyclobenzaprine, procyclidine, and dicyclomine).

  13. Self-assembly of organogels via new luminol imide derivatives: diverse nanostructures and substituent chain effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Tifeng; Huang, Qinqin; Zhang, Qingrui; Xiao, Debao; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

    2013-06-01

    Luminol is considered as an efficient sycpstem in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) measurements for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, new luminol imide derivatives with different alkyl substituent chains were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 26 solvents were tested as novel low molecular mass organic gelators. It was shown that the length and number of alkyl substituent chains linked to a benzene ring in gelators played a crucial role in the gelation behavior of all compounds in various organic solvents. Longer alkyl chains in molecular skeletons in present gelators are favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different micro/nanoscale aggregates from a dot, flower, belt, rod, and lamella to wrinkle with change of solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations and hydrophobic forces, depending on the alkyl substituent chains in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight to the design and characteristic of new versatile soft materials and potential ECL biosensors with special molecular structures.

  14. Study on a luminol-based electrochemiluminescent sensor for label-free DNA sensing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hai-Hong; Yan, Ji-Lin; Tu, Yi-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Automatic, inexpensive, simple and sensitive methods for DNA sensing and quantification are highly desirable for biomedical research. The rapid development of both the fundamentals and applications of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) over the past years has demonstrated its potential for analytical and bio-analytical chemistry. This paper reports the quenching effect of DNA on the ECL of luminol and the further development of a DNA sensing device. With the pre-functionalization by a composite of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), the sensor provides a novel and valuable label-free approach for DNA sensing. Here the ECL intensity was remarkably decreased when more than 1.0 × 10(-12) molar of DNA were adsorbed on the sensor. Linearity of the DNA amount with the reciprocal of ECL intensity was observed. A saturated sensor caused a 92.8% quenching effect. The research also proposes the mechanism for the quenching effect which could be attributed to the interaction between luminol and DNA and the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) by DNA. PMID:22163421

  15. Self-assembly of organogels via new luminol imide derivatives: diverse nanostructures and substituent chain effect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Luminol is considered as an efficient sycpstem in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) measurements for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, new luminol imide derivatives with different alkyl substituent chains were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 26 solvents were tested as novel low molecular mass organic gelators. It was shown that the length and number of alkyl substituent chains linked to a benzene ring in gelators played a crucial role in the gelation behavior of all compounds in various organic solvents. Longer alkyl chains in molecular skeletons in present gelators are favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different micro/nanoscale aggregates from a dot, flower, belt, rod, and lamella to wrinkle with change of solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations and hydrophobic forces, depending on the alkyl substituent chains in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight to the design and characteristic of new versatile soft materials and potential ECL biosensors with special molecular structures. PMID:23758979

  16. Imaging of DNA sequences with chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Tizard, R; Cate, R L; Ramachandran, K L; Wysk, M; Voyta, J C; Murphy, O J; Bronstein, I

    1990-01-01

    We have coupled a chemiluminescent detection method that uses an alkaline phosphatase label to the genomic DNA sequencing protocol of Church and Gilbert [Church, G. M. & Gilbert, W. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 1991-1995]. Images of sequence ladders are obtained on x-ray film with exposure times of less than 30 min, as compared to 40 h required for a similar exposure with a 32P-labeled oligomer. Chemically cleaved DNA from a sequencing gel is transferred to a nylon membrane, and specific sequence ladders are selected by hybridization to DNA oligonucleotides labeled with alkaline phosphatase or with biotin, leading directly or indirectly to deposition of enzyme. If a biotinylated probe is used, an incubation with avidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate follows. The membrane is soaked in the chemiluminescent substrate (AMPPD) and is exposed to film. Dephosphorylation of AMPPD leads in a two-step pathway to a highly localized emission of visible light. The demonstrated shorter exposure times may improve the efficiency of a serial reprobing strategy such as the multiplex sequencing approach of Church and Kieffer-Higgins [Church, G. M. & Kieffer-Higgins, S. (1988) Science 240, 185-188]. Images PMID:2191292

  17. Imaging of DNA sequences with chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Tizard, R.; Cate, R.L.; Ramachandran, K.L.; Wysk, M.; Bronstein, I.; Voyta, J.C.; Murphy, O.J.

    1989-12-31

    We have coupled a chemiluminescent method for detecting oligonucleotides labeled with alkaline phosphatase to the genomic DNA sequencing protocol of Church and Gilbert. Images of sequence ladders obtained on x-ray film in a 30 minute exposure are comparable to those from a 40 hour exposure with 3000 Ci/mmol {sup 32}P probes. Chemically cleaved DNA from a sequencing gel is transferred to a nylon membrane, and specific sequence ladders are selected by hybridization to an oligonucleotide probe conjugated either to biotin or to alkaline phosphates. If biotinylated probe is used, then an avidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate is subsequently bound. This membrane, bearing immobilized alkaline phosphatase, is incubated with the commercially available chemiluminescent substrate disodium 3-(4-methoxyspiro[1,2-dioxetone-3,2{prime}-tricyclo[3.3.1.1.{sup 3.7}]decan]-4-yl)phenyl phosphate. (AMPPD) Dephosphorylation of AMPPD leads in a two step pathway to a highly localized emission of visible light.

  18. Reagentless chemiluminescence-based fiber optic sensors for regenerative life support in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The initial feasibility demonstration of a reagentless chemiluminescence based fiber optic sensor technology for use in advanced regenerative life support applications in space and planetary outposts is described. The primary constraints for extraterrestrial deployment of any technology are compatibility with microgravity and hypogravity environments; minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and minimal use of expendables due to the great expense and difficulty inherent to resupply logistics. In the current research, we report the integration of solid state flow through modules for the production of aqueous phase reagents into an integrated system for the detection of important analytes by chemiluminescence, with fiber optic light transmission. By minimizing the need for resupply expendables, the use of solid phase modules makes complex chemical detection schemes practical. For the proof of concept, hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as analytes. The reaction is catalyzed by glucose oxidase, an immobilized enzyme. The aqueous phase chemistry required for sensor operation is implemented using solid phase modules which adjust the pH of the influent stream, catalyze the oxidation of analyte, and provide the controlled addition of the luminophore to the flowing aqueous stream. Precise control of the pH has proven essential for the long-term sustained release of the luminophore. Electrocatalysis is achieved using a controlled potential across gold mesh and gold foil electrodes which undergo periodic polarity reversals. The development and initial characterization of performance of the reagentless fiber optic chemiluminescence sensors are presented in this paper.

  19. Chemiluminescently labeled aptamers as the affinity probe for interaction analysis by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Yi; Deng, Qin-Pei; Zhang, De-Wen; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2010-07-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid oligonucleotides, which can recognize targets with high affinity and specificity. Fluorescently labeled aptamers have been used as affinity probes in CE for interaction analysis. In this study, a method of labeling aptamers chemiluminescently with isoluminol isothiocyanate (ILITC) through covalent bonds was proposed and realized. The ILITC-labeled aptamers were characterized by HPLC-MS and purified by HPLC. After desalination, the ILITC-labeled aptamers were employed as the affinity probe for interaction analysis in CE coupled with chemiluminescence detection (CE-CL) by interface of end column reaction mode, the apparatus of which was home-designed and setup. CE-CL experiment conditions, including buffer pH, concentrations of horseradish peroxidase and H(2)O(2), were optimized first. The system of thrombin and its 29-mer aptamer was chosen as the model. Binding parameters, namely the dissociation constant (K(d)) and the binding site number (n), were calculated. The K(d) obtained was 124.0+/-6.9 nM in agreement with the reported values. Thus, interaction analysis method based on chemiluminescently labeled aptamers as the affinity probe in CE-CL has been established. This method can be widely applied due to the ease and universality of the labeling method, simplicity of CE-CL apparatus and combination with aptamers for a wide range of targets.

  20. Chemiluminescence of BO{sub 2} to map the creation of thermal NO in flames

    SciTech Connect

    Maligne, D. ||; Cessou, A.; Stepowski, D.

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study is to detect and map the local conditions that generate thermal NO in flames. According to the Zeldovich mechanism, the formation of NO comes from the local conjunction of a high concentration of atomic oxygen and a temperature above a critical high level imposed by the high activation energy of the rate-limiting reaction. The green light emitted when a flame is seeded with boron salts is a chemiluminescence from the BO{sup *}{sub 2} that is chemically formed in its excited state when BO reacts with atomic oxygen. As the rate of this oxidation is also strongly increasing with temperature, the chemiluminescence of BO{sub 2} depends on the concentration of atomic oxygen and on the temperature in a way similar to the formation rate of thermal NO. This double analogy suggests the possibility of an experimental in situ simulation of the formation rate of thermal NO or at least the use of the chemiluminescence of BO{sub 2} to map the sites where thermal NO is being created. Spectroscopic experiments and comparisons with numerical simulations have been performed to test the feasibility of this technique in laminar premixed and diffusion methane/air flames. The agreement is good except in the burnt gases of fuel-rich flames. Imaging strategies with different spectral filters have been developed in the same flames to overcome the problem of interference from soot radiation in diffusion flames. (author)

  1. Selective and Sensitive Chemiluminescence Determination of MCPB: Flow Injection and Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Lloret, Susana; Torres-Cartas, Sagrario; Catalá-Icardo, Mónica; Gómez-Benito, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Two new chemiluminescence (CL) methods are described for the determination of the herbicide 4-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy) butyric acid (MCPB). First, a flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is proposed. In this method, MCPB is photodegraded with an ultraviolet (UV) lamp and the photoproducts formed provide a great CL signal when they react with ferricyanide in basic medium. Second, a high-performance liquid chromatography chemiluminescence (HPLC-CL) method is proposed. In this method, before the photodegradation and CL reaction, the MCPB and other phenoxyacid herbicides are separated in a C18 column. The experimental conditions for the FI-CL and HPLC-CL methods are optimized. Both methods present good sensitivity, the detection limits being 0.12 µg L(-1) and 0.1 µg L(-1) (for FI-CL and HPLC-CL, respectively) when solid phase extraction (SPE) is applied. Intra- and interday relative standard deviations are below 9.9%. The methods have been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of natural water samples. FI-CL method can be employed for the determination of MCPB in simple water samples and for the screening of complex water samples in a fast, economic, and simple way. The HPLC-CL method is more selective, and allows samples that have not been resolved with the FI-CL method to be solved.

  2. Differential effects of luminol, nickel, and arsenite on the rejoining of ultraviolet light and alkylation-induced DNA breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lee-Chen, S.F.; Yu, C.T.; Wu, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    When Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with ultraviolet (UV) light or methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS), a large number of DNA strand breaks could be detected by alkaline elution. These strand breaks gradually disappeared if the treated cells were allowed to recover in a drug-free medium. The presence of nickel or arsenite during the recovery incubation retarded the disappearance of UV-induced strand breaks, whereas the disappearance of MMS-induced strand breaks was retarded by the presence of arsenite or of luminol, a new inhibit for poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase. Luminol, however, had no apparent effect on the repair of UV-induced DNA strand breaks, and nickel had no effect on the repair of MMS-induced DNA strand breaks. When UV- or MMS-treated cells were incubated in cytosine arabinofuranoside (AraC) plus hydroxyurea (HU), a large amount of low molecular weight DNA was detected by alkaline sucrose sedimentation. The molecular weight of these DNAs increased if the cells were further incubated in a drug-free medium. This rejoining of breaks in cells pretreated with UV plus AraC and HU was inhibited by nickel and by arsenite, but not by luminol. The rejoining of breaks in cells pretreated with MMS plus AraC and HU was inhibited by luminol and by arsenite, but not by nickel. These results suggest that different enzymes may be used in DNA resynthesis and/or ligation during the repairing of UV- and MMS-induced DNA strand breaks, and that nickel, luminol, and arsenite may have differential inhibitory effects on these enzymes. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Iranifam, Mortaza; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H

    2014-02-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was developed for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride (NPZ). The method is based on the enhancing effect of NPZ on the weak CL signal from the reaction of KIO4 with H2 O2 . Experimental parameters that affected the CL signal, including the pH of the KIO4 solution, concentrations of KIO4 , H2 O2 and disodium-EDTA and flow rate were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the increment of CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of NPZ in the range 5.0 × 10(-6) to 70 × 10(-6) mol/L. The detection limit was 1.0 × 10(-6) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 50 × 10(-6) mol/L NPZ solution was 2.8% (n = 11). In addition, a high throughput of 120 samples/h was achieved. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining NPZ in pharmaceuticals.

  4. Can breath isoprene be measured by ozone chemiluminescence?

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Li, Jianzhong; Lonneman, William A; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

    2007-04-01

    Isoprene, involved in the biosynthetic pathway to cholesterol, is the prevalent hydrocarbon in breath. Breath isoprene measurement is of great interest as a measure of basal cholesterol production rate. We investigated the merits and pitfalls of isoprene measurement via its chemiluminescence (CL) reaction with ozone. For many subjects, apparent concentrations measured are higher than those obtained by a gas chromatography (GC) reference method that can be traced to ozone-induced CL with simultaneously present lower olefins and sulfur compounds. A warm column preconcentration method eliminates the lower olefins and greatly improves sensitivity while a silver-form, ion-exchange resin can remove the sulfur gases. The breath sample is captured on a miniature synthetic carbon sorbent column maintained at 55 degrees C, under which conditions ethylene, propylene, and water vapor are not significantly captured while the preconcentration process greatly improves the limit of detection for isoprene to 0.6 ppbv (S/N=3). The captured isoprene is released by heating the column to 150 degrees C. Breath samples from different subjects were collected both before and after meals and analyzed in a double-blind fashion in two laboratories, with the second laboratory performing quantitation by cryofocusing GC-flame ionization detection with parallel measurement by mass spectrometry to provide identity confirmation. For all individuals studied, the CL and the GC results agreed when both warm column preconcentration and passage through Ag+-form cation-exchange resin, which removes divalent sulfur gases, were implemented prior to CL measurement. The intensity of CL from the reaction with ozone can be much higher for some sulfur gases than for isoprene. Even though present at lower concentrations than isoprene, unless removed prior to CL measurement, for some individuals sulfur gases can cause unacceptably large (up to 500%) errors, making the sulfur gas removal step critical. PMID

  5. Aqueous nitrite ion determination by selective reduction and gas phase nitric oxide chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, A. J.; Barkley, R. M.; Sievers, R. E.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An improved method of flow injection analysis for aqueous nitrite ion exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of the nitric oxide (NO) chemilluminescence detector. Trace analysis of nitrite ion in a small sample (5-160 microL) is accomplished by conversion of nitrite ion to NO by aqueous iodide in acid. The resulting NO is transported to the gas phase through a semipermeable membrane and subsequently detected by monitoring the photoemission of the reaction between NO and ozone (O3). Chemiluminescence detection is selective for measurement of NO, and, since the detection occurs in the gas-phase, neither sample coloration nor turbidity interfere. The detection limit for a 100-microL sample is 0.04 ppb of nitrite ion. The precision at the 10 ppb level is 2% relative standard deviation, and 60-180 samples can be analyzed per hour. Samples of human saliva and food extracts were analyzed; the results from a standard colorimetric measurement are compared with those from the new chemiluminescence method in order to further validate the latter method. A high degree of selectivity is obtained due to the three discriminating steps in the process: (1) the nitrite ion to NO conversion conditions are virtually specific for nitrite ion, (2) only volatile products of the conversion will be swept to the gas phase (avoiding turbidity or color in spectrophotometric methods), and (3) the NO chemiluminescence detector selectively detects the emission from the NO + O3 reaction. The method is free of interferences, offers detection limits of low parts per billion of nitrite ion, and allows the analysis of up to 180 microL-sized samples per hour, with little sample preparation and no chromatographic separation. Much smaller samples can be analyzed by this method than in previously reported batch analysis methods, which typically require 5 mL or more of sample and often need chromatographic separations as well.

  6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by enhanced chemiluminescence detection for the standardization of estrogenic miroestrol in Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-08-01

    Miroestrol (ME) is a potent phytoestrogen from the P. candollei tuberous root. It has been approved for use in clinical trials due to its beneficial effect on disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. To ensure medical efficacy and safety, high performance analytical methods for ME analysis are required to standardize products from the P. candollei root. An enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ECL-ELISA) was developed and validated using a polyclonal antibody against ME and a chemiluminescent system of luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase-4-(1-imidazolyl) phenol. The ECL-ELISA system exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 0.31-10.00 ng mL(-1) , for which the relative standard variation (%RSD) was less than 10% for both intra- and interplate determinations. The ECL-ELISA is reliable for the determination of ME as reflected by the high recovery percentage (101.22-103.06%). As a comparative analysis, the ME content in each sample determined by ECL-ELISA was correlated with high coefficients of determination with colorimetric ELISA (R(2)  = 0.998) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (R(2)  = 0.998) methods. The ECL-ELISA method could be applied to all of the commercial products containing P. candollei root, when the products contain between 0.706 ± 0.046 and 13.123 ± 0.794 µg g(-1) dry wt. of ME. This method is useful as a high performance analytical method for the quantity control of ME in raw materials and end products at both the research and industrial levels.

  7. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting. PMID:25400895

  8. Selective recognition of dysprosium(III) ions by enhanced chemiluminescence CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Morteza; Ganjali, Mohammad R; Vaezi, Zahra; Faridbod, Farnoush; Arabsorkhi, Batool; Sheikhha, Mohammad H

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of emitted light from CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-H2O2 is described as a novel chemiluminescence (CL) reaction for determination of dysprosium. This reaction is based on the catalytic effect of Dy(3+) ions, causing a significant increase in the light emission, as a result of the reaction of quantum dots (QDs) with hydrogen peroxide. In the optimum conditions, this method was satisfactorily described by linear calibration curve in the range of 8.3×10(-7)-5.0×10(-6)M, the detection limit of 6.0×10(-8)M, and the relative standard deviation for five determinations of 2.5×10(-6)M Dy(3+) 3.2%. The main experimental advantage of the proposed method is its selective to Dy(3+) ions compared with common coexisting cations, therefore, it was successfully applied for the determination of dysprosium ions in water samples.

  9. Lab-on-paper-based devices using chemiluminescence and electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei

    2014-09-01

    As an analytical support, paper, being low cost, highly abundant, of high porosity, disposable or biodegradable, and easy to use, store, transport, and print, has excellent chemical compatibility with many applications. Since the first microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD or lab-on-paper) was proposed, the paper-based assay has never attracted as much attention as it does now. There has recently been rapidly increasing interest in using sensitive luminescence methods, for example chemiluminescence (CL) and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL), as the detection strategy for lab-on-paper devices. Because of their intrinsic characteristics, CL and ECL provide outstanding performance while retaining the simplicity, low cost, multifunctionality, versatility, flexibility, and disposability of μ-PADs. The objective of this review is to cover the development of lab-on-paper-based devices using CL and ECL detection, including fabrication of paper devices, construction of sensing interfaces, signal amplification strategies, external instruments used, and applications. We believe that lab-on-paper devices with CL and ECL detection methods will meet the diverse requirements of point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:24705955

  10. Mechanism of neutrophil chemiluminescence induced by wheat germ agglutinin: partial characterization of the antigens recognized by wheat germ agglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, Y.; Iwata, J.; Ohashi, T.

    1984-11-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) stimulated neutrophils to produce significant levels of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Since WGA is known to bind N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligomers and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), we attempted to determine which binding property of WGA is essential for induction of CL. The succinylated form of WGA (SuWGA), which is no longer able to bind NANA, was still able to induce CL. N-Acetylglucosamine at a concentration of 20 mmol/L almost completely inhibited WGA-induced CL production by neutrophils, whereas bovine submaxillary gland mucin, a potent blocker of NANA binding of WGA, failed to inhibit CL production. Lectins with the GlcNAc-binding property were examined for their ability to induce CL. Those that have higher valences and have a tendency to bind GlcNAc oligomers in the internal portion of glycoconjugates were able to induce CL, whereas those that have low valences and bind terminal GlcNAc of glycoconjugates failed to induce CL even at high concentrations. Attempts were made to characterize the neutrophil membrane proteins recognized by WGA. Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of 25,000 daltons were identified by a 50 mmol/L GlcNAc elution of WGA gels loaded with /sup 125/I-labeled neutrophil membrane proteins. Elution with 500 mumol/L GlcNAc trimer produced several glycoproteins of different molecular weights in addition to the glycoproteins of 25,000 daltons. /sup 125/I-labeled WGA and SuWGA were used for autoradiographic analysis of cell extracts of the neutrophils separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. WGA recognized multiple glycoproteins of different molecular weights, whereas SuWGA bound only a few of them. Glycoproteins of 25,000 daltons, probably corresponding to those identified by 50 mmol/L GlcNAc elution, were also recognized.

  11. Solvent cage effects: basis of a general mechanism for efficient chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Erick L; da Silva, Sandra M; Baader, Wilhelm J

    2013-05-01

    The induced decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanes results in the efficient formation of singlet-excited carbonyl compounds. This transformation has been assumed to involve two sequential electron-transfer steps, and the viscosity dependence of the chemiexcitation efficiency (solvent cage effect) has been considered as evidence for the occurrence of an intermolecular electron back-transfer, despite the very high chemiexcitation quantum yields observed. However, all other chemiluminescent reactions assumed to occur according to the entirely intermolecular mechanism, referred to as CIEEL, are inefficient, except for the peroxyoxalate system. Therefore, we have investigated the solvent cage effect on the singlet quantum yields in both the induced decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanes and the peroxyoxalate reaction. Analysis of the viscosity effect observed for both systems, using a collisional as well as a free-volume model, indicates a very distinct behavior, which was interpreted as the occurrence of intramolecular chemiexcitation in the induced 1,2-dioxetane decomposition. We propose a general mechanism for efficient chemiluminescence in which the required electron back-transfer and C-C bond cleavage are concerted and compete with conformational changes that compromise the chemiexcitation. This mechanism is in agreement with both experimental and theoretical data available on the induced 1,2-dioxetane decomposition as well as with the high quantum efficiency of this transformation.

  12. Urea Monitor Based on Chemiluminescence and Electrolysis as a Marker for Dialysis Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Masahiro; Okabayashi, Tohru; Ishimaru, Teppei; Hayashi, Kunihito; Hori, Jun'ya; Yamamoto, Isao; Nakagawa, Masuo

    We have developed a practical urea monitor based on a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of urea and hypobromous acid produced by electrolysis of sodium bromide (NaBr) for measuring urea concentration in spent dialysate at set intervals. A reagent containing 4×10-2 M hypobromous acid is produced by electrolysis of an electrolyte containing 5.9 M NaBr and 0.2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Chemiluminescence is emitted by injection of spent hemodialysis fluid (0.11 ml) into the reagent, and the CL-intensity is measured by a photomultiplier tube using the photon counting technique. The CL-intensity is proportional to the 0.9th power of the urea concentration between 7×10-4 and 2×10-2 M. The urea monitor can determine the urea concentration in spent dialysate samples collected from the waste line of a dialyzer, and the time for the intermittent measurements including the cleaning cycle of the reaction chamber is 3 min. The urea concentrations measured by the monitor are in close agreement with those measured by the conventional enzyme colorimetric method using urease for the spent dialysate collected during a hemodialysis treatment, and the correlation coefficient is 0.93.

  13. Rapid method for the quantification of hydroquinone concentration: chemiluminescent analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Shen, Chia-Yao; Padma, V Vijaya; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    Topical hydroquinone serves as a skin whitener and is usually available in cosmetics or on prescription based on the hydroquinone concentration. Quantification of hydroquinone content therefore becomes an important issue in topical agents. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the commonest method for determining hydroquinone content in topical agents, but this method is time-consuming and uses many solvents that can become an environmental issue. We report a rapid method for quantifying hydroquinone content by chemiluminescent analysis. Hydroquinone induces the production of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of basic compounds. Hydrogen peroxide induced by hydroquinone oxidized light-emitting materials such as lucigenin, resulted in the production of ultra-weak chemiluminescence that was detected by a chemiluminescence analyzer. The intensity of the chemiluminescence was found to be proportional to the hydroquinone concentration. We suggest that the rapid (measurement time, 60 s) and virtually solvent-free (solvent volume, <2 mL) chemiluminescent method described here for quantifying hydroquinone content may be an alternative to HPLC analysis. PMID:25693839

  14. Determination of thiram in natural waters using flow-injection with cerium(IV)-quinine chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram based on the chemiluminescence reaction of thiram with ceric sulfate and quinine in aqueous sulfuric acid. The present method allowed the determination of thiram in the concentration range of 7.5-2500 ng/mL and the detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was 7.5 ng/mL with sample throughput of 120/h. The relative standard deviation was 2.5% for 10 replicate analyses of 500 ng/mL thiram. The effects of foreign species including various anions and cations present in water at environmentally relevant concentrations and some pesticides were also investigated. The proposed method was applied to determine thiram in spiked natural waters using octadecyl bonded phase silica (C(18)) cartridges for solid-phase extraction. The recoveries were in the range 99 +/- 1 to 104 +/- 1%.

  15. Rapid determination of Papaver somniferum alkaloids in process streams using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Costin, Jason W; Lewis, Simon W; Purcell, Stuart D; Waddell, Lucy R; Francis, Paul S; Barnett, Neil W

    2007-07-30

    We have combined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations using a monolithic column with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection in a rapid and highly sensitive method to monitor the process of extracting opiate alkaloids from Papaver somniferum. Due to the high flow rates allowed with the monolithic column and the inherent selectivity of the chemiluminescence reactions, the four predominant alkaloids--morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine--were determined in less than 2 min. The results obtained with numerous process samples compared favourable with those of the standard HPLC methodology. Limits of detection were 1x10(-10) M, 5x10(-10) M, 5x10(-10) M and 1x10(-9) M, for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine, respectively.

  16. A batch chemiluminescence determination of enoxacin using a tris-(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II)-cerium(IV) system.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad Mainul; Lee, Sang Hak; Lee, Hyun Sook; Bae, Zun Ung; Choi, Kyoung Hye

    2006-07-01

    A batch type chemiluminescence (CL) determination of enoxacin is described. In this work, it was observed that enoxacin could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) emission Ru(phen)3(2+)-Ce(IV) system and this enhancement effect was dependent on the concentration of enoxacin, based on which, CL system was established for the determination of enoxacin. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range and detection limit are 0.6406-64.06 microg/ml and 0.0210 microg/ml, respectively. The R.S.D. is 1.75%. (n = 10). The proposed method has been applied to detect the content of enoxacin in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum with satisfactory results. The possible mechanism of the CL reaction was discussed.

  17. Preparation of polyclonal antibodies for nateglinide (NTG) and development of a sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay to detect NTG in tablets and serum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Song, Zhaorui; Dong, Yaqing; Wang, Yufen; Tong, Zhongsheng; Deng, Chuan; Yin, Yongmei; Meng, Meng; Xi, Rimo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared polyclonal antibodies against anti-diabetic drug nateglinide (NTG), and established a sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) to detect NTG in tablets and serum. Two kinds of immunogens were synthesized using ethylcarbodiimide (EDC)/hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and carbonyldiimidazole (CDI)/4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as coupling reagents respectively. When activated by EDC/NHS, more molecules of NTG coupled with carrier protein in immunogens. A horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H2O2 system with p-iodophenol enhancement was applied in the CLIA analysis. The antibodies in EDC/NHS group showed higher titer, sensitivity and wider detection linear range than those in CDI/DMAP group, and were chosen for next studies. The developed CLIA assay exhibited good selectivity towards NTG among structually similar analogs. The method could detect as low as 0.35 ng mL(-1) NTG in buffer, 2.1 ng mL(-1) NTG in serum and 0.84 ng mL(-1) NTG in tablets. The CLIA method provided consistent results with HPLC method (r=0.9986) in determination of NTG from 5.0 to 400 µg mL(-1). The CLIA method could detect 78 samples in one assay, and the samples need only dilution in pretreatment. As a summary, this research offers a sensitive assay for high-throughout screening of NTG in formulation control and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26695294

  18. Augmentation of the human monocyte/macrophage chemiluminescence response during short-term exposure to interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Kumaratilake, L M; Ferrante, A; Bates, E J; Kowanko, I C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of short-term (30 min) pre-incubation of human monocytes and macrophages (3-day cultured monocytes) with leucocyte-derived human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-alpha) were examined. Pre-incubation of either monocytes or macrophages with rTNF-alpha or IFN-gamma (100 U/5 x 10(5) cells) augmented their respiratory burst to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP), measured by the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In addition, both cell types showed a burst of respiratory activity in the presence of rTNF-alpha or IFN-gamma only. The effects of IFN-gamma were removed by adsorption with an anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody and those of rTNF-alpha were abolished by heating at 100 degrees C, or by the addition of anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody. The results demonstrate that both IFN-gamma and rTNF-alpha are stimulators of monocytes and macrophages, and rapidly alter the capacity of the cells to respond to fMLP, which binds to cell surface receptors. PMID:2113442

  19. Application of horse-radish peroxidase linked chemiluminescence to determine the production mechanism of Shiga-like toxins by E. coli O157:H7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Uknalis, Joseph; Gehring, Andrew; He, Yiping

    2007-09-01

    A sandwiched immunoassay consisting of toxin capture by immunomagnetic beads (IMB) and toxin detection by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) linked chemiluminescence was used to follow the production of Shiga-like toxins (SLT) by E. coli O157:H7. The intensity of luminescence generated by the oxidation of luminol-liked compounds was used to represent the concentration of toxins produced. The time-course of SLT production by E. coli O157:H7 under different conditions was investigated. In pure culture, optimal generation of SLT showed a significant delay than the steady state of cell growth. In mixed cultures of SLT producing E. coli O157:H7 and non-SLT producing E. coli K-12 strain, the production of toxins was substantially decreased. However, the growth of E. coli O157:H7 was not affected by the presence of K-12 strain. This decrease in SLT production was also observed in radiation-sterile ground beef. In regular ground beef that might contain numerous other bacteria, the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in EC media was not significantly affected but the lowered production of SLT was observed. The results showed that mechanism of inducing SLT production was complex with both the growth time and growth environment could influence SLT production. The addition of homo-serine lactone to the growth media enhanced the production of SLT. Thus, possibly cell-cell communication may have a role in SLT production by E. coli O157:H7.

  20. Preparation of polyclonal antibodies for nateglinide (NTG) and development of a sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay to detect NTG in tablets and serum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Song, Zhaorui; Dong, Yaqing; Wang, Yufen; Tong, Zhongsheng; Deng, Chuan; Yin, Yongmei; Meng, Meng; Xi, Rimo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared polyclonal antibodies against anti-diabetic drug nateglinide (NTG), and established a sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) to detect NTG in tablets and serum. Two kinds of immunogens were synthesized using ethylcarbodiimide (EDC)/hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and carbonyldiimidazole (CDI)/4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as coupling reagents respectively. When activated by EDC/NHS, more molecules of NTG coupled with carrier protein in immunogens. A horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-H2O2 system with p-iodophenol enhancement was applied in the CLIA analysis. The antibodies in EDC/NHS group showed higher titer, sensitivity and wider detection linear range than those in CDI/DMAP group, and were chosen for next studies. The developed CLIA assay exhibited good selectivity towards NTG among structually similar analogs. The method could detect as low as 0.35 ng mL(-1) NTG in buffer, 2.1 ng mL(-1) NTG in serum and 0.84 ng mL(-1) NTG in tablets. The CLIA method provided consistent results with HPLC method (r=0.9986) in determination of NTG from 5.0 to 400 µg mL(-1). The CLIA method could detect 78 samples in one assay, and the samples need only dilution in pretreatment. As a summary, this research offers a sensitive assay for high-throughout screening of NTG in formulation control and pharmacokinetic studies.

  1. A new strategy for the detection of adenosine triphosphate by aptamer/quantum dot biosensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zi-Ming; Yu, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-09-21

    We designed an aptasensor for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET). An adenosine aptamer was cut into two pieces of ssDNA, which were attached to quantum dots (QDs) and horse radish peroxidase (HRP), respectively. They could reassemble into specific structures in the presence of ATP and then decrease the distance of HRP and QDs. ATP detection can be easily realized according to the fluorescent intensity of QDs, which is excited by CRET between luminol and QDs. Results show that the concentration of ATP is linear relation with the fluorescent intensity of the peak of QDs emission and the linear range for the linear equation is from 50 μM to 231 μM and the detection limit was 185 nM. When the concentration of ATP was 2 mM, the efficiency of CRET is 13.6%. Good specificity for ATP had been demonstrated compared to thymidine triphosphate (TTP), cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), when 1 mM of each was added, respectively. This method needs no external light source and can avoid autofluorescence and photobleaching, and ATP can be detected selectively, specifically, and sensitively in a low micromolar range, which means that the strategy reported here can be applicable to the detection of several other target molecules. PMID:22832507

  2. Anodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence of quantum dots: size and stabilizer matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Li, Tangsong; Yuan, Lang; Liu, Shaoqin; Wang, Zhenlong

    2012-08-01

    The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is generally believed to be independent of particle sizes or the capping agents used. Herein, we demonstrate that CdTe QDs with different sizes and stabilizers evidently exhibit different ECL behavior in aqueous solution. The ECL of CdTe QDs stabilized by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) displays two waves at potentials of about +1.17 V and +1.74 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. ECL spectra confirm that the ECL of QDs is attributed to their band gap luminescence, in which the peak positions are changed with QD sizes. The ECL mechanism of CdTe QDs involves superoxide radical generation by reduction of dissolved oxygen at lower potential or water splitting at higher potential. Direct evidence for superoxide radicals in this medium was obtained via electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments. In comparison, the 2-mercaptoethylamine (MEA)-capped CdTe QDs did not exhibit any ECL in air-saturated pH 7.4 PBS. Both ESR and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) experiments revealed that amine groups in MEA-capped QDs were responsible for the absence of ECL. The reaction of an amine group with a superoxide radical leads to the quenching of ECL. The ECL quenching of MPA-capped CdTe QDs was further used to detect melamine. Under the optimum conditions, the inhibited ECL was linear with the logarithm of concentration of melamine within the concentration range of 10-9 to 10-5 M and the detection limit was found to be 6.74 × 10-10 M, which was 100-100 000 times lower than that of the most previous methods.The electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is generally believed to be independent of particle sizes or the capping agents used. Herein, we demonstrate that CdTe QDs with different sizes and stabilizers evidently exhibit different ECL behavior in aqueous solution. The ECL of CdTe QDs stabilized by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) displays two waves at potentials of about +1

  3. Photoluminescence, chemiluminescence and anodic electrochemiluminescence of hydrazide-modified graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongqiang; Dai, Ruiping; Dong, Tongqing; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-09-01

    Single-layer graphene quantum dots (SGQDs) were refluxed with hydrazine (N2H4) to prepare hydrazide-modified SGQDs (HM-SGQDs). Compared with SGQDs, partial oxygen-containing groups have been removed from HM-SGQDs. At the same time, a lot of hydrazide groups have been introduced into HM-SGQDs. The introduced hydrazide groups provide HM-SGQDs with a new kind of surface state, and give HM-SGQDs unique photoluminescence (PL) properties such as blue-shifted PL emission and a relatively high PL quantum yield. More importantly, the hydrazide-modification made HM-SGQDs have abundant luminol-like units. Accordingly, HM-SGQDs exhibit unique and excellent chemiluminescence (CL) and anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL). The hydrazide groups of HM-SGQDs can be chemically oxidized by the dissolved oxygen (O2) in alkaline solutions, producing a strong CL signal. The CL intensity is mainly dependent on the pH value and the concentration of O2, implying the potential applications of HM-SGQDs in pH and O2 sensors. The hydrazide groups of HM-SGQDs can also be electrochemically oxidized in alkaline solutions, producing a strong anodic ECL signal. The ECL intensity can be enhanced sensitively by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The enhanced ECL intensity is proportional to the concentration of H2O2 in a wide range of 3 μM to 500 μM. The detection limit of H2O2 was calculated to be about 0.7 μM. The results suggest the great potential applications of HM-SGQDs in the sensors of H2O2 and bio-molecules that are able to produce H2O2 in the presence of enzymes.Single-layer graphene quantum dots (SGQDs) were refluxed with hydrazine (N2H4) to prepare hydrazide-modified SGQDs (HM-SGQDs). Compared with SGQDs, partial oxygen-containing groups have been removed from HM-SGQDs. At the same time, a lot of hydrazide groups have been introduced into HM-SGQDs. The introduced hydrazide groups provide HM-SGQDs with a new kind of surface state, and give HM-SGQDs unique photoluminescence (PL) properties such

  4. Directional surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence from nickel thin films: Fixed angle observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberg, Micah; Aslan, Kadir; Hortle, Elinor; Geddes, Chris D.

    2009-04-01

    Directional surface plasmon coupled chemiluminescence (SPCC) from nickel thin films is demonstrated. Free-space and angular-dependent SPCC emission from blue, green and turquoise chemiluminescent solutions placed onto nickel thin films attached to a hemispherical prism were measured. SPCC emission was found to be highly directional and preferentially p-polarized, in contrast to the unpolarized and isotropic chemiluminescence emission. The largest SPCC emission for all chemiluminescence solutions was observed at a fixed observation angle of 60°, which was also predicted by theoretical Fresnel calculations. It was found that nickel thin films did not have a catalytic effect on chemiluminescence emission.

  5. Development of a new procedure for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations employing chemiluminescence and a multicommuted flow analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Lima, Manoel J A; Fernandes, Ridvan N; Tanaka, Auro A; Reis, Boaventura F

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a new technique for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations, implemented by employing multicommuted flow analysis. The analytical procedure was based on the reaction between hypochlorite and captopril. The remaining hypochlorite oxidized luminol that generated electromagnetic radiation detected using a homemade luminometer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this reaction has been exploited for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical products, offering a clean analytical procedure with minimal reagent usage. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure was confirmed by analyzing a set of pharmaceutical formulations. Application of the paired t-test showed that there was no significant difference between the data sets at a 95% confidence level. The useful features of the new analytical procedure included a linear response for captopril concentrations in the range 20.0-150.0 µmol/L (r = 0.997), a limit of detection (3σ) of 2.0 µmol/L, a sample throughput of 164 determinations per hour, reagent consumption of 9 µg luminol and 42 µg hypochlorite per determination and generation of 0.63 mL of waste. A relative standard deviation of 1% (n = 6) for a standard solution containing 80 µmol/L captopril was also obtained. PMID:26136382

  6. Development of a new procedure for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations employing chemiluminescence and a multicommuted flow analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Lima, Manoel J A; Fernandes, Ridvan N; Tanaka, Auro A; Reis, Boaventura F

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a new technique for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations, implemented by employing multicommuted flow analysis. The analytical procedure was based on the reaction between hypochlorite and captopril. The remaining hypochlorite oxidized luminol that generated electromagnetic radiation detected using a homemade luminometer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this reaction has been exploited for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical products, offering a clean analytical procedure with minimal reagent usage. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure was confirmed by analyzing a set of pharmaceutical formulations. Application of the paired t-test showed that there was no significant difference between the data sets at a 95% confidence level. The useful features of the new analytical procedure included a linear response for captopril concentrations in the range 20.0-150.0 µmol/L (r = 0.997), a limit of detection (3σ) of 2.0 µmol/L, a sample throughput of 164 determinations per hour, reagent consumption of 9 µg luminol and 42 µg hypochlorite per determination and generation of 0.63 mL of waste. A relative standard deviation of 1% (n = 6) for a standard solution containing 80 µmol/L captopril was also obtained.

  7. Determination of oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) in cigarette smoke by chemiluminescent analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Gill, B.E.

    1980-05-01

    The successful application of a commercial chemiluminescent No/sub x/ analyzer to the determination of oxides of nitrogen in cigarette smoke is reported. Individual puffs of the smoke vapor phase are rapidly diluted in an air stream before introduction into the analyzer. This acts to both reduce quenching of the chemiluminescent response by CO/sub 2/ and to prevent side reactions of the NO/sub x/ with vapor phase organic constituents. Sweeping the dilute smoke through a reduced silver-ion exchange resin bed removed a substantial positive interference from hydrogen cyanide. A range of deliveries of 3 to 47 ..mu..mol of NO/sub x/ per cigarette was observed for nine types of experimental cigarettes. Statistically significant differences between NO/sub x/ and NO levels (NO/sub x/ - NO = NO/sub 2/) in smoke were observed in only one type of cigarette, presumably due to large cigarette-to-cigarette variability in constituent deliveries. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  8. The use of electrodialysis to prepare aqueous bread extracts for bromate determination by chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Himata, Katsuichi; Warner, Charles; Currie, Douglas; Graves, Qian; Diachenko, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    A cleanup procedure based on electrodialysis is described for the preparation of aqueous bread extracts for bromate determination by chemiluminescence. The technique utilizes electrophoresis with 3 chambers separated by semipermeable membranes. The relative merits of reverse osmosis (RO), ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration membranes with various molecular weight cutoffs were evaluated. The best results were obtained with an RO membrane manufactured from thin-film (composite) polysulfone as support for polyamide. A 0.14 M sodium sulfate solution in the center or collection chamber provides optimum conductivity. Aqueous hydroxylamine sulfate (30 mM) was selected for the anode compartment as a reductant for the anode oxidation products. The constant current mode at 150 mA with a potential of ca 100 volts was used. After electrophoretic separation, the bromate concentration in the collection chamber was typically 2 to 3 times greater than the concentration in the bread extract. The chemiluminescent reaction of bromate with sulfite with hydrocortisone as the enhancer was selected for detection of bromate. The emission, with a wavelength maximum at 575 nm, was found to "glow" rather than "flash" after the reagents were mixed; therefore, it was possible to optimize the light collection period. The method was validated with a variety of commercial bread products. White bread, hot dog buns, hamburger rolls, and a multigrain bread from 7 different manufacturers were studied. PMID:16001854

  9. Hydrogen peroxide production, chemiluminescence, and the respiratory burst of fertilization: Interrelated events in early sea urchin development

    PubMed Central

    Foerder, Charles A.; Klebanoff, Seymour J.; Shapiro, Bennett M.

    1978-01-01

    After fertilization of the sea urchin, Strongyl-ocentrotus purpuratus, a crosslinked fertilization membrane is formed; the crosslinks (dityrosine residues) are synthesized in a reaction catalyzed by an ovoperoxidase that is released from the cortical granules during fertilization. The substrate for ovoperoxidase activity, hydrogen peroxide, is generated by the egg coincident with the “respiratory burst” that follows parthenogenetic activation by the divalent ionophore A23187 or fertilization. This burst of oxygen consumption may be almost quantitatively accounted for by hydrogen peroxide evolution, as measured by the peroxidase-catalyzed quenching of scopoletin fluorescence. Neither the burst of oxygen consumption nor hydrogen peroxide production occurs when the inhibitor of cortical granule discharge, procaine, is present at fertilization. Fertilization or parthenogenetic activation with A23187 also is associated with a burst of light emission. This chemiluminescence is inhibited in vivo by inhibitors of the ovoperoxidase, such as 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, phenylhydrazine, sulfite, or azide. A crude ovoperoxidase preparation catalyzes hydrogen peroxide-dependent chemiluminescence that is similarly inhibited. Thus, the bursts of oxygen uptake, peroxide production, and chemiluminescence appear to be several manifestations of the peroxidative system released at fertilization. This system may additionally be responsible for spermicidal activity and thus may act as a component of the block to polyspermy. PMID:277920

  10. Chemiluminescence detection of MDMA in street drug samples using tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III).

    PubMed

    Theakstone, Ashton G; Smith, Zoe M; Terry, Jessica M; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    Tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence was investigated for the detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and several related compounds in street drug samples. Optimization using flow injection analysis showed that the selectivity of the reagent can be targeted towards the detection of secondary amines by altering the pH of the reaction environment. The greater selectivity of this mode of detection, compared to UV-absorbance, reduces the probability of false positive results from interfering compounds. The detection limit for MDMA under these conditions was 0.48 μM. A HPLC method incorporating post-column tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection was applied to the determination of MDMA in five street drug samples. The results obtained were in good agreement with quantification performed using traditional UV-absorbance detection, which demonstrates the viability of this method for confirmatory analysis of drug samples. This is the first report of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence for the detection of MDMA and related amphetamine derivatives.

  11. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  12. Microspot-based ELISA in microfluidics: chemiluminescence and colorimetry detection using integrated thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Novo, Pedro; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel França; Chu, Virginia; Conde, João Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Microfluidic technology has the potential to decrease the time of analysis and the quantity of sample and reactants required in immunoassays, together with the potential of achieving high sensitivity, multiplexing, and portability. A lab-on-a-chip system was developed and optimized using optical and fluorescence microscopy. Primary antibodies are adsorbed onto the walls of a PDMS-based microchannel via microspotting. This probe antibody is then recognised using secondary FITC or HRP labelled antibodies responsible for providing fluorescence or chemiluminescent and colorimetric signals, respectively. The system incorporated a micron-sized thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode microfabricated on a glass substrate. The primary antibody spots in the PDMS-based microfluidic were precisely aligned with the photodiodes for the direct detection of the antibody-antigen molecular recognition reactions using chemiluminescence and colorimetry. The immunoassay takes ~30 min from assay to the integrated detection. The conditions for probe antibody microspotting and for the flow-through ELISA analysis in the microfluidic format with integrated detection were defined using antibody solutions with concentrations in the nM-μM range. Sequential colorimetric or chemiluminescence detection of specific antibody-antigen molecular recognition was quantitatively detected using the photodiode. Primary antibody surface densities down to 0.182 pmol cm(-2) were detected. Multiplex detection using different microspotted primary antibodies was demonstrated. PMID:22012414

  13. Multiwell cartridge with integrated array of amorphous silicon photosensors for chemiluminescence detection: development, characterization and comparison with cooled-CCD luminograph.

    PubMed

    Mirasoli, Mara; Nascetti, Augusto; Caputo, Domenico; Zangheri, Martina; Scipinotti, Riccardo; Cevenini, Luca; de Cesare, Giampiero; Roda, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    We propose a disposable multiwell microcartridge with integrated amorphous silicon photosensors array for bio- and chemiluminescence-based bioassays, where the enzymatic reactions and the detection unit are coupled on the same glass substrate. Each well, made in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) unit, hosts an enzymatic reaction that is monitored by one photosensor of the array. Photosensors were characterized in terms of their dark current background noise and response to different wavelengths of visible light in order to determine their suitability as detection devices for chemical luminescent phenomena. Calibration curves of the photosensors' response to different luminescent systems were then evaluated by using the chemiluminescent reactions catalyzed by alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase and the bioluminescent reaction catalyzed by firefly luciferase. Limits of detection in the order of attomoles for chemiluminescence enzymes and femtomoles for luciferase and sensitivities in the range between 0.007 and 0.1 pA pmol(-1) L were reached. We found that, without the need of cooling systems, the analytical performances of the proposed cartridge are comparable with those achievable with state-of-the-art thermoelectrically cooled charge-coupled device-based laboratory instrumentation. In addition, thanks to the small amount of generated output data, the proposed device allows the monitoring of long-lasting reactions with significant advantages in terms of data-storage needs, transmission bandwidth, ease of real-time signal processing and limited power consumption. Based on these results, the operation in model bioanalytical assays exploiting luminescent reactions was tested demonstrating that a-Si:H photosensors arrays, when integrated with PDMS microfluidic units, provide compact, sensitive and potentially low-cost microdevices for chemiluminescence and bioluminescence-based bioassays with a wide range of possible applications for in-field and point

  14. Ultraweak chemiluminescence of rice seeds during accelerated aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenli; Xing, Da; He, Yonghong

    2002-04-01

    Ultraweak Chemiluminescence (UCL) studies of different aging degree of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds stored in a high temperature 40 degree(s)C and high relative humidity 90% environment (0 day, 8 days, 15 days, and 22 days) were carried out. We firstly observed that aging degree of rice seeds was positive correlation with ultraweak chemiluminescence during the early imbibition (0-1h). Addition of water to rice seeds stimulates ultraweak chemiluminescence, the intensity of which depends upon aging degree of seeds. The shorter the seed accelerated aging time was, the higher the intensity of the UCL in the early imbibition period, the lower hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration of rice seeds, the higher percentage seed germination. The germination and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of dry rice seeds was obvious positive correlation with the intensity of UCL. While catalase (CAT) activity of rice seeds was determined. Mechanism of ultraweak chemiluminescence was discussed. It was concluded that the store time of rice seeds could be judged from their UCL characters during the early imbibition period, which might be a way to examine vigor of seeds.

  15. Proximity hybridization-triggered signal switch for homogeneous chemiluminescent bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zong, Chen; Wu, Jie; Liu, Mengmeng; Yang, Linlin; Liu, Lin; Yan, Feng; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-06-01

    A proximity hybridization-triggered signal switch was presented for convenient homogeneous chemiluminescent detection of a wide range of affinity target biomolecules, such as oligonucleotides, protein biomarkers, and aptamer-recognized targets. The presence of the target promoted the formation of a proximate complex via the proximity hybridization of two help DNA strands or the DNA strands labeled to affinity ligands, which subsequently unfolded the self-reporting molecular beacon to switch on the chemiluminescence signal. The response could be further amplified with an in situ enzymatic recycling strategy for highly sensitive chemiluminescence detection. By using an antibody as the affinity ligand, this simple protocol could sensitively detect protein biomarker in a concentration range of 6 orders of magnitude with a detection limit down to 80 fM. With the use of an aptamer as the affinity ligand, a method for homogeneous chemiluminescent detection of thrombin was proposed. The one-step and wash-free assay showed good selectivity and required only 1 μL of sample. Its high sensitivity, acceptable accuracy, and satisfactory versatility of analytes led to various applications in bioanalysis.

  16. Scanning laser vibrometry and luminol photomicrography to map cavitational activity around ultrasonic scalers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C.; Lea, Simon C.; Price, Gareth J.; Walmsley, A. Damien

    2008-06-01

    Ultrasonic dental scalers are clinically used to remove deposits from tooth surfaces. A metal probe, oscillating at ultrasonic frequencies, is used to chip away deposits from the teeth. To reduce frictional heating, water flows over the operated probe in which a bi-product, cavitation, may be generated. The aim of this study is characterise probe oscillations using scanning laser vibrometry and to relate the recorded data to the occurrence of cavitation that is mapped in the course of this research. Scanning laser vibrometry (Polytec models 300-F/S and 400-3D) was used to measure the movement of various designs of operating probes and to locate vibration nodes / anti-nodes at different generator power settings and contact loads (100g and 200g). Cavitation mapping was performed by photographing the emission from a luminol solution with a digital camera (Artemis ICX285). The scaler design influences the number and location of vibration node / anti-node points. For all ultrasonic probes, the highest displacement amplitude values were recorded at the tip. The highest amounts of cavitation around the probes were recorded at the second anti-node measured from the tip. Broad, beaver-tale shaped probes produced more cavitation than slim shaped ones. The design also influences the amount of inertial cavitation around the operated instrument. The clinical relevance is that broad, beaver-tale shaped probes are unlikely to reach subgingival areas of the tooth. Further research is required to design probes that will be clinically superior to cleaning this area of the tooth.

  17. A new chemiluminescence method for determination of clonazepam and diazepam based on 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichi, M. J.; Alijanpour, S. O.

    2014-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) reaction, Benzodiazepines-H2O2-1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper, for determination of clonazepam and diazepam at nanogram per milliliter level in batch-type system have been described. The method relies on the catalytic effect of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper on the chemiluminescence reaction of Benzodiazepines, the oxidation of Benzodiazepines with hydrogen peroxide in natural medium. The influences of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, the ratio of 1-Ethyl-3 Methylimidazolium ethylsulfate concentration to copper ion, the type of buffer and the concentration of CL reagents were investigated. Under the optimum condition, the proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of these drugs in tablets and urine without the interference of their potential impurities.

  18. A new chemiluminescence method for determination of clonazepam and diazepam based on 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chaichi, M J; Alijanpour, S O

    2014-01-24

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) reaction, Benzodiazepines-H2O2-1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper, for determination of clonazepam and diazepam at nanogram per milliliter level in batch-type system have been described. The method relies on the catalytic effect of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper on the chemiluminescence reaction of Benzodiazepines, the oxidation of Benzodiazepines with hydrogen peroxide in natural medium. The influences of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, the ratio of 1-Ethyl-3 Methylimidazolium ethylsulfate concentration to copper ion, the type of buffer and the concentration of CL reagents were investigated. Under the optimum condition, the proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of these drugs in tablets and urine without the interference of their potential impurities. PMID:24036305

  19. Potassium permanganate-glutaraldehyde chemiluminescence system catalyzed by gold nanoprisms toward selective determination of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim

    2016-02-01

    Gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) are shown to exert a positive effect on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of permanganate aldehydes. Interestingly, between various shapes examined, Au nanoprisms have the highest beneficial effect. This effect is even more notable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the NP shapes and sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that iron(III) ions can slightly increase CL emission of this system. This intensification is very effective in the presence of fluoride ions (F(-)). These observations form the basis of the method for the high sensitive determination of F(-) in the 6-1200 nmol L(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 2.1 nmol L(-1). The proposed method has good precision and was satisfactorily used in the selective determination of low concentrations of fluoride ion in real samples.

  20. Magnetic beads-based chemiluminescent assay for ultrasensitive detection of pseudorabies virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haowen; Guo, Yafen; Li, Song; Lan, Ganqiu; Jiang, Qinyang; Yang, Xiurong; Fan, Jing; Ali, Zeeshan; Tang, Yongjun; Mou, Xianbo; Liu, Hongna; Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Jin, Si; Jiang, Hesheng; Li, Zhiyang

    2014-05-01

    A rapid, ultrasensitive and economical Pseudorabies virus (PRV) detection system based on magnetic beads (MBs) and chemiluminescence was developed in this paper. The carboxyl functionalized MBs (MBs-COOH) were covalently coupled with aminated DNA probes for capturing PRV biotinylated amplicon, the product of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis approved the reliability of biotinylated amplicon. The MBs composites were incubated with alkaline phosphatase labeled streptavidin (ALP-SA) and chemiluminescene was determined by subsequently adding 3-(2'-spiroadamantane)-4-methoxy-4-(3"-phosphoryloxy)phenyl-1,2-dioxetane (AMPPD). The optimal conditions of the PRV detection method were 10 microM for probe concentration, 50 degrees C for hybridization temperature and 30 min for hybridization time. The limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 100 amol/5 pM of amplicon which proved that this approach for PRV detection was ultrasensitive.

  1. Plasmonic luminescent core-shell nanocomposites-enhanced chemiluminescence arising from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Xue, Wei; Lu, Chao; Li, Hai-fang; Zheng, Yongzan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-12-01

    A core-shell structure of plasmonic luminescent nanocomposite, Ni@SiO2@FITC@SiO2 (NSFS) combining the stable luminescence of fluorophore with the excellent plasmonic property of metal nanomaterials, has been synthesized through layer-by-layer assembly. The effect of NSFS on the ultraweak chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) was explored for the first time. It was found that the CL intensity from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite was significantly enhanced by NSFS. The mechanism of the nanocomposite-enhanced CL was revealed as the coupling of chemically induced excited states of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with surface plasmons of Ni nanoparticles based on studies of CL emission spectra, electron spin resonance spectra, extinction spectra and fluorescence spectra. The work sheds new light on the characteristics of the versatile materials and gives us new insight into the optical properties of fluorophores.

  2. Plasmonic luminescent core-shell nanocomposites-enhanced chemiluminescence arising from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Xue, Wei; Lu, Chao; Li, Hai-fang; Zheng, Yongzan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-12-01

    A core-shell structure of plasmonic luminescent nanocomposite, Ni@SiO2@FITC@SiO2 (NSFS) combining the stable luminescence of fluorophore with the excellent plasmonic property of metal nanomaterials, has been synthesized through layer-by-layer assembly. The effect of NSFS on the ultraweak chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) was explored for the first time. It was found that the CL intensity from the decomposition of peroxomonosulfite was significantly enhanced by NSFS. The mechanism of the nanocomposite-enhanced CL was revealed as the coupling of chemically induced excited states of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with surface plasmons of Ni nanoparticles based on studies of CL emission spectra, electron spin resonance spectra, extinction spectra and fluorescence spectra. The work sheds new light on the characteristics of the versatile materials and gives us new insight into the optical properties of fluorophores.

  3. Flow-injection determination of trace amounts of dopamine by chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Teshima, N; Hasebe, T; Kurihara, M; Kawashima, T

    1999-10-01

    A flow-injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of dopamine has been developed. The method is based on the inhibition effect of dopamine on the iron(II)-induced chemiluminescence (CL) of 10,10'-dimethyl-9,9'-biacridinium dinitrate (lucigenin). The presence of a non-ionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij 35), caused an increase in the inhibition effect. The present method allows the determination of dopamine over the range 1x10(-8)-2x10(-7) mol dm(-3). The relative standard deviation was 0.7% for eight determinations of 6x10(-8) mol dm(-3) dopamine. The detection limit (S/N=3) was 2x10(-9) mol dm(-3) with the sampling rate of 40 samples h(-1). The effect of other catecholamines and compounds of similar structure on the lucigenin CL reaction was studied: quinone, hydroquinone, norepinephrine, pyrocatechol and l-dopa suppressed the CL intensity.

  4. Simultaneous detection of single attoliter droplet collisions by electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescent responses.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey E; Renault, Christophe; Kim, Byung-Kwon; Bard, Allen J

    2014-10-27

    We provide evidence of single attoliter oil droplet collisions at the surface of an ultra-microelectrode (UME) by the observation of simultaneous electrochemical current transients (i-t curves) and electrogenerated chemiluminescent (ECL) transients in an oil/water emulsion. An emulsion system based on droplets of toluene and tri-n-propylamine (2:1 v/v) emulsified with an ionic liquid and suspended in an aqueous continuous phase was formed by ultrasonification. When an ECL luminophore, such as rubrene, is added to the emulsion droplet, stochastic events can be tracked by observing both the current blips from oxidation at the electrode surface and the ECL blips from the follow-up ECL reaction, which produces light. This report provides a means of studying fundamental aspects of electrochemistry using the attoliter oil droplet and offers complementary analytical techniques for analyzing discrete collision events, size distribution of emulsion systems, and individual droplet electroactivity. PMID:25213468

  5. Gas-phase chemiluminescence and chemi-ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fontijn, A.

    1985-01-01

    The phenomena of chemiluminescence (or more broadly chemi-excitation) and chemi-ionization have major similarities from a fundamental kinetic and dynamic point of view. However, since the former has primarily been investigated using optical spectroscopic techniques and the latter largely by mass spectroscopic (and other gaseous electronic) methods, the two phenomena have apparently never, explicitly been discussed together in one volume. In addition to a number of review articles on each individual subject, several meetings and books have had chemiluminescence and bioluminescence as their theme and those have been dominated by condensed phase work. On the other hand, chemi-ionization is often discussed in the contest of gaseous electronics, plasma chemistry and combustion. It is the goal of this book to present a more unified understanding of the two phenomena.

  6. Functionalization of indium tin oxide electrode with both of dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles and chemically converted graphenes for enhanced electrochemiluminescence of luminol/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jisoo; Cho, Taehoon; Lim, Hyojung; Kim, Joohoon

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report highly enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol in the presence of H2O2 on indium tin oxides (ITOs) modified with both of dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (Pt DENs) and chemically converted graphenes (CCGs). The ITO electrodes were electrochemically modified with size-monodisperse Pt DENs via electrooxidative grafting of the terminal amines of the dendrimers encapsulating Pt nanoparticles. The Pt DEN-modified ITOs were then decorated with CCG sheets via electrostatic attachments of graphene oxides (GOs) and subsequent chemical reduction of the GOs to the CCGs. The resulting CCG-Pt DEN/ITO electrodes exhibited highly catalyzed electrochemical oxidation of luminol/H2O2, leading to significantly enhanced ECL of the luminol/H2O2 system, i.e., ∼15-fold enhancement, compared to ECL emission from bare ITOs even at lower applied potentials, which allowed sensitive ECL-based analysis of H2O2 using the CCG-Pt DEN/ITOs. Graphical abstract We report the highly enhanced electrochemiluminescence of the luminol/H2O2 system on the indium tin oxide electrodes modified with both of Pt nanoparticles and chemically converted graphenes using amine-terminated dendrimers.

  7. Co-immobilization of polymeric luminol, iron(II) tris(5-aminophenanthroline) and glucose oxidase at an electrode surface, and its application as a glucose optrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching Hao; Chen, Shen Ming; Wang, Chong Mou

    2002-11-01

    The anodic polymerization of 3-aminophthalhydrazide (luminol) and iron(II) tris 5-aminophenanthroline (Fe(phen-NH2)3(2+)) has been reported in this paper. A bilayer electrode was developed based on these polymers and the ITO conductive glass (denoted ITO[Fe(phen-NH2)3(2+)]luminol electrode). This electrode emitted light (lambdaem: 430 nm) as it was brought into contact with H2O2. At pH 10, the resulting electrochemiluminescence (ECL) showed a linear relationship with the concentration of H2O2 in the range of 10 microM(-1) mM. This bilayer electrode also showed an application potential for the detection of glucose after being further modified with glucose oxidase (denoted ITO[Fe(phen-NH2)3(2+)]luminol]GOx electrode). Although the resulting ECL decayed more rapidly in concentrated glucose solutions (e.g., I M) because of the consumption of luminol during use, the decay became less severe in diluted glucose solutions (e.g., 10 mM). According to the flow injection analysis, a linear relationship existed between the ECL and the concentration of glucose from 10(-5)-10(-3) M at pH 9. The detection limit could reach a level of 5 x 10(-5) M at this pH. PMID:12475043

  8. Functionalization of indium tin oxide electrode with both of dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles and chemically converted graphenes for enhanced electrochemiluminescence of luminol/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jisoo; Cho, Taehoon; Lim, Hyojung; Kim, Joohoon

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report highly enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol in the presence of H2O2 on indium tin oxides (ITOs) modified with both of dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (Pt DENs) and chemically converted graphenes (CCGs). The ITO electrodes were electrochemically modified with size-monodisperse Pt DENs via electrooxidative grafting of the terminal amines of the dendrimers encapsulating Pt nanoparticles. The Pt DEN-modified ITOs were then decorated with CCG sheets via electrostatic attachments of graphene oxides (GOs) and subsequent chemical reduction of the GOs to the CCGs. The resulting CCG-Pt DEN/ITO electrodes exhibited highly catalyzed electrochemical oxidation of luminol/H2O2, leading to significantly enhanced ECL of the luminol/H2O2 system, i.e., ∼15-fold enhancement, compared to ECL emission from bare ITOs even at lower applied potentials, which allowed sensitive ECL-based analysis of H2O2 using the CCG-Pt DEN/ITOs. Graphical abstract We report the highly enhanced electrochemiluminescence of the luminol/H2O2 system on the indium tin oxide electrodes modified with both of Pt nanoparticles and chemically converted graphenes using amine-terminated dendrimers. PMID:27325466

  9. Assessing the Progress of Degradation in Polyurethanes by Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malíková, Marta; Rychlý, Jozef; Csomorová, Katarína

    2010-06-01

    The thermooxidative and thermal stabilities of polyurethanes synthesized from polyisocyanate and polyol were assessed by chemiluminescence and thermogravimetry. The effect of varying heating rates, synthesis procedures (i.e., with or without a crosslinking catalyst), atmospheres and long-term ageing under laboratory conditions were examined and a mechanism of oxidative degradation was proposed based on comparisons of the—separately determined—oxidizability of polyisocyanate and polyol to that of polyurethane.

  10. Chemiluminescence detection of heroin in illicit drug samples.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Learey, Jessica J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2013-11-15

    Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis. Although heroin was the major constituent of the six drug samples (between 16% and 67% by mass), the synthetic by-product 6-acetylcodeine (2.5-8.3%) made a greater contribution to the total [Ru(bipy)3](3+) chemiluminescence response of the screening test. The signal with permanganate was primarily due to the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (0.9-29%), and was therefore indicative of the degree of sample degradation during clandestine manufacture or poor storage conditions prior to the drug seizure. In the second part of the screening test, the sample is treated with sodium hydroxide, which results in a large increase in the signal with permanganate, due to the rapid hydrolysis of heroin to 6-monoacetylmorphine. As the emission of these two reagents with morphinan-alkaloids and their derivatives largely depends on the substituent at the O(3) position, the slower hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine to morphine, and 6-acetylcodeine to codeine, did not have a major impact on the characteristic pattern of responses in the screening test. PMID:24148453

  11. [Decrease of singlet oxygen chemiluminescence by the presence of carnosine].

    PubMed

    Svachko, A G; Formaziuk, V E; Sergienko, V I

    1990-08-01

    To test antiradical medicines effect the chemical production of singlet oxygen (NaClO + H2O2) was investigated. The quantity singlet oxygen chemiluminescence was decreased in the presence of Japanese Catalin and Chine Baineiting, antirheumatic Voltaren and less strong Finish Catachrome and Carnosine. American Quinax does not possess such an effect. One of the possible starting mechanisms causing different diseases (atherosclerosis, cataract etc.) is destruction of biomembranes by active forms of oxygen.

  12. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging of ignition through a shock tube end-wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troutman, V. A.; Strand, C. L.; Campbell, M. F.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Miller, V. A.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2016-03-01

    A high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging diagnostic was developed to image the structure and homogeneity of combustion events behind reflected shock waves in the Stanford Constrained Reaction Volume Shock Tube. An intensified high-repetition-rate imaging system was used to acquire images of OH* chemiluminescence (near 308 nm) through a fused quartz shock tube end-wall window at 10-33 kHz during the combustion of n-heptane (21 % O2/Ar, φ = 0.5). In general, the imaging technique enabled observation of the main ignition event in the core of the shock tube that corresponded to typical markers of ignition (e.g., pressure rise), as well as localized ignition near the wall that preceded the main core ignition event for some conditions. Case studies were performed to illustrate the utility of this novel imaging diagnostic. First, by comparing localized wall ignition events to the core ignition event, the temperature homogeneity of the post-reflected shock gas near the end-wall was estimated to be within 0.5 % for the test condition presented (T=1159 hbox {K}, P=0.25 hbox {MPa}). Second, the effect of a recession in the shock tube wall, created by an observation window, on the combustion event was visualized. Localized ignition was observed near the window, but this disturbance did not propagate to the core of the shock tube before the main ignition event. Third, the effect of shock tube cleanliness was investigated by conducting tests in which the shock tube was not cleaned for multiple consecutive runs. For tests after no cleaning was performed, ignition events were concentrated in the lower half of the shock tube. In contrast, when the shock tube was cleaned, the ignition event was distributed around the entire circumference of the shock tube; validating the cleaning procedure.

  13. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  14. Aggregation-induced emission: a simple strategy to improve chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; He, Nan; Lu, Chao

    2015-01-20

    The emergence of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has opened up a new avenue for scientists. There is a great demand for the development of a new generation chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) acceptors with AIE characteristics due to the aggregation-caused chemiluminescence (CL) quenching effect commonly observed in the conventional fluorophore CL acceptors at high concentrations. However, the systematical studies involving in AIE-amplified CL are still scarce. Herein, it is the first report that the gold nanocluster aggregates (a type of well-defined AIE molecules) are used to study their influence on the bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO)-H2O2 CL reaction. Interestingly, the AIE molecules in the diluted solution are unable to boost the CL signal of the TCPO-H2O2 system, but their aggregates display a strongly enhanced CL emission compared to their counterparts of fluorophore molecules, thanks to the unique AIE effect of gold nanoclusters. In comparison to rhodamine B with the aid of an imidazole catalyst, the detection limit of the gold nanocluster aggregate-amplified CL probe for H2O2 (S/N = 3) is low in the absence of any catalyst. Finally, the other two typical AIE molecules, Au(I)-thiolate complexes and 9,10-bis[4-(3-sulfonatopropoxyl)-styryl]anthracene (BSPSA), are investigated to verify the generality of the AIE molecule-amplified CL emissions. These results demonstrate effective access to highly fluorescent AIE molecules with practical applications in avoiding the aggregation-induced CL quenching at high concentrations, which can be expected to provide a novel and sensitive platform for the CL amplified detection.

  15. Investigation on the spontaneous combustion of refuse-derived fuels during storage using a chemiluminescence technique.

    PubMed

    Matunaga, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Wakakura, Masahide; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2008-12-01

    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a high-caloric material, is used by various combustion processes, such as power plants, as alternative fuel. Several explosion accidents, however, possibly initiated by the spontaneous combustion of stored RDF, have been reported in Japan. Therefore the spontaneous combustion of RDF prepared from domestic garbage was investigated using chemiluminescence. RDF samples were heated either under air or under nitrogen for 1, 2, or 4 h at 120 or 140 degrees C and then cooled by an air or nitrogen stream. All RDF samples exhibited chemiluminescence. In air-treated RDF samples (heated and cooled by air), chemiluminescence after ageing was shown to be slightly lower than before ageing, whereas in nitrogen-treated samples (both heated and cooled by nitrogen) chemiluminescence decreased significantly after ageing. When nitrogen was replaced with air during aging, however, a sudden increase of chemiluminescence was observed. On the other hand, when cooling was done with air, chemiluminescence increased. Higher chemiluminescence was also observed during high-temperature treatment. Further experiments on cellulose, one of the major components of domestic garbage, exhibited similar chemiluminescence patterns to those of RDF when treated by the same methods as those used for RDF ageing. Chemiluminescence from cellulose increased significantly when the atmospheric gas was changed from nitrogen to air, suggesting that oxygen in the air promoted the formation of hydroperoxide from cellulose. Therefore, it is hypothesized that cellulose plays an important role in the formation of chemiluminescence from RDF. The formation of chemiluminescence indicated that radicals are formed from RDF by oxidation or thermal degradation at room or atmospheric temperatures and may subsequently lead to spontaneous combustion.

  16. In vivo imaging using polymeric nanoparticles stained with near-infrared chemiluminescent and fluorescent squaraine catenane endoperoxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Jae; White, Alexander G; Rice, Douglas R; Smith, Bradley D

    2013-04-14

    Polystyrene nanoparticles stained with squaraine catenane endoperoxide exhibit remarkably high chemiluminescence and enable optical imaging of biodistribution in living mice. Whole-body chemiluminescence imaging was much more effective than fluorescence at identifying lung accumulation of the nanoparticles.

  17. On-Chip Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification on Flow-Based Chemiluminescence Microarray Analysis Platform for the Detection of Viruses and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kunze, A; Dilcher, M; Abd El Wahed, A; Hufert, F; Niessner, R; Seidel, M

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an on-chip isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (iNAAT) for the multiplex amplification and detection of viral and bacterial DNA by a flow-based chemiluminescence microarray. In a principle study, on-chip recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) on defined spots of a DNA microarray was used to spatially separate the amplification reaction of DNA from two viruses (Human adenovirus 41, Phi X 174) and the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which are relevant for water hygiene. By establishing the developed assay on the microarray analysis platform MCR 3, the automation of isothermal multiplex-amplification (39 °C, 40 min) and subsequent detection by chemiluminescence imaging was realized. Within 48 min, the microbes could be identified by the spot position on the microarray while the generated chemiluminescence signal correlated with the amount of applied microbe DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) determined for HAdV 41, Phi X 174, and E. faecalis was 35 GU/μL, 1 GU/μL, and 5 × 10(3) GU/μL (genomic units), which is comparable to the sensitivity reported for qPCR analysis, respectively. Moreover the simultaneous amplification and detection of DNA from all three microbes was possible. The presented assay shows that complex enzymatic reactions like an isothermal amplification can be performed in an easy-to-use experimental setup. Furthermore, iNAATs can be potent candidates for multipathogen detection in clinical, food, or environmental samples in routine or field monitoring approaches.

  18. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of hydrazine by oxidation with chlorinated isocyanurates.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2002-10-16

    A rapid and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method is described for the determination of hydrazine based on the CL generated during its reaction with either sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) or trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. The emission intensity is greatly enhanced if dichlorofluorescein (DCF) as sensitizer is present in the reaction medium. The presence of citrate prevents the precipitation of some cations in the reaction medium and also causes an enhancement in emission intensity. The effect of analytical and flow injection variables on these CL systems and determination of hydrazine are discussed. The optimum parameters for the determination of hydrazine were studied and were found to be the following: SDCC and TCCA both 1x10(-3) M; NaOH, 2x10(-1) M; DCF, 5x10(-6) M; citrate, 1x10(-3) M and flow rate, 3.8 ml min(-1). The optimized method yielded 3sigma detection limits of 2x10(-7) and 3x10(-7) M for hydrazine with SDCC and TCCA oxidants, respectively. The method is simple, fast, sensitive, and precise and was applied to the determination of hydrazine in water samples. PMID:18968808

  19. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunosensor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac based on Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Xu, Qian; Wei, Xiaoping; Hao, Zaibin

    2013-02-20

    A highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for Cry1Ac was fabricated. The primary antibody anti-Cry1Ac was immobilized onto core-shell structural Fe(3)O(4)@Au nanoparticles. The antigen and glucose-oxidase-labeled secondary antibody were then successively combined to form sandwich-type immunocomplexes through a specific interaction. The magnetic particles loaded with sandwich immune complexes were attracted to a magnet-controlled glass carbon electrode (GCE) by an external magnet applied on top of the GCE. ECL was generated by the reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide derived from the enzymatic reaction in the presence of glucose. The sensors exhibited high sensitivity and a wide linear range for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac detection from 0 to 6 ng/mL, as well as a detection limit of 0.25 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The sensor is one of the most sensitive sensors for Cry1Ac, which can be easily renewed and conveniently used. PMID:23317307

  20. The molecular dynamics of atmospheric reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information about the chemistry of the upper atmosphere took the form of quantitative data concerning the rate of reaction into specified states of product vibration, rotation and translation for exothermic reaction, as well as concerning the rate of reaction from specified states of reagent vibration, rotation and translation for endothermic reaction. The techniques used were variants on the infrared chemiluminescence method. Emphasis was placed on reactions that formed, and that removed, vibrationally-excited hydroxyl radicals. Fundamental studies were also performed on exothermic reactions involving hydrogen halides.

  1. Ethanol as an alternative to formaldehyde for the enhancement of manganese(IV) chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zoe M; Terry, Jessica M; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    Previous applications of manganese(IV) as a chemiluminescence reagent have required the use of formaldehyde to enhance the emission intensity to analytically useful levels. However, this known human carcinogen (by inhalation) is not ideal for routine application. A wide range of alternative enhancers have been examined but to date none have been found to provide the dramatic increase in chemiluminescence intensities obtained using formaldehyde. Herein, we demonstrate that ethanol offers a simple, safe and inexpensive alternative to the use of formaldehyde for manganese(IV) chemiluminescence detection, without compromising signal intensity or sensitivity. For example, chemiluminescence signals for opiate alkaloids using 50-100% ethanol were 0.8-1.6-fold those using 2M formaldehyde. This innocuous alternative enhancer is shown to be a particularly effective for the direct detection of thiols and disulfides by manganese(IV) chemiluminescence, which we have applied to a simple HPLC procedure to determine a series of biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  2. The effects of glucocorticosteroids on the chemiluminescence response of bovine phagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Phillips, T R; Yang, W C; Schultz, R D

    1987-03-01

    The effects of corticosteroids on the chemiluminescence response of bovine phagocytic cells were determined both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro addition of hydrocortisone or dexamethasone had no significant effect on the chemiluminescence response of leukocytes in a whole blood or purified polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) population. Cattle that received a single 20 mg dose of dexamethasone or three 20 mg doses of dexamethasone (given 24 hours apart) demonstrated the expected effects on the bovine leukogram (leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, and monocytosis) and also demonstrated the expected suppressive effect on lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). However, neither a single nor multiple dexamethasone treatment(s) had an effect on the chemiluminescence response of phagocytes in whole blood, but significantly enhanced the chemiluminescence response of the purified PMN leukocyte population. There was no significant difference between the two dexamethasone treatment groups in either the degree or duration of the effects observed in the chemiluminescence or lymphocyte response assays.

  3. Crystallochemiluminescence of solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, A. P.; Nekrasova, L. P.; Gornakova, A. S.; Shikunova, I. A.

    2014-09-01

    It is shown that the chemiluminescence intensity from luminol solutions reaches a maximum when the latter are crystallized. This phenomenon is explained by the complex dynamics of the phase transition, chemical reactions, and degradation of electronic excitation energy. Luminescence of new type, called crystallochemiluminescence, is revealed.

  4. Chemiluminescence detection of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Francis, Paul S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Costin, Jason W; Purcell, Stuart D; Pfeffer, Frederick M; Barnett, Neil W

    2008-11-01

    A review with 98 references. The determination of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids and their semi-synthetic derivatives has important applications in industrial process monitoring, clinical analysis and forensic science. Liquid-phase chemiluminescence reagents such as tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) and acidic potassium permanganate exhibit remarkable sensitivity and complementary selectivity for many P. somniferum alkaloids, which has been exploited in the development of a range of analytical procedures using flow analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and microfluidic instrumentation.

  5. Chemiluminescence determination of chlorpheniramine using tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) peroxydisulphate system and sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O; Al-Hinai, Mohammed M; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Salama, Salama B

    2009-01-01

    A sequential injection (SI) method was developed for the determination of chlorpheniramine (CPA), based on the reaction of this drug with tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) [Ru(phen)(3)(2+)] and peroxydisulphate (S(2)O(8)(2-)) in the presence of light. The instrumental set-up utilized a syringe pump and a multiposition valve to aspirate the reagents [Ru(phen)(3)(2+) and S(2)O(8)(2-)] and a peristaltic pump to propel the sample. The experimental conditions affecting the chemiluminescence reaction were systematically optimized, using the univariate approach. Under the optimum conditions linear calibration curves of 0.1-10 microg/ml were obtained. The detection limit was 0.04 microg/ml and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was always < 5%. The procedure was applied to the analysis of CPA in pharmaceutical products and was found to be free from interferences from concomitants usually present in these preparations.

  6. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of chrysin and baicalein assisted by theoretical prediction of chemiluminescence behavior of chrysin and baicalein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxin; Guo, Lili; Xu, Chunli; Ma, Limei

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, the molecular connectivity indices were applied to theoretically predict the direct chemiluminescence (CL) behavior of chrysin and baicalein with our recently proposed discriminant function. Then, combined with flow-injection analysis, a new CL system for determination of chrysin and baicalein was proposed. The method was based on the oxidation of chrysin and baicalein by acidic KMnO 4 in the presence of formaldehyde to produce strong CL emission. The present paper suggested a new model to discover new CL analytical system: first, to theoretical predict the CL behavior, and the second, to suggest analytical system.

  7. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of RNA Viruses Based on Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, Magnetic Nanoparticles, and Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiuhai; Lu, Peng; Yan, Jieni; Zhang, Yufan; Huang, Lanye; Ali, Zeeshan; Li, Zhiyang; He, Nongyue

    2016-04-01

    RNA viruses, particularly, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, pose serious health concerns, and cause huge economic losses worldwide. Diagnostic tools for the early detection of these deadly RNA viruses are urgently needed to implement treatment and disease control strategies. Conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based chemiluminescent (RT-PCR-CL) detection is frequently used for the diagnosis of viral infections. However, the requirements for expensive PCR machines and longer thermocycling times are significant drawbacks. In this study, we propose a method based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) combined with chemiluminescence (CL) to detect H7N9 virus. The proposed method does not require any expensive instruments, and processing time is remarkably shortened compared to that of RT-PCR-CL. Since several factors including RT-LAMP temperature, probe concentration, hybridization temperature, and hybridization duration might affect the CL signal, each of these parameters was investigated and optimized. One thousand copies/mL of H7N9 RNA were detectable using the optimized RT-LAMP-CL method. The detection time was significantly reduced by using RT-LAMP, in comparison with conventional RT-PCR-CL. This technique holds great promise for viral detection and diagnosis, especially with regard to avian influenza virus. PMID:27301197

  8. A chemiluminescence study of UVA-induced oxidative stress in human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Hao; Stamatas, Georgios; Saliou, Claude; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2004-04-01

    Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants in favor of pro-oxidants. Photon emission (also called chemiluminescence) has been widely used to study oxidative stress in biological systems in vitro. In vivo chemiluminescence has been proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oxidative stress in the skin. UVA (320-400 nm part of the ultraviolet radiation) exposure is generally accepted as a source of oxidative stress in the skin. In this study, UVA-induced oxidative stress was studied by using an in vivo chemiluminescence detection method. First, the dose response and the fluence rate response of the UVA-induced oxidative stress in human skin were investigated by examining the decay kinetics of the chemiluminescence signal following UVA exposure. A kinetic model was proposed to help differentiate these two responses. We found that the initial burst of the chemiluminescence signal depended on the UVA fluence rate, whereas the decay of the signal following exposure can be related to the UVA dose involved. Second, a significant reduction of UVA-induced chemiluminescence signal was observed after tape-stripping, indicating that stratum corneum is a major source of UVA-induced oxidative stress in the skin. Furthermore, the oxygen dependence of UVA-induced chemiluminescence signal was also confirmed by application of a pressure cuff, implying that some of the oxidative stress occurs in the deeper layers of the skin. Finally, topical application of vitamin C before exposure significantly reduced the UVA-induced chemiluminescence signal. We thus conclude that chemiluminescence is an effective method to assess the oxidative stress induced by UVA in human skin in vivo.

  9. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assist other investigators with use of these chemical tools. We highlight the use of these tools use by displaying their selectivity and high sensitivity toward H2S and provide examples of assays we have developed to detect enzymatically produced H2S. PMID:25725517

  10. Chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) to measure kinetic aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Kestranek, Aimee; Chervenak, Andrew; Longenberger, Justin; Placko, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Solubility is the dose-limiting property for in vitro studies, and therefore is a critical physicochemical property to measure in drug discovery. Solubility data can be used to guide lead optimization, troubleshoot erratic bioassay results, and identify potential downstream liabilities such as insufficient solubility for bioassays or oral bioavailability. Typically, early in vitro studies are performed using library compounds prepared as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) stock solutions, resulting in in vitro test solutions containing DMSO at low concentration (<5% v/v). Since DMSO can affect the apparent solubility, it is desirable to obtain solubility data under conditions mimicking the in vitro study. Kinetic solubility (from DMSO stock solutions) is often preferred over thermodynamic solubility (from dry powder) in early drug discovery. The protocols in this article describe a general procedure for assessing kinetic aqueous solubility of early drug discovery compounds using a miniaturized shake flask method with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND).

  11. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  12. Evaluation of glycophenotype in prostatic neoplasm by chemiluminescent assay

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; de Lima, Luiza Rayanna Amorim; Cavalcanti, Carmelita de Lima Bezerra; Lira, Mariana Montenegro de Melo; da Silva, Maria da Paz Carvalho; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Júnior, Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the glycophenotype in normal prostate, bening prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa) tissues by a chemiluminescent method. Concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectins were conjugated to acridinium ester (lectins-AE). These conjugates remained capable to recognize their specific carbohydrates. Tissue samples were incubated with lectins-AE. The chemiluminescence of the tissue-lectin-AE complex was expressed in relative light units (RLU). Transformed tissues (0.25 cm2 by 8 µm of thickness) showed statistical significant lower α-D-glucose/mannose (BPH: 226,931 ± 17,436; PCa: 239,520 ± 12,398) and Gal-β(1-3)-GalNAc (BPH: 28,754 ± 2,157; PCa: 16,728 ± 1,204) expression than normal tissues (367,566 ± 48,550 and 409,289 ± 22,336, respectively). However, higher α-L-fucose expression was observed in PCa (251,118 ± 14,193) in relation to normal (200,979 ± 21,318) and BHP (169,758 ± 10,264) tissues. It was observed an expressive decreasing of the values of RLU by inhibition of the interaction between tissues and lectins-AE using their specific carbohydrates. The relationship between RLU and tissue area showed a linear correlation for all lectin-AE in both transformed tissues. These results indicated that the used method is an efficient tool for specific, sensitive and quantitative analyses of prostatic glycophenotype. PMID:25120756

  13. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  14. Carbon nanodots sensitized chemiluminescence on peroxomonosulfate-sulfite-hydrochloric acid system and its analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Xing, Gaowa; Chen, Hui; Ogawa, Nobuaki; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-09-15

    In the present work, new water-soluble fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-dots) were prepared in a facile microwave pyrolysis approach in minutes by combining glycine and polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements showed that the resulting C-dots had diameters of about 3 nm. (13)C NMR spectra further confirmed the presence of carbons (sp(2) and sp(3)) indicating a nanocrystalline core of the resulting C-dots with hydroxyl of PEG 200 covered outside. It was discovered that the prepared C-dots could dramatically enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) intensity of potassium peroxomonosulfate-sodium sulfite-hydrochloric acid (PSHA) reactions. UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the C-dots sensitized enhancements originated from their energy transfer and electron-transfer annihilation effects on the CL system. When the concentration of C-dots was 4×10(-5) M, and those of KHSO(5), Na(2)SO(3) and HCl were 1×10(-2) M, an excellent performance was obtained. The C-dots sensitized CL system was successfully applied to the determination of aliphatic primary amines in real water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:22967581

  15. Silver nanoparticles enhanced flow injection chemiluminescence determination of gatifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked urine sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh mohammad; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Alothman, Zeid A.; Mohsin, Kazi

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been utilized for the enhanced chemiluminogenic estimation of fluoroquinolone antibiotic gatifloxacin. It has been found that the weak chemiluminescence intensity produced from the reaction between calcein and KMnO4 can further be strengthened by the addition of silver nanoparticles in the presence of gatifloxacin. This phenomenon has been exploited to the quantitative determination of gatifloxacin. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range of 8.9 × 10-9-4.0 × 10-6 M, while the limits of detections were found to be 2.6 × 10-9 M with correlation coefficient value (r2) 0.9999. The relative standard deviation calculated from six replicate measurements (1.0 × 10-4 M gatifloxacin) was 1.70%. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations and the results obtained were in reasonable agreement with the amount labeled on the formulations. The proposed method was also used for the determination of gatifloxacin in spiked urine samples with satisfactory results. No interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations have been found.

  16. NO/peroxynitrite dynamics of high glucose-exposed HUVECs: chemiluminescent measurement and computational model.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Sunil; Kavdia, Mahendra

    2009-09-01

    Pathogenesis of many of diabetes-related vascular complications is associated with endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, which is reduced bioavailability of EC-released nitric oxide (NO). Interaction dynamics of NO, superoxide (O(2)(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) are dependent on both their productions and consumptions through various pathways. Quantitative knowledge of these interaction dynamics in high glucose-induced EC dysfunction remains poorly understood. We developed an integrated experimental and computational approach to gain a quantitative understanding of the interactions of NO, O(2)(-) and ONOO(-) in high glucose-exposed ECs. End-products, nitrite and nitrate, were measured using a chemiluminescence analyzer. A computational biochemical reaction network model was developed to predict the effect of high glucose on ECs NO, O(2)(-) and ONOO(-). ECs NO and O(2)(-) productions increased in high glucose as evidenced by increased total NOx concentration, primarily increasing nitrate concentration. The model predicted an increase in O(2)(-) and ONOO(-) concentrations and a decrease in NO concentration in high glucose conditions. Administration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased O(2)(-) concentration and increased NO concentration, thus SOD improved high glucose-induced changes in these interactions. An important finding of this study was that the NO bioavailability decreased in high glucose conditions even though NO production of EC increased. The integrated approach provides a framework to predict NO, O(2)(-) and ONOO(-) concentrations and productions that are difficult to measure in one experiment and will be useful in further EC dysfunction studies. PMID:19362569

  17. A chemiluminescence-based continuous flow aqueous ozone analyzer using photoactivated chromotropic acid.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Toshio; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2005-05-15

    Ozone has become the oxidant of choice for water disinfection, especially in large water treatment facilities. This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of ozone content by reaction with photoactivated chromotropic acid (CA, 4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid), which results in intense chemiluminescence (CL). Freshly ozonated water from a recirculating ozonizer/reservoir is injected into a carrier stream of deionized water in the flow-injection mode. This flow mixes with a stream of photoactivated CA solution in a spiral cell placed directly on top of an inexpensive miniature (8mm diameter active area) photomultiplier tube (PMT). Alkaline CA is photoactivated by passing it through a FEP-Teflon((R)) coil (residence time approximately 50s) wrapped around a 1W UV lamp emitting at 254nm; without photoactivation, the signal is approximately 70-fold lower. The S/N=3 limit of detection for aqueous ozone is 3mugl(-1) and good response slope is obtained up to an ozone concentration of 1.4mgl(-1), the highest that could be made in this study. The response obeyed a quadratic equation with r(2)=0.9984. No interference from permanganate ion is observed. The proposed system was applied to the monitoring of ozonation status of a playa lake water that exhibited significant ozone demand.

  18. A High Sensitivity Micro Format Chemiluminescence Enzyme Inhibition Assay for Determination of Hg(II)

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Kanchanmala; Mishra, Rupesh K.; Bhand, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific enzyme inhibition assay based on alcohol oxidase (AlOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for determination of mercury Hg(II) in water samples has been presented. This article describes the optimization and miniaturization of an enzymatic assay using a chemiluminescence reaction. The analytical performance and detection limit for determination of Hg(II) was optimized in 96 well plates and further extended to 384 well plates with a 10-fold reduction in assay volume. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by dissolved Hg(II) was found to be linear in the range 5–500 pg·mL−1 with 3% CV in inter-batch assay. Due to miniaturization of assay in 384 well plates, Hg(II) was measurable as low as 1 pg·mL−1 within 15 min. About 10-fold more specificity of the developed assay for Hg(II) analysis was confirmed by challenging with interfering divalent metal ions such as cadmium Cd(II) and lead Pb(II). Using the proposed assay we could successfully demonstrate that in a composite mixture of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), inhibition by each metal ion is significantly enhanced in the presence of the others. Applicability of the proposed assay for the determination of the Hg(II) in spiked drinking and sea water resulted in recoveries ranging from 100–110.52%. PMID:22163555

  19. Automatic chemiluminescence-based determination of carbaryl in various types of matrices.

    PubMed

    Pulgarín, José Antonio Murillo; Molina, Aurelia Alañón; López, Pablo Fernández

    2006-01-15

    Carbaryl, a modern pesticide widely used for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes, was determined from the chemiluminescence produced in its reaction with Ce(IV) in a nitric acid medium containing rhodamine 6G as sensitizer, using flow-injection techniques. A straightforward automatic method based on measurements peak height and peak area, which are directly proportional to the carbaryl concentration, was thus developed. Calibration graphs are linear over the concentration range from 50 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection, as determined according to Clayton, is 45.6 and 28.7 ng mL(-1) for peak height and peak area measurements, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 10 samples was less than 1.4% with both types of measurements. Two commercial formulations containing carbaryl were analysed using both types of measurements, which provided acceptable recovery values. Solid-phase extraction was used to concentrate and separate the analyte from the matrix. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked water samples as well as in soil and grain samples. The proposed method exhibited a high selectivity no other pesticide containing the naphthalene group such as antu, napropamide or naftalam, etc., was found to interfere with the determination of carbaryl. PMID:18970361

  20. Application of a Chemiluminescence Detector for the Measurement of Total Oxides of Nitrogen and Ammonia in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgeson, J. A.; Bell, J. P.; Rehme, K. A.; Krost, K. J.; Stevens, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    By means of the thermal conversion of nitrogen dioxide to the nitric oxide, the chemiluminescent nitric oxide monitor, based on the nitric oxide plus ozone reaction, may be used for monitoring nitrogen dioxide plus nitric oxide (NO(x)). Under conditions previously described, ammonia is also converted to nitric oxide and therefore interferes. A metal surface, gold wool or stainless steel, operated at two different temperatures has been used to convert only nitrogen dioxide or nitrogen dioxide plus ammonia. Quantitative conversion of nitrogen dioxide to nitric oxide has been obtained at temperatures as low as 200 C. Conversion of ammonia is effected at temperatures of 300 C or higher. By the addition of a converter the basic nitric oxide monitor may be used for measuring NO(x) or NO(x) plus ammonia. As an alternate mode, for a fixed high temperature, a specific scrubber is described for removing NH3 without affecting NO2 concentrations.

  1. Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

  2. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm2. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm-1), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications.

  3. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Masaki Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro

    2015-01-12

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm{sup 2}. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm{sup −1}), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications.

  4. Real time imaging of live cell ATP leaking or release events by chemiluminescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yun

    2008-12-18

    The purpose of this research was to expand the chemiluminescence microscopy applications in live bacterial/mammalian cell imaging and to improve the detection sensitivity for ATP leaking or release events. We first demonstrated that chemiluminescence (CL) imaging can be used to interrogate single bacterial cells. While using a luminometer allows detecting ATP from cell lysate extracted from at least 10 bacterial cells, all previous cell CL detection never reached this sensitivity of single bacteria level. We approached this goal with a different strategy from before: instead of breaking bacterial cell membrane and trying to capture the transiently diluted ATP with the firefly luciferase CL assay, we introduced the firefly luciferase enzyme into bacteria using the modern genetic techniques and placed the CL reaction substrate D-luciferin outside the cells. By damaging the cell membrane with various antibacterial drugs including antibiotics such as Penicillins and bacteriophages, the D-luciferin molecules diffused inside the cell and initiated the reaction that produces CL light. As firefly luciferases are large protein molecules which are retained within the cells before the total rupture and intracellular ATP concentration is high at the millmolar level, the CL reaction of firefly luciferase, ATP and D-luciferin can be kept for a relatively long time within the cells acting as a reaction container to generate enough photons for detection by the extremely sensitive intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. The result was inspiring as various single bacterium lysis and leakage events were monitored with 10-s temporal resolution movies. We also found a new way of enhancing diffusion D-luciferin into cells by dehydrating the bacteria. Then we started with this novel single bacterial CL imaging technique, and applied it for quantifying gene expression levels from individual bacterial cells. Previous published result in single cell gene expression quantification

  5. One-pot synthesis of GO/AgNPs/luminol composites with electrochemiluminescence activity for sensitive detection of DNA methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-Fang; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wang, Jing-Wu; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2015-01-15

    DNA methyltransferases catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the target adenine or cytosine, eventually inducing the DNA methylation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Herein, we developed a novel electrochemiluminescence biosensor to quantify DNA adenine methylation (Dam) methyltransferase (MTase) employing signal amplification of GO/AgNPs/luminol composites to enhance the assay sensitivity. The method was developed by designing a capture probe DNA, which was immobilized on gold electrode surface, to hybridize with azide complementary DNA to form the azide-terminated dsDNA. Then, alkynyl functionalized GO/AgNPs/luminol composites as the signal probe were immobilized to azide-terminated dsDNA modified electrode via click chemistry, resulting in a high electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal. Once the DNA hybrid was methylated (under catalysis of Dam MTase) and further cleaved by Dpn I endonuclease (a site-specific endonuclease recognizing the duplex symmetrical sequence of 5'-G-Am-T-C-3'), GO/AgNPs/luminol composites release from the electrode surface to the solution, leading to significant reduction of the ECL signal. The change of the ECL intensity is related to the methylation status and MTase activity, which forms the basis of MTase activity assay and site-specific methylation determination. This novel strategy can be further used as a universal method for other transferase determination by designing various transferase-specific DNA sequences. In addition, this method can be used for the screening of antimicrobial drugs and has a great potential to be further applied in early clinical diagnosis.

  6. On-Chip Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification on Flow-Based Chemiluminescence Microarray Analysis Platform for the Detection of Viruses and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kunze, A; Dilcher, M; Abd El Wahed, A; Hufert, F; Niessner, R; Seidel, M

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an on-chip isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (iNAAT) for the multiplex amplification and detection of viral and bacterial DNA by a flow-based chemiluminescence microarray. In a principle study, on-chip recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) on defined spots of a DNA microarray was used to spatially separate the amplification reaction of DNA from two viruses (Human adenovirus 41, Phi X 174) and the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which are relevant for water hygiene. By establishing the developed assay on the microarray analysis platform MCR 3, the automation of isothermal multiplex-amplification (39 °C, 40 min) and subsequent detection by chemiluminescence imaging was realized. Within 48 min, the microbes could be identified by the spot position on the microarray while the generated chemiluminescence signal correlated with the amount of applied microbe DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) determined for HAdV 41, Phi X 174, and E. faecalis was 35 GU/μL, 1 GU/μL, and 5 × 10(3) GU/μL (genomic units), which is comparable to the sensitivity reported for qPCR analysis, respectively. Moreover the simultaneous amplification and detection of DNA from all three microbes was possible. The presented assay shows that complex enzymatic reactions like an isothermal amplification can be performed in an easy-to-use experimental setup. Furthermore, iNAATs can be potent candidates for multipathogen detection in clinical, food, or environmental samples in routine or field monitoring approaches. PMID:26624222

  7. Influence of temperature changes on ambient air NOx chemiluminescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Miñarro, Marta Doval; Ferradás, Enrique González; Martínez, Francisco J Marzal

    2012-09-01

    Users of automatic air pollution monitors are largely unaware of how certain parameters, like temperature, can affect readings. The present work examines the influence of temperature changes on chemiluminescence NO(x) measurements made with a Thermo Scientific 42i analyzer, a model widely used in air monitoring networks and air pollution studies. These changes are grouped into two categories according to European Standard EN 14211: (1) changes in the air surrounding the analyzers and (2) changes in the sampled air. First, the sensitivity tests described in Standard EN 14211 were performed to determine whether the analyzer performance was adapted to the requirements of the standard. The analyzer met the performance criteria of both tests; however, some differences were detected in readings with temperature changes even though the temperature compensator was on. Sample temperature changes were studied more deeply as they were the most critical (they cannot be controlled and differences of several tens of degrees can be present in a single day). Significant differences in readings were obtained when changing sample temperature; however, maximum deviations were around 3% for temperature ranges of 15°C. If other possible uncertainty contributions are controlled and temperature variations with respect to the calibration temperature are not higher than 15°C, the effect of temperature changes could be acceptable and no data correction should have to be applied. PMID:21964932

  8. Sensitive determination of triacetone triperoxide explosives using electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Suman; Miao, Wujian

    2013-08-20

    Sensitive and selective detection and quantification of high explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP) with electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) at a glassy carbon electrode in water-acetonitrile solvent mixture were reported. In the presence of ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine), TATP or hydrogen peroxide derived from TATP via UV irradiation or acid treatment produced ECL emissions upon cathodic potential scanning. Interference from hydrogen peroxide on TATP detection was eliminated by pretreatment of the analyte with catalase enzyme. Selective detection of TATP from hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD, another common peroxide-based explosive) was realized by comparing ECL responses obtained from the anodic and the cathodic potential scanning; TATP produced ECL upon cathodic potential scanning only, whereas HMTD produced ECL upon both cathodic and anodic potential scanning. The hydroxyl radical formed after the electrochemical reduction of TATP was believed to be the key intermediate for ECL production, and its stability was strongly dependent on the solution composition, which was verified with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A detection limit of 2.5 μM TATP was obtained from direct electrochemical reduction of the explosive or hydrogen peroxide derived from TATP in 70/30% (v/v) water-acetonitrile solutions, which was ~400 times lower than that reported previously based on liquid chromatography separation and Fourier transform infrared detection. PMID:23885721

  9. A low budget luminometer for sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Porakishvili, N; Fordham, J L; Charrel, M; Delves, P J; Lund, T; Roitt, I M

    2000-02-01

    We have designed a simple luminometer based on a reasonably priced Peltier-cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, housed in a light-tight box, with straightforward lens imaging and a simple platform for a microtitre or other assay format. The quantitative readout of the CCD image is recorded on a PC using customised software. The instrument can be assembled in a standard university workshop for under pound3000, compared with the cheapest commercial instruments retailing at pound10,000 and above. Consistent with the general view on chemiluminescent assays, the sensitivity is 10-100 times greater than that obtained with parallel ELISA's using a chromogenic substrate. A unique feature of the CCD format is that it enables assays to be carried out on arrays of minidots and even nanodots of antigen on the floor of each microtitre well. This permits direct comparison and standardisation of reactivity of a single sample against several antigens and economy in the use of reagents, test sample and technician time; finger-prick samples of blood can be analysed. The instrument should have widespread applicability in developing countries and, indeed, in any laboratories with hard-pressed budgets. PMID:10669767

  10. Chemiluminescence microarrays in analytical chemistry: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.

  11. The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

  12. Dysprosium-sensitized chemiluminescence system for the determination of enoxacin in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids with flow-injection sampling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han-wen; Wu, Yuan-yuan; Li, Li-qing

    2009-03-01

    A novel trivalence dysprosium(Dy(3+))-sensitized chemiluminescence method was developed for the first time for the determination of enoxacin (ENX) using flow-injection sampling based on the chemiluminescence (CL) associated with the reaction of the Dy(3+)-cerium(Ce(IV))-S(2)O(3) (2-)-ENX system and the Dy(3+)-MnO(4) (-) S(2)O(3) (2-)-ENX system. The analytical conditions for CL emission were investigated and optimized. The relationship between the CL intensity of ENX and its concentration has good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9984-0.9994. The limit of detection (LOD, 3sigma) was 0.20 ng/mL for the Dy(3+)-ENX-S(2)O(3)(2-)-Ce(IV)-H(2)SO(4) system and 0.22 ng/mL for the Dy(3+)-ENX-S(2)O(3)(2-)-MnO(4) (-)-HNO(3) system. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 11) was 1.8% for 11 determinations of 60 ng/mL ENX. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of ENX in injections, serum and urine samples with a recovery of 98%-105%. A possible mechanism for this sensitized CL reaction is discussed by comparing the CL spectra with the fluorescence emission spectra. The proposed method represents a wide linear range, high sensitivity and accuracy, and can be used for the routine determination of ENX in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

  13. Development of a multichannel Fourier-transform spectrometer to measure weak chemiluminescence: Application to the emission of singlet-oxygen dimol in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with gallic acid and K 3[Fe(CN) 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukino, Kazuo; Satoh, Toshihiro; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nakata, Munetaka

    2008-05-01

    A Fourier-transform spectrometer equipped with a Savart-plate polarization interferometer was developed for observation of weak chemiluminescence and applied to a measurement of emission spectra in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with gallic acid and K 3[Fe(CN) 6]. The band appearing at ˜580 nm in the chemiluminescence spectrum was assigned to the emission of singlet-oxygen dimol, the peak wavelength being shifted from that observed in the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with sodium hypochlorite, ˜633 nm. The band intensity was increased with the increasing concentration of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] up to ˜100 mM, and thereafter the peak wavelength was shifted from 580 to 700 nm with a decrease in the intensity.

  14. Electro-deposited poly-luminol molecularly imprinted polymer coating on carboxyl graphene for stir bar sorptive extraction of estrogens in milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibo; Qiao, Li; Gan, Ning; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Wang, Jiayu; Chen, Yinji

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical polymerization of luminol molecularly imprinted polymer on carboxyl graphene (MIP/CG) was developed as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coating for selective pre-concentration and specific recognition of bisphenol A (BPA), hexoestrol and diethylstilbestrol in milk samples. Luminol was employed as monomer and BPA as the template to prepare MIP under 0-0.6V electro-polymerization. Carboxyl graphene was modified on pencil lead as the substrate to increase extraction capacity. The preparation and extraction conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of three estrogens was obtained in the range of 4-1000ngmL(-1). The average recoveries at the three spiked levels of the three estrogens ranged from 83.4% to 96.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD)≤7.1%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.36-1.09ngmL(-1). The developed method with low cost, high selectivity and good reproducibility can be potentially applied for determining trace estrogens in complex food samples. PMID:27249165

  15. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes with a nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction-coupled ligase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Barany, F; Batt, C A

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay for the specific detection of Listeria monocytogenes (M. Wiedmann, J. Czajka, F. Barany, and C. A. Batt, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3443-3447, 1992) has been modified for detection of the LCR products with a nonisotopic readout. When a chemiluminescent or a colorimetric substrate for the nonisotopic detection of the LCR products was used, the PCR-coupled LCR gave a sensitivity of 10 CFU of L. monocytogenes. The detection method with the chemiluminescent substrate Lumi-Phos 530 permitted detection of the LCR products in less than 3 h, so that the whole assay can be completed within 10 h. Images PMID:8368859

  16. Column-switching HPLC determination of mexiletine using tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(III) electrogenerated chemiluminescence and precolumn derivatization with divinylsulfone.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoko; Miyamoto, Aoi; Uchikura, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive HPLC method combined with a column-switching system and tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(III) electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) detection has been developed for the quantitative determination of mexiletine (MEX). MEX was derivatized by divinylsulfone (DVS) and then measured. The optimum conditions for the derivatization reaction were 10 µL of sample solutions, 40 mM DVS (pH 8.0), a reaction temperature of 50°C, and a reaction time of 15 min. The derivatized samples were cleaned up by an on-line pretreatment column. Also, after column-switching to the analytical column, the derivatized MEX was separated and detected. The calibration curves of MEX in human control serum showed good linear regression (r = 0.9996) from 0.008 to 6.56 µg ml(-1). The detection limit of MEX was 0.008 µg ml(-1) (S/N = 3). At a concentration of 2.0 µg ml(-1) MEX, the relative standard deviation (n = 5) was 0.98%. In this method the concentration of MEX in human control serum was readily measured, and this method was successfully applied to the time courses of the concentration of MEX in rabbit plasma after intravenous administration. The proposed method involved a simple and minimum sample-preparation procedure and a short run time (<20 min). Therefore it can be applied to routine therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of MEX. PMID:21157099

  17. Chemiluminescent Diagnostics of Free-Radical Processes in an Abiotic System and in Liver Cells in the Presence of Nanoparticles Based on Rare-Earth Elements nReVO4:Eu3+ (Re = Gd, Y, La) and CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenko, E. A.; Kavok, N. S.; Klochkov, V. K.; Malyukin, Yu. V.

    2014-11-01

    We have used luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with Fenton's reagent to study the effect of nanoparticles based on rare-earth elements of different sizes and shapes on free-radical processes in abiotic and biotic cell-free systems, and also in isolated cells in vitro. We have estimated the effects of rare-earth orthovanadate nanoparticles of spherical (GdYVO4:Eu3+, 1-2 nm), spindle-shaped (GdVO4:Eu3+, 25 ×8 nm), and rod-shaped (LaVO4:Eu3+, 57 × (6-8) nm) nanoparticles and spherical CeO2 nanoparticles (sizes 1-2 nm and 8-10 nm). We have shown that in contrast to the abiotic system, in which all types of nanoparticles exhibit antiradical activity, in the presence of biological material, extra-small spherical (1-2 nm) nanoparticles of both types exhibit pro-oxidant activity, and also enhance pro-oxidant induced oxidative stress (for the pro-oxidants hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide). The effect of rare-earth orthovanadate spindle and rod shaped nanoparticles in this system was neutral; a moderate antioxidant effect was exhibited by 8-10 nm CeO2 nanoparticles.

  18. Determination of s-nitrosothiols in biological fluids by chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Nagababu, Enika; Rifkind, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    S-nitrosothiols present in nanomolar concentrations in cells and body fluids play an important role in vasodilation, in preventing platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and for cellular signaling. However, because of the low levels of s-nitrosothiols and interference with other nitric oxide species, reliable assays that measure both high molecular weight and low molecular weight s-nitrosothiols in plasma and red blood cells red blood cells have been difficult to develop. We have previously developed a sensitive method using Cu(II)-ascorbic acid Cu(II)-ascorbic acid at a neutral pH, which was specific for s-nitrosothiols without interference of nitrite or other NOx species. However, due to neutral pH foaming, this method was not suitable for determinations in plasma or red blood cells with high protein content. This method has now been modified by using copper (II) chloride (CuCl(2)) and ascorbic acid in glacial acetic acid. The low pH solves the foaming problem. However, protonation of nitrite under acidic conditions facilitates the formation of s-nitrosothiols. For this method to specifically measure s-nitrosothiols in the sample, the unreacted thiols are blocked by reacting with N-ethylmaleimide and nitrite is blocked by reacting with acidified sulfanilamide before being analyzed by chemiluminescence. Using this method, s-nitrosothiols have been determined in the range of 2 nM to 26 nM (mean ± SE = 10.18±2.1) in plasma and up to 88.1 nM (mean ± SE = 51.27 ± 10.5) in red blood cells. PMID:21161627

  19. Laboratory Studies of FeO and NiO Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, K. S.; Bartlett, N. C.; Copeland, R. A.; Slanger, T. G.

    2013-12-01

    Although the terrestrial nightglow spectrum has been studied for over a century, new identifications of spectral features continue to be made. Recently, FeO* continuum emissions in the mesosphere were identified by comparison of results from the OSIRIS spectrometer to existing laboratory spectra [1]. This discovery has sparked a renewal of interest in the reactions of meteoric metals with mesospheric gases [2,3], and has motivated the current study. We report laboratory-based chemiluminescence spectra from the reactions Fe + O3 and Ni + O3 produced under various conditions. Iron and nickel vapor was prepared in a vacuum cell using laser ablation at 248 and 800 nm in the presence of ozone. Emission spectra from FeO* and NiO* were recorded in the region of 450-700 nm using a commercial fiber-coupled spectrometer and compared to previous results using different methods. Knowledge of the excited-state production efficiency of Fe + O3 → FeO* + O2 and the analogous reaction with Ni is critical in modeling upper atmospheric dynamics of meteoric metal layers. The only relevant experimental study in the literature for iron oxide is from West and Broida [4], who reported a yield of approximately 2% at around 1 Torr, in stark contrast with the 100% efficiency used in relevant model calculations [5]. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Aeronomy Program under grant AGS-0637433. References 1. W.F.J. Evans, R.L. Gattinger, T.G. Slanger, D.V. Saran, D.A. Degenstein, and E.J. Llewellyn, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22105 (2010). 2. D.V. Saran, T.G. Slanger, W. Feng, and J.M.C. Plane, J. Geophys. Res. 116, D12303 (2011). 3. R.L. Gattinger, W.F.J. Evans, and E.J. Llewellyn, Canadian Journal of Physics 89, 869 (2011). 4. J.B. West and H.P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2566 (1975 ). 5. C.S. Gardner, J.M.C. Plane, W.L. Pan, T. Vondrak, B.J. Murray, and X.Z. Chu, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10302 (2005).

  20. Chemiluminescent DNA probes: a comparison of the acridinium ester and dioxetane detection systems and their use in clinical diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Nelson, N C; Kacian, D L

    1990-12-17

    Nucleic acid hybridization has the potential to markedly improve the diagnosis of infectious and genetic diseases. Recently, chemiluminescent hybridization assays using acridinium esters and stabilized dioxetanes have been described with sensitivities comparable to those obtained with radioactive labels. Acridinium esters are used as direct labels that are attached to the probe throughout the hybridization reaction. Methods have been developed for labeling DNA probes with acridinium esters at high specific activity and for stabilizing the label under the relatively harsh conditions of hybridization reactions. The label does not affect the kinetics of the hybridization reaction or the stability of the resulting hybrid. The label emits light upon exposure to alkaline peroxide; thus, the assay format can be an extremely simple one. The acridinium ester labels are stable in storage and exhibit extremely rapid light-off kinetics which permit reading large numbers of samples within a brief period as well as limiting the contribution of background signal. A special property of acridinium esters allows chemical destruction of the label when it is present on unhybridized probe, whereas the label is stable to this process when the probe is hybridized. This behavior forms the basis of techniques to minimize assay background signals and allows a homogeneous assay format which does not require physical separation of hybridized and unhybridized probe. The adamantyl-stabilized 1,2-dioxetanes have been used to produce high-sensitivity detection systems for clinical assays. The probe is labeled with enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase or beta-D-galactosidase that hydrolyze the dioxetane derivative to produce a chemiluminescent molecule. As with other enzyme-based labeling systems, the signal increases with time, allowing greater sensitivity to be achieved with longer incubations. The amount of light generated is sufficient to expose sensitive photographic film with extended

  1. Two-dimensional (2D) Chemiluminescence (CL) correlation spectroscopy for studying thermal oxidation of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Hagihara, Hideaki; Suda, Hiroyuki; Mizukado, Jyunji

    2016-11-01

    Application of the two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is extended to Chemiluminescence (CL) spectra of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) under thermally induced oxidation. Upon heating, the polymer chains of the iPP undergoes scissoring and fragmentation to develop several intermediates. While different chemical species provides the emission at different wavelength regions, entire feature of the time-dependent CL spectra of the iPP samples were complicated by the presence of overlapped contributions from singlet oxygen (1O2) and carbonyl species within sample. 2D correlation spectra showed notable enhancement of the spectral resolution to provide penetrating insight into the thermodynamics of the polymer system. For example, the, oxidation induce scissoring and fragmentation of the polymer chains to develop the carbonyl group. Further reaction results in the consumption of the carbonyl species and subsequent production of different 1O2 species each developed in different manner. Consequently, key information on the thermal oxidation can be extracted in a surprisingly simple manner without any analytical expression for the actual response curves of spectral intensity signals during the reaction.

  2. Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and chemiluminescence visualization of millisecond-pulsed current-voltage-induced perturbations of a premixed propane/air flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Kostka, Stanislav; Lynch, Amy; Ganguly, Biswa

    2011-09-01

    The effects of millisecond-wide, pulsed current-voltage-induced behavior in premixed laminar flames have been investigated through the simultaneous collection of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and chemiluminescence data with particular attention paid to the onset mechanisms. Disturbances caused by applied voltages of 2 kV over a 30-mm gap to a downward propagating, atmospheric pressure, premixed propane/air flame with a flow speed near 2 m/s and an equivalence ratio of 1.06 are investigated. The combined PIV and chemiluminescence-based experimental data show the observed disturbance originates only in or near the cathode fall region very close to the burner base. The data also suggest that the coupling mechanism responsible for the flame disturbance behavior is fluidic in nature, developing from the radial positive chemi-ion distribution and an ion-drift current-induced net body force that acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone in or near the cathode fall. This net body force causes a reduction in flow speed above these near cathodic regions causing the base of the flame to laterally spread. Also, this effect seems to produce a velocity gradient leading to the transition of a laminar flame to turbulent combustion for higher applied current-voltage conditions as shown in previous work (Marcum and Ganguly in Combust Flame 143:27-36, 2005; Schmidt and Ganguly in 48th AIAA aerospace sciences meeting. Orlando, 2010).

  3. Evaluation of a new automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for FGF23.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuichiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. We have previously established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FGF23 and reported that FGF23 values are useful for the differential diagnosis of chronic hypophosphatemia. However, this ELISA has a rather narrow assay range of 3-800 pg/ml, and it was pointed out that the assay performance is not satisfactory when automatic washing is used. Here we evaluated a new automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for FGF23. This assay uses 10 μl sera or plasma samples and requires 20 min to obtain the first result. The assay was linear up to about 15,000 pg/ml and had a detection limit of 1 pg/ml. In addition, this assay showed coefficients of variation of less than 5% using samples with average FGF23 levels of 43.2-2,454.0 pg/ml. When FGF23 levels in 210 samples from chronic hypophosphatemic patients were evaluated by both the previous ELISA and this new assay, there was a good correlation of R (2) = 0.96. However, FGF23 levels by the new assay showed lower values, especially in samples with high FGF23 levels. Given that the lowest FGF23 level in patients with FGF23-related hypophosphatemia was 30.8 pg/ml and that the highest FGF23 levels in patients with non-FGF23-related hypophosphatemia was 20.8 pg/ml by this novel assay, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% when the cutoff was set between 20.8 and 30.8 pg/ml. From the aspect of convenience and the coefficients of variation of this assay, we propose that the cutoff be 25 pg/ml. There results indicate that this new assay is ideal for both clinical use and clinical studies, especially when measuring many samples with high FGF23 levels.

  4. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  5. First ozone profiles measured with electrochemical and chemiluminescent sondes, developed in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuyaguintsev, Anatoly M.; Perov, Stanislav P.; Ryabov, Youry A.

    1994-01-01

    Results obtained with experimental balloon electrochemical and chemiluminescent ozonesondes are summarized and estimated as quite satisfactory. The average normalization factor for the electrochemical ozonesonde obtained in 1991 at four Soviet balloon routine network stations is 1.069+.073 (in 17 flights). Some ozone profiles obtained in summer 1991 at Volgograd are discussed together with corresponding meteorological data.

  6. Fabrication technology of chemiluminescent sensitive elements for rocket-borne ozone detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononkov, V. A.; Lelikova, A. I.; Perov, S. P.

    Attention is given to the technology behind the fabrication of chemiluminescent sensitive elements for rocket-borne ozone detectors. High-silica microporous glass is the basic material required for these detectors. It is noted that the luminophor consists of rhodamine-C and gallic acid, and that the desired ratio of these components depends on the sensitivity of a particular specimen to ozone.

  7. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  8. [Chemiluminescence method for the detection of radiation-induced oxidation products in fat-containing foods].

    PubMed

    Matthäus, B; Wiezorek, C; Eichner, K

    1994-10-01

    Radiation-induced oxidation of fatty foods was detected by a chemiluminescence method. Hazelnuts, peanuts and poultry were used as foodstuff samples. Additional investigations were performed with a model system and sunflower oil. The irradiation of the samples was carried out in a x-ray-fluorescence-apparatus. Thereby it is to note that the G-value of the x-ray-radiation is much higher than the G-value of a cobalt-60-source normally used for irradiation of food. A dependence of the integral of the light curve on the irradiation doses could be proved. Investigations with model systems which contained different amounts of alpha-tocopherol showed a decreasing chemiluminescence signal at low irradiation doses in presence of alpha-tocopherol. At higher doses the chemiluminescence signal enlarges with increasing amounts of alpha-tocopherol because irradiation products of alpha-tocopherol overlay its antioxidative effect. Irradiated poultry samples differ significantly from unirradiated samples after a deep-freeze storage of 26 weeks. A quantification of the doses is not possible without knowledge of the storage time, because the integrals decrease differently after irradiation during storage. In any case the chemiluminescence method is useful as a "screening method" for the detection of irradiation of foodstuffs with the possibility of automation and high sensitivity.

  9. A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii IgG in human sera.

    PubMed

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Czechowska, Justyna; Serdiuk, Illia E; Krzymiński, Karol; Kur, Józef

    2016-08-01

    This study describes Toxoplasma gondii IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) based on the use of a novel immunochemical reagents in the form of the conjugates of original acridinium ester (AE) labels attached to antibodies and SAG2-GRA1-ROP1L chimeric antigen and shows that this test is useful for diagnostic purposes.

  10. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence:Supplemental Material for CASAC AMMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ApproachPer suggestion made by CASAC AMMS members during the April 3, 2014 conference call on the Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence, ORD has performed additional data analysis activities to explain and mitigate scatter observed in the co...

  11. The Synthesis and Chemiluminescence of a Stable 1,2-Dioxetane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, E. W.; Wynberg, Hans

    1982-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and discussion of results are provided for the synthesis and chemiluminescence of adamantylideneadamantane-1,2-dioxetane (I). Results provided were obtained during a normal junior level organic laboratory course. All intermediates and products were identified using routine spectroscopic analysis.…

  12. Evaluation of endotoxin (LPS) activity in bovine blood using neutrophil dependent chemiluminescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a neutrophil chemiluminescence-based assay for the measurement of LPS stimulatory activity in bovine whole blood. The assay is based on the capacity for LPS to trigger the respiratory oxidative burst activity (RBA) of autologous neutroph...

  13. A novel array of chemiluminescence sensors for sensitive, rapid and high-throughput detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide at the scene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhujun; Tao, Liang

    2013-09-15

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is relatively easy to make and has been used in various terrorist acts. Early but easy detection of TATP is highly desired. We designed a new type sensor array for H2O2. The unique CL sensor array was based on CeO2 nanoparticles' membranes, which have an excellent catalytic effect on the luminol-H2O2 CL reaction in alkaline medium. It exhibits a linear range for the detection of H2O2 from 1.0×10(-8) to 5.0×10(-5)M (R(2)=0.9991) with a 1s response time. The detection limit is 1.0×10(-9)M. Notably, the present approach allows the design of CL sensor array assays in a more simple, time-saving, long-lifetime, high-throughput, and economical approach when compared with conventional CL sensor. It is conceptually different from conventional CL sensor assays. The novel sensor array has been successfully applied for the detection of TATP at the scene. PMID:23608537

  14. Quantum Yield Determination Based on Photon Number Measurement, Protocols for Firefly Bioluminescence Reactions.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum yield (QY), which is defined as the probability of photon production by a single bio/chemiluminescence reaction, is an important factor to characterize luminescence light intensity emitted diffusively from the reaction solution mixture. Here, methods to measure number of photons to determine QY according to the techniques of national radiometry standards are described. As an example, experiments using firefly bioluminescence reactions are introduced. PMID:27424895

  15. Quantum Yield Determination Based on Photon Number Measurement, Protocols for Firefly Bioluminescence Reactions.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum yield (QY), which is defined as the probability of photon production by a single bio/chemiluminescence reaction, is an important factor to characterize luminescence light intensity emitted diffusively from the reaction solution mixture. Here, methods to measure number of photons to determine QY according to the techniques of national radiometry standards are described. As an example, experiments using firefly bioluminescence reactions are introduced.

  16. Laser-saturated fluorescence of nitric oxide and chemiluminescence measurements in premixed ethanol flames

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Carla S.T.; Barreta, Luiz G.; Sbampato, Maria E.; dos Santos, Alberto M.

    2010-11-15

    In this study, nitric oxide laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) measurements were acquired from premixed ethanol flames at atmospheric pressure in a burner. NO-LSF experimental profiles for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames ({phi} = 1.34 and {phi} = 1.66) were determined through the excitation/detection scheme of the Q{sub 2}(26.5) rotational line in the A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi} (0,0) vibronic band and {gamma}(0,1) emission band. A calibration procedure by NO doping into the flame was applied to establish the NO concentration profiles in these flames. Chemiluminescent emission measurements in the (0, 0) vibronic emission bands of the OH{sup *} (A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{pi}) and CH{sup *}(A{sup 2}{delta} - X{sup 2}{pi}) radicals were also obtained with high spatial and spectral resolution for fuel-rich premixed ethanol flames to correlate them with NO concentrations. Experimental chemiluminescence profiles and the ratios of the integrated areas under emission spectra (A{sub CH*}/A{sub CH*}(max.) and A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) were determined. The relationships between chemiluminescence and NO concentrations were established along the premixed ethanol flames. There was a strong connection between CH{sup *} radical chemiluminescence and NO formation and the prompt-NO was identified as the governing mechanism for NO production. The results suggest the optimum ratio of the chemiluminescence of two radicals (A{sub CH*}/A{sub OH*}) for NO diagnostic purposes. (author)

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of three microfluidic chemiluminescence methods for the determination of the total phenolic contents in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2017-01-01

    Three recently reported microfluidic chemiluminescence (MF-CL) methods (based on reactions with acidic permanganate enhanced by formaldehyde (KMnO4-COH), acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine B (Ce-RB), and acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine 6G (Ce-R6G) enhanced by SDS) for the determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) in juices were critically evaluated in terms of their selectivity. The evaluation was carried out using 86 analytes, including 22 phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and polyphenols), 6 known non-phenolic antioxidants, 9 amino acids and a number of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleotide bases, inorganic salts and other compounds. Each method was sensitive toward phenolic compounds (PCs). However, the KMnO4-COH CL system showed a higher sensitivity toward phenolic acids and also responded to non-phenolic antioxidants. The other two systems showed higher sensitivity toward polyphenolic compounds than to phenolic acids and did not responded to all other compounds including non-phenolic antioxidants. PMID:27507524

  18. Determination of organothiophosphorus pesticides in water by liquid chromatography and post-column chemiluminescence with cerium(IV).

    PubMed

    Catalá-Icardo, Mónica; Lahuerta-Zamora, Luis; Torres-Cartas, Sagrario; Meseguer-Lloret, Susana

    2014-05-01

    A new, fast, selective and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nine organothiophosphorus (OTP) pesticides, namely omethoate, dimethoate, disulfoton-sulfoxide, methidathion, phosmet, malathion, diazinon, pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos. The pesticides were separated on a Kinetex C18 column by gradient elution with acetonitrile:water. A post-column basic hydrolysis of the pesticides and later a chemiluminescence (CL) reaction with cerium (IV) in acid medium was carried out. Hexadecylpyridinium chloride highly enhanced the CL emission. Under optimized conditions, linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantification, and accuracy were determined. Both selectivity and sensitivity were compared with those obtained with UV detection. In combination with SPE, limits of detection in the range 15-80ng/L and 5-30ng/L were obtained when 250mL and 1000mL of solution were treated, respectively. When applied to 250mL of sample the inter-day precision of the method was between 3.5% and 7.3% and the intra-day precision between 2.9% and 6.0%. The method was applied to determine OTP pesticides in spiked water samples from different origins: irrigation, river, sea, ground, spring, mineral and tap waters, being the percentage of recovery of added amounts near 100% form most of the pesticides.

  19. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of BODIPY, Ru(bpy)32+, and 9,10-Diphenylanthracene Using Interdigitated Array Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2013-07-10

    Interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs) were used to produce steady-state electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) by annihilation of oxidized and reduced forms of a substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye, 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), and ruthenium(II) tris(bypiridine) (Ru-(bpy)32+). Digital simulations were in good agreement with the experimentally obtained currents and light outputs. Coreactant experiments, using tri-n-propylamine and benzoyl peroxide as a sacrificial homogeneous reductant or oxidant, show currents corresponding to electrode reactions of the dyes and not the oxidation or reduction of the coreactants. The results show that interdigitated arrays can produce stable ECL where the light intensity is magnified due to the larger currents as a consequence of feedback between generator and collector electrodes in the IDA. The light output for ECL is around 100 times higher than that obtained with regular planar electrodes with similar area. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center of Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  20. Development of a wireless, self-sustaining damage detection sensor system based on chemiluminescence for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, K. S. C.

    2014-03-01

    A novel application of chemiluminescence resulting from the chemical reaction in a glow-stick as sensors for structural health monitoring is demonstrated here. By detecting the presence of light emitting from these glow-sticks, it is possible to develop a low-cost sensing device with the potential to provide early warning of damage in a variety of engineering applications such as monitoring of cracks or damage in concrete shear walls, detecting of ground settlement, soil liquefaction, slope instability, liquefaction-related damage of underground structure and others. In addition, this paper demonstrates the ease of incorporating wireless capability to the sensor device and the possibility of making the sensor system self-sustaining by means of a renewable power source for the wireless module. A significant advantage of the system compared to previous work on the use of plastic optical fibre (POF) for damage detection is that here the system does not require an electrically-powered light source. Here, the sensing device, embedded in a cement host, is shown to be capable of detecting damage. A series of specimens with embedded glow-sticks have been investigated and an assessment of their damage detection capability will be reported. The specimens were loaded under flexure and the sensor responses were transmitted via a wireless connection.

  1. A new complete basis set model (CBS-QB3) study on the possible intermediates in chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Xi-Rui; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2000-11-01

    The new highly accurate complete basis set model, CBS-QB3, was employed here to elucidate the long experimentally discussed problem in a general class of chemiluminescent reactions involving peroxyoxalate systems. Both the stability comparison and the vibrational spectra favor that the intermediate is better to be recognized as the cyclic singlet 1,2-dioxetanedione with the C2v symmetry, which verifies the experimental suggestion yet provides more characterization information. Another two kinds of minimum species in its potential energy surface (PES) are two kinds of product: (1) two carbon dioxide and (2) two carbon monoxide and one oxygen, where the thermodynamic parameters correctly identify their relative yield in the experiment—the former is much more abundant than the latter. In a complete search of minimum states in its PES, the triplet C2v and D2h states were found, which is energetically unfavorable compared with the singlet C2v state. Their vibrational data also support some experimental conclusions of ruling out a radical intermediate. In contrast, the singlet D2h state was found to be a transition state for the "up" and "down" singlet C2v states. The complete active space self-consistent-field calculations with the second-order Möller-Plesset correlation energy correction also support that the most stable species is the singlet C2v state and the singlet D2h state is more energetically favorable than its triplet counterpart.

  2. Silver nanoparticles enhanced a novel TCPO-H2O2-safranin O chemiluminescence system for determination of 6-mercaptopurine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biparva, Pourya; Abedirad, Seyed Mohammad; Kazemi, Sayed Yahya

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with first attempt to introduce safranin O as the fluorophore for peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system. The reaction of bis-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) with H2O2 catalyzed by silver nanoparticles can transfer energy to safranin O via the formation of dioxetanedione intermediate and emits orange-red light. The relationship between CL intensity and the concentration of TCPO, fluorophore, hydrogen peroxide and nanocatalyst was investigated. The Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, particle size analyzer and UV-spectroscopy. Moreover, the system was applied successfully to detect a drug, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in pharmaceuticals. Under optimum conditions, a linear working range for 6-MP concentrations from 5.5 × 10-7 to 5.5 × 10-5 mol L-1 (r > 0.9831, n = 6) was obtained with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10-7 mol L-1. The relative standard deviation for 6 repetitive determinations was less than 3.8% and recoveries of 98% and 103% were obtained.

  3. In vitro effect of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on chemiluminescent response of pronephros cells isolated from Tilapia, oreochromis aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.W.; Sin, Y.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phagocytosis is a basic immunological function of mononuclear phagocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This process is a major defence mechanism in fish which involves recognition and killing of pathogenic microorganisms. It has been reported that phagocytic cells consume more oxygen and release several reactive oxygen species (ROS) during phagocytosis. This {open_quote}respiratory burst{close_quote} was first quantified by measuring the chemiluminescence (CL) emitted from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and later in fish phagocytes. The oxygen intermediates responsible for this CL reaction include O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, {center_dot}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which are also the major bactericidal agents in phagocytes{prime} oxygen-dependent killing process. Therefore, CL response can be used as an indicator of phagocytosis. This study is designed to examine the individual effects of mercury and selenium and also their possible interaction on CL response of fish pronephros phagocytes, because a defect in phagocytosis may predispose fish to diseases. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Single and multiplexed immunoassays for the chemiluminescent imaging detection of animal glues in historical paint cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, G; Dolci, L S; Guardigli, M; Zangheri, M; Prati, S; Mazzeo, R; Roda, A

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of the organic components in a complex, multilayered paint structure is fundamental for studying painting techniques and for authentication and restoration purposes. Proteinaceous materials, such as animal glue, are of particular importance since they are widely used as binders, adhesives and for gilding. Even though proteins are usually detected by chromatographic and proteomic techniques, immunological methods represent an alternative powerful approach to protein analysis thanks to the high specificity of antigen-antibody reactions. Our previous studies demonstrated that ovalbumin and casein could be localized in paint cross-sections with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution (i.e. within the single painting layers) by using chemiluminescent (CL) immunochemical microscope imaging. In the present research work, we describe for the first time the immunolocalization of collagen (the main protein of animal glue) in paint cross-sections by CL imaging microscopy. Two different analytical protocols have been developed, allowing either the detection of collagen or the simultaneous detection of collagen and ovalbumin in the same paint sample. The assays were used to detect collagen and ovalbumin in cross-sections from model samples and historical paintings (a wall painting dated to 1773-1774 and a painted wood panel of the Renaissance period) in order to achieve information on paint techniques and past restoration interventions.

  5. Time-resolved chemiluminescence of firefly luciferin generated by dissolving oxygen in deoxygenated dimethyl sulfoxide containing potassium tert-butoxide

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Yuki; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Wada, Naohisa; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Sekiya, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) of firefly luciferin (Ln) consisting of red and green emission peaks can be generated by dissolving oxygen (O2) gas in deoxygenated dimethyl sulfoxide containing potassium tert-butoxide (t-BuOK) even without the enzyme luciferase. In this study, the characteristics of CL of Ln are examined by varying the concentrations of both Ln ([Ln]) and t-BuOK ([t-BuOK]). The time courses of the green and the red luminescence signals are also measured using a 32-channel photo sensor module. Interestingly, addition of 18-crown-6 ether (18-crown-6), a good clathrate for K+, to the reaction solution before exposure to O2 changes the luminescence from green to red when [t-BuOK] = 20 mM and [18-crown-6] = 80 mM. Based on our experimental results, we propose a two-pathway model where K+ plays an important role in the regulation of Ln CL to explain the two-color luminescence observed from electronically excited oxyluciferin via dioxetanone. PMID:27493856

  6. A chemiluminescent assay for hydroperoxide level of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide fraction purified by two Sep-Pak cartridges in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Seya, K; Ohkohchi, N; Shibuya, H; Satoh, M; Oikawa, K; Fukumori, T; Satomi, S; Motomura, S

    2000-08-15

    A chemiluminescent assay for hydroperoxide level of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) fraction purified from biological samples was presented. This method utilized of two Sep-Pak cartridges. A lipid soluble fraction was isolated from each homogenized tissue or blood by Folch's method. The mixture of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PCOOH was separated from the lipid soluble fraction by a Sep-Pak silica cartridge. A Sep-Pak tC18 cartridge made complete separation of both PCOOH and PC possible. The hydroperoxide level of PCOOH fraction was quantified by the reaction with ferrous ion using 2-methyl-6-[p-methoxyphenyl]-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin++ +-3-one as a chemiluminescent dye. The mixture of positional isomers, 1-hexadecanoyl-2-[9, or 10-hydroperoxyl octadecanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was used as an authentic standard. The good recovery rate for authentic PCOOH of 87.1 +/- 11.6% (mean +/- S.E., n = 4) was obtained by using two Sep-Pak cartridges. Linear calibration curve was obtained in the range from 2.5 to 20 nmol, and the detection limit of the standard was 10 pmol (signal-to-noise ratio > 3). This method was applied to the investigation of the lipid peroxidation induced by reperfusion of the liver with cold preservation, mimicking liver transplantation in rats. The effect of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (LEDD), which eliminate of Kupffer cells to prevent the generation of oxygen radicals on the lipid peroxidation, was compared with the untreated group as a control. After 1 h reperfusion at 37 degrees C the hydroperoxide level obtained the liver without preservation in the untreated group was 12.4 +/- 2.4 nmol/100 mg lipid (n = 4) and levels increased significantly by prolongation of the preservation time. On the other hand, the hydroperoxide level in the LEDD treated group did not change up to 24 h preservation. These results suggest that this improved assay for hydroperoxide level of PCOOH fraction in biological

  7. Characterization of the oxidant generation by inflammatory cells lavaged from rat lungs following acute exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Esterline, R.L.; Bassett, D.J.; Trush, M.A.

    1989-06-15

    Following exposure to 2 ppm ozone for 4 hr, two distinct effects on rat lung inflammatory cell oxidant generation were observed. TPA- and opsonized zymosan-stimulated superoxide production by the inflammatory cell population was found to be maximally inhibited 24 hr following ozone exposure. In contrast, luminol-amplified chemiluminescence increased 24 hr following ozone exposure, coinciding with an increase in the percentage of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase in the inflammatory cell population. Supporting the involvement of myeloperoxidase in the enhanced oxidant-generating status of these cells, the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence was found to be azide-, but not superoxide dismutase-inhibitable. Additionally, this cell population was found to generate taurine chloramines, a myeloperoxidase-dependent function which was absent prior to the ozone exposure and also demonstrated enhanced activation of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol to its light-emitting dioxetane intermediate. Addition of myeloperoxidase to control alveolar macrophages resulted in enhanced luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, taurine chloramine generation, and enhanced chemiluminescence from benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol demonstrating that, in the presence of myeloperoxidase, alveolar macrophages are capable of supporting myeloperoxidase-dependent reactions. The possibility of such an interaction occurring in vivo is suggested by the detection of myeloperoxidase activity in the cell-free lavagates of ozone-exposed rats. These studies suggest that neutrophils recruited to ozone-exposed lungs alter the oxidant-generating capabilities in the lung which could further contribute to lung injury or to the metabolism of inhaled xenobiotics.

  8. On use of CO{sub 2} chemiluminescence for combustion metrics in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S. B.; Bihari, B.; Biruduganti, M.; Sekar, R.; Zigan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Flame chemiluminescence is widely acknowledged to be an indicator of heat release rate in premixed turbulent flames that are representative of gas turbine combustion. Though heat release rate is an important metric for evaluating combustion strategies in reciprocating engine systems, its correlation with flame chemiluminescence is not well studied. To address this gap an experimental study was carried out in a single-cylinder natural gas fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with exhaust gas recirculation. Crank angle resolved spectra (266-795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions and by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO*{sub 2}chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6-1.0) and by varying the exhaust gas recirculation rate. It was attempted to relate the measured chemiluminescence intensities to thermodynamic metrics of importance to engine research -- in-cylinder bulk gas temperature and heat release rate (HRR) calculated from measured cylinder pressure signals. The peak of the measured CO*{sub 2} chemiluminescence intensities coincided with peak pressures within {+-}2 CAD for all test conditions. For each combustion cycle, the peaks of heat release rate, spectral intensity and temperature occurred in that sequence, well separated temporally. The peak heat release rates preceded the peak chemiluminescent emissions by 3.8-9.5 CAD, whereas the peak temperatures trailed by 5.8-15.6 CAD. Such a temporal separation precludes correlations on a crank-angle resolved basis. However, the peak cycle heat release rates and to a lesser extent the peak cycle temperatures correlated well with the chemiluminescent emission from CO*{sub 2}. Such observations point towards the potential use of flame chemiluminescence to monitor peak bulk gas

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescence analysis for sensitive determination of atenolol using cadmium sulfide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the light emitted from KMnO4-cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) reaction in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic medium was developed as a CL probe for the sensitive determination of atenolol. Optical and structural features of CdS QDs capped with L-cysteine, which synthesized via hydrothermal approach, were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB was remarkably enhanced in the presence of trace level of atenolol. Under optimum experimental conditions, there is a linear relationship between the increase in CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB system and atenolol concentration in a range of 0.001 to 4.0 mg L- 1 and 4.0 to 18.0 mg L- 1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.0010 mg L- 1. A possible mechanism for KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB-atenolol CL reaction is proposed. To prove the practical application of the KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB CL method, the method was applied for the determination of atenolol in spiked environmental water samples and commercial pharmaceutical formulation. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) technique was utilized for determination of atenolol. Figure S2. Optimization of the CL reaction conditions: (a) effect of KMnO4 concentration. Conditions: the concentrations of H2SO4, CdS QDs and atenolol were 1 mol L-1, 0.35 mol L-1, and 4.0 mg L-1, respectively; (b) effect of acidic media. Conditions: the concentrations of KMnO4 was 0.04 mmol L-1, other conditions were as in (a); (c) effect of CdS QDs concentration. Conditions: H2SO4 concentration was 1.0 mol L-1, other conditions were as in (b), and (d) effect of CTAB concentration. Conditions: CdS QDs concentration was 0.35 mmol L-1, other conditions were as in (c). Figure S3. UV-Vis absorption spectra of KMnO4-CdS QDs-atenolol CL system

  10. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-04-01

    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight.

  11. Bioinspired photonic structures by the reflector layer of firefly lantern for highly efficient chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Linfeng; Shi, Xiaodi; Li, Mingzhu; Hu, Junping; Sun, Shufeng; Su, Bin; Wen, Yongqiang; Han, Dong; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2015-08-01

    Fireflies have drawn considerable attention for thousands of years due to their highly efficient bioluminescence, which is important for fundamental research and photonic applications. However, there are few reports on the reflector layer (RL) of firefly lantern, which contributes to the bright luminescence. Here we presented the detailed microstructure of the RL consisting of random hollow granules, which had high reflectance in the range from 450 nm to 800 nm. Inspired by the firefly lantern, artificial films with high reflectance in the visible region were fabricated using hollow silica microparticles mimicking the structure of the RL. Additionally, the bioinspired structures provided an efficient RL for the chemiluminescence system and could substantially enhance the initial chemiluminescence intensity. The work not only provides new insight into the bright bioluminescence of fireflies, but also is importance for the design of photonic materials for theranostics, detection, and imaging.

  12. Facile chemiluminescence assay for antioxidative properties of vegetable lipids: fundamentals and illustrative examples.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Galina F; Menshov, Valery A; Trofimov, Alexey V; Vasil'ev, Rostislav F

    2009-10-01

    The general approach disclosed herein opens the new possibilities of exploiting the oxidation processes followed by chemiluminescence (CL) emission for the assessment of an antioxidant potential of natural lipid materials and enables determination of the amount and strength of lipid-borne antioxidants in one experiment. The reliability of the analytical procedure is completely unaffected by an inevitable entering of oxidizable lipid portions into the probe chemiluminescent mixture, which is exemplarily illustrated for the case of vegetable oils which served as sources of antioxidant-containing lipids. As a matter of fact, the difference in the effective radical-scavenging rate constants, determined for the antioxidative constituents of the sunflower and corn oils, perfectly matches the distinction of their qualitative tocopherol contents. In addition to the antiradical activity of lipid samples, the antioxidant potential of the latter may be modified by their influence on hydroperoxide stability, as it has been also demonstrated in the present work. PMID:19768225

  13. Chemiluminescence vs. Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen in oil shale retort waters and organonitrogen compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.M.; Daughton, C.G.

    1985-10-01

    The applicability of combustion/chemiluminescent nitrogen analysis to quantifying nitrogen in oil shale wastewaters and various representative chemical classes was demonstrated. Only azoxy compounds and those containing the pyrazole nucleus were not amenable to analysis. The majority of 56 compounds tested yielded from 90% to 110% of their theoretical nitrogen contents: enhanced recovery was found for nitrogen oxide salts. For 12 oil shale wastewaters, combustion/chemiluminescence gave total nitrogen values (1100-28800 mg/L) that did not differ statistically (P > 0.10) from those obtained by the time-consuming wet-chemical Kjeldahl method. The relative standard deviations for ten matrix or solvent effects were found. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  14. Bioinspired photonic structures by the reflector layer of firefly lantern for highly efficient chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linfeng; Shi, Xiaodi; Li, Mingzhu; Hu, Junping; Sun, Shufeng; Su, Bin; Wen, Yongqiang; Han, Dong; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2015-08-12

    Fireflies have drawn considerable attention for thousands of years due to their highly efficient bioluminescence, which is important for fundamental research and photonic applications. However, there are few reports on the reflector layer (RL) of firefly lantern, which contributes to the bright luminescence. Here we presented the detailed microstructure of the RL consisting of random hollow granules, which had high reflectance in the range from 450 nm to 800 nm. Inspired by the firefly lantern, artificial films with high reflectance in the visible region were fabricated using hollow silica microparticles mimicking the structure of the RL. Additionally, the bioinspired structures provided an efficient RL for the chemiluminescence system and could substantially enhance the initial chemiluminescence intensity. The work not only provides new insight into the bright bioluminescence of fireflies, but also is importance for the design of photonic materials for theranostics, detection, and imaging.

  15. Determination of glyphosate in foodstuff by one novel chemiluminescence-molecular imprinting sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peini; Yan, Mei; Zhang, Congcong; Peng, Ruixue; Ma, Dongsheng; Yu, Jinghua

    2011-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) sensor for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) was made up based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) with a small dimension which possess extremely high surface-to-volume ratio were synthesized using precipitation polymerization with GLY as template. And then the MIMs were modified on glass sheets, which were placed at the bottom of wells of microplate as the recognizer. Subsequently, a highly selective and high throughput chemiluminescence (CL)-molecular imprinting (MI) sensor for detection of GLY was achieved. Influencing factors were investigated and optimized in detail. The method can perform 96 independent measurements sequentially in 10 min and the limit of detection (LOD) for GLY was 0.046 μg mL -1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 11 parallel measurements of GLY was 4.68%. The results show that CL-MI sensor can become a useful analytical technology for quick molecular recognition.

  16. Bioinspired photonic structures by the reflector layer of firefly lantern for highly efficient chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Linfeng; Shi, Xiaodi; Li, Mingzhu; Hu, Junping; Sun, Shufeng; Su, Bin; Wen, Yongqiang; Han, Dong; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2015-01-01

    Fireflies have drawn considerable attention for thousands of years due to their highly efficient bioluminescence, which is important for fundamental research and photonic applications. However, there are few reports on the reflector layer (RL) of firefly lantern, which contributes to the bright luminescence. Here we presented the detailed microstructure of the RL consisting of random hollow granules, which had high reflectance in the range from 450 nm to 800 nm. Inspired by the firefly lantern, artificial films with high reflectance in the visible region were fabricated using hollow silica microparticles mimicking the structure of the RL. Additionally, the bioinspired structures provided an efficient RL for the chemiluminescence system and could substantially enhance the initial chemiluminescence intensity. The work not only provides new insight into the bright bioluminescence of fireflies, but also is importance for the design of photonic materials for theranostics, detection, and imaging. PMID:26264643

  17. Design and Application of Multi-functional Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Imaging Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangfu; Liu, Xia; Wang, Yaqin; Ruan, Sanpeng; Qi, Honglan; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Qishe; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2016-01-01

    A multi-functional eletrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) imaging analyzer including both a photomultiplier tube and charged coupled device as detectors has been developed. The ECL imaging analyzer can effectively work for electrochemical study, ECL intensity detection at electrode array, and ECL imaging at bipolar electrodes or electrode array. As an ECL imaging example, an ECL biosensor for visual detection of matrix metalloproteinase 7 in the range from 0.05 to 1 ng/mL is demonstrated. PMID:27682412

  18. Development of ultrasensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    PubMed

    Vdovenko, Marina M; Lu, Chuan-Chen; Yu, Feng-Yih; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

    2014-09-01

    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for detecting aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was developed. To improve the sensitivity of the assay, a mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)-propane-1-sulfonate (SPTZ) and 4-morpholinopyridine (MORPH) was used to enhance peroxidase-induced CL. The concentrations of the coating anti-AFM1 antibody and the conjugate of AFB1 with horseradish peroxidase the conditions of the chemiluminescent assay were varied to optimise the condition of the chemiluminescent assay. The lower detection limit values and dynamic working range of CL-ELISA of AFM1 were 0.001 ng mL(-1) and 0.002-0.0075 ng mL(-1), respectively. A 20-fold dilution of milk samples prevented a matrix effect of the milk and allowed measurement of AFM1 at concentrations below than the maximum acceptable limit. Values of recovery within and between assays were 81.5-117.6% and 86-110.6%, respectively. The results of using the developed CL-ELISA to analyse samples of six brands of milk that were purchased in Taiwan revealed that AFM1 was absent from all studied samples.

  19. Schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence imaging of combustion in a turbulent boundary layer over a solid fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Miller, Victor A.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    2016-03-01

    Combustion in a turbulent boundary layer over a solid fuel is studied using simultaneous schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The flow configuration is representative of a hybrid rocket motor combustor. Six different hydrocarbon fuels, including both classical hybrid rocket fuels and a high regression rate fuel (paraffin wax), are burned in an undiluted oxygen free-stream at pressures ranging from atmospheric to 1524.2 kPa (221.1 psi). A detailed explanation of methods for registering the schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence images to one another is presented, and additionally, details of the routines used to extract flow features of interest (like the boundary layer height and flame location) are provided. At atmospheric pressure, the boundary layer location is consistent between all fuels; however, the flame location varies for each fuel. The flame zone appears to be smoothly distributed over the fuel surface at atmospheric pressure. At elevated pressures and correspondingly increased Dahmköhler number (but at constant Reynolds number), flame morphology is markedly different, exhibiting large rollers in a shear layer above the fuel grain and finer structures in the flame. The chemiluminescence intensity is found to be roughly proportional to the fuel burn rate at both atmospheric and elevated chamber pressures.

  20. Chemiluminescence measurements on irradiated garlic powder by the single photon counting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvaiz, P.

    1995-02-01

    The feasibility of identifying irradiated garlic powder measuring chemiluminescence by liquid scintillation spectrometry was studied. Samples packed in 100 μm thick polyethylene bags were irradiated in a 60Co semi-industrial facility, with doses of 10 and 30 kGy. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 20 ± 4°C and 70 ± 10% RH in darkness for 2 years. Assays were performed to establish the best sample concentration and pH of the buffer solution in which garlic powder was to be suspended for its measurement. The water content of garlic samples was also analyzed throughout storage time, as it related to the stability of the species causing luminescence. Chemiluminescence values diminished in every sample over storage time following an exponential pattern. Irradiated samples showed values significantly higher than those of the control samples, according to the radiation dose, throughout the storage period. This does not necessarily imply that the identification of the irradiated samples would be certain, since values of control samples coming from different origins have been found to fluctuate within a rather wide range. Nonetheless, in principle, the method looks promising for the measurement of chemiluminescence in irradiated samples