Science.gov

Sample records for luminous high-redshift quasars

  1. High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1996-01-01

    The report for this period includes three papers: 'Associated Absorption at Low and High Redshift'; 'Strong X-ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar: PHL5200'; and 'ASCA and ROSAT X-ray Spectra of High-Redshift Radio-Loud Quasars'. The first gives examples from both low and high redshift for combining information on absorbing material in active galactic nuclei from both x-ray and the UV. The second presents ASCA observations of the z = 1.98 prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO): PHL 5200, detected with both the solid-state imaging spectrometers and the gas imaging spectometers. The third paper presents results on the x-ray properties of 9 high-redshift radio-loud quasars observed by ASCA and ROSAT, including ASCA observations of S5 0014+81 (z = 3.38) and S5 0836+71 (z = 2.17) and ROSAT observations of PKS 2126-158.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Positions of high-redshift luminous quasars (Schneider+ 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. P.; Bahcall, J. N.; Saxe, D. H.; Bahcall, N. A.; Doxsey, R.; Golombek, D.; Krist, J.; McMaster, M.; Meakes, M.; Lahav, O.

    1994-02-01

    The non-proprietary HST Snapshot Survey produced Planetary Camera images of high-redshift, luminous quasars. The aim of the program is to determine the frequency of multiple imaged QSOs down to angular scales of 0.15". Detailed descriptions of the program are given in Bachall et al. (1992ApJ...387...56B) and Maoz et al. (1992ApJ...394...51M). The sample was taken from the 3rd and 4th editions of the catalog of Veron-Cetty and Veron (1987ESOSR...5....1V, 1989ESOSR...7....1V). The target positions taken from these catalogs were fed to GASP, the STSci Guide Star Astrometric Support Program, to generate revised positions from regions extracted from the STSci's digitized sky survey. The printed version of the catalog does not contain the Veron 1950 coordinates nor the difference between these and the GASP derived 1950 coordinates that are contained in this version. (1 data file).

  3. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Kaspi, Shai; Vignali, Cristian; Lira, Paulina; Gibson, Robert R.

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  4. Dusty Quasars at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2016-09-01

    A population of quasars at z ˜ 2 is determined based on dust luminosities νL ν (7.8 μm) that includes unobscured, partially obscured, and obscured quasars. Quasars are classified by the ratio νL ν (0.25 μm)/νL ν (7.8 μm) = UV/IR, assumed to measure obscuration of UV luminosity by the dust that produces IR luminosity. Quasar counts at rest-frame 7.8 μm are determined for quasars in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey using 24 μm sources with optical redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) or infrared redshifts from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Spectral energy distributions are extended to far-infrared wavelengths using observations from the Herschel Space Observatory Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), and new SPIRE photometry is presented for 77 high-redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It is found that unobscured and obscured quasars have similar space densities at rest-frame 7.8 μm, but the ratio L ν (100 μm)/L ν (7.8 μm) is about three times higher for obscured quasars than for unobscured, so that far-infrared or submillimeter quasar detections are dominated by obscured quasars. We find that only ˜5% of high-redshift submillimeter sources are quasars and that existing 850 μm surveys or 2 mm surveys should already have detected sources at z ˜ 10 if quasar and starburst luminosity functions remain the same from z = 2 until z = 10.

  5. High redshift quasars monitoring campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, Ismael; Lira, Paulina; Martinez, Jorge; Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai

    2014-07-01

    We present an update of the monitoring campaign we have undertaken to probe the most massive black holes in powerful quasars at high redshift through the reverberation mapping technique. Once this campaign has finished, we will be able to directly measure broad line region (BLR) sizes of quasars at z ~ 2-3, improving dramatically the BLR size-luminosity relation, and therefore, black hole mass estimates based on this relationship. So far, we have identified a dozen highly variable sources suitable for future cross-correlation analysis and reverberation measurements.

  6. A Survey of Luminous High-redshift Quasars with SDSS and WISE. II. the Bright End of the Quasar Luminosity Function at z ≈ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinyi; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Bian, Fuyan; Yi, Weimin; Yang, Qian; Ai, Yanli; Dong, Xiaoyi; Zuo, Wenwen; Green, Richard; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Shu; Wang, Ran; Yue, Minghao

    2016-09-01

    This is the second paper in a series on a new luminous z ˜ 5 quasar survey using optical and near-infrared colors. Here we present a new determination of the bright end of the quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z ˜ 5. Combining our 45 new quasars with previously known quasars that satisfy our selections, we construct the largest uniform luminous z ˜ 5 quasar sample to date, with 99 quasars in the range of 4.7 ≤ z < 5.4 and -29 < M 1450 ≤ -26.8, within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint. We use a modified 1/V a method including flux limit correction to derive a binned QLF, and we model the parametric QLF using maximum likelihood estimation. With the faint-end slope of the QLF fixed as α = -2.03 from previous deeper samples, the best fit of our QLF gives a flatter bright end slope β = -3.58 ± 0.24 and a fainter break magnitude {M}1450* = -26.98 ± 0.23 than previous studies at similar redshift. Combined with previous work at lower and higher redshifts, our result is consistent with a luminosity evolution and density evolution model. Using the best-fit QLF, the contribution of quasars to the ionizing background at z ˜ 5 is found to be 18%-45% with a clumping factor C of 2-5. Our sample suggests an evolution of radio loud fraction with optical luminosity but no obvious evolution with redshift.

  7. High redshift quasars and high metallicities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    1997-01-01

    A large-scale code called Cloudy was designed to simulate non-equilibrium plasmas and predict their spectra. The goal was to apply it to studies of galactic and extragalactic emission line objects in order to reliably deduce abundances and luminosities. Quasars are of particular interest because they are the most luminous objects in the universe and the highest redshift objects that can be observed spectroscopically, and their emission lines can reveal the composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the universe when it was well under a billion years old. The lines are produced by warm (approximately 10(sup 4)K) gas with moderate to low density (n less than or equal to 10(sup 12) cm(sup -3)). Cloudy has been extended to include approximately 10(sup 4) resonance lines from the 495 possible stages of ionization of the lightest 30 elements, an extension that required several steps. The charge transfer database was expanded to complete the needed reactions between hydrogen and the first four ions and fit all reactions with a common approximation. Radiative recombination rate coefficients were derived for recombination from all closed shells, where this process should dominate. Analytical fits to Opacity Project (OP) and other recent photoionization cross sections were produced. Finally, rescaled OP oscillator strengths were used to compile a complete set of data for 5971 resonance lines. The major discovery has been that high redshift quasars have very high metallicities and there is strong evidence that the quasar phenomenon is associated with the birth of massive elliptical galaxies.

  8. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  9. Powerful Quasar Outflows at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljanahi, Sara; Robert Scott Barrows

    2017-01-01

    Powerful quasar outflows can be driven by radiation pressure or radio jets, and they are capable of effecting the evolution of their host galaxies, particularly at high-redshifts (z~2)) when the quasar density peaks. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of 131 quasar outflows at high-redshifts (0.8quasar energy is coupled with the energy being emitted by the radiation pressure from the accretion disk. Three of the quasars are found in the Hubble Space Telescope archives, with two of them showing clear signs of galaxy interactions/mergers, and a fraction of 0.4 show evidence of interactions from SDSS imaging. These combined results suggests that galaxy interactions may be the triggers of enhanced accretion onto the nuclear supermassive black holes of this sample, with the corresponding enhanced radiation pressure driving the outflows. Furthermore, the high-redshift nature of this sample has pushed the systematic study of quasar outflows closer to the epoch in which quasar feedback is likely to have been important in galaxy evolution.

  10. A cosmic web filament revealed in Lyman-α emission around a luminous high-redshift quasar.

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Arrigoni-Battaia, Fabrizio; Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F; Madau, Piero

    2014-02-06

    Simulations of structure formation in the Universe predict that galaxies are embedded in a 'cosmic web', where most baryons reside as rarefied and highly ionized gas. This material has been studied for decades in absorption against background sources, but the sparseness of these inherently one-dimensional probes preclude direct constraints on the three-dimensional morphology of the underlying web. Here we report observations of a cosmic web filament in Lyman-α emission, discovered during a survey for cosmic gas fluorescently illuminated by bright quasars at redshift z ≈ 2.3. With a linear projected size of approximately 460 physical kiloparsecs, the Lyman-α emission surrounding the radio-quiet quasar UM 287 extends well beyond the virial radius of any plausible associated dark-matter halo and therefore traces intergalactic gas. The estimated cold gas mass of the filament from the observed emission-about 10(12.0 ± 0.5)/C(1/2) solar masses, where C is the gas clumping factor-is more than ten times larger than what is typically found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that a population of intergalactic gas clumps with subkiloparsec sizes may be missing in current numerical models.

  11. Survey For Very High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, S.; MacAlpine, G.

    1997-12-01

    I will present the results from the deep, three color survey for very high redshift quasars. The survey involved direct imaging through Gunn gri filters using a 2048 x 2048 STIS ccd chip and Cerro Tololo's Curtis Scmidt Telescope. Quasar candidates in the range 4.0 < z < 5.4 were selected based on the detection of the Lyman alpha line and the strong drop in the spectrum blueward of this. Because of this response, quasars are clearly located away from the stellar locus on g - r vs. r - i diagrams. Quasar candidates in this redshift range have large values of g - r and small values of r - i. To confirm the candidates as quasars, the multi-fiber spectroscope Hydra, located on the WIYN telescope, was used. To date, spectral confirmation has been completed for ten degrees out of the approximately fifteen square degress of survey area. Several quasars were discovered, and I will present their spectra and information on the viability of this technique.

  12. High Energy Continuum of High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion with the RXTE team at GSFC showed that a sufficiently accurate background subtraction procedure had now, been derived for sources at the flux level of PKS 2126-158. However this solution does not apply to observations carried out before April 1997, including our observation. The prospect of an improved solution becoming available soon is slim. As a result the RXTE team agreed to re-observe PKS2126-158. The new observation was carried out in April 1999. Quasi-simultaneous optical observations were obtained, as Service observing., at the 4-meter Anglo-Australian Telescope, and ftp-ed from the AAT on 22April. The RXTE data was processed in late June, arriving at SAO in early July. Coincidentally, our collaborative Beppo-SAX observation of PKS2126-158 was made later in 1999, and a GTO Chandra observation (with which we are involved) was made on November 16. Since this gives us a unique monitoring data for a high redshift quasar over a broad pass-band we are now combining all three observations into a single comprehensive study Final publication of the RXTE data will thus take place under another grant.

  13. Probabilistic selection of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Daniel J.; Patel, Mitesh; Warren, Stephen J.; Hewett, Paul C.; Venemans, Bram P.; McMahon, Richard G.; Simpson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    High-redshift quasars (HZQs) with redshifts of z ≳ 6 are so rare that any photometrically selected sample of sources with HZQ-like colours is likely to be dominated by Galactic stars and brown dwarfs scattered from the stellar locus. It is impractical to re-observe all such candidates, so an alternative approach was developed in which Bayesian model comparison techniques are used to calculate the probability that a candidate is a HZQ, Pq, by combining models of the quasar and star populations with the photometric measurements of the object. This method was motivated specifically by the large number of HZQ candidates identified by cross-matching the UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared Telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): in the ? covered by the LAS in the UKIDSS Eighth Data Release (DR8) there are ˜9 × 103 real astronomical point sources with the measured colours of the target quasars, of which only ˜10 are expected to be HZQs. Applying Bayesian model comparison to the sample reveals that most sources with HZQ-like colours have Pq≲ 0.1 and can be confidently rejected without the need for any further observations. In the case of the UKIDSS DR8 LAS, there were just 107 candidates with Pq≥ 0.1; these objects were prioritized for re-observation by ranking according to Pq (and their likely redshift, which was also inferred from the photometric data). Most candidates were rejected after one or two (moderate-depth) photometric measurements by recalculating Pq using the new data. That left 12 confirmed HZQs, six of which were previously identified in the SDSS and six of which were new UKIDSS discoveries. The high efficiency of this Bayesian selection method suggests that it could usefully be extended to other HZQ surveys (e.g. searches by the Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System, Pan-STARRS, or the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, VISTA) as well as to other

  14. Infrared/optical energy distributions of high redshifted quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J. B.; Matthews, K.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns were combined with visual spectrophotometry of 21 quasars having redshifts z or = 2.66. The primary result is that the rest frame visual/ultraviolet continua of the high redshift quasars are well described by a sum of a power law continuum with slope of approximately -0.4 and a 3000 A bump. The rest frame visual/ultraviolet continua of these quasars are quite similar to that of 3C273, the archetype of low redshift quasars. There does not appear to be any visual/ultraviolet properties distinguishing high redshift quasars selected via visual or radio techniques.

  15. X-ray spectral evolution of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    At z approx. equals 3, the x-ray spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. High-redshift radio-quiet quasars either have large absorbing columns, N(sub H), and steeper power law spectral indices, alpha(sub epsilon), than low redshift quasars, or no absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s. In contrast, the radio-loud quasars at high redshift have substantial absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s to low redshift quasars. Implications for the interpretation of the evolution of the luminosity function of quasars are discussed. If the absorption arises outside the central engine for both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, then radio-quiet quasars differ from the radio-loud quasars in that their emitted power law spectrum has evolved with redshift. We argue that this favors models where quasars are numerous and short-lived, rather than rare and long-lived.

  16. X-ray spectral evolution of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    At z approx. equals 3, the x-ray spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars are different. High-redshift radio-quiet quasars either have large absorbing columns, N(sub H), and steeper power law spectral indices, alpha(sub epsilon), than low redshift quasars, or no absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s. In contrast, the radio-loud quasars at high redshift have substantial absorption and similar alpha(sub epsilon)'s to low redshift quasars. Implications for the interpretation of the evolution of the luminosity function of quasars are discussed. If the absorption arises outside the central engine for both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, then radio-quiet quasars differ from the radio-loud quasars in that their emitted power law spectrum has evolved with redshift. We argue that this favors models where quasars are numerous and short-lived, rather than rare and long-lived.

  17. The High-Redshift Clustering of Photometrically Selected Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John

    2017-01-01

    We present the data from the Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES) along with our first high-redshift (2.9quasar clustering results using these data. SpIES is a mid-infrared survey covering ~100 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 (S82) field. The SpIES field is optimally located to overlap with the optical data from SDSS and to complement the area of the pre-existing Spitzer data from the Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-area (SHELA) survey, which adds ~30 square degrees of infrared coverage on S82. Additionally, SpIES probes magnitudes significantly fainter than WISE; depth which is crucial to detect faint, high-redshift quasars. Using the infrared data from SpIES and SHELA, and the deep optical data from SDSS, we employ the multi-dimensional Bayesian selection algorithm outlined in Richards et al. 2015 to identify ~5000 high-redshift quasar candidates in this field. We then combine these candidates with spectroscopically confirmed high-redshift quasars and measure the redshift space correlation function and the projected correlation function. Finally, using these results, we compute the linear bias to try to constrain quasar feedback models akin to those in Hopkins et al. 2007.

  18. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltàn; Richards, Gordon T.; Jiang, Linhua; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i {sub AB} = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW{sub 0} ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y {sub AB} = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i {sub 775} – Y {sub 105} color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  19. Finding new high-redshift quasars by asking the neighbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, Kai Lars; Zinn, Peter-Christian; Gieseke, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Quasars with a high redshift (z) are important to understand the evolution processes of galaxies in the early Universe. However, only a few of these distant objects are known to this date. The costs of building and operating a 10-m class telescope limit the number of facilities and, thus, the available observation time. Therefore, an efficient selection of candidates is mandatory. This paper presents a new approach to select quasar candidates with high redshift (z > 4.8) based on photometric catalogues. We have chosen to use the z > 4.8 limit for our approach because the dominant Lyman α emission line of a quasar can only be found in the Sloan i- and z-band filters. As part of the candidate selection approach, a photometric redshift estimator is presented, too. Three of the 120 000 generated candidates have been spectroscopically analysed in follow-up observations and a new z = 5.0 quasar was found. This result is consistent with the estimated detection ratio of about 50 per cent and we expect 60 000 high-redshift quasars to be part of our candidate sample. The created candidates are available for download at MNRAS or at http://www.astro.rub.de/polsterer/quasar-candidates.csv.

  20. Probabilistic Selection of High-redshift Quasars with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Masafusa

    High-redshift quasars are an important probe of the distant Universe. They enable observational studies of the early growth of supermassive blackholes, cosmic reionization, chemical enrichment of host galaxies, and so on. Through pioneering optical and near-infrared wide-area surveys such as the SDSS and the VIKING Survey, about one hundred quasars have been found at z > 6 (e.g., Fan et al. (2006b), Venemans et al. (2013)). However, its current small sample size and the fact that most of them are the most luminous (M 1450 <~ -24) population in this epoch prevents one from constraining statistics on high-redshift quasars, namely quasar luminosity function (QLF), and redshift evolution of IGM neutral fraction. Thus, discovery of large number of z > 6 quasars, especially low-luminous or z > 7 quasars, is highly desired for further understanding of the early universe. We are now starting a new ground-breaking survey of high-redshift (z > 6) quasars using the exquisite imaging data provided by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) Survey. Thanks to its extremely wide coverage and its high sensitivity thorough five optical bands (1,400 deg2 to the depth of r ~ 26 in HSC-Wide layer), it is one of the most powerful contemporary surveys that makes it possible for us to increase the number of z > 6 quasars by almost an order of magnitude, i.e., 300 at z ~ 6 and 50 at z ~ 7, based on the current estimate of the QLF at z > 6 by Willott et al. (2010b). One of the biggest challenges in z > 6 quasar candidate selection is contamination of Galactic brown dwarfs, which have the same point-like appearance as and similarly red colors to the quasars. To overcome this issue and maximize the selection efficiency, we apply a double-layered approach to the HSC survey products, namely combination of two probabilistic selections: SED-fitting and Bayesian selection. In particular, we have developed a template SED fitting method optimized to high-redshift quasars

  1. Tracing high redshift cosmic web with quasar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einasto, Maret

    2016-10-01

    We study the cosmic web at redshifts 1.0 <= <= 1.8 using quasar systems based on quasar data from the SDSS DR7 QSO catalogue. Quasar systems were determined with a friend-of-friend (FoF) algorithm at a series of linking lengths. At the linking lengths l <= 30 h -1 Mpc the diameters of quasar systems are smaller than the diameters of random systems, and are comparable to the sizes of galaxy superclusters in the local Universe. The mean space density of quasar systems is close to the mean space density of local rich superclusters. At larger linking lengths the diameters of quasar systems are comparable with the sizes of supercluster complexes in our cosmic neighbourhood. The richest quasar systems have diameters exceeding 500h Mpc. Very rich systems can be found also in random distribution but the percolating system which penetrate the whole sample volume appears in quasar sample at smaller linking length than in random samples showing that the large-scale distribution of quasar systems differs from random distribution. Quasar system catalogues at our web pages (http://www.aai.ee/maret/QSOsystems.html) serve as a database to search for superclusters of galaxies and to trace the cosmic web at high redshifts.

  2. Variability selected high-redshift quasars on SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Yeche, Ch.; Myers, A. D.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, N. P.; Sheldon, E.; Aubourg, E.; Delubac, T.; Le Goff, J.-M.; Pâris, I.; Rich, J.; Dawson, K. S.; Schneider, D. P.; Weaver, B. A.

    2011-06-01

    The SDSS-III BOSS Quasar survey will attempt to observe z > 2.15 quasars at a density of at least 15 per square degree to yield the first measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations in the Ly-α forest. To help reaching this goal, we have developed a method to identify quasars based on their variability in the ugriz optical bands. The method has been applied to the selection of quasar targets in the SDSS region known as Stripe 82 (the southern equatorial stripe), where numerous photometric observations are available over a 10-year baseline. This area was observed by BOSS during September and October 2010. Only 8% of the objects selected via variability are not quasars, while 90% of the previously identified high-redshift quasar population is recovered. The method allows for a significant increase in the z > 2.15 quasar density over previous strategies based on optical (ugriz) colors, achieving a density of 24.0 deg-2 on average down to g ~ 22 over the 220 deg2 area of Stripe 82. We applied this method to simulated data from the Palomar Transient Factory and from Pan-STARRS, and showed that even with data that have sparser time sampling than what is available in Stripe 82, including variability in future quasar selection strategies would lead to increased target selection efficiency in the z > 2.15 redshift range. We also found that broad absorption line quasars are preferentially present in a variability than in a color selection.

  3. Close Companions to Two High-redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltàn; Richards, Gordon T.; Jiang, Linhua; Bian, Fuyan; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i AB = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW0 ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ~ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ~4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y AB = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i 775 - Y 105 color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #12184 and #12493. Observations were also made with the LBT and MMT.

  4. High-Redshift Quasars at the Highest Resolution: VSOP Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, S.; Gurvits, L. I.; Lobanov, A. P.; Schilizzi, R. T.; Paragi, Z.

    2009-08-01

    We studied the radio structure of high-redshift (z>3) quasars with VSOP at 1.6 and 5 GHz. These sources are the most distant objects ever observed with Space VLBI, at rest-frame frequencies up to ˜25 GHz. Here we give an account of the observations and briefly highlight the most interesting cases and results. These observations allowed us, among other things, to estimate the mass of the central black holes powering these quasars, to identify large misalignments between the milli-arcsecond (mas) and sub-mas scale radio structures, and to detect apparent superluminal motion at sub-mas scale.

  5. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    SciTech Connect

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  6. Results from selection of high redshift radio-loud quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccillo, D.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Carballo, R.

    2013-05-01

    We present results on reliable selection of Radio Loud Quasars (RLQ) at high redshift (z>3.6), based on the combined use of the surveys FIRST and SDSS. We explore the redshift range 3.6quasars out of a total of 48 candidates observed. The last SDSS quasar catalogue (V), based on SDSS DR7 (Schneider et al. 2010), lists 73 QSO matching our selection criteria. Fifteen of our new high-redshift QSOs are still missing in this catalogue. Therefore, in addition to a good efficiency, our technique leads to a very high completeness ( 97%) compared to that of SDSS. This allows to determine the most accurate luminosity function up to date for RLQ in this range of high redshift.

  7. X-RAY ABSORPTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eitan, Assaf; Behar, Ehud E-mail: behar@physics.technion.ac.il

    2013-09-01

    The soft X-ray photoelectric absorption of high-z quasars has been known for two decades, but has no unambiguous astrophysical context. We construct the largest sample to date of 58 high-redshift quasars (z > 0.45) selected from the XMM-Newton archive based on a high photon count criterion (>1800). We measure the optical depth {tau} at 0.5 keV and find that 43% of the quasars show significant absorption. We aim to find which physical parameters of the quasars, e.g., redshift, radio luminosity, radio loudness, or X-ray luminosity, drive their observed absorption. We compare the absorption behavior with redshift with the pattern expected if the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) is responsible for the observed absorption. We also compare the absorption with a comparison sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows. Although the z > 2 quasar opacity is consistent with diffuse IGM absorption, many intermediate-z (0.45 < z < 2) quasars are not sufficiently absorbed for this scenario, and are appreciably less absorbed than GRBs. Only 10/37 quasars at z < 2 are absorbed, and only 5/30 radio-quiet quasars are absorbed. We find a weak correlation between {tau} and z, and an even weaker correlation between {tau} and radio luminosity. These findings lead to the conclusion that although a diffuse IGM origin for the quasar absorption is unlikely, the optical depth does seem to increase with redshift, roughly as (1 + z){sup 2.2{+-}0.6}, tending to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 0.4 at high redshifts, similar to the high-z GRBs. This result can be explained by an ionized and clumpy IGM at z < 2, and a cold, diffuse IGM at higher redshift. If, conversely, the absorption occurs at the quasar, and owing to the steep L{sub x} {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 7.1{+-}0.5} correlation in the present sample, the host column density scales as N{sub H}{proportional_to}L{sub x}{sup 0.7{+-}0.1}.

  8. A Survey for Very High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Shelley R.

    1995-12-01

    I have been conducting a deep, three color survey for very high redshift quasars and will present information on how my candidates, which are awaiting spectroscopic confirmation, have been selected. The survey involves direct imaging through Gunn gri filters using a 2048 x 2048 STIS ccd chip and Cerro Tololo's Curtis Scmidt Telescope. Quasar candidates in the range 4.2 < z < 5.4 have been selected based on the detection of the Lyman alpha line and the strong drop in the spectrum blueward of this. Because of this response, quasars are clearly located away from the stellar locus on g - r vs. r - i diagrams. Quasar candidates with z ~ 4.5 have large values of g - r and values of r - i near zero. The z>5 candidates have large r - i values and g - r values near zero. Before beginning the survey, test observations using this selection method were made of two known quasars with redshifts of 4.5 and 4.7. The quasars were successfully relocated by the technique and several candidates, which will also be observed for spectroscopic confirmation, were selected from those two fields. To date, 13 square degrees have been surveyed.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Imaging of the Host Galaxies of High-RedshiftRadio-loud Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; van Breugel, Wil J. M.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Miley, George K.

    1999-09-01

    We present rest-frame UV and Lyα images of spatially resolved structures (``hosts'') around five high-redshift radio-loud quasars obtained with the WFPC2 camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The quasars were imaged with the PC1 through the F555W (``V''-band) filter, which at the redshifts of the quasars (2.1quasars at high redshift have prominent host galaxies that appeared to have properties similar to those of high-redshift radio galaxies. Our HST observations allow a more detailed investigation of quasar host morphologies and a comparison with similar HST studies of radio galaxies by others. Using several methods to measure and quantify the host properties we find that all five quasars are extended and that this ``fuzz'' contains ~5%-40% of the total continuum flux and 15%-65% of the Lyα flux within a radius of about 1.5". The rest-frame UV luminosities of the hosts are log λPλ~11.9-12.5 Lsolar (assuming no internal dust extinction), comparable to the luminous radio galaxies at similar redshifts and a factor 10 higher than both radio-quiet field galaxies at z~2-3 and the most UV-luminous low-redshift starburst galaxies. The Lyα luminosities of the hosts are log LLyα~44.3-44.9 ergs s-1, which are also similar to the those of luminous high-redshift radio galaxies and considerably larger than the Lyα luminosities of high-redshift field galaxies. To generate the Lyα luminosities of the hosts would require roughly a few percent of the total observed ionizing luminosity of the quasar. The UV continuum morphologies of the hosts appear complex and knotty at the relatively high surface brightness levels of our exposures (about 24 V mag arcsec-2). In two quasars we find evidence for foreground galaxies that confuse the

  10. Far-Infrared Line Emission from High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Cox, P.; Hunter, T. R.; Malhotra, S.; Phillips, T. G.; Yun, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent millimeter and submillimeter detections of line emission in high redshift objects have yielded new information and constraints on star formation at early epochs. Only CO transitions and atomic carbon transitions have been detected from these objects, yet bright far-infrared lines such as C+ at 158 microns and N+ at 205 microns should be fairly readily detectable when redshifted into a submillimeter atmospheric window. We have obtained upper limits for C+ emission &om two high redshift quasars, BR1202-0725 at z=4.69 and BRI1335-0415 at z=4.41. These limits show that the ratio of the C+ line luminosity to the total far-infrared luminosity is less than 0.0l%, ten times smaller than has been observed locally. Additionally, we have searched for emission in the N+ 205 micron line from the Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, and detected emission in CO J=7-6. The N+ emission is found to be below the amount predicted based on comparison to the only previous detection of this line, in the starburst galaxy M82.

  11. BINARY QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT. I. 24 NEW QUASAR PAIRS AT z {approx} 3-4

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Myers, Adam D.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish; Fan Xiaohui; Martin, Crystal L.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shankar, Francesco

    2010-08-20

    The clustering of quasars on small scales yields fundamental constraints on models of quasar evolution and the buildup of supermassive black holes. This paper describes the first systematic survey to discover high-redshift binary quasars. Using color-selection and photometric redshift techniques, we searched 8142 deg{sup 2} of Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data for binary quasar candidates, and confirmed them with follow-up spectroscopy. Our sample of 27 high-redshift binaries (24 of them new discoveries) at redshifts 2.9 < z < 4.3 with proper transverse separations 10 kpc < R{sub perpendicular} < 650 kpc increases the number of such objects known by an order of magnitude. Eight members of this sample are very close pairs with R{sub perpendicular} < 100 kpc, and of these close systems four are at z>3.5. The completeness and efficiency of our well-defined selection algorithm are quantified using simulated photometry and we find that our sample is {approx}50% complete. Our companion paper uses this knowledge to make the first measurement of the small-scale clustering (R < 1 h {sup -1} Mpc comoving) of high-redshift quasars. High-redshift binaries constitute exponentially rare coincidences of two extreme (M {approx}> 10{sup 9} M {sub sun}) supermassive black holes. At z {approx} 4, there is about one close binary per 10 Gpc{sup 3}, thus these could be the highest sigma peaks, the analogs of superclusters, in the early universe.

  12. New quasar surveys with WIRO: Searching for high redshift (z~6) quasar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze Nunez, Evan; Bassett, Neil; Deam, Sophie; Dixon, Don; Griffith, Emily; Harvey, William Bradford; Lee, Daniel; Lyke, Bradley; Parziale, Ryan; Witherspoon, Catherine; Myers, Adam D.; Findlay, Joseph; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    High redshift quasars (z~6) are of great interest to fundamental astronomy due to the information they hold about the early universe. With their low number density in the sky, however, they are elusive objects. Reported here is our search for these high redshift quasars using the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO) 2.3m telescope. We search for potential candidates that have been detected by surveys such as WISE, which have been mostly redshifted out of the optical. The main emission feature of these quasars (the Lyman-Alpha line at ~1216 Angstroms rest-frame) would be redshifted to the z-band or beyond. This means that the quasars should have very low levels of i-band flux. These objects are known as i-dropouts. By imaging the quasars in the i-band and running photometric analysis on our fields, candidates can be identified or rejected by whether or not they appear in our fields. We also provide an analysis of the colors of our candidate high-redshift quasars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under REU grant AST1560461

  13. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-10-10

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus.

  14. Mining the Infrared Sky for High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon

    The Spitzer and WISE satellites have opened up new avenues for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) by peering through the dust shrouding half (or more) of AGNs. However, despite being more sensitive to shrouded AGNs, current selection methods being used in the mid-IR are still largely blind to the highest redshift quasars-both those that are shrouded and those that are not (and should therefore be easy to find). We describe projects to identify both unobscured (at z>3) and obscured quasars (at z>2) that have heretofore been missed in significant numbers. Finding the high-z obscured quasars in large numbers is crucial for fulfilling the legacy of NASA missions in the IR and X-ray. With these quasars we will be able to perform clustering analyses that break the degeneracy of models describing how black holes can ``feed back" energy to the large-scale host galaxy, significantly influencing its evolution. We will further trace the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing active accretion from low-luminosity AGNs to luminous quasars—probing the growth of the supermassive black holes that we see today in the local universe. Our new insights come about from leveraging new Spitzer data, primarily from the PI's SpitzerIRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES). The Spitzer data are 2.5 magnitudes deeper than the "AllWISE" survey in a 125 square degree, multiwavelength-rich, equatorial region known as SDSS "Stripe 82". These data are crucial for extending mid-IR investigations to higher redshifts, both for unobscured and obscured sources. The PI's team are among the world's experts in using the proposed machine learning techniques to find both unobscured (type-1) and obscured (type- 2) quasars and in using quasar clustering and luminosity functions to do cutting-edge science. The luminosity function and clustering algorithms are already in place, allowing for timely completion of this project once the multi-wavelength NASA data have been incorporated. This project is directly

  15. Tunable filter imaging of high-redshift quasar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John; Baker, Joanne; Barr, Jordi; Hook, Isobel; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-06-01

    We have used the Taurus Tunable Filter to search for Lyα emitters in the fields of three high-redshift quasars: two at z˜ 2.2 (MRC B1256-243 and MRC B2158-206) and one at z˜ 4.5 (BR B0019-1522). Our observations had a field of view of around 35 arcmin2, and reached AB magnitudes of ˜21 (MRC B1256-243), ˜22 (MRC B2158-206) and ˜22.6 (BR B0019-1522) depending on wavelength. We have identified candidate emission-line galaxies in all the three fields, with the higher redshift field being by far the richest. By combining our observations with simulations of the instrumental response, we estimate the total density of emission-line galaxies in each field. 17 candidate emission-line galaxies were found within 1.5 Mpc of BR B0019-1522, a number density of (4.9 ± 1.2) × 10-3 Mpc-3, suggesting a significant galaxy overdensity at z˜ 4.5.

  16. Absorption in X-ray spectra of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Wilkes, Belinda; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Bechtold, Jill

    1994-01-01

    We present evidence that X-ray absorption is common in high-redshift quasars. We have studied six high-redshift (z approximately 3) quasars with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of which four are in directions of low Galactic N(sub H). Three out of these four show excess absorption, while only three in approximately 50 z approximately less than 0.4 quasars do, indicating that such absorption must be common, but not ubiquitous, at high redshifts, and that the absorbers must lie at z greater than 0.4. The six quasars were: S5 0014+81, Q0420-388, PKS 0438-436, S4 0636+680. PKS 2000-330, PKS 2126-158, which have redshifts between 2.85 and 3.78. PKS 0438-436 and PKS 2126-158 show evidence for absorption above the local Galactic value at better than 99.999% confidence level. If the absorber is at the redshift of the quasar, then values of N(sub H) = (0.86(+0.49, -0.28)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm for PKS 0438-436, and N(sub H) = (1.45(+1.20, -0.64)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/ sq cm for PKS 2126-158, are implied, assuming solar abundances. The spectrum of S4 0636+680 also suggests the presence of a similarly large absorption column density at the 98% confidence level. This absorption reverses the trend for the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) to have the least X-ray absorption, so a new mechanism is likely to be responsible. Intervening absorption due to damped Lyman(alpha) systems is a plausible cause. We also suggest, as an intrinsic model, that intracluster material, e.g., a cooling flow, around the quasar could account for both the X-ray spectrum and other properties of these quasars. All the quasars are radio-loud and three are gigahertz peaked (two of the three showing absorption). No excess absorption above the Galactic value is seen toward Q0420-388. This quasar has two damped Lyman(alpha) systems at z = 3.08. The limit on the X-ray column density implies a low ionization fraction, N(H I)/N(H) approximately greater than 4 x 10(exp -3) (3

  17. Absorption in X-ray spectra of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Wilkes, Belinda; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Bechtold, Jill

    1994-01-01

    We present evidence that X-ray absorption is common in high-redshift quasars. We have studied six high-redshift (z approximately 3) quasars with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of which four are in directions of low Galactic N(sub H). Three out of these four show excess absorption, while only three in approximately 50 z approximately less than 0.4 quasars do, indicating that such absorption must be common, but not ubiquitous, at high redshifts, and that the absorbers must lie at z greater than 0.4. The six quasars were: S5 0014+81, Q0420-388, PKS 0438-436, S4 0636+680. PKS 2000-330, PKS 2126-158, which have redshifts between 2.85 and 3.78. PKS 0438-436 and PKS 2126-158 show evidence for absorption above the local Galactic value at better than 99.999% confidence level. If the absorber is at the redshift of the quasar, then values of N(sub H) = (0.86(+0.49, -0.28)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm for PKS 0438-436, and N(sub H) = (1.45(+1.20, -0.64)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/ sq cm for PKS 2126-158, are implied, assuming solar abundances. The spectrum of S4 0636+680 also suggests the presence of a similarly large absorption column density at the 98% confidence level. This absorption reverses the trend for the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) to have the least X-ray absorption, so a new mechanism is likely to be responsible. Intervening absorption due to damped Lyman(alpha) systems is a plausible cause. We also suggest, as an intrinsic model, that intracluster material, e.g., a cooling flow, around the quasar could account for both the X-ray spectrum and other properties of these quasars. All the quasars are radio-loud and three are gigahertz peaked (two of the three showing absorption). No excess absorption above the Galactic value is seen toward Q0420-388. This quasar has two damped Lyman(alpha) systems at z = 3.08. The limit on the X-ray column density implies a low ionization fraction, N(H I)/N(H) approximately greater than 4 x 10(exp -3) (3

  18. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, X.; Strauss, M.A.; Schneider, D.P.; Gunn, J.E.; Lupton, R.H.; Yanny, B.; Anderson, S.F.; Anderson, J.E. Jr.; Annis, J.; Bahcall, N.A.; Bakken, J.A.; Bastian, S.; Berman, E.; Boroski, W.N.; Briegel, C.; Briggs, J.W.; Brinkmann, J.; Carr, M.A.; Colestock, P.L.; Connolly, A.J.; Crocker, J.H.; Csabai, I. |; Davis, J.E.; and others

    1999-07-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of 15 high-redshift quasars (z{gt}3.6) discovered from {approximately}140 deg{sup 2} of five-color ({ital u}{prime}, {ital g}{prime}, {ital r}{prime}, {ital i}{prime}, and {ital z}{prime}) imaging data taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. The quasars are selected by their distinctive colors in SDSS multicolor space. Four of the quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.63, 4.75, 4.90, and 5.00, the latter being the highest redshift quasar yet known). In addition, two previously known z{gt}4 objects were recovered from the data. The quasars all have i{sup *} {lt}20 and have luminosities comparable to that of 3C 273. The spectra of the quasars have similar features (strong, broad emission lines and substantial absorption blueward of the Ly{alpha} emission line) seen in previously known high-redshift quasars. Although the photometric accuracy and image quality fail to meet the final survey requirements, our success rate for identifying high-redshift quasars (17 quasars from 27 candidates) is much higher than that of previous multicolor surveys. However, the numbers of high-redshift quasars found is in close accord with the number density inferred from previous surveys. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  19. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with high-redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calverley, Alexander Peter

    2011-11-01

    Clues about the timing of reionization and the nature of the ionizing sources responsible are imprinted in the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. In this thesis, I use high-resolution quasar spectra in conjunction with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to probe the IGM at high redshift, focusing on the ionization and thermal state of the gas. After reionization, the ionization state of the IGM is set by the intensity of the ultraviolet background (UVB), quantified by the hydrogen photoionization rate, Γ_bkg. At high redshifts this has been estimated by measuring the mean flux in the Lyα forest, and scaling Γ_bkg in simulations such that the simulated mean flux matches the observed value. In Chapter 3 I investigate whether the precision of these estimates can be improved by using the entire flux probability distribution function (PDF) instead of only the mean flux. Although I find it cannot improve the precision directly, the flux PDF can potentially be used to constrain other sources of error in observational estimates of Γ_bkg, and so may increase the precision indirectly. The ionizing output of a quasar will locally dominate over the UVB, and this leads to enhanced transmission bluewards of the quasar Lyα line, known as the proximity effect. In Chapter 4 I present the first measurements of Γ_bkg at z > 5 from the proximity effect. The UVB intensity declines smoothly with redshift over 4.6 < z < 6.4, implying a smooth evolution in the mean free path of ionizing photons. This suggests that reionization ends at z > 6.4. There is a drop in Γ_bkg by roughly a factor of five, which corresponds to a drop in the ionizing emissivity by about a factor of two. Such a redshift evolution in the emissivity cannot continue to much higher redshift without reionization failing to complete, which suggests that reionization cannot have ended much higher than z = 6.4. Estimates of Γ_bkg from the proximity effect and the mean flux are generally discrepant

  20. Infrared to x-ray spectral energy distributions of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed 14 quasars with z greater than 2.8 with the ROSAT-PSPC, and detected 12 of them, including the z=4.11 quasar 0000-263. We present the first x-ray spectrum of a radio quiet quasar with z greater than 3, 1946+768. Its x-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law with spectral index alpha(sub E)=1.8(sup +2.1, sub -1.4) and no evidence for absorption in excess of the galactic column (alpha(sub E)=1.00(sup +0.28, sub -0.32) assuming N(sub H)=N(sub H)(Gal)). A Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio is used to constrain the x-ray spectral properties of the quasars for which there were less than 100 photons detected. For the radio quiet quasars, (alpha(sub E)) approximately equals 1.2, if one assumes that there is no absorption in excess of the galactic column. We combine the x-ray data with new ground based optical and near-IR spectrophotometry obtained at the Steward 2.3 m and Multiple Mirror Telescope, and data from the literature. The spectral energy distributions are compared to those of low redshift objects. For the radio quiet quasars with z greater than 2.5, the mean (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.8. This is larger than the mean for quasars with z less than 2.5, but consistent with the expected value for quasars with the high optical luminosities of the objects in this sample. For the radio-loud quasars, (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.4, independent of redshift. This is smaller than the expected value for the optically luminous, high redshift objects in this sample, if they are mostly GHz peaked radio sources and hence comparable to steep-spectrum, compact radio sources at lower redshift. Finally, we compare the spectral energy distributions of two representative objects to the predicted spectrum of a thin accretion disk in the Kerr geometry, and discuss the uncertainties in deriving black hole masses and mass accretion rates.

  1. Infrared to x-ray spectral energy distributions of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed 14 quasars with z greater than 2.8 with the ROSAT-PSPC, and detected 12 of them, including the z=4.11 quasar 0000-263. We present the first x-ray spectrum of a radio quiet quasar with z greater than 3, 1946+768. Its x-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law with spectral index alpha(sub E)=1.8(sup +2.1, sub -1.4) and no evidence for absorption in excess of the galactic column (alpha(sub E)=1.00(sup +0.28, sub -0.32) assuming N(sub H)=N(sub H)(Gal)). A Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio is used to constrain the x-ray spectral properties of the quasars for which there were less than 100 photons detected. For the radio quiet quasars, (alpha(sub E)) approximately equals 1.2, if one assumes that there is no absorption in excess of the galactic column. We combine the x-ray data with new ground based optical and near-IR spectrophotometry obtained at the Steward 2.3 m and Multiple Mirror Telescope, and data from the literature. The spectral energy distributions are compared to those of low redshift objects. For the radio quiet quasars with z greater than 2.5, the mean (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.8. This is larger than the mean for quasars with z less than 2.5, but consistent with the expected value for quasars with the high optical luminosities of the objects in this sample. For the radio-loud quasars, (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.4, independent of redshift. This is smaller than the expected value for the optically luminous, high redshift objects in this sample, if they are mostly GHz peaked radio sources and hence comparable to steep-spectrum, compact radio sources at lower redshift. Finally, we compare the spectral energy distributions of two representative objects to the predicted spectrum of a thin accretion disk in the Kerr geometry, and discuss the uncertainties in deriving black hole masses and mass accretion rates.

  2. Clustering of High Redshift (z>2.9) Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Hall, Patrick B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Berk, Daniel E.Vanden; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-30

    We study the two-point correlation function of a uniformly selected sample of 4,428 optically selected luminous quasars with redshift 2.9 {le} z {le} 5.4 selected over 4041 deg{sup 2} from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We fit a power-law to the projected correlation function w{sub p}(r{sub p}) to marginalize over redshift space distortions and redshift errors. For a real-space correlation function of the form {zeta}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, the fitted parameters in comoving coordinates are r{sub 0} = 15.2 {+-} 2.7 h{sup -1} Mpc and {gamma} = 2.0 {+-} 0.3, over a scale range 4 {le} r{sub p} {le} 150 h{sup -1} Mpc. Thus high-redshift quasars are appreciably more strongly clustered than their z {approx} 1.5 counterparts, which have a comoving clustering length r{sub 0} {approx} 6.5 h{sup -1} Mpc. Dividing our sample into two redshift bins: 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and z {ge} 3.5, and assuming a power-law index {gamma} = 2.0, we find a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 16.9 {+-} 1.7 h{sup -1} Mpc for the former, and r{sub 0} = 24.3 {+-} 2.4 h{sup -1} Mpc for the latter. Strong clustering at high redshift indicates that quasars are found in very massive, and therefore highly biased, halos. Following Martini & Weinberg, we relate the clustering strength and quasar number density to the quasar lifetimes and duty cycle. Using the Sheth & Tormen halo mass function, the quasar lifetime is estimated to lie in the range 4 {approx} 50 Myr for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5; and 30 {approx} 600 Myr for quasars with z {ge} 3.5. The corresponding duty cycles are 0.004 {approx} 0.05 for the lower redshift bin and 0.03 {approx} 0.6 for the higher redshift bin. The minimum mass of halos in which these quasars reside is 2-3 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and 4-6 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with z {ge} 3.5; the effective bias factor b{sub eff} increases with redshift, e.g., b

  3. The Final SDSS High-redshift Quasar Sample of 52 Quasars at z>5.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Bañados, Eduardo; Becker, Robert H.; Bian, Fuyan; Farnsworth, Kara; Shen, Yue; Wang, Feige; Wang, Ran; Wang, Shu; White, Richard L.; Wu, Jin; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of nine quasars at z∼ 6 identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. This completes our survey of z∼ 6 quasars in the SDSS footprint. Our final sample consists of 52 quasars at 5.7\\lt z≤slant 6.4, including 29 quasars with {z}{AB}≤slant 20 mag selected from 11,240 deg2 of the SDSS single-epoch imaging survey (the main survey), 10 quasars with 20≤slant {z}{AB}≤slant 20.5 selected from 4223 deg2 of the SDSS overlap regions (regions with two or more imaging scans), and 13 quasars down to {z}{AB}≈ 22 mag from the 277 deg2 in Stripe 82. They span a wide luminosity range of -29.0≤slant {M}1450≤slant -24.5. This well-defined sample is used to derive the quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z∼ 6. After combining our SDSS sample with two faint ({M}1450≥slant -23 mag) quasars from the literature, we obtain the parameters for a double power-law fit to the QLF. The bright-end slope β of the QLF is well constrained to be β =-2.8+/- 0.2. Due to the small number of low-luminosity quasars, the faint-end slope α and the characteristic magnitude {M}1450* are less well constrained, with α =-{1.90}-0.44+0.58 and {M}* =-{25.2}-3.8+1.2 mag. The spatial density of luminous quasars, parametrized as ρ ({M}1450\\lt -26,z)=ρ (z=6){10}k(z-6), drops rapidly from z∼ 5 to 6, with k=-0.72+/- 0.11. Based on our fitted QLF and assuming an intergalactic medium (IGM) clumping factor of C = 3, we find that the observed quasar population cannot provide enough photons to ionize the z∼ 6 IGM at ∼90% confidence. Quasars may still provide a significant fraction of the required photons, although much larger samples of faint quasars are needed for more stringent constraints on the quasar contribution to reionization.

  4. Are high-redshift quasars hidden by dusty galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.

    1990-04-01

    A Monte Carlo technique has been developed to compute the joint probability distribution for the reddening and extinction of quasars by galaxies along the line of sight with a realistic dust extinction curve including the 220 nm feature. Galaxies are treated as disks with random inclinations, having exponential or modified Gaussian radial profiles. This technique is used to find the distribution of the reddened quasars on multicolor diagrams such as the (U-J, J-F) plots used by Koo and Kron (1982) to find faint quasars. The multicolor search technique is not a simple UV excess approach, and the resulting color selection does not add significantly to the flux selection discussed by Wright (1981), Ostriker and Heisler (1984), and Heisler and Ostriker (1988). The quasar reddening trend observed by Wright and Malkan (1987) is about 0.35 + or - 0.50 times the mean reddening of the selected sample predicted by the Heisler and Ostriker model.

  5. Are high-redshift quasars hidden by dusty galaxies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.

    1990-01-01

    A Monte Carlo technique has been developed to compute the joint probability distribution for the reddening and extinction of quasars by galaxies along the line of sight with a realistic dust extinction curve including the 220 nm feature. Galaxies are treated as disks with random inclinations, having exponential or modified Gaussian radial profiles. This technique is used to find the distribution of the reddened quasars on multicolor diagrams such as the (U-J, J-F) plots used by Koo and Kron (1982) to find faint quasars. The multicolor search technique is not a simple UV excess approach, and the resulting color selection does not add significantly to the flux selection discussed by Wright (1981), Ostriker and Heisler (1984), and Heisler and Ostriker (1988). The quasar reddening trend observed by Wright and Malkan (1987) is about 0.35 + or - 0.50 times the mean reddening of the selected sample predicted by the Heisler and Ostriker model.

  6. Luminous, High-z, Type-2 Quasars are Still Missing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Rivera, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    A simple unified model suggests that there should be roughly equal numbers of type-1 (unobscured) and type 2 (obscured) quasars. However, we argue that the expected population of luminous, high-z, type-2 quasars are still missing. While large numbers of type-2 AGNs have now been identified (both via spectroscopy and through color-based arguments in the optical, IR, and X-ray), the vast majority of these are low-luminosity objects at z<1, whereas only handfuls of bonafide type-2 quasars are confirmed at redshifts z~2 with bolometric luminosities that are comparable to the typical luminosity of SDSS type-1 quasars. Although some analyses find the density of high-z, type-2 candidates to be much higher than the type-1 population (at similar bolometric luminosity), our revisiting of the problem through an archival spectroscopic search reveals that the confirmed high-z, type-2 population is only a fraction of the high-z, type-1 quasar population to a depth of WISE W4<8. As most interpretations of the "unified model" predict similar numbers of type-1 and type-2 quasars, this conspicuous lack of luminous type-2 quasars at high-redshift constitutes a major unsolved problem. To uncover these missing type-2 quasars, we explore a candidate selection algorithm that utilizes the sky area of AllWISE, the depth/resolution of large-area Spitzer-IRAC surveys, and optical data from the SDSS.

  7. Extended radio jets in the high-redshift quasars 3C 9 and 280.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarup, G.; Sinha, R. P.; Saikia, D. J.

    1982-10-01

    Total intensity and polarization observations made with the VLA at 5 GHz of two high-redshift quasars 3C 9 and 280.1 are presented. They appear to have extended one-sided radio jets, which are the most luminous yet to be reported. The jet in 3C 280.1 which was observed with rather higher resolution is discussed in greater detail. This jet has no prominent hotspot at its end and shows several wiggles along its path. The magnetic field is nearly aligned with the axis of the jet and appears to bend along with it. Several possible explanations for the morphological features of the jet are considered, and it is suggested that they are likely to be due to hydrodynamic instabilities. In this scenario, the observed wiggles in the jet are attributed to the onset of helical modes of large wavelength. The absence of a prominent hotspot at the end of the jet may be understood if the energy in the beam is gradually dissipated in shocks and small-wavelength perturbations.

  8. Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of high-redshift quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Impey, C. D.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Webb, Wayne; Petry, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of three bright high-redshift low-polarization quasars (LPQs) was obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the quasars, PG 1634+706 and PG 2302+029, had polarizations p approximately = 0.5%-1.0% throughout the ultraviolet, and showed no significant variation of polarization amplitude or position angle with wavelength. PG 2302+029 was also marginally (2.4 sigma) circularly polarized in the optical continuum. For the highest redshift quasar, PG 1222+228 (Ton 1530), the polarization was measured down to rest wavelengths below 800 A. Although the continuum of PG 1222+228 was weakened by Lyman limit absorption from an intergalactic gas cloud, the polarization increased sharply from 1% to about 4.5%, a change of 4 sigma significance. This abrupt rise in polarization does not appear attributable to any known instrumental artifact. These UV polarizations were only slightly less than those previously observed for these same objects in the optical. The polarization spectra were flat with a typical slope of the polarized flux pF(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -0.8 +/- 0.5). Unlike the case of several high luminosity Seyfert 1 nuclei studied previously, polarization caused by scattering from dust grains does not provide the best fit to the polarization spectra of these luminous quasars. These observed spectra are consistent with a wavelength-independent polarization proportional to the total nonstellar light or, possibly, to the contribution of the blue thermal component. The polarization spectra have insufficient signal-to-noise to locate the scatterers with respect to the continuum source and the much larger broad line region. A decrease in amplitude and rotation of the position angle of the polarization vector at the shortest wavelengths, which could result from general relativistic effects near a spinning black hole, was not observed. In fact, in PG 1222+228, the polarization was observed to

  9. Intergalactic Helium Absorption toward High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Fardal, Mark A.; Shull, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the z(q) = 3.286 quasar Q0302-003 (Jakobsen et at. 1994) and the z(q) = 3.185 quasar Q1935-67 by Tytler (1995) show absorption edges at the redshifted wavelength of He II 304 A. A key goal is to distinguish between contributions from discrete Ly-alpha forest clouds and a smoothly distributed intergalactic medium (IGM). We model the contributions from each of these sources of He II absorption, including the distribution of line Doppler widths and column densities, the 'He II proximity effect' from the quasar, and a self-consistent derivation of the He II opacity of the universe as a function of the spectrum of ionizing sources, with the assumption that both the clouds and the IGM are photoionized. The He II edge can be fully accounted for by He II line blanketing for reasonable distributions of line widths and column densities in the Ly-alpha forest, provided that the ionizing sources have spectral index alpha(s) greater than 1.5, and any He II proximity effect is neglected. Even with some contribution from a diffuse IGM, it is difficult to account for the edge observed by Jakobsen et al. (1994) with a 'hard' source spectrum (alpha(s) less than 1.3). The proximity effect modifies the relative contributions of the clouds and IGM to tau(He II) near the quasar (z approx. less than z(q)) and markedly increases the amount of He II absorption required. This implies, for example, that to account for the He II edge with line blanketing alone, the minimum spectral index alpha(s) must be increased from 1.5 to 1.9. We demonstrate the need for higher resolution observations that characterize the change in transmission as z approaches z(q) and resolve line-free gaps in the continuum. We set limits on the density of the diffuse IGM and suggest that the IGM and Ly-alpha clouds are likely to be a significant repository for dark baryons.

  10. Surveys of Luminous Quasars in the Post-reionization Universe at z=5-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinyi; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Feige; McGreer, Ian D.; Bian, Fuyan; Green, Richard F.; Yang, Qian; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Ran; Yi, Weimin; UHS Team

    2017-01-01

    Quasars at z ~ 5 to 6, the post-reionization epoch, are crucial tools to explore the evolution of intergalactic medium (IGM), quasar evolution and the early super-massive black hole growth. The quasar luminosity function (QLF) and its evolution at z >~ 5 is also needed to estimate the contribution of quasars to the ionizing background during and after the reionization epoch. McGreer et al. (2013) provided the first complete measurement of the z ~ 5 QLF. However, their work focused on faint quasars over a small sky area; there were only 8 quasars with M1450 < -27.3. We have carried out a new quasar survey of luminous quasars at 4.7 < z < 5.4 over 14555 deg^2 with high completeness, selected using a combination of SDSS and WISE optical/NIR colors . Using this luminous z ~ 5 quasar sample, we present a new determination of the z ~ 5 QLF and discuss the evolution model of QLF at high redshift. Based on surveys of luminous quasars at z > 4, previous studies have concluded that the number density evolution steepens at high redshift, such that luminous quasars decline as a population more steeply at higher redshift (z ~ 5.5) than from z=4 to 5. However, quasars at redshifts 5.3 < z < 5.7 have been very challenging to select using conventional color selections, due to their similar optical colors to late-type stars, especially M dwarfs, resulting in a glaring redshift gap in quasar redshift distribution. We have developed a new selection technique for z ~ 5.5 quasars based on optical, near- and mid-infrared photometric data. Up to date, we have constructed an uniform luminous z ~ 5.5 quasar sample with 26 new quasars. Our final completed sample of quasars at z=5-6 will be used to study QLF, evolution model and IGM evolution in the post-deionization universe.

  11. A Systematic Meta-Survey of High Redshift Quasars Probing their Environments and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobeille, Doug B. P.

    We have constructed a meta-survey of 298 quasars in the window from 7 to 17.5 hours in right ascension and 0 to 65 degrees in declination. These quasars span three decades of total power and redshifts from 0.158 to 5.284. All sources had a flux density of greater than 70 mJy at 1.4 GHz. At redshifts z > 2.5 our sample is complete. It is also complete for z < 1 and P Tot1:4 > 1027.55 W/Hz. Our quasar sample is built from archival Very Large Array (VLA) observations, as well as three observations in 2007 and 2008. This sample represents one of the most complete meta-surveys to date of the high redshift universe. In the 1980's, two competing groups (Ne, Gower and Hutchings, and Barthel, Miley, and Lonsdale) investigated the high redshift universe, seeking to investigate the dependence of largest linear size (LLS) and bending angles on redshift, core power, and extended power. Using our sample we test the differing results of these groups and build our own model of source evolution with redshift and power. We also seek a relationship between bending angles and core dominance, modeling this dependence on the thoughts of Orr & Browne showing that projected bending angles grow as the angle to the line of sight approaches the intrinsic bending angle of the quasar. We will also present an additional component of our high redshift quasar observations seeking arcsecond scale jets to be observed with the space based Chandra x-ray telescope. These observations will be used to investigate the nature of x-ray emission from the knots of kiloparsec jets in the high redshift universe.

  12. Five New High-Redshift Quasar Lenses from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Strauss, Michael A.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Schneider, Donald P.; Becker, Robert H.; Bahcall, Neta A.; York, Donald G.

    2008-09-08

    We report the discovery of five gravitationally lensed quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). All five systems are selected as two-image lensed quasar candidates from a sample of high-redshift (z > 2.2) SDSS quasars. We confirmed their lensing nature with additional imaging and spectroscopic observations. The new systems are SDSS J0819+5356 (source redshift z{sub s} = 2.237, lens redshift z{sub l} = 0.294, and image separation {theta} = 4.04 inch), SDSS J1254+2235 (z{sub s} = 3.626, {theta} = 1.56 inch), SDSS J1258+1657 (z{sub s} = 2.702, {theta} = 1.28 inch), SDSS J1339+1310 (z{sub s} = 2.243, {theta} = 1.69 cin), and SDSS J1400+3134 (z{sub s} = 3.317, {theta} = 1.74 inch). We estimate the lens redshifts of the latter four systems to be z{sub l} = 0.4-0.6 from the colors and magnitudes of the lensing galaxies. We find that the image configurations of all systems are well reproduced by standard mass models. Although these lenses will not be included in our statistical sample of z{sub s} < 2.2 lenses, they expand the number of lensed quasars which can be used for high-redshift galaxy and quasar studies.

  13. Detecting Relativistic X-Ray Jets in High-redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Cheung, C. C.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Stein, Nathan; Stampoulis, Vasileios; van Dyk, David A.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Lee, N. P.; Harris, D. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Donato, Davide; Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray images of a sample of 11 quasars that are known to contain kiloparsec scale radio jets. The sample consists of five high-redshift (z ≥ 3.6) flat-spectrum radio quasars, and six intermediate redshift (2.1 < z < 2.9) quasars. The data set includes four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and seven with flat radio spectra. A total of 25 radio jet features are present in this sample. We apply a Bayesian multi-scale image reconstruction method to detect and measure the X-ray emission from the jets. We compute deviations from a baseline model that does not include the jet, and compare observed X-ray images with those computed with simulated images where no jet features exist. This allows us to compute p-value upper bounds on the significance that an X-ray jet is detected in a pre-determined region of interest. We detected 12 of the features unambiguously, and an additional six marginally. We also find residual emission in the cores of three quasars and in the background of one quasar that suggest the existence of unresolved X-ray jets. The dependence of the X-ray to radio luminosity ratio on redshift is a potential diagnostic of the emission mechanism, since the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) is thought to be redshift dependent, whereas in synchrotron models no clear redshift dependence is expected. We find that the high-redshift jets have X-ray to radio flux ratios that are marginally inconsistent with those from lower redshifts, suggesting that either the X-ray emissions are due to the IC/CMB rather than the synchrotron process, or that high-redshift jets are qualitatively different.

  14. Bayesian High-redshift Quasar Classification from Optical and Mid-IR Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Myers, Adam D.; Peters, Christina M.; Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Chase, Greg; Ross, Nicholas P.; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Lacy, Mark; McGreer, Ian D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Riegel, Ryan N.

    2015-08-01

    We identify 885,503 type 1 quasar candidates to i≲ 22 using the combination of optical and mid-IR photometry. Optical photometry is taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III: Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-III/BOSS), while mid-IR photometry comes from a combination of data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) “AllWISE” data release and several large-area Spitzer Space Telescope fields. Selection is based on a Bayesian kernel density algorithm with a training sample of 157,701 spectroscopically confirmed type 1 quasars with both optical and mid-IR data. Of the quasar candidates, 733,713 lack spectroscopic confirmation (and 305,623 are objects that we have not previously classified as photometric quasar candidates). These candidates include 7874 objects targeted as high-probability potential quasars with 3.5\\lt z\\lt 5 (of which 6779 are new photometric candidates). Our algorithm is more complete to z\\gt 3.5 than the traditional mid-IR selection “wedges” and to 2.2\\lt z\\lt 3.5 quasars than the SDSS-III/BOSS project. Number counts and luminosity function analysis suggest that the resulting catalog is relatively complete to known quasars and is identifying new high-z quasars at z\\gt 3. This catalog paves the way for luminosity-dependent clustering investigations of large numbers of faint, high-redshift quasars and for further machine-learning quasar selection using Spitzer and WISE data combined with other large-area optical imaging surveys.

  15. A supernova origin for dust in a high-redshift quasar.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Schneider, R; Oliva, E; Bianchi, S; Ferrara, A; Mannucci, F; Pedani, M; Sogorb, M Roca

    2004-09-30

    Interstellar dust plays a crucial role in the evolution of the Universe by assisting the formation of molecules, by triggering the formation of the first low-mass stars, and by absorbing stellar ultraviolet-optical light and subsequently re-emitting it at infrared/millimetre wavelengths. Dust is thought to be produced predominantly in the envelopes of evolved (age >1 Gyr), low-mass stars. This picture has, however, recently been brought into question by the discovery of large masses of dust in the host galaxies of quasars at redshift z > 6, when the age of the Universe was less than 1 Gyr. Theoretical studies, corroborated by observations of nearby supernova remnants, have suggested that supernovae provide a fast and efficient dust formation environment in the early Universe. Here we report infrared observations of a quasar at redshift 6.2, which are used to obtain directly its dust extinction curve. We then show that such a curve is in excellent agreement with supernova dust models. This result demonstrates a supernova origin for dust in this high-redshift quasar, from which we infer that most of the dust at high redshifts probably has the same origin.

  16. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data. II. The Spring Equatorial Stripe

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Anderson, Scott F.; Voges, Wolfgang; Margon, Bruce; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series aimed at finding high-redshift quasars from five-color (u{sup '} g{sup '} r{sup '} i{sup '} z{sup '}) imaging data taken along the Celestial Equator by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. In this paper, we present 22 high-redshift quasars (z>3.6) discovered from {approx}250 deg2 of data in the spring Equatorial Stripe, plus photometry for two previously known high-redshift quasars in the same region of the sky. Our success rate in identifying high-redshift quasars is 68%. Five of the newly discovered quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.62, 4.69, 4.70, 4.92, and 5.03). All the quasars have i{sup *} <20.2 with absolute magnitude - 28.8quasars show unusual emission and absorption features in their spectra, including an object at z=4.62 without detectable emission lines, and a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar at z=4.92. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society.

  17. Observational Signatures of High-Redshift Quasars and Local Relics of Black Hole Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Comastri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Observational constraints on the birth and early evolution of massive black holes come from two extreme regimes. At high redshift, quasars signal the rapid growth of billion-solar-mass black holes and indicate that these objects began remarkably heavy and/or accreted mass at rates above the Eddington limit. At low redshift, the smallest nuclear black holes known are found in dwarf galaxies and provide the most concrete limits on the mass of black hole seeds. Here, we review current observational work in these fields that together are critical for our understanding of the origin of massive black holes in the Universe.

  18. MORPHOLOGY AND SIZE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LOCAL AND HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rieke, George H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-10

    We show that the star-forming regions in high-redshift luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have similar physical scales to those in local normal star-forming galaxies. To first order, their higher infrared (IR) luminosities result from higher luminosity surface density. We also find a good correlation between the IR luminosity and IR luminosity surface density in starburst galaxies across over five orders of magnitude of IR luminosity from local normal galaxies to z {approx} 2 SMGs. The intensely star-forming regions of local ULIRGs are significantly smaller than those in their high-redshift counterparts and hence diverge significantly from this correlation, indicating that the ULIRGs found locally are a different population from the high-redshift ULIRGs and SMGs. Based on this relationship, we suggest that luminosity surface density should serve as a more accurate indicator for the IR emitting environment, and hence the observable properties, of star-forming galaxies than their IR luminosity. We demonstrate this approach by showing that ULIRGs at z {approx} 1 and a lensed galaxy at z {approx} 2.5 exhibit aromatic features agreeing with local LIRGs that are an order of magnitude less luminous, but have similar IR luminosity surface density. A consequence of this relationship is that the aromatic emission strength in star-forming galaxies will appear to increase at z>1 for a given IR luminosity compared to their local counterparts.

  19. Effect of the Lyman-alpha forest on the ultraviolet continua of very high redshift quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Steidel, C.C.; Sargent, W.L.W.

    1987-02-01

    Moderate resolution spectra are reported for eight high-redshift quasars (z over 2.7) observed with the Hale 5.08 m telescope. Newly-determined redshifts and apparent continuum visual magnitudes are tabulated for the objects Q0014 + 8118, Q0308 + 1902, Q0731 + 6519, Q0805 + 0441, Q0903 + 1734, Q0941 + 2606, Q0956 + 1217 and Q1358 + 1134 over the observed wavelength range 3200-10,000 A. It is shown that low resolution spectra, such as obtained with the IUE, can yield continuum levels significantly below those detected at very high resolution due to line and continuum absorption by neutral hydrogen along the line of sight to the quasar being studied. Estimates are made of the fractional flux decrement below Lyman-alpha and above Lyman-beta emission due to the intervening material. 38 references.

  20. Discovery of high-redshift quasars from Pan-STARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banados, Eduardo; Venemans, B.; Morganson, E.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Chambers, K. C.; Rix, H.; Farina, E.; De Rosa, G.; Pan-STARRS

    2014-01-01

    High-z quasars provide unique information about the evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at early cosmic times. Over the last decade, numerous studies have established a sample of ~60 quasars at 5.5quasars in this redshift range is crucial to further study this important era in the history of the Universe. The Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3pi survey represents a fundamental step forward in high-z quasar searches for three reasons: 1) it covers more than two times the area observed with SDSS; 2) it goes significantly deeper than SDSS in the reddest bands where 6 quasars are visible; and 3) the additional y-band enables the search for luminous quasars beyond the SDSS limit, z>6.5. In early 2013, PS1 produced its first 3pi stacked catalog, marking a leap forward in terms of depth and area. Already in 2012 we discovered the first PS1 high-z quasar (Morganson et al 2012). Our aim is to discover a complete sample of 5.7quasars in the 3pi PS1 area, sensitive to a magnitude of z=21.4, i.e. nearly a magnitude deeper than the SDSS quasar search. During 2013, we have so far discovered 8 additional 6 quasars (Bañados et al 2013). The new sample shows a variety of quasars properties, in terms of both luminosities and spectral features. The fraction of weak-line emission quasars found in this work is much higher than in previous studies, implying that the 6 quasar population might be more diverse than previously thought.

  1. Reionisation and High-Redshift Galaxies: The View from Quasar Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, George D.; Bolton, James S.; Lidz, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Determining when and how the first galaxies reionised the intergalactic medium promises to shed light on both the nature of the first objects and the cosmic history of baryons. Towards this goal, quasar absorption lines play a unique role by probing the properties of diffuse gas on galactic and intergalactic scales. In this review, we examine the multiple ways in which absorption lines trace the connection between galaxies and the intergalactic medium near the reionisation epoch. We first describe how the Ly α forest is used to determine the intensity of the ionising ultraviolet background and the global ionising emissivity budget. Critically, these measurements reflect the escaping ionising radiation from all galaxies, including those too faint to detect directly. We then discuss insights from metal absorption lines into reionisation-era galaxies and their surroundings. Current observations suggest a buildup of metals in the circumgalactic environments of galaxies over z ~ 6 to 5, although changes in ionisation will also affect the evolution of metal line properties. A substantial fraction of metal absorbers at these redshifts may trace relatively low-mass galaxies. Finally, we review constraints from the Ly α forest and quasar near zones on the timing of reionisation. Along with other probes of the high-redshift Universe, absorption line data are consistent with a relatively late end to reionisation (5.5 ≲ z ≲ 7); however, the constraints are still fairly week. Significant progress is expected to come through improved analysis techniques, increases in the number of known high-redshift quasars from optical and infrared sky surveys, large gains in sensitivity from next-generation observing facilities, and synergies with other probes of the reionisation era.

  2. A high-redshift IRAS galaxy with huge luminosity - Hidden quasar or protogalaxy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Oliver, S. J.; Taylor, A. N.; Lawrence, A.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Hacking, P. B.; Conrow, T.

    1991-01-01

    An emission line galaxy with the enormous far-IR luminosity of 3 x 10 to the 14th solar has been found at z = 2.286. The spectrum is very unusual, showing lines of high excitation but with very weak Lyman-alpha emission. A self-absorbed synchrotron model for the IR energy distribution cannot be ruled out, but a thermal origin seems more plausible. A radio-quiet quasar embedded in a very dusty galaxy could account for the IR emission, as might a starburst embedded in 1-10 billion solar masses of dust. The latter case demands so much dust that the object would probably be a massive galaxy in the process of formation. The presence of a large amount of dust in an object of such high redshift implies the generation of heavy elements at an early cosmological epoch.

  3. Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of high redshift quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Impey, Chris D.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Webb, Wayne; Petry, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of three bright high-redshift low polarization quasars (LPQ's) was obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope. Two of the quasars, PG 1634+706 and PG 2302+029, had polarizations of rho is approximately equal to 0.5-1.0 percent throughout the ultraviolet, and showed no significant variation of polarization amplitude or position angle with wavelength. PG 2302+029 was also marginally (2.4 sigma) circularly polarized in the optical continuum. For the highest redshift quasar, PG 1222+228 (Ton 1530), the polarization was measured down to rest wavelengths below 800 A. Although the continuum of PG 1222+228 was weakened by Lyman limit absorption from an intergalactic gas cloud, the polarization increased sharply from 1 percent to about 4.5 percent, a change of 4 sigma significance. This abrupt rise in polarization does not appear attributable to any known instrumental artifact. These UV polarizations were only slightly less than those previously observed for these same objects in the optical. The polarization spectra were flat with a typical slope of the polarized flux pF(sub upsilon) varies as upsilon(exp -0.8 plus or minus 0.5). Unlike the polarization spectra of several high luminosity Seyfert 1 nuclei studied previously, such a flat wavelength dependence of polarization cannot be explained by scattering from dust grains. The hypotheses that the polarization in these quasars is produced by transmission through aligned interstellar grains (in the Milky Way or the host galaxy), or by a synchrotron power law component, also appear to be ruled out. These observed spectra are consistent with a wavelength-independent polarization proportional to the total nonstellar light or, possibly, to the contribution of the blue thermal component.

  4. The High-Redshift Quasar Luminosity Function from Multi-Epoch Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSayyad, Yusra

    Upcoming time-domain imaging surveys such as the LSST will detect over a million high-redshift z > 4 quasars, making complete spectroscopic followup unfeasible. Statistical estimates such as luminosity functions and clustering measurements will require purely photometric methods for classifying quasars, estimating redshifts and estimating selection functions. We validate these methods and constrain the optical, type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 3.75 < z < 4.5 for -27.5 < M1450 3.75) and constraint on the characteristic luminosity (M*1450 = -26.7) from a single, uniformly-selected survey at z 4. We used the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) repeated imaging of the 275 sq. deg. equatorial region of the sky (-50 < R.A. < +60; -1.26 < Dec. < +1.26), known as Stripe 82, to select a statistical sample of z 4 quasars. We extracted 40 million lightcurves from the imaging using forced photometry on all u, g, r, i, z epochs at the positions of sources detected on a deep i-band co-add. We developed a classification method based on photometric information alone (colors and variability metrics derived from these new multi-band lightcurves), which we validated with a spectroscopically complete 55 sq. deg. sub-region augmented with 102 new spectroscopic observations of quasars at z > 3.4 with i < 22.5. We demonstrate that selection functions for ensemble classifiers can be estimated by building generative models of empirical distributions of quasars previously selected with a diverse set of selection criteria. The z 4 QLF contributes to our understanding of supermassive black hole growth and cosmic reionization of both H I and He II which likely began at z 4 as a result of hard UV emissivity from quasars. The resulting QLF measurement is consistent with the previous lower number densities reported from deep, narrow-field surveys (COSMOS); it is not consistent with higher number densities reported from the NDWFS-DLS and CANDELS GOODS-S fields. In the context of recent 2

  5. Chandra Observations of 12 Luminous Red Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, T; Lacy, M; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H

    2005-03-11

    The authors present results of a study of 12 dust-reddened quasars with 0.4 < z < 2.65 and reddenings in the range 0.15 < E(B-V) < 1.7. They obtained ACIS-S X-ray spectra of these quasars, estimated the column densities towards them, and hence obtained the gas:dust ratios in the material obscuring the quasar. They detect all but one of the red quasars in the X-rays. Even though there is no obvious correlation between the X-ray determined column densities of the sources and their optical color or reddening, all of the sources show absorbed X-ray spectra. When they correct the luminosity for absorption, they can be placed among luminous quasars; therefore their objects belong to the group of high luminosity analogues of the sources contributing to the X-ray background seen in deep X-ray observations. Such sources are also found in serendipitous shallow X-ray surveys. There is a hint that the mean spectral slope of the red quasar is higher than that of normal, unobscured quasars, which could be an indication for higher accretion rates and/or an evolutionary effect. They investigate the number density of these sources compared to type 2 AGN based on the X-ray background and estimate how many moderate luminosity red quasars may be found in deep X-ray fields.

  6. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-10-20

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad H{beta} line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H{beta}-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L {sub Edd}=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of {Gamma} = 1.91{sup +0.24} {sub -0.22}, which supports the virial L/L {sub Edd} determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  7. Weak Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-line Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-10-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91+0.24 -0.22, which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  8. Constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light from Gamma-Ray Observations of High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madau, Piero; Phinney, E. Sterl

    1996-01-01

    We propose to use the detectability of energetic y-rays in the 10-200 GeV range from high-redshift quasars to set limits on the energy density and era of formation of the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared portion of the spectrum. We study a variety of EBL models based on recent estimates of the density of starlight at the present epoch, a detailed modeling of the transfer of ionizing radiation through the intergalactic medium and of the spectral energy distribution of young galaxies, and simple parameterizations of the star formation history. We demonstrate that a cosmic background of optical photons which is comparable to the integrated EBL contributed by ordinary galaxies and originates as near-ultraviolet radiation at redshift z ˜ 2 will make the universe optically thick to γ-ray photons above ˜30 GeV through electron-positron pair production. We also show that a detection by the EGRET instrument aboard the Compton Observatory of ≥15 GeV photons from the quasar 1633+382 (Mattox et al. 1993) would rule out models in which a diffuse optical background with an energy density several times in excess that of known galaxies was formed at z ˜ 2 by a new class of sources. The universe to intermediate redshifts is optically thin to pair production below ˜10 GeV.

  9. Outflows driven by quasars in high-redshift galaxies with radiation hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieri, Rebekka; Dubois, Yohan; Rosdahl, Joakim; Wagner, Alexander; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    The quasar mode of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the high-redshift Universe is routinely observed in gas-rich galaxies together with large-scale AGN-driven winds. It is crucial to understand how photons emitted by the central AGN source couple to the ambient interstellar medium to trigger large-scale outflows. By means of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of idealized galactic discs, we study the coupling of photons with the multiphase galactic gas, and how it varies with gas cloud sizes, and the radiation bands included in the simulations, which are ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (IR). We show how a quasar with a luminosity of 1046 erg s- 1 can drive large-scale winds with velocities of 10^2-10^3 km s^{-1} and mass outflow rates around 103 M⊙ yr- 1 for times of the order of a few million years. IR radiation is necessary to efficiently transfer momentum to the gas via multiscattering on dust in dense clouds. However, IR multiscattering, despite being extremely important at early times, quickly declines as the central gas cloud expands and breaks up, allowing the radiation to escape through low gas density channels. The typical number of multiscattering events for an IR photon is only about a quarter of the mean optical depth from the centre of the cloud. Our models account for the observed outflow rates of ˜500-1000 M⊙ yr- 1 and high velocities of ˜ 103 km s- 1, favouring winds that are energy driven via extremely fast nuclear outflows, interpreted here as being IR radiatively driven winds.

  10. Bayesian Multiscale Analysis of X-Ray Jet Features in High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Stein, N.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet’s relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. We implement a sophisticated Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) (Esch et al. 2004; Conners & van Dyk 2007), to analyze jet features in 11 Chandra images of high redshift quasars (z ~ 2 - 4.8). Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. We measured the ratios of the X-ray and radio luminosities of the detected features and found that they are consistent with the CMB radiation relationship. We derived a range of the bulk lorentz factor (Γ) for detected jet features under the CMB jet emission model. There is no discernible trend of Γ with redshift within the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray emission between the detected jet feature and the corresponding quasar also shows no correlation with redshift. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. We thank Teddy Cheung for providing the VLA radio images. Connors, A., & van Dyk, D. A. 2007, Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy IV, 371, 101 Esch, D. N., Connors, A., Karovska, M., & van Dyk, D. A. 2004, ApJ, 610, 1213

  11. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  12. A simple model to link the properties of quasars to the properties of dark matter haloes out to high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croton, Darren J.

    2009-04-01

    We present a simple model of how quasars occupy dark matter haloes from z = 0 to 5 using the observed mBH-σ relation and quasar luminosity functions. This provides a way for observers to statistically infer host halo masses for quasar observations using luminosity and redshift alone. Our model is deliberately simple and sidesteps any need to explicitly describe the physics. In spite of its simplicity, the model reproduces many key observations and has predictive power: (i) model quasars have the correct luminosity function (by construction) and spatial clustering (by consequence); (ii) we predict high-redshift quasars of a given luminosity live in less massive dark matter haloes than the same luminosity quasars at low redshifts; (iii) we predict a factor of ~5 more 108.5Msolar black holes at z ~ 2 than is currently observed; (iv) we predict a factor of ~20 evolution in the amplitude of the mBH-Mhalo relation between z = 5 and the present day; (v) we expect luminosity-dependent quasar lifetimes of between tQ ~ 107 and 108yr, but which may become as short as 105-6yr for quasars brighter than L* and (vi) while little luminosity-dependent clustering evolution is expected at z <~ 1, increasingly strong evolution is predicted for L > L* quasars at higher redshifts. These last two results arise from the narrowing distribution of halo masses that quasars occupy as the Universe ages. We also deconstruct both `downsizing' and `upsizing' trends predicted by the model at different redshifts and space densities. Importantly, this work illustrates how current observations cannot distinguish between more complicated physically motivated quasar models and our simple phenomenological approach. It highlights the opportunities such methodologies provide.

  13. A high-redshift quasar absorber without C IV. A galactic outflow caught in the act?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Anne; Richter, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a very unusual sub-damped Lyman α (sub-DLA) system at redshift z = 2.304 towards the quasar Q 0453-423, based on high signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectral data obtained with VLT/UVES. With a neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H i) = 19.23 and a metallicity of -1.61 as indicated by [O i/H i] the sub-DLA mimics the properties of many other optically thick absorbers at this redshift. A very unusual feature of this system is, however, the lack of any C iv absorption at the redshift of the neutral hydrogen absorption, although the relevant spectral region is free of line blends and has very high S/N. Instead, we find high-ion absorption from C iv and O vi in another metal absorber at a velocity more than 220 km s-1 redwards of the neutral gas component. We explore the physical conditions in the two different absorption systems using Cloudy photoionisation models. We find that the weakly ionised absorber is dense and metal-poor while the highly ionised system is thin and more metal-rich. The absorber pair towards Q 0453-423 mimics the expected features of a galactic outflow with highly ionised material that moves away with high radial velocities from a (proto)galactic gas disk in which star-formation takes place. We discuss our findings in the context of C iv absorption line statistics at high redshift and compare our results to recent galactic-wind and outflow models.

  14. MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-REDSHIFT OBSCURED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sansigre, Alejo; Karim, Alexander; Schinnerer, Eva E-mail: karim@mpia.d

    2009-11-20

    quasars must have higher cool-dust masses and are therefore often found at an earlier evolutionary phase than those of unobscured quasars. For one source at z = 2.767, we detect the CO(3-2) transition, with S{sub CO}DELTAnu = 630 +- 50 mJy km s{sup -1}, corresponding to L{sub CO(3-2)} = 3.2 x10{sup 7} L{sub sun}, or a brightness-temperature luminosity of L'{sub CO(3-2)} = 2.4 x 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}. For another source at z = 4.17, the lack of detection of the CO(4-3) line suggests the line to have a brightness-temperature luminosity L'{sub CO(4-3)} < 1 x 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}. Under the assumption that in these objects the high-J transitions are thermalized, we can estimate the molecular gas contents to be M{sub H{sub 2}}=1.9x10{sup 10} M {sub sun} and <8 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, respectively. The estimated gas depletion timescales are tau{sub g} = 4 Myr and <16 Myr, and low gas-to-dust mass ratios of M{sub g}/M {sub d} = 19 and <20 are inferred. These values are at the low end but consistent with those of other high-redshift galaxies.

  15. Discovery of a very Lyman-α-luminous quasar at z = 6.62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptelova, Ekaterina; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Yu, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Guo, Jhen-Kuei

    2017-02-01

    Distant luminous quasars provide important information on the growth of the first supermassive black holes, their host galaxies and the epoch of reionization. The identification of quasars is usually performed through detection of their Lyman-α line redshifted to 0.9 microns at z > 6.5. Here, we report the discovery of a very Lyman-α luminous quasar, PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 at redshift z = 6.618, selected based on its red colour and multi-epoch detection of the Lyman-α emission in a single near-infrared band. The Lyman-α line luminosity of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 is unusually high and estimated to be 0.8 × 1012 Solar luminosities (about 3% of the total quasar luminosity). The Lyman-α emission of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 shows fast variability on timescales of days in the quasar rest frame, which has never been detected in any of the known high-redshift quasars. The high luminosity of the Lyman-α line, its narrow width and fast variability resemble properties of local Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies which suggests that the quasar is likely at the active phase of the black hole growth accreting close or even beyond the Eddington limit.

  16. Discovery of a very Lyman-α-luminous quasar at z = 6.62.

    PubMed

    Koptelova, Ekaterina; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Yu, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Guo, Jhen-Kuei

    2017-02-02

    Distant luminous quasars provide important information on the growth of the first supermassive black holes, their host galaxies and the epoch of reionization. The identification of quasars is usually performed through detection of their Lyman-α line redshifted to 0.9 microns at z > 6.5. Here, we report the discovery of a very Lyman-α luminous quasar, PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 at redshift z = 6.618, selected based on its red colour and multi-epoch detection of the Lyman-α emission in a single near-infrared band. The Lyman-α line luminosity of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 is unusually high and estimated to be 0.8 × 10(12) Solar luminosities (about 3% of the total quasar luminosity). The Lyman-α emission of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 shows fast variability on timescales of days in the quasar rest frame, which has never been detected in any of the known high-redshift quasars. The high luminosity of the Lyman-α line, its narrow width and fast variability resemble properties of local Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies which suggests that the quasar is likely at the active phase of the black hole growth accreting close or even beyond the Eddington limit.

  17. Discovery of a very Lyman-α-luminous quasar at z = 6.62

    PubMed Central

    Koptelova, Ekaterina; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Yu, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Guo, Jhen-Kuei

    2017-01-01

    Distant luminous quasars provide important information on the growth of the first supermassive black holes, their host galaxies and the epoch of reionization. The identification of quasars is usually performed through detection of their Lyman-α line redshifted to 0.9 microns at z > 6.5. Here, we report the discovery of a very Lyman-α luminous quasar, PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 at redshift z = 6.618, selected based on its red colour and multi-epoch detection of the Lyman-α emission in a single near-infrared band. The Lyman-α line luminosity of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 is unusually high and estimated to be 0.8 × 1012 Solar luminosities (about 3% of the total quasar luminosity). The Lyman-α emission of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 shows fast variability on timescales of days in the quasar rest frame, which has never been detected in any of the known high-redshift quasars. The high luminosity of the Lyman-α line, its narrow width and fast variability resemble properties of local Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies which suggests that the quasar is likely at the active phase of the black hole growth accreting close or even beyond the Eddington limit. PMID:28150701

  18. The Hyperluminous Infrared Quasar 3C 318 and Its Implications for Interpreting Sub-MM Detections of High-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Jarvis, Matt J.

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the compact steep-spectrum radio source 3C 318 which shows it to be a quasar at redshift z = 1.574 (the z = 0.752 value previously reported is incorrect). 3C 318 is an IRAS, ISO and SCUBA source so its new redshift makes it the most intrinsically luminous far-infrared (FIR) source in the 3C catalogue (there is no evidence of strong gravitational lensing effects). Its bolometric luminosity greatly exceeds the 10(exp 13) solar luminosity level above which an object is said to be hyperluminous. Its spectral energy distribution (SED) requires that the quasar heats the dust responsible for the FIR flux, as is believed to be the case in other hyperluminous galaxies, and contributes (at the greater than 10% level) to the heating of the CIA dust responsible for the sub-mm emission. We cannot determine whether a starburst makes an important contribution to the heating of the coolest dust, so evidence for a high star-formation rate is circumstantial being based on the high dust, and hence gas, C-1 mass required by its sub-mm detection. We show that the current sub-mm and FIR data available for the highest-redshift radio galaxies are consistent with SEDs similar to that of 3C 318. This indicates that at least some of this population may be detected in the sub-mm because of dust heated by the quasar nucleus, and that interpreting sub-mm detection as evidence for very high (approx. less than 1000 solar mass/yr) star-formation rates may not always be valid. We show that the 3C318 quasar is slightly reddened (A(sub v) approx. = 0.5), the most likely cause of which is SMC-type dust in the host galaxy. If very distant radio galaxies are reddened in a similar way then we show that only slightly greater amounts of dust could obscure the quasars in these sources. We speculate that the low fraction of quasars amongst the very high redshift (z approx. greater than 3) objects in low-frequency radio-selected samples is the result of

  19. The Hyperluminous Infrared Quasar 3C 318 and Its Implications for Interpreting Sub-MM Detections of High-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Jarvis, Matt J.

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the compact steep-spectrum radio source 3C 318 which shows it to be a quasar at redshift z = 1.574 (the z = 0.752 value previously reported is incorrect). 3C 318 is an IRAS, ISO and SCUBA source so its new redshift makes it the most intrinsically luminous far-infrared (FIR) source in the 3C catalogue (there is no evidence of strong gravitational lensing effects). Its bolometric luminosity greatly exceeds the 10(exp 13) solar luminosity level above which an object is said to be hyperluminous. Its spectral energy distribution (SED) requires that the quasar heats the dust responsible for the FIR flux, as is believed to be the case in other hyperluminous galaxies, and contributes (at the greater than 10% level) to the heating of the CIA dust responsible for the sub-mm emission. We cannot determine whether a starburst makes an important contribution to the heating of the coolest dust, so evidence for a high star-formation rate is circumstantial being based on the high dust, and hence gas, C-1 mass required by its sub-mm detection. We show that the current sub-mm and FIR data available for the highest-redshift radio galaxies are consistent with SEDs similar to that of 3C 318. This indicates that at least some of this population may be detected in the sub-mm because of dust heated by the quasar nucleus, and that interpreting sub-mm detection as evidence for very high (approx. less than 1000 solar mass/yr) star-formation rates may not always be valid. We show that the 3C318 quasar is slightly reddened (A(sub v) approx. = 0.5), the most likely cause of which is SMC-type dust in the host galaxy. If very distant radio galaxies are reddened in a similar way then we show that only slightly greater amounts of dust could obscure the quasars in these sources. We speculate that the low fraction of quasars amongst the very high redshift (z approx. greater than 3) objects in low-frequency radio-selected samples is the result of

  20. Multicolor detection of high-redshift quasars, 2: Five objects with Z greater than or approximately equal to 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. D.; Djorgovski, S.; Thompson, D.; Brisken, W. F.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Meylan, G.; Piotto, G.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    1994-10-01

    We report the results of a multicolor wide-field charge coupled device (CCD) survey designed to rediscover several BRI quasars previously found in a photographic survey by Irwin et al. (1991) but not fully documented in the literature. Here we provide spectra, redshifts, finding charts, magnitudes, and coordinates for four such BRI quasars. Follow-up observations were obtained for BRI 2235-03, a borderline Broad Absorption Line (BAL) object. A moderate resolution absorption line spectrum for the object shows a very dense Ly alpha forest and two C IV doublets at z greater than 3. Its visible spectrum is redder than those of the other quasars presented, although it is similar in the infrared. J, H, and K magnitudes are presented for this quasar, showing it to be one of the most luminous objects known. New J, H, and K photometry is presented for PC 1247+3406, the most distant quasar known. In the course of the survey we also discovered a new quasar with z=4.042. Its spectrum, coordinates, magnitudes, and finding chart are presented here as well.

  1. Discovery of extreme [O III] λ5007 Å outflows in high-redshift red quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.; Hamann, Fred; Pâris, Isabelle; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Villforth, Carolin; Wylezalek, Dominika; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2016-07-01

    Black hole feedback is now a standard component of galaxy formation models. These models predict that the impact of black hole activity on its host galaxy likely peaked at z = 2-3, the epoch of strongest star formation activity and black hole accretion activity in the Universe. We used XSHOOTER on the Very Large Telescope to measure rest-frame optical spectra of four z ˜ 2.5 extremely red quasars with infrared luminosities ˜1047 erg s-1. We present the discovery of very broad (full width at half max = 2600-5000 km s-1), strongly blueshifted (by up to 1500 km s-1) [O III] λ5007 Å emission lines in these objects. In a large sample of type 2 and red quasars, [O III] kinematics are positively correlated with infrared luminosity, and the four objects in our sample are on the extreme end in both [O III] kinematics and infrared luminosity. We estimate that at least 3 per cent of the bolometric luminosity in these objects is being converted into the kinetic power of the observed wind. Photo-ionization estimates suggest that the [O III] emission might be extended on a few kpc scales, which would suggest that the extreme outflow is affecting the entire host galaxy of the quasar. These sources may be the signposts of the most extreme form of quasar feedback at the peak epoch of galaxy formation, and may represent an active `blow-out' phase of quasar evolution.

  2. Formation of High-Redshift (z>6) Quasars Driven by Nuclear Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Wada, Keiichi

    2009-11-01

    Based on the physical model of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth via gas accretion in a circumnuclear disk (CND) proposed by Kawakatu & Wada, we describe the formation of high-z (z>6) quasars (QSOs) whose BH masses are M BH>109 M sun. We derive the necessary conditions to form QSOs at z>6 by only gas accretion: (1) a large mass supply with M sup>1010 M sunfrom host galaxies to CNDs, because the final BH mass is only 1%-10% of the total supplied mass from QSO hosts. (2) High star formation efficiency for a rapid BH growth which is comparable to high-z starburst galaxies such as submillimeter galaxies. We also find that if the BH growth is limited by the Eddington accretion, the final BH mass is greatly suppressed when the period of mass supply from hosts, t sup, is shorter than the Eddington timescale. Thus, the super-Eddington growth is required for the QSO formation while t sup, which is determined by the efficiency of angular momentum transfer, is shorter than ~108 yr. The evolution of the QSO luminosity depends on the redshift z i at which accretion onto a seed BH is initiated. In other words, the brighter QSOs at z>6 favor the late growth of SMBHs (i.e., z i ≈ 10) rather than early growth (i.e., z i ≈ 30). For z i ≈ 10, t sup sime 108 yr is shorter than that of the star formation in the CND. Thus, the gas in the CND can accrete onto a BH more efficiently, compared with the case for z i ≈ 30 (or t sup ≈ 109 yr). Moreover, we predict the observable properties and the evolution of QSOs at z>6. In a QSO phase, there should exist a stellar rich massive CND, whose gas mass is about 10% of the dynamical mass inside ~0.1-1 kpc. On the other hand, in a phase where the BH grows (i.e., a proto-QSO phase), the proto-QSO has a gas-rich massive CND whose gas mass is comparable to the dynamical mass. Compared with the observed properties of the distant QSO SDSS J1148+5251 observed at z = 6.42, we predict that SDSS J1148+5251 corresponds to the scenario of the

  3. Obscured quasars at high redshift in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, Ismael; Almaini, Omar; Hartley, Will; Mortlock, Alice; Lira, Paulina

    2014-07-01

    Obscured quasars hidden in deep X-ray surveys can be recovered by looking at mid-infrared wavelengths, where dust re-radiates the absorbed radiation. Here we present a sample of obscured quasars in the redshift range 1 < z < 4 based on data from the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS), the deepest near-IR survey over ~ 1 sq. deg. to date. Candidates that are primarily selected by their 24 μm emission are probed by decomposing their spectral energy distribution (SED) to disentangle the emission from the AGN and its host galaxy. We show preliminary results on their host galaxy properties as well as their clustering, showing that obscured quasars are found in galaxies located in the green valley, residing in dark matter haloes not different from normal galaxies at those redshifts.

  4. Errata: A Wide-Field Multicolor Survey for High-Redshift Quasars, Z >= 2.2. III. The Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Stephen J.; Hewett, Paul C.; Osmer, Patrick S.

    1995-01-01

    In the paper "A Wide-Field Multicolor Survey for High-Redshift Quasars, z >= 2.2. III. The Luminosity Function" by Stephen. Warren, Paul C. Hewett and Patrick S. Osmer (ApJ, 421,412 [1994]), two equations should be corrected: On page 419, column one, line 11, the expression following the words "the error,, should have an opening parenthesis just before the integral sign, to read: [{SIGMA} 1/({integral} ρ(z)dV_a_)^2^]^1/2^. On page 421, equation (15) is missing the asterisk (*) in the M_c_^*^ term just prior to (β + 1); that is, the exponent in the second term the denominator should read: 0.4(M_c_ - M_c_^*^)(β + 1). The authors wish to draw these errors to the attention of any readers who will be using the expression and equation.

  5. BINARY QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT. II. SUB-Mpc CLUSTERING AT z {approx} 3-4

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Shankar, Francesco; Myers, Adam D.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, Ashish; Fan Xiaohui; Giocoli, Carlo; Schneider, Donald P.; Weinberg, David H.

    2010-08-20

    We present measurements of the small-scale (0.1 {approx}< r {approx}< 1 h {sup -1} Mpc) quasar two-point correlation function at z>2.9, for a flux-limited (i < 21) sample of 15 binary quasars compiled by Hennawi et al. The amplitude of the small-scale clustering increases from z {approx} 3 to z {approx} 4. The small-scale clustering amplitude is comparable to or lower than power-law extrapolations (assuming a fixed slope {gamma} = 2) from the large-scale correlation function of the i < 20.2 quasar sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using simple prescriptions relating quasars to dark matter halos, we model the observed small-scale clustering with halo occupation models. We found that the level of small-scale clustering favors an active fraction of black holes in (M {approx}> 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}) satellite halos f{sub s} {approx}> 0.1 at z {approx}> 3.

  6. Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Fournon, I.; Balcells, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Sánchez, F.

    2010-08-01

    Participants; Group photograph; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Galaxy formation and evolution: recent progress R. Ellis; 2. Galaxies at high redshift M. Dickinson; 3. High-redshift galaxies: the far-infrared and sub-millimeter view A. Franceschini; 4. Quasar absorption lines J. Bechtold; 5. Stellar population synthesis models at low and high redshift G. Bruzual A.; 6. Elliptical galaxies K. C. Freeman; 7. Disk galaxies K. C. Freeman; 8. Dark matter in disk galaxies K. C. Freeman.

  7. The compact radio structure of the high-redshift quasar OQ172

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, M.; Gurvits, L. I.

    2016-02-01

    The GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) quasar OQ172 (J1445+0958) has an extremely high rest-frame rotation measure (RM > 20 000 rad m-2) and an RM gradient in its inner nucleus. Its jet observed with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is strongly bent along an arc spanning > 100 pc. Near infrared (NIR) spectra reveal an unusually large [O III] line width which suggests a large mass within the NLR and/or strong interactions between the emerging jet and the dense material therein. We present our VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) and Multi-frequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observation of the GPS quasar OQ172. The observations will help us to explore the VLBI radio properties and to better understand the circumnuclear environment of OQ172.

  8. Spectral Evolution in High Redshift Quasars from the Final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Trey W.; Vivek, M.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Anderson, Scott F.; Bautista, Julian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brandt, William N.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Green, Paul; Harris, David W.; Kamble, Vikrant; McGreer, Ian D.; Merloni, Andrea; Myers, Adam; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pâris, Isabelle; Schneider, Donald P.; Simmons, Audrey; Suzuki, Nao

    2016-12-01

    We report on the diversity in quasar spectra from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. After filtering the spectra to mitigate selection effects and Malmquist bias associated with a nearly flux-limited sample, we create high signal-to-noise ratio composite spectra from 58,656 quasars (2.1≤slant z≤slant 3.5), binned by luminosity, spectral index, and redshift. With these composite spectra, we confirm the traditional Baldwin effect (BE, i.e., the anti-correlation of C iv equivalent width (EW) and luminosity) that follows the relation {W}λ \\propto {L}{β w} with slope {β }w=-0.35+/- 0.004, -0.35 ± 0.005, and -0.41 ± 0.005 for z = 2.25, 2.46, and 2.84, respectively. In addition to the redshift evolution in the slope of the BE, we find redshift evolution in average quasar spectral features at fixed luminosity. The spectroscopic signature of the redshift evolution is correlated at 98% with the signature of varying luminosity, indicating that they arise from the same physical mechanism. At a fixed luminosity, the average C iv FWHM decreases with increasing redshift and is anti-correlated with C iv EW. The spectroscopic signature associated with C iv FWHM suggests that the trends in luminosity and redshift are likely caused by a superposition of effects that are related to black hole mass and Eddington ratio. The redshift evolution is the consequence of a changing balance between these two quantities as quasars evolve toward a population with lower typical accretion rates at a given black hole mass.

  9. Reanalysis of the association of high-redshift 1-Jansky quasars with IRAS galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Schneider, P.; Bartelmann, M.

    1997-03-01

    We develop a new statistical method to reanalyse angular correlations between background QSOs and foreground galaxies that are supposed to be a consequence of dark matter inhomogeneities acting as weak gravitational lenses. The method is based on a weighted average over the galaxy positions and is optimized to distinguish between a random distribution of galaxies around QSOs and a distribution which follows an assumed QSO-galaxy two-point correlation function, by choosing an appropriate weight function. With simulations we demonstrate that this weighted average is slightly more sensitive than Spearman's rank-order test which was used in previous investigations. In particular, the advantages of the weighted average show up if the correlation is weak. We then reanalyze the correlation between high-redshift 1-Jansky QSOs and IRAS galaxies taken from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog; these samples were analyzed previously using Spearman's rank-order test. In agreement with the previous work, we find moderate to strong correlations between these two samples; considering the angular two-point correlation function of these samples, we find a typical scale of order 5' from which most of the correlation signal derives. However, the statistical significance of the correlation changes with the redshift slices of the QSO sample one considers. Comparing with simple theoretical estimates of the expected correlation, we find that the signal we derive is considerably stronger than expected. On the other hand, recent direct verifications of the overdensity of matter in the line-of-sight to high-redshift radio QSOs obtained from the shear field around these sources indicate that the observed association can be attributed to a gravitational lens effect.

  10. Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Fan, X.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Plotkin, R. M.; Richards, G. T.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/LEdd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ=1.91+0.24-0.22which supports the virial L/LEdd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region properties.

  11. A search for moderate-redshift survivors from the population of luminous compact passive galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W. E-mail: hsshih@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: amann@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-01-10

    From a search of a ∼2400 deg{sup 2} region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ∼ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ∼ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed ≳ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies.

  12. A Search for Moderate-redshift Survivors from the Population of Luminous Compact Passive Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    From a search of a ~2400 deg2 region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ~ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ~ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed >~ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. XMM-Newton analysis of a newly discovered, extremely X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoelken, S.; Schrabback, T.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters, the largest virialized structures in the universe, provide an excellent method to test cosmology on large scales. The galaxy cluster mass function as a function of redshift is a key tool to determine the fundamental cosmological parameters and especially measurements at high redshifts can e.g. provide constraints on dark energy. The fgas test as a direct cosmological probe is of special importance. Therefore, relaxed galaxy clusters at high redshifts are needed but these objects are considered to be extremely rare in current structure formation models. Here we present first results from an XMM-Newton analysis of an extremely X-ray luminous, newly discovered and potentially cool core cluster at a redshift of z=0.9. We carefully account for background emission and PSF effects and model the cluster emission in three radial bins. Our preliminary results suggest that this cluster is indeed a good candidate for a cool core cluster and thus potentially of extreme value for cosmology.

  14. Large Millimeter Telescope Observations of Extremely Luminous High Redshift Infrared Galaxies Detected by the Planck Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corneilus Harrington, Kevin; Yun, Min Su; Cybulski, John R.; Wilson, Grant; Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) Team

    2015-01-01

    We present 8‧‧resolution, 1.1mm, continuum imaging and CO spectroscopic redshift measurements of extremely bright sub-millimeter galaxies identified from the Planck and Herschel surveys, taken with the Large Millimeter Telescope's AzTEC and Redshift Search Receiver instruments. Due to their exceedingly high flux density in the Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron bands (S_250 ~ S_350 ~ S_500 > 100 mJy), these sources are likely to be strongly lensed dusty galaxies at high redshift. We compiled this target list of lens candidates after cross-correlating the Planck Surveyor mission's highest frequency channel (857 GHz/350 μm, FWHM = 4.5‧) data with archival data taken with the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). Every Planck-Herschel counterpart found within a 150‧‧radius is further examined using the higher angular resolution Herschel and WISE images to identify only dusty, high-z starburst galaxies.

  15. HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Treister, Ezequiel; Sanders, David B.; Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-10-20

    We take advantage of the rich multiwavelength data available in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), including the 4 Ms Chandra observations (the deepest X-ray data to date), in order to search for heavily obscured low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among infrared-luminous galaxies. In particular, we obtained a stacked rest-frame X-ray spectrum for samples of galaxies binned in terms of their IR luminosity or stellar mass. We detect a significant signal at E {approx} 1-8 keV, which we interpret as originating from a combination of emission associated with star formation processes at low energies combined with a heavily obscured AGN at E > 5 keV. We further find that the relative strength of this AGN signal decays with decreasing IR luminosity, indicating a higher AGN fraction for more luminous IR sources. Together, these results strongly suggest the presence of a large number of obscured AGNs in IR-luminous galaxies. Using samples binned in terms of stellar mass in the host galaxy, we find a significant excess at E = 6-7 keV for sources with M > 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, consistent with a large obscured AGN population in high mass galaxies. In contrast, no strong evidence of AGN activity was found for less-massive galaxies. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, {approx}22%, occurs in heavily obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations. There are also indications that the number of low-luminosity, heavily obscured AGNs does not evolve significantly with redshift, in contrast to the strong evolution seen in higher luminosity sources.

  16. Submillimetre observations of WISE-selected high-redshift, luminous AGN and their surrounding overdense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Suzy F.

    2016-08-01

    We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850 μm submillimetre (submm) observations of 10 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky IR survey and 30 that have also been detected by the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. When comparing the number of submm galaxies detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5 arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 3-5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments that could be forming in pre-viralized clusters of galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850 μm observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets have total IR luminosities ≥1013 L⊙, with known redshifts of 20 targets between z ˜ 0.44-4.6.

  17. OBSCURATION BY GAS AND DUST IN LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, S. M.; Murray, S. S.; Hickox, R. C.; Brodwin, M.

    2014-06-10

    We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 < z ≲ 3 in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes multiwavelength survey field that are selected using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera colors and are well-detected as luminous X-ray sources (with >150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to mid-IR color, and measure the neutral hydrogen column density N {sub H} through fitting of the X-ray spectra. We find that all subsets of quasars have consistent power law photon indices Γ ≈ 1.9 that are uncorrelated with N {sub H}. We classify the quasars as gas-absorbed or gas-unabsorbed if N {sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} or N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, respectively. Of 24 dust-unobscured quasars in the sample, only one shows clear evidence for significant intrinsic N {sub H}, while 22 have column densities consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. In contrast, of the nine dust-obscured quasars, six show evidence for intrinsic gas absorption, and three are consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. We conclude that dust extinction in IR-selected quasars is strongly correlated with significant gas absorption as determined through X-ray spectral fitting. These results suggest that obscuring gas and dust in quasars are generally co-spatial, and confirm the reliability of simple mid-IR and optical photometric techniques for separating quasars based on obscuration.

  18. The X-ray properties of z 6 luminous quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, R.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Moretti, A.; Brandt, W. N.

    2017-07-01

    We present a systematic analysis of X-ray archival data of all the 29 quasars (QSOs) at z> 5.5 observed so far with Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift-XRT, including the most-distant quasar ever discovered, ULAS J1120+0641 (z = 7.08). This study allows us to place constraints on the mean spectral properties of the primordial population of luminous Type 1 (unobscured) quasars. Eighteen quasars are detected in the X-ray band, and we provide spectral-fitting results for their X-ray properties, while for the others we provide upper limits to their soft (0.5-2.0 keV) X-ray flux. We measured the power-law photon index and derived an upper limit to the column density for the five quasars (J1306+0356, J0100+2802, J1030+0524, J1148+5251, J1120+0641) with the best spectra (>30 net counts in the 0.5-7.0 keV energy range) and find that they are consistent with values from the literature and lower-redshift quasars. By stacking the spectra of ten quasars detected by Chandra in the redshift range 5.7 ≤ z ≤ 6.1 we find a mean X-ray power-law photon index of Γ = 1.92-0.27+0.28 and a neutral intrinsic absorption column density of NH ≤ 1023 cm-2. These results suggest that the X-ray spectral properties of luminous quasars have not evolved up to z ≈ 6. We also derived the optical-X-ray spectral slopes (αox) of our sample and combined them with those of previous works, confirming that αox strongly correlates with UV monochromatic luminosity at 2500 Å. These results strengthen the non-evolutionary scenario for the spectral properties of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN).

  19. Multifrequency VLBA polarimetry of the high-redshift GPS quasar OQ172

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurvits, L. I.

    2017-07-01

    Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarimetry observation of the GHz-peaked spectrum (GPS) quasar OQ172 (J1445+0958) has been performed at 1.6, 2.2, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.3 GHz in 2005. Core-jet structures are detected in all bands with the jet strongly bent at about 3 mas from the core. The radio emission of the source is polarized at all five bands. We study the Faraday rotation in the core and jet components at all five bands, and find good linear fits of Faraday rotation in the core and jet components at 4.8 and 8.3 GHz. At these two frequencies, the rotation measure (RM) is ˜ 2000 rad m- 2 in the core and ˜ 700 rad m- 2 in the inner jet components and continues to decrease at the outer jet parts. We find that the depolarization at 4.8 and 8.3 GHz might be caused by the internal medium in the source. We investigate consistency of the turnover spectra of VLBI components with the synchrotron self-absorption and free-free absorption models. Although these two models cannot be easily distinguished due to the lack of low-frequency data, the physical parameters can be constrained for each model. We find that the large width of the [O III]_{5007} line is likely caused by a jet interaction with a narrow line region (NLR) medium. The jet bending, significant RM variations, Faraday depolarization, spectral turnover and broad line width of [O III]_{5007} could be closely related, likely caused by the same nucleus medium, presumably NLR.

  20. High-redshift Luminous Red Galaxies clustering analysis in SDSS Stripe82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoloudakis, N.

    2012-01-01

    We have measured the clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies in Stripe 82 using the angular correlation function. We have selected 130000 LRGs via colour cuts in R-I:I-K with the K band data coming from UKIDSS LAS. We have used the cross-correlation technique of Newman (2008) to establish the redshift distribution of the LRGs as a function of colour cut, cross-correlating the LRGs with SDSS QSOs, DEEP2 and VVDS galaxies. We also used the AUS LRG redshift survey to establish the n(z) at z<1. We then compare the w(theta) results to the results of Sawangwit et al (2010) from 3 samples of SDSS LRGs at lower redshift to measure the dependence of clustering on redshift and LRG luminosity. We have compared the results for luminosity-matched LRG samples with simple evolutionary models, such as those expected from long-lived, passive models for LRGs and for the HOD models of Wake et al (2009) and find that the long-lived model may be a poorer fit than at lower redshifts. We find some evidence for evolution in the LRG correlation function slope in that the 2-halo term appears to flatten in slope at z>1. We present arguments that this is not caused by systematics.

  1. Clustering analysis of high-redshift luminous red galaxies in Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoloudakis, N.; Shanks, T.; Sawangwit, U.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clustering analysis of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in Stripe 82 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We study the angular two-point autocorrelation function, w(θ), of a selected sample of over 130 000 LRG candidates via colour-cut selections in izK with the K-band coverage coming from UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared Telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). We have used the cross-correlation technique of Newman to establish the redshift distribution of the LRGs. Cross-correlating them with SDSS quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), MegaZ-LRGs and DEEP Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) galaxies, implies an average redshift of the LRGs to be z ≈ 1 with space density, ng ≈ 3.20 ± 0.16 × 10-4 h3 Mpc-3. For θ ≤ 10 arcmin (corresponding to ≈10 h-1 Mpc), the LRG w(θ) significantly deviates from a conventional single power law as noted by previous clustering studies of highly biased and luminous galaxies. A double power law with a break at rb ≈ 2.4 h-1 Mpc fits the data better, with best-fitting scale length, r0, 1 = 7.63 ± 0.27 h-1 Mpc and slope γ1 = 2.01 ± 0.02 at small scales and r0, 2 = 9.92 ± 0.40 h-1 Mpc and γ2 = 1.64 ± 0.04 at large scales. Due to the flat slope at large scales, we find that a standard Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM) linear model is accepted only at 2-3σ, with the best-fitting bias factor, b = 2.74 ± 0.07. We also fitted the halo occupation distribution (HOD) models to compare our measurements with the predictions of the dark matter clustering. The effective halo mass of Stripe 82 LRGs is estimated as Meff = 3.3 ± 0.6 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. But at large scales, the current HOD models did not help explain the power excess in the clustering signal. We then compare the w(θ) results to the results of Sawangwit et al. from three samples of photometrically selected LRGs at lower redshifts to measure clustering evolution. We find that a long-lived model may be a poorer fit than at lower

  2. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath; Papovich, Casey

    2015-08-01

    We provide a new robust star-formation rate (SFR) calibration using the luminosity from polycyclic aromatic hydrogen (PAH) molecules. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 3-19μm), mitigating dust extinction, and they are very luminous, containing 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. We derive the calibration of the PAH luminosity as a SFR indicator using a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 < z < 0.6. The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the dust-corrected Hα luminosity (using the sum of the Hα and rest-frame 24μm luminosity from Kennicutt et al. 2009), with tight scatter of ~0.15 dex, comparable to the scatter in the dust-corrected Hα SFRs and Paα SFRs. We show this relation is sensitive to galaxy metallicity, where the PAH luminosity of galaxies with Z < 0.7 Z⊙ departs from the linear SFR relationship but in a behaved manor. We derive for this a correction to galaxies below solar metallicity. As a case study for observations with JWST, we apply the PAH SFR calibration to a sample of lensed galaxies at 1 < z < 3 with Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) data, and we demonstrate the utility of PAHs to derive SFRs as accurate as those available from any other indicator. This new SFR indicator will be useful for probing the peak of the SFR density of the universe (1 < z < 3) and for studying the coevolution of star-formation and supermassive blackhole accretion contemporaneously in a galaxy.

  3. X-Ray Properties Of Hyper-Luminous Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Martocchia, S.; Zappacosta, L.; Bischetti, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Duras, F.; Fiore, F.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Lanzuisi, G.; Brusa, M.; Bianchi, S.; Feruglio, C.; The Wissh Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The systematic exploration of hyper-luminous (log LBol > 47) quasars shining at the golden epoch of AGN activity (i.e. z 2-4) offer the opportunity of overcoming the luminosity bias in the exploration of the accretion phenomenon. The WISE All-Sky Survey allowed to spot the most luminous quasars in the universe. In this talk, we will present the results of our on-going study of the XMM/Chandra/NuSTAR observations of WISE-selected hyper-luminous quasars regardless of the amount of their obscuration (i.e. both blue and heavily reddened). We report on the correlations between the X-ray and Optical, UV and MIR properties, and on the behavior of the X-ray bolometric correction at the brightest end of the luminosity function. We find that WISE-selected hyper-luminous quasars show much lower X/Opt flux and X/MIR luminosity ratios than those of AGN typically studied so far. This "X-ray weakness" can be a key ingredient for accelerating powerful ionized outflows (pervasively detected in the UV/optical band) and, furthermore, radiation-driven winds can be effective in destroying the X-ray corona and quenching the X-ray emission.

  4. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath V.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, significant work has been applied to calibrating emission from the ultra-violet, nebular emission lines, far-infrared, X-ray and radio as tracers of the star-formation rate (SFR) in distant galaxies. Understanding the exact rate of star-formation and how it evolves with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. The co-evolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion is one of the key problems in galaxy formation theory. But, many of these SFR indicators are influenced by SMBH accretion in galaxies and result in unreliable SFRs. Utilizing the luminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, I provide a new robust SFR calibration using the luminosity emitted from the PAHs at 6.2μm, 7.7μm and 11.3μm to solve this. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 5-25μm) mitigating dust extinction, containing on average 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. I use a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 < z < 0.4, with mid-IR spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and data covering other SFR indicators (Hα emission and rest-frame 24μm continuum emission). The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the Hα luminosity (corrected for attenuation using the mono-chromatic rest-frame 24μm emission), with a tight scatter of <0.15 dex. The scatter is comparable to that between SFRs derived from the Paα and dust-corrected Hα emission lines. We present a case study in advance of JWST, which will be capable of measuring SFRs (from 8μm rest-frame photometry, i.e. PAHs) in distant galaxies (z ≤ 2) with JWST/MIRI to SFRs as low as ~10 M⊙yr-1, because the PAH features are so bright. We use Spitzer/IRS observations of PAH features in lensed star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 to demonstrate the utility of the PAHs to derive SFRs that agree with

  5. Kiloparsec-scale Dust Disks in High-redshift Luminous Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, J. A.; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Smail, I.; Walter, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Bertoldi, F.; Biggs, A. D.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Chen, C. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Edge, A. C.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Menten, K. M.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Wardlow, J. L.; Weiss, A.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present high-resolution (0.″16) 870 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) imaging of 16 luminous ({L}{IR}˜ 4× {10}12 {L}⊙ ) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from the ALESS survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. This dust imaging traces the dust-obscured star formation in these z˜ 2.5 galaxies on ˜1.3 kpc scales. The emission has a median effective radius of R e = 0.″24 ± 0.″02, corresponding to a typical physical size of {R}e= 1.8 ± 0.2 kpc. We derive a median Sérsic index of n = 0.9 ± 0.2, implying that the dust emission is remarkably disk-like at the current resolution and sensitivity. We use different weighting schemes with the visibilities to search for clumps on 0.″12 (˜1.0 kpc) scales, but we find no significant evidence for clumping in the majority of cases. Indeed, we demonstrate using simulations that the observed morphologies are generally consistent with smooth exponential disks, suggesting that caution should be exercised when identifying candidate clumps in even moderate signal-to-noise ratio interferometric data. We compare our maps to comparable-resolution Hubble Space Telescope {H}160-band images, finding that the stellar morphologies appear significantly more extended and disturbed, and suggesting that major mergers may be responsible for driving the formation of the compact dust disks we observe. The stark contrast between the obscured and unobscured morphologies may also have implications for SED fitting routines that assume the dust is co-located with the optical/near-IR continuum emission. Finally, we discuss the potential of the current bursts of star formation to transform the observed galaxy sizes and light profiles, showing that the z˜ 0 descendants of these SMGs are expected to have stellar masses, effective radii, and gas surface densities consistent with the most compact massive ({M}* ˜ 1-2 × 1011 {M}⊙ ) early-type galaxies observed locally.

  6. SPITZER observations of luminous obscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellocchi, E.; Pozzi, F.; Fritz, J.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Mignoli, M.

    2008-10-01

    Si presentano i risultati di uno studio della distribuzione di energia spettrale (SED) di un campione di sorgenti a z = 0.7-2 selezionate in banda 2-10 keV dalla survey HELLAS2XMM, caratterizzate da luminosita` L_(2-10) keV ~ 10^44 erg/sec e densita` di colonna N_H > 10^22 cm^-2 che le distingue come quasar di tipo II (oscurati). Si sono analizzati i dati ottenuti da Spitzer (4 bande IRAC e MIPS a 24 micron). Le SED sono state modellate utilizzando sia templates empirici di quasar di tipo I (Elvis et al. 1994; Richards et al. 2006) con diversi livelli di estinzione, sia un modello teorico (Fritz et al. 2006) in grado di vincolare i parametri fisici piu` importanti del toro stesso (ad esempio, lo spessore ottico del toro, l'angolo con cui viene osservata la sorgente e il covering factor). Per ciascuna sorgente del campione si e` stimata la luminosita` bolometrica nucleare (10^45-10^47 erg/s) e la correzione bolometrica k_(bol,2-10 keV), definita come il rapporto tra la luminosita` bolometrica e la luminosita` misurata in banda 2-10 keV. Infine, si evidenzia come l'utilizzo dei dati MIPS a 70 e 160 micron sia importante nel vincolare ulteriormente il modello di toro e, di conseguenza, nel fornire una migliore stima della luminosita` infrarossa e bolometrica.

  7. The WISSH Quasars Project: Probing the AGN-Galaxy Coevolution In the Most Luminous Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischetti, Manuela; Piconcelli, E.; Vietri, G.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Duras, F.; Martocchia, S.; Zappacosta, L.; Brusa, M.; Vignali, C.; Marconi, A.; Cresci, G.; WISSH Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The WISE/SDSS selected hyper-luminous (WISSH) quasars survey is an extensive multiband observing program (from millimeter wavelengths to hard X rays) to investigate the role of nuclear activity in SMBH-galaxy self-regulated growth via extended outflows. Our ongoing project is designed to accurately constrain both AGN and host galaxy ISM properties in a large sample of 90 broad-line quasars at the brightest end of the AGN luminosity function (L_bol > 1e14 L_sun) and at the peak of their number density (z 2 - 4)I will review the most relevant results obtained to date with emphasis on the discovery of extremely powerful (up to 4% of L_bol) ionized outflows, the relation between AGN properties (obscuration, luminosity and Eddington ratio) and large-scale winds, and the SED of these hyper-luminous quasars.

  8. The WISSH quasars project. II. Giant star nurseries in hyper-luminous quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duras, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Piconcelli, E.; Bianchi, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Valiante, R.; Bischetti, M.; Feruglio, C.; Martocchia, S.; Schneider, R.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.; La Franca, F.; Fiore, F.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Studying the coupling between the energy output produced by the central quasar and the host galaxy is fundamental to fully understand galaxy evolution. Quasar feedback is indeed supposed to dramatically affect the galaxy properties by depositing large amounts of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM). Aims: In order to gain further insights on this process, we study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of sources at the brightest end of the quasar luminosity function, for which the feedback mechanism is assumed to be at its maximum, given their high efficiency in driving powerful outflows. Methods: We modelled the rest-frame UV-to-far-IR SEDs of 16 WISE-SDSS Selected Hyper-luminous (WISSH) quasars at 1.8 < z < 4.6 based on SDSS, 2MASS, WISE and Herschel/SPIRE data. Through an accurate SED-fitting procedure, we separate the different emission components by deriving physical parameters of both the nuclear component (i.e. bolometric and monochromatic luminosities) and the host galaxy (i.e. star formation rate, mass, and temperature of the cold dust). We also use a radiative transfer code to account for the contribution of the quasar-related emission to the far-IR fluxes. Results: Most SEDs are well described by a standard combination of accretion disc plus torus and cold dust emission. However, about 30% of SEDs require an additional emission component in the near-IR, with temperatures peaking at 750 K, which indicates that a hotter dust component is present in these powerful quasars. We measure extreme values of both AGN bolometric luminosity (LBOL > 1047 erg/s) and star formation rate (up to 2000 M⊙/yr) based on the quasar-corrected, IR luminosity of the host galaxy. A new relation between quasar and star formation luminosity is derived (LSF ∝ L0.73QSO) by combining several Herschel-detected quasar samples from z 0 to 4. WISSH quasars have masses ( 108M⊙) and temperatures ( 50 K) of cold dust in agreement with those found for other

  9. High-energy properties of the high-redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the γ-ray and X-ray properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306 at redshift z = 2.345. A strong γ-ray flare from this source was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite in 2013 January, reaching on January 20 a daily peak flux of (301 ± 36) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1 in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range. This flux corresponds to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (1.5 ± 0.2) × 1050 erg s-1, comparable to the highest values observed by a blazar so far. During the flare the increase of flux was accompanied by a significant change of the spectral properties. Moreover significant flux variations on a 6-h time-scale were observed, compatible with the light crossing time of the event horizon of the central black hole. The broad-band X-ray spectra of PKS 2149-306 observed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR are well described by a broken power-law model, with a very hard spectrum (Γ1 ˜ 1) below the break energy, at E break = 2.5-3.0 keV, and Γ2 ˜ 1.4-1.5 above the break energy. The steepening of the spectrum below ˜3 keV may indicate that the soft X-ray emission is produced by the low-energy relativistic electrons. This is in agreement with the small variability amplitude and the lack of spectral changes in that part of the X-ray spectrum observed between the two NuSTAR and Swift joint observations. As for the other high-redshift FSRQ detected by both Fermi-LAT and Swift-BAT, the photon index of PKS 2149-306 in hard X-ray is 1.6 or lower and the average γ-ray luminosity higher than 2 × 1048 erg s-1.

  10. High-energy properties of the high-redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.

    2015-11-19

    We investigate the γ-ray and X-ray properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306 at redshift z = 2.345. A strong γ-ray flare from this source was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite in 2013 January, reaching on January 20 a daily peak flux of (301 ± 36)×10-8 ph cm-2 s-1 in the 0.1–100 GeV energy range. This flux corresponds to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (1.5±0.2)×1050 erg s-1, comparable to the highest values observed by a blazar so far. During the flare the increase of flux was accompanied by a significant change of the spectral properties. Moreover significant flux variations on a 6-h time- scale were observed, compatible with the light crossing time of the event horizon of the central black hole. The broad band X-ray spectra of PKS 2149-306 observed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR are well described by a broken power-law model, with a very hard spectrum (Γ1 ~1) below the break energy, at Ebreak = 2.5–3.0 keV, and Γ2 ~ 1.4–1.5 above the break energy. The steepening of the spectrum below ~3 keV may indicate that the soft X- ray emission is produced by the low-energy relativistic electrons. This is in agreement with the small variability amplitude and the lack of spectral changes in that part of the X-ray spectrum observed between the two NuSTAR and Swift joint observations. As for the other high-redshift FSRQ detected by both Fermi-LAT and Swift-BAT, the photon index of PKS 2149-306 in hard X-ray is 1.6 or lower and the average γ-ray luminosity higher than 2×1048 erg s-1.

  11. High-energy properties of the high-redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306

    DOE PAGES

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.

    2015-11-19

    We investigate the γ-ray and X-ray properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306 at redshift z = 2.345. A strong γ-ray flare from this source was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite in 2013 January, reaching on January 20 a daily peak flux of (301 ± 36)×10-8 ph cm-2 s-1 in the 0.1–100 GeV energy range. This flux corresponds to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (1.5±0.2)×1050 erg s-1, comparable to the highest values observed by a blazar so far. During the flare the increase of flux was accompanied by amore » significant change of the spectral properties. Moreover significant flux variations on a 6-h time- scale were observed, compatible with the light crossing time of the event horizon of the central black hole. The broad band X-ray spectra of PKS 2149-306 observed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR are well described by a broken power-law model, with a very hard spectrum (Γ1 ~1) below the break energy, at Ebreak = 2.5–3.0 keV, and Γ2 ~ 1.4–1.5 above the break energy. The steepening of the spectrum below ~3 keV may indicate that the soft X- ray emission is produced by the low-energy relativistic electrons. This is in agreement with the small variability amplitude and the lack of spectral changes in that part of the X-ray spectrum observed between the two NuSTAR and Swift joint observations. As for the other high-redshift FSRQ detected by both Fermi-LAT and Swift-BAT, the photon index of PKS 2149-306 in hard X-ray is 1.6 or lower and the average γ-ray luminosity higher than 2×1048 erg s-1.« less

  12. The Discovery of a High-Redshift Quasar without Emission Lines from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data.

    PubMed

    Fan; Strauss; Gunn; Lupton; Carilli; Rupen; Schmidt; Moustakas; Davis; Annis; Bahcall; Brinkmann; Brunner; Csabai; Doi; Fukugita; Heckman; Hennessy; Hindsley; Ivezic; Knapp; Lamb; Munn; Pauls; Pier; Rockosi; Schneider; Szalay; Tucker; York

    1999-12-01

    We report observations of a luminous unresolved object at redshift z=4.62, with a featureless optical spectrum redward of the Lyalpha forest region, discovered from Sloan Digital Sky Survey commissioning data. The redshift is determined by the onset of the Lyalpha forest at lambda approximately 6800 Å and a Lyman limit system at lambda=5120 Å. A strong Lyalpha absorption system with weak metal absorption lines at z=4.58 is also identified in the spectrum. The object has a continuum absolute magnitude of -26.6 at 1450 Å in the rest frame (h0=0.5, q0=0.5) and therefore cannot be an ordinary galaxy. It shows no radio emission (the 3 sigma upper limit of its flux at 6 cm is 60 µJy), indicating a radio-to-optical flux ratio at least as small as that of the radio-weakest BL Lacertae objects known. It is also not linearly polarized to a 3 sigma upper limit of 4% in the observed I band. Therefore, it is either the most distant BL Lac object known to date, with very weak radio emission, or a new type of unbeamed quasar, whose broad emission line region is very weak or absent.

  13. Physical properties of luminous dust-poor quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-12-20

    We identify and characterize a population of luminous, dust-poor quasars at 0 < z < 5 that is photometrically similar to objects previously found at z > 6. This class of active galactic nuclei is known to show little IR emission from dusty structure, but it is poorly understood in terms of number evolution and dependence on physical quantities. To better understand the properties of these quasars, we compile a rest-frame UV to IR library of 41,000 optically selected type 1 quasars with L {sub bol} > 10{sup 45.7} erg s{sup –1}. After fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with accretion disk and dust components, we find 0.6% of our sample to be hot dust-poor, with rest-frame 2.3 μm to 0.51 μm flux density ratios of –0.5 dex or less. The dust-poor SEDs are blue in the UV-optical and weak in the mid-IR, such that their accretion disks are less obscured and the hot dust emission traces that of warm dust down to the dust-poor regime. At a given bolometric luminosity, dust-poor quasars are lower in black hole mass and higher in Eddington ratio than general luminous quasars, suggesting that they are in a rapidly growing evolutionary state in which the dust-poor phase appears as a short or rare phenomenon. The dust-poor fraction increases with redshift, and possible implications for their evolution are discussed.

  14. Physical Properties of Luminous Dust-poor Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin

    2013-12-01

    We identify and characterize a population of luminous, dust-poor quasars at 0 < z < 5 that is photometrically similar to objects previously found at z > 6. This class of active galactic nuclei is known to show little IR emission from dusty structure, but it is poorly understood in terms of number evolution and dependence on physical quantities. To better understand the properties of these quasars, we compile a rest-frame UV to IR library of 41,000 optically selected type 1 quasars with L bol > 1045.7 erg s-1. After fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with accretion disk and dust components, we find 0.6% of our sample to be hot dust-poor, with rest-frame 2.3 μm to 0.51 μm flux density ratios of -0.5 dex or less. The dust-poor SEDs are blue in the UV-optical and weak in the mid-IR, such that their accretion disks are less obscured and the hot dust emission traces that of warm dust down to the dust-poor regime. At a given bolometric luminosity, dust-poor quasars are lower in black hole mass and higher in Eddington ratio than general luminous quasars, suggesting that they are in a rapidly growing evolutionary state in which the dust-poor phase appears as a short or rare phenomenon. The dust-poor fraction increases with redshift, and possible implications for their evolution are discussed.

  15. High Redshift QSOs in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    In this proceeding, I will present the first results on our ongoing search for z⪆6 quasars in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS). The unique infrared sky coverage of the LAS combined with SDSS i and z observations allows us to efficiently search for high redshift quasars with minimal contamination from foreground objects, e.g. galactic cool stars. Analysis of 106 deg^2 of sky from UKIDSS Data Release 1 (DR1) has resulted in the discovery of ULAS J020332.38+001229.2, a luminous (J_{AB}=20.0, M_{1450}=-26.2) quasar at z=5.86. The quasar is not present in the SDSS DR5 catalogue and the continuum spectral index of α=-1.4 (F_{ν}∝ν^{α}) is redder than a composite of SDSS quasars at similar redshifts (α=-0.5). Although it is difficult to draw any strong conclusions regarding the space density of quasars from one object, the discovery of this quasar in ˜100 deg^2 in a complete sample within our selection criteria down to a median depth of Y_{AB}=20.4 (7σ) is consistent with existing SDSS results. Finally, I will present the expected number density of high redshift z>6.5 quasars using future infrared surveys with VISTA.

  16. MEAN SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS FOR LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Mehta, Sajjan S.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the mid-infrared (mid-IR) through ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 119,652 luminous broad-lined quasars with 0.064 < z < 5.46 using mid-IR data from Spitzer and WISE, near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIDSS, optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The mean SED requires a bolometric correction (relative to 2500 A) of BC{sub 2500A} =2.75 {+-} 0.40 using the integrated light from 1 {mu}m-2 keV, and we further explore the range of bolometric corrections exhibited by individual objects. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the mean SED on various parameters, particularly the UV luminosity for quasars with 0.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 and the properties of the UV emission lines for quasars with z {approx}> 1.6; the latter is a possible indicator of the strength of the accretion disk wind, which is expected to be SED-dependent. Luminosity-dependent mean SEDs show that, relative to the high-luminosity SED, low-luminosity SEDs exhibit a harder (bluer) far-UV spectral slope ({alpha}{sub UV}), a redder optical continuum, and less hot dust. Mean SEDs constructed instead as a function of UV emission line properties reveal changes that are consistent with known Principal Component Analysis trends. A potentially important contribution to the bolometric correction is the unseen extreme UV (EUV) continuum. Our work suggests that lower-luminosity quasars and/or quasars with disk-dominated broad emission lines may require an extra continuum component in the EUV that is not present (or much weaker) in high-luminosity quasars with strong accretion disk winds. As such, we consider four possible models and explore the resulting bolometric corrections. Understanding these various SED-dependent effects will be important for accurate determination of quasar accretion rates.

  17. The WISSH quasars project. I. Powerful ionised outflows in hyper-luminous quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischetti, M.; Piconcelli, E.; Vietri, G.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Sani, E.; Marconi, A.; Duras, F.; Zappacosta, L.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Feruglio, C.; Giallongo, E.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Martocchia, S.; Ricci, F.; Schneider, R.; Testa, V.; Vignali, C.

    2017-02-01

    Models and observations suggest that both the power and effects of AGN feedback should be maximised in hyper-luminous (LBol > 1047 erg s-1) quasars, i.e. objects at the brightest end of the AGN luminosity function. In this paper, we present the first results of a multiwavelength observing programme, focusing on a sample of WISE/SDSS selected hyper-luminous (WISSH) broad-line quasars at z ≈ 1.5-5. The WISSH quasars project has been designed to reveal the most energetic AGN-driven outflows, estimate their occurrence at the peak of quasar activity, and extend the study of correlations between outflows and nuclear properties up to poorly investigated, extreme AGN luminosities, i.e. LBol 1047 - 1048 erg s-1. We present near-infrared, long-slit LBT/LUCI1 spectroscopy of five WISSH quasars at z ≈ 2.3 - 3.5, showing prominent [OIII] emission lines with broad (FWHM 1200-2200 km s-1) and skewed profiles. The luminosities of these broad [OIII] wings are the highest measured so far, with L[OIII]broad ≳ 5 × 1044 erg s-1, and reveal the presence of powerful ionised outflows with associated mass outflow rates Ṁ ≳ 1700M⊙ yr-1 and kinetic powers Ėkin ≳ 1045 erg s-1. Although these estimates are affected by large uncertainties because of the use of [OIII] as a tracer of ionised outflows and the very basic outflow model adopted here, these results suggest that in our hyper-luminous targets the AGN is highly efficient at pushing large amounts of ionised gas outwards. Furthermore, the mechanical outflow luminosities measured for WISSH quasars correspond to higher percentages ( 1-3%) of LBol than those derived for AGN with lower LBol. Our targets host very massive (MBH ≳ 2 × 109M⊙) black holes that are still accreting at a high rate (i.e. a factor of 0.4-3 of the Eddington limit). These findings clearly demonstrate that WISSH quasars offer the opportunity to probe the extreme end of both luminosity and supermassive black holes (SMBH) mass functions and revealing

  18. The Infrared Medium-deep Survey. III. Survey of Luminous Quasars at 4.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Yiseul; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Jun, Hyunsung David; Pak, Soojong; Taak, Yoon Chan; Baek, Giseon; Choi, Changsu; Choi, Nahyun; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Ji, Tae-Geun; Karouzos, Marios; Kim, Duho; Kim, Jae-Woo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Minjin; Kim, Sanghyuk; Lee, Hye-In; Lee, Seong-Kook; Park, Won-Kee; Park, Woojin; Yoon, Yongmin

    2017-08-01

    We present the first results of our survey for high-redshift quasars at 5≲ z≲ 5.7. The search for quasars in this redshift range has been known to be challenging due to the limitations of the filter sets used in previous studies. We conducted a quasar survey for two specific redshift ranges, 4.60 ≤ z ≤ 5.40 and 5.50 ≤ z ≤ 6.05, using multi-wavelength data that include observations made with custom-designed filters, is and iz. Using these filters and a new selection technique, we were able to reduce the fraction of interlopers. Through optical spectroscopy, we confirmed six quasars at 4.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.4 with -27.4< {M}1450< -26.4 that recently were discovered independently by another group. We estimated black hole masses and Eddington ratios of four of these quasars from optical and near-infrared spectra, and found that these quasars are undergoing nearly Eddington-limited accretion that is consistent with the rapid growth of supermassive black holes in luminous quasars at z ˜ 5. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory, under programme 091.A-0878.

  19. COMPLETE IONIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL GAS: WHY THERE ARE SO FEW DETECTIONS OF 21 cm HYDROGEN IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, S. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2012-11-10

    From the first published z {approx}> 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a {lambda} = 1216 A continuum luminosity in excess of L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing ({lambda} {<=} 912 A) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L {sub 912} {approx} L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

  20. Redshifted and Blueshifted Broad Lines in Luminous Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, D. H.; Rix, H.-W.; Rieke, M. J.; Foltz, C. B.

    1999-06-01

    We have observed a sample of 22 luminous quasars, in the range 2.0<~z<~2.5, at 1.6 μm with the near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph FSPEC on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Our sample contains 13 radio-loud and nine radio-quiet objects. We have measured the systemic redshifts zsys directly from the strong [O III] λ5007 line emitted from the narrow-line region. From the same spectra, we have found that the nonresonance broad Hβ lines have a systematic mean redward shift of 520+/-80 km s-1 with respect to systemic. Such a shift was not found in our identical analysis of the low-redshift sample of Boroson & Green. The amplitude of this redshift is comparable to half the expected gravitational redshift and transverse Doppler effects and is consistent with a correlation between redshift differences and quasar luminosity. From data in the literature, we confirm that the high-ionization rest-frame ultraviolet broad lines are blueshifted ~550-1050 km s-1 from systemic and that these velocity shifts systematically increase with ionization potential. Our results allow us to quantify the known bias in estimating the ionizing flux from the intergalactic medium JIGMν via the proximity effect. Using redshift measurements commonly determined from strong broad-line species, like Lyα or C IV λ1549, results in an overestimation of JIGMν by factors of ~1.9-2.3. Similarly, corresponding lower limits on the density of baryons Ωb will be overestimated by factors of ~1.4-1.5. However, the low-ionization Mg II λ2798 broad line is within ~50 km s-1 of systemic and thus would be the line of choice for determining the true redshift of 1.0quasars without NIR spectroscopy and z>3.1 objects using NIR spectroscopy. Observations reported here were obtained at the Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

  1. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  2. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  3. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES AND RAPID GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN LUMINOUS z ∼ 3.5 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard; Wang, Ran; Bian, Fuyan

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} ≲ M {sub BH} ≲ 1.37 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, with a median of ∼5.14 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ∼1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, we show that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  4. Black Hole Mass Estimates and Rapid Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in Luminous z ~ 3.5 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard; Wang, Ran; Bian, Fuyan

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ~ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 109 M ⊙ <~ M BH <~ 1.37 × 1010 M ⊙, with a median of ~5.14 × 109 M ⊙ and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ~1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 104 M ⊙, we show that the z ~ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  5. High-redshift Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Foschini, L.; Ghirlanda, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Della Ceca, R.; Haardt, F.; Volonteri, M.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-02-01

    With the release of the first-year Fermi catalogue, the number of blazars detected above 100 MeV lying at high redshift has been largely increased. There are 28 blazars at z > 2 in the `clean' sample. All of them are flat spectrum radio quasars. We study and model their overall spectral energy distribution in order to find the physical parameters of the jet-emitting region, and for all of them, we estimate their black hole masses and accretion rates. We then compare the jet with the accretion disc properties, setting these sources in the broader context of all the other bright γ-ray or hard X-ray blazars. We confirm that the jet power correlates with the accretion luminosity. We find that the high-energy emission peak shifts to smaller frequencies as the observed luminosity increases, according to the blazar sequence, making the hard X-ray band the most suitable for searching the most-luminous and distant blazars.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Nearby Luminous Quasars. 2; Results for Eight Quasars and Tests of the Detection Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Observations with the Wide-Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented for eight intrinsically luminous quasars with redshifts between 0.16 and 0.29. These observations, when combined with a similar HST study of the quasar PKS 2349-014, show that luminous nearby quasars exist in a variety of environments. Seven companion galaxies brighter than M(V) = 16.5 (H(sub 0) = 100 km s(sup -1) Mpc(sup -1), Omega(sub 0) = 1.0) lie within a projected distance of 25 kpc of the quasars; three of the companions are located closer than 3'' (6 kpc projected distance) from the quasars, well within the volume that would be enclosed by a typical L* host galaxy. The observed association of quasars and companion galaxies is statistically significant and may he an important element in the luminous-quasar phenomenon. Apparent host galaxies are detected for three of the quasars: PG 1116+215, 3C 273, and PG 1444+407; the hosts have an average absolute magnitude of about 0.6 mag brighter than L*. The agreement between the previously published major-axis directions in ground-based images and in the present HST images of 3C 273 and PG 1444+407 constitutes important evidence supporting the reality of these candidate host galaxies. Upper limits are placed on the visual-band brightnesses of representative galactic hosts for all the quasars. These limits are established by placing galaxy images obtained with HST underneath the quasars and measuring at what faintness level the known galaxies are detected. On average, the HST spirals would have been detected if they were as faint as 1 mag below L*, and the early-type galaxies could have been detected down to a brightness level of about L*, where L* is the Schechter characteristic luminosity of field galaxies. Smooth, featureless galaxy models (exponential disks or de Vaucouleurs profiles) are fitted to the residual light after a best-fitting point source is subtracted from the quasar images. The results show that smooth spiral

  7. A Survey of z>5.8 Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Discovery of Three New Quasars and the Spatial Density of Luminous Quasars at z~6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Narayanan, Vijay K.; Lupton, Robert H.; Strauss, Michael A.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Pentericci, Laura; Leggett, S. K.; Haiman, Zoltán; Gunn, James E.; Ivezić, Željko; Schneider, Donald P.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brinkmann, J.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, István; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Geballe, Tom; Grebel, Eva K.; Harbeck, Daniel; Hennessy, Gregory; Lamb, Don Q.; Miknaitis, Gajus; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert; Okamura, Sadanori; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Prada, Francisco; Richards, Gordon T.; Szalay, Alex; York, Donald G.

    2001-12-01

    We present the results from a survey of i-dropout objects selected from ~1550 deg2 of multicolor imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to search for luminous quasars at z>~5.8. Objects with i*-z*>2.2 and z*<20.2 are selected, and follow-up J-band photometry is used to separate L- and T-type cool dwarfs from high-redshift quasars. We describe the discovery of three new quasars, SDSSp J083643.85+005453.3 (z=5.82), J130608.26+035626.3 (z=5.99), and J103027.10+052455.0 (z=6.28). The quasar SDSSp J083643.85+005453.3 is a radio source with flux of 1.1 mJy at 20 cm. The spectra of all three quasars show strong and broad Lyα+N V emission lines and very strong Lyα forest absorption, with a mean continuum decrement DA>0.90. The ARC 3.5 m spectrum of SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 shows that over a range of ~300 Å immediately blueward of the Lyα emission, the average transmitted flux is only 0.003+/-0.020 times that of the continuum level, consistent with zero flux over a ~300 Å range of the Lyα forest region and suggesting a tentative detection of the complete Gunn-Peterson trough. The existence of strong metal lines in the quasar spectra suggests early metal enrichment in the quasar environment. The three new objects, together with the previously published z=5.8 quasar SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2, form a complete color-selected flux-limited sample at z>~5.8. We estimate the selection function of this sample, taking into account the estimated variations in the quasar spectral energy distribution, as well as observational photometric errors. We find that at z=6, the comoving density of luminous quasars at M1450<-26.8 (H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω=1) is 1.1×10-9 Mpc-3. This is a factor of ~2 lower than that at z~5 and is consistent with an extrapolation of the observed quasar evolution at z<5. Using the current sample, we discuss the constraint on the shape of the quasar luminosity function and the implications for the contribution of quasars to the ionizing background at z

  8. HST Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC10214+4724: A gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, P. R.; Armus, L.; Hogg, D. W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    Observations of a distant object in space with the data being taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera. Scientific examination and hypothesis related to this object which appears to be either an extremely luminous dust embedded quasar, or a representative of a new class of astronomical objects (a primeval galaxy).

  9. UNIFICATION OF LUMINOUS TYPE 1 QUASARS THROUGH C IV EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Gordon T.; Kruczek, Nicholas E.; Deo, Rajesh P.; Kratzer, Rachael M.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hewett, Paul C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Shen, Yue

    2011-05-15

    Using a sample of {approx}30,000 quasars from the 7th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we explore the range of properties exhibited by high-ionization, broad emission lines, such as C IV {lambda}1549. Specifically, we investigate the anti-correlation between continuum luminosity and emission-line equivalent width (the Baldwin Effect (BEff)) and the 'blueshifting' of the high-ionization emission lines with respect to low-ionization emission lines. Employing improved redshift determinations from Hewett and Wild, the blueshift of the C IV emission line is found to be nearly ubiquitous, with a mean shift of {approx}810 km s{sup -1} for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars and {approx}360 km s{sup -1} for radio-loud (RL) quasars. The BEff is present in both RQ and RL samples. We consider these phenomena within the context of an accretion disk-wind model that is modulated by the nonlinear correlation between ultraviolet and X-ray continuum luminosity. Composite spectra are constructed as a function of C IV emission-line properties in an attempt to reveal empirical relationships between different line species and the continuum. Within a two-component disk+wind model of the broad emission-line region (BELR), where the wind filters the continuum seen by the disk component, we find that RL quasars are consistent with being dominated by the disk component, while broad absorption line quasars are consistent with being dominated by the wind component. Some RQ objects have emission-line features similar to RL quasars; they may simply have insufficient black hole (BH) spin to form radio jets. Our results suggest that there could be significant systematic errors in the determination of L{sub bol} and BH mass that make it difficult to place these findings in a more physical context. However, it is possible to classify quasars in a paradigm where the diversity of BELR parameters is due to differences in an accretion disk wind between quasars (and over time); these differences are

  10. MEASUREMENT OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION SIZE IN A LUMINOUS MACHO QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chelouche, Doron; Daniel, Eliran; Kaspi, Shai E-mail: shai@wise.tau.ac.il

    2012-05-10

    We measure the broad emission line region (BLR) size of a luminous, L {approx} 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, high-z quasar using broadband photometric reverberation mapping. To this end, we analyze {approx}7.5 years of photometric data for MACHO 13.6805.324 (z {approx_equal} 1.72) in the B and R MACHO bands and find a time delay of 180 {+-} 40 days in the rest frame of the object. Given the spectral-variability properties of high-z quasars, we associate this lag with the rest-UV iron emission blends. Our findings are consistent with a simple extrapolation of the BLR size-luminosity relation in local active galactic nuclei to the more luminous, high-z quasar population. Long-term spectroscopic monitoring of MACHO 13.6805.324 may be able to directly measure the line-to-continuum time delay and test our findings.

  11. HOST GALAXIES OF LUMINOUS TYPE 2 QUASARS AT z {approx} 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Krolik, Julian H.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-09-10

    We present deep Gemini GMOS optical spectroscopy of nine luminous quasars at redshifts z {approx} 0.5, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasar sample. Our targets were selected to have high intrinsic luminosities (M{sub V} < -26 mag) as indicated by the [O III] {lambda}5007 A emission-line luminosity (L[{sub OIII}]). Our sample has a median black hole mass of {approx}10{sup 8.8} M{sub sun} inferred assuming the local M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation and a median Eddington ratio of {approx}0.7, using stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} measured from the G band. We estimate the contamination of the stellar continuum from scattered quasar light based on the strength of broad H{beta}, and provide an empirical calibration of the contamination as a function of L {sub [OIII]}; the scattered-light fraction is {approx}30% of L{sub 5100} for objects with L {sub [OIII]} = 10{sup 9.5} L{sub sun}. Population synthesis indicates that young poststarburst populations (<0.1 Gyr) are prevalent in luminous type 2 quasars, in addition to a relatively old population (>1 Gyr) which dominates the stellar mass. Broad emission complexes around He II {lambda}4686 A with luminosities up to 10{sup 8.3} L{sub sun} are unambiguously detected in three out of the nine targets, indicative of Wolf-Rayet (WR) populations. Population synthesis shows that {approx}5 Myr poststarburst populations contribute substantially to the luminosities (>50% of L{sub 5100}) of all three objects with WR detections. We find two objects with double cores and four with close companions. Our results may suggest that luminous type 2 quasars trace an early stage of galaxy interaction, perhaps responsible for both the quasar and the starburst activity.

  12. Reverberation Mapping of the most luminous Quasars at z~2-3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Paulina; Botti, Ismael; Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai

    2016-08-01

    Reverberation Mapping (RM) provides the only tool to determine Black Holes (BH) masses directly, but so far this method has been applied only to small and intermediate luminosity systems (L<10^46 ergs/s). We are extending these studies by two orders of magnitude, probing the BH-mass of luminous AGN at redshift 2-3, obtaining the measurement of the largest BHs and extending our knowledge of the physics of AGN and their hosts into the most crucial epoch in galaxy evolution. Since 2005 we have been monitoring very luminous Quasars using broad-band imaging with the SMARTS telescopes and in 2007 we started the RM campaign of our most variable targets obtaining spectroscopic follow-up with the du Pont telescope. After 10 years of data gathering we are finally able to report on the RM for Quasar J221516 as well as several other systems that should yield results in the near future.

  13. High redshift blazars .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing at us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ˜GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ˜MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ˜4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve in redshift will shed light on the growth of the most massive black holes and possibly on the feedback between the central engine and the rest of the host galaxy.

  14. The Most Luminous Object in the Universe: Shrouded Quasar or Proto-Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used ASCA to observe the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724, which is identified with a galaxy at a redshift of 2.286. When first discovered, it was believed to be the most luminous object in the universe. Subsequent HST images have established that it is gravitationally-lensed by a foreground cluster. It is still a very powerful object, but not extraordinarily so. Observations at other wavebands have not established whether it is a dust-shrouded quasar or a young, massive galaxy in the process of formation. Since quasars are strong emitters of hard X-rays, while proto-galaxies would not be, and since the opacity of gas and dust is relatively small in the energy regime probed by ASCA (3 to 30 keV in the galaxy rest frame), we undertook these observations to search for a heavily shrouded quasar that might be invisible at lower energies. However, the observations did not detect any emission from this object. This either means that the galaxy is in fact powered by a starburst or that the putative quasar is located behind a very high column density of absorbing gas (N_H > 10(exp 25)/sq cm), so that not even hard X-rays are transmitted. A hidden quasar should be visible in reflected light in X-ray data of higher sensitivity. Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory or ESA's XMM are required to settle the matter. No publication resulted from our null result.

  15. Unseen Progenitors of Luminous High-z Quasars in the R h  = ct Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Melia, Fulvio

    2017-09-01

    Quasars at high redshift provide direct information on the mass growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and, in turn, yield important clues about how the universe evolved since the first (Pop III) stars started forming. Yet even basic questions regarding the seeds of these objects and their growth mechanism remain unanswered. The anticipated launch of eROSITA and ATHENA is expected to facilitate observations of high-redshift quasars needed to resolve these issues. In this paper, we compare accretion-based SMBH growth in the concordance ΛCDM model with that in the alternative Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmology known as the R h = ct universe. Previous work has shown that the timeline predicted by the latter can account for the origin and growth of the ≳109 M ⊙ highest redshift quasars better than that of the standard model. Here, we significantly advance this comparison by determining the soft X-ray flux that would be observed for Eddington-limited accretion growth as a function of redshift in both cosmologies. Our results indicate that a clear difference emerges between the two in terms of the number of detectable quasars at redshift z ≳ 7, raising the expectation that the next decade will provide the observational data needed to discriminate between these two models based on the number of detected high-redshift quasar progenitors. For example, while the upcoming ATHENA mission is expected to detect ∼0.16 (i.e., essentially zero) quasars at z ∼ 7 in R h = ct, it should detect ∼160 in ΛCDM—a quantitatively compelling difference.

  16. Host Galaxies of Luminous Type 2 Quasars at z ~ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Krolik, Julian H.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-09-01

    We present deep Gemini GMOS optical spectroscopy of nine luminous quasars at redshifts z ~ 0.5, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasar sample. Our targets were selected to have high intrinsic luminosities (MV < -26 mag) as indicated by the [O III] λ5007 Å emission-line luminosity (L [O III]). Our sample has a median black hole mass of ~108.8 M sun inferred assuming the local M BH-σ* relation and a median Eddington ratio of ~0.7, using stellar velocity dispersions σ* measured from the G band. We estimate the contamination of the stellar continuum from scattered quasar light based on the strength of broad Hβ, and provide an empirical calibration of the contamination as a function of L [O III]; the scattered-light fraction is ~30% of L 5100 for objects with L [O III] = 109.5 L sun. Population synthesis indicates that young poststarburst populations (<0.1 Gyr) are prevalent in luminous type 2 quasars, in addition to a relatively old population (>1 Gyr) which dominates the stellar mass. Broad emission complexes around He II λ4686 Å with luminosities up to 108.3 L sun are unambiguously detected in three out of the nine targets, indicative of Wolf-Rayet (WR) populations. Population synthesis shows that ~5 Myr poststarburst populations contribute substantially to the luminosities (>50% of L 5100) of all three objects with WR detections. We find two objects with double cores and four with close companions. Our results may suggest that luminous type 2 quasars trace an early stage of galaxy interaction, perhaps responsible for both the quasar and the starburst activity. Based, in part, on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada

  17. The LBT/WISSH quasar survey: revealing powerful winds in the most luminous AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietri, Giustina

    2017-01-01

    The systematic, multi-frequency investigation of hyper-luminous quasars shining at the golden epoch of AGN activity offers the unique opportunity of studying the power and the effect of AGN feedback at its extreme.The WISE/SDSS selected hyper-luminous (WISSH) quasar survey is an extensive multi-band observing program (from millimeter wavelengths to hard X rays) designed to accurately probe the role of nuclear activity in SMBH-galaxy self-regulated growth via extended outflows.Our on-going project aims at constraining both AGN and host galaxy ISM and star-formation properties in a large sample of ~ 90 broad-line quasars at the brightest end of the AGN luminosity function (L_bol > 1e14 L_sun), and at the peak of their number density (z ~ 2.5 - 3.5).I will review the most important results of the near-IR spectroscopic follow-up of WISSH quasars (available for ~40% of the total sample) performed with the LUCI at LBT. These observations were carried out to obtain a reliable Hbeta-based estimate of the SMBH masses and a census of the ionized outflows in these hyper-luminous quasars.We found that WISSH AGN are typically powered by highly accreting (0.3-3 Ledd), ten billion solar masses SMBHs, demonstrating that WISSH provides a simple and valuable tool to complete the census of the extreme SMBH population in the universe.We also succeeded in discovering [OIII] emission lines with a broad, skewed profile and exceptional luminosities (> 6e44 erg/s), tracing very powerful ionized outflows (up to ~4% of L_bol) in ~30% of the sample.Remarkably, the remaining 70% of quasars lacks [OIII] emission but shows strong winds traced by 3,000-8,000 km/s blueshifts of the high-ionization (CIV) with respect to low-ionization (Hbeta) broad emission lines, revealing strong radiatively driven winds that dominate the BLR kinematics.I will discuss the possible origins of this intriguing dichotomy which involves fundamental parameters such as bolometric luminosity, SMBH mass, Eddington ratio

  18. INFRARED CLASSIFICATION AND LUMINOSITIES FOR DUSTY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE MOST LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine; Houck, James; Barry, Donald; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2012-12-20

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic measurements from the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on Spitzer are given for 125 hard X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 14-195 keV) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample and for 32 AGNs with black hole masses (BHMs) from reverberation mapping. The 9.7 {mu}m silicate feature in emission or absorption defines an infrared AGN classification describing whether AGNs are observed through dust clouds, indicating that 55% of the BAT AGNs are observed through dust. The mid-infrared dust continuum luminosity is shown to be an excellent indicator of intrinsic AGN luminosity, scaling closely with the hard X-ray luminosity, log {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m)/L(X) = -0.31 {+-} 0.35, and independent of classification determined from silicate emission or absorption. Dust luminosity scales closely with BHM, log {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m) = (37.2 {+-} 0.5) + 0.87 log BHM for luminosity in erg s{sup -1} and BHM in M{sub Sun }. The 100 most luminous type 1 quasars as measured in {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m) are found by comparing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optically discovered quasars with photometry at 22 {mu}m from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), scaled to rest frame 7.8 {mu}m using an empirical template determined from IRS spectra. The most luminous SDSS/WISE quasars have the same maximum infrared luminosities for all 1.5 < z < 5, reaching total infrared luminosity L{sub IR} = 10{sup 14.4} L{sub Sun }. Comparing with dust-obscured galaxies from Spitzer and WISE surveys, we find no evidence of hyperluminous obscured quasars whose maximum infrared luminosities exceed the maximum infrared luminosities of optically discovered quasars. Bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} estimated from rest-frame optical or ultraviolet luminosities are compared to L{sub IR}. For the local AGN, the median log L{sub IR}/L{sub bol} = -0.35, consistent with a covering factor of 45% for the absorbing dust clouds. For the SDSS/WISE quasars, the median log L

  19. Galaxy evolution. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456.

    PubMed

    Nardini, E; Reeves, J N; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-02-20

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution.

  20. The discovery of gas-rich, dusty starbursts in luminous reddened quasars at z ∼ 2.5 with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, M.; Carilli, C. L.; Jones, G.; Wagg, J.; McMahon, R. G.; Hewett, P. C.; Alaghband-Zadeh, S.; Feruglio, C.

    2017-03-01

    We present ALMA observations of cold dust and molecular gas in four high-luminosity, heavily reddened (AV ∼ 2.5-6 mag) type 1 quasars at z ∼ 2.5 with virial MBH ∼ 1010 M⊙, to test whether dusty, massive quasars represent the evolutionary link between submillimetre-bright galaxies and unobscured quasars. All four quasars are detected in both the dust continuum and in the 12CO(3-2) line. The mean dust mass is 6 × 108 M⊙ assuming a typical high-redshift quasar spectral energy distribution (T = 41 K, β = 1.95 or T = 47 K, β = 1.6). The implied star formation rates are very high - ≳1000 M⊙ yr-1 in all cases. Gas masses estimated from the CO line luminosities cover ∼1-5× 1010(αCO/0.8)M⊙ and the gas depletion time-scales are very short - ∼5-20 Myr. A range of gas-to-dust ratios is observed in the sample. We resolve the molecular gas in one quasar - ULASJ2315+0143 (z = 2.561) - which shows a strong velocity gradient over ∼20 kpc. The velocity field is consistent with a rotationally supported gas disc but other scenarios, e.g. mergers, cannot be ruled out at the current resolution of these data. In another quasar - ULASJ1234+0907 (z = 2.503) - we detected molecular line emission from two millimetre-bright galaxies within 200 kpc of the quasar, suggesting that this quasar resides in a significant overdensity. The high detection rate of both cold dust and molecular gas in these sources, suggests that reddened quasars could correspond to an early phase in massive galaxy formation associated with large gas reservoirs and significant star formation.

  1. C IV and C III] reverberation mapping of the luminous quasar PG 1247+267

    SciTech Connect

    Trevese, D.; Saturni, F. G.; Perna, M.; Dadina, M.

    2014-11-10

    So far the masses of about 50 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been measured through the reverberation mapping technique (RM). Most measurements have been performed for objects of moderate luminosity and redshift, based on Hβ, which is also used to calibrate the scaling relation that allows single-epoch (SE) mass determination based on AGN luminosity and the width of different emission lines. Due to the complex structure and gas dynamics of the relevant emission region, the SE masses obtained from the C IV(1549 Å) line show a large spread around the mean values. Direct RM measures of C IV exist for only six AGNs of low luminosity and redshift, and only one luminous quasar. Since 2003, we have collected photometric and spectroscopic observations of PG1247+267, the most luminous quasar ever analyzed for RM. We provide light curves for the continuum and for C IV(1549 Å) and C III](1909 Å), and measures of the reverberation time lags based on the SPEAR method. The sizes of the line emission regions assume a ratio of R {sub C} {sub III]}/R {sub C} {sub IV} ∼ 2, similar to the case of Seyfert galaxies, indicating for the first time a similar ionization stratification in a luminous quasar and low-luminosity nuclei. Due to the relatively small size of the broad line region and the relatively narrow line widths, we estimate a small mass and an anomalously high Eddington ratio. We discuss the possibility that either the shape of the emission region or an amplification of the luminosity caused by gravitational lensing may be partly responsible for the result.

  2. Non-steller light from high-redshift radiogalaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlings, Steve; Eales, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of a new IRCAM image of 3C356, researchers question the common assumption that radiosource-stimulated starbursts are responsible for the extended optical emission aligned with radio structures in high-redshift radiogalaxies. They propose an alternative model in which the radiation from a hidden luminous quasar is beamed along the radio axis and illuminates dense clumps of cool gas to produce both extended narrow emission line regions and, by Thomson scattering, extended optical continua. Simple observational tests of this model are possible and necessary if we are to continue to accept that the color, magnitude and shape evolution of radiogalaxies are controlled by the active evolution of stellar populations.

  3. iPTF Discovery of the Rapid “Turn-on” of a Luminous Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, S.; Hung, T.; Cenko, S. B.; Blagorodnova, N.; Yan, Lin; Kulkarni, S. R.; Mooley, K.; Kong, A. K. H.; Cantwell, T. M.; Yu, P. C.; Cao, Y.; Fremling, C.; Neill, J. D.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Nugent, P. E.; Wozniak, P.

    2017-02-01

    We present a radio-quiet quasar at z = 0.237 discovered “turning on” by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). The transient, iPTF 16bco, was detected by iPTF in the nucleus of a galaxy with an archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum with weak narrow-line emission characteristic of a low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER). Our follow-up spectra show the dramatic appearance of broad Balmer lines and a power-law continuum characteristic of a luminous ({L}{bol}≈ {10}45 erg s‑1) type 1 quasar 12 yr later. Our photometric monitoring with PTF from 2009–2012 and serendipitous X-ray observations from the XMM-Newton Slew Survey in 2011 and 2015 constrain the change of state to have occurred less than 500 days before the iPTF detection. An enhanced broad Hα/[O iii] λ5007 line ratio in the type 1 state relative to other changing-look quasars also is suggestive of the most rapid change of state yet observed in a quasar. We argue that the >10 increase in Eddington ratio inferred from the brightening in UV and X-ray continuum flux is more likely due to an intrinsic change in the accretion rate of a preexisting accretion disk than an external mechanism such as variable obscuration, microlensing, or the tidal disruption of a star. However, further monitoring will be helpful in better constraining the mechanism driving this change of state. The rapid “turn-on” of the quasar is much shorter than the viscous infall timescale of an accretion disk and requires a disk instability that can develop around a ∼ {10}8 {M}ȯ black hole on timescales less than 1 yr.

  4. iPTF Discovery of the Rapid “Turn-on” of a Luminous Quasar

    DOE PAGES

    Gezari, S.; Hung, T.; Cenko, S. B.; ...

    2017-01-24

    We present a radio-quiet quasar at z = 0.237 discovered "turning on" by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). The transient, iPTF 16bco, was detected by iPTF in the nucleus of a galaxy with an archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum with weak narrow-line emission characteristic of a low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER). Our follow-up spectra show the dramatic appearance of broad Balmer lines and a power-law continuum characteristic of a luminous ( Lbol ≈ 1045 erg s-1) type 1 quasar 12 yr later. Our photometric monitoring with PTF from 2009-2012 and serendipitous X-ray observations from the XMM-Newton Slew Surveymore » in 2011 and 2015 constrain the change of state to have occurred less than 500 days before the iPTF detection. An enhanced broad Hα/[O iii] λ5007 line ratio in the type 1 state relative to other changing-look quasars also is suggestive of the most rapid change of state yet observed in a quasar. Here, we argue that the > 10 increase in Eddington ratio inferred from the brightening in UV and X-ray continuum flux is more likely due to an intrinsic change in the accretion rate of a preexisting accretion disk than an external mechanism such as variable obscuration, microlensing, or the tidal disruption of a star. However, further monitoring will be helpful in better constraining the mechanism driving this change of state. The rapid "turn-on" of the quasar is much shorter than the viscous infall timescale of an accretion disk and requires a disk instability that can develop around a ~ 108 M⊙ black hole on timescales less than 1 yr.« less

  5. The X-Ray and Mid-infrared Luminosities in Luminous Type 1 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Goulding, Andrew D.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Harrison, Chris M.; Hainline, Kevin N.; Alberts, Stacey; Alexander, David M.; Brodwin, Mark; Del Moro, Agnese; Forman, William R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Pope, Alexandra; Rovilos, Emmanouel

    2017-03-01

    Several recent studies have reported different intrinsic correlations between the active galactic nucleus (AGN) mid-IR luminosity ({L}{MIR}) and the rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity (L X) for luminous quasars. To understand the origin of the difference in the observed {L}{{X}}{--}{L}{MIR} relations, we study a sample of 3247 spectroscopically confirmed type 1 AGNs collected from Boötes, XMM-COSMOS, XMM-XXL-North, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars in the Swift/XRT footprint spanning over four orders of magnitude in luminosity. We carefully examine how different observational constraints impact the observed {L}{{X}}{--}{L}{MIR} relations, including the inclusion of X-ray-nondetected objects, possible X-ray absorption in type 1 AGNs, X-ray flux limits, and star formation contamination. We find that the primary factor driving the different {L}{{X}}{--}{L}{MIR} relations reported in the literature is the X-ray flux limits for different studies. When taking these effects into account, we find that the X-ray luminosity and mid-IR luminosity (measured at rest-frame 6 μ {{m}}, or {L}6μ {{m}}) of our sample of type 1 AGNs follow a bilinear relation in the log-log plane: {log}{L}{{X}}=(0.84+/- 0.03)× {log}{L}6μ {{m}}/{10}45 erg s-1 + (44.60 ± 0.01) for {L}6μ {{m}}< {10}44.79 erg s-1, and {log}{L}{{X}}=(0.40+/- 0.03)× {log}{L}6μ {{m}}/{10}45 erg s-1 + (44.51 ± 0.01) for {L}6μ {{m}} ≥slant {10}44.79 erg s-1. This suggests that the luminous type 1 quasars have a shallower {L}{{X}}{--}{L}6μ {{m}} correlation than the approximately linear relations found in local Seyfert galaxies. This result is consistent with previous studies reporting a luminosity-dependent {L}{{X}}{--}{L}{MIR} relation and implies that assuming a linear {L}{{X}}{--}{L}6μ {{m}} relation to infer the neutral gas column density for X-ray absorption might overestimate the column densities in luminous quasars.

  6. Photometric Properties of the Most Massive High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Brant; Li, Yuexing; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2007-09-01

    We calculate the observable properties of the most massive high-redshift galaxies in the hierarchical formation scenario where stellar spheroid and supermassive black hole growth are fueled by gas-rich mergers. Combining high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the hierarchical formation of a z~6 quasar, stellar population synthesis models, template active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra, prescriptions for interstellar and intergalactic absorption, and the response of modern telescopes, the photometric evolution of galaxies destined to host z~6 quasars is modeled at redshifts z~4-14. These massive galaxies, with enormous stellar masses of M*~1011.5-1012 Msolar and star formation rates of SFR~103-104 Msolar yr-1 at z>~7, satisfy a variety of photometric selection criteria based on Lyman break techniques, including V-band dropouts at z>~5, i-band dropouts at z>~6, and z-band dropouts at z>~7. The observability of the most massive high-redshift galaxies is assessed and compared with a wide range of existing and proposed photometric surveys, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)/Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), National Optical Astronomy Observatory Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), UKIRT Infared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Shallow Survey, Ultradeep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), Dark Universe Explorer (DUNE), Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS), Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Massive stellar spheroids descended from z~6 quasars will likely be detected at z~4 by existing surveys, but owing to their low number densities the discovery of quasar progenitor galaxies at z>7 will likely require future surveys of large portions of the sky (>~0.5%) at wavelengths λ>~1 μm. The detection of rare, starbursting, massive galaxies at redshifts z>~6 would provide support for the

  7. The host galaxies and black hole-to-galaxy mass ratios of luminous quasars at z≃ 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targett, Thomas A.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.

    2012-03-01

    Deep K-band imaging of the most luminous z≃ 4 quasars currently offers the earliest possible view of the mass-dominant stellar populations of the host galaxies which house the first supermassive black holes in the Universe. This is because, until the advent of the James Webb Space Telescope, it is not possible to obtain the necessary deep, sub-arcsec resolution imaging at rest-frame wavelengths λrest > 4000 Å at any higher redshift. We here present and analyse the deepest, high-quality KS-band images ever obtained of luminous quasars at z≃ 4, in an attempt to determine the basic properties of their host galaxies less than 1 Gyr after the first recorded appearance of black holes with Mbh > 109 M⊙. To maximize the robustness of our results, we have carefully selected two Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at z≃ 4. With absolute magnitudes Mi < -28, these quasars are representative of the most luminous quasars known at this epoch, but they also, crucially, lie within 40 arcsec of comparably bright foreground stars (required for accurate point spread function definition), and have redshifts which ensure line-free KS-band imaging. The data were obtained in excellent seeing conditions (<0.4 arcsec) at the European Southern Observatory on the Very Large Telescope with integration times of ≃5.5 h per source. Via carefully controlled separation of host galaxy and nuclear light, we estimate the luminosities and stellar masses of the host galaxies, and set constraints on their half-light radii. The apparent KS-band magnitudes of the quasar host galaxies are consistent with those of luminous radio galaxies at comparable redshifts, suggesting that these quasar hosts are also among the most massive galaxies in existence at this epoch. However, the quasar hosts are a factor ˜5 smaller (= 1.8 kpc) than the host galaxies of luminous low-redshift quasars. We estimate the stellar masses of the z≃ 4 host galaxies to lie in the range 2-10 × 1011 M⊙, and use the C

  8. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  9. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGES

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightestmore » of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.« less

  10. A CONSTRAINT ON QUASAR CLUSTERING AT z = 5 FROM A BINARY QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.

    2016-03-15

    We report the discovery of a quasar pair at z = 5 separated by 21″. Both objects were identified as quasar candidates using simple color selection techniques applied to photometric catalogs from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Spectra obtained with the MMT present no discernible offset in redshift between the two objects; on the other hand, there are clear differences in the emission line profiles and in the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions that strongly disfavor the hypothesis that they are gravitationally lensed images of a single quasar. Both quasars are surprisingly bright given their proximity (a projected separation of ∼135 kpc), with i = 19.4 and i = 21.4. Previous measurements of the luminosity function demonstrate that luminous quasars are extremely rare at z = 5; the existence of this pair suggests that quasars have strong small-scale clustering at high redshift. Assuming a real-space correlation function of the form ξ(r) ∝ (r/r{sub 0}){sup −2}, this discovery implies a correlation length of r{sub 0} ≳ 20h{sup −1} Mpc, consistent with a rapid strengthening of quasar clustering at high redshift as seen in previous observations and predicted by theoretical models where feedback effects are inefficient at shutting down black hole growth at high redshift.

  11. A Constraint on Quasar Clustering at z = 5 from a Binary Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.; Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a quasar pair at z = 5 separated by 21″. Both objects were identified as quasar candidates using simple color selection techniques applied to photometric catalogs from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Spectra obtained with the MMT present no discernible offset in redshift between the two objects; on the other hand, there are clear differences in the emission line profiles and in the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions that strongly disfavor the hypothesis that they are gravitationally lensed images of a single quasar. Both quasars are surprisingly bright given their proximity (a projected separation of ˜135 kpc), with i = 19.4 and i = 21.4. Previous measurements of the luminosity function demonstrate that luminous quasars are extremely rare at z = 5 the existence of this pair suggests that quasars have strong small-scale clustering at high redshift. Assuming a real-space correlation function of the form ξ(r) ∝ (r/r0)-2, this discovery implies a correlation length of r0 ≳ 20h-1 Mpc, consistent with a rapid strengthening of quasar clustering at high redshift as seen in previous observations and predicted by theoretical models where feedback effects are inefficient at shutting down black hole growth at high redshift. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  12. Mid-infrared luminous quasars in the GOODS-Herschel fields: a large population of heavily obscured, Compton-thick quasars at z ≈ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Daddi, E.; Kocevski, D. D.; McIntosh, D. H.; Stanley, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Elbaz, D.; Harrison, C. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2016-02-01

    We present the infrared (IR) and X-ray properties of a sample of 33 mid-IR luminous quasars (νL6 μm ≥ 6 × 1044 erg s-1) at redshift z ≈ 1-3, identified through detailed spectral energy distribution analyses of distant star-forming galaxies, using the deepest IR data from Spitzer and Herschel in the GOODS-Herschel fields. The aim is to constrain the fraction of obscured, and Compton-thick (CT, NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) quasars at the peak era of nuclear and star formation activities. Despite being very bright in the mid-IR band, ≈30 per cent of these quasars are not detected in the extremely deep 2 and 4 Ms Chandra X-ray data available in these fields. X-ray spectral analysis of the detected sources reveals that the majority (≈67 per cent) are obscured by column densities NH > 1022 cm-2; this fraction reaches ≈80 per cent when including the X-ray-undetected sources (9 out of 33), which are likely to be the most heavily obscured, CT quasars. We constrain the fraction of CT quasars in our sample to be ≈24-48 per cent, and their space density to be Φ = (6.7 ± 2.2) × 10-6 Mpc-3. From the investigation of the quasar host galaxies in terms of star formation rates (SFRs) and morphological distortions, as a sign of galaxy mergers/interactions, we do not find any direct relation between SFRs and quasar luminosity or X-ray obscuration. On the other hand, there is tentative evidence that the most heavily obscured quasars have, on average, more disturbed morphologies than the unobscured/moderately obscured quasar hosts, which preferentially live in undisturbed systems. However, the fraction of quasars with disturbed morphology amongst the whole sample is ≈40 per cent, suggesting that galaxy mergers are not the main fuelling mechanism of quasars at z ≈ 2.

  13. High Redshift GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The Swift mission has opened a new, high redshift window on the universe. In this review we provide an overview of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science, describe the Swift mission, discuss high-z GRBs and tools for high-z studies, and look forward at future capabilities. A new mission concept - Lobster - is described that would monitor the X-ray sky at order of magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions.

  14. Gas reservoir of a hyper-luminous quasar at z = 2.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, C.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Krips, M.; Brusa, M.; Daddi, E.; Gavignaud, I.; Maiolino, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Sargent, M.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Understanding the relationship between the formation and evolution of galaxies and their central super-massive black holes (SMBH) is one of the main topics in extragalactic astrophysics. Links and feedback may reciprocally affect both black hole and galaxy growth. Aims: Observations of the CO line at the main epoch of galaxy and SMBH assembly (z = 2-4) are crucial to investigating the gas mass, star formation, and accretion onto SMBHs, and the effect of AGN feedback. Potential correlations between AGN and host galaxy properties can be highlighted by observing extreme objects. Methods: We targeted CO(3-2) in ULAS J1539+0557, a hyper-luminous quasar (Lbol > 1048 erg/s) at z = 2.658, selected through its unusual red colour in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (ULAS). Results: We find a molecular gas mass of 4.1 ± 0.8 × 1010 M⊙, by adopting a conversion factor α = 0.8 M⊙ K-1 km s-1 pc2, and a gas fraction of ~0.4-0.1, depending mostly on the assumed source inclination. We also find a robust lower limit to the star-formation rate (SFR = 250-1600 M⊙/yr) and star-formation efficiency (SFE = 25-350 L⊙/(K km s-1 pc2) by comparing the observed optical-near-infrared spectral energy distribution with AGN and galaxy templates. The black hole gas consumption timescale, M(H2) /Ṁacc, is ~160 Myr, similar to or higher than the gas consumption timescale. Conclusions: The gas content and the star formation efficiency are similar to those of other high-luminosity, highly obscured quasars, and at the lower end of the star-formation efficiency of unobscured quasars, in line with predictions from AGN-galaxy co-evolutionary scenarios. Further measurements of the (sub)mm continuum in this and similar sources are mandatory to obtain a robust observational picture of the AGN evolutionary sequence. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  15. The X-ray luminous cluster underlying the z = 1.04 quasar PKS 1229-021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, H. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Sanders, J. S.; Blundell, K. M.; Crawford, C. S.; Johnstone, R. M.; Belsole, E.

    2012-05-01

    We present a 100 ks Chandra observation studying the extended X-ray emission around the powerful z= 1.04 quasar PKS 1229-021. The diffuse cluster X-ray emission can be traced out to ˜15 arcsec (˜120 kpc) radius and there is a drop in the calculated hardness ratio inside the central 5 arcsec consistent with the presence of a cool core. Radio observations of the quasar show a strong core and a bright, one-sided jet leading to the south-west hotspot and a second hotspot visible on the counter-jet side. Although the wings of the quasar point spread function (PSF) provided a significant contribution to the total X-ray flux at all radii where the extended cluster emission was detected, we were able to accurately subtract the PSF emission using Chandra Ray Tracer and MARX simulations. The resulting steep cluster surface brightness profile for PKS 1229-021 appears similar to the profile for the FR II (Fanaroff-Riley class II) radio galaxy 3C 444, which has a similarly rapid surface brightness drop caused by a powerful shock surrounding the radio lobes. Using a model surface brightness profile based on 3C 444, we estimated the total cluster luminosity for PKS 1229-021 to be LX ~ 2 x 1044 erg/s. We discuss the difficulty of detecting cool-core clusters, which host bright X-ray sources, in high redshift surveys.

  16. Strong Clustering of Lyman Break Galaxies around Luminous Quasars at Z ∼ 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vergara, Cristina; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2017-10-01

    In the standard picture of structure formation, the first massive galaxies are expected to form at the highest peaks of the density field, which constitute the cores of massive proto-clusters. Luminous quasars (QSOs) at z ∼ 4 are the most strongly clustered population known, and should thus reside in massive dark matter halos surrounded by large overdensities of galaxies, implying a strong QSO–galaxy cross-correlation function. We observed six z ∼ 4 QSO fields with VLT/FORS, exploiting a novel set of narrow-band filters custom designed to select Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in a thin redshift slice of {{Δ }}z∼ 0.3, mitigating the projection effects that have limited the sensitivity of previous searches for galaxies around z≳ 4 QSOs. We find that LBGs are strongly clustered around QSOs, and present the first measurement of the QSO–LBG cross-correlation function at z ∼ 4, on scales of 0.1≲ R≲ 9 {h}-1 {Mpc} (comoving). Assuming a power-law form for the cross-correlation function ξ ={(r/{r}0{QG})}γ , we measure {r}0{QG}={8.83}-1.51+1.39 {h}-1 {Mpc} for a fixed slope of γ =2.0. This result is in agreement with the expected cross-correlation length deduced from measurements of the QSO and LBG auto-correlation function, and assuming a deterministic bias model. We also measure a strong auto-correlation of LBGs in our QSO fields, finding {r}0{GG}={21.59}-1.69+1.72 {h}-1 {Mpc} for a fixed slope of γ =1.5, which is ∼4 times larger than the LBG auto-correlation length in blank fields, providing further evidence that QSOs reside in overdensities of LBGs. Our results qualitatively support a picture where luminous QSOs inhabit exceptionally massive ({M}{halo}> {10}12 {M}ȯ ) dark matter halos at z ∼ 4.

  17. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-05-10

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M{sub 1450} < -26) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data covering {approx}6000 deg{sup 2}, then extend to lower luminosities (M{sub 1450} < -24) with newly discovered, faint z {approx} 5 quasars selected from 235 deg{sup 2} of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 < z < 5.1 quasars that is highly complete, with 73 spectroscopic identifications out of 92 candidates. Our color selection method is also highly efficient: of the 73 spectra obtained, 71 are high-redshift quasars. These observations reach below the break in the luminosity function (M{sub 1450}{sup *}{approx}-27). The bright-end slope is steep ({beta} {approx}< -4), with a constraint of {beta} < -3.1 at 95% confidence. The break luminosity appears to evolve strongly at high redshift, providing an explanation for the flattening of the bright-end slope reported previously. We find a factor of {approx}2 greater decrease in the number density of luminous quasars (M{sub 1450} < -26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate {approx}30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  18. The XMM deep survey in the CDF-S. IX. An X-ray outflow in a luminous obscured quasar at z ≈ 1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, C.; Iwasawa, K.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Lanzuisi, G.; Ranalli, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Mainieri, V.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Carrera, F. J.; Fritz, J.; Brusa, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Bauer, F. E.; Fiore, F.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-11-01

    In active galactic nuclei (AGN)-galaxy co-evolution models, AGN winds and outflows are often invoked to explain why super-massive black holes and galaxies stop growing efficiently at a certain phase of their lives. They are commonly referred to as the leading actors of feedback processes. Evidence of ultra-fast (v ≳ 0.05c) outflows in the innermost regions of AGN has been collected in the past decade by sensitive X-ray observations for sizable samples of AGN, mostly at low redshift. Here we present ultra-deep XMM-Newton and Chandra spectral data of an obscured (NH≈ 2 × 1023 cm-2), intrinsically luminous (L2-10 keV≈ 4 × 1044 erg s-1) quasar (named PID352) at z ≈ 1.6 (derived from the X-ray spectral analysis) in the Chandra Deep Field-South. The source is characterized by an iron emission and absorption line complex at observed energies of E ≈ 2-3 keV. While the emission line is interpreted as being due to neutral iron (consistent with the presence of cold absorption), the absorption feature is due to highly ionized iron transitions (FeXXV, FeXXVI) with an outflowing velocity of , as derived from photoionization models. The mass outflow rate - ~2 M⊙ yr-1 - is similar to the source accretion rate, and the derived mechanical energy rate is ~9.5 × 1044 erg s-1, corresponding to 9% of the source bolometric luminosity. PID352 represents one of the few cases where indications of X-ray outflowing gas have been observed at high redshift thus far. This wind is powerful enough to provide feedback on the host galaxy.

  19. High redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    High redshift galaxies that host powerful radio sources are examined. An overview is presented of the content of radio surveys: 3CR and 3CRR, 4C and 4C/USS, B2/1 Jy, MG, MRC/1Jy, Parkes/PSR, B3, and ESO Key-Project. Narrow-line radio galaxies in the visible and UV, the source of ionization and excitation of the emission lines, emission-line luminosities, morphology of the line-emitting gas, physical properties and energetics, kinematics of the line-emitting gas, and implications from the emission lines are discussed. The morphologies and environments of the host galaxies, the alignment effect, and spectral energy distributions and ages are also examined.

  20. Faint progenitors of luminous z ˜ 6 quasars: Why do not we see them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulli, Edwige; Valiante, Rosa; Orofino, Maria C.; Schneider, Raffaella; Gallerani, Simona; Sbarrato, Tullia

    2017-04-01

    Observational searches for faint active nuclei at z > 6 have been extremely elusive, with a few candidates whose high-z nature is still to be confirmed. Interpreting this lack of detections is crucial to improve our understanding of high-z supermassive black holes (SMBHs) formation and growth. In this work, we present a model for the emission of accreting black holes (BHs) in the X-ray band, taking into account super-Eddington accretion, which can be very common in gas-rich systems at high-z. We compute the spectral energy distribution for a sample of active galaxies simulated in a cosmological context, which represent the progenitors of a z ˜ 6 SMBH with MBH ˜ 109 M⊙. We find an average Compton-thick fraction of ˜45 per cent and large typical column densities (NH ≳ 1023 cm2). However, faint progenitors are still luminous enough to be detected in the X-ray band of current surveys. Even accounting for a maximum obscuration effect, the number of detectable BHs is reduced at most by a factor of 2. In our simulated sample, observations of faint quasars are mainly limited by their very low active fraction (fact ˜ 1 per cent), which is the result of short, supercritical growth episodes. We suggest that to detect high-z SMBHs progenitors, large area surveys with shallower sensitivities, such as COSMOS Legacy and XMM-LSS+XXL, are to be preferred with respect to deep surveys probing smaller fields, such as Chandra Deep Field South.

  1. Lyman Alpha Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, J. E.; Malhotra, S.; Dawson, S.; Dey, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Spinrad, H.; Stern, D.; Wang, J. X.; Xu, C.; Brown, M. J. I.; Landes, E.

    2004-05-01

    Because strong Lyman alpha emission is expected from young star forming galaxies at high redshift, it offers an efficient tool for identifying these galaxies. The Large Area Lyman Alpha survey is one of the first and largest successful searches for Lyman alpha emitting galaxies at high redshift. In the LALA Bootes field (which lies within the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey's Bootes field) we have obtained deep narrowband images covering 1/3 square degree in each of eight filters, sampling redshifts z=4.5, 5.7, and 6.5. We focus here on the higher redshift windows, where we have confirmed a luminous Lyman alpha emitting galaxy at z=6.535 and several others in the z=5.7 window. We discuss the physical properties of these objects, including their contribution to star formation rates and metal production. We also discuss the implications of Lyman alpha galaxy observations at z=6.5 for reionization.

  2. AGN radiative feedback in dusty quasar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, W.; Banerji, M.; Fabian, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    New populations of hyper-luminous, dust-obscured quasars have been recently discovered around the peak epoch of galaxy formation (z ∼ 2-3), in addition to similar sources found at lower redshifts. Such dusty quasars are often interpreted as sources 'in transition', from dust-enshrouded starbursts to unobscured luminous quasars, along the evolutionary sequence. Here we consider the role of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiative feedback, driven by radiation pressure on dust, in high-luminosity, dust-obscured sources. We analyse how the radiation pressure-driven dusty shell models, with different shell mass configurations, may be applied to the different populations of dusty quasars reported in recent observations. We find that expanding shells, sweeping up matter from the surrounding environment, may account for prolonged obscuration in dusty quasars, e.g. for a central luminosity of L ∼ 1047 erg s-1, a typical obscured phase (with extinction in the range AV ∼ 1-10 mag) may last a few ∼106 yr. On the other hand, fixed-mass shells, coupled with high dust-to-gas ratios, may explain the extreme outflows recently discovered in red quasars at high redshifts. We discuss how the interaction between AGN radiative feedback and the ambient medium at different temporal stages in the evolutionary sequence may contribute to shape the observational appearance of dusty quasar populations.

  3. Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, F. E.

    2014-10-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  4. Far-infrared emission in luminous quasars accompanied by nuclear outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Natasha; Jarvis, M. J.; Banerji, M.; Hewett, P. C.; Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Maddox, S. J.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.

    2017-09-01

    Combining large-area optical quasar surveys with the new far-infrared (FIR) Herschel-ATLAS Data Release 1, we search for an observational signature associated with the minority of quasars possessing bright FIR luminosities. We find that FIR-bright quasars show broad C IV emission-line blueshifts in excess of that expected from the optical luminosity alone, indicating particularly powerful nuclear outflows. The quasars show no signs of having redder optical colours than the general ensemble of optically selected quasars, ruling out differences in line-of-sight dust within the host galaxies. We postulate that these objects may be caught in a special evolutionary phase, with unobscured, high black hole accretion rates and correspondingly strong nuclear outflows. The high FIR emission found in these objects is then either a result of star formation related to the outflow, or is due to dust within the host galaxy illuminated by the quasar. We are thus directly witnessing coincident small-scale nuclear processes and galaxy-wide activity, commonly invoked in galaxy simulations that rely on feedback from quasars to influence galaxy evolution.

  5. γ-Rays Radiation of High Redshift Fermi Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. G.; Fu, S. H.; Zhang, X.; Ma, L.; Li, Y. B.; Xiong, D. R.

    2014-09-01

    Based on the 31 high redshift ( z > 2) Flat Spectral Radio Quasars (FSRQs), which is from the second Fermi-LAT AGNs catalogue (2LAC), we studied the correlation between flux densities ( F R, F K, F γ) in the radio, infrared and γ-ray wave bands. We found that there is a significant positive correlation between F γ and F R, and a weak anticorrelation between F γ and FK in the average state. For high redshift blazars, we argue that the seed photon of γ-ray emission mainly comes from the jet itself and partially from the dusty torus.

  6. Very high redshift radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) provide unique targets for the study of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters at very high redshifts. We discuss how efficient HzRG samples ae selected, the evidence for strong morphological evolution at near-infracd wavelengths, and for jet-induced star formation in the z = 3 800 HzRG 4C41 17

  7. DES J0454-4448: discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Becker, G. D.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Martini, P.; Ostrovski, F.; Rauch, M.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Merritt, K.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = -26.5) quasar DES J0454-4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H I near zone size of 4.1+1.1-1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i-z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i-z and z-Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  8. In Pursuit of High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampazzo, Roberto; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Zaggia, Simone; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Calzetti, Daniela; Combes, Françoise; Longair, Malcolm S.; Bromm, Volker

    Some contributions in Chap. 1 have highlighted the impact of the discovery in the 1960s of a handful of radio galaxies and Quasars in the redshift range z ˜ 0.2-0.4. About 40 years later, at the end of the twentieth Century, the systematic exploration of galaxies reached z ˜ 1-3. The combination of HST deep imaging and the coming into operation of the 8-10 m class telescopes with their spectroscopic capabilities, move ahead the limits. At the same time, astronomers greatly improved their strategies to hunt high-redshift galaxies. Today, it is not infrequent the spectroscopic confirmation of galaxies at z ˜ 7-8, pushing the detection limits more or less to the end of the re-ionization era. The gauntlet to observe the so called "first galaxies", i.e. those assembling during the first billion years of the cosmic time, is throw down.

  9. THE PROPERTIES OF QUASAR HOSTS AT THE PEAK OF THE QUASAR ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Falomo, Renato; Decarli, Roberto; Treves, Aldo; Uslenghi, Michela; Scarpa, Riccardo E-mail: renato.falomo@oapd.inaf.i E-mail: aldo.treves@uninsubria.i E-mail: riccardo.scarpa@gtc.iac.e

    2009-10-01

    We present near-infrared imaging obtained with ESO VLT/ISAAC of a sample of 16 low luminosity radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) at the epoch around the peak of the quasar activity (2 < z < 3), aimed at investigating their host galaxies. For 11 quasars, we are able to detect the host galaxies and derive their properties, while for the other 5 quasars, upper limits to the host luminosity are estimated. The luminosities of the host galaxies of RQQs at high redshift are in the range of those of massive inactive elliptical galaxies. This work complements our previous systematic study of quasar hosts aimed to trace the cosmological luminosity evolution of the host galaxies up to z approx 2 and extends our pilot study of a few luminous quasars at z > 2. The luminosity trend with a cosmic epoch resembles that observed for massive inactive galaxies, suggesting a similar star formation history. In particular, both quasar host galaxies and massive inactive galaxies appear mostly assembled already at the peak age of the quasar activity. This result is of key importance for testing the models of joint formation and evolution of galaxies and their active nuclei.

  10. A luminous quasar at a redshift of z = 7.085

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Daniel J.; Warren, Stephen J.; Venemans, Bram P.; Patel, Mitesh; Hewett, Paul C.; McMahon, Richard G.; Simpson, Chris; Theuns, Tom; Gonzáles-Solares, Eduardo A.; Adamson, Andy; Dye, Simon; Hambly, Nigel C.; Hirst, Paul; Irwin, Mike J.; Kuiper, Ernst; Lawrence, Andy; Röttgering, Huub J. A.

    2011-06-01

    The intergalactic medium was not completely reionized until approximately a billion years after the Big Bang, as revealed by observations of quasars with redshifts of less than 6.5. It has been difficult to probe to higher redshifts, however, because quasars have historically been identified in optical surveys, which are insensitive to sources at redshifts exceeding 6.5. Here we report observations of a quasar (ULASJ112001.48+064124.3) at a redshift of 7.085, which is 0.77 billion years after the Big Bang. ULASJ1120+0641 has a luminosity of 6.3×1013Lsolar and hosts a black hole with a mass of 2×109Msolar (where Lsolar and Msolar are the luminosity and mass of the Sun). The measured radius of the ionized near zone around ULASJ1120+0641 is 1.9megaparsecs, a factor of three smaller than is typical for quasars at redshifts between 6.0 and 6.4. The near-zone transmission profile is consistent with a Lyα damping wing, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium in front of ULASJ1120+0641 exceeded 0.1.

  11. A luminous quasar at a redshift of z = 7.085.

    PubMed

    Mortlock, Daniel J; Warren, Stephen J; Venemans, Bram P; Patel, Mitesh; Hewett, Paul C; McMahon, Richard G; Simpson, Chris; Theuns, Tom; Gonzáles-Solares, Eduardo A; Adamson, Andy; Dye, Simon; Hambly, Nigel C; Hirst, Paul; Irwin, Mike J; Kuiper, Ernst; Lawrence, Andy; Röttgering, Huub J A

    2011-06-29

    The intergalactic medium was not completely reionized until approximately a billion years after the Big Bang, as revealed by observations of quasars with redshifts of less than 6.5. It has been difficult to probe to higher redshifts, however, because quasars have historically been identified in optical surveys, which are insensitive to sources at redshifts exceeding 6.5. Here we report observations of a quasar (ULAS J112001.48+064124.3) at a redshift of 7.085, which is 0.77 billion years after the Big Bang. ULAS J1120+0641 has a luminosity of 6.3 × 10(13)L(⊙) and hosts a black hole with a mass of 2 × 10(9)M(⊙) (where L(⊙) and M(⊙) are the luminosity and mass of the Sun). The measured radius of the ionized near zone around ULAS J1120+0641 is 1.9 megaparsecs, a factor of three smaller than is typical for quasars at redshifts between 6.0 and 6.4. The near-zone transmission profile is consistent with a Lyα damping wing, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium in front of ULAS J1120+0641 exceeded 0.1.

  12. Current and Future X-ray Studies of High-Redshift AGNs and the First Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Niel

    2016-01-01

    X-ray observations of high-redshift AGNs at z = 4-7 have played a critical role in understanding the physical processes at work inthese objects as well as their basic demographics. Since 2000, Chandra and XMM-Newton have provided new X-ray detections for more than 120 such objects, and well-defined samples of z > 4 AGNs now allow reliable X-ray population studies. Once luminosity effectsare considered, the basic X-ray continuum properties of most high-redshift AGNs appear remarkably similar to those of local AGNs, although there are some notable apparent exceptions (e.g., highly radio-loud quasars). Furthermore, the X-ray absorption found in some objects has been used as a diagnostic of outflowing winds and circumnuclear material. Demographically, the X-ray data now support an exponential decline in the number density of luminous AGNs above z ~ 3, and quantitative space-density comparisons for optically selected and X-ray selected quasars indicate basic statistical agreement.The current X-ray discoveries point the way toward the future breakthroughs that will be possible with, e.g., Athena and the X-raySurveyor. These missions will execute powerful blank-field surveys to elucidate the demographics of the first growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs), including highly obscured systems, up to z ~ 10. They will also carry out complementary X-ray spectroscopic and variability investigations of high-redshift AGNs by targeting the most-luminous z = 7-10 quasars found in wide-field surveys by, e.g., Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST. X-ray spectroscopic and variability studies of the X-ray continuum and reflection signatures will help determine Eddington ratios and disk/corona properties; measuring these will clarify how the first quasars grew so quickly. Furthermore, absorption line/edge studies will reveal how outflows from the first SMBHs influenced the growth of the first galaxies. I will suggest some efficient observational strategies for Athena and the X-ray Surveyor.

  13. The Pan-STARRS1 Distant z > 5.6 Quasar Survey: More than 100 Quasars within the First Gyr of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañados, E.; Venemans, B. P.; Decarli, R.; Farina, E. P.; Mazzucchelli, C.; Walter, F.; Fan, X.; Stern, D.; Schlafly, E.; Chambers, K. C.; Rix, H.-W.; Jiang, L.; McGreer, I.; Simcoe, R.; Wang, F.; Yang, J.; Morganson, E.; De Rosa, G.; Greiner, J.; Baloković, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Cooper, T.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jun, H. D.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Miller, D.; Schindler, J.-T.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Yang, Q.

    2016-11-01

    Luminous quasars at z\\gt 5.6 can be studied in detail with the current generation of telescopes and provide us with unique information on the first gigayear of the universe. Thus far, these studies have been statistically limited by the number of quasars known at these redshifts. Such quasars are rare, and therefore, wide-field surveys are required to identify them, and multiwavelength data are required to separate them efficiently from their main contaminants, the far more numerous cool dwarfs. In this paper, we update and extend the selection for the z˜ 6 quasars presented in Bañados et al. (2014) using the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) survey. We present the PS1 distant quasar sample, which currently consists of 124 quasars in the redshift range 5.6≲ z≲ 6.7 that satisfy our selection criteria. Of these quasars, 77 have been discovered with PS1, and 63 of them are newly identified in this paper. We present the composite spectra of the PS1 distant quasar sample. This sample spans a factor of ˜20 in luminosity and shows a variety of emission line properties. The number of quasars at z\\gt 5.6 presented in this work almost doubles the previously known quasars at these redshifts, marking a transition phase from studies of individual sources to statistical studies of the high-redshift quasar population, which was impossible with earlier, smaller samples.

  14. Discovery of a Color-selected Quasar at z = 5.50.

    PubMed

    Stern; Spinrad; Eisenhardt; Bunker; Dawson; Stanford; Elston

    2000-04-20

    We present observations of RD J030117+002025, a quasar at z=5.50 discovered from deep, multicolor, ground-based observations covering 74 arcmin2. This is the most distant quasar or active galaxy currently known. The object was targeted as an R-band dropout, with RAB>26.3 (3 sigma limit in a 3&arcsec; diameter region), IAB=23.8, and zAB=23.4. The Keck/Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer spectrum shows broad Lyalpha/N v lambda1240 emission and sharp absorption decrements from the highly redshifted hydrogen forests. The fractional continuum depression due to the Lyalpha forest is DA=0.90. RD J030117+002025 is the least luminous high-redshift quasar known (MB approximately -22.7).

  15. PKS 2349-014: A Luminous Quasar With Thin Wisps, A Large Off-Center Nebulosity, and A Close Companion Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images (WFC2) of PKS 2349-014 show that this luminous nearby quasar is interacting with diffuse (presumably galactic) material. Two thin wisps that have a total extent of about 20 kpc (for H0 = 100 km s(exp -1) and Omega0 = 1.0) are observed to approximately surround the quasar. One of the wisps appears to pass through a companion galaxy that is located at a projected distance of 3 kpc from the center of the quasar light. The companion galaxy, if located at the distance of PKS 2349-014, has an intrinsic size and luminosity similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. A faint extended nebulosity, which is detected over a region of 35 kpc x 50 kpc and is centered about 5 kpc from the quasar nucleus, overlaps the wisps. The immediate environment of PKS 2349-014 is different from the environments of the other eight luminous quasars that we have studied previously with the HST. If the multiple light components of the HST images are fit to a single de Vaucouleurs profile, as was done in previous analyses of ground-based data, then the results obtained for the total luminosity of the model galaxy is in agreement with the earlier ground-based studies.

  16. Pushing the Limits: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Gasparrini, Dario; Lott, Benoit; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the LAT sample. They are also an excellent tool to study the EBL and thus the gamma-ray horizon. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  17. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bridge, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL {sub ν}(6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1} and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}. The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N {sub H} ≤ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f {sub 3-24} {sub keV} ≲ 10{sup –13} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton

  18. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Stalin, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 (z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 (z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 (z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2-3303 (z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2-3303, none of the sources were known as γ-ray emitters, and our analysis of ˜7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical-UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ-ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity-jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  19. FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN LUMINOUS GALAXY MERGERS: EVIDENCE FOR QUASAR FEEDBACK FROM HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; De Jong, J. A.; Fischer, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H. E-mail: marcio@astro.umd.edu; and others

    2013-10-10

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 μm) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 μm silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than –50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (∼145°) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of ∼–1000 km s{sup –1} are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically ∼–200 km s{sup –1}. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L{sub AGN}/L{sub ☉}) ≥ 11.8 ± 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  20. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; deJong, J. A.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H.; Polisensky, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 micron silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than-50 km/s, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (approx. 145 deg.) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km/s is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of approx. -1000 km/s are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically approx.-200 km/s-1. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L(sub AGN)/L(sub solar)) => 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  1. Coronal properties of the luminous radio-quiet quasar QSO B2202-209

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammoun, E. S.; Risaliti, G.; Stern, D.; Jun, H. D.; Graham, M.; Celotti, A.; Behar, E.; Elvis, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Matt, G.; Walton, D. J.

    2017-02-01

    We present an analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the radio-quiet quasar QSO B2202-209. Using an optical observation from the Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory, we revise the redshift of the source from the previously reported z = 1.77 to z = 0.532, and we estimate the mass of the central black hole, log (MBH/M⊙) = 9.08 ± 0.18. The X-ray spectrum of this source can be well described by a power law of photon index Γ = 1.82 ± 0.05 with E_cut = 152_{-54}^{+103} keV, in the rest frame of the source. Assuming a Comptonization model, we estimate the coronal temperature to be kTe = 42 ± 3 keV and kTe = 56 ± 3 keV for a spherical and a slab geometry, respectively. The coronal properties are comparable to the ones derived for local active galactic nuclei, despite a difference of around one order of magnitude in black hole mass and X-ray luminosity (L2 - 10 = 1.93 × 1045 erg s-1). The quasar is X-ray loud, with an unusually flat observed optical-to-X-ray spectral slope αOX = 1.00 ± 0.02, and has an exceptionally strong optical [O III] line. Assuming that both the X-ray emission and the [O III] line are isotropic, these two extreme properties can be explained by a nearly edge-on disc, leading to a reduction in the observed ultraviolet continuum light.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Armus, Lee; Hogg, David W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    With a redshift of 2.3, the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 is apparently one of the most luminous objects known in the universe. We present an image of FSC 10214+4724 at 0.8 pm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 Planetary Camera. The source appears as an unresolved (less then 0.06) arc 0.7 long, with significant substructure along its length. The center of curvature of the arc is located near an elliptical galaxy 1.18 to the north. An unresolved component 100 times fainter than the arc is clearly detected on the opposite side of this galaxy. The most straightforward interpretation is that FSC 10214+4724 is gravitationally lensed by the foreground elliptical galaxy, with the faint component a counter-image of the IRAS source. The brightness of the arc in the HST image is then magnified by approx. 100, and the intrinsic source diameter is approx. 0.0l (80 pc) at 0.25 microns rest wavelength. The bolometric luminosity is probably amplified by a smaller factor (approx. 30) as a result of the larger extent expected for the source in the far-infrared. A detailed lensing model is presented that reproduces the observed morphology and relative flux of the arc and counterimage and correctly predicts the position angle of the lensing galaxy. The model also predicts reasonable values for the velocity dispersion, mass, and mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy for a wide range of galaxy redshifts. A redshift for the lensing galaxy of -0.9 is consistent with the measured surface brightness profile from the image, as well as with the galaxy's spectral energy distribution. The background lensed source has an intrinsic luminosity approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) L(solar mass) and remains a highly luminous quasar with an extremely large ratio of infrared to optical/ultraviolet luminosity.

  3. The real-space clustering of luminous red galaxies around z < 0.6 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Norberg, Peder; Porciani, Cristiano

    2009-08-01

    We measure the clustering of a sample of photometrically selected luminous red galaxies (LRGs) around a low-redshift (0.2 < z < 0.6) sample of quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. We make use of a new statistical estimator to obtain precise measurements of the LRG autocorrelations and constrain halo occupation distributions for them. These are used to generate mock catalogues which aid in interpreting our quasar-LRG cross-correlation measurements. The cross-correlation is well described by a power law with slope 1.8 +/- 0.1 and r0 = 6 +/- 0.5h-1Mpc, consistent with observed galaxy correlation functions. We find no evidence for `excess' clustering on 0.1Mpc scales and demonstrate that this is consistent with the results of Serber et al. and Strand, Brunner and Myers, when one accounts for several subtleties in the interpretation of their measurements. Combining the quasar-LRG cross-correlation with the LRG autocorrelations, we determine a large-scale quasar bias bQSO = 1.09 +/- 0.15 at a median redshift of 0.43, with no observed redshift or luminosity evolution. This corresponds to a mean halo mass ~ 1012h-1Msolar, Eddington ratios from 0.01 to 1 and lifetimes less than 107yr. Using simple models of halo occupation, these correspond to a number density of quasar hosts greater than 10-3 h3Mpc-3 and stellar masses less than 1011 h-1Msolar. The small-scale clustering signal can be interpreted with the aid of our mock LRG catalogues, and depends on the manner in which quasars inhabit haloes. We find that our small-scale measurements are inconsistent with quasar positions being randomly subsampled from halo centres above a mass threshold, requiring a satellite fraction >25 per cent.

  4. Eight new luminous z ≥ 6 quasars discovered via SED model fitting of VISTA, WISE and Dark Energy Survey Year 1 observations

    DOE PAGES

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Martini, P.; ...

    2017-03-24

    Here, we present the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation with the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope (NTT) and Gemini South telescopes of eight new, and the rediscovery of two previously known, 6.0 < z < 6.5 quasars with zAB < 21.0. These quasars were photometrically selected without any morphological criteria from 1533 deg2 using spectral energy distribution (SED) model fitting to photometric data from Dark Energy Survey (g, r, i, z, Y), VISTA Hemisphere Survey (J, H, K) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (W1, W2). The photometric data were fitted with a grid of quasar model SEDs with redshift-dependent Lymore » α forest absorption and a range of intrinsic reddening as well as a series of low-mass cool star models. Candidates were ranked using an SED-model-based χ2-statistic, which is extendable to other future imaging surveys (e.g. LSST and Euclid). Our spectral confirmation success rate is 100 per cent without the need for follow-up photometric observations as used in other studies of this type. Combined with automatic removal of the main types of non-astrophysical contaminants, the method allows large data sets to be processed without human intervention and without being overrun by spurious false candidates. We also present a robust parametric redshift estimator that gives comparable accuracy to Mg ii and CO-based redshift estimators. We find two z ~6.2 quasars with H ii near zone sizes ≤3 proper Mpc that could indicate that these quasars may be young with ages ≲ 106-107 years or lie in over dense regions of the IGM. The z = 6.5 quasar VDES J0224–4711 has JAB = 19.75 and is the second most luminous quasar known with z ≥ 6.5.« less

  5. Eight new luminous z ≥ 6 quasars discovered via SED model fitting of VISTA, WISE and Dark Energy Survey Year 1 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Martini, P.; Banerji, M.; Auger, M.; Hewett, P. C.; Koposov, S. E.; Gibbons, S. L. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Ostrovski, F.; Tie, S. S.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2017-07-01

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation with the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope (NTT) and Gemini South telescopes of eight new, and the rediscovery of two previously known, 6.0 < z < 6.5 quasars with zAB < 21.0. These quasars were photometrically selected without any morphological criteria from 1533 deg2 using spectral energy distribution (SED) model fitting to photometric data from Dark Energy Survey (g, r, i, z, Y), VISTA Hemisphere Survey (J, H, K) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (W1, W2). The photometric data were fitted with a grid of quasar model SEDs with redshift-dependent Ly α forest absorption and a range of intrinsic reddening as well as a series of low-mass cool star models. Candidates were ranked using an SED-model-based χ2-statistic, which is extendable to other future imaging surveys (e.g. LSST and Euclid). Our spectral confirmation success rate is 100 per cent without the need for follow-up photometric observations as used in other studies of this type. Combined with automatic removal of the main types of non-astrophysical contaminants, the method allows large data sets to be processed without human intervention and without being overrun by spurious false candidates. We also present a robust parametric redshift estimator that gives comparable accuracy to Mg II and CO-based redshift estimators. We find two z ˜ 6.2 quasars with H II near zone sizes ≤3 proper Mpc that could indicate that these quasars may be young with ages ≲ 106-107 years or lie in over dense regions of the IGM. The z = 6.5 quasar VDES J0224-4711 has JAB = 19.75 and is the second most luminous quasar known with z ≥ 6.5.

  6. Unveiling high redshift structures with Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welikala, Niraj

    2012-07-01

    The Planck satellite, with its large wavelength coverage and all-sky survey, has a unique potential of systematically detecting the brightest and rarest submillimetre sources on the sky. We present an original method based on a combination of Planck and IRAS data which we use to select the most luminous submillimetre high-redshift (z>1-2) cold sources over the sky. The majority of these sources are either individual, strongly lensed galaxies, or represent the combined emission of several submillimetre galaxies within the large beam of Planck. The latter includes, in particular, rapidly growing galaxy groups and clusters. We demonstrate our selection method on the first 5 confirmations that include a newly discovered over-density of 5 submillimetre-bright sources which has been confirmed with Herschel/SPIRE observations and followed up with ground-based observations including VLT/XSHOOTER spectroscopy. Using Planck, we also unveil the nature of 107 high-redshift dusty, lensed submillimetre galaxies that have been previously observed over 940 square degrees by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We stack these galaxies in the Planck maps, obtaining mean SEDs for both the bright (SPT flux F _{220 GHz} > 20 mJy) and faint (F _{220 GHz} < 20 mJy) galaxy populations. These SEDs and the derived mean redshifts suggest that the bright and faint sources belong to the same population of submillimetre galaxies. Stacking the lensed submillimetre galaxies in Planck also enables us to probe the z~1 environments around the foreground lenses and we obtain estimates of their clustering. Finally, we use the stacks to extrapolate SPT source counts to the Planck HFI frequencies, thereby estimating the contribution of the SPT sources at 220 GHz to the galaxy number counts at 353 and 545 GHz.

  7. Dust in the High Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, G. R.

    2004-05-01

    This paper reviews the dust content of the high redshift (z > 2) universe. Studies of the various ``species'' in the high-z ``zoo'' show that almost all have strong evidence for containing dust. The one exception, where the evidence is not yet convincing, is in quasar absorption line systems, particularly those with low column density. These may not even be associated with galaxies. The high-z galaxy types which do show evidence for dust are all strongly star forming. Hence, as seen locally, star formation and dust in the distant universe are also strongly correlated. It is beyond debate that star formation at z ˜ 3 is dominated by dusty systems who emit most of their bolometric flux in the rest-frame FIR. What is not clear is whether these systems are totally invisible at shorter wavelengths, or whether a large fraction are visible in the rest-frame UV as Lyman Break Galaxies. The issue may not be settled until the sub-mm background is definitively resolved.

  8. Half of the Most Luminous Quasars May Be Obscured: Investigating the Nature of WISE-Selected Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Stern, D.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J.; Wylezalek, D.; Blain, A. W.; Bridge, C. R.; Donoso, E.; Gonzales, A.; Griffith, R. L.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift (z = 1-4.6), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities {{L}IR}\\gt {{10}13} {{L}⊙ }, and sometimes exceeding {{10}14} {{L}⊙ }. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are significantly hotter than expected to be powered by star formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-infrared SEDs for a large sample of these so-called “hot, dust-obscured galaxies” (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that dominates the rest-frame emission at λ \\gt 1 μ m and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as 1011-1012 M⊙, the AGN emission, with a range of luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either Hot DOGs have black hole masses significantly in excess of the local relations, or that they radiate significantly above the Eddington limit, at a level at least 10 times more efficiently than z ˜ 2 QSOs. We show that, while rare, the number density of Hot DOGs is comparable to that of equally luminous but unobscured (i.e., Type 1) QSOs. This may be at odds with the trend suggested at lower luminosities for the fraction of obscured AGNs to decrease with increasing luminosity. That trend may, instead, reverse at higher luminosities. Alternatively, Hot DOGs may not be the torus-obscured counterparts of the known optically selected, largely unobscured, hyper-luminous QSOs, and may represent a new component of the galaxy evolution paradigm. Finally, we discuss the environments of Hot DOGs and statistically show that these objects are in regions as dense as

  9. A search for gravitational lensing among highly luminous quasars - New results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magain, P.; Remy, M.; Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Smette, A.

    Images of highly luminous QSOs are analyzed to determine whether the gravitational magnification of the background QSO by matter associated with the foreground galaxies accounts for the excess of galaxies in the fields of distant QSOs. Galaxy detection is increased by utilizing red-filter images, 40 taken with the EFOSC at the ESO 3.6-m telescope and 43 taken with a direct CCD camera at the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope. The R-magnitude ranges from 22.5 to 23.0 for the sample, for which the number of galaxies is counted by eye, showing 45 galaxies of radio and optical type. The overdensity found is not as pronounced as that of Fugmann (1988) or that of Webster et al. (1988). A systematic subtraction of the point spread function is also described to investigate the idea that some galaxies responsible for the QSO light magnification are within the inner 3-arcsec circle. The galaxies very close to the line-of-sight are theorized to contribute significantly to the magnification of these QSOs.

  10. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2010-05-21

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208–512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127–145, PKS 1510–089, and 3C 454.3. Here, all these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. Here, we constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014 Hz up to 1025 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectricmore » absorption. In the case of PKS 0208–512, PKS 1127–145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Lastly, our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.« less

  11. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grandi, P.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nestoras, I.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sambruna, R.; Sander, A.; Sato, R.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Tavecchio, F.; Sikora, M.; Schady, P.; Roming, P.; Chester, M. M.; Maraschi, L.

    2010-05-21

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208–512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127–145, PKS 1510–089, and 3C 454.3. Here, all these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. Here, we constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014 Hz up to 1025 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS 0208–512, PKS 1127–145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Lastly, our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.

  12. Element abundances at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  13. High-redshift galaxy populations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Esther M; Cowie, Lennox L

    2006-04-27

    We now see many galaxies as they were only 800 million years after the Big Bang, and that limit may soon be exceeded when wide-field infrared detectors are widely available. Multi-wavelength studies show that there was relatively little star formation at very early times and that star formation was at its maximum at about half the age of the Universe. A small number of high-redshift objects have been found by targeting X-ray and radio sources and most recently, gamma-ray bursts. The gamma-ray burst sources may provide a way to reach even higher-redshift galaxies in the future, and to probe the first generation of stars.

  14. DENSE MOLECULAR GAS EXCITATION IN NUCLEAR STARBURSTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: HCN, HNC, AND HCO{sup +}(J = 6{yields}5) EMISSION IN THE z = 3.91 QUASAR HOST OF APM 08279+5255

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Weiss, Axel; Walter, Fabian; Wagg, Jeff

    2010-12-10

    We report the detection of surprisingly strong HCN(J = 6{yields}5), HNC(J = 6{yields}5), and HCO{sup +}(J = 6{yields}5) emission in the host galaxy of the z = 3.91 quasar APM 08279+5255 through observations with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. HCN, HNC, and HCO{sup +} are typically used as star formation indicators, tracing dense molecular hydrogen gas [n(H{sub 2}) >10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}] within star-forming molecular clouds. However, the strength of their respective line emission in the J = 6{yields}5 transitions in APM 08279+5255 is extremely high, suggesting that they are excited by another mechanism besides collisions in the dense molecular gas phase alone. We derive J = 6{yields}5 line luminosities of L'{sub HCN} = (4.9 {+-} 0.6), L'{sub HNC} = (2.4 {+-} 0.7), and L{sup '}{sub HCO}{sup +}= (3.0{+-}0.6)x10{sup 10} {mu}{sup -1}{sub L} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2} (where {mu}{sub L} is the lensing magnification factor), corresponding to L' ratios of {approx}0.23-0.46 relative to CO(J = 1{yields}0). Such high line ratios would be unusual even in the respective ground-state (J = 1{yields}0) transitions, and indicate exceptional, collisionally and radiatively driven excitation conditions in the dense, star-forming molecular gas in APM 08279+5255. Through an expansion of our previous modeling of the HCN line excitation in this source, we show that the high rotational line fluxes are caused by substantial infrared pumping at moderate opacities in a {approx}220 K warm gas and dust component. This implies that standard M{sub dense}/L' conversion factors would substantially overpredict the dense molecular gas mass M{sub dense}. We also find a HCN(J = 6{yields}5)/HCN(J = 5{yields}4) L' ratio greater than 1 (1.36 {+-} 0.31)-however, our models show that the excitation is likely not 'super-thermal', but that the high line ratio is due to a rising optical depth between both transitions. These findings are consistent with the picture that the bulk of

  15. New Discoveries Fill the Quasar Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Quasars active and luminous galactic centers can be difficult to find at some high redshifts due to their camouflaging color. A team of scientists has now come up with a way to detect these distant monsters in spite of their disguise.Quasar CamouflageThe color track of quasars between 5 z 6 in the commonly used i z and r i bands. Each dot on the red line marks a 0.1 difference in redshift. The contours show the colors of M dwarfs, from early type to late type. Quasars at a redshift of 5.3 z 5.7 are clearly contaminated by M dwarfs, making them difficult to identify. [Adapted from Yang et al. 2017]One of the key ways we can study the early universe is by building a large sample of high-redshift quasars. In particular, we believe that reionization of the universe is just completing around z 6. Quasars near this redshift are crucial tools for probing the post-reionization epoch and exploring the evolution of the intergalactic medium, quasar evolution, and early supermassive black hole growth.But quasars at this redshift are difficult to detect! The problem is contamination: quasars at this distance are the same color in commonly used optical bands as cool M-dwarf stars. As a result, surveys searching for quasars have often just cut out that entire section of the color space in order to avoid this contamination.This means that theres a huge gap in our sample of quasars around z 5.5: of the more than 300,000 quasars known, only 30 have been found in the redshift range of 5.3 z 5.7.The addition of new colorcolor selection criteria using infrared bands (bottom two plots) allows the authors to differentiate quasars (blue) from M dwarfs (grey), which isnt possible when only the traditional optical colorcolor selection criteria are used (top plot). [Adapted from Yang et al. 2017]A New ApproachIn a recent publication led by Jinyi Yang (Peking University, China and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), a team of scientists has demonstrated a new technique for finding

  16. Discovery of an Obscured Broad-Line Region in the High-Redshift Radio Galaxy MRC 2025-218.

    PubMed

    Larkin; McLean; Graham; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Levenson; Teplitz; Wilcox; Glassman

    2000-04-10

    This Letter presents infrared spectra taken with the newly commissioned near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II telescope of the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC 2025-218 (z=2.63). These observations represent the deepest infrared spectra of a radio galaxy to date and have allowed for the detection of Hbeta, [O iii] lambdalambda4959, 5007, [O i] lambda6300, Halpha, [N ii] lambdalambda6548, 6583, and [S ii] lambdalambda6716, 6713. The Halpha emission is very broad (FWHM=9300 km s-1) and luminous (2.6x1044 ergs s-1), and it is very comparable to the line widths and strengths of radio-loud quasars at the same redshift. This strongly supports active galactic nucleus unification models linking radio galaxies and quasars, although we discuss some of the outstanding differences. The line [O iii] lambda5007 is extremely strong and has extended emission with large relative velocities toward the nucleus. We also derive that if the extended emission is due to star formation, each knot has a star formation rate comparable to a Lyman-break galaxy at the same redshift.

  17. The first Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2015-08-01

    I will discuss predictions for the first quasars and the first galaxies and their contribution to reionization from the BlueTides simulation. BlueTides is a uniquely large volume and high resolution simulation to study the high redshift universe: with 0.7 trillion particles in a volume of 1/2 of a gigaparsec on the side. This is the first simulation large enough to resolve the relevant scales, that the first massive galaxies and quasar form. These massive objects at high redshifts will be investigated with the next generation telescopes (WFIRST and ALMA).

  18. Evaluating and improving the redshifts of z > 2.2 quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Michelle; Brotherton, Michael S.; Myers, Adam

    2017-08-01

    Quasar redshifts require the best possible precision and accuracy for a number of applications, such as setting the velocity scale for outflows as well as measuring small-scale quasar-quasar clustering. The most reliable redshift standard in luminous quasars is arguably the narrow [O iii] λλ4959, 5007 emission line doublet in the rest-frame optical. We use previously published [O iii] redshifts obtained using near-infrared spectra in a sample of 45 high-redshift (z > 2.2) quasars to evaluate redshift measurement techniques based on rest-frame ultraviolet spectra. At redshifts above z = 2.2, the Mg ii λ2798 emission line is not available in observed-frame optical spectra and the most prominent unblended and unabsorbed spectral feature available is usually C iv λ1549. Peak and centroid measurements of the C iv profile are often blueshifted relative to the rest-frame of the quasar, which can significantly bias redshift determinations. We show that redshift determinations for these high-redshift quasars are significantly correlated with the emission-line properties of C iv (i.e. the equivalent width, or EW, and the full width at half-maximum, or FWHM) as well as the luminosity, which we take from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We demonstrate that empirical corrections based on multiple regression analyses yield significant improvements in both the precision and accuracy of the redshifts of the most distant quasars and are required to establish consistency with redshifts determined in more local quasars.

  19. Simulating high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvaterra, Ruben; Ferrara, Andrea; Dayal, Pratika

    2011-06-01

    Recent observations have gathered a considerable sample of high-redshift galaxy candidates and determined the evolution of their luminosity function (LF). To interpret these findings, we use cosmological SPH simulations including, in addition to standard physical processes, a detailed treatment of the Pop III-Pop II transition in early objects. The simulated high-z galaxies match remarkably well the amplitude and slope of the observed LF in the redshift range 5 < z < 10. The LF shifts towards fainter luminosities with increasing redshift, while its faint-end slope keeps an almost constant value, α≈-2. The stellar populations of high-z galaxies have ages of 100-300 (40-130) Myr at z= 5 (z= 7-8), implying an early (z > 9.4) start of their star formation activity; the specific star formation rate is almost independent of galactic stellar mass. These objects are enriched rapidly with metals and galaxies identified by HST/WFC3 (?) show metallicities ≈0.1 Z⊙ even at z= 7-8. Most of the simulated galaxies at z≈ 7 (noticeably the smallest ones) are virtually dust-free, and none of them has an extinction larger than E(B-V) = 0.01. The bulk (50 per cent) of the ionizing photons is produced by objects populating the faint end of the LF (?), which JWST will resolve up to z= 7.3. Pop III stars continue to form essentially at all redshifts; however, at z= 6 (z= 10) the contribution of Pop III stars to the total galactic luminosity is always less than 5 per cent for ? (?). The typical high-z galaxies closely resemble the GRB host galaxy population observed at lower redshifts, strongly encouraging the use of GRBs to detect the first galaxies.

  20. The Physical Conditions of Atomic Gas at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeleman, Marcel

    In this thesis we provide insight into the chemical composition, physical conditions and cosmic distribution of atomic gas at high redshift. We study this gas in absorption against bright background quasars in absorption systems known as Damped Ly-alpha Systems (DLAs). These systems contain the bulk of the atomic gas at high redshift and are the likely progenitors of modern-day galaxies. In Chapter 2, we find that the atomic gas in DLAs obeys a mass-metallicity relationship that is similar to the mass-metallicity relationship seen in star-forming galaxies. The evolution of this relationship is linear with redshift, allowing for a planar equation to accurately describe this evolution, which provides a more stringent constraint on simulations modeling DLAs. Furthermore, the concomitant evolution of the mass-metallicity relationship of atomic gas and star-forming galaxies suggests an intimate link between the two. We next use a novel way to measure the physical conditions of the gas by using fine-structure line ratios of singly ionized carbon and silicon. By measuring the density of the upper and lower level states, we are able to determine the temperature, hydrogen density and electron density of the gas. We find that the conditions present in this high redshift gas are consistent with the conditions we see in the local interstellar medium (ISM). A few absorbers have higher than expected pressure, which suggests that they probe the ISM of star-forming galaxies. Finally in Chapter 4, we measure the cosmic neutral hydrogen density at redshifts below 1.6. Below this redshift, the Ly-alpha line of hydrogen is absorbed by the atmosphere, making detection difficult. Using the archive of the Hubble Space Telescope, we compile a comprehensive list of quasars for a search of DLAs at redshift below 1.6. We find that the incidence rate of DLAs and the cosmic neutral hydrogen density is smaller than previously measured, but consistent with the values both locally and at

  1. Calan Tololo Survey: Bright Quasars at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, Jose; Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Luis E.; Wischnjewsky, Marina

    An objective prism survey has been started at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory using the thin UV prism (1,360 Å/mm at Hγ and 1,740 Å/mm at Hβ) on the Curtis Schmidt telescope. Unfiltered baked IIIaJ plates exposed 90 minutes have been obtained for 163 fields. Unwiden spectra taken in good seeing reach B ≅ 19. This survey is an extension of the original Tololo survey (Smith 1975; Smith, Aguirre and Zemelman 1986).

  2. Quasars at Cosmic Dawn: Discoveries and Probes of the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Yang, Jinyi; Bian, Fuyan; McGreer, Ian D.; Green, Richard F.; Yang, Qian; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Ran; DECaLS Team; UHS Team

    2017-01-01

    High redshift quasars, as the most luminous non-transient objects in the early universe, are the most promising tracers to address the history of cosmic reionization and how the origins of super-massive black hole (SMBH) are linked to galaxy formation and evolution. Over the last fifteen years, more than 100 quasars within the first billion years after the Big Bang have been discovered with the highest redshift at 7.1. We have developed a new method to select z>~6 quasars with both high efficiency and high completeness by combing optical and mid-IR Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometric data. We have applied this method to SDSS footprint and resulted in the discovery of the most luminous z>6 quasar ever discovered, which hosts a twelve billion solar mass black hole. I will present detailed follow-up observations of the host galaxies and environment of the most luminous quasars using HST, LBT and ALMA, in order to constrain early black hole growth and black hole/galaxy co-evolution at the highest redshift. I will also present initial results from a new quasar survey, which utilizes optical data from DECaLS, which is imaging 6700 deg^2 of sky down to z_AB˜23.0, and neaar-IR data from UHS and UKIDSS, which maps the whole northern sky at Decl.<+60deg. The combination of these datasets allows us to discover quasars at redshift z>~7 and to conduct a complete census of the faint quasar population at z~6.

  3. Variability and Spectral Studies of Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy Fairall 9. Search for the Reflection Component is a Quasar: RXTE and ASCA Observation of a Nearby Radio-Quiet Quasar MR 2251-178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen M.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring observations with interval of 3 days using RXTE (X Ray Timing Explorer) of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9 were performed for one year. The purpose of the observations were to study the variability of Fairall 9 and compare the results with those from the radio-loud object 3C 390.3. The data has been received and analysis is underway, using the new background model. An observation of the quasar MR 2251-178 was made in order to determine whether or not it has a reflection component. Older background models gave an unacceptable subtraction and analysis is underway using the new background model. The observation of NGC 6300 showed that the X-ray spectrum from this Seyfert 2 galaxy appears to be dominated by Compton reflection.

  4. Gemini long-slit observations of luminous obscured quasars: Further evidence for an upper limit on the size of the narrow-line region

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Greene, Jenny E.; Myers, Adam D.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Liu, Guilin; Liu, Xin

    2014-05-20

    We examine the spatial extent of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of a sample of 30 luminous obscured quasars at 0.4 < z < 0.7 observed with spatially resolved Gemini-N GMOS long-slit spectroscopy. Using the [O III] λ5007 emission feature, we estimate the size of the NLR using a cosmology-independent measurement: the radius where the surface brightness falls to 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} arcsec{sup –2}. We then explore the effects of atmospheric seeing on NLR size measurements and conclude that direct measurements of the NLR size from observed profiles are too large by 0.1-0.2 dex on average, as compared to measurements made to best-fit Sérsic or Voigt profiles convolved with the seeing. These data, which span a full order of magnitude in IR luminosity (log (L {sub 8} {sub μm}/erg s{sup –1}) = 44.4-45.4), also provide strong evidence that there is a flattening of the relationship between NLR size and active galactic nucleus luminosity at a seeing-corrected size of ∼7 kpc. The objects in this sample have high luminosities which place them in a previously under-explored portion of the size-luminosity relationship. These results support the existence of a maximal size of the NLR around luminous quasars; beyond this size, there is either not enough gas or the gas is over-ionized and does not produce enough [O III] λ5007 emission.

  5. Structure of the Universe at Small and High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, A.; Turchaninov, V.

    1998-12-01

    The approximate theoretical description of the formation and evolution of the structure of the universe proposed by Demianski and Doroshkevich (1998) is compared with observed and simulated matter distribution at small and high redshifts. It is found that for the CDM-like power spectrum and suitable parameters of the cosmological model the effective matter compression reaches at small redshifts the observed scales Rwall ~20 - 25h^{-1}Mpc with the typical mean separation of wall-like elements DSLSS 50 - 70h^{-1}Mpc. We show that the same theoretical model explains well both the redshift, temperature and NHI distributions of absorption lines observed in the spectra of quasars at redshifts 2 <= z <= 3.5. The models with 0.3 <= Omega_m <= 0.5 give better description of the observed structure parameters.

  6. Protoclusters Traced by High-Redshift Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Vergara, C.

    2017-08-01

    A commonly adopted approach to detect protoclusters is to search for overdensities of galaxies around massive galaxies at high-redshift such as quasars (QSOs) and submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). However, the detection of overdensities in those environments has been elusive, against of theoretical predictions. Here, I present the first measurement of the QSO-LBG and QSO-LAE cross-correlation function at z 4, based in the study of 23 QSO fields. My results indicate that LBG are strongly clustered around QSOs but LAE show similar clustering properties and number density as that observed in blank fields. One possible explanation for the lack of overdensities is that galaxies are highly obscured by dust and thus invisible at optical wavelengths. Additionally, I will present the clustering of SMGs based on spectroscopic redshift information of 52 SMGs recently identified by ALMA. This is critical to test if SMGs trace particularly massive structures. Finally, I will discuss the implications and interpretation of my results, in particular, I give the reasons of why I strongly suggest that the study of high-redshift protoclusters should be done from a combined optical+radio perspective.

  7. Type 2 Quasars at the heart of dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at high z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; Vignali, C.; Salvato, M.; Gruppioni, C.

    2010-07-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) represent a recently-discovered, intriguing class of mid-IR luminous sources at high redshifts. Evidence is mounting that DOGs (selected on the basis of extreme optical/mid-IR color cut and high mid-IR flux level) may represent systems caught in the process of host galaxy formation and intense SMBH growth. Here we report the results of an X-ray spectroscopic survey aimed at studying the X-ray properties of these sources and establishing the fraction of Type 2 quasars among them.

  8. High-redshift Fermi blazars observed by GROND and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Nardini, M.; Tagliaferri, Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Rau, A.; Foschini, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghirlanda, G.; Sbarrato, T.

    2013-01-01

    We observed five γ-ray-loud blazars at redshift greater than 2 with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) on-board the Swift satellite, and the Gamma-Ray burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) instrument. These observations were quasi-simultaneous, usually within a few hours. For four of these blazars, the near-IR to UV data show the presence of an accretion disc, and we could reliably estimate its accretion rate and black hole mass. One of them, PKS 1348+007, was found in an extraordinarily high IR-optical state, almost two orders of magnitude brighter than at the epoch of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations. For all the five quasars, the physical parameters of the jet-emitting zone, derived by applying a one-zone emission model, are similar to that found for the bulk of other γ-ray-loud quasars. With our observations, we have X-ray data for the full sample of blazars at z > 2 present in the Fermi 2-year (2LAC) catalogue. This allows us to have a rather complete view of the spectral energy distribution of all high-redshift Fermi blazars, and to draw some conclusions about their properties, and especially about the relation between the accretion rate and the jet power.

  9. Expanding the Gamma-ray Universe: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Paliya, Vaidehi; Gasparrini, Dario; Ajello, Marco; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the Fermi-LAT sample. These blazars appear to host very massive black holes and could shed light on the origin and growth of black holes in the early Universe. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  10. A quasar discovered at redshift 6.6 from Pan-STARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ji-Jia; Goto, Tomotsugu; Ohyama, Youichi; Chen, Wen-Ping; Walter, Fabian; Venemans, Bram; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Bañados, Eduardo; Decarli, Roberto; Fan, Xiaohui; Farina, Emanuele; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-04-01

    Luminous high-redshift quasars can be used to probe of the intergalactic medium in the early universe because their UV light is absorbed by the neutral hydrogen along the line of sight. They help us to measure the neutral hydrogen fraction of the high-z universe, shedding light on the end of reionization epoch. In this paper, we present a discovery of a new quasar (PSO J006.1240+39.2219) at redshift z = 6.61 ± 0.02 from Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1. Including this quasar, there are nine quasars above z > 6.5 up to date. The estimated continuum brightness is M1450 = -25.96 ± 0.08. PSO J006.1240+39.2219 has a strong Ly α emission compared with typical low-redshift quasars, but the measured near-zone region size is RNZ = 3.2 ± 1.1 proper megaparsecs, which is consistent with other quasars at z ˜ 6.

  11. Constraints on the optical polarization source in the luminous non-blazar quasar 3C 323.1 (PG 1545+210) from the photometric and polarimetric variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    We examine the optical photometric and polarimetric variability of the luminous type 1 non-blazar quasar 3C 323.1 (PG 1545+210). Two optical spectro-polarimetric measurements taken during the periods 1996-98 and 2003 combined with a V-band imaging polarimetric measurement taken in 2002 reveal that (1) as noted in the literature, the polarization of 3C 323.1 is confined only to the continuum emission, that is, the emission from the broad line region is unpolarized; (2) the polarized flux spectra show evidence of a time-variable broad absorption feature in the wavelength range of the Balmer continuum and other recombination lines; (3) weak variability in the polarization position angle (PA) of ˜ 4 deg over a time-scale of 4-6 years is observed; and (4) the V-band total flux and the polarized flux show highly correlated variability over a time-scale of one year. Taking the above-mentioned photometric and polarimetric variability properties and the results from previous studies into consideration, we propose a geometrical model for the polarization source in 3C 323.1, in which an equatorial absorbing region and an axi-asymmetric equatorial electron-scattering region are assumed to be located between the accretion disc and the broad line region. The scattering/absorbing regions can perhaps be attributed to the accretion disc wind or flared disc surface, but further polarimetric monitoring observations for 3C 323.1 and other quasars with continuum-confined polarization are needed to probe the true physical origins of these regions.

  12. Constraints on the optical polarization source in the luminous non-blazar quasar 3C 323.1 (PG 1545+210) from the photometric and polarimetric variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2017-05-01

    We examine the optical photometric and polarimetric variability of the luminous type 1 non-blazar quasar 3C 323.1 (PG 1545+210). Two optical spectropolarimetric measurements taken during the periods 1996-1998 and 2003 combined with a V-band imaging-polarimetric measurement taken in 2002 reveal that (1) as noted in the literature, the polarization of 3C 323.1 is confined only to the continuum emission, i.e. the emission from the broad-line region is unpolarized; (2) the polarized flux spectra show evidence of a time-variable broad absorption feature in the wavelength range of the Balmer continuum and other recombination lines; (3) weak variability in the polarization position angle (PA) of ˜4°over a time-scale of 4-6 yr is observed and (4) the V-band total flux and the polarized flux show highly correlated variability over a time-scale of 1 yr. Taking the above-mentioned photometric and polarimetric variability properties and the results from previous studies into consideration, we propose a geometrical model for the polarization source in 3C 323.1, in which an equatorial absorbing region and an axi-asymmetric equatorial electron-scattering region are assumed to be located between the accretion disc and the broad-line region. The scattering/absorbing regions can perhaps be attributed to the accretion disc wind or flared disc surface, but further polarimetric monitoring observations for 3C 323.1 and other quasars with continuum-confined polarization are needed to probe the true physical origins of these regions.

  13. SALT Long-slit Spectroscopy of Luminous Obscured Quasars: An Upper Limit on the Size of the Narrow-line Region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan; Greene, Jenny E.; Myers, Adam D.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2013-09-01

    We present spatially resolved long-slit spectroscopy from the Southern African Large Telescope to examine the spatial extent of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of a sample of eight luminous obscured quasars at 0.10 < z < 0.43. Our results are consistent with an observed shallow slope in the relationship between NLR size and L [O III], which has been interpreted to indicate that NLR size is limited by the density and ionization state of the NLR gas rather than the availability of ionizing photons. We also explore how the NLR size scales with a more direct measure of instantaneous active galactic nucleus power using mid-IR photometry from the Wide Field Infrared Explorer, which probes warm to hot dust near the central black hole and so, unlike [O III], does not depend on the properties of the NLR. Using our results as well as samples from the literature, we obtain a power-law relationship between NLR size and L 8 μm that is significantly steeper than that observed for NLR size and L [O III]. We find that the size of the NLR goes approximately as L^{1/2}_{8\\,\\mu {m}}, as expected from the simple scenario of constant-density clouds illuminated by a central ionizing source. We further see tentative evidence for a flattening of the relationship between NLR size and L 8 μm at the high-luminosity end, and propose that we are seeing a limiting NLR size of 10-20 kpc, beyond which the availability of gas to ionize becomes too low. We find that L_{[{O\\,{\\scriptsize {III}}}]} \\sim L_{8 \\,\\mu {m}}^{1.4}, consistent with a picture in which the L [O III] is dependent on the volume of the NLR. These results indicate that high-luminosity quasars have a strong effect in ionizing the available gas in a galaxy.

  14. Gas Dynamics of a Luminous z = 6.13 Quasar ULAS J1319+0950 Revealed by ALMA High-resolution Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yali; Wang, Ran; Jones, Gareth C.; Carilli, Chris L.; Walter, Fabian; Fan, Xiaohui; Riechers, Dominik A.; Bertoldi, Frank; Wagg, Jeff; Strauss, Michael A.; Omont, Alain; Cox, Pierre; Jiang, Linhua; Narayanan, Desika; Menten, Karl M.

    2017-08-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the dust continuum and [C ii] 158 μm fine structure line emission toward a far-infrared-luminous quasar, ULAS J131911.29+095051.4 at z = 6.13, and combine the new Cycle 1 data with ALMA Cycle 0 data. The combined data have an angular resolution of ˜0.″3, and resolve both the dust continuum and the [C ii] line emission on a few kiloparsec scales. The [C ii] line emission is more irregular than that of the dust continuum emission, which suggests different distributions between the dust and the [C ii]-emitting gas. The combined data confirm the [C ii] velocity gradient that we had previously detected in a lower-resolution ALMA image from the Cycle 0 data alone. We apply a tilted ring model to the [C ii] velocity map to obtain a rotation curve, and constrain the circular velocity to be 427 ± 55 km s-1 at a radius of 3.2 kpc with an inclination angle of 34°. We measure the dynamical mass within the 3.2 kpc region to be {13.4}-5.3+7.8 × {10}10 {M}⊙ . This yields a black-hole and host galaxy mass ratio of {0.020}-0.007+0.013, which is about {4}-2+3 times higher than that of the present-day {M}{BH}/{M}{bulge} ratio. This suggests that the supermassive black hole grows the bulk of its mass before the formation of most of the stellar mass in this quasar host galaxy in the early universe.

  15. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}⊙ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}⊙ yr-1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm-3, ionization parameter 10-1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10-0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm-2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ˜48-65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044-1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ˜30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking galaxy merger (or

  16. The Hunt for Red Quasars: Luminous Obscured Black Hole Growth Unveiled in the Stripe 82 X-Ray Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Glikman, Eilat; Brusa, Marcella; Rigby, Jane R.; Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Stern, Daniel; Lira, Paulina; Urry, C. Megan; Salvato, Mara; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allevato, Viola; Cardamone, Carolin; Civano, Francesca; Coppi, Paolo; Farrah, Duncan; Komossa, S.; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Richards, Gordon; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Treister, Ezequiel

    2017-10-01

    We present results of a ground-based near-infrared campaign with Palomar TripleSpec, Keck NIRSPEC, and Gemini GNIRS to target two samples of reddened active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates from the 31 deg2 Stripe 82 X-ray survey. One sample, which is ∼89% complete to K< 16 (Vega), consists of eight confirmed AGNs, four of which were identified with our follow-up program, and is selected to have red R ‑ K colors (> 4, Vega). The fainter sample (K> 17, Vega) represents a pilot program to follow-up four sources from a parent sample of 34 that are not detected in the single-epoch SDSS catalog and have WISE quasar colors. All 12 sources are broad-line AGNs (at least one permitted emission line has an FWHM exceeding 1300 km s‑1) and span a redshift range 0.59< z< 2.5. Half the (R ‑ K)-selected AGNs have features in their spectra suggestive of outflows. When comparing these sources to a matched sample of blue Type 1 AGNs, we find that the reddened AGNs are more distant (z> 0.5), and a greater percentage have high X-ray luminosities ({L}{{X},{full}}> {10}44 erg s‑1). Such outflows and high luminosities may be consistent with the paradigm that reddened broad-line AGNs represent a transitory phase in AGN evolution as described by the major merger model for black hole growth. Results from our pilot program demonstrate proof of concept that our selection technique is successful in discovering reddened quasars at z> 1 missed by optical surveys.

  17. A study of ten quasars with redshifts greater than four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Four quasars with redshifts greater than four were detected in a low-resolution CCD grism survey. CCD photometry and high S/N, moderate resolution spectra are presented for these quasars and the six other known quasars with redshifts above 4. The M sub B values of nine of the objects are between -27.5 and -25, with the tenth quasar having an M sub B value of -29. The emission lines and shapes of the continua of these ten quasars are similar to those of lower-redshift quasars. The results suggest that the C IV emission lines in high-redshift quasars may be weaker than those in lower-redshift quasars. The continua of all of the high-redshift quasars display strong depressions blueward of the Ly-alpha emission line.

  18. Host Galaxies Of Luminous Z ˜ 0.6 Quasars: Major Mergers Are Not Prevalent At The Highest Agn Luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villforth, Carolin; Hamilton, T.; Pawlik, M. M.; Hewlett, T.; Rowlands, K.; Herbst, H.; Shankar, F.; Fontana, A.; Hamann, F.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Trump, J.; Wuyts, S.

    2017-06-01

    Galaxy interactions are thought to be one of the main triggers of active galactic nuclei (AGN), especially at high luminosities, where the accreted gas mass during the AGN lifetime is substantial. Evidence for a connection between mergers and AGN, however, remains mixed. Possible triggering mechanisms remain particularly poorly understood for luminous AGN, which are thought to require triggering by major mergers, rather than secular processes. We analyse the host galaxies of a sample of 20 optically and X-ray selected luminous AGN (log(Lbol [erg s-1]) > 45) at z ˜ 0.6 using Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 data in the F160W/H band. 15/20 sources have resolved host galaxies. We create a control sample of mock AGN by matching the AGN host galaxies to a control sample of non-AGN galaxies. Visual signs of disturbances are found in about 25 per cent of sources in both the AGN hosts and control galaxies. Using both visual classification and quantitative morphology measures, we show that the levels of disturbance are not enhanced when compared to a matched control sample. We find no signs that major mergers play a dominant role in triggering AGN at high luminosities, suggesting that minor mergers and secular processes dominate AGN triggering up to the highest AGN luminosities. The upper limit on the enhanced fraction of major mergers is ≤20 per cent. While major mergers might increase the incidence of luminous AGN, they are not the prevalent triggering mechanism in the population of unobscured AGN.

  19. Host galaxies of luminous z ∼ 0.6 quasars: major mergers are not prevalent at the highest AGN luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villforth, C.; Hamilton, T.; Pawlik, M. M.; Hewlett, T.; Rowlands, K.; Herbst, H.; Shankar, F.; Fontana, A.; Hamann, F.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Trump, J.; Wuyts, S.

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy interactions are thought to be one of the main triggers of active galactic nuclei (AGN), especially at high luminosities, where the accreted gas mass during the AGN lifetime is substantial. Evidence for a connection between mergers and AGN, however, remains mixed. Possible triggering mechanisms remain particularly poorly understood for luminous AGN, which are thought to require triggering by major mergers, rather than secular processes. We analyse the host galaxies of a sample of 20 optically and X-ray selected luminous AGN (log(Lbol [erg s-1]) > 45) at z ∼ 0.6 using Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 data in the F160W/H band. 15/20 sources have resolved host galaxies. We create a control sample of mock AGN by matching the AGN host galaxies to a control sample of non-AGN galaxies. Visual signs of disturbances are found in about 25 per cent of sources in both the AGN hosts and control galaxies. Using both visual classification and quantitative morphology measures, we show that the levels of disturbance are not enhanced when compared to a matched control sample. We find no signs that major mergers play a dominant role in triggering AGN at high luminosities, suggesting that minor mergers and secular processes dominate AGN triggering up to the highest AGN luminosities. The upper limit on the enhanced fraction of major mergers is ≤20 per cent. While major mergers might increase the incidence of luminous AGN, they are not the prevalent triggering mechanism in the population of unobscured AGN.

  20. On the Radio and Optical Luminosity Evolution of Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V.; Lawrence, A.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.

    2011-05-20

    loud quasars, but rather a smooth transition. Also, this efficiency seems higher for the high-redshift and more luminous sources in the considered sample.

  1. STRONG RESPONSE OF THE VERY BROAD H{beta} EMISSION LINE IN THE LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET QUASAR PG 1416-129

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.

    2011-11-20

    We report new spectroscopic observations performed in 2010 and 2011 for the luminous radio-quiet quasar PG 1416-129. Our new spectra with high quality cover both H{beta} and H{alpha} regions, and show negligible line profile variation within a timescale of one year. The two spectra allow us to study the variability of the Balmer line profile by comparing the spectra with previous ones taken at 10 and 20 years ago. By decomposing the broad Balmer emission lines into two Gaussian profiles, our spectral analysis suggests a strong response to the continuum level for the very broad component, and significant variations in both bulk blueshift velocity/FWHM and flux for the broad component. The new observations additionally indicate flat Balmer decrements (i.e., too strong H{beta} emission) at the line wings, which is hard to reproduce using recent optically thin models. With these observations we argue that a separate inner optically thin emission-line region might not be necessary in the object to reproduce the observed line profiles.

  2. The formation and evolution of high-redshift dusty galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Ge, Jian; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Spilker, Justin; Strandet, Maria; Ashby, Matthew; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Lundgren, Britt; Zhao, Yinan; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Caucal, Paul; SPT SMG Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Star formation and chemical evolution are among the biggest questions in galaxy formation and evolution. High-redshift dusty galaxies are the best sites to investigate mass assembly and growth, star formation rates, star formation history, chemical enrichment, and physical conditions. My thesis is based on two populations of high-redshift dusty galaxies, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers, which are selected by dust emission and dust absorption, respectively.For the SMG sample, I have worked on the gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 2.8 < z < 5.7, which were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and further confirmed by ALMA. My thesis is focused on the stellar masses and star formation rates of these objects by means of multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling. The data include HST/WFC3, Spitzer/IRAC, Herschel/PACS, Herschel/SPIRE, APEX/Laboca and SPT. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these DSFGs have specific SFRs that lie above the MS, suggesting that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers. SPT0346-52 at z = 5.7, the most extraordinary source in the SPT survey for which we obtained Chandra X-ray and ATCA radio data, was confirmed to have the highest star formation surface density of any known galaxy at high-z.The other half of my thesis is focused on a new population of quasar absorption line systems, 2175 Å dust absorbers, which are excellent probes of gas and dust properties, chemical evolution and physical conditions in the absorbing galaxies. This sample was selected from the SDSS and BOSS surveys and followed up with the Echelle Spectrographs and Imager on the Keck-II telescope, the Red & Blue Channel Spectrograph on the Multiple Mirror Telescope, and the Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph onboard the Very Large Telescope. We found a correlation between the presence of the 2175 Å bump and other

  3. Detection of molecular gas in the quasar BR1202 - 0725 at redshift z = 4.69.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Yamada, T; Nakanishi, K; Kohno, K; Akiyama, M; Kawabe, R

    1996-08-01

    Although great efforts have been made to locate molecular gas--the material out of which stars form--in the early Universe, there have been only two firm detections at high redshift. Both are gravitationally lensed objects at redshift z approximately = 2.5 (refs 9-14). Here we report the detection of CO emission from the radio-quiet quasar BR1202 - 0725, which is at redshift z = 4.69. From the observed CO luminosity, we estimate that almost 10(11) solar masses of molecular hydrogen are associated with the quasar; this is comparable to the stellar mass of a present-day luminous galaxy. Our results suggest that BR1202 - 0725 is a massive galaxy, in which the gas is largely concentrated in the central region, and that is currently undergoing a large burst of star formation.

  4. Fe Emission And Ionized Excess Absorption in the Luminous Quasar 3C109 With XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Miniutti, Giovanni; Ballantyne, D.R.; Allen, S.W.; Fabian, A.C.; Ross, R.R.; /Holy Cross Coll.

    2006-06-09

    the line of sight, located at the redshift of 3C 109. The most likely interpretation for the excess absorption is that the line-of-sight is grazing the obscuring torus of unified models, which is consistent with the inclination inferred from the Fe line profile (about 40{sup o}) and with the hybrid radio-galaxy/quasar nature of 3C 109.

  5. The most luminous quasars do not live in the most massive dark matter haloes at any redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanidakis, N.; Macciò, A. V.; Baugh, C. M.; Lacey, C. G.; Frenk, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Quasars (QSOs) represent the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Universe and are thought to indicate the location of prodigiously growing black holes (BHs), with luminosities as high as 1048 erg s-1. It is often expected though that such an extremely energetic process takes place in the most massive bound structures in the dark matter (DM) distribution. We show that in contrast to this expectation, in a galaxy formation model which includes AGN feedback, QSOs are predicted to live in DM haloes with typical masses of a few times 1012 M⊙. Such an environment is considered to be average in the low-redshift universe (z ≲ 2-3) and almost comparable to a Milky Way halo. This fundamental prediction arises from the fact that QSO activity (i.e. BH accretion with luminosity greater than 1046 erg s-1) is inhibited in more massive DM haloes, where AGN feedback operates. The galactic hosts of QSOs in our simulations have typical stellar masses of 1010-1011 M⊙, and represent remnants of massive disc galaxies that have undergone a disc instability or galaxy merger. Interestingly, we find no dependence of QSO activity on environment; thus, the typical QSO halo mass remains constant over two orders of magnitude in luminosity. We further show that the z ˜ 6 QSOs do not inhabit the largest DM haloes at that time as these environments are already subject to feedback. Their descendants at z = 0 span a wide range of morphologies and galaxy masses, and their BHs typically grow only by a modest factor between z ˜ 6 and the present day. We predict that there should be an enhancement in the abundance of galaxies around QSOs at z ˜ 5. However, these enhancements are considerably weaker compared to the overdensities expected at the extreme peaks of the DM distribution. Given that high-z QSO descendants are typically found in rich clusters (˜1014 M⊙) and very seldom in the most massive haloes, we conclude that it is very unlikely that QSOs observed at z ≳ 5 trace the

  6. An ultra-dense fast outflow in a quasar at z = 2.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. J.; Maiolino, R.; Krongold, Y.; Carniani, S.; Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Marconi, A.

    2017-05-01

    We present adaptive optics assisted near-IR integral field spectroscopic observations of a luminous quasar at z = 2.4, previously observed as the first known example at high redshift of large-scale quasar-driven outflow quenching star formation in its host galaxy. The nuclear spectrum shows broad and blueshifted Hβ in absorption, which is tracing outflowing gas with high densities (>108-109 cm-3) and velocities in excess of 10 000 km s-1. The properties of the outflowing clouds (covering factor, density, column density and inferred location) indicate that they likely originate from the broad line region. The energetics of such nuclear regions is consistent with that observed in the large-scale outflow, supporting models in which quasar-driven outflows originate from the nuclear region and are energy conserving. We note that the asymmetric profile of both the Hβ and Hα emission lines is likely due to absorption by the dense outflowing gas along the line of sight. This outflow-induced asymmetry has implications on the estimation of the black hole mass using virial estimators, and warns about such effects for several other quasars characterized by similar line asymmetries. More generally, our findings may suggest a broader revision of the decomposition and interpretation of quasar spectral features, in order to take into account the presence of potential broad blueshifted Balmer absorption lines. Our high spatial resolution data also reveal redshifted nebular emission lines, which could be potentially tracing an inflowing stream.

  7. Accessing the population of high-redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Ghisellini, G.; Mereghetti, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P.; Tanvir, N.; Willingale, D.; Amati, L.; Basa, S.; Bernardini, M. G.; Burlon, D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Frontera, F.; Götz, D.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Piro, L.; Vergani, S. D.

    2015-04-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are a powerful probe of the high-redshift Universe. We present a tool to estimate the detection rate of high-z GRBs by a generic detector with defined energy band and sensitivity. We base this on a population model that reproduces the observed properties of GRBs detected by Swift, Fermi and CGRO in the hard X-ray and γ-ray bands. We provide the expected cumulative distributions of the flux and fluence of simulated GRBs in different energy bands. We show that scintillator detectors, operating at relatively high energies (e.g. tens of keV to the MeV), can detect only the most luminous GRBs at high redshifts due to the link between the peak spectral energy and the luminosity (Epeak-Liso) of GRBs. We show that the best strategy for catching the largest number of high-z bursts is to go softer (e.g. in the soft X-ray band) but with a very high sensitivity. For instance, an imaging soft X-ray detector operating in the 0.2-5 keV energy band reaching a sensitivity, corresponding to a fluence, of ˜10-8 erg cm-2 is expected to detect ≈40 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 5 (≈3 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 10). Once high-z GRBs are detected the principal issue is to secure their redshift. To this aim we estimate their NIR afterglow flux at relatively early times and evaluate the effectiveness of following them up and construct usable samples of events with any forthcoming GRB mission dedicated to explore the high-z Universe.

  8. Modeling the Dust Properties of z ~ 6 Quasars with ART2—All-Wavelength Radiative Transfer with Adaptive Refinement Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuexing; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hernquist, Lars; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Cox, Thomas J.; Springel, Volker; Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Yoshida, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    The detection of large quantities of dust in z ~ 6 quasars by infrared and radio surveys presents puzzles for the formation and evolution of dust in these early systems. Previously, Li et al. showed that luminous quasars at zgtrsim 6 can form through hierarchical mergers of gas-rich galaxies, and that these systems are expected to evolve from starburst through quasar phases. Here, we calculate the dust properties of simulated quasars and their progenitors using a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, ART2 (All-wavelength Radiative Transfer with Adaptive Refinement Tree). ART2 incorporates a radiative equilibrium algorithm which treats dust emission self-consistently, an adaptive grid method which can efficiently cover a large dynamic range in both spatial and density scales, a multiphase model of the interstellar medium which accounts for the observed scaling relations of molecular clouds, and a supernova-origin model for dust which can explain the existence of dust in cosmologically young objects. By applying ART2 to the hydrodynamic simulations of Li et al., we reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) and inferred dust properties of SDSS J1148+5251, the most distant Sloan quasar. We find that the dust and infrared emission are closely associated with the formation and evolution of the quasar host. The system evolves from a cold to a warm ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) owing to heating and feedback from stars and the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Furthermore, the AGN activity has significant implications for the interpretation of observation of the hosts. Our results suggest that vigorous star formation in merging progenitors is necessary to reproduce the observed dust properties of z ~ 6 quasars, supporting a merger-driven origin for luminous quasars at high redshifts and the starburst-to-quasar evolutionary hypothesis.

  9. Stars and gas in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z=3, when the universe was still in its "teen years". In keeping with the theme of this conference, I show how our knowledge of local star-forming regions can be applied directly to these distant galaxies to deduce their ages, metallicities, initial mass function, and masses. I also discuss areas where current limitations in stellar astrophysics have a direct bearing on the interpretation of the data being gathered, at an ever increasing rate, on the high redshift universe.

  10. GLAST observation of high-redshift GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Calura, Francesco; Matteucci, Francesca; Omodei, Nicola

    2007-07-12

    We compare predicted Type Ib/c supernova (SNIb/c) rates with the observed long-duration Gamma-Ray-Burst (GRB) rates both locally and as a function of redshift, by assuming different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types. Due to the high star formation in spheroids at high redshift, we predict a large number of GRBs beyond z > 7. Moreover, based on our studies and on the current LAT performance, an estimate of the detection possibility of this burst population is presented.

  11. The radio-optical correlation in steep-spectrum quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjeant, Stephen; Rawlings, Steve; Lacy, Mark; Maddox, Stephen J.; Baker, Joanne C.; Clements, Dave; Lilje, Per B.

    1998-03-01

    Using complete samples of steep-spectrum quasars, we present evidence for a correlation between radio and optical luminosity which is not caused by selection effects, nor caused by an orientation dependence (such as relativistic beaming), nor a by-product of cosmic evolution. We argue that this rules out models of jet formation in which there are no parameters in common with the production of the optical continuum. This is arguably the most direct evidence to date for a close link between accretion onto a black hole and the fuelling of relativistic jets. The correlation also provides a natural explanation for the presence of aligned optical/radio structures in only the most radio-luminous high-redshift galaxies.

  12. VLBI observations of galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.; Gurvits, L. I.; Miley, G. K.; Bremer, M. A. R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Nan, R.; Chambers, K. C.; van Breugel, W. J. M.

    Subsets of fifteen high redshift radio galaxies have been observed with VLBI arrays at 327 MHz, 1.66 GHz or 5 GHz. Here we present results of VLBI imaging of four high redshift radio galaxies, three at 327 MHz and one at 1.66 GHz. Results so far show that 1) compact 1 kpc hotspots dominate the VLA components, 2) the magnetic field strengths in the hotspots are an order of magnitude higher than in Cygnus A, 3) the estimated ages of the sources are considerably longer than the radiative lifetimes of electrons in the hotspots, implying energy resupply, and 4) the ratios of overall size to hotspot size are consistent with the correlations found by Hardcastle et al (1998) for FR II radio galaxies and Snellen et al (1998) for GPS and CSS radio galaxies. We also investigate the possibility that the misalignment of the components to the southwest in 4C41.17 may be caused by deflection of the jet by an interstellar cloud of mass ~ 108 solar masses, possibly a proto globular cluster.

  13. High Resolution Science with High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, R.

    I will first review high resolution science that has been done with the Hubble Space Telescope on high redshift galaxies Next I will review the capabilities of the 6 5 meter James Webb Space Telescope JWST which is an optimized infrared telescope that can deploy automatically in space slated for launch to a halo L2 orbit in 2013 I will outline how the JWST can go about measuring First Light Reionization and Galaxy Assembly building on lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope I will show what more nearby galaxies observed in their restframe UV--optical light may look like to JWST at high redshifts Last I will summarize the Generation-X mission concept for an X-ray telescope designed to study the very early universe with 1000-times greater sensitivity than current facilities Gen-X will study the first generations of stars and black holes in the epoch z 10-20 the evolution of black holes and galaxies from high z to the present the chemical evolution of the universe and the properties of matter under extreme conditions This requires an effective area of 100 m 2 at 1 keV an angular resolution of 0 1 HPD over 0 1-10 keV

  14. Groups, concentrations and associations of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, H.

    1983-06-01

    The available observations on high redshift quasars have been analyzed by Oort et al. (1982). If the quasars are at their redshift distances and belong to superclusters, there must exist far less than one quasar per average supercluster. The present investigation is concerned with a review of evidence for quasars occurring in small groups, in larger concentrations, and in association with other kinds of objects. Tight groupings of quasars are examined, taking into account the Group SW of NGC 450, the Group SE of NGC 2639, NGC 1097 NE, NGC 520, and a discussion of dense groups. In connection with a discussion of quassars in larger concentrations, attention is given to quasars in a complete field around NGC 1097, and quasars near NGC 520. The redshift-luminosity relation for quasars is considered along with questions concerning alignments, triples, and redshift pairing across galaxies.

  15. High-redshift blazar identification for Swift J1656.3-3302

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, N.; Mason, E.; Landi, R.; Giommi, P.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Bird, A. J.; Bazzano, A.; Dean, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Palazzi, E.; Ubertini, P.

    2008-03-01

    We report on the high-redshift blazar identification of a new gamma-ray source, Swift J1656.3-3302, detected with the BAT imager onboard the Swift satellite and the IBIS instrument on the INTEGRAL satellite. Follow-up optical spectroscopy has allowed us to identify the counterpart as an R˜ 19 mag source that shows broad Lyman-α, Si iv, He ii, C iv, and C iii] emission lines at redshift z = 2.40 ± 0.01. Spectral evolution is observed in X-rays when the INTEGRAL/IBIS data are compared to the Swift/BAT results, with the spectrum steepening when the source gets fainter. The 0.7-200 keV X-ray continuum, observed with Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL/IBIS, shows the power law shape typical of radio loud (broad emission line) active galactic nuclei (with a photon index Γ ˜ 1.6) and a hint of spectral curvature below ~2 keV, possibly due to intrinsic absorption (NH ˜ 7× 10 22 cm-2) local to the source. Alternatively, a slope change (Δ Γ ˜ 1) around 2.7 keV can describe the X-ray spectrum equally well. At this redshift, the observed 20-100 keV luminosity of the source is ~1048 erg s-1 (assuming isotropic emission), making Swift J1656.3-3302 one of the most X-ray luminous blazars. This source is yet another example of a distant gamma-ray loud quasar discovered above 20 keV. It is also the farthest object, among the previously unidentified INTEGRAL sources, whose nature has been determined a posteriori through optical spectroscopy. Partly based on X-ray observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA, and on optical observations collected at ESO (La Silla, Chile) under programme 079.A-0171(A).

  16. High-Redshift Astrophysics Using Every Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breysse, Patrick; Kovetz, Ely; Rahman, Mubdi; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Large galaxy surveys have dramatically improved our understanding of the complex processes which govern gas dynamics and star formation in the nearby universe. However, we know far less about the most distant galaxies, as existing high-redshift observations can only detect the very brightest sources. Intensity mapping surveys provide a promising tool to access this poorly-studied population. By observing emission lines with low angular resolution, these surveys can make use of every photon in a target line to study faint emitters which are inaccessible using traditional techniques. With upcoming carbon monoxide experiments in mind, I will demonstrate how an intensity map can be used to measure the luminosity function of a galaxy population, and in turn how these measurements will allow us to place robust constraints on the cosmic star formation history. I will then show how cross-correlating CO isotopologue lines will make it possible to study gas dynamics within the earliest galaxies in unprecedented detail.

  17. SCUBA Observations of High Redshift Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Reuland, M; Rottgering, H; van Breugel, W

    2003-03-11

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) are key targets for studies of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.The role of dust in these processes is uncertain. We have therefore observed the dust continuum emission from a sample of z > 3 radio galaxies with the SCUBA bolometer array. We confirm and strengthen the result found by Archibald et al. (1), that HzRGs are massive starforming systems and that submillimeter detection rate appears to be primarily a strong function of redshift. We also observed HzRG-candidates that have so far eluded spectroscopic redshift determination. Four of these have been detected, and provide evidence that they may be extremely obscured radio galaxies, possibly in an early stage of their evolution.

  18. Morphologies at High Redshift from Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Simmons, Brooke; Willett, Kyle; Lintott, Chris

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from Galaxy Zoo classification of galaxies observed in public observed frame optical HST surveys (e.g. COSMOS, GOODS) as well as in observed frame NIR with (ie. CANDELS). Early science results from these classifications have investigated the changing bar fraction in disc galaxies as a function of redshift (to z~1 in Melvin et al. 2014; and at z>1 in Simmons et al. 2015), as well as how the morphologies of galaxies on the red sequence have been changing since z~1 (Melvin et al. in prep.). These unique dataset of quantitative visual classifications for high redshift galaxies will be made public in forthcoming publications (planned as Willett et al. for Galaxy Zoo Hubble, and Simmons et al. for Galaxy Zoo CANDELS).

  19. Flamingos 2 Spectroscopy of Obscured and Unobscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Susan; Lacy, Mark; Urrutia, Tanya; Petric, Andreea

    2013-08-01

    We will use Flamingos-2 to obtain spectra of luminous AGN and quasars selected in the mid-infrared. Mid-infrared selection is much less biased with respect to obscuration than optical and X-ray techniques, and hence allows for finding obscured (Type-2) quasars as well as Type-1 quasars. Our survey so far has been very successful and has provided an unique opportunity to construct luminosity functions for both Type-1 and Type-2 quasars selected in the same way and covering similar redshifts and luminosities. We have quantifed the change in the obscured fraction with luminosity and redshift for the first time, and find interesting indications that at high redshift the obscured fraction rises, consistent with models for the joint formation of the galaxy and black hole populations. Our samples are, however, still quite incomplete at low fluxes (and therefore lower luminosities at a given redshift), particularly in the southern hemisphere. Near-infrared spectroscopy, such as that we have previously obtained with NIRI at Gemini N, offers us the best possibility of bringing these southern samples to a reasonable completeness level, and will greatly increase the number of high z quasars in our sample. This will allow us to better judge our tantalizing initial results on the redshift evolution of the obscured fraction. In addition, these southern targets can be followed up with ALMA and GEMS/GSAOI to study the morphologies and star-formation properties of the hosts, allowing further exploration of the relationship between the formation of massive bulges and supermassive blackholes in the early universe.

  20. Fermi LAT detection of a GeV flare from High-redshift Blazar PKS 0537-286

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. C.

    2017-05-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed a gamma-ray flare from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 0537-286 (RA = 84.9761725 deg, Decl.= -28.6655406 deg, J2000; Johnston et al. 1995 AJ 110, 880), at high-redshift, z=3.104 (Osmer et al. 1994 ApJ 436, 678).

  1. Quasar Outflows and Black Hole Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon; Hennawi, Joseph; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2016-08-01

    Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries ('blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km/s to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. Using both archival data and new observations, we have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Ha and/or Hb emission lines, for ~400 luminous (L_Bol = 45.5-48.5 erg/s) SDSS quasars, at redshifts 1.5 < z < 4, with CIV emission lines spanning the full-range of blueshifts present in the population. A strong correlation between CIV-velocity width and blueshift is found and, at large blueshifts, >2000 km/s, the velocity-widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Using the Ha/Hb emission to provide black hole masses free from non-virial contributions, we are able to derive a quantitative correction to the CIV-based black-hole masses as a function of blueshift. This correction reduces the scatter between Ha/Hb and CIV velocity widths to just ~0.1 dex. Without the correction, black hole masses would be overestimated by a factor of nine at the largest blueshifts. With a suitable systemic redshift-estimation algorithm, this correction can be straightforwardly applied based only on information contained in the rest-frame UV spectra.

  2. ON THE OCCUPATION FRACTION OF SEED BLACK HOLES IN HIGH-REDSHIFT DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt E-mail: frei@alcyone.elte.hu

    2009-08-10

    It is well known that an initial population of seed black holes (BHs), formed in the nuclei of low-mass galaxies at high redshift, can simultaneously explain, through their subsequent growth by mergers and accretion, both the observed evolution of the quasar luminosity function (LF) and the distribution of remnant supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses measured in local galactic nuclei. Here we consider three very different initial conditions for this scenario: models in which initial seed BHs form in either all, or only a small fraction (f {sub bh} = 0.1 or 0.01) of high-redshift dark matter halos (with M {sub halo} = 5 x 10{sup 9} M {sub sun} at z = 6-10). We show that with a suitable and relatively minor adjustment of two global physical parameters (the radiative efficiency and mass accretion time-scale of quasar episodes), models with f {sub bh} {approx} 0.1 and 1 can accurately reproduce the observed quasar LF at redshifts 0 < z {approx}< 6, as well as the remnant SMBH mass function at z = 0. However, SMBHs remain rare, and the normalization of the high-z quasar LF and the local SMBH mass function are both significantly underpredicted, if f {sub bh} {approx}< 0.01. We also show that the merger history of SMBHs, in the mass range detectable by the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) instrument, generically looks different as f {sub bh} is varied; this should allow LISA to deliver useful constraints on otherwise degenerate models.

  3. Heavily reddened type 1 quasars at z > 2 - I. Evidence for significant obscured black hole growth at the highest quasar luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; Alaghband-Zadeh, S.; Hewett, Paul C.; McMahon, Richard G.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new population of z > 2 dust-reddened, type 1 quasars with 0.5 ≲ E(B - V) ≲ 1.5, selected using near-infrared (NIR) imaging data from the UKIDSS-LAS (Large Area Survey), ESO-VHS (European Southern Obseratory-VISTA Hemisphere Survey) and WISE surveys. NIR spectra obtained using the Very Large Telescope for 24 new objects bring our total sample of spectroscopically confirmed hyperluminous (>1013 L⊙), high-redshift dusty quasars to 38. There is no evidence for reddened quasars having significantly different Hα equivalent widths relative to unobscured quasars. The average black hole masses (˜109-1010 M⊙) and bolometric luminosities (˜1047 erg s-1) are comparable to the most luminous unobscured quasars at the same redshift, but with a tail extending to very high luminosities of ˜1048 erg s-1. 66 per cent of the reddened quasars are detected at >3σ at 22 μm by WISE. The average 6-μm rest-frame luminosity is log10(L6 μm/ erg s-1) = 47.1 ± 0.4, making the objects among the mid-infrared brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) currently known. The extinction-corrected space density estimate now extends over three magnitudes (-30 < Mi < -27) and demonstrates that the reddened quasar luminosity function is significantly flatter than that of the unobscured quasar population at z = 2-3. At the brightest magnitudes, Mi ≲ -29, the space density of our dust-reddened population exceeds that of unobscured quasars. A model where the probability that a quasar becomes dust reddened increases at high luminosity is consistent with the observations and such a dependence could be explained by an increase in luminosity and extinction during AGN-fuelling phases. The properties of our obscured type 1 quasars are distinct from the heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN that have been identified at much fainter luminosities and we conclude that they likely correspond to a brief evolutionary phase in massive galaxy formation.

  4. Constraining the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes with statistical quasar samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yue

    One of the fundamental questions in cosmology is how galaxies with different physical properties form and evolve across cosmic time. Supermassive black holes (SMBHs), believed to reside in the center of almost every massive galaxy, not only tell part of the story of galaxy formation, but may also influence the formation and evolution of the galaxy during their coevolution, as inferred from several correlations between the black hole mass and bulge properties observed in the local universe. Facilitated by modern dedicated surveys in different wavelength bands, the study of SMBHs has now entered an era of statistical investigations. In this thesis I study the statistical properties of optically-selected quasars, the luminous counterparts of SMBHs, across a wide redshift range (0.5 [Special characters omitted.] z [Special characters omitted.] 5), using large spectroscopic samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The first two chapters deal with the spatial clustering properties of quasars, with focuses on the high redshift (z [Special characters omitted.] 3) population (chapter 1), and on the dependence of clustering on physical properties of quasars such as luminosity, color, etc. (chapter 2). These clustering analyses, which become available only very recently, provide valuable information about the occupations of quasars within dark matter halos, and have important implications for the growth and evolution of SMBHs within the standard hierarchical structure formation paradigm. The third chapter presents black hole mass estimates and Eddington ratios of quasars measured from their optical spectra, based on the virial black hole mass estimators. Some comparisons between different virial estimators and potential biases are also discussed in chapter 3. In the final chapter, I present a simple, observationally motivated framework for the cosmic growth and evolution of SMBHs. Adopting the merger hypothesis of quasar triggering mechanism and halo merger rate from

  5. A search for gravitationally lensed water masers in dusty quasars and star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, J. P.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Roy, A. L.; Castangia, P.; Samuel, F.; Brunthaler, A.; Henkel, C.; Wucknitz, O.

    2011-02-01

    Luminous extragalactic water masers are known to be associated with active galactic nuclei and have provided accurate estimates for the mass of the central supermassive black hole and the size and structure of the circumnuclear accretion disc in nearby galaxies. To find water maser systems at much higher redshifts, we have begun a survey of known gravitationally lensed quasars and star-forming galaxies. In this paper, we present a search for 22 GHz (rest-frame) water masers towards five dusty, gravitationally lensed quasars and star-forming galaxies at redshifts between 2.3 and 2.9 with the Effelsberg radio telescope and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). Our observations do not find any new definite examples of high-redshift water maser galaxies, suggesting that large reservoirs of dust and gas are not a sufficient condition for powerful water maser emission. However, we do find the tentative detection of a water maser system in the active galaxy IRAS 10214+4724 at redshift 2.285. Our survey has now doubled the number of gravitationally lensed galaxies and quasars that have been searched for high-redshift water maser emission. We also present an updated analysis of the high-redshift water maser luminosity function that is based on the results presented here and from the only cosmologically distant (z > 1) water maser galaxy found thus far, MG J0414+0534 at redshift 2.64. By comparing with the water maser luminosity function locally and at moderate redshifts, we find that there must be some evolution in the luminosity function of water maser galaxies at high redshifts. By assuming a moderate evolution [(1 +z)4] in the water maser luminosity function, we find that blind surveys for water maser galaxies are only worthwhile with extremely high sensitivity like that of the planned Square Kilometre Array (Phase 2), which is scheduled to be completed by 2020. However, instruments like the EVLA and MeerKAT will be capable of detecting water maser systems similar to the

  6. A NEOWISE Survey of Quasars in the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaohui

    Luminous quasars at high redshift provide direct probes of the evolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) and intergalactic medium (IGM) at early cosmic time. More than 100 quasars have now been discovered at z>6, with the highest redshift at z=7.1. Detections of such objects indicate the existence of billion solar mass BHs merely a few hundred Myrs after the first star formation in the universe, challenging the theory of BH growth and BH-galaxy coevolution at early epoch. Absorption spectra of the highest redshift quasars reveal complete Gunn-Peterson absorption from an increasing neutral IGM, marking the end of the reionization epoch at z>6. Combined with observations of CMB polarization and high-redshift Ly alpha galaxies, current data strongly suggest a peak of reionization activity and emergence of the earliest galaxies and AGNs at 7quasars has been challenging: only one quasar has been discovered at z>7, and a handful at z>6.5. In this ADAP program, we will carry out the first comprehensive survey of z>=7 quasars, using a WISE-based selection algorithm, deep mid-IR photometry from coadded NEOWISE data and deep optical and near-IR photometry from new wide-field imaging surveys. We will select and follow-up quasar candidates over >20,000 deg^2 of high galactic latitude sky, aiming at finding 10-15 quasars at z>=7 in the next three years. There are two main technical components of our program. (1) WISE-based quasar selection. We have developed a highly successful selection method by combining WISE and optical/near-IR photometry to search for luminous quasars at z = 4.5-6.5, resulted in the discovery of the first known supermassive black holes with 10 billion solar mass BHs in the early universe. We will expand and optimize the algorithm for the redshift range of 6.5 < z < 8. (2) Deep coadded NEOWISE photometry. NEOWISE will quadruple the exposure time in W1 and W2 bands compared to that of ALLWISE catalog used by previous quasar search; however, only single

  7. Feedback in high redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Breuck, Carlos; Nesvadba, Nicole; Lehnert, Matthew; Best, Philip

    High redshift radio galaxies are among the best objects to study AGN feedback in action, as they are among the most massive galaxies (1011 - 1012 M ) hosting powerful radio-loud AGN. I will present near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of a sample of over 50 radio galaxies at 2 < z < 5 using SINFONI at the VLT. We identify kpc-sized outflows of few x 1010 M of ionized gas, located along the radio source axis. Velocity fields are consistent with bipolar outflows, with total velocity offsets of 1000 km/s. FWHMs 1000 km/s suggest strong turbulence. The geometry is consistent with the radio source driving these outflows. Over the lifetime of the radio source (˜ 107 yr), these outflows can eject up to 1011 M of gas out of the gravitational potential of the host galaxy. Such mass loss would be sufficient to terminate star formation within the host galaxy. I will also present results from an ongoing follow-up programme to study the molecular gas in these high z radio galaxies using the IRAM interferometer. In several sources, we find a remarkable deficit in cold molecular relative to ionized gas, which may imply that significant fractions of the interstellar medium of these galaxies are participating in the winds.

  8. Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of the First Quasars: X-Rays from the Age of Cosmic Enlightenment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, C.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Anderson, S. F.; Fan, X.; Gunn, J. E.; Kaspi, S.; Richards, G. T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2003-06-01

    We report on Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 13 quasars at z~4.7-5.4 mostly taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The present sample complements previous X-ray studies of z>=4 quasars, in which the majority of the objects are optically more luminous and at lower redshifts. All but two of our quasars have been detected in the X-ray band, thus doubling the number of z>=4.8 X-ray-detected quasars. The two nondetections are likely to be due to a short exposure time (SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3) and to the presence of intrinsic absorption (SDSSp J173744.87+582829.5). We confirm and extend to the highest redshifts the presence of a correlation between AB1450(1+z) magnitude and soft X-ray flux for z>=4 quasars and the presence of a steeper optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (parameterized by αox) for high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars than for lower luminosity, lower redshift quasars. The second effect is likely due to the known anticorrelation between αox and rest-frame 2500 Å luminosity, whose significance is confirmed via partial correlation analysis. The joint ~2.5-36 keV rest-frame spectrum of the z>4.8 SDSS quasars observed thus far by Chandra is well parameterized by a power law with photon index Γ=1.84+0.31-0.30; this photon index is consistent with those of z~0-3 quasars and that obtained from joint spectral fitting of z~4.1-4.5 optically luminous Palomar Digital Sky Survey quasars. No evidence for widespread intrinsic X-ray absorption has been found (NH<~4.0×1022 cm-2 on average at 90% confidence). We also obtained Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) photometric observations for eight of our target quasars. None of these shows significant (greater than 30%) optical variability over the time interval of a few years (in the observed frame) between the SDSS and HET observations.

  9. High-redshift Fanaroff-Riley type II radio sources: large-scale X-ray environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belsole, E.; Worrall, D. M.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Croston, J. H.

    2007-11-01

    We investigate the properties of the environment around 20 powerful radio galaxies and quasars at redshifts between 0.45 and 1. Using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations we probe the spatial distribution and the temperature of the cluster gas. We find that more than 60 per cent of powerful radio sources in the redshift range of our sample lie in a cluster of X-ray luminosity greater than 1044 ergs-1, and all but one of the narrow-line radio galaxies, for which the emission from the nucleus is obscured by a torus, lie in a cluster environment. For broad-line quasars the X-ray emission from the core dominates and it is more difficult to measure the cluster environment. However, within the statistical uncertainties we find no significant difference in the properties of the environment as a function of the orientation to the line of sight of the radio jet. This is in agreement with unification schemes. Our results have important implications for cluster surveys, as clusters around powerful radio sources tend to be excluded from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich surveys of galaxy clusters, and thus can introduce an important bias in the cluster luminosity function. Most of the radio sources are found close to pressure balance with the environment in which they lie, but the two low-excitation radio galaxies of the sample are observed to be underpressured. This may be the first observational indication for the presence of non-radiative particles in the lobes of some powerful radio galaxies. We find that the clusters around radio sources in the redshift range of our sample have a steeper entropy-temperature relation than local clusters, and the slope is in agreement with the predictions of self-similar gravitational heating models for cluster gas infall. This suggests that selection by active galactic nucleus (AGN) finds systems less affected by AGN feedback than the local average. We speculate that this is because the AGN in our sample are sufficiently luminous and rare that

  10. The first detection of [OIII] emission from high-redshift damped Lyman-α galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherley, S. J.; Warren, S. J.; Møller, P.; Fall, S. M.; Fynbo, J. U.; Croom, S. M.

    2005-04-01

    We present the detection of [OIII] emission lines from the galaxies responsible for two high-redshift z > 1.75 damped Lyman-α (DLA) absorption lines. We find two sources of [OIII] emission corresponding to the z= 1.92 DLA absorber towards the quasar Q2206-1958, and we also detect [OIII] emission from the galaxy responsible for the z= 3.10 DLA absorber towards the quasar 2233.9+1381. These are the first detections of rest-frame optical emission lines from high-redshift DLA galaxies. Unlike the Lyα line, the [OIII] line provides a measure of the systemic velocity of the galaxy. We compare the [OIII] redshifts with the velocity profile of the low-ionization metal lines in these two absorbers, with the goal of distinguishing between the model of Prochaska and Wolfe of DLA absorbers as large rapidly rotating cold thick discs, and the standard hierarchical cold dark matter model of structure formation, in which DLAs arise in protogalactic fragments. We find some discrepancies with the predictions of the former model. Furthermore, the image of the DLA galaxy towards Q2206-1958 shows a complex disturbed morphology, which is more in accord with the hierarchical picture. We use the properties of the rest-frame optical emission lines to further explore the question posed by Møller et al.: are high-redshift DLA galaxies Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) selected by gas cross-section? The measured velocity dispersions of the DLA galaxies are in agreement with this picture, while the data on the [OIII] luminosities and the velocity differences between the Lyα and [OIII] lines are inconclusive, as there are insufficient LBG measurements overlapping in luminosity. Finally, we estimate the star formation rates in these two DLA galaxies, using a variety of diagnostics, and include a discussion of the extent to which the [OIII] line is useful for this purpose.

  11. A Periodically Varying Luminous Quasar at z = 2 from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey: A Candidate Supermassive Black Hole Binary in the Gravitational Wave-Driven Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi

    2015-08-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be an inevitable consequence of the hierarchical growth of massive galaxies through mergers, and the strongest sirens of gravitational waves (GWs) in the cosmos. And yet, their direct detection has remained elusive due to the compact (sub-parsec) orbital separations of gravitationally bound SMBHBs. Here we exploit a theoretically predicted signature of a SMBHB in the time domain: periodic variability caused by a mass accretion rate that is modulated by the binary's orbital motion. We report our first significant periodically varying quasar detection from the systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey, a result recently accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Our SMBHB candidate, PSO J334.2028+01.4075, is a luminous radio-loud quasar at z = 2.060, with extended baseline photometry from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, as well as archival spectroscopy from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. The observed period (542 ± 15 days) and estimated black hole mass (log(MBH/M⊙) = 9.97 ± 0.50), correspond to an orbital separation of 7+8-4 Schwarzschild radii (~ 0.006+0.007-0.003 pc), assuming the rest-frame period of the quasar variability traces the orbital period of the binary. This SMBHB candidate, discovered at the peak redshift for SMBH mergers, is in a physically stable configuration for a circumbinary accretion disk, and within the regime of GW-driven orbital decay. Our search with PS1 is a benchmark study for the exciting capabilities of LSST, which will have orders of magnitude larger survey power, and will potentially pinpoint the locations of thousands of SMBHBs in the variable night sky.

  12. A Periodically Varying Luminous Quasar at z = 2 from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey: A Candidate Supermassive Black Hole Binary in the Gravitational Wave-driven Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi; Heinis, Sebastien; Magnier, Eugene A.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth; Flewelling, Heather; Huber, Mark; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be an inevitable consequence of the hierarchical growth of massive galaxies through mergers and the strongest sirens of gravitational waves (GWs) in the cosmos. Yet, their direct detection has remained elusive due to the compact (sub-parsec) orbital separations of gravitationally bound SMBHBs. Here, we exploit a theoretically predicted signature of an SMBHB in the time domain: periodic variability caused by a mass accretion rate that is modulated by the binary’s orbital motion. We report our first significant periodically varying quasar detection from the systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey. Our SMBHB candidate, PSO J334.2028+01.4075, is a luminous radio-loud quasar at z = 2.060, with extended baseline photometry from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, as well as archival spectroscopy from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. The observed period (542 ± 15 days) and estimated black hole mass (log ({{M}BH}/{{M}⊙ })=9.97+/- 0.50) correspond to an orbital separation of 7-4+8 Schwarzschild radii (˜ 0.006-0.003+0.007 pc), assuming the rest-frame period of the quasar variability traces the orbital period of the binary. This SMBHB candidate, discovered at the peak redshift for SMBH mergers, is in a physically stable configuration for a circumbinary accretion disk and within the regime of GW-driven orbital decay. Our search with PS1 is a benchmark study for the exciting capabilities of LSST, which will have orders of magnitude larger survey power and will potentially pinpoint the locations of thousands of SMBHBs in the variable night sky.

  13. A long-term space astrophysics research program: The evolution of the quasar continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.

    1993-01-01

    The research program supported by this grant now has great momentum. Numerous papers are in progress, and a strong multi-wavelength observing program is rapidly accumulating data on samples of high redshift quasars across the spectrum. ROSAT spectra of quasars continue to yield surprises. Of four z = 3 quasars with X-ray spectra, three show strong absorption. This contrasts strongly with the situation for luminous AGN at low redshifts where fewer than 1 in 20 show X-ray absorption. A new site for this absorption is probably needed, either around the quasar (e.g. in a cluster cooling flow) or along the line of sight (e.g. in a Damped Lyman-alpha system). The unabsorbed quasar allows limits on the physical conditions in a damped Lyman-alpha cloud to be calculated, and will allow a X-ray Gunn-Peterson test to be applied that will limit the fraction of the closure mass in an intergalactic medium. The X-ray spectral indices of these z = 3 quasars show no change from those of similar objects at low z, suggesting that 'short-lifetime' models apply. Eight other z = 3-4 quasars have been detected and their energy distributions from X-rays to Infrared (using new infrared spectrographs) have been compiled. These are now being compared with the low z continua from the 'Atlas of Quasar Energy Distributions' to search for evolutionary changes. The discovery of a likely warm absorber in 3C351 made recognition of another example simple. Also, modeling of the conditions in the absorber in 3C351 using the OVI absorption line from HST and the high ionization emission lines, suggests that the broad line region is indeed the origin of the warm absorber in this quasar, and by extension, others. Warm absorbers can now be used as a new diagnostic of this region. The X-ray spectrum of a 'Red Quasar', 3C212, has a cut-off spectrum, which could be fitted by an absorbed power-law, or more remarkably, by an unabsorbed black body. Using our quasi-simultaneous optical data and photoionization

  14. A SIMPLE MODEL FOR QUASAR DEMOGRAPHICS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; White, Martin

    2013-01-10

    We present a simple model for the relationship between quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos from 0.5 < z < 6. In the model, black hole (BH) mass is linearly related to galaxy mass, and galaxies are connected to dark matter halos via empirically constrained relations. A simple 'scattered' light bulb model for quasars is adopted, wherein BHs shine at a fixed fraction of the Eddington luminosity during accretion episodes, and Eddington ratios are drawn from a lognormal distribution that is redshift independent. This model has two free, physically meaningful parameters at each redshift: the normalization of the M {sub BH}-M {sub gal} relation and the quasar duty cycle; these parameters are fit to the observed quasar luminosity function (LF) over the interval 0.5 < z < 6. This simple model provides an excellent fit to the LF at all epochs and also successfully predicts the observed projected two-point correlation of quasars from 0.5 < z < 2.5. It is significant that a single quasar duty cycle at each redshift is capable of reproducing the extant observations. The data are therefore consistent with a scenario wherein quasars are equally likely to exist in galaxies, and therefore dark matter halos, over a wide range in masses. The knee in the quasar LF is a reflection of the knee in the stellar-mass-halo-mass relation. Future constraints on the quasar LF and quasar clustering at high redshift will provide strong constraints on the model. In the model, the autocorrelation function of quasars becomes a strong function of luminosity only at the very highest luminosities and will be difficult to observe because such quasars are so rare. Cross-correlation techniques may provide useful constraints on the bias of such rare objects. The simplicity of the model allows for rapid generation of quasar mock catalogs from N-body simulations that match the observed LF and clustering to high redshift.

  15. Hubble space telescope/cosmic origins spectrograph observations of the quasar Q0302–003: Probing the He II reionization epoch and QSO proximity effects

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, David; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-03-20

    Q0302–003 (z = 3.2860 ± 0.0005) was the first quasar discovered that showed a He II Gunn-Peterson trough, a sign of incomplete helium reionization at z ≳ 2.9. We present its Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-UV medium-resolution spectrum, which resolves many spectral features for the first time, allowing study of the quasar itself, the intergalactic medium, and quasar proximity effects. Q0302–003 has a harder intrinsic extreme-UV spectral index than previously claimed, as determined from both a direct fit to the spectrum (yielding α{sub ν} ≈ –0.8) and the helium-to-hydrogen ion ratio in the quasar's line-of-sight proximity zone. Intergalactic absorption along this sightline shows that the helium Gunn-Peterson trough is largely black in the range 2.87 < z < 3.20, apart from ionization due to local sources, indicating that helium reionization has not completed at these redshifts. However, we tentatively report a detection of nonzero flux in the high-redshift trough when looking at low-density regions, but zero flux in higher-density regions. This constrains the He II fraction to be about 1% in the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) and possibly a factor of a few higher in the IGM as a whole, suggesting helium reionization has progressed substantially by z ∼ 3.1. The Gunn-Peterson trough recovers to a He II Lyα forest at z < 2.87. We confirm a transmission feature due to the ionization zone around a z = 3.05 quasar just off the sightline, and resolve the feature for the first time. We discover a similar such feature possibly caused by a luminous z = 3.23 quasar further from the sightline, which suggests that this quasar has been luminous for >34 Myr.

  16. Changing Look Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul J.; MacLeod, Chelsea; Anderson, Scott F.; Eracleous, Michael; Ruan, John J.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Graham, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion onto black holes (BH) illuminates fascinating physics from the stellar mass BHs in Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) to the supermassive black holes (SMBH) in Seyferts and quasars. Alas, BH accretion regions are too compact to be spatially resolved. Temporal changes in XRB spectral states have gone a long way to unravel the accretion physics in XRBs, and suggest powerful theoretical and observational analogies to quasars. However, simple mass scaling to SMBHs suggests impractically long timescales (millenia) for accretion state transitions in quasars. However, large spectral state changes in quasars have now been detected that both inform and invigorate debates about accretion theory and the nature of historical quasar classes (e.g., Type 1 vs Type 2). In the last couple of years, a dozen luminous "changing-look quasars" (CLQs) were discovered to exhibit strong, persistent changes in luminosity, accompanied by the dramatic emergence or disappearance of broad emission-line (BEL) components. The availability of repeat spectroscopy for large samples of quasars provided by Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its ongoing Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) now extend this rare and remarkable phenomenon to regimes of luminosity and redshift that overlap the huge cosmological samples of quasars in the SDSS. We review the current understanding of these events, and upcoming possibilities for their detection, characterization and modeling.

  17. C IV emission-line properties and systematic trends in quasar black hole mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-09-01

    Black hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z ≳ 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity width of the C IV λ λ1548, 1550 broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the C IV emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km s-1 to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Hα λ6565 emission line, for 19 luminous (LBol = 46.5-47.5 erg s-1) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 < z < 2.7, with C IV emission lines spanning the full range of blueshifts present in the population. A strong correlation between C IV velocity width and blueshift is found and, at large blueshifts, >2000 km s-1, the velocity widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black hole masses, based on the full width at half-maximum of the C IV emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of 5 at large blueshifts. A larger sample of quasar spectra with both C IV and H β, or Hα, emission lines will allow quantitative corrections to C IV-based black hole masses as a function of blueshift to be derived. We find that quasars with large C IV blueshifts possess high Eddington luminosity ratios and that the fraction of high-blueshift quasars in a flux-limited sample is enhanced by a factor of approximately 4 relative to a sample limited by black hole mass.

  18. The Large Area KX Quasar Survey: Photometric Redshift Selection and the Complete Quasar Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Natasha; Hewett, P. C.; Peroux, C.

    2013-01-01

    We have completed a large area, ˜600 square degree, spectroscopic survey for luminous quasars flux-limited in the K-band. The survey utilises the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) in regions of sky within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint. We exploit the K-band excess (KX) of all quasars with respect to Galactic stars in combination with a custom-built photometric redshift/classification scheme to identify quasar candidates for spectroscopic follow-up observations. The survey is complete to K≤16.6, and includes >3200 known quasars from the SDSS, with more than 250 additional confirmed quasars from the KX-selection which eluded the SDSS quasar selection algorithm. The selection is >95% complete with respect to known SDSS quasars and >95% efficient, largely independent of redshift and magnitude. The KX-selected quasars will provide new constraints on the fraction of luminous quasars reddened by dust with E(B-V)≤0.5 mag. Several projects utilizing the KX quasars are ongoing, including a spectroscopic campaign searching for dusty quasar intervening absorption systems. The KX survey is a well-defined sample of quasars useful for investigating the properties of luminous quasars with intermediate levels of dust extinction either within their host galaxies or due to intervening absorption systems.

  19. SDSS J013127.34–032100.1: A NEWLY DISCOVERED RADIO-LOUD QUASAR AT z = 5.18 WITH EXTREMELY HIGH LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Wei-Min; Bai, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Ai, Yanli; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, William N.; Kim, Minjin; Wang, Ran; and others

    2014-11-10

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34–032100.1 (J0131–0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131–0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ∼100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L {sub bol} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1}, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131–0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  20. SDSS J013127.34-032100.1: A Newly Discovered Radio-loud Quasar at z = 5.18 with Extremely High Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei-Min; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Bai, Jin-Ming; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, William N.; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Kim, Minjin; Wang, Ran; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Ai, Yanli; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li; Xin, Yu-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34-032100.1 (J0131-0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131-0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ~100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L bol ~ 1.1 × 1048 erg s-1, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131-0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 109 M ⊙, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  1. Exceptional X-ray Weak Quasars and Their Implications for Accretion Flows, Winds, and Broad Line Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, William; Luo, Bin; Hall, Patrick; Wu, Jianfeng; SDSS Weak-Line Quasars Team

    2016-03-01

    Actively accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are found, nearly universally, to create luminous X-ray emission. However, there are apparent X-ray weak exceptions to this rule that are now providing novel insights, including many weak-line quasars (WLQs). We have been systematically studying such X-ray weak quasars with Chandra observations and near-infrared spectroscopy, and I will report results on their remarkable properties and describe implications for models of the accretion disk/corona, quasar winds, and emission-line formation. We have found evidence that many of these WLQs have geometrically thick inner accretion disks, likely due to high Eddington ratios, that shield the high-ionization broad line region from the relevant ionizing continuum. This basic model can explain, in a unified manner, the weak lines and diverse X-ray properties of WLQs. Such shielding may, more generally, play a significant role in shaping the broad distributions of quasar emission-line equivalent widths and blueshifts. An expectation of our model is that WLQs should be more common at high redshift, and they may serve as a signature of rapid SMBH growth at early cosmic times. I will end by discussing some promising ongoing studies that are extending these ideas.

  2. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; and others

    2014-10-10

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ{sub eff} ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  3. The Evolution of Metals and Dust in the High-Redshift Universe (z greater than 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2007-01-01

    Dusty hyperluminous galaxies in the early universe provide unique environments for studying the role of massive stars in the formation and destruction of dust. At redshifts above approx. 6, when the universe was less than approx. 1 Gyr old, dust could have only condensed in the explosive ejecta of Type-II supernovae (SNe), since most of the progenitors of the AGB stars, the major alternative source of interstellar dust, did not have time to evolve off the main sequence. I will present analytical models for the evolution of the gas, dust, and metals in high redshift galaxies, with a special application to SDSS J1148+5251, a hyperluminous quasar at $z = 6.4$. I will also discuss possible star formation scenarios consistent with observational constraints on the dust and gas content of this object.

  4. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Lighting Up the High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, Vicki Louise

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous events in the Universe with Egamma,iso ˜ 1048-54 erg. Leading models hypothesize that GRBs are created from inter- nal collisions within collimated and ultrarelativistic jets. The jets then shock-heat the surrounding material (e.g. interstellar medium) to create GRB afterglows. These afterglows are extremely useful probes of the Universe because long GRBs are (1) bright events that can be used as backlights for absorption studies, (2) able to probe at all redshifts massive stars exist, and (3) transient events that allow us to follow- up on the host galaxies at late times. In this thesis we study the environments of GRBs. We first explore the relationship between GRB and supernova (SN) using a nearby GRB-SN (GRB 130702A/SN 2013dx) at z = 0.145. There are only nine other GRB-SNe that were close enough to have extensive spectroscopic and photometric follow-up of the SN at late times. We create a quasi-bolometic light curve of SN 2013dx and fit an analytical equation to the quasi-bolometric light curve combined with measurements of the photospheric velocity to determine SN parameters: mass of 56Ni, kinetic energy, and ejecta mass. We examine the relationship between SN parameters and E gamma,iso for the 10 well-studied GRB-SNe, but find no correlations despite numerical simulation predictions that the mass of 56Ni should correlate with the degree of asymmetry. We then move to larger distance scales and use GRB afterglows as bright back- lights to study distant galaxies. We examine the galactic environments of Damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs; NHI ≥ 1020.3 cm-2 ) identified with GRB afterglows at z ˜ 2 - 6. We use late-time photometry after the GRB afterglow has faded to determine star formation rates (SFRs) from rest-frame ultraviolet measurements or spectral energy distribution (SED) models from multiband photometry. We com- pare our sample's SFRs to a sample of quasars (QSOs) DLA host galaxies. Despite the

  5. Detectability of cold streams into high-redshift galaxies by absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Dekel, Avishai; Sternberg, Amiel; Gnat, Orly; Ceverino, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Cold gas streaming along the dark matter filaments of the cosmic web is predicted to be the major source of fuel for disc buildup, violent disc instability and star formation in massive galaxies at high redshift. We investigate to what extent such cold gas is detectable in the extended circumgalactic environment of galaxies via Lyα absorption and selected low-ionization metal absorption lines. We model the expected absorption signatures using high-resolution zoom-in adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations. In the post-processing, we distinguish between self-shielded gas and unshielded gas. In the self-shielded gas, which is optically thick to Lyman continuum radiation, we assume pure collisional ionization for species with an ionization potential greater than 13.6 eV. In the optically-thin, unshielded gas, these species are also photoionized by the metagalactic radiation. In addition to absorption of radiation from background quasars, we compute the absorption line profiles of radiation emitted by the galaxy at the centre of the same halo. We predict the strength of the absorption signal for individual galaxies without stacking. We find that the Lyα absorption profiles produced by the streams are consistent with observations of absorption and emission Lyα profiles in high-redshift galaxies. Due to the low metallicities in the streams, and their low covering factors, the metal absorption features are weak and difficult to detect.

  6. AWAKENING OF THE HIGH-REDSHIFT BLAZAR CGRaBS J0809+5341

    SciTech Connect

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Ramya, S.; Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Sahayanathan, S.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2015-04-20

    CGRaBS J0809+5341, a high-redshift blazar at z = 2.144, underwent a giant optical outburst on 2014 April 19 when it brightened by ∼5 mag and reached an unfiltered apparent magnitude of 15.7 mag. This implies an absolute magnitude of −30.5 mag, making it one of the brightest quasars in the universe. This optical flaring triggered us to carry out observations during the decaying part of the flare covering a wide energy range using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, Swift, and ground-based optical facilities. For the first time, the source is detected in γ-rays by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A high optical polarization of ∼10% is also observed. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, the accretion disk luminosity and black hole mass are estimated as 1.5 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1} and 10{sup 8.4} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. Using a single zone leptonic emission model, we reproduce the spectral energy distribution of the source during the flaring activity. This analysis suggests that the emission region is probably located outside the broad-line region, and the jet becomes radiatively efficient. We also show that the overall properties of CGRaBS J0809+5341 seem to not be in agreement with the general properties observed in high-redshift blazars up to now.

  7. The High-redshift Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey: The Spitzer Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno-Mahler, R.; Blanton, E. L.; Brodwin, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Golden-Marx, E.; Decker, B.; Wing, J. D.; Anand, G.

    2017-07-01

    We present 190 galaxy cluster candidates (most at high redshift) based on galaxy overdensity measurements in the Spitzer/IRAC imaging of the fields surrounding 646 bent, double-lobed radio sources drawn from the Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey. The COBRA sources were chosen as objects in the Very Large Array FIRST survey that lack optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to a limit of m r = 22, making them likely to lie at high redshift. This is confirmed by our observations: the redshift distribution of COBRA sources with estimated redshifts peaks near z = 1 and extends out to z≈ 3. Cluster candidates were identified by comparing our target fields to a background field and searching for statistically significant (≥slant 2σ ) excesses in the galaxy number counts surrounding the radio sources; 190 fields satisfy the ≥slant 2σ limit. We find that 530 fields (82.0%) have a net positive excess of galaxies surrounding the radio source. Many of the fields with positive excesses but below the 2σ cutoff are likely to be galaxy groups. Forty-one COBRA sources are quasars with known spectroscopic redshifts, which may be tracers of some of the most distant clusters known.

  8. Awakening of The High-Redshift Blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Stalin, C. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Ramya, S.; Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Sahayanathan, S.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2015-04-01

    CGRaBS J0809+5341, a high-redshift blazar at z = 2.144, underwent a giant optical outburst on 2014 April 19 when it brightened by ˜5 mag and reached an unfiltered apparent magnitude of 15.7 mag. This implies an absolute magnitude of -30.5 mag, making it one of the brightest quasars in the universe. This optical flaring triggered us to carry out observations during the decaying part of the flare covering a wide energy range using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, Swift, and ground-based optical facilities. For the first time, the source is detected in γ-rays by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A high optical polarization of ˜10% is also observed. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, the accretion disk luminosity and black hole mass are estimated as 1.5 × 1045 erg s-1 and 108.4 M⊙, respectively. Using a single zone leptonic emission model, we reproduce the spectral energy distribution of the source during the flaring activity. This analysis suggests that the emission region is probably located outside the broad-line region, and the jet becomes radiatively efficient. We also show that the overall properties of CGRaBS J0809+5341 seem to not be in agreement with the general properties observed in high-redshift blazars up to now.

  9. Mean and extreme radio properties of quasars and the origin of radio emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kratzer, Rachael M.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of both the radio-loud fraction (RLF) and (using stacking analysis) the mean radio loudness of quasars. We consider how these properties evolve as a function of redshift and luminosity, black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate, and parameters related to the dominance of a wind in the broad emission-line region. We match the FIRST source catalog to samples of luminous quasars (both spectroscopic and photometric), primarily from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After accounting for catastrophic errors in BH mass estimates at high redshift, we find that both the RLF and the mean radio luminosity increase for increasing BH mass and decreasing accretion rate. Similarly, both the RLF and mean radio loudness increase for quasars that are argued to have weaker radiation line driven wind components of the broad emission-line region. In agreement with past work, we find that the RLF increases with increasing optical/UV luminosity and decreasing redshift, while the mean radio loudness evolves in the exact opposite manner. This difference in behavior between the mean radio loudness and the RLF in L−z may indicate selection effects that bias our understanding of the evolution of the RLF; deeper surveys in the optical and radio are needed to resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we argue that radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) quasars may be parallel sequences, but where only RQ quasars at one extreme of the distribution are likely to become RL, possibly through slight differences in spin and/or merger history.

  10. Survey of approaches for targeting quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxia; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2012-09-01

    The study of quasars is of great importance to the formation and evolution of galaxies and the early history of the universe, especially high redshift quasars. With the development and employment of large sky spectroscopic survey projects (e.g. 2dF, SDSS), the number of quasars increases to more than 200,000. For improving the efficiency of high-cost telescopes, careful selecting observational targets is necessary. Therefore various targeting quasar algorithms are used and developed based on different data. We review them in detail. Some statistical approaches are based on photometric color, variability, UV-excess, BRX, radio properties, color-color cut and so on. Automated methods include support vector machines (SVMs), kernel density estimation (KDE), artificial neural networks (ANNs), extreme-deconvolution method, probabilistic principal surfaces (PPS) and the negative entropy clustering (NEC), etc. In addition, we touch upon some quasar candidate catalogues created by different algorithms.

  11. ALMA Examines a Distant Quasar Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    The dust continuum (top) and the [CII] emission (bottom) maps for the region around J1120+0641. [Adapted from Venemans et al. 2017]A team of scientists has used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to explore the host galaxy of the most distant quasar known. Their observations may help us to build a picture of how the first supermassive black holes in the universe formed and evolved.Faraway Monsters and Their GalaxiesWe know that quasars the incredibly luminous and active centers of some distant galaxies are powered by accreting, supermassive black holes. These monstrous powerhouses have been detected out to redshifts of z 7, when the universe was younger than a billion years old.Though weve observed over a hundred quasars at high redshift, we still dont understand how these early supermassive black holes formed, or whether the black holes and the galaxies that host them co-evolved. In order to answer questions like these, however, we first need to gather information about the properties and behavior of various supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.A team of scientists led by Bram Venemans (Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Germany) recently used the unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of ALMA as well as the Very Large Array and the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to examine the most distant quasar currently known, J1120+0641, located at a redshift of z = 7.1.A High-Resolution LookThe teams observations of the dust and gas emission from the quasars host galaxy revealed a number of intriguing things:The red and blue sides of the [CII] emission line are shown here as contours, demonstrating that theres no ordered rotational motion of the gas on kpc scales. [Adapted from Venemans et al. 2017]The majority of the galaxys emission is very compact. Around 80% of the observed flux came from a region of only 11.5 kpc in diameter.Despite the fact that the 2.4-billion-solar-mass black hole at the galaxys center is accreting at

  12. Local analogs of high-redshift galaxies: Interstellar medium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2017-03-01

    Local analog galaxies play an important role in understanding the properties of high-redshift galaxies. We present a method to select a type of local analog that closely resembles the ionized interstellar medium conditions in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their locations in the [O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. The ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ~= 2 - 3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ~= 0.6 dex and ~= 0.9 dex, respectively. We find that the high sSFR and SFR surface density can enhance the electron densities and the ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  13. THE AzTEC/SMA INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang Jiasheng; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Wilner, David J.; Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant W.; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason; Perera, Thushara; Peck, Alison B.; Hughes, David H.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Kim, Sungeun; Lowenthal, James D.

    2009-10-10

    We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size approx2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional AzTEC 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology-including the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared-of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation-which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions-and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.

  14. Cosmology with AGN: can we use quasars as standard candles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.; Lusso, E.

    2017-03-01

    The non-linear relation between X-ray and UV luminosity in quasars can be used to estimate their distance. Recently, we have shown that despite the large dispersion of the relation, a Hubble Diagram made of large samples of quasars can provide unique constraints on cosmology at high redshift. Furthermore, the dispersion of the relation is heavily affected by measurement errors: until now we have used serendipitous X-ray observations, but dedicated observations would significantly increase the precision of the distance estimates. We discuss the future role of XMM in this new field, showing (1) the fundamental contribution of the Serendipitous Source Catalogue and of large surveys, and (2) the breakthrough advancements we may achieve with the observation of a large number of SDSS quasars at high redshift: every ~10 quasars observed at z$\\sim$3 would be equivalent to discovering a supernova at that redshift.

  15. Cosmology with AGN: can we use quasars as standard candles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear relation between X-ray and UV luminosity in quasars can be used to estimate their distance. Recently, we have shown that despite the large dispersion of the relation, a Hubble Diagram made of large samples of quasars can provide unique constraints on cosmology at high redshift. Furthermore, the dispersion of the relation is heavily affected by measurement errors: until now we have used serendipitous X-ray observations, but dedicated observations would significantly increase the precision of the distance estimates. I discuss the future role of XMM in this new field, showing (1) the fundamental contribution of the Serendipitous Source Catalogue and of large surveys, and (2) the breakthrough advancements we may achieve with the observation of a large number of SDSS quasars at high redshift: every 12-15 quasars observed at z~3 would be equivalent to discovering a supernova at that redshift.

  16. CMB quenching of high-redshift radio-loud AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Haardt, F.; Ciardi, B.; Sbarrato, T.; Gallo, E.; Tavecchio, F.; Celotti, A.

    2015-10-01

    The very existence of more than a dozen of high-redshift (z ≳ 4) blazars indicates that a much larger population of misaligned powerful jetted active galactic nucleus (AGN) was already in place when the Universe was ≲1.5 Gyr old. Such parent population proved to be very elusive, and escaped direct detection in radio surveys so far. High-redshift blazars themselves seem to be failing in producing extended radio lobes, raising questions about the connection between such class and the vaster population of radio galaxies. We show that the interaction of the jet electrons with the intense cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation explains the lack of extended radio emission in high-redshift blazars and in their parent population, helping to explain the apparently missing misaligned counterparts of high-redshift blazars. On the other hand, the emission from the more compact and more magnetized hotspots are less affected by the enhanced CMB energy density. By modelling the spectral energy distribution of blazar lobes and hotspots, we find that most of them should be detectable by low-frequency deep radio observations, e.g. by LOw-Frequency ARray for radio astronomy and by relatively deep X-ray observations with good angular resolution, e.g. by the Chandra satellite. At high redshifts, the emission of a misaligned relativistic jet, being debeamed, is missed by current large sky area surveys. The isotropic flux produced in the hotspots can be below ˜1 mJy and the isotropic lobe radio emission is quenched by the CMB cooling. Consequently, even sources with very powerful jets can go undetected in current radio surveys, and misclassified as radio-quiet AGNs.

  17. Quasars Probing Quasars: The quasar pair catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Joseph; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Fumagalli, Michele; Myers, Adam D.; Bartle, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    The rare close projection of two quasars on the sky provides the opportunity to study the host galaxy environment of a foreground quasar in absorption against the Lyman-alpha emission of a background quasar. For over a decade the "Quasars probing quasars" series has utilized this technique to further the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution in the presence of a quasar at z>2, resolving scales as small as a galactic disc, where the UV ionizing flux from the quasar can exceed ~104 times the ambient UV background. This poster presents the public release of the quasar pair catalog utilized in these studies. In addition, the catalog also includes quasar pair members at z<2, gravitational lens candidates and quasars closely separated in redshift that are useful for small-scale clustering studies. We outline the key contributions made by this series over the last ten years, summarize the imaging and spectroscopic data used for target selection, discuss the target selection methodologies, describe the catalog content, and explore some avenues for future work. This poster was partially supported by NSF grants 1515404 and AST-1412981.

  18. Quasar target selection fiber efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberg, Heidi; Yanny, Brian

    1996-05-01

    We present estimates of the efficiency for finding QSOs as a function of limiting magnitude and galactic latitude. From these estimates, we have formulated a target selection strategy that should net 80,000 QSOs in the north galactic cap with an average of 70 fibers per plate, not including fibers reserved for high-redshift quasars. With this plan, we expect 54% of the targets to be QSOs. The North Galactic Cap is divided into two zones of high and low stellar density. We use about five times as many fibers for QSO candidates in the half of the survey with the lower stellar density as we use in the half with higher stellar density. The current plan assigns 15% of the fibers to FIRST radio sources; if these are not available, those fibers would be allocated to lower probability QSO sources, dropping the total number of QSOs by a small factor (5%). We will find about 17,000 additional quasars in the southern strips, and maybe a few more at very high redshift. Use was made of two data sets: the star and quasar simulated test data generated by Don Schneider, and the data from UJFN plate surveys by Koo (1986) and Kron (1980). This data was compared to results from the Palomar-Green Survey and a recent survey by Pat Osmer and collaborators.

  19. Quasar target selection fiber efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, H.; Yanny, B.

    1996-05-01

    We present estimates of the efficiency for finding QSOs as a function of limiting magnitude and galactic latitude. From these estimates, we have formulated a target selection strategy that should net 80,000 QSOs in the north galactic cap with an average of 70 fibers per plate, not including fibers reserved for high-redshift quasars. With this plan, we expect 54% of the targets to be QSOs. The North Galactic Cap is divided into two zones of high and low stellar density. We use about five times as many fibers for QSO candidates in the half of the survey with the lower stellar density as we use in the half with higher stellar density. The current plan assigns 15% of the fibers to FIRST radio sources; if these are not available, those fibers would be allocated to lower probability QSO sources, dropping the total number of QSOs by a small factor (5%). We will find about 17,000 additional quasars in the southern strips, and maybe a few more at very high redshift. Use was made of two data sets: the star and quasar simulated test data generated by Don Schneider, and the data from UJFN plate surveys by Koo (1986) and Kron (1980). This data was compared to results from the Palomar-Green Survey and a recent survey by Pat Osmer and collaborators.

  20. The Most Luminous Heavily Obscured Quasars Have a High Merger Fraction: Morphological Study of WISE-selected Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ˜ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (˜1014 L ⊙) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  1. Mapping metals at high redshift with far-infrared lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Yue, B.; Vallini, L.; Maiolino, R.; Feruglio, C.

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic metal enrichment is one of the key physical processes regulating galaxy formation and the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, determining the metal content of the most distant galaxies has proven so far almost impossible; also, absorption line experiments at z ≳ 6 become increasingly difficult because of instrumental limitations and the paucity of background quasars. With the advent of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), far-infrared emission lines provide a novel tool to study early metal enrichment. Among these, the [C II] line at 157.74 μm is the most luminous line emitted by the interstellar medium of galaxies. It can also resonant scatter comic microwave background (CMB) photons inducing characteristic intensity fluctuations (ΔI/ICMB) near the peak of the CMB spectrum, thus allowing to probe the low-density IGM. We compute both [C II] galaxy emission and metal-induced CMB fluctuations at z ˜ 6 by using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and produce mock observations to be directly compared with ALMA Band 6 data (νobs ˜ 272 GHz). The [C II] line flux is correlated with MUV as log (F_peak/μ Jy)= -27.205 -2.253 M_UV -0.038 M_UV^2. Such relation is in very good agreement with recent ALMA observations of MUV < -20 galaxies by e.g. Maiolino et al. and Capak et al. We predict that a MUV = -19 (MUV = -18) galaxy can be detected at 4σ in ≃40 (2000) h, respectively. CMB resonant scattering can produce ≃ ± 0.1 μJy/beam emission/absorptions features that are very challenging to be detected with current facilities. The best strategy to detect these signals consists in the stacking of deep ALMA observations pointing fields with known MUV ≃ -19 galaxies. This would allow to simultaneously detect both [C II] emission from galactic reionization sources and CMB fluctuations produced by z ˜ 6 metals.

  2. High-z X-ray Obscured Quasars in Galaxies with Extreme Mid-IR/Optical Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; Vignali, C.; Salvato, M.; Grappioni, C.

    2009-05-01

    Extreme Optical/Mid-IR color cuts have been used to uncover a population of dust-enshrouded, mid-IR luminous galaxies at high redshifts. Several lines of evidence point towards the presence of an heavily absorbed, possibly Compton-thick quasar at the heart of these systems. Nonetheless, the X-ray spectral properties of these intriguing sources still remain largely unexplored. Here we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of a large sample of 44 extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs) with F24 μm/FR>2000 and F24 μm>1.3 mJy selected from a 6 deg2 region in the SWIRE fields. The application of our selection criteria to a wide area survey has been capable of unveiling a population of X-ray luminous, absorbed z>1 quasars which is mostly missed in the traditional optical/X-ray surveys performed so far. Advances in the understanding of the X-ray properties of these recently-discovered sources by Simbol-X observations will be also discussed.

  3. Galaxy-wide outflows in z ~ 1.5 luminous obscured quasars revealed through near-IR slit-resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, M.; Brusa, M.; Cresci, G.; Comastri, A.; Lanzuisi, G.; Lusso, E.; Marconi, A.; Salvato, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bongiorno, A.; Mainieri, V.; Maiolino, R.; Mignoli, M.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: The co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) requires that some sort of feedback mechanism is operating during the active galactic nuclei (AGN) phases. AGN driven winds are the most likely candidates for such feedback mechanism, but direct observational evidence of their existence and of their effects on the host galaxies are still scarce and their physical origin is still hotly debated. Methods: X-Shooter observations of a sample of X-ray selected, obscured quasars at z ~ 1.5, selected on the basis of their observed red colors and X-ray-to-optical flux ratio, have shown the presence of outflowing ionized gas identified by broad [OIII] emission lines in 6 out of 8 objects, confirming the efficiency of the selection criteria. Here we present slit-resolved spectroscopy for the two brightest sources, XID2028 and XID5321, to study the complex emission and absorption line kinematics. Results: We detect outflow extended out to ~10 kpc from the central black hole, both as blueshifted and redshifted emission. Interestingly, we also detect kpc scale outflows in the [OII] emission lines and in the neutral gas component, traced by the sodium D and magnesium absorption lines, confirming that a substantial amount of the outflowing mass is in the form of neutral gas. Conclusions: The measured gas velocities and the outflow kinetic powers, inferred under reasonable assumptions on the geometry and physical properties of these two systems, favor an AGN origin for the observed winds.

  4. Quasar Metallicities and Host Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leah, Simon E.; Hamann, F. W.

    2006-12-01

    From studies of galaxies in the local Universe we find the masses of the galactic spheroidal component corresponds with the mass of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). This relation is known as the M(gal) M(BH) relation, and suggests a close relationship between the formation of the galaxy and the black hole. We study the metallicities near quasars at high redshift to observe this formation process in action. Associated absorption lines (AALs) provide us with a unique tool for this study, because these lines have a high probability of forming close to the quasar. Most of the work so far, using the emission lines, suggests that quasar environments are typically metal rich, with gas-phase metallicities near solar or higher at all observed redshifts. However, other independant abundance checks, such as AALs, are essential in order to confirm these results. We use very high resolution echelle spectra from VLT-UVES for 8 high redshift (z of 2 to z of 4.6) quasars, selected to contain candidate intrinsic absorbers, and ecompassing a typical rest-frame spectral range from approximatly 900 Angstroms to 2500 Angstroms, designed to include at least Lyman alpha and C IV spectral features. We perform one of the first analyses of absorption line metallicities in high redshift quasars and present lower limits on column densities, as well as estimates for the absorber locations relative to the quasar. We place rough estimates on the abundances where possible. We find covering fractions which vary with velocity, and a significant fraction of absorption lines which exhibit variability, indicating their intrinsic nature. Saturated lines inhibit concrete abundance analysis, but present excellent opportunities for future research proposals.

  5. Quasar Metallicities and Host Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Leah; Hamann, F.

    2007-12-01

    From studies of galaxies in the local Universe we find the masses of the galactic spheroidal component corresponds with the mass of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). This relation is known as the M(gal) - M(BH) relation, and suggests a close relationship between the formation of the galaxy and the black hole. We study the metallicities near quasars at high redshift to observe this formation process in action. Associated absorption lines (AALs) provide us with a unique tool for this study, because these lines have a high probability of forming close to the quasar. Most of the work so far, using the emission lines, suggests that quasar environments are typically metal rich, with gas-phase metallicities near solar or higher at all observed redshifts. However, other independent abundance checks, such as AALs, are essential in order to confirm these results. We use very high resolution echelle spectra from VLT-UVES, Keck-HIRES and Magellan-MIKE for 18 high redshift (z of 2 to z of 4.6) quasars, selected to contain candidate intrinsic absorbers, and encompassing a typical rest-frame spectral range from approximately 900 Angstroms to 2500 Angstroms, designed to include at least Lyman alpha and C IV spectral features. We perform one of the first analyses of absorption line metallicities in high redshift quasars and present column densities, as well as estimates for the absorber locations relative to the quasar. We place solid limits on the C/H abundances, and find a wide range of values, from one hundredth solar to several times solar. We find covering fractions which vary with velocity, indicating the intrinsic nature of the absorbing gas. Saturated lines inhibit concrete abundance analysis in some systems, but are still useful for placing limits based on Gaussian fits to the lines.

  6. Strong magnetic fields in normal galaxies at high redshift.

    PubMed

    Bernet, Martin L; Miniati, Francesco; Lilly, Simon J; Kronberg, Philipp P; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava

    2008-07-17

    The origin and growth of magnetic fields in galaxies is still something of an enigma. It is generally assumed that seed fields are amplified over time through the dynamo effect, but there are few constraints on the timescale. It was recently demonstrated that field strengths as traced by rotation measures of distant (and hence ancient) quasars are comparable to those seen today, but it was unclear whether the high fields were in the unusual environments of the quasars themselves or distributed along the lines of sight. Here we report high-resolution spectra that demonstrate that the quasars with strong Mg II absorption lines are unambiguously associated with larger rotation measures. Because Mg ii absorption occurs in the haloes of normal galaxies along the sightlines to the quasars, this association requires that organized fields of surprisingly high strengths are associated with normal galaxies when the Universe was only about one-third of its present age.

  7. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-11

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  8. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Pablo A.; Lasky, Paul D.; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳1010M⊙ can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  9. VANDELS: Exploring the Physics of High-redshift Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLure, R.; Pentericci, L.; VANDELS Team

    2017-03-01

    VANDELS is a new ESO spectroscopic Public Survey targeting the high-redshift Universe. Exploiting the red sensitivity of the refurbished VIMOS spectrograph, the survey is obtaining ultra-deep optical spectroscopy of around 2100 galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0 < z < 7.0, with 85% of its targets selected to be at z ≥ 3. The fundamental aim of the survey is to provide the high signal-to-noise spectra necessary to measure key physical properties such as stellar population ages, metallicities and outflow velocities from detailed absorption-line studies. By targeting two extragalactic survey fields with superb multi-wavelength imaging data, VANDELS will produce a unique legacy dataset for exploring the physics underpinning high-redshift galaxy evolution.

  10. Gravitational microlensing of high-redshift supernovae by compact objects

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, K.P. )

    1991-06-01

    An analysis of the effect of microlensing by a cosmologically dominant density of compact objects is performed, using high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia's) as probes. The compact objects are modeled as a three-dimensional distribution of point masses, and Monte Carlo simulations are done to calculate the resulting amplification probability distributions for several column densities and cosmologies. By combining these distributions with the intrinsic SN Ia luminosity function and comparing with the results for a perfectly smooth universe, estimates are made of the number of supernovae that would need to be observed to confirm or rule out this lensing scenario. It is found that about 1000 SN Ia's with redshifts of z = 1 would be needed to perform this test, which is beyond what current searches can hope to accomplish. Observations of many fewer high-redshift supernovae, used merely as standard candles, appears a promising way of distinguishing between different cosmological models. 35 refs.

  11. High-redshift major mergers weakly enhance star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensch, J.; Renaud, F.; Bournaud, F.; Duc, P.-A.; Agertz, O.; Amram, P.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Elmegreen, B.; Emsellem, E.; Jog, C. J.; Perret, V.; Struck, C.; Teyssier, R.

    2017-02-01

    Galaxy mergers are believed to trigger strong starbursts. This is well assessed by observations in the local Universe. However, the efficiency of this mechanism has poorly been tested so far for high-redshift, actively star-forming, galaxies. We present a suite of pc-resolution hydrodynamical numerical simulations to compare the star formation process along a merging sequence of high- and low-redshift galaxies, by varying the gas mass fraction between the two models. We show that, for the same orbit, high-redshift gas-rich mergers are less efficient than low-redshift ones at producing starbursts; the star formation rate excess induced by the merger and its duration are both around 10 times lower than in the low gas fraction case. The mechanisms that account for the star formation triggering at low redshift - the increased compressive turbulence, gas fragmentation, and central gas inflows - are only mildly, if not at all, enhanced for high gas fraction galaxy encounters. Furthermore, we show that the strong stellar feedback from the initially high star formation rate in high-redshift galaxies does not prevent an increase of the star formation during the merger. Our results are consistent with the observed increase of the number of major mergers with increasing redshift being faster than the respective increase in the number of starburst galaxies.

  12. Searching for Extreme High Redshift Galaxies with HST Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John R.; Maseda, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing capability, we are now able to push galaxy evolution studies to extreme high redshift (z>6). At these early times, the first galaxies begin forming stars but some of their light is quickly absorbed by the neutral intergalactic medium. The result is that the La line of hydrogen is lost. But, with the recent upgrades to HST, we can now utilize the unique multiplexing capacity of slitless grism spectroscopy to explore large samples of candidate systems. By taking near-IR spectra for for every object in the field-of-view simultaneously, we can begin searching for galaxies with a favorable circumgalactic gas distribution where La emission may be obtained. In this study we build on the work of 3D-HST to search for extreme high redshift galaxies (6high redshift galaxies. Follow-up of confirmed candidates will strengthen existing samples of distant galaxies and constrain properties of the early universe.

  13. Radio and Submillimeter Continuum Observations of High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Williams, Jonathan P.; Owen, Frazer N.

    2013-03-01

    Observing galaxies in the radio and submillimeter continuum has the advantage of being unaffected by dust extinction, which is a major drawback of studying galaxy evolution using optical data. Submillimeter single-dish surveys have made tremendous progress in understanding the high-redshift dusty population, but the low angular resolution of single-dish telescopes has also hampered these studies. Our recent JCMT and SMA imaging of high-redshift submillimeter sources revealed z > 4 objects that are radio and optically faint. Such objects cannot be easily identified with the combination of submillimeter single-dish and radio imaging. We also found a large fraction of multiple objects that are blended in single-dish images. Such objects may be early-stage mergers, or dusty starbursts in group environments. Since our work, larger surveys with PdBI and ALMA have been carried out to further address these issues. Additional to submillimeter imaging, future ultradeep EVLA imaging at 20 cm can also detect large samples of ultraluminous star forming galaxies at z ≳ 2. Sensitivities in radio and submillimeter observations have different redshift and dust temperature dependencies. Radio observations are also less affected by confusion. It will be necessary to combine deep surveys in both wavebands in order to achieve a more complete picture of the evolution of high-redshift star forming galaxies.

  14. A Catalog of Candidate High-redshift Blazars for GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Tersi M.; /SLAC /San Francisco State U.

    2006-09-27

    High-redshift blazars are promising candidates for detection by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). GLAST, expected to be launched in the Fall of 2007, is a high-energy gamma-ray observatory designed for making observations of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy band extending from 10 MeV to more than 200 GeV. It is estimated that GLAST will find several thousand blazars. The motivations for measuring the gamma-ray emission from distant blazars include the study of the high-energy emission processes occurring in these sources and an indirect measurement of the extragalactic background light. In anticipation of the launch of GLAST we have compiled a catalog of candidate high-redshift blazars. The criteria for sources chosen for the catalog were: high radio emission, high redshift, and a flat radio spectrum. A preliminary list of 307 radio sources brighter than 70mJy with a redshift z {ge} 2.5 was acquired using data from the NASA Extragalactic Database. Flux measurements of each source were obtained at two or more radio frequencies from surveys and catalogs to calculate their radio spectral indices {alpha}. The sources with a flat-radio spectrum ({alpha} {le} 0.5) were selected for the catalog, and the final catalog includes about 200 sources.

  15. Finding high-redshift voids using Lyman α forest tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Casey W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; White, Martin; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method of finding cosmic voids using tomographic maps of Lyα forest flux. We identify cosmological voids with radii of 2-12 h-1 Mpc in a large N-body simulation at z = 2.5, and characterize the signal of the high-redshift voids in density and Lyα forest flux. The void properties are similar to what has been found at lower redshifts, but they are smaller and have steeper radial density profiles. Similarly to what has been found for low-redshift voids, the radial velocity profiles have little scatter and agree very well with the linear theory prediction. We run the same void finder on an ideal Lyα flux field and tomographic reconstructions at various spatial samplings. We compare the tomographic map void catalogues to the density void catalogue and find good agreement even with modest-sized voids (r > 6 h-1 Mpc). Using our simple void-finding method, the configuration of the ongoing COSMOS Lyman Alpha Mapping And Tomography Observations (CLAMATO) survey covering 1 deg2 would provide a sample of about 100 high-redshift voids. We also provide void-finding forecasts for larger area surveys, and discuss how these void samples can be used to test modified gravity models, study high-redshift void galaxies, and to make an Alcock-Paczynski measurement. To aid future work in this area, we provide public access to our simulation products, catalogues, and sample tomographic flux maps.

  16. Investigating the Local and High Redshift Universe With Deep Survey Data and Ground-Based Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel Charles

    Large multiwavelength surveys are now driving the frontiers of astronomical research. I describe results from my work using data from two large astronomical surveys: the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), which has obtained deep photometric and spectroscopic data on two square degrees of the sky using many of the most powerful telescopes in the world, and the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey, which uses the highly sensitive slitless spectroscopic capability of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to detect star-forming galaxies over most of the universe's history. First I describe my work on the evolution of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function, an important observational quantity constraining the growth of the supermassive black holes in the early universe. I show that the number density of faint quasars declines rapidly above z ˜ 3. This result is discussed in the context of cosmic reionization and the coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes. Next I present results of a multi-year campaign of near-infrared spectroscopy with FIRE, a world-class near-infrared spectrometer on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope in Chile, targeting emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 2 discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our results showed that the typical emission-line galaxy at this redshift has low-metallicity, low dust obscuration, high ionization parameter, and little evidence for significant active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the emission lines. We also find evidence that high redshift star-forming galaxies have enhanced nitrogen abundances. This result has interesting implications for the nature of the star formation in such galaxies -- in particular, it could mean that a large fraction of such galaxies harbor substantial populations of Wolf-Rayet stars, which are massive, evolved stars ejecting large amounts of enriched matter into the interstellar medium. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of three

  17. Quasar microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. W.; Wambsganss, J.

    2010-09-01

    Quasar microlensing deals with the effect of compact objects along the line of sight on the apparent brightness of the background quasars. Due to the relative motion between quasar, lenses and observer, the microlensing magnification changes with time which results in uncorrelated brightness variations in the various images of multiple quasar systems. The amplitudes of the signal can be more than a magnitude with time scales of weeks to months to years. The effect is due to the “granular” nature of the gravitational microlenses—stars or other compact objects in the stellar mass range. Quasar microlensing allows to study the quasar accretion disk with a resolution of tens of microarcseconds, hence quasar microlensing can be used to explore an astrophysical field that is hardly accessible by any other means. Quasar microlensing can also be used to study the lensing objects in a statistical sense, their nature (compact or smoothly distributed, normal stars or dark matter) as well as transverse velocities. Quasar microlensing light curves are now being obtained from monitoring programs across the electromagnetic spectrum from the radio through the infrared and optical range to the X-ray regime. Recently, spectroscopic microlensing was successfully applied, it provides quantitative comparisons with quasar/accretion disk models. There are now more than a handful of systems with several-year long light curves and significant microlensing signal, lending to detailed analysis. This review summarizes the current state of the art of quasar microlensing and shows that at this point in time, observational monitoring programs and complementary intense simulations provide a scenario where some of the early promises of quasar microlensing can be quantitatively applied. It has been shown, e.g., that smaller sources display more violent microlensing variability, first quantitative comparison with accretion disk models has been achieved, and quasar microlensing has been used to

  18. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2-3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass-metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows -0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z˜ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  19. STAR FORMATION AND GAS KINEMATICS OF QUASAR HOST GALAXIES AT z {approx} 6: NEW INSIGHTS FROM ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ran; Carilli, Chris L.; Wagg, Jeff; Walter, Fabian; Lentati, Lindley; Fan, Xiaohui; Narayanan, Desika; Riechers, Dominik A.; Bertoldi, Frank; Strauss, Michael A.; Cox, Pierre; Neri, Roberto; Omont, Alain; Menten, Karl M.; Knudsen, Kirsten K.; Jiang Linhua

    2013-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the [C II] 158 {mu}m fine structure line and dust continuum emission from the host galaxies of five redshift 6 quasars. We also report complementary observations of 250 GHz dust continuum and CO (6-5) line emission from the z = 6.00 quasar SDSS J231038.88+185519.7 using the IRAM facilities. The ALMA observations were carried out in the extended array at 0.''7 resolution. We have detected the line and dust continuum in all five objects. The derived [C II] line luminosities are 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 8.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} L{sub Sun} and the [C II]-to-FIR luminosity ratios are 2.9-5.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, which is comparable to the values found in other high-redshift quasar-starburst systems and local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. The sources are marginally resolved and the intrinsic source sizes (major axis FWHM) are constrained to be 0.''3-0.''6 (i.e., 1.7-3.5 kpc) for the [C II] line emission and 0.''2-0.''4 (i.e., 1.2-2.3 kpc) for the continuum. These measurements indicate that there is vigorous star formation over the central few kpc in the quasar host galaxies. The ALMA observations also constrain the dynamical properties of the star-forming gas in the nuclear region. The intensity-weighted velocity maps of three sources show clear velocity gradients. Such velocity gradients are consistent with a rotating, gravitationally bound gas component, although they are not uniquely interpreted as such. Under the simplifying assumption of rotation, the implied dynamical masses within the [C II]-emitting regions are of order 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Given these estimates, the mass ratios between the supermassive black holes and the spheroidal bulge are an order of magnitude higher than the mean value found in local spheroidal galaxies, which is in agreement with results from previous CO observations of high redshift quasars.

  20. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  1. GRB afterglows: Dust extinction properties from the low to high redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-11-01

    Long-duration Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are excellent probes to study dust extinction due to their occurrence in star-forming regions and having simple synchrotron emission spectra. Inclusion of spectroscopic data to the GRB X-ray to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) could better define the continuum and confirm extinction feature. A preliminary SED analysis of GRB afterglows targeted with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph finds that all the 60% of extinguished bursts fit-well with featureless extinction curves. The longer wavelength coverage from ultraviolet to the near-infrared of X-Shooter helps to derive individual extinction curves and determine the total-to-selective extinction, RV precisely, suggesting extinction curves steeper (with a mean of RV = 2.66 ± 0.10) than the Small Magellanic Cloud. Moreover, addition of more data to the study of dust-to-metals ratios in GRB afterglows, quasar absorbers, and multiply lensed galaxies still shows the dust-to-metals ratios close to the Galactic value (with a mean value of log - 21.2cm-2mag-1), hinting short time delay between metals and dust formation. Such studies demonstrate the strength of using GRB afterglows to study dust origin and its properties the from low to high redshift Universe.

  2. Bulge Growth Through Disc Instabilities in High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournaud, Frédéric

    The role of disc instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disc galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges (Chap. 14 10.1007/978-3-319-19378-6_14"). This secular growth of bulges in modern disc galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudobulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disc instabilities at high redshift (z > 1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (1010 to a few 1011 M⊙ of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift discs are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 108-9 M⊙ of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disc evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 108 years. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick discs and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disc instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.

  3. Planck intermediate results: XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; ...

    2016-12-12

    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. In this paper, a novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ)more » have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of Txgal = 35 K and a spectral index of βxgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 1014L⊙, the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with number count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive galaxy clusters detected below z

  4. Imaging the host galaxies of high-redshift radio-quiet QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lehnert, Matthew, D.; Elias, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    short timescales. This is consistent with the general trend at low redshifts that radio-loud QSOs are found in giant elliptical galaxies while radio-quiet QSOs are found in less luminous disk galaxies. It also suggests that the processes responsible for the spectacular properties of radio-loud AGNs at high redshifts might not be generally relevent to the (far more numerous) radio-quiet population.

  5. Planck intermediate results. XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of Txgal = 35 K and a spectral index of βxgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 1014L⊙, the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with number count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive galaxy clusters detected below z < 1.5 through their SZ

  6. UV Properties and Evolution of High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    I assess the problem of morphological and photometric evolution of high-redshift galaxies in the ultraviolet wavelength range. My discussion will partly rely on a new set of template galaxy models, in order to infer the expected changes along the Hubble morphological sequence at the different cosmic epochs. The impact of evolution on the faint-end galaxy luminosity function at z~1 and beyond will also be evaluated and briefly discussed. See http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~eps/home.html for more info and model retrieval.

  7. Discovery of two broad absorption line quasars at redshift about 4.75 using the Lijiang 2.4 m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, WeiMin; Wu, XueBing; Wang, FeiGe; Yang, JinYi; Yang, Qian; Bai, JinMing

    2015-09-01

    The ultraviolet broad absorption lines have been seen in the spectra of quasars at high redshift, and are generally considered to be caused by outflows with velocities from thousands kilometers per second to one tenth of the speed of light. They provide crucial implications for the cosmological structures and physical evolutions related to the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Recently, through a dedicated program of optically spectroscopic identifications of selected quasar candidates at redshift 5 by using the Lijiang 2.4 m telescope, we discovered two luminous broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) at redshift about 4.75. One of them may even have the potentially highest absorption Balnicity Index (BI) ever found to date, which is remarkably characterized by its deep, broad absorption lines and sub-relativistic outflows. Further physical properties, including the metal abundances, variabilities, evolutions of the supermassive black holes (SMBH) and accretion disks associated with the feedback process, can be investigated with multi-wavelength follow-up observations in the future.

  8. Spatially Resolved Emission of a High-redshift DLA Galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ~ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222-0946 at a redshift of z ~ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M ⊙ yr-1 and a dynamical mass of M dyn = 6.1 × 109 M ⊙. The average star formation rate surface density is langΣSFRrang = 0.55 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, with a central peak of 1.7 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σgas = 243 M ⊙ pc-2. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M gas = 4.2 × 109 M ⊙. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222-0946 to be f gas ~ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ~6 kpc away, ~30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Spatially resolved emission of a high-redshift DLA galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-10

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ∼ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222–0946 at a redshift of z ∼ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and a dynamical mass of M {sub dyn} = 6.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The average star formation rate surface density is (Σ{sub SFR}) = 0.55 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, with a central peak of 1.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σ{sub gas} = 243 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M {sub gas} = 4.2 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222–0946 to be f {sub gas} ∼ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ∼6 kpc away, ∼30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation.

  10. Quasar H II Regions During Cosmic Reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-03-30

    Cosmic reionization progresses as HII regions form around sources of ionizing radiation. Their average size grows continuously until they percolate and complete reionization. We demonstrate how this typical growth can be calculated around the largest, biased sources of UV emission such as quasars by further developing an analytical model based on the excursion set formalism. This approach allows us to calculate the sizes and growth of the HII regions created by the progenitors of any dark matter halo of given mass and redshift with a minimum of free parameters. Statistical variations in the size of these pre-existing HII regions are an additional source of uncertainty in the determination of very high redshift quasar properties from their observed HII region sizes. We use this model to demonstrate that the transmission gaps seen in very high redshift quasars can be understood from the radiation of only their progenitors and associated clustered small galaxies. The fit requires the epoch of overlap to be at z = 5.8 {+-} 0.1. This interpretation makes the transmission gaps independent of the age of the quasars observed. If this interpretation were correct it would raise the prospects of using radio interferometers currently under construction to detect the epoch of reionization.

  11. Properties of High Redshift Galaxies in the ELTs Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greggio, Laura; Gullieuszik, Marco; Falomo, Renato; Fantinel, Daniela; Uslenghi, Michela

    2015-08-01

    The extraordinary sensitivity and spatial resolution of the future Extremely Large Telescopes will allow us to characterize the photometric and structural properties of high redshift galaxies, in spite of their small size. In this contribution we present a quantitative analysis of these capabilities thorugh the generation of a large set of simulated images, and their subsequent analysis with GALFIT. In particular, we assess the accuracy with which it will be possible to measure the basic galaxy parameters: Sersic index, half light radius and total magnitude. The simulations adopt the expected performances of the near-IR imagers MICADO at the E-ELT for galaxies at z ~ 2 and z ~ 3, spanning a mass range from 10^9 to 10^11 solar masses, and whose sizes, magnitudes and colors are obtained from presently available scaling relations for high redshift objects. It turns out that with such future facility it will be possible to derive both accurate photometry and detailed morphology for very distant galaxies, that are mandatory to probe fundamental problems on the processes of galaxy formation and evolution. These results are also compared with the expected capabilities of NIRcam at JWST.

  12. Bimodal star formation - Constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1.

  13. DUST ATTENUATION IN HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES: 'DIAMONDS IN THE SKY'

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, Nick; Capak, Peter; Steinhardt, Charles; Faisst, Andreas; Kakazu, Yuko; Li, Gongjie

    2015-02-20

    We use observed optical to near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 266 galaxies in the COSMOS survey to derive the wavelength dependence of the dust attenuation at high redshift. All of the galaxies have spectroscopic redshifts in the range z = 2-6.5. The presence of the C IV absorption feature, indicating that the rest-frame UV-optical SED is dominated by OB stars, is used to select objects for which the intrinsic, unattenuated spectrum has a well-established shape. Comparison of this intrinsic spectrum with the observed broadband photometric SED then permits derivation of the wavelength dependence of the dust attenuation. The derived dust attenuation curve is similar in overall shape to the Calzetti curve for local starburst galaxies. We also see the 2175 Å bump feature which is present in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud extinction curves but not seen in the Calzetti curve. The bump feature is commonly attributed to graphite or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No significant dependence is seen with redshift between sub-samples at z = 2-4 and z = 4-6.5. The 'extinction' curve obtained here provides a firm basis for color and extinction corrections of high redshift galaxy photometry.

  14. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  15. Broad Absorption Line Quasars and Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Luminous QSOs are signposts to galaxy evolution. Local supermassive black holes are the faded relics of quasars in their heyday at redshifts ˜2. Relationships between the masses of these local supermassive black holes and their host galaxy bulges reveal an intimate link, fundamental to galaxy evolution: the newly evolving galaxy fuels the seed black hole through its accretion disk and by loss of angular momentum and energy in the form of outflowing winds. As the central engine approaches Eddington luminosities, winds drive away dusty gas, revealing a luminous QSO and halting star formation in the galaxy bulge. Relativistic winds are manifested in powerful radio jets in ˜10% of quasars, and sub-relativistic winds are revealed by broad blueshifted absorption troughs in the “broad absorption line” (BAL) quasars. Historically, BALs avoid powerful radio quasars. Here we examine the BALs to investigate this inverse connection.

  16. Finding Hidden Quasars with UKIDSS and AAOmega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Natasha; Hewett, P. C.; Warren, S. J.; Croom, S. M.

    2007-05-01

    The number of luminous quasars that have thus far eluded optical surveys is a subject of ongoing debate. Dust reddening and significant host galaxy light tend to exclude candidates from traditional UV-excess selection. UKIDSS, the near-infrared counterpart to SDSS, has started to provide the large area NIR data required to quantify the number of quasars missing from optical surveys. The quasar candidate list was chosen from the Early Data Release of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS), which aims to cover 2000 square degrees in two years. Requiring each object to have K<17, J<19.5 (the detection limit of the LAS) and a detection in SDSS were the only restrictions imposed on the candidates. A simple cut in gJK colour space, exploiting the K-band excess of quasars compared to stars, then separates the quasar candidates from the stellar locus. Optical-NIR colour selection with relaxed restrictions on morphology is less sensitive to dust reddening, so provides a more complete candidate list, suitable for follow-up observation with the new AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. With spectroscopic observations covering nearly 20 square degrees taken at the AAT, this is by far the largest K-band selected quasar sample to date. Many new quasars have been identified, in addition to known quasars being recovered. Several of the newly discovered quasars lie in regions of colour space typically excluded by UV selection. This study highlights the effectiveness of the K-excess technique in selecting quasars that do not necessarily exhibit the classic UV excess, either due to intrinsic SED shape or dust reddening. Combining upcoming UKIDSS data releases with scheduled AAT observations will increase the area surveyed by several times, thus moving closer to fully quantifying the number of luminous, reddened quasars.

  17. The Co-Formation of Spheroids and Quasars Traced in their Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Lidz, Adam; Hernquist, Lars; Coil, Alison L.; Myers, Adam D.; Cox, Thomas J.; Spergel, David N.

    2007-06-01

    We compare observed clustering of quasars and galaxies as a function of redshift, mass, luminosity, and color/morphology, to constrain models of quasar fueling and the co-evolution of spheroids and supermassive black holes (BHs). High-redshift quasars are shown to be drawn from the progenitors of local early-type galaxies, with the characteristic quasar luminosity L* reflecting a characteristic mass of ``active'' BH/host populations at each epoch. Evolving observed high-z quasar clustering to z=0 predicts a trend of clustering in ``quasar remnants'' as a function of stellar mass identical to that observed for early types. However, quasar clustering does not simply reflect observed early (or late) type populations; at each redshift, quasars cluster as an ``intermediate'' population. Comparing with the age of elliptical stellar populations as a function of mass reveals that this ``intermediate'' population represents those ellipticals undergoing or terminating their final significant star formation activity at the given epoch. Assuming that quasar triggering is associated with the formation/termination epoch of ellipticals predicts quasar clustering at all observed redshifts without any model dependence or assumptions about quasar light curves, lifetimes, or accretion rates. This is not true for disks or quasar halos; i.e., quasars do not generically trace star formation or halo assembly. Quasar clustering at all redshifts is consistent with ~4×1012 h-1 Msolar, similar to group scales. This supports scenarios in which major mergers dominate the bright, high-redshift quasar populations. We show how improved clustering measurements can be used to constrain lower luminosity AGN fueling and whether or not accretion/star formation can ``shut down'' at z>3.

  18. What BOSS has taught us about Quasars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Nicholas; SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Science Working Group

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents science highlights from the SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Survey, which has obtained spectra for over 300,000 quasars, 200,000 of which are at redshift z>2. Using this dataset, new measurements of the luminosity function have been made, with the faint end of the luminosity function now measured to z~5. New clustering results from DR12 are presented, and the weak luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z~0.5 is also discussed.New studies of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar population have also been performed, with a sample of BAL quasars from the original SDSS being re-observed. These new data have shown the disappearance of CIV BAL troughs and indeed the transformation of BAL QSOs to non-BAL QSOs. BAL disappearance, and emergence, events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, and have shed light on accretion-disk wind models.We highlight the discovery of new classes of quasars including: a population of broad-line Mg II emitters found in a passive galaxy sample; objects with extremely red optical-to-mid infrared colors; objects with very curious UV line (LyA:NV) ratios and potentially the long-sought after high-redshift Type 2 Quasar population.Finally, we describe two new dedicated programs, one focusing on reverberation mapping, the other on X-ray selected quasars.A full list of papers connected to the BOSS Quasar Survey is given at: http://www.sdss3.org/science/publications.php

  19. Are there two types of quasars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, B. C.; Morrison, P.; Sartori, L.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of quasars are postulated: type I, the vast majority of quasars, which are highly luminous and cosmologically distant, as shown by their redshifts; type II, a dwarf branch, that are products of a few remarkable explosions in nearby galaxies. It is shown that this hypothesis is consistent with redshift statistics and suggests a possible interpretation of such objects as BL Lac and OJ 287.

  20. Radio-loud high-redshift protogalaxy canidates in Bootes

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, S; van Breugel, W; Brown, M J; de Vries, W; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Jannuzi, B; Rottgering, H; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Willner, S P

    2007-07-20

    We used the Near Infrared Camera (NIRC) on Keck I to obtain K{sub s}-band images of four candidate high-redshift radio galaxies selected using optical and radio data in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey in Bootes. Our targets have 1.4 GHz radio flux densities greater than 1 mJy, but are undetected in the optical. Spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that three of these objects are at z > 3, with radio luminosities near the FR-I/FR-II break. The other has photometric redshift z{sub phot} = 1.2, but may in fact be at higher redshift. Two of the four objects exhibit diffuse morphologies in K{sub s}-band, suggesting that they are still in the process of forming.

  1. The High Redshift Universe Seen Through the Eyes of ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklind, Tommy

    2012-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) is an interferometric telescope currently under construction on the Chajnantor Plateau in northern Chile. It is situated at an altitude of 5000m, in one of the driest places in the world. The combination of the meteorological conditions, increased total collecting area and the use of state-of-the-art receivers means that the fully operational ALMA is a factor 10-1000 more sensitive than existing facilities, depending on the wavelength. When completed in 2013, ALMA will consists of 66 antennas, with maximum baselines of up to 15 km and it will be able to observe at wavelengths from 10 millimeter to ~350micron. ALMA will be able to provide an angular resolution of ~0.05 arcseconds. ALMA is still under construction, but has started producing science in an 'Early Science' phase. The goal with ALMA has from the beginning been to provide very high sensitivity as well as an angular resolution matching that of space based optical observatories such as the HST. One of three main drivers when designing ALMA has been the ability to study the high redshift universe. The main reason behind this is that almost half of the integrated background radiation comes from the far-infrared wavelength regime. This emission is interpreted as originating from dust re-radiated stellar emission in high redshift galaxies. Interstellar dust is almost invariably associated with molecular gas, that can be studied using molecular rotational transitions. The shape of the dust spectral energy distribution ensures that the observed flux at a fixed wavelength long-ward of the far-infrared peak (about 100micron) remains more or less constant over a redshift range z=1-10. This aspect makes dust continuum emission extraordinarily important for studying galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at high redshift. Through observations of line emission from molecular transitions it is possible to study the associated molecular gas distribution and its kinematics. The

  2. Relativistic jet feedback in high-redshift galaxies - I. Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph; Wagner, Alex

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of 3D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of interaction of active galactic nucleus jets with a dense turbulent two-phase interstellar medium, which would be typical of high-redshift galaxies. We describe the effect of the jet on the evolution of the density of the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). The jet-driven energy bubble affects the gas to distances up to several kiloparsecs from the injection region. The shocks resulting from such interactions create a multiphase ISM and radial outflows. One of the striking result of this work is that low-power jets (Pjet ≲ 1043 ergs-1), although less efficient in accelerating clouds, are trapped in the ISM for a longer time and hence affect the ISM over a larger volume. Jets of higher power drill through with relative ease. Although the relativistic jets launch strong outflows, there is little net mass ejection to very large distances, supporting a galactic fountain scenario for local feedback.

  3. Theoretical considerations for star formation at low and high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2015-08-01

    Star formation processes in strongly self-gravitating cloud cores should be similar at all redshifts, forming single or multiple stars with a range of masses determined by local magneto-hydrodynamics. The formation processes for these cores, however, as well as their structures, temperatures, Mach numbers, etc., and the boundedness and mass distribution functions of the resulting stars, should depend on environment, as should the characteristic mass, density, and column density at which cloud self-gravity dominates other forces. Because the environments for high and low redshift star formation differ significantly, we expect the resulting gas to stellar conversion details to differ also. At high redshift, the universe is denser and more gas-rich, so the active parts of galaxies are denser and more gas rich too, leading to shorter gas consumption timescales, higher cloud pressures, and denser, more massive, bound stellar clusters at the high mass end. With shorter consumption times corresponding to higher relative cosmic accretion rates, and with the resulting higher star formation rates and their higher feedback powers, the ISM has greater turbulent speeds relative to the rotation speeds, thicker gas disks, and larger cloud and star complex sizes at the characteristic Jeans length. The result is a more chaotic appearance at high redshift, bridging the morphology gap between today’s quiescent spirals and today’s major-mergers, with neither spiral nor major-merger processes actually in play at that time. The result is also a thick disk at early times, and after in-plane accretion from relatively large clump torques, a classical bulge. Today’s disks are much thinner and torque-driven accretion is much slower outside of the inner barred regions. This talk will review the basic theoretical processes involved with star formation in order to illustrate its evolution over time and environment.

  4. Theoretical considerations for star formation at low and high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    Star formation processes in strongly self-gravitating cloud cores should be similar at all redshifts, forming single or multiple stars with a range of masses determined by local magneto-hydrodynamics and gravity. The formation processes for these cores, however, as well as their structures, temperatures, Mach numbers, etc., and the boundedness and mass distribution functions of the resulting stars, should depend on environment, as should the characteristic mass, density, and column density at which cloud self-gravity dominates other forces. Because the environments for high and low redshift star formation differ significantly, we expect the resulting gas to stellar conversion details to differ also. At high redshift, the universe is denser and more gas-rich, so the active parts of galaxies are denser and more gas rich too, leading to slightly shorter gas consumption timescales, higher cloud pressures, and denser, more massive, bound stellar clusters at the high mass end. With shorter consumption times corresponding to higher relative cosmic accretion rates, and with the resulting higher star formation rates and their higher feedback powers, the ISM has greater turbulent speeds relative to the rotation speeds, thicker gas disks, and larger cloud and star complex sizes at the characteristic Jeans length. The result is a more chaotic appearance at high redshift, bridging the morphology gap between today's quiescent spirals and today's major-mergers, with neither spiral nor major-merger processes actually in play at that time. The result is also a thick disk at early times, and after in-plane accretion from relatively large clump torques, a classical bulge. Today's disks are thinner, and torque-driven accretion is slower outside of inner barred regions. This paper reviews the basic processes involved with star formation in order to illustrate its evolution over time and environment.

  5. OPTIMAL MASS CONFIGURATIONS FOR LENSING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.

    2012-06-20

    We investigate the gravitational lensing properties of lines of sight containing multiple cluster-scale halos, motivated by their ability to lens very high redshift (z {approx} 10) sources into detectability. We control for the total mass along the line of sight, isolating the effects of distributing the mass among multiple halos and of varying the physical properties of the halos. Our results show that multiple-halo lines of sight can increase the magnified source-plane region compared to the single cluster lenses typically targeted for lensing studies and thus are generally better fields for detecting very high redshift sources. The configurations that result in optimal lensing cross sections benefit from interactions between the lens potentials of the halos when they overlap somewhat on the sky, creating regions of high magnification in the source plane not present when the halos are considered individually. The effect of these interactions on the lensing cross section can even be comparable to changing the total mass of the lens from 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. The gain in lensing cross section increases as the mass is split into more halos, provided that the lens potentials are projected close enough to interact with each other. A nonzero projected halo angular separation, equal halo mass ratio, and high projected halo concentration are the best mass configurations, whereas projected halo ellipticity, halo triaxiality, and the relative orientations of the halos are less important. Such high-mass, multiple-halo lines of sight exist in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  6. High-redshift clumpy discs and bulges in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-06-01

    We analyse the first cosmological simulations that recover the fragmentation of high-redshift galactic discs driven by cold streams. The fragmentation is recovered owing to an AMR resolution better than 70pc with cooling below 104K. We study three typical star-forming galaxies in haloes of ~5 × 1011Msolar at z ~= 2.3 when they were not undergoing a major merger. The steady gas supply by cold streams leads to gravitationally unstable, turbulent discs, which fragment into giant clumps and transient features on a dynamical time-scale. The disc clumps are not associated with dark-matter haloes. The clumpy discs are self-regulated by gravity in a marginally unstable state. Clump migration and angular-momentum transfer on an orbital time-scale help the growth of a central bulge with a mass comparable to the disc. The continuous gas input keeps the system of clumpy disc and bulge in a near steady state for several Gyr. The average star formation rate, much of which occurs in the clumps, follows the gas accretion rate of ~45Msolaryr-1. The simulated galaxies resemble in many ways the observed star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Their properties are consistent with the simple theoretical framework presented in Dekel, Sari & Ceverino. In particular, a two-component analysis reveals that the simulated discs are indeed marginally unstable, and the time evolution confirms the robustness of the clumpy configuration in a cosmological steady state. By z ~ 1, the simulated systems are stabilized by a dominant stellar spheroid, demonstrating the process of `morphological quenching' of star formation. We demonstrate that the disc fragmentation is not a numerical artefact once the Jeans length is kept larger than nearly seven resolution elements, i.e. beyond the standard Truelove criterion.

  7. THE DARK SIDE OF QSO FORMATION AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Shlosman, Isaac; Trenti, Michele; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2011-07-20

    Observed high-redshift QSOs, at z {approx} 6, may reside in massive dark matter (DM) halos of more than 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} and are thus expected to be surrounded by overdense regions. In a series of 10 constrained simulations, we have tested the environment of such QSOs. The usage of constrained realizations has enabled us to address the issue of cosmic variance and to study the statistical properties of the QSO host halos. Comparing the computed overdensities with respect to the unconstrained simulations of regions empty of QSOs, assuming there is no bias between the DM and baryon distributions, and invoking an observationally constrained duty cycle for Lyman break galaxies, we have obtained the galaxy count number for the QSO environment. We find that a clear discrepancy exists between the computed and observed galaxy counts in the Kim et al. samples. Our simulations predict that on average eight z {approx} 6 galaxies per QSO field should have been observed, while Kim et al. detect on average four galaxies per QSO field compared to an average of three galaxies in a control sample (GOODS fields). While we cannot rule out a small number of statistics for the observed fields to high confidence, the discrepancy suggests that galaxy formation in the QSO neighborhood proceeds differently than in the field. We also find that QSO halos are the most massive of the simulated volume at z {approx} 6 but this is no longer true at z {approx} 3. This implies that QSO halos, even in a case where they are the most massive ones at high redshifts, do not evolve into the most massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.

  8. MASSIVE CLUMPS IN LOCAL GALAXIES: COMPARISONS WITH HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Dewberry, J.; Putko, J.; Teich, Y.; Popinchalk, M.; Sanchez Almeida, J.; Munoz-Tunon, C.

    2013-09-01

    Local UV-bright galaxies in the Kiso survey include clumpy systems with kiloparsec-size star complexes that resemble clumpy young galaxies in surveys at high redshift. We compare clump masses and underlying disks in several dozen galaxies from each of these surveys to the star complexes and disks of normal spirals. Photometry and spectroscopy for the Kiso and spiral sample come from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the largest Kiso clumpy galaxies resemble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) clumpies in terms of the star formation rates, clump masses, and clump surface densities. Clump masses and surface densities in normal spirals are smaller. If the clump masses are proportional to the turbulent Jeans mass in the interstellar medium, then for the most luminous galaxies in the sequence of normal:Kiso:UDF, the turbulent speeds and surface densities increase in the proportions 1.0:4.7:5.0 and 1.0:4.0:5.1, respectively, for fixed restframe B-band absolute magnitude. For the least luminous galaxies in the overlapping magnitude range, the turbulent speed and surface density trends are 1.0:2.7:7.4 and 1.0:1.4:3.0, respectively. We also find that while all three types have radially decreasing disk intensities when measured with ellipse-fit azimuthal averages, the average profiles are more irregular for UDF clumpies (which are viewed in their restframe UV) than for Kiso galaxies (viewed at g-band), and major axis intensity scans are even more irregular for the UDF than Kiso galaxies. Local clumpy galaxies in the Kiso survey appear to be intermediate between UDF clumpies and normal spirals.

  9. Overdensities of SMGs around WISE-selected, ultraluminous, high-redshift AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Suzy F.; Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Lonsdale, Carol; Condon, James; Farrah, Duncan; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Jarrett, Tom

    2017-08-01

    We investigate extremely luminous dusty galaxies in the environments around Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) and WISE/radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at average redshifts of z = 2.7 and 1.7, respectively. Previous observations have detected overdensities of companion submillimetre-selected sources around 10 Hot DOGs and 30 WISE/radio AGNs, with overdensities of ˜2-3 and ˜5-6, respectively. We find that the space densities in both samples to be overdense compared to normal star-forming galaxies and submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). Both samples of companion sources have consistent mid-infrared (mid-IR) colours and mid-IR to submm ratios as SMGs. The brighter population around WISE/radio AGNs could be responsible for the higher overdensity reported. We also find that the star formation rate densities are higher than the field, but consistent with clusters of dusty galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be good signposts for protoclusters at high redshift on arcmin scales. The results reported here provide an upper limit to the strength of angular clustering using the two-point correlation function. Monte Carlo simulations show no angular correlation, which could indicate protoclusters on scales larger than the SCUBA-2 1.5-arcmin scale maps.

  10. NEARBY CLUMPY, GAS RICH, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: LOCAL ANALOGS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.; Rabidoux, K.; Low, M.-M. Mac; Kreckel, K.; Guzmán, R. E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org E-mail: guzman@astro.ufl.edu

    2015-07-10

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%); (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%); and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  11. GOODS-HERSCHEL: IMPACT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY ON INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Alexander, David M.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Hwang, Ho Seong; Ivison, Rob; Scott, Douglas; Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Buat, Veronique; Dannerbauer, Helmut; and others

    2012-11-10

    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  12. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. IV. JOINT CONSTRAINTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM FROM ABSORPTION AND EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-03-20

    We have constructed a sample of 29 close projected quasar pairs where the background quasar spectrum reveals absorption from optically thick H I gas associated with the foreground quasar. These unique sightlines allow us to study the quasar circumgalactic medium (CGM) in absorption and emission simultaneously, because the background quasar pinpoints large concentrations of gas where Ly{alpha} emission, resulting from quasar-powered fluorescence, resonant Ly{alpha} scattering, and/or cooling radiation, is expected. A sensitive search (1{sigma} surface-brightness limits of SB{sub Ly{alpha}}{approx_equal}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} arcsec{sup -2}) for diffuse Ly{alpha} emission in the environments of the foreground (predominantly radio-quiet) quasars is conducted using Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS slit spectroscopy. We fail to detect large-scale {approx}100 kpc Ly{alpha} emission, either at the location of the optically thick absorbers or in the foreground quasar halos, in all cases except a single system. We interpret these non-detections as evidence that the gas detected in absorption is shadowed from the quasar UV radiation due to obscuration effects, which are frequently invoked in unified models of active galactic nuclei. Small-scale R {approx}< 50 kpc extended Ly{alpha} nebulosities are detected in 34% of our sample, which are likely the high-redshift analogs of the extended emission-line regions (EELRs) commonly observed around low-redshift (z < 0.5) quasars. This may be fluorescent recombination radiation from a population of very dense clouds with a low covering fraction illuminated by the quasar. We also detect a compact high rest-frame equivalent width (W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 50 A) Ly{alpha}-emitter with luminosity L{sub Ly{alpha}} = 2.1 {+-} 0.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} at small impact parameter R = 134 kpc from one foreground quasar, and argue that it is more likely to result from quasar-powered fluorescence

  13. Quasars Probing Quasars. IV. Joint Constraints on the Circumgalactic Medium from Absorption and Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a sample of 29 close projected quasar pairs where the background quasar spectrum reveals absorption from optically thick H I gas associated with the foreground quasar. These unique sightlines allow us to study the quasar circumgalactic medium (CGM) in absorption and emission simultaneously, because the background quasar pinpoints large concentrations of gas where Lyα emission, resulting from quasar-powered fluorescence, resonant Lyα scattering, and/or cooling radiation, is expected. A sensitive search (1σ surface-brightness limits of SB_{Ly\\alpha } \\simeq 3{\\; \\times \\; 10^{-18}}\\,erg\\,s^{-1\\,cm^{-2}\\,arcsec^{-2}}) for diffuse Lyα emission in the environments of the foreground (predominantly radio-quiet) quasars is conducted using Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS slit spectroscopy. We fail to detect large-scale ~100 kpc Lyα emission, either at the location of the optically thick absorbers or in the foreground quasar halos, in all cases except a single system. We interpret these non-detections as evidence that the gas detected in absorption is shadowed from the quasar UV radiation due to obscuration effects, which are frequently invoked in unified models of active galactic nuclei. Small-scale R <~ 50 kpc extended Lyα nebulosities are detected in 34% of our sample, which are likely the high-redshift analogs of the extended emission-line regions (EELRs) commonly observed around low-redshift (z < 0.5) quasars. This may be fluorescent recombination radiation from a population of very dense clouds with a low covering fraction illuminated by the quasar. We also detect a compact high rest-frame equivalent width (W Lyα > 50 Å) Lyα-emitter with luminosity L Lyα = 2.1 ± 0.32 × 1041 erg s-1 at small impact parameter R = 134 kpc from one foreground quasar, and argue that it is more likely to result from quasar-powered fluorescence, than simply be a star-forming galaxy clustered around the quasar. Our observations imply that much deeper

  14. Local Turbulent Disks: analogs of high-redshift vigorously star-forming disks and laboratories for galaxy assembly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damjanov, Ivana

    2012-10-01

    Kinematical investigations at redshifts 1high-redshift galaxies exhibit very high internal velocity dispersions. Dynamical data collected with integral field spectrographs {IFS} suggest that the level of rotational support in these systems follows a trend in mass, with compact dispersion-dominated Lyman Break Galaxies at lower stelar masses and large dynamically unstable turbulent disks at stellar masses larger than 10^10 solar masses. The high velocity dispersion of these young disks results in a large characteristic scale for star-forming clusters thereby also explaining their 'clump cluster' morphology. Galaxies like these were thought to be absent from the local Universe. As part of a IFS campaign to observe the most H-alpha luminous galaxies in SDSS, we have discovered a sample of very rare objects seemingly identical to these high-z turbulent disks. In this proposal we seek imaging in H-alpha of thirteen local disk galaxies in our sample, using the ACS tunable-wavelength ramp filters. Our goal is to measure the size distribution of the star-forming complexes in these objects, with ten times the typical physical resolution of HST observations of high-z galaxies, in order to test the idea that they are indeed dynamically unstable turbulent disks caught in the process of formation. In synergy with existing high resolution HST imaging of the local analogs of low-mass dispersion-dominated galaxies at high redshift {Lyman Break Analogs}, our proposed observations of the local counterparts to large turbulent disks at high redshift will help to paint a complete picture of local analogs of high-z star-forming galaxies.

  15. Deep imaging of high redshift QSO fields below the Lyman limit. II - Number counts and colors of field galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Hamilton, Donald

    1993-01-01

    We present an analysis of the number counts and colors of faint galaxies to about 26.5 mag in the fields of two high Galactic latitude, very-high-redshift QSOs. We concentrate on the general properties of the field galaxies at faint magnitudes. In particular, we readdress the faint galaxy number counts and colors as a function of apparent magnitude and we reexamine the possible contribution of very-high-redshift galaxies to the faint samples. We find that the number counts to R = 26 are well fitted by the relation log N(m) = 0.31R + C. The G-band counts for the same galaxies are consistent with the same slope fainter than G about 23.5, but exhibit a much steeper slope at brighter magnitudes. At R = 25.5, the differential number counts have reached about 1.2 x 10 exp 5/sq deg; the same surface density of galaxies is reached at G = 26.5. We confirm the existence of a gradual 'blueing' trend of the field galaxies toward fainter apparent magnitude; however, the blueing trend appears to extend only as faint as G about 24, fainter than which both the (G-R) and (U sub n-G) colors appear to level off. The mean colors of faint galaxies are considerably redder than flat spectrum. There are essentially no objects to R = 26 which have spectral energy distributions which are bluer than flat spectrum. The potential contribution of very-high-redshift galaxies may have been underestimated in previous analyses; the current data are consistent with the same population of relatively luminous galaxies at z about 3 as exist at z about 0.7.

  16. THE POPULATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE CHANDRA-COSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Masters, D.; Fiore, F.; Ikeda, H.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Miyaji, T.; Puccetti, S.; Shankar, F.; Silverman, J.; Vignali, C.

    2011-11-10

    We present the high-redshift (3 3. Eighty-one sources are selected in the 0.5-2 keV band, fourteen are selected in the 2-10 keV and six in the 0.5-10 keV bands. We sample the high-luminosity (log L{sub (2-10keV)} > 44.15 erg s{sup -1}) space density up to z {approx} 5 and a fainter luminosity range (43.5 erg s{sup -1} < log L{sub (2-10keV)} < 44.15 erg s{sup -1}) than previous studies, up to z = 3.5. We weighted the contribution to the number counts and the space density of the sources with photometric redshift by using their probability of being at z > 3. We find that the space density of high-luminosity AGNs declines exponentially at all the redshifts, confirming the trend observed for optically selected quasars. At lower luminosity, the measured space density is not conclusive, and a larger sample of faint sources is needed. Comparisons with optical luminosity functions and black hole formation models are presented together with prospects for future surveys.

  17. The coevolution of supermassive black holes and massive galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Raimundo, S.; Aversa, R.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Celotti, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.; Negrello, M.

    2014-02-20

    We exploit the recent, wide samples of far-infrared (FIR) selected galaxies followed up in X-rays and of X-ray/optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) followed up in the FIR band, along with the classic data on AGNs and stellar luminosity functions at high redshift z ≳ 1.5, to probe different stages in the coevolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) and host galaxies. The results of our analysis indicate the following scenario: (1) the star formation in the host galaxy proceeds within a heavily dust-enshrouded medium at an almost constant rate over a timescale ≲ 0.5-1 Gyr and then abruptly declines due to quasar feedback, over the same timescale; (2) part of the interstellar medium loses angular momentum, reaches the circum-nuclear regions at a rate proportional to the star formation, and is temporarily stored in a massive reservoir/proto-torus wherefrom it can be promptly accreted; (3) the BH grows by accretion in a self-regulated regime with radiative power that can slightly exceed the Eddington limit L/L {sub Edd} ≲ 4, particularly at the highest redshifts; (4) for massive BHs, the ensuing energy feedback at its maximum exceeds the stellar one and removes the interstellar gas, thus stopping the star formation and the fueling of the reservoir; (5) afterward, if the latter has retained enough gas, a phase of supply-limited accretion follows, exponentially declining with a timescale of about two e-folding times. We also discuss how the detailed properties and the specific evolution of the reservoir can be investigated via coordinated, high-resolution observations of star-forming, strongly lensed galaxies in the (sub-)mm band with ALMA and in the X-ray band with Chandra and the next-generation X-ray instruments.

  18. Line and continuum variability of two intermediate-redshift, high-luminosity quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevese, D.; Paris, D.; Stirpe, G. M.; Vagnetti, F.; Zitelli, V.

    2007-08-01

    Context: It has been shown that the luminosity of active galactic nuclei and the size of their broad line region obey a simple relation of the type R_BLR=a Lγ, from faint Seyfert nuclei to bright quasars, allowing single-epoch determination of the central black hole mass M_BH= b Lγ Δ^2_Hβ from their luminosity L and width of Hβ emission line. Adopting this mass determination for cosmological studies requires the extrapolation to high redshift and luminosity of a relation whose calibration relies so far on reverberation mapping measurements performed for L ⪉ 1046 erg s-1 and redshift z ⪉ 0.4. Aims: We initiated a campaign for the spectrophotometric monitoring of a few luminous, intermediate redshift quasars whose apparent magnitude, V < 15.7, allows observations with a 1.8 m telescope, aimed at proving that emission lines vary and respond to continuum variations even for luminosities ⪆1047 erg s-1, and determining eventually their M_BH from reverberation mapping. Methods: We have repeatedly performed simultaneous spectrophotometric observations of quasars and reference stars to determine relative variability of continuum and emission lines. We describe the observations and methods of analysis. Results: For the quasars PG 1634+706 and PG 1247+268 we obtain light-curves respectively for CIII] (λλ1909 Å), MgII(λλ2798 Å) and for CIV(λλ1549 Å), CIII] (λλ1909 Å) emission lines with the relevant continua. During 3.2 years of observation, in the former case no continuum variability was detected and the evidence for line variability is marginal, while in the latter case both continuum and line variability are detected with high significance and the line variations appear correlated with continuum variations. Conclusions: The detection of the emission line variability in a quasar with L ~ 1047 erg s-1 encourages the continuation of the monitoring campaign which should provide a black hole mass estimate in another 5-6 years, constraining the mass

  19. The growth of massive galaxies and clusters at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert Raymond

    2013-12-01

    Massive galaxies and galaxy clusters gain much of their mass by merging with their neighbors; this hierarchical structure formation is the foundation of our understanding of galaxy evolution. Nevertheless, the detailed evolutionary processes needed to form the structures we see in the local Universe remain poorly understood. This thesis comprises four projects examining the growth of galaxies and clusters at high redshift by using radio, sub/millimeter, and X-ray observations to provide empirical constraints on their cosmic evolution. Chapter 2 presents deep 1.2mm imaging of the inner 20' x 20' of the Lockman Hole North (LHN) field to search for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), rapidly star-forming, high-redshift galaxy mergers. We detect 41 SMGs with S/N>4.0 and use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate their number counts and angular clustering properties. Chapter 3 investigates the nuclear accretion properties of the LHN SMGs. In the sample's average rest-frame X-ray spectrum, we detect strong Fe K alpha emission (equivalent width EW >=1 keV) from highly-ionized Fe species -- evidence that beneath the galaxies' heavy obscuration, supermassive black holes may be growing rapidly. Chapter 4 describes a new 345 GHz and 2.1 GHz imaging campaign to study the intracluster media (ICM) of eleven massive Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect (SZE)-detected clusters from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) southern survey. In six of eleven, 345 GHz SZE increments are detected and used to characterize the spatial distribution and energy content of the ICM at high (19.2") resolution. This work helps us understand how SZE-mass scaling relations are affected by contamination from other sources along the line of sight and by dynamical properties of the ICM. Chapter 5 studies the non-thermal radio emission in one exceptional z=0.870 binary cluster merger (ACTJ0102-4915, ``El Gordo'') with the help of newly-acquired radio observations. El Gordo is the highest-redshift cluster known to host

  20. The Granada workshop on High Redshift Radio Galaxies: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2006-03-01

    The Granada workshop on High Redshift Radio Galaxies (HzRGs) gave an excellent overview of the progress that has been made in this field during the last 3 years. Here we briefly review some of the results, with an emphasis on what studies of HzRGs can teach us about the formation and evolution of massive galaxies, clusters and active galactic nuclei (AGN). Of great relevance for this workshop are scenarios that describe certain aspects of the evolution of radio galaxies, including (i) the sequence of events after merging of galaxies that ultimately lead to extended powerful radio sources and (ii) the mass assembly and virialization of the hosting massive galaxies and their associated (proto-)clusters. Furthermore, I briefly discuss two projects that are important for a further understanding of AGN and high redshift radio galaxies. First, using the MIDI instrument mounted on the VLT Interferometer, the dusty tori of nearby AGN can be studied in the range of 8-13 micron at high angular resolution. The first result on the nearby AGN NGC 1068 as presented by Jaffe et al. (2004) indicated the presence of a hot (T > 800 K), compact (1 pc) component, possible identified with the base of the jet and a warm (270 K), well-resolved (3 × 4 pc) component associated with the alleged torus. Second, LOFAR is a new low frequency radio telescope that is currently being build in the Netherlands and is expected to be operational in 2008. With 50 stations spread over an area of 100 km in diameter, its resolution and sensitivity will be unprecedented in the frequency range 10-240 MHz. LOFAR will be a unique instrument that will impact a broad range of astrophysical topics varying from the epoch of reionisation, to gamma ray bursts and cosmic rays. Surveys with LOFAR will be of paramount importance for studies of HzRGs: It will enable (i) defining samples of radio galaxies with redshifts higher than 6, (ii) observations of starbursting galaxies in proto-clusters, and (iii) mapping out

  1. Understanding the dark matter-light connection at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo

    Deep, wide-field surveys have enhanced our understanding of galaxy formation and its close connection to the large-scale structures of dark matter in the universe. At high redshifts ( z > 2), in particular, where it is not possible to observe dark matter structures in other methods such as gravitational lensing or galaxy rotation curves, study of galaxy clustering provides a unique view into the formation of galaxies in large look-back times. In this thesis, I present a clustering study of star-forming galaxies at high redshifts ( z ~ 3- 5), observed and selected from two of the deepest multi-wavelength photometric data to date. First, I show that the UV luminosity (or star formation rate) of these galaxies scales closely with the degree of spatial clustering at all cosmic epochs probed from these surveys. In conjunction with the current, well- established theoretical framework of cold dark matter cosmology, this implies that star formation rate is primarily determined by the total mass of the virialized dark matter structures, or dark matter halos. In addition, I show that the measures of galaxy correlation function exhibits a strong upturn on small scales, which cannot be explained with the clustering of halos hosting these galaxies alone. This strongly suggests that multiple galaxies can share a single massive dark matter halo. A simple scaling law between the number of galaxy occupants and halo mass is sufficient to successfully reproduce the observed shape of the correlation function. However, there is uncertainty in drawing physical parameters of the halo-galaxy association which depends on the assumed form of the scaling law, or the halo occupation distribution (HOD). Physical interpretations are further exacerbated by the unknown degree of "fairness" that color-selected galaxies represent. I present an alternative approach which requires precise measurements of both the luminosity function and correlation function (of various luminosity thresholds). By

  2. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING WEAK Mg II QUASAR ABSORBERS AND A CURIOUS DEPENDENCE ON QUASAR LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Jessica L.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Klimek, Elizabeth S.; Murphy, Michael T.

    2013-05-01

    We have identified 469 Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 doublet systems having W{sub r} {>=} 0.02 A in 252 Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and UVES/Very Large Telescope quasar spectra over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 2.6. Using the largest sample yet of 188 weak Mg II systems (0.02 A {<=}W{sub r} < 0.3 A), we calculate their absorber redshift path density, dN/dz. We find clear evidence of evolution, with dN/dz peaking at z {approx} 1.2, and that the product of the absorber number density and cross section decreases linearly with increasing redshift; weak Mg II absorbers seem to vanish above z {approx_equal} 2.7. If the absorbers are ionized by the UV background, we estimate number densities of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} Mpc{sup -3} for spherical geometries and 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} Mpc{sup -3} for more sheetlike geometries. We also find that dN/dz toward intrinsically faint versus bright quasars differs significantly for weak and strong (W{sub r} {>=} 1.0 A) absorbers. For weak absorption, dN/dz toward bright quasars is {approx}25% higher than toward faint quasars (10{sigma} at low redshift, 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, and 4{sigma} at high redshift, 1.4 < z {<=} 2.34). For strong absorption the trend reverses, with dN/dz toward faint quasars being {approx}20% higher than toward bright quasars (also 10{sigma} at low redshift and 4{sigma} at high redshift). We explore scenarios in which beam size is proportional to quasar luminosity and varies with absorber and quasar redshifts. These do not explain dN/dz's dependence on quasar luminosity.

  3. The Redshift Distribution of Intervening Weak Mg II Quasar Absorbers and a Curious Dependence on Quasar Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jessica L.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Murphy, Michael T.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Klimek, Elizabeth S.

    2013-05-01

    We have identified 469 Mg II λλ2796, 2803 doublet systems having Wr >= 0.02 Å in 252 Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and UVES/Very Large Telescope quasar spectra over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 2.6. Using the largest sample yet of 188 weak Mg II systems (0.02 Å <=Wr < 0.3 Å), we calculate their absorber redshift path density, dN/dz. We find clear evidence of evolution, with dN/dz peaking at z ~ 1.2, and that the product of the absorber number density and cross section decreases linearly with increasing redshift; weak Mg II absorbers seem to vanish above z ~= 2.7. If the absorbers are ionized by the UV background, we estimate number densities of 106-109 Mpc-3 for spherical geometries and 102-105 Mpc-3 for more sheetlike geometries. We also find that dN/dz toward intrinsically faint versus bright quasars differs significantly for weak and strong (Wr >= 1.0 Å) absorbers. For weak absorption, dN/dz toward bright quasars is ~25% higher than toward faint quasars (10σ at low redshift, 0.4 <= z <= 1.4, and 4σ at high redshift, 1.4 < z <= 2.34). For strong absorption the trend reverses, with dN/dz toward faint quasars being ~20% higher than toward bright quasars (also 10σ at low redshift and 4σ at high redshift). We explore scenarios in which beam size is proportional to quasar luminosity and varies with absorber and quasar redshifts. These do not explain dN/dz's dependence on quasar luminosity.

  4. The hard X-ray luminosity function of high-redshift (3 < z ≲ 5) active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vito, F.; Gilli, R.; Vignali, C.; Comastri, A.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Iwasawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present the hard-band (2-10 keV) X-ray luminosity function (HXLF) of 0.5-2 keV band selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshift. We have assembled a sample of 141 AGN at 3 < z ≲ 5 from X-ray surveys of different size and depth, in order to sample different regions in the LX - z plane. The HXLF is fitted in the range log LX ˜ 43-45 with standard analytical evolutionary models through a maximum likelihood procedure. The evolution of the HXLF is well described by a pure density evolution, with the AGN space density declining by a factor of ˜10 from z = 3 to 5. A luminosity-dependent density evolution model, which, normally, best represents the HXLF evolution at lower redshift, is also consistent with the data, but a larger sample of low-luminosity (log LX < 44), high-redshift AGN is necessary to constrain this model. We also estimated the intrinsic fraction of AGN obscured by a column density log NH ≥ 23 to be 0.54 ± 0.05, with no strong dependence on luminosity. This fraction is higher than the value in the Local Universe, suggesting an evolution of the luminous (LX > 1044 erg s-1) obscured AGN fraction from z = 0 to z > 3.

  5. The Identification of Z-dropouts in Pan-STARRS1: Three Quasars at 6.5< z< 6.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, B. P.; Bañados, E.; Decarli, R.; Farina, E. P.; Walter, F.; Chambers, K. C.; Fan, X.; Rix, H.-W.; Schlafly, E.; McMahon, R. G.; Simcoe, R.; Stern, D.; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Waters, C.; AlSayyad, Y.; Banerji, M.; Chen, S. S.; González-Solares, E. A.; Greiner, J.; Mazzucchelli, C.; McGreer, I.; Miller, D. R.; Reed, S.; Sullivan, P. W.

    2015-03-01

    Luminous distant quasars are unique probes of the high-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) and of the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in the early universe. Absorption due to neutral hydrogen in the IGM makes quasars beyond a redshift of z≃ 6.5 very faint in the optical z band, thus locating quasars at higher redshifts requires large surveys that are sensitive above 1 micron. We report the discovery of three new z\\gt 6.5 quasars, corresponding to an age of the universe of \\lt 850 Myr, selected as z-band dropouts in the Pan-STARRS1 survey. This increases the number of known z\\gt 6.5 quasars from four to seven. The quasars have redshifts of z = 6.50, 6.52, and 6.66, and include the brightest z-dropout quasar reported to date, PSO J036.5078 + 03.0498 with {{M}1450}=-27.4. We obtained near-infrared spectroscopy for the quasars, and from the Mg ii line, we estimate that the central black holes have masses between 5 × 108 and 4 × 109 {{M}⊙ } and are accreting close to the Eddington limit ({{L}Bol}/{{L}Edd}=0.13-1.2). We investigate the ionized regions around the quasars and find near-zone radii of {{R}NZ}=1.5-5.2 proper Mpc, confirming the trend of decreasing near-zone sizes with increasing redshift found for quasars at 5.7\\lt z\\lt 6.4. By combining RNZ of the PS1 quasars with those of 5.7\\lt z\\lt 7.1 quasars in the literature, we derive a luminosity-corrected redshift evolution of {{R}NZ,corrected}=(7.2+/- 0.2)-(6.1+/- 0.7)× (z-6) Mpc. However, the large spread in RNZ in the new quasars implies a wide range in quasar ages and/or a large variation in the neutral hydrogen fraction along different lines of sight. Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, programs 179.A-2010, 092.A-0150, 093.A-0863, and 093.A-0574, and at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). This paper

  6. A K{sub S} AND IRAC SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT EXTREMELY RED OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2012-01-10

    In order to find the most extreme dust-hidden high-redshift galaxies, we select 196 extremely red objects in the K{sub S} and Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands (KIEROs, [K{sub s} - 4.5 {mu}m]{sub AB} > 1.6) in the 0.06 deg{sup 2} Great Observatories Origins Deep Surveys-North (GOODS-N) region. This selection avoids the Balmer breaks of galactic spectra at z < 4 and picks up red galaxies with strong dust extinction. The photometric redshifts of KIEROs are between 1.5 and 5, with {approx}70% at z {approx} 2-4. KIEROs are very massive, with M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. They are optically faint and usually cannot be picked out by the Lyman break selection. On the other hand, the KIERO selection includes approximately half of the known millimeter and submillimeter galaxies in the GOODS-N. Stacking analyses in the radio, millimeter, and submillimeter all show that KIEROs are much more luminous than average 4.5 {mu}m-selected galaxies. Interestingly, the stacked fluxes for Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)-undetected KIEROs in these wave bands are 2.5-5 times larger than those for ACS-detected KIEROs. With the stacked radio fluxes and the local radio-FIR correlation, we derive mean infrared luminosities of (2-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} and mean star formation rates (SFRs) of 400-1200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for KIEROs with redshifts. We do not find evidence of a significant subpopulation of passive KIEROs. The large stellar masses and SFRs imply that KIEROs are z > 2 massive galaxies in rapid formation. Our results show that a large sample of dusty ultraluminous sources can be selected in this way and that a large fraction of high-redshift star formation is hidden by dust.

  7. Galaxy Merger Candidates in High-redshift Cluster Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, A. G.; Webb, T. M. A.; Nantais, J.; DeGroot, A.; Wilson, G.; Muzzin, A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Foltz, R.; Noble, A. G.; Demarco, R.; Tudorica, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Hayden, B.; Boone, K.; Surace, J.

    2017-07-01

    We compile a sample of spectroscopically and photometrically selected cluster galaxies from four high-redshift galaxy clusters (1.59< z< 1.71) from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS), and a comparison field sample selected from the UKIDSS Deep Survey. Using near-infrared imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we classify potential mergers involving massive ({M}* ≥slant 3× {10}10 {M}⊙ ) cluster members by eye, based on morphological properties such as tidal distortions, double nuclei, and projected near neighbors within 20 kpc. With a catalog of 23 spectroscopic and 32 photometric massive cluster members across the four clusters and 65 spectroscopic and 26 photometric comparable field galaxies, we find that after taking into account contamination from interlopers, {11.0}-5.6+7.0 % of the cluster members are involved in potential mergers, compared to {24.7}-4.6+5.3 % of the field galaxies. We see no evidence of merger enhancement in the central cluster environment with respect to the field, suggesting that galaxy-galaxy merging is not a stronger source of galaxy evolution in cluster environments compared to the field at these redshifts.

  8. The problematic growth of dust in high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, A.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2016-11-01

    Dust growth via accretion of gas species has been proposed as the dominant process to increase the amount of dust in galaxies. We show here that this hypothesis encounters severe difficulties that make it unfit to explain the observed UV and IR properties of such systems, particularly at high redshifts. Dust growth in the diffuse ISM phases is hampered by (a) too slow accretion rates, (b) too high dust temperatures, and (c) the Coulomb barrier that effectively blocks accretion. In molecular clouds these problems are largely alleviated. Grains are cold (but not colder than the CMB temperature, TCMB ≈ 20 K at redshift z = 6). However, in dense environments accreted materials form icy water mantles, perhaps with impurities. Mantles are immediately (≲1 yr) photo-desorbed as grains return to the diffuse ISM at the end of the cloud lifetime, thus erasing any memory of the growth. We conclude that dust attenuating stellar light at high-z must be ready-made stardust largely produced in supernova ejecta.

  9. Probing the Circumgalactic Gas around High Redshift Galaxies with VUDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Hernández, Hugo; Cassata, Paolo; Ibar, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    We probe the CGM of high redshift galaxies belonging to VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We used deep spectroscopy of different lines-of-sight around foreground galaxies to get useful information on the overall kinematics, chemical abundances, and (in some cases) estimates of the mass flux of cool material entrained in an in-outflow.We have selected a sample of 1244 close (0 150 kpc) galaxy pairs from the Vimos Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS) to probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around galaxies at 2< z <4 . We selected close galaxy pairs, and identified in the spectra of background bright galaxies the faint imprints left by the circumgalactic gas surrounding the foreground galaxies by using stacking analysis which provide a powerful way to extract faint signal from absorptions lines data sets, and enabling measurements of these weak absorptions. We are able to trace the average absorptions line strengths (i.e. Lyα, OISiII, CIV, OISiII, CIV, AlII) out to galactocentric radii of ˜150 kpc on stacked spectra, and found that the CGM of galaxies at 2< z <5 are rich in metals even at ˜150 kpc away from the galaxies.

  10. Radio Selected Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Joshua; Blanton, Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that three-component radio sources exhibiting some degree of bending between components are likely to be found in galaxy clusters. Often this radio emission is associated with a cD type galaxy at the center of a cluster. We have cross-correlated the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with samples selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) catalog and measured the richness of the cluster environments surrounding three- component sources exhibiting both bent and straight lobes. This has lead to the discovery and classification of a large number of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of z ~ 0.5. For both bent- and straight- lobed sources without an optical counterpart it is likely that the radio emission is associated with a galaxy fainter than m_r=22 (the limiting magnitude of the SDSS) and at a redshift higher than z~0.8. We propose to observe a small sub-sample of these sources with the FLAMINGOS instrument on the Mayall 4-m telescope in an attempt to discover if these sources are located in high redshift (z≳0.8) galaxy clusters. In our visually-selected bent radio source sample, 78% of sources with counterparts in the SDSS are associated with clusters.

  11. Magnetically Regulated Gas Accretion in High-Redshift Galactic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnboim, Yuval

    2009-09-01

    Disk galaxies are in hydrostatic equilibrium along their vertical axis. The pressure allowing for this configuration consists of thermal, turbulent, magnetic, and cosmic-ray components. For the Milky Way the thermal pressure contributes ~10% of the total pressure near the plane, with this fraction dropping toward higher altitudes. Out of the rest, magnetic fields contribute ~1/3 of the pressure to distances of ~3 kpc above the disk plane. In this Letter, we attempt to extrapolate these local values to high-redshift, rapidly accreting, rapidly star-forming disk galaxies and study the effect of the extra pressure sources on the accretion of gas onto the galaxies. In particular, magnetic field tension may convert a smooth cold-flow accretion to clumpy, irregular star formation regions and rates. The infalling gas accumulates on the edge of the magnetic fields, supported by magnetic tension. When the mass of the infalling gas exceeds some threshold mass, its gravitational force cannot be balanced by magnetic tension anymore, and it falls toward the disk's plane, rapidly making stars. Simplified estimations of this threshold mass are consistent with clumpy star formation observed in SINS, UDF, GOODS, and GEMS surveys. We discuss the shortcomings of pure hydrodynamic codes in simulating the accretion of cold flows into galaxies, and emphasize the need for magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  12. Sources and Evolution of Dust in the High Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the sources and evolution of dust in the very high redshift universe (z > 8-9) poses unique challenges to observers and theorists alike.The peak of the infrared emission from the dust falls in the ~ 80-120 micron region in the rest frame of the galaxy, or about 850 micron to 2 mm in the observers' frame. Sensitivity and background confusion are the main obstacles for the detection of these high-z galaxies and their association with optical and near-IR counterparts. Observations with instruments such as the SCUBA-2, AzTEC, Mambo, Laboca, and GISMO2 offer the best hope for detecting such sources.On the theoretical side, the sources of dust in these galaxies are confined to massive stars with main sequence lifetimes that are shorter than the age of the universe. This leaves core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) as the main source of thermally-condensed dust in these objects. Dust is not only produced by CCSNe, but also destroyed by them in the remnant phase of their evolution. Accounting for the mass of dust inferred from the far-IR/millimeter observations requires therefore an understanding of the various physical processes affecting the evolution of dust in the very high-z universe, and a carefull evaluation of the balance between their different dust formation and destruction mechanisms.

  13. The Ultimate Multiwavelength Quasar Survey (ROSES-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon

    Our objective is to create the ultimate multi-wavelength quasar catalog by combining moderatelydeep, wide-field data in the NASA archives (from GALEX, 2MASS, Spitzer, and WISE) with public optical imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This catalog will extend from deep samples with signficant multi-wavelength coverage in a small area (e.g., SDSS "Stripe 82"), to shallower samples over a larger area with less multiwavelength coverage. Our efforts are a crucial step to bridging between existing spectroscopic surveys and future photometric surveys. Using this catalog, we will investigate the clustering and luminosity function of faint (i »21-23), high-redshift (z > 2.5) quasars in order to break degeneracies between different models of "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our approach is unique in its application of a Bayesian quasar selection algorithm that has been demonstrated to out-perform standard methods and that has been tested on multi-wavelength data. Once quasars have been identified, we will apply our existing photometric redshift algorithms. Richards and Myers are among the world's experts in finding quasars and using their clustering and luminosity function to do cutting-edge science. Quasar clustering analysis will make use of the team's existing algorithms, which are designed to handle the inherently photometric nature of the quasar sample. The quasar luminosity function algorithms are already in place, allowing for timely completion of this project once the multi-wavelength NASA data have been incorporated. As with all quasar catalogs that represent the next generation in improvements, this multi-wavelength quasar catalog will have an impact that extends far beyond our own science goals. This time is ripe for the construction of such a catalog as only in the past year has this dataset covered such a large range of wavelengths and area. In terms of our own science, understanding the form of AGN feedback and the extent to which it

  14. The search for and investigation of large quasar groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komberg, B. V.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Lukash, V. N.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, it was suggested that large concentrations or groups of quasars may trace sites of enhanced matter density at medium and high redshifts, analogous to the way in which galaxy clusters trace them in nearby space. We checked existing quasar data for the presence of such groups. Large quasar groups (LQGs) were identified using a well-known cluster analysis technique and the following selection criteria: (i) an LQG must contain at least 10 quasars; (ii) the number density of quasars in a group must exceed that of the background by at least a factor of 2; (iii) the majority of quasars in a group must have reliable redshifts. Our final list contains 12 such groups, including one reported previously. It was found that most of the quasars in these groups come from deep homogeneous surveys. Further analysis of the spatial distribution of quasars in these surveys shows that: (i) the probability that the detected groups are random is rather small (generally a few per cent); (ii) their sizes range from ~70 to ~160 h^-1 Mpc, which is comparable to the sizes of nearby rich superclusters; (iii) the detected groups all have redshifts 0.5quasar groups and superclusters can be evolutionarily related. We argue that quasar groups could be a common feature of the spatial distribution of medium-redshift quasars, and that the quasars in groups may belong to concentrations of young galaxy clusters and groups (distant superclusters) and hence be biased tracers of the large-scale structure of matter distribution in the early Universe. Theoretical implications, as well as other observations needed to test this point, are discussed.

  15. Strongly time-variable ultraviolet metal-line emission from the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sravan, Niharika; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; van de Voort, Freeke; Kereš, Dušan; Muratov, Alexander L.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2016-11-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project, which implement a comprehensive set of stellar feedback processes, to study ultraviolet (UV) metal-line emission from the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift (z = 2-4) galaxies. Our simulations cover the halo mass range Mh ˜ 2 × 1011-8.5 × 1012 M⊙ at z = 2, representative of Lyman break galaxies. Of the transitions we analyse, the low-ionization C III (977 Å) and Si III (1207 Å) emission lines are the most luminous, with C IV (1548 Å) and Si IV (1394 Å) also showing interesting spatially extended structures. The more massive haloes are on average more UV-luminous. The UV metal-line emission from galactic haloes in our simulations arises primarily from collisionally ionized gas and is strongly time variable, with peak-to-trough variations of up to ˜2 dex. The peaks of UV metal-line luminosity correspond closely to massive and energetic mass outflow events, which follow bursts of star formation and inject sufficient energy into galactic haloes to power the metal-line emission. The strong time variability implies that even some relatively low-mass haloes may be detectable. Conversely, flux-limited samples will be biased towards haloes whose central galaxy has recently experienced a strong burst of star formation. Spatially extended UV metal-line emission around high-redshift galaxies should be detectable by current and upcoming integral field spectrographs such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope and Keck Cosmic Web Imager.

  16. Resolving the properties of massive, high-redshift starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, James Matthew

    2015-06-01

    . Finally, I present observations of two far-infrared-bright quasars, a potential transition stage in the evolution of SMGs. By considering the gas and black hole properties of these sources I show that they are consistent with the evolutionary scenario where far-infrared bright quasars represent a short phase in the transformation of a starburst dominated SMGs into an unobscured quasar.

  17. Quasar Lifetimes and Black Hole Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Alireza; Hall, P. B.

    2007-12-01

    Wang et al. (2006) estimated a high average radiative efficiency of 30% to 35% for quasars (actively accreting black holes) at moderate redshift, strongly suggesting that all supermassive black holes are rotating very rapidly. Their method for determining radiative efficiencies has two advantages: it deals with changes in quantities rather than absolutes and it is independent of obscured sources. However, we have investigated the reliability of the assumptions made by Wang et al. and have found that their method is not independent of quasar lifetimes. Nonetheless, given constraints on quasar lifetimes, their method can be used to constrain quasar radiative efficiencies and black hole spins. Conversely, the range of radiative efficiencies possible for the full range of black hole spins can be used to constrain the average lifetimes of quasars (assuming that luminous quasars are not powered by radiatively inefficient accretion flows). We will present interrelated constraints on quasar lifetimes, Eddington ratios and radiative efficiencies (black hole spins) from a statistically complete sample of SDSS quasars with black hole mass estimates from Mg II. PBH and AR are supported in part by NSERC.

  18. The Nature of Weak-Line Quasars at Low Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.

    2010-09-01

    The SDSS has uncovered a remarkable class of radio-quiet quasars with no or extremely weak optical/UV emission lines. These have now been studied fairly well at high redshift (z = 2-6), but not at low redshift. We propose exploratory Chandra observations of 11 optically bright weak-line quasars (WLQs) at low redshift (z = 0.40-2.02) that will clarify the nature of this population. Specifically, we will determine if these low-redshift WLQs have "anemic" BLRs, or if instead they have relativistically boosted optical/UV/X-ray continua. The anemic-BLR explanation is favored for high-redshift WLQs, and we will determine if our targets represent the z < 2 extension of this population. We will also assess if WLQs show X-ray evidence for high Eddington-normalized accretion rates.

  19. The premature formation of high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-05-01

    Observations with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope and the use of gravitational lensing techniques have facilitated the discovery of galaxies as far back as z ∼ 10-12, a truly remarkable achievement. However, this rapid emergence of high-z galaxies, barely ∼200 Myr after the transition from Population III star formation to Population II, appears to be in conflict with the standard view of how the early universe evolved. This problem has much in common with the better known (and probably related) premature appearance of supermassive black holes at z ≳ 6. It is difficult to understand how ∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} black holes could have appeared so quickly after the big bang without invoking non-standard accretion physics and the formation of massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local universe. In earlier work, we showed that the appearance of high-z quasars could instead be understood more reasonably in the context of the R {sub h} = ct universe, which does not suffer from the same time compression issues as ΛCDM does at early epochs. Here, we build on that work by demonstrating that the evolutionary growth of primordial galaxies was consistent with the current view of how the first stars formed, but only with the timeline afforded by the R {sub h} = ct cosmology. We also show that the growth of high-z quasars was mutually consistent with that of the earliest galaxies, though it is not yet clear whether the former grew from 5-20 M {sub ☉} seeds created in Population III or Population II supernova explosions.

  20. Through BAL Quasars Brightly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartas, George

    2003-01-01

    We report on an observation of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1115+080 performed with the XMM-Newton observatory. Spectral analysis reveals the second case of a relativistic X-ray-absorbing outflow in a BAL quasar. The first case was revealed in a recent observation of APM 08279+5255 with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. As in the case of APM 08279+5255, the observed flux of PG 1115+080 is greatly magnified by gravitational lensing. The relatively high redshift (z=1.72) of the quasar places the redshifted energies of resonant absorption features in a sensitive portion of the XMM- Newton spectral response. The spectrum indicates the presence of complex low-energy absorption in the 0.2-0.6 keV observed energy band and high-energy absorption in the 2-5 keV observed energy band. The high-energy absorption is best modeled by two Gaussian absorption lines with rest-frame energies of 7.4 and 9.5 keV. Assuming that these two lines axe produced by resonant absorption due to Fe XXV, we infer that the X-ray absorbers are outflowing with velocities of approx. 0.10c and approx. 0.34c respectively. We have detected significant variability of the energies and widths of the X-ray BALs in PG 1115+080 and APM 08279+5255 over timescales of 19 and 1.8 weeks (proper time), respectively. The BAL variability observed from APM 08279+5255 supports our earlier conclusion that these absorbers are most likely launched at relatively small radii of less than 10(exp 16)(Mbh/M8)(sup 1/2) cm. A comparison of the ionization properties and column densities of the low-energy and high-energy absorbers indicates that these absorbers are likely distinct; however, higher spectral resolution is needed to confirm this result. Finally, we comment on prospects for constraining the kinematic and ionization properties of these X-ray BALs with the next generation of X-ray observatories.

  1. Parsec-scale radio structures in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldwell, G.; Paragi, Z.; Gurvits, L.

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) con su nueva extensión para el radio telescopio orbital, VSOP/HALCA, ofrece una incomparable resolución angular alcanzando escalas de milisegundos y submilisegundos de arco a longitudes de onda de centímetros. En este trabajo presentamos observaciones y análisis de estructuras en radio, en escalas de parsec, para 3 radio fuentes extragalácticas de la muestra de VSOP Survey y 1 quasar, 1442+101, del proyecto `VSOP High Redshift'.

  2. FRONTIER FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT PREDICTIONS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Zitrin, Adi

    2015-02-20

    The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new ''blank'' fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. The full program will transform our understanding of galaxy evolution in the first 600 million years (z > 9). Previous programs have yielded a dozen or so z > 9 candidates, including perhaps fewer than expected in the Ultra Deep Field and more than expected in shallower Hubble images. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z > 6) number count predictions for the Frontier Fields and candidates in three of the first Hubble images. We show the full Frontier Fields program may yield up to ∼70 z > 9 candidates (∼6 per field). We base this estimate on an extrapolation of luminosity functions observed between 4 < z < 8 and gravitational lensing models submitted by the community. However, in the first two deep infrared Hubble images obtained to date, we find z ∼ 8 candidates but no strong candidates at z > 9. We defer quantitative analysis of the z > 9 deficit (including detection completeness estimates) to future work including additional data. At these redshifts, cosmic variance (field-to-field variation) is expected to be significant (greater than ±50%) and include clustering of early galaxies formed in overdensities. The full Frontier Fields program will significantly mitigate this uncertainty by observing six independent sightlines each with a lensing cluster and nearby blank field.

  3. High-redshift Blazars through NuSTAR Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotulli, L.; Paliya, V. S.; Ajello, M.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Gasparrini, D.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Baloković, M.; Stern, D.; Madejski, G.

    2017-04-01

    The most powerful sources among the blazar family are MeV blazars. Often detected at z > 2, they usually display high X- and γ-ray luminosities, larger-than-average jet powers, and black hole masses ≳109 M ⊙. In the present work, we perform a multiwavelength study of three high-redshift blazars: 3FGL J0325.5+2223 (z = 2.06), 3FGL J0449.0+1121 (z = 2.15), and 3FGL J0453.2-2808 (z = 2.56), analyzing quasi-simultaneous data from GROND, Swift-UVOT and XRT, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), and Fermi-LAT. Our main focus is on the hard X-ray band recently unveiled by NuSTAR (3-79 keV) where these objects show a hard spectrum that enables us to constrain the inverse Compton (IC) peak and the jet power. We found that all three targets resemble the most powerful blazars, with the synchrotron peak located in the submillimeter range and the IC peak in the MeV range, and therefore belong to the MeV blazar class. Using a simple one-zone leptonic emission model to reproduce the spectral energy distributions, we conclude that a simple combination of synchrotron and accretion disk emission reproduces the infrared-optical spectra, while the X-ray to γ-ray part is well reproduced by the IC scattering of low-energy photons supplied by the broad-line region. The black hole masses for each of the three sources are calculated to be ≳4 × 108 M ⊙. The three studied sources have jet power at the level of, or beyond, the accretion luminosity.

  4. WISH: wide-field imaging surveyor at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toru; Doi, Mamoru; Goto, Tomotsugu; Ikeda, Yuji; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Akio; Iwamura, Satoru; Iwata, Ikuru; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Morokuma, Tomoki; Ohta, Kouji; Oyabu, Shinki; Sato, Yoichi; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Tsutsui, Ryo; Tokoku, Chihiro; Tsuneta, Saku; Wada, Takehiko; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yasuda, Naoki; Yonetoku, Daisuke

    2010-07-01

    WISH is a new space science mission concept whose primary goal is to study the first galaxies in the early universe. We will launch a 1.5m telescope equipped with 1000 arcmin2 wide-field NIR camera by late 2010's in order to conduct unique ultra-deep and wide-area sky surveys at 1-5 micron. The primary science goal of WISH mission is pushing the high-redshift frontier beyond the epoch of reionization by utilizing its unique imaging capability and the dedicated survey strategy. We expect to detect ~104 galaxies at z=8-9, ~3-6x103 galaxies at z=11-12, and ~50-100 galaxies at z=14-17 within about 5 years of the planned mission life time. It is worth mentioning that a large fraction of these objects may be bright enough for the spectroscopic observations with the extremely large telescopes. By adopting the optimized strategy for the recurrent observations to reach the depth, we also use the surveys to detect transient objects. Type Ia Supernova cosmology is thus another important primary goal of WISH. A unique optical layout has been developed to achieve the diffraction-limited imaging at 1-5micron over the required large area. Cooling the mirror and telescope to ~100K is needed to achieve the zodiacal light limited imaging and WISH will achieve the required temperature by passive cooling in the stable thermal environment at the orbit near Sun-Earth L2. We are conducting the conceptual studies and development for the important components of WISH including the exchange mechanism for the wide-field filters as well as the primary mirror fixation.

  5. POPULATION III STARS AND REMNANTS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Wise, John H. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu

    2013-08-20

    Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H{sub 2} formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, culminating in 50 remnants located in 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies.

  6. OBSCURED STARBURST ACTIVITY IN HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUSTERS AND GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Gal, Roy; Squires, Gordon K.; Surace, Jason A.; Lacy, Mark

    2011-07-20

    Using Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 {mu}m imaging and extensive Keck spectroscopy, we examine the nature of the obscured star-forming population in three clusters and three groups at z {approx} 0.9. These six systems are the primary components of the Cl1604 supercluster, the largest structure imaged by Spitzer at redshifts approaching unity. We find that the average density of 24 {mu}m detected galaxies within the Cl1604 clusters is nearly twice that of the surrounding field and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24 {mu}m bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [O II] line emission due to severe obscuration. Their spatial distribution suggests that they are an infalling population, but an examination of their spectral properties, morphologies, and optical colors indicates that they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked composite spectra, we find that the 24 {mu}m detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared with galaxies undergoing normal, continuous star formation. A similar excess is not observed in field galaxies with equivalent infrared luminosities, indicating a greater fraction of the detected cluster and group members have experienced a burst of star formation in the recent past compared to their counterparts in the field. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxies at high redshift experience a temporary increase in their star formation activity as they assemble into denser environments. Using Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, we find that disturbed morphologies are common among the 24 {mu}m detected cluster and group members and become more prevalent in regions of higher galaxy density. We conclude that mergers are the dominant triggering mechanism responsible for the enhanced star formation found in the Cl1604 groups, while a mix of harassment and mergers

  7. High-redshift Blazars through NuSTAR eyes

    DOE PAGES

    Marcotulli, L.; Paliya, V. S.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2017-04-20

    The most powerful sources among the blazar family are MeV blazars. Often detected at z > 2, they usually display high X- and γ-ray luminosities, larger-than-average jet powers, and black hole masses ≳109 M⊙. In the present work, we perform a multiwavelength study of three high-redshift blazars: 3FGL J0325.5+2223 (z = 2.06), 3FGL J0449.0+1121 (z = 2.15), and 3FGL J0453.2–2808 (z = 2.56), analyzing quasi-simultaneous data from GROND, Swift-UVOT and XRT, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), and Fermi-LAT. Our main focus is on the hard X-ray band recently unveiled by NuSTAR (3–79 keV) where these objects show a hard spectrummore » that enables us to constrain the inverse Compton (IC) peak and the jet power. We found that all three targets resemble the most powerful blazars, with the synchrotron peak located in the submillimeter range and the IC peak in the MeV range, and therefore belong to the MeV blazar class. Using a simple one-zone leptonic emission model to reproduce the spectral energy distributions, we conclude that a simple combination of synchrotron and accretion disk emission reproduces the infrared–optical spectra, while the X-ray to γ-ray part is well reproduced by the IC scattering of low-energy photons supplied by the broad-line region. The black hole masses for each of the three sources are calculated to be ≳4 × 108 M⊙. Finally, the three studied sources have jet power at the level of, or beyond, the accretion luminosity.« less

  8. The growth efficiency of high-redshift black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Volonteri, Marta; Ferrara, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The observational evidence that Super-Massive Black Holes (M• ˜ 109-10 M⊙) are already in place less than 1 Gyr after the big bang poses stringent time constraints on the growth efficiency of their seeds. Among proposed possibilities, the formation of massive (˜103-6 M⊙) seeds and/or the occurrence of super-Eddington (dot{M}>dot{M}_{Edd}) accretion episodes may contribute to the solution of this problem. In this work, using a set of astrophysically motivated initial conditions, we analytically and numerically investigate the accretion flow on to high-redshift (z ˜ 10) black holes to understand the physical requirements favouring rapid and efficient growth. Our model identifies a `feeding-dominated' accretion regime and a `feedback-limited' one, the latter being characterized by intermittent (duty cycles D ≲ 0.5) and inefficient growth, with recurring outflow episodes. We find that low-mass seeds (≲103-4 M⊙) evolve in the feedback-limited regime, while more massive seeds (≳105-6 M⊙) grow very rapidly as they are found in the feeding-dominated regime. In addition to the standard accretion model with a fixed matter-energy conversion factor (ɛ = 0.1), we have also explored slim disc models, appropriate for super-Eddington accretion, where radiation is trapped in the disc and the radiative efficiency is reduced (ɛ ≲ 0.04), which may ensure a continuous growth with dot{M} ≫ dot{M}_{Edd} (up to {˜ } 300 dot{M}_{Edd} in our simulations). Under these conditions, outflows play a negligible role and a black hole can accrete 80-100 per cent of the gas mass of the host halo (˜107 M⊙) in ˜10 Myr, while in feedback-limited systems we predict that black holes can accrete only up to ˜15 per cent of the available mass.

  9. STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUSTER ELLIPTICALS

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Cory R.; Brodwin, Mark; Snyder, Gregory F.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor L.; Stanford, S. A.; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Dey, Arjun; Moustakas, John

    2015-02-20

    We measure the star formation rates (SFRs) of massive (M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.1} M {sub ☉}) early-type galaxies (ETGs) in a sample of 11 high-redshift (1.0 < z < 1.5) galaxy clusters drawn from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). We identify ETGs visually from Hubble Space Telescope imaging and select likely cluster members as having either an appropriate spectroscopic redshift or red-sequence color. Mid-infrared SFRs are measured using Spitzer 24 μm data for isolated cluster galaxies for which contamination by neighbors, and active galactic nuclei, can be ruled out. Cluster ETGs show enhanced specific star formation rates (sSFRs) compared to cluster galaxies in the local universe, but have sSFRs more than four times lower than that of field ETGs at 1 < z < 1.5. Relative to the late-type cluster population, isolated ETGs show substantially quenched mean SFRs, yet still contribute 12% of the overall star formation activity measured in 1 < z < 1.5 clusters. We find that new ETGs are likely being formed in ISCS clusters; the fraction of cluster galaxies identified as ETGs increases from 34% to 56% from z ∼ 1.5 → 1.25. While the fraction of cluster ETGs that are highly star-forming (SFR ≥ 26 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) drops from 27% to 10% over the same period, their sSFRs are roughly constant. All these factors taken together suggest that, particularly at z ≳ 1.25, the events that created these distant cluster ETGs—likely mergers, at least among the most massive—were both recent and gas-rich.

  10. Microlensing Constraints on Quasar Spins and X-ray Reflection Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xinyu

    2017-08-01

    Gravitational microlensing provides a unique probe of the innermost parts of quasar accretion disks, close to the event horizon of supermassive black holes. Using Chandra monitoring data of six lenses from two Large Programs in Cycles 11 and 14/15, we identified two microlensing effects that can be used to constrain black hole spins and X-ray reflection regions for high redshift quasars. The first effect is the excess iron line equivalent widths of lensed quasars compared to normal AGN, and the second is the distribution of iron line peak energies of lensed quasars. A microlensing analysis of the iron line equivalent widths prefers high spin values and very steep iron line emissivity profiles for quasars at z~2. We will also discuss the prospect of measuring quasar spins with microlensing using the next generation of X-ray telescopes.

  11. Quasar Absorption in the UV: Probing the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, David; Katz, Neal

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to model the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest and exploration of the relation between Lyman-alpha absorbers and galaxies. This paper shows that the simulation models that are so successful at explaining properties of the high-redshift forest also account for the most important results of observational studies of the low-redshift forest, from HST (especially the Quasar Absorption Line Key Project) and ground-based follow-up.

  12. Gas Dynamics and the Formation of Galaxies and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, Abraham

    1998-01-01

    This performance report lists papers that were written during 19978/98. These papers focus on structure formation in the universe at high redshifts, and accomplish various aspects of the research goals of this grant. Some of the papers included in this report are: 1) The First Stars and Quasars; 2) Direct Measurement of Cosmological Parameters from the Cosmic Deceleration of Extragalactic Objects; and 3) The Expected Rate of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows In Supernova Searches.

  13. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M.

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  14. THE SUDDEN DEATH OF THE NEAREST QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Virani, Shanil; Megan Urry, C.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Coppi, Paolo; Evans, Daniel A.; Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna; Lintott, Chris J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Bamford, Steven P.; Jozsa, Gyula I. G.; Garrett, Michael; Van Arkel, Hanny; Gay, Pamela; Fortson, Lucy

    2010-11-20

    Galaxy formation is significantly modulated by energy output from supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies which grow in highly efficient luminous quasar phases. The timescale on which black holes transition into and out of such phases is, however, unknown. We present the first measurement of the shutdown timescale for an individual quasar using X-ray observations of the nearby galaxy IC 2497, which hosted a luminous quasar no more than 70,000 years ago that is still seen as a light echo in 'Hanny's Voorwerp', but whose present-day radiative output is lower by at least two, and more likely by over four, orders of magnitude. This extremely rapid shutdown provides new insight into the physics of accretion in supermassive black holes and may signal a transition of the accretion disk to a radiatively inefficient state.

  15. The accelerated build-up of the red sequence in high-redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerulo, P.; Couch, W. J.; Lidman, C.; Demarco, R.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Barrientos, L. F.; Muñoz, R. P.

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the evolution of the red sequence in a sample of galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.8 < z < 1.5 taken from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). The comparison with the low-redshift (0.04 < z < 0.08) sample of the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) and other literature results shows that the slope and intrinsic scatter of the cluster red sequence have undergone little evolution since z = 1.5. We find that the luminous-to-faint ratio and the slope of the faint end of the luminosity distribution of the HCS red sequence are consistent with those measured in WINGS, implying that there is no deficit of red galaxies at magnitudes fainter than M_V^{ast } at high redshifts. We find that the most massive HCS clusters host a population of bright red sequence galaxies at MV < -22.0 mag, which are not observed in low-mass clusters. Interestingly, we also note the presence of a population of very bright (MV < -23.0 mag) and massive (log (M*/M⊙) > 11.5) red sequence galaxies in the WINGS clusters, which do not include only the brightest cluster galaxies and which are not present in the HCS clusters, suggesting that they formed at epochs later than z = 0.8. The comparison with the luminosity distribution of a sample of passive red sequence galaxies drawn from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field in the photometric redshift range 0.8 < zphot < 1.5 shows that the red sequence in clusters is more developed at the faint end, suggesting that halo mass plays an important role in setting the time-scales for the build-up of the red sequence.

  16. NIHAO XIII: Clumpy discs or clumpy light in high-redshift galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Tobias; Macciò, Andrea V.; Obreja, Aura; Dutton, Aaron A.; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Granato, Gian Luigi

    2017-07-01

    Many massive star-forming disc galaxies in the redshift range 3-0.5 are observed to have a clumpy morphology showing giant clumps of size ˜1 kpc and masses of about 107-1010 M⊙. The nature and fate of these giant clumps are still under debate. In this work, we use 19 high-resolution simulations of disc galaxies from the Numerical Investigations of Hundred Astrophysical Objects (NIHAO) sample to study the formation and evolution of clumps in the discs of high-redshift galaxies. We use mock Hubble Space Telescope-CANDELS observations created with the radiative transfer code grasil-3d to carry out, for the first time, a quantitative comparison of the observed fraction of clumpy galaxies and its evolution with redshift with simulations. We find a good agreement between the observed clumpy fraction and the one of the NIHAO galaxies. We find that dust attenuation can suppress intrinsically bright clumps and enhance less luminous ones. In our galaxy sample, we find clumps only in light (U band) from young stars but not in stellar mass surface density maps. This means that the NIHAO sample does not show clumpy stellar discs but rather a clumpy light distribution originating from clumpy star formation events. The clumps found in the NIHAO sample match observed age/colour gradients as a function of distance from the galaxy centre, but they show no sign of inward migration. Clumps in our simulations disperse on time-scales of about a hundred Myr and their contribution to bulge growth is negligible.

  17. A Study of PG Quasar-Driven Outflows with COS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Frederick

    2013-10-01

    Quasar outflows are an important part of the quasar phenomenon, but many questions remain about their energetics, physical properties and the role they might play in providing feedback to host galaxy evolution. We searched our own COS far-UV observations from the QUEST survey and other large COS programs to find a sample of 6 bright PG quasars with broad {FWHM > 400 km/s} high velocity {v > 1000 km/s} absorption lines that clearly form in quasar-driven winds. These quasars can fill an important gap in our understanding between local Seyferts with low-speed winds and high-redshift quasars with extreme BAL outflows. They are also well-studied at other wavelengths, with some evidence for the quasars driving galaxy-scale blowouts and shutting down star formation. But almost nothing is known about the quasar outflows themselves. We propose a detailed study of these 6 outflow quasars using new COS FUV observations to 1} expand the existing wavelength coverage across critical lines that are diagnostic of the outflow physical conditions, kinetic energies, and metallicities, and 2} check for line variability as an indicator of the outflow structure and locations. This quasar sample includes unusual cases with many low-abundance {PV 1118,1128 and SIV 1063} and excited-state lines {SIV 1073*, CIII* 1175, CII* 1335} that will provide unprecedented constraints on the outflow properties, plus the first known OVI-only mini-BAL outflow {no lower ions detected} for which we will cover NeVIII 770,780 to probe the highest ionization gas. The high FUV sensitivity of COS is uniquely able to measure this wide range of outflow lines in low-redshift quasars with no Lya forest contamination.

  18. The evolution of the quasar continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.

    1992-01-01

    We now have in hand a large data base of Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), optical, and IR complementary data. We are in the process of obtaining a large amount of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data for the same quasar sample. For our complementary sample at high redshifts, where the UV was redshifted into the optical, we have just had approved large amounts of observing time to cover the quasar continuum in the near-IR using the new Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) array spectrographs. Ten micron, optical, and VLA radio, data also have approved time. An ISO US key program was approved to extend this work into the far-IR, and the launch of ASTRO-D (early in 1993) promises to extend it to higher energy X-rays.

  19. The essential signature of a massive starburst in a distant quasar.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P; Vanden Bout, P; Carilli, C; Guelin, M

    2003-12-11

    Observations of carbon monoxide emission in high-redshift (zeta > 2) galaxies indicate the presence of large amounts of molecular gas. Many of these galaxies contain an active galactic nucleus powered by accretion of gas onto a supermassive black hole, and a key question is whether their extremely high infrared luminosities result from the active galactic nucleus, from bursts of massive star formation (associated with the molecular gas), or both. In the Milky Way, high-mass stars form in the dense cores of interstellar molecular clouds, where gas densities are n(H2) > 10(5) cm(-3) (refs 1, 2). Recent surveys show that virtually all galactic sites of high-mass star formation have similarly high densities. The bulk of the cloud material traced by CO observations, however, is at a much lower density. For galaxies in the local Universe, the HCN molecule is an effective tracer of high-density molecular gas. Here we report observations of HCN emission from the infrared-luminous 'Cloverleaf' quasar (at a redshift zeta = 2.5579). The HCN line luminosity indicates the presence of 10 billion solar masses of very dense gas, an essential feature of an immense starburst, which contributes, together with the active galactic nucleus it harbours, to its high infrared luminosity.

  20. An empirical SFR estimator for high redshift galaxies:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, Stephane

    2015-08-01

    At high redshift, most of the SFR indicators are limited to the most massive galaxies (Far-IR, radio) and out of reach of optical spectroscopy (Halpha). The UV continuum is the only one available at all redshifts and for galaxies within a large range of mass. The main question is then to properly account for dust absorption. The SED fitting are always limited in the choice of popular attenuation laws (if not only one, starburst) which relies on the slope of the UV continuum. The alternative is to measure the net budget between the absorbed vs un-absorbed UV light i.e. the infrared excess (IRX= Lir/Luv).By using the deep 24 micron in the COSMOS field, we have observed a remarkable behaviour of IRX stripes within the (NUV-r)o vs (r-K)o color diagram which can be used to derive robust SFR estimates just with the Luv, Lr and Lk luminosities (Arnouts et al, 2013). We have shown that we can explain the correlation if we consider a two component models for the birth clouds and the ISM and also a complete model for galaxy inclination to explain the extrem IRX values. We are now extended the method with Herschel data at higher redshift (z~2) and lower masses (M~10^8Mo) by using stacking techniques and find that the IRX-NUVrK correlation persists (Le Floc’h , in prep). This method allows us to derive an accurate SFR for each individual galaxy based on its location in the NUVrK diagram and with no assumption on dust attenuation law, a main caveat for SED fitting technique.We investigated the behavior of the scatter of the SFR-Mass in GOODS and COSMOS fields and find that both SFR (Lir+Luv) or SFR(NUVrK) estimatesare consistent (Ilbert et al., 2015). Finally will investigate the dust-free UV luminosity functions in between 0

  1. Towards a comprehensive picture of powerful quasars, their host galaxies and quasar winds at z ˜ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Liu, Guilin; Obied, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Luminous type-2 quasars in which the glow from the central black hole is obscured by dust are ideal targets for studying their host galaxies and the quasars' effect on galaxy evolution. Such feedback appears ubiquitous in luminous obscured quasars where high-velocity-ionized nebulae have been found. We present rest-frame yellow-band (˜5000 Å) observations using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for a sample of 20 luminous quasar host galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For the first time, we combine host galaxy observations with geometric measurements of quasar illumination using blue-band HST observations and [O III] integral field unit observations probing the quasar winds. The HST images reveal bright merger signatures in about half the galaxies; a significantly higher fraction than in comparison inactive ellipticals. We show that the host galaxies are primarily bulge-dominated, with masses close to M*, but belong to <30 per cent of elliptical galaxies that are highly star forming at z ˜ 0.5. Ionized gas signatures are uncorrelated with faint stellar discs (if present), confirming that the ionized gas is not concentrated in a disc. Scattering cones and [O III] ionized gas velocity field are aligned with the forward scattering cones being co-spatial with the blue-shifted side of the velocity field, suggesting the high-velocity gas is indeed photo-ionized by the quasar. Based on the host galaxies' high star formation rates and bright merger signatures, we suggest that this low-redshift outbreak of luminous quasar activity is triggered by recent minor mergers. Combining these novel observations, we present new quasar unification tests, which are in agreement with expectations of the orientation-based unification model for quasars.

  2. Quasars as tracers of cosmic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modzelewska, J.; Czerny, B.; Bilicki, M.; Hryniewicz, K.; Krupa, M.; Petrogalli, F.; Pych, W.; Kurcz, A.; Udalski, A.

    2016-10-01

    Quasars, as the most luminous persistent sources in the Universe, have broad applications for cosmological studies. In particular, they can be employed to directly measure the expansion history of the Universe, similarly to SNe Ia. The advantage of quasars is that they are numerous, cover a broad range of redshifts, up to z = 7, and do not show significant evolution of metallicity with redshift. The idea is based on the relation between the time delay of an emission line and the continuum, and the absolute monochromatic luminosity of a quasar. For intermediate redshift quasars, the suitable line is Mg II. Between December 2012 and March 2014, we performed five spectroscopic observations of the QSO CTS C30.10 (z = 0.900) using the South African Large Telesope (SALT), supplemented with photometric monitoring, with the aim of determining the variability of the line shape, changes in the total line intensity and in the continuum. We show that the method is very promising.

  3. High Redshift Radio Galaxies at Low Redshift, and Some Other Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, Robert

    Cygnus A is the only high redshift radio galaxy at low redshift, that is it's the only nearby object with radio power in the range of the high redshift 3C objects. It is clear now that this is somewhat misleading in that Cyg A is an overachiever in the radio, and that its actual bolometric luminosity is much more modest than this would indicate. (This point has been explored and generalized in Barthel and Arnaud 1996; also see Carilli and Barthel 1996 for a detailed review of Cyg A). But the energy content of the lobes is famously large. There is a whole history of attempts to show that Cygnus A fits the Unified Model, and our particular contribution was detecting an apparent broad MgII line with the HST (Antonucci, Kinney and Hurt 1994, which includes references to previous work). The spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was less than amazing; furthermore an unflagged dead diode took out ~12 Å from the line profile; and there was an uncertain ``noise" contribution from confusing narrow lines (gory details in Antonucci 1994). One of the referees of our paper - the favorable one - stated that ``only a mother could love that line." Thus we reobserved it with somewhat better SNR and with the bad diode flagged, and the old and new data are presented to the same scale in Figure 1. Most of the bins are within the combined 1 σ statistical errors, and the many statistically significant wiggles are almost all present in NGC1068 as well (Antonucci, Hurt and Miller 1994). The point is that the errors are believable, and that the continuum should be set low. I believe the MgII line is there and is broader than we thought originally. (A detailed discussion of the spectrum is in prep.) In the 1994 paper we also stated that the polarization in the UV (F320W FOC filter) is ~6 %, and perpendicular to the radio axis, indicating that there is a fairly large contribution from scattered light from a quasar in this region. This is consistent with the scenario of Jackson and Tadhunter

  4. Seeking the Epoch of Maximum Luminosity for Dusty Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, Valeri; Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2014-08-01

    Infrared luminosities νL ν(7.8 μm) arising from dust reradiation are determined for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.4 ~ 3 with maximum luminosity νL ν(7.8 μm) >~ 1047 erg s-1 luminosity functions show one quasar Gpc-3 having νL ν(7.8 μm) > 1046.6 erg s-1 for all 2 quasars first reached their maximum luminosity has not yet been identified at any redshift below 5. The most ultraviolet luminous quasars, defined by rest frame νL ν(0.25 μm), have the largest values of the ratio νL ν(0.25 μm)/νL ν(7.8 μm) with a maximum ratio at z = 2.9. From these results, we conclude that the quasars most luminous in the ultraviolet have the smallest dust content and appear luminous primarily because of lessened extinction. Observed ultraviolet/infrared luminosity ratios are used to define "obscured" quasars as those having >5 mag of ultraviolet extinction. We present a new summary of obscured quasars discovered with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and determine the infrared luminosity function of these obscured quasars at z ~ 2.1. This is compared with infrared luminosity functions of optically discovered, unobscured quasars in the SDSS and in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. The comparison indicates comparable numbers of obscured and unobscured quasars at z ~ 2.1 with a possible excess of obscured quasars at fainter luminosities.

  5. Seeking the epoch of maximum luminosity for dusty quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Vardanyan, Valeri; Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine E-mail: dweedman@isc.astro.cornell.edu

    2014-08-01

    Infrared luminosities νL{sub ν}(7.8 μm) arising from dust reradiation are determined for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.4 quasar Gpc{sup –3} having νL{sub ν}(7.8 μm) > 10{sup 46.6} erg s{sup –1} for all 2 quasars first reached their maximum luminosity has not yet been identified at any redshift below 5. The most ultraviolet luminous quasars, defined by rest frame νL{sub ν}(0.25 μm), have the largest values of the ratio νL{sub ν}(0.25 μm)/νL{sub ν}(7.8 μm) with a maximum ratio at z = 2.9. From these results, we conclude that the quasars most luminous in the ultraviolet have the smallest dust content and appear luminous primarily because of lessened extinction. Observed ultraviolet/infrared luminosity ratios are used to define 'obscured' quasars as those having >5 mag of ultraviolet extinction. We present a new summary of obscured quasars discovered with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and determine the infrared luminosity function of these obscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1. This is compared with infrared luminosity functions of optically discovered, unobscured quasars in the SDSS and in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. The comparison indicates comparable numbers of obscured and unobscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1 with a possible excess of obscured quasars at fainter luminosities.

  6. Formation of the first stars and quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiman, Z.

    We examine various observable signatures of the first generation of stars and low-luminosity quasars, including the metal enrichment, radiation background, and dust opacity/emission that they produce. We calculate the formation history of collapsed baryonic halos, based on an extension of the Press-Schechter formalism, incorporating the effects of pressure and H2-dissociation. We then use the observed CH ratio at z=3 in the Lyman-α forest clouds to obtain an average the star formation efficiency in these halos. Similarly, we fit the efficiency of black-hole formation, and the shape of quasar light curves, to match the observed quasar luminosity function (LF) between z=2-4, and use this fit to extrapolate the quasar LF to faint magnitudes and high redshifts. To be consistent with the lack of faint point-sources in the Hubble Deep Field, we impose a lower limit of ~ 75 km s-1 for the circular velocities of halos harboring central black holes. We find that in a λCDM model, stars reionize the IGM at zreion=9-13, and quasars at z=12. Observationally, zreion can be measured by the forthcoming MAP and Planck Surveyor satellites, via the damping of CMB anisotropies by ~10% on small angular scales due to electron scattering. We show that if reionization occurs later, at 5 <~ zreion <~ 10, then it can be measured from the spectra of individual sources. We also find that the Next Generation Space Telescope will be able to directly image about 1-40 star clusters, and a few faint quasars, from z > 10 per square arcminute. The amount of dust produced by the first supernovae has an optical depth of τ=0.1-1 towards high redshift sources, and the reprocessed UV flux of stars and quasars distorts the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) by a Compton y-parameter comparable to the COBE limit, y ~ 1.5 × 10-5.

  7. Extreme Red Quasars in SDSS-BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia; Paris, Isabelle; Herbst, Hanna; Villforth, Carolin; Alexandroff, Rachael; Ross, Nicholas; Greene, Jenny; Strauss, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Red quasars are believed to mark a critical transition stage of massive galaxy evolution when a blowout of gas and dust truncates the initial starburst and provides our first visible views of a luminous central AGN. Red quasars could therefore have unusual properties associated with a young evolution stage, such as higher accretion rates, higher rates of mergers and interactions, and more common or more powerful outflows capable of driving a galaxy-wide blowout (e.g., compared to normal blue quasars in presumably more evolved galaxy hosts). The recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey (BOSS) of SDSS-III has discovered many more faint quasars with higher redshifts and redder colors than any previous large survey. We combine BOSS spectra with SDSS and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometry of nearly 100,000 quasars to identify and characterize the red quasar population at redshifts >2. We find a number of strong trends with the amount of reddening/obscuration. For example, red quasars are 5 to 8 times more likely to have broad absorption lines and other "intrinsic" absorption lines that identify quasar-driven outflows. Perhaps most interesting is that extreme red quasars (ERQs), selected via rest-frame UV to near-IR colors similar to Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs), have uniquely exotic emission line properties that include extreme velocity shifts between lines and the broadest and most blueshifted [OIII] lines yet discovered (with FWHMs reaching >3000 km/s). We will discuss the implications of these results for models of the structure and evolution of quasars and their host galaxy environments.

  8. The evolution of high-redshift massive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonteri, Marta; Habouzit, Melanie; Pacucci, Fabio; Tremmel, Michael

    Massive black holes (MBHs) are nowadays recognized as integral parts of galaxy evolution. Both the approximate proportionality between MBH and galaxy mass, and the expected importance of feedback from active MBHs in regulating star formation in their host galaxies point to a strong interplay between MBHs and galaxies. MBHs must form in the first galaxies and be fed by gas in these galaxies, with continuous or intermittent inflows that, at times, can be larger than the Eddington rate. Feedback from supernovae and from the MBHs themselves modulates the growth of the first MBHs. While current observational data only probe the most massive and luminous MBHs, the tip of the iceberg, we will soon be able to test theoretical models of MBH evolution on more ``normal'' MBHs: the MBHs that are indeed relevant in building the population that we observe in local galaxies, including our own Milky Way.

  9. The large area KX quasar catalogue - I. Analysis of the photometric redshift selection and the complete quasar catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Natasha; Hewett, Paul C.; Péroux, Céline; Nestor, Daniel B.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    The results of a large area, ˜600 deg2, K-band flux-limited spectroscopic survey for luminous quasars are presented. The survey utilizes the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) in regions of sky within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint. The K-band excess (KX) of all quasars with respect to Galactic stars is exploited in combination with a photometric redshift/classification scheme to identify quasar candidates for spectroscopic follow-up observations. The data contained within this investigation will be able to provide new constraints on the fraction of luminous quasars reddened by dust with E(B - V) ≤ 0.5 mag. The spectroscopic sample is defined using the K-band, 14.0 ≤ K ≤ 16.6, and SDSS i-band limits of i = 19.5, 19.7 and 22.0 over sky areas of 287, 150 and 196 deg2, respectively. The survey includes >3200 known quasars from the SDSS and more than 250 additional confirmed quasars from the KX selection. A well-defined subsample of quasars in the redshift interval 1.0 ≤ z ≤ 3.5 includes 1152 objects from the SDSS and 172 additional KX-selected quasars. The quasar selection is >95 per cent complete with respect to known SDSS quasars and >95 per cent efficient, largely independent of redshift and i-band magnitude. The properties of the new KX-selected quasars confirm the known redshift-dependent effectiveness of the SDSS quasar selection and provide a sample of luminous quasars experiencing intermediate levels of extinction by dust. The catalogue represents an important step towards the assembly of a well-defined sample of luminous quasars that may be used to investigate the properties of quasars experiencing intermediate levels of dust extinction within their host galaxies or due intervening absorption line systems. †Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 083.A0360 and 085.A0359.‡Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano

  10. Metal abundances and kinematics of a high-redshift galaxy obtained with the Kech telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Arthur M.; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Tytler, David; Vogt, Steven S.; Keane, Michael J.; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    1994-01-01

    We use the Kech 10 m telescope and its high-resolution echelle spectrometer (HIRES) to obtain accurate high-resolution spectra of a quasar to determine element abundances of a probable foreground young galaxy with redshift z = 2.309. Precise measurements of absorption lines lead to the first accurate abundance determinations on Zn, Cr, and Ni at large redshifts. We find that (Zn/H) = -1.55 +/- 0.11, while (Cr/H) = -1.79 +/- 0.10 and (Ni/H) = -2.13 +/- 0.08. The Zn abundance indicates low metallicity, while the Cr and Ni abundances are consistent with depletion of these elements onto grains. We also find (O/H) less than 0.97. Therefore, the galaxy is more metal-deficient than the oldest disk stars in the Galaxy. The kinematic evidence is consistent with a thick disk of gas with rotation speed and radius comparable to the rotation speeds and radii of current luminous spiral galaxies. Therefore, a rotationally supported disk may be in place at z greater than 2.

  11. Star formation and mass assembly in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Fiore, F.; Fontanot, F.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Nonino, M.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to infer the star formation properties and the mass assembly process of high redshift (0.3 ≤ z < 2.5) galaxies from their IR emission using the 24 μm band of MIPS-Spitzer. Methods: We used an updated version of the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, which has multiwavelength coverage from 0.3 to 24 μm and either spectroscopic or accurate photometric redshifts. We describe how the catalog has been extended by the addition of mid-IR fluxes derived from the MIPS 24 μm image. We compared two different estimators of the star formation rate (SFR hereafter). One is the total infrared emission derived from 24 μm, estimated using both synthetic and empirical IR templates. The other one is a multiwavelength fit to the full galaxy SED, which automatically accounts for dust reddening and age-star formation activity degeneracies. For both estimates, we computed the SFR density and the specific SFR. Results: We show that the two SFR indicators are roughly consistent, once the uncertainties involved are taken into account. However, they show a systematic trend, IR-based estimates exceeding the fit-based ones as the star formation rate increases. With this new catalog, we show that: a) at z>0.3, the star formation rate is correlated well with stellar mass, and this relationship seems to steepen with redshift if one relies on IR-based estimates of the SFR; b) the contribution to the global SFRD by massive galaxies increases with redshift up to ≃ 2.5, more rapidly than for galaxies of lower mass, but appears to flatten at higher z; c) despite this increase, the most important contributors to the SFRD at any z are galaxies of about, or immediately lower than, the characteristic stellar mass; d) at z≃ 2, massive galaxies are actively star-forming, with a median {SFR} ≃ 300 M_⊙ yr-1. During this epoch, our targeted galaxies assemble a substantial part of their final stellar mass; e) the specific SFR (SSFR) shows a clear bimodal distribution. Conclusions

  12. The Extended High A(V) Quasar Survey: Searching for Dusty Absorbers toward Mid-infrared-selected Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Heintz, K. E.; Geier, S.; Ledoux, C.; Møller, P.; Noterdaeme, P.; Venemans, B. P.; Vestergaard, M.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a new spectroscopic survey for dusty intervening absorption systems, particularly damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs), toward reddened quasars. The candidate quasars are selected from mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer combined with optical and near-infrared photometry. Out of 1073 candidates, we secure low-resolution spectra for 108 using the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain. Based on the spectra, we are able to classify 100 of the 108 targets as quasars. A large fraction (50%) is observed to have broad absorption lines (BALs). Moreover, we find six quasars with strange breaks in their spectra, which are not consistent with regular dust reddening. Using template fitting, we infer the amount of reddening along each line of sight ranging from A(V) ≈ 0.1 to 1.2 mag (assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve). In four cases, the reddening is consistent with dust exhibiting the 2175 Å feature caused by an intervening absorber, and for two of these, an Mg ii absorption system is observed at the best-fit absorption redshift. In the rest of the cases, the reddening is most likely intrinsic to the quasar. We observe no evidence for dusty DLAs in this survey. However, the large fraction of BAL quasars hampers the detection of absorption systems. Out of the 50 non-BAL quasars, only 28 have sufficiently high redshift to detect Lyα in absorption.

  13. Dust-reddened Quasars In First And Ukidss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikman, Eilat; Lacy, M.; Urrutia, T.

    2012-05-01

    We recently identified a large population of dust-reddened quasars by matching radio sources detected in the FIRST survey to the 2MASS near-infrared catalog (F2M) and selecting sources with red topical-to-near-infrared colors. We find that dust-reddened quasars are intrinsically the most luminous quasars in the Universe. Further analysis suggests that red quasars represent an emergent phase in merger-driven quasar/galaxy co-evolution model where the obscured quasar is shedding its dusty shroud prior to becoming a "normal" quasar. Here we use the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) First Data Release (DR1; 190 deg2) to reach fainter K-band magnitudes and expand beyond the results of the F2M survey. The deeper K-band limit provided by UKIDSS enables the discovery of more heavily reddened quasars at higher redshifts. We selected 95 candidates in the UKIDSS DR1 that had matches in the FIRST catalog with K<17.0 and obeyed color criteria similar to the F2M survey (R-K>5, J-K > 1.5). We have obtained 54 near-infrared spectra as well as 12 optical spectra from SDSS. Preliminary analysis confirm 12 new obscured quasars, including at least two with z>2 reaching lower intrinsic luminosities than were found by the F2M survey. We find that despite being a luminous quasar phenomenon, the space density of red quasars continues to rise to fainter magnitudes, representing 20% of the overall quasar population.

  14. Quasar feedback at the peak of the galaxy formation epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandroff, Rachael; Zakamska, Nadia; Liu, Guilin; Greene, Jenny; Strauss, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Feedback from accreting supermassive black holes is now a standard ingredient in galaxy formation models. It is seen as necessary for limiting the maximal masses of galaxies and for establishing the black- hole / bulge correlations. Using Gemini GMOS, we demonstrated that powerful ionized gas winds are a ubiquitous feature in luminous obscured z=0.5 quasars. We now propose to extend this discovery to the epoch of peak galaxy formation and quasar activity - to the era at which feedback was most prominent and the galaxy / black hole correlations were established. We request 4.5 hours of Gemini-NIFS LGS adaptive- optics observations of an extremely luminous moderately obscured quasar at z=2.3 to map the morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas and to determine whether it exhibits the signs of black hole feedback in the form of an unbound ionized gas outflow. We will observe H(beta) and [OIII](lambda)5007Ain the H-band and H(alpha) and [NII](lambda)(lambda)6548,6583Ain the K-band on sub-galactic and galaxy-wide scales (spatial resolution 0.8 kpc, field of view 24 kpc). Obscured quasars likely constitute the majority of the quasar population and may represent the relatively early enshrouded phase of the black hole growth; thus, luminous obscured quasars are the most likely sites of quasar feedback, in agreement with our findings at low redshift.

  15. The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Marziani, Paola; Zhang, Shaohua; Muzahid, Sowgat; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    2016-10-01

    We study the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) variability (rest frame wavelengths 500-920 Å) of high-luminosity quasars using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (low to intermediate redshift sample) and Sloan Digital sky Survey (SDSS) (high redshift sample) archives. The combined HST and SDSS data indicates a much more pronounced variability when the sampling time between observations in the quasar rest frame is \\gt 2× {10}7 {{s}} compared to \\lt 1.5× {10}7 s. Based on an excess variance analysis, for time intervals \\lt 2× {10}7 {{s}} in the quasar rest frame, 10% of the quasars (4/40) show evidence of EUV variability. Similarly, for time intervals \\gt 2× {10}7 {{s}} in the quasar rest frame, 55% of the quasars (21/38) show evidence of EUV variability. The propensity for variability does not show any statistically significant change between 2.5× {10}7 {{s}} and 3.16× {10}7 {{s}} (1 year). The temporal behavior is one of a threshold time interval for significant variability as opposed to a gradual increase on these timescales. A threshold timescale can indicate a characteristic spatial dimension of the EUV region. We explore this concept in the context of the slim disk models of accretion. We find that for rapidly spinning black holes, the radial infall time to the plunge region of the optically thin surface layer of the slim disk that is responsible for the preponderance of the EUV flux emission (primarily within 0-7 black hole radii from the inner edge of the disk) is consistent with the empirically determined variability timescale.

  16. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Supernova Cosmology Project; Nugent, Peter E; Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Bronder, J.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R. C.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-03-24

    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  17. Dissecting High-Redshift Galaxies with GRBs: Three Hosts at z 6 Observed with HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. T. W.

    2016-10-01

    The first detection of three GRB hosts at z 6 is presented, along with their comparison to Lyman-break galaxies, potential star formation histories and a brief look at their impact on the high-redshift galaxy luminosity function.

  18. Luminous supernovae.

    PubMed

    Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2012-08-24

    Supernovae, the luminous explosions of stars, have been observed since antiquity. However, various examples of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe; luminosities >7 × 10(43) ergs per second) have only recently been documented. From the accumulated evidence, SLSNe can be classified as radioactively powered (SLSN-R), hydrogen-rich (SLSN-II), and hydrogen-poor (SLSN-I, the most luminous class). The SLSN-II and SLSN-I classes are more common, whereas the SLSN-R class is better understood. The physical origins of the extreme luminosity emitted by SLSNe are a focus of current research.

  19. Fluctuations in the high-redshift Lyman-Werner background: close halo pairs as the origin of supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Haiman, Zoltán; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2008-12-01

    The earliest generation of stars and black holes must have established an early `Lyman-Werner' background (LWB) at high redshift, prior to the epoch of reionization. Because of the long mean free path of photons with energies hν < 13.6eV, the LWB was nearly uniform. However, some variation in the LWB is expected due to the discrete nature of the sources, and their highly clustered spatial distribution. In this paper, we compute the probability distribution function (PDF) of the LW flux that irradiates dark matter (DM) haloes collapsing at high redshift (z ~ 10). Our model accounts for (i) the clustering of DM haloes, (ii) Poisson fluctuations in the number of corresponding star-forming galaxies and (iii) scatter in the LW luminosity produced by haloes of a given mass (calibrated using local observations). We find that >99 per cent of the DM haloes are illuminated by an LW flux within a factor of 2 of the global mean value. However, a small fraction, ~10-8 to 10-6, of DM haloes with virial temperatures Tvir >~ 104 K have a close luminous neighbour within <~10 kpc, and are exposed to an LW flux exceeding the global mean by a factor of >20, or to J21,LW > 103 (in units of 10-21 erg s-1 Hz-1 sr-1 cm-2). This large LW flux can photodissociate H2 molecules in the gas collapsing due to atomic cooling in these haloes, and prevent its further cooling and fragmentation. Such close halo pairs therefore provide possible sites in which primordial gas clouds collapse directly into massive black holes (MBH ~ 104-6Msolar), and subsequently grow into supermassive (MBH >~ 109Msolar) black holes by z ~ 6.

  20. Using Quasar Pairs to put Constraints on Cosmological Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Louis; Pâris, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    For the last five billion years the universe has been expanding in size at an increasing rate. With modern technology we are able to observe objects at very high redshift, which were created in the early universe. Being able to analyze and observe these objects allows us to put specific constraints on the universe (age, size, dark matter fraction…etc). Looking at the spectra of highly redshifted objects, such as quasars, we can see a series of absorption lines called the Lyman alpha forest. The angular correlation in the Lyman alpha spectra of quasar pairs allows us to measure the size of the absorbing objects. This works best at very small-scale (below one arcmin). The most recent use of this method consisted of 32 quasar pairs and only two of those had a sky separation below 1 arcmin (Coppolani et al., 2006). The sample size that is used in this work is from the SDSS-III DR12. This catalog has over 1500 quasar pairs below two arcmin separation, giving us much lower error bars, and therefore putting much better constraints on the cosmological parameters that can be inferred from the correlation function.

  1. A Significant Population of Very Luminous Dust-Obscured Galaxies at Redshift z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Arjun; Soifer, B. T.; Desai, Vandana; Brand, Kate; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Brown, Michael J. I.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Armus, Lee; Bussmann, Shane; Brodwin, Mark; Bian, Chao; Eisenhardt, Peter; Higdon, Sarah J.; Weedman, Daniel; Willner, S. P.

    2008-04-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed a significant population of high-redshift (z ~ 2) dust-obscured galaxies with large mid-infrared to ultraviolet luminosity ratios. Due to their optical faintness, these galaxies have been previously missed in traditional optical studies of the distant universe. We present a simple method for selecting this high-redshift population based solely on the ratio of the observed mid-infrared 24 μm to optical R-band flux density. We apply this method to observations of the ≈8.6 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field, and uncover ≈2600 dust-obscured galaxy candidates [i.e., 0.089 arcmin-2) with 24 μm flux densities F24 μ m >= 0.3 mJy and (R - [ 24]) >= 14 (i.e., Fν(24 μ m)/Fν(R) gtrsim 1000]. These galaxies have no counterparts in the local universe. They represent 7% +/- 0.6% of the 24 μm source population at F24 μ m >= 1 mJy but increase to ≈13% +/- 1% of the population at ≈0.3 mJy. These galaxies exhibit evidence of both star formation and AGN activity, with the brighter 24 μm sources being more AGN-dominated. We have measured spectroscopic redshifts for 86 of these galaxies, and find a broad redshift distribution centered at \\overline{z}≈ 1.99+/- 0.05. The space density of this population is ΣDOG(F24μ m >= 0.3 mJy) = (2.82 +/- 0.05) × 10-5h370 Mpc -3, similar to that of bright submillimeter-selected galaxies at comparable redshifts. These redshifts imply large luminosities, with median ν Lν(8 μ m) ≈ 4 × 1011 L⊙. The infrared luminosity density contributed by this relatively rare dust-obscured galaxy population is log (IRLD) ≈ 8.23+ 0.18-0.30. This is ≈60+ 40-15% of that contributed by z ~ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, with LIR > 1012 L⊙) our simple selection thus identifies a significant fraction of z ~ 2 ULIRGs. This IRLD is ≈26% +/- 14% of the total contributed by all z ~ 2 galaxies. We suggest that these dust-obscured galaxies are the progenitors of luminous (~4L

  2. Planck intermediate results: XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-12

    The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. In this paper, a novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of Txgal = 35 K and a spectral index of βxgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 1014L, the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with number count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive

  3. Far-infrared line emission from high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallini, Livia; Gallerani, Simona; Ferrara, Andrea; Baek, Sunghye

    2013-08-01

    By combining high-resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations of z ≈ 6 galaxies with a subgrid multiphase model of their interstellar medium, we derive the expected intensity of several far-infrared emission lines ([C II] 158, [O I] 63 and [N II] 122 μm) for different values of the gas metallicity, Z. For Z = Z⊙, the [C II] spectrum is very complex due to the presence of several emitting clumps of individual sizes ≲3 kpc; the peak is displaced from the galaxy centre by ≈100 km s-1. While the [O I] spectrum is also similarly displaced, the [N II] line comes predominantly from the central ionized regions of the galaxy. When integrated over ˜ 500 km s- 1, the [C II] line flux is 185 mJy km s- 1; 95 per cent of such flux originates from the cold (T ≈ 250 K) H I phase and only 5 per cent from the warm (T ≈ 5000 K) neutral medium. The [O I] and [N II] fluxes are ˜6 and ˜90 times lower than the [C II] one, respectively. By comparing our results with observations of Himiko, the most extended and luminous Lyman alpha emitter at z = 6.6, we find that the gas metallicity in this source must be subsolar. We conclude that the [C II] line from z ≈ 6 galaxies is detectable by the ALMA full array in 1.9 < tON < 7.7 h observing time, depending on Z.

  4. Confronting X-Ray Emission Models with theHighest-Redshift Kiloparsec-Scale Jets: The z = 3.89 Jet in Quasar 1745+624

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.C.; Stawarz, L.; Siemiginowska, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2006-06-28

    A newly identified kiloparsec-scale X-ray jet in the high-redshift z=3.89 quasar 1745+624 is studied with multi-frequency Very Large Array, Hubble Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray imaging data. This is only the third large-scale X-ray jet beyond z > 3 known and is further distinguished as being the most luminous relativistic jet observed at any redshift, exceeding 10{sup 45} erg/s in both the radio and X-ray bands. Apart from the jet's extreme redshift, luminosity, and high inferred equipartition magnetic field (in comparison to local analogues), its basic properties such as X-ray/radio morphology and radio polarization are similar to lower-redshift examples. Its resolved linear structure and the convex broad-band spectral energy distributions of three distinct knots are also a common feature among known powerful X-ray jets at lower-redshift. Relativistically beamed inverse Compton and ''non-standard'' synchrotron models have been considered to account for such excess X-ray emission in other jets; both models are applicable to this high-redshift example but with differing requirements for the underlying jet physical properties, such as velocity, energetics, and electron acceleration processes. One potentially very important distinguishing characteristic between the two models is their strongly diverging predictions for the X-ray/radio emission with increasing redshift. This is considered, though with the limited sample of three z > 3 jets it is apparent that future studies targeted at very high-redshift jets are required for further elucidation of this issue. Finally, from the broad-band jet emission we estimate the jet kinetic power to be no less than 10{sup 46} erg/s, which is about 10% of the Eddington luminosity corresponding to this galaxy's central supermassive black hole mass M{sub BH} {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}} estimated here via the virial relation. The optical luminosity of the quasar core is about ten times over Eddington, hence the

  5. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  6. PROBING PRE-GALACTIC METAL ENRICHMENT WITH HIGH-REDSHIFT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-11-20

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature {approx}> 10{sup 4} K. We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm{sup -3}. In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n {approx}> 100 cm{sup -3}. The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z {approx}> 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may distinguish whether the first heavy elements were

  7. The ISO View of Palomar-Green Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, M.; Klaas, U.; Mueller, S. A. H.; Bertoldi, F.; Camenzind, M.; Chini, R.; Krause, O.; Lemke, D.; Meisenheimer; Richards, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Mining the ISO data archive we provide the complete ISO view of PG quasars containing 64 infrared spectral energy distributions between 5 and 200 mu m. About half of the sample was supplemented by MAMBO and SCUBA (sub-)millimeter data. Since the PG quasars were selected optically, the high infrared detection rate of more than 80% suggests that every quasar possesses luminous to hyper-luminous dust emission with dust masses comparable to Seyferts and ultra-luminous IR galaxies (ULIRGs). The gas to-dust mass ratio (of those sources where CO measurements are available in the literature) is consistent with the galactic value providing further evidence for the thermal nature of the IR emission of radio quiet quasars. The SEDs represent templates of unprecedented detail and sensitivity. We suggest that the diversity of the SEDs reflects largely the evolution of the dust distribution, and we propose a classification of the SED shapes as well as an evolutionary scheme in which this variety can be understood. During the evolution the surrounding dust redistributes, settling more and more into a torus/disk like configuration, while the SEDs show an initial FIR bump, then an increasing MIR emission and a steeper near- to mid-infrared slope, both of which finally also decrease. Regarding cosmic evolution, our hyper-luminous quasars in the "local" universe at z=l do not show the hyper-luminous (LFIR >? 10(exp 13) L(sub sun)) starburst activity inferred for z=4 quasars detected in several (sub-)millimeter surveys. In view of several caveats this difference should be established further, but it already suggests that in the early dense universe stronger merger events led to more powerful starbursts accompanying the quasar phenomenon, while at later cosmic epochs any coeval starbursts obviously do not reach that high power and are outshone by the AGN. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  8. The ISO View of Palomar-Green Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, M.; Klaas, U.; Mueller, S. A. H.; Bertoldi, F.; Camenzind, M.; Chini, R.; Krause, O.; Lemke, D.; Meisenheimer; Richards, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Mining the ISO data archive we provide the complete ISO view of PG quasars containing 64 infrared spectral energy distributions between 5 and 200 mu m. About half of the sample was supplemented by MAMBO and SCUBA (sub-)millimeter data. Since the PG quasars were selected optically, the high infrared detection rate of more than 80% suggests that every quasar possesses luminous to hyper-luminous dust emission with dust masses comparable to Seyferts and ultra-luminous IR galaxies (ULIRGs). The gas to-dust mass ratio (of those sources where CO measurements are available in the literature) is consistent with the galactic value providing further evidence for the thermal nature of the IR emission of radio quiet quasars. The SEDs represent templates of unprecedented detail and sensitivity. We suggest that the diversity of the SEDs reflects largely the evolution of the dust distribution, and we propose a classification of the SED shapes as well as an evolutionary scheme in which this variety can be understood. During the evolution the surrounding dust redistributes, settling more and more into a torus/disk like configuration, while the SEDs show an initial FIR bump, then an increasing MIR emission and a steeper near- to mid-infrared slope, both of which finally also decrease. Regarding cosmic evolution, our hyper-luminous quasars in the "local" universe at z=l do not show the hyper-luminous (LFIR >? 10(exp 13) L(sub sun)) starburst activity inferred for z=4 quasars detected in several (sub-)millimeter surveys. In view of several caveats this difference should be established further, but it already suggests that in the early dense universe stronger merger events led to more powerful starbursts accompanying the quasar phenomenon, while at later cosmic epochs any coeval starbursts obviously do not reach that high power and are outshone by the AGN. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  9. Twin Quasars Tango And It's No Mirage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Scientists have unraveled a longstanding mystery about a rare double quasar system 11 billion light years from Earth using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "twin" quasars, previously thought to be an optical illusion, were instead probably created by merging galaxies and may have been more common in the dense universe soon after the Big Bang. "When galaxies interact or merge, they become more active and luminous and can excite quasar activity in their centers," said Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., who led the research team. "The quasars that make up these nearly identical twins appear to have been hatched in the same nest." The Chandra data show that the quasars - luminous galaxies powered by central supermassive black holes - are not mirror images caused by a cosmic phenomenon known as a "gravitational lens." Rather, these two quasars are distinct objects that were probably spawned when their host galaxies collided, energizing the flow of gas onto their central black holes. Quasar pairs that are seen close to one another on the sky and are at the same distance from Earth often turn out to be an illusion as part of a gravitationally lensed system. In these cases, the image of a single quasar has been split into two or more images as its light has been bent and focused on its way to Earth by the gravity of an intervening massive object like a galaxy, or a cluster of galaxies. Usually, the intervening mass shows up as a fainter galaxy or cluster of galaxies seen between or among the quasar images, confirming the cause of the illusion. The quasar pair Q2345+007 A, B was thought to be such an illusion because of the remarkably similar patterns of the light, or spectra, from the pair at both optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. Quasar Pair Q2345+007A,B X-ray/Optical Composite However, almost two decades after its discovery by optical astronomers, the identification of enough intervening material to "split" the

  10. FIRST-2MASS RED QUASARS: TRANSITIONAL OBJECTS EMERGING FROM THE DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Glikman, Eilat; Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish; Myers, Adam D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Petitjean, Patrick; Ge, Jian; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

    2012-09-20

    We present a sample of 120 dust-reddened quasars identified by matching radio sources detected at 1.4 GHz in the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters survey with the near-infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and color-selecting red sources. Optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy provide broad wavelength sampling of their spectral energy distributions that we use to determine their reddening, characterized by E(B - V). We demonstrate that the reddening in these quasars is best described by Small-Magellanic-Cloud-like dust. This sample spans a wide range in redshift and reddening (0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 3, 0.1 {approx}< E(B - V) {approx}< 1.5), which we use to investigate the possible correlation of luminosity with reddening. At every redshift, dust-reddened quasars are intrinsically the most luminous quasars. We interpret this result in the context of merger-driven quasar/galaxy co-evolution where these reddened quasars are revealing an emergent phase during which the heavily obscured quasar is shedding its cocoon of dust prior to becoming a 'normal' blue quasar. When correcting for extinction, we find that, depending on how the parent population is defined, these red quasars make up {approx}< 15%-20% of the luminous quasar population. We estimate, based on the fraction of objects in this phase, that its duration is 15%-20% as long as the unobscured, blue quasar phase.

  11. Discovery of eight z ∼ 6 quasars from Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect

    Bañados, E.; Venemans, B. P.; Morganson, E.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Rix, H.-W.; Farina, E. P.; Chambers, K. C.; Morgan, J. S.; Burgett, W. S.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Fan, X.; McGreer, I.; Jiang, L.; De Rosa, G.; Simcoe, R.; Weiß, A.; Price, P. A.; Greiner, J.; and others

    2014-07-01

    High-redshift quasars are currently the only probes of the growth of supermassive black holes and potential tracers of structure evolution at early cosmic time. Here we present our candidate selection criteria from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 and follow-up strategy to discover quasars in the redshift range 5.7 ≲ z ≲ 6.2. With this strategy we discovered eight new 5.7 ≤ z ≤ 6.0 quasars, increasing the number of known quasars at z > 5.7 by more than 10%. We additionally recovered 18 previously known quasars. The eight quasars presented here span a large range of luminosities (–27.3 ≤ M {sub 1450} ≤ –25.4; 19.6 ≤ z {sub P1} ≤ 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show a weak or no Lyα emission line (25% with rest-frame equivalent width of the Lyα +N V line lower than 15 Å). We find a larger fraction of weak-line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies. This may imply that the weak-line quasar population at the highest redshifts could be more abundant than previously thought. However, larger samples of quasars are needed to increase the statistical significance of this finding.

  12. Observational Cosmology Using Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaee, A.

    2016-09-01

    Distant, highly luminous quasars are important cosmological probes for a variety of astrophysical questions: the first generation of galaxies, the star formation history and metal enrichment in the early Universe, the growth of the first super massive black holes (SMBHs), the role of feedback from quasars and SMBHs in galaxy evolution, the epoch of reionization, etc. In addition, they are used as background illuminating source that reveal any object located by chance on the line of sight. I will present our group works in these issues that can be done using absorption lines in the quasar spectra.

  13. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation simulation - VII. The sizes of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanwu; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, P. W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate high-redshift galaxy sizes using a semi-analytic model constructed for the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulation project. Our fiducial model, including strong feedback from supernovae and photoionization background, accurately reproduces the evolution of the stellar mass function and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Using this model, we study the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and find that the effective radius scales with UV luminosity as Re ∝ L0.25 at z ∼ 5-9. We show that recently discovered very luminous galaxies at z ∼ 7 and 11 lie on our predicted size-luminosity relations. We find that a significant fraction of galaxies at z > 8 will not be resolved by James Webb Space Telescope, but Giant Magellan Telescope will have the ability to resolve all galaxies in haloes above the atomic cooling limit. We show that our fiducial model successfully reproduces the redshift evolution of average galaxy sizes at z > 5. We also explore galaxy sizes in models without supernova feedback. The no-supernova feedback models produce galaxy sizes that are smaller than observations. We therefore confirm that supernova feedback plays an important role in determining the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and its redshift evolution during reionization.

  14. Quasar feedback and the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-07-01

    We analyse Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of 568 obscured luminous quasars. The [O III] λ5007 Å emission line shows blueshifts and blue excess, indicating that some of the narrow-line gas is undergoing an organized outflow. The velocity width containing 90 per cent of line power ranges from 370 to 4780 km s-1, suggesting outflow velocities up to ˜2000 km s-1, and is strongly correlated with the radio luminosity among the radio-quiet quasars. We propose that radio emission in radio-quiet quasars is due to relativistic particles accelerated in the shocks within the quasar-driven outflows; star formation in quasar hosts is insufficient to explain the observed radio emission. The median radio luminosity of the sample of νLν[1.4 GHz] = 1040 erg s-1 suggests a median kinetic luminosity of the quasar-driven wind of Lwind = 3 × 1044 erg s-1, or about 4 per cent of the estimated median bolometric luminosity Lbol = 8 × 1045 erg s-1. Furthermore, the velocity width of [O III] is positively correlated with mid-infrared luminosity, which suggests that outflows are ultimately driven by the radiative output of the quasar. Emission lines characteristic of shocks in quasi-neutral medium increase with the velocity of the outflow, which we take as evidence of quasar-driven winds propagating into the interstellar medium of the host galaxy. Quasar feedback appears to operate above the threshold luminosity of Lbol ˜ 3 × 1045 erg s-1.

  15. The SFR of high redshift galaxies: mid-IR vs SED fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.

    2009-05-01

    In this work we compare two distinct techniques to estimate the star formation rate (SFR) in high redshift galaxies: mid-infrared emission and SED fitting analysis. We used the multiwavelength GOODS-MUSIC catalog to estimate the total infrared luminosity, which is a SFR indicator arising from dust reprocessed emission, and the star formation rate from the overall SED shape using the 14 bands photometry. We will apply the two methods to a couple of physical topics: the selection of a sample of quiescent galaxies at high redshift and the measure of the star formation rate.

  16. The Lyman-continuum photon production efficiency in the high-redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di-Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Thomas, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The Lyman-continuum photon production efficiency (ξion) is a critical ingredient for inferring the number of photons available to reionize the intergalactic medium. To estimate the theoretical production efficiency in the high-redshift Universe we couple the BlueTides cosmological hydrodynamical simulation with a range of stellar population synthesis models. We find Lyman-continuum photon production efficiencies of log10(ξion/erg-1 Hz) ≈ 25.1-25.5 depending on the choice of stellar population synthesis model. These results are broadly consistent with recent observational constraints at high-redshift though favour a model incorporating the effects of binary evolution.

  17. Luminous presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paula

    2008-02-01

    The Luminous Presence project examines the use of standard film language in the framing, angle and of points of view of holographic subjects though eight digital holographic stereograms; seven 25 x 25 cm, Hail, Water, Rain, Snow, Sun, Text, Imprint and 1.5 x 1 m, Luminous Presences i. However, before embarking on a discussion of how filmic language can be used in digital holograms it is first important to explain why this line of investigation could be fruitful. Undoubtedly several of the compositional practices which sprung up and evolved throughout the development of the diverse forms of the holographic medium have contributed to a unique hologram pictorial language, however it is well known that the reading of visual imagery of any type relies a great deal on the viewer's knowledge of and experience of other images .The lens-recorded imagery of film is a far more familiar language than that of holograms and the correlation between certain filmic pictorial conventions and emotional responses are well documented and understood. ii . In short the language of film contains a highly nuanced vocabulary of shot types and lens types (which may be criticised as being formulaic) yet are effective in lending emotion to figures.

  18. SDSS J094604.90+183541.8: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QUASAR AT z = 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Farnsworth, Kara; Hall, Patrick B.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-08-15

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed quasar identified serendipitously in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The object, SDSS J094604.90+183541.8, was initially targeted for spectroscopy as a luminous red galaxy, but the SDSS spectrum has the features of both a z = 0.388 galaxy and a z = 4.8 quasar. We have obtained additional imaging that resolves the system into two quasar images separated by 3.''06 and a bright galaxy that is strongly blended with one of the quasar images. We confirm spectroscopically that the two quasar images represent a single-lensed source at z = 4.8 with a total magnification of 3.2, and we derive a model for the lensing galaxy. This is the highest redshift lensed quasar currently known. We examine the issues surrounding the selection of such an unusual object from existing data and briefly discuss implications for lensed quasar surveys.

  19. The Argo simulation - I. Quenching of massive galaxies at high redshift as a result of cosmological starvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Robert; Mayer, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Observations show a prevalence of high-redshift galaxies with large stellar masses and predominantly passive stellar populations. A variety of processes have been suggested that could reduce the star formation in such galaxies to observed levels, including quasar mode feedback, virial shock heating, or galactic winds driven by stellar feedback. However, the main quenching mechanisms have yet to be identified. Here we study the origin of star formation quenching using Argo, a cosmological, hydrodynamical zoom-in simulation that follows the evolution of a massive galaxy at z ≥ 2. This simulation adopts the same subgrid recipes of the Eris simulations, which have been shown to form realistic disc galaxies, and, in one version, adopts also a mass and spatial resolution identical to Eris. The resulting galaxy has properties consistent with those of observed, massive (M* ˜ 1011 M⊙) galaxies at z ˜ 2 and with abundance matching predictions. Our models do not include active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback indicating that supermassive black holes likely play a subordinate role in determining masses and sizes of massive galaxies at high-z. The specific star formation rate (sSFR) of the simulated galaxy matches the observed M*-sSFR relation at early times. This period of smooth stellar mass growth comes to a sudden halt at z = 3.5 when the sSFR drops by almost an order of magnitude within a few hundred Myr. The suppression is initiated by a levelling off and a subsequent reduction of the cool gas accretion rate on to the galaxy, and not by feedback processes. This `cosmological starvation' occurs as the parent dark matter halo switches from a fast collapsing mode to a slow accretion mode. Additional mechanisms, such as perhaps radio mode feedback from an AGN, are needed to quench any residual star formation of the galaxy and to maintain a low sSFR until the present time.

  20. Investigating the Gas Kinematics of High-Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-Peaked Narrow Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Robert S.; Stern, D.; Lacy, C. H. S.; Kennefick, J.; Kennefick, D.; Seigar, M.

    2012-05-01

    Pairs of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a natural consequence of galaxy mergers, and these systems are observable when both SMBHs are accreting as active galactic nuclei (AGN). Observational evidence for these AGN pairs (dual AGN) has dramatically increased recently through a combination of spectroscopic selection of candidates from double-peaked optical emission lines and follow-up morphological data. The primary motivation for compiling a sample of dual AGN is for their use in tracing galaxy mergers and in constraining the link between galaxy mergers and AGN enhancement. Therefore, this phenomenon should be investigated at higher redshifts when galaxy mergers were more frequent. Motivated by our detailed analysis of a candidate dual AGN at a relatively high redshift (z=1.175), we have compiled a sample of analogous sources at z>0.80 identified from double-peaked UV emission lines in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The double-peaked profile can be mimicked by gas-kinematics around a single AGN, including large-scale outflows, which are known to affect the velocity profiles of high-ionization UV emission lines. Through emission line diagnostics, we have taken advantage of access to rest-frame UV emission lines in SDSS quasar spectra, allowing us to investigate the kinematics of the ionized gas. In particular, for each of these sources we have put constraints on the likelihood of a correlation between peak velocity-offset and ionization potential. Such tests will aid in determining which double-peaked emission line sources are most likely the result of an outflow and which are strong dual AGN candidates. This study will both increase the sample size of candidate dual AGN for follow-up observations and extend the sample to higher redshifts.

  1. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs): New z > 6 Quasar Survey with Subaru/HSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; SHELLQs Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Quasars at high redshift are an important and unique probe of the distant Universe, for understanding the origin and progress of cosmic reionization, the early growth of supermassive black holes, and the evolution of quasar host galaxies and their dark matter halos, among other topics. We are currently carrying out a new spectroscopic survey, called SHELLQs (Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars), to search for low-luminosity quasars at z > 6. By exploiting the exquisite imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we aim to probe quasar luminosities down to M1450 ~ -22 mag, i.e., below the classical threshold between quasars and Seyfert galaxies. Candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm. A large spectroscopic observing program is underway, using Subaru/FOCAS, GTC/OSIRIS, and Gemini/GMOS; in particular, SHELLQs has been approved as a Subaru intensive program to use 20 nights in the coming four semesters. As of August 2016, we have discovered ~40 quasars and bright galaxies at z ~ 6 and beyond, from the first 100 deg2 of the HSC survey (Matsuoka et al. 2016, ApJ, 828, 26). Surprisingly, we are starting to see the steep rise of the luminosity function of high-z galaxies, compared with that of quasars, at magnitudes fainter than M1450 ~ -22 mag or zAB ~ 24 mag. Multi-wavelength follow-up studies of the discovered objects as well as further survey observations are ongoing.

  2. A Periodically Varying Luminous Quasar at z = 2 from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey: A Candidate Supermassive Black Hole Binary in the Gravitational Wave-Driven Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be an inevitable consequence of the hierarchical growth of massive galaxies through mergers and the strongest sirens of gravitational waves (GWs) in the cosmos. Yet, their direct detection has remained elusive due to the compact (sub-parsec) orbital separations of gravitationally bound SMBHBs. Here we exploit a theoretically predicted signature of SMBHBs in the time domain. We have begun a systematic search for SMBHB candidates in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (MDS) and reported our first significant detection of such a candidate from our pilot study of MD09 in Liu et al. (2015). Our candidate PSO J334.2028+01.4075 has a detected period of 542 days, varying persistently over the available baseline. From its archival spectrum, we estimated the black hole mass of the z = 2.06 quasar to be ~1010 M⊙. The inferred ~7 R s binary separation therefore puts this candidate in the regime of GW-dominated orbital decay, opening up the exciting possibility of finding GW sources detectable by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) in a wide-field optical synoptic survey.

  3. Spectra of High-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae and a Comparison withtheir Low-Redshift Counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Burns,M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente,P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B.E.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev,V.; Thomas, R.C.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2005-07-20

    We present spectra for 14 high-redshift (0.17 < z < 0.83) supernovae, which were discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project as part of a campaign to measure cosmological parameters. The spectra are used to determine the redshift and classify the supernova type, essential information if the supernovae are to be used for cosmological studies. Redshifts were derived either from the spectrum of the host galaxy or from the spectrum of the supernova itself. We present evidence that these supernovae are of Type Ia by matching to spectra of nearby supernovae. We find that the dates of the spectra relative to maximum light determined from this fitting process are consistent with the dates determined from the photometric light curves, and moreover the spectral time-sequence for SNe Type Ia at low and high redshift is indistinguishable. We also show that the expansion velocities measured from blueshifted Ca H&K are consistent with those measured for low-redshift Type Ia supernovae. From these first-level quantitative comparisons we find no evidence for evolution in SNIa properties between these low- and high-redshift samples. Thus even though our samples may not be complete, we conclude that there is a population of SNe Ia at high redshift whose spectral properties match those at low redshift.

  4. RUNAWAY STARS AND THE ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2012-08-20

    Approximately 30% of all massive stars in the Galaxy are runaways with velocities exceeding 30 km s{sup -1}. Their high speeds allow them to travel {approx}0.1-1 kpc away from their birthplace before they explode at the end of their several Myr lifetimes. At high redshift, when galaxies were much smaller than in the local universe, runaways could venture far from the dense inner regions of their host galaxies. From these large radii, and therefore low column densities, much of their ionizing radiation is able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Runaways may therefore significantly enhance the overall escape fraction of ionizing radiation, f{sub esc}, from small galaxies at high redshift. We present simple models of the high-redshift runaway population and its impact on f{sub esc} as a function of halo mass, size, and redshift. We find that the inclusion of runaways enhances f{sub esc} by factors of Almost-Equal-To 1.1-8, depending on halo mass, galaxy geometry, and the mechanism of runaway production, implying that runaways may contribute 50%-90% of the total ionizing radiation escaping from high-redshift galaxies. Runaways may therefore play an important role in reionizing the universe.

  5. Chemical abundances in high-redshift galaxies: a powerful new emission line diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nicholls, David C.

    2016-02-01

    This Letter presents a new, remarkably simple diagnostic specifically designed to derive chemical abundances for high redshift galaxies. It uses only the Hα, [N ii] and [S ii] emission lines, which can usually be observed in a single grating setting, and is almost linear up to an abundance of 12+log (O/H) = 9.05. It can be used over the full abundance range encountered in high redshift galaxies. By its use of emission lines located close together in wavelength, it is also independent of reddening. Our diagnostic depends critically on the calibration of the N/O ratio. However, by using realistic stellar atmospheres combined with the N/O vs. O/H abundance calibration derived locally from stars and H ii regions, and allowing for the fact that high-redshift H ii regions have both high ionisation parameters and high gas pressures, we find that the observations of high-redshift galaxies can be simply explained by the models without having to invoke arbitrary changes in N/O ratio, or the presence of unusual quantities of Wolf-Rayet stars in these galaxies.

  6. ON THE EFFECT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND IN HIGH-REDSHIFT (SUB-)MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Cunha, Elisabete; Groves, Brent; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Rix, Hans-Walter; Weiss, Axel; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark; Maiolino, Roberto; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian

    2013-03-20

    Modern (sub-)millimeter interferometers enable the measurement of the cool gas and dust emission of high-redshift galaxies (z > 5). However, at these redshifts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is higher, approaching, and even exceeding, the temperature of cold dust and molecular gas observed in the local universe. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the warmer CMB on (sub-)millimeter observations of high-redshift galaxies. The CMB affects the observed (sub-)millimeter dust continuum and the line emission (e.g., carbon monoxide, CO) in two ways: (1) it provides an additional source of (both dust and gas) heating and (2) it is a non-negligible background against which the line and continuum emission are measured. We show that these two competing processes affect the way we interpret the dust and gas properties of high-redshift galaxies using spectral energy distribution models. We quantify these effects and provide correction factors to compute what fraction of the intrinsic dust (and line) emission can be detected against the CMB as a function of frequency, redshift, and temperature. We discuss implications on the derived properties of high-redshift galaxies from (sub-)millimeter data. Specifically, the inferred dust and molecular gas masses can be severely underestimated for cold systems if the impact of the CMB is not properly taken into account.

  7. CO Linewidths and the Black Hole - Bulge Relationship for High Redshift QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, K. L.; Shields, G. A.; Massart, C. A.; vanden Bout, P.

    2005-10-01

    Supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei have masses MBH related to the mass and velocity dispersion σ* of the host galaxy. We examine the MBH - σ* in high redshift QSOs, deriving MBH from the broad emission-line widths and σ* from the radio CO lines. At redshifts z = 4 to 6, gigantic black holes appear to exist in relatively modest galaxies.

  8. DISCOVERY OF A RADIO-SELECTED z {approx} 6 QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Becker, Robert H.; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Stanford, Spencer A.; White, Richard L.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2011-07-20

    We present the discovery of only the second radio-selected z {approx} 6 quasar. We identified SDSS J222843.54+011032.2 (z = 5.95) by matching the optical detections of the deep Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 with their radio counterparts in the Stripe 82 Very Large Array Survey. We also matched the Canadian-France-Hawaiian Telescope Legacy Survey Wide with the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm survey but have yet to find any z {approx} 6 quasars in this survey area. The discovered quasar is optically faint, z = 22.3 and M{sub 1450} {approx} -24.5, but radio bright, with a flux density of f{sub 1.4GHz,peak} = 0.31 mJy and a radio loudness of R {approx} 1100 (where R {identical_to} f{sub 5GHz}/f{sub 2500}). The i - z color of the discovered quasar places it outside the color selection criteria for existing optical surveys. We conclude by discussing the need for deeper wide-area radio surveys in the context of high-redshift quasars.

  9. LOW-IONIZATION OUTFLOWS IN HIGH EDDINGTON RATIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Plauchu-Frayn, Ilse; Del Olmo, Ascension

    2013-02-20

    The broad Mg II {lambda}2800 doublet has been frequently studied in connection with its potentially important role as a virial estimator of black hole mass in high-redshift quasars. An important task, therefore, is the identification of any line components that are likely related to broadening by non-virial motions. High signal-to-noise median composite spectra (binned in the {sup f}our-dimensional eigenvector 1'' context of Sulentic et al.) were constructed for the brightest 680 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars in the 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 0.75 range where both Mg II {lambda}2800 and H{beta} are recorded in the same spectra. Composite spectra representing 90% of the quasars confirm previous findings that FWHM(Mg II {lambda}2800) is about 20% narrower than FWHM(H{beta}). The situation is clearly different for the most extreme (Population A) sources, which are the highest Eddington radiators in the sample. In the median spectra of these sources, FWHM Mg II {lambda}2800 is equal to or greater than FWHM(H{beta}) and shows a significant blueshift relative to H{beta}. We interpret the Mg II {lambda}2800 blueshift as the signature of a radiation-driven wind or outflow in the highest accreting quasars. In this interpretation, the Mg II {lambda}2800 line width-affected by blueshifted emission-is unsuitable for virial mass estimation in Almost-Equal-To 10% of quasars.

  10. Probing Quasar Winds Using Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culliton, Christopher S.; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Roberts, Amber; Ganguly, Rajib; Misawa, Toru; Muzahid, Sowgat

    2017-01-01

    Quasar outflows are important for understanding the accretion and growth processes of the central black hole. Furthermore, outflows potentially have a role in providing feedback to the galaxy, and halting star formation and infall of gas. The geometry and density of these outflows remain unknown, especially as a function of ionization and velocity. Having searched ultraviolet spectra at both high redshift (VLT/UVES; 1.4quasar. We identify intrinsic NALs with a wide range of properties, including ejection velocity, coverage fraction, and ionization level. We also consider the incidence of intrinsic absorbers as a function of quasar properties (optical, radio and X-ray fluxes), and find that radio properties and quasar orientation are influential in determining if a quasar is likely to host an intrinsic system. We find that there is a continuum of properties within the intrinsic NAL sample, rather than discrete families, ranging from partially covered CIV systems with black Lya and with a separate low ionization gas phase to partially covered NV systems with partially covered Lya and without detected low ionization gas. Additionally, we construct a model describing the spatial distributions, geometries, and varied ionization structures of intrinsic NALs.

  11. Discovery of a z = 6.1 Radio-Loud Quasar in the NDWFS

    SciTech Connect

    McGreer, I D; Becker, R H; Helfand, D J; White, R L

    2006-07-24

    From examination of only 4 deg{sup 2} of sky in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) region, we have identified the first radio-loud quasar at a redshift z > 6. The object, FIRST J1427385+331241, was discovered by matching the FLAMEX IR survey to FIRST survey radio sources with NDWFS counterparts. One candidate z > 6 quasar was found, and spectroscopy with the Keck II telescope confirmed its identification, yielding a redshift z = 6.12. The object is a Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasar with an optical luminosity of M{sub B} {approx} -26.9 and a radio-to-optical flux ratio {approx} 60. Two Mg II absorptions systems are present at redshifts of z = 2.18 and z = 2.20. We briefly discuss the implications of this discovery for the high-redshift quasar population.

  12. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Chapman, S. C.; De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Hezaveh, Y.; Holzapfel, W. L.; and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  13. The Rest-frame Submillimeter Spectrum of High-redshift, Dusty, Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Bradford, C. M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Crawford, T. M.; de Breuck, C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Gullberg, B.; Hezaveh, Y.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Husband, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Murphy, E. J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rotermund, K. M.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.; Welikala, N.

    2014-04-01

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of 12CO, [C I], and H2O, we also detect several faint transitions of 13CO, HCN, HNC, HCO+, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the 13CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which 13CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO+, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T kin ~ 55 K and n_{H_2} \\gtrsim 10^{5.5} cm-3. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  14. VSOP Imaging of the Quasar PKS 1402+044 at z = 3.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Gurvits, L. I.; Frey, S.; Lobanov, A. P.; Hong, X.-Y.

    2009-08-01

    We present results of VSOP observations of the high-redshift (z = 3.2) quasar PKS 1402+044 (J1405+0415) at 1.6 and 5 GHz, and VLA observations at 1.4, 5, 16, and 43 GHz. The source has a pronounced core-jet structure traced by VSOP down to sub-mas angular scales. The results offer a set of observational data enabling physical diagnostics of the inner parsecs of a typical radio-loud quasar.

  15. THE QSO HE 0450-2958: SCANTILY DRESSED OR HEAVILY ROBED? A NORMAL QUASAR AS PART OF AN UNUSUAL ULIRG

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, Knud; Elbaz, David; Pantin, Eric; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Letawe, Geraldine; Chantry, Virginie

    2009-08-01

    and BH accretion are spatially disjoint. This relation can either only be maintained averaging over a longer timescale ({approx}<500 Myr) and/or the bulge has to grow by redistribution of pre-existing stars. (6) Systems similar to HE 0450-2958 with spatially disjoint ULIRG-strength star formation and quasar activity might be common at high redshifts but at z < 0.43 we only find <4% (3/77) candidates for a similar configuration.

  16. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cross-Correlation of Cosmic Microwave Background Lensing and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwin, Blake D; Das, Sudeep; Haijian, Amir; Addison, Graeme; Bond, Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Gralla, Megan B.; Halpern, Mark; Hill, J. Colin; Hincks, Adam D.; Hughes, John P.; Huffenberger, Kevin; Hlozek, Renee; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Reese. Erik D.; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Sifon, Cristobal; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Switzer, Eric R.; Wollack, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the cross-correlation of Atacama cosmology telescope cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing convergence maps with quasar maps made from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 SDSS-XDQSO photometric catalog. The CMB lensing quasar cross-power spectrum is detected for the first time at a significance of 3.8 sigma, which directly confirms that the quasar distribution traces the mass distribution at high redshifts z > 1. Our detection passes a number of null tests and systematic checks. Using this cross-power spectrum, we measure the amplitude of the linear quasar bias assuming a template for its redshift dependence, and find the amplitude to be consistent with an earlier measurement from clustering; at redshift z ap 1.4, the peak of the distribution of quasars in our maps, our measurement corresponds to a bias of b = 2.5 +/- 0.6. With the signal-to-noise ratio on CMB lensing measurements likely to improve by an order of magnitude over the next few years, our results demonstrate the potential of CMB lensing crosscorrelations to probe astrophysics at high redshifts.

  17. Powerful quasar outflow in a massive disc galaxy at z ˜ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Michael; Sijacki, Debora

    2016-03-01

    There is growing observational evidence of high-redshift quasars launching energetic, fast outflows, but the effects that these have on their host galaxies is poorly understood. We employ the moving-mesh code AREPO to study the feedback from a quasar that has grown to ˜109 M⊙ by z ˜ 5 and the impact that this has on its host galaxy. Our simulations use a super-Lagrangian refinement technique to increase the accuracy with which the interface of the quasar-driven wind and the surrounding gas is resolved. We find that the feedback injected in these simulations is less efficient at removing gas from the galaxy than in an identical simulation with no super-Lagrangian refinement. This leads to the growth of a massive, rotationally supported, star-forming disc, co-existing with a powerful quasar-driven outflow. The properties of our host galaxy, including the kinematical structure of the gaseous disc and of the outflow, are in good agreement with current observations. Upcoming ALMA and JWST observations will be an excellent test of our model and will provide further clues as to the variance in properties of high-redshift quasar hosts.

  18. Rest-frame Optical Spectra and Black Hole Masses of 3 < z < 6 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Ohyama, Youichi; Woo, Jong-Hak; Fan, Xiaohui; Goto, Tomotsugu; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Minjin; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Nakagawa, Takao; Pearson, Chris; Serjeant, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral properties of 155 luminous quasars at 3.3 < z < 6.4 taken with the AKARI space telescope, including the first detection of the Hα emission line as far out as z ∼ 6. We extend the scaling relation between the rest-frame optical continuum and the line luminosity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the high-luminosity, high-redshift regime that has rarely been probed before. Remarkably, we find that a single log-linear relation can be applied to the 5100 Å and Hα AGN luminosities over a wide range of luminosity (1042 < L5100 < 1047 ergs s-1) or redshift (0 < z < 6), suggesting that the physical mechanism governing this relation is unchanged from z = 0 to 6, over five decades in luminosity. Similar scaling relations are found between the optical and the UV continuum luminosities or line widths. Applying the scaling relations to the Hβ black hole (BH) mass (MBH) estimator of local AGNs, we derive the MBH estimators based on the Hα, Mg ii, and C iv lines, finding that the UV-line-based masses are overall consistent with the Balmer-line-based, but with a large intrinsic scatter of 0.40 dex for the C iv estimates. Our 43 MBH estimates from Hα confirm the existence of BHs as massive as ∼ 1010 M⊙ out to z ∼ 5 and provide a secure footing for previous results from Mg ii-line-based studies that a rapid MBH growth has occurred in the early universe.

  19. SDSS J1254+0846: A BINARY QUASAR CAUGHT IN THE ACT OF MERGING

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Paul J.; Cox, Thomas J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Myers, Adam D.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Bennert, Vardha N.

    2010-02-20

    We present the first luminous, spatially resolved binary quasar that clearly inhabits an ongoing galaxy merger. SDSS J125455.09+084653.9 and SDSS J125454.87+084652.1 (SDSS J1254+0846 hereafter) are two luminous z = 0.44 radio-quiet quasars, with a radial velocity difference of just 215 km s{sup -1}, separated on the sky by 21 kpc in a disturbed host galaxy merger showing obvious tidal tails. The pair was targeted as part of a complete sample of binary quasar candidates with small transverse separations drawn from SDSS DR6 photometry. We present follow-up optical imaging which shows broad, symmetrical tidal arm features spanning some 75 kpc at the quasars' redshift. Previously, the triggering of two quasars during a merger had only been hypothesized but our observations provide strong evidence of such an event. SDSS J1254+0846, as a face-on, pre-coalescence merger hosting two luminous quasars separated by a few dozen kpc, provides a unique opportunity to probe quasar activity in an ongoing gas-rich merger. Numerical modeling suggests that the system consists of two massive disk galaxies prograde to their mutual orbit, caught during the first passage of an active merger. This demonstrates rapid black hole growth during the early stages of a merger between galaxies with pre-existing bulges. Neither of the two luminous nuclei show significant intrinsic absorption by gas or dust in our optical or X-ray observations, illustrating that not all merging quasars will be in an obscured, ultraluminous phase. We find that the Eddington ratio for the fainter component B is rather normal, while for the A component L/L{sub