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Sample records for luminous iras source

  1. NH_3_ and HCO^+^ towards luminous IRAS sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, K.; Henning, T.; Koempe, C.; Harjunpaeae, P.

    1996-02-01

    We have selected 67 objects for observation that are presumably massive young stellar objects. They were from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue based on their infrared flux (Fnu_>=500Jy at 100μm). All objects have been surveyed in the NH_3_(1,1) and (2,2) lines, and a subsample of 53 objects in the rotational line of HCO^+^(J=1-0). 25 objects (37%) were detected in the NH_3_(1,1) line, 18 objects (27%) in the NH_3_(2,2) line, and 38 objects (72%) in the HCO^+^ line. Two objects, IRAS 06058+2138 and IRAS 06061+2151, have been mapped in the two ammonia transitions. From the molecular line data, we have derived the kinetic temperature T_kin_ and the NH_3_ column densities. These data were combined with data from the literature and data derived from the IRAS fluxes (dust colour temperature T_d_, optical depth τ, luminosity). No clear correlations were found; the data are, however, consistent with least square fits found by Wouterloot et al. (1988a). The probability to detect H_2_O maser sources is strongly correlated with the detection of NH_3_ emission: Water maser emission has been seen towards 83% of those objects with clear detections of NH_3_(1,1) and (2,2) lines.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Armus, Lee; Hogg, David W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    With a redshift of 2.3, the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 is apparently one of the most luminous objects known in the universe. We present an image of FSC 10214+4724 at 0.8 pm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 Planetary Camera. The source appears as an unresolved (less then 0.06) arc 0.7 long, with significant substructure along its length. The center of curvature of the arc is located near an elliptical galaxy 1.18 to the north. An unresolved component 100 times fainter than the arc is clearly detected on the opposite side of this galaxy. The most straightforward interpretation is that FSC 10214+4724 is gravitationally lensed by the foreground elliptical galaxy, with the faint component a counter-image of the IRAS source. The brightness of the arc in the HST image is then magnified by approx. 100, and the intrinsic source diameter is approx. 0.0l (80 pc) at 0.25 microns rest wavelength. The bolometric luminosity is probably amplified by a smaller factor (approx. 30) as a result of the larger extent expected for the source in the far-infrared. A detailed lensing model is presented that reproduces the observed morphology and relative flux of the arc and counterimage and correctly predicts the position angle of the lensing galaxy. The model also predicts reasonable values for the velocity dispersion, mass, and mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy for a wide range of galaxy redshifts. A redshift for the lensing galaxy of -0.9 is consistent with the measured surface brightness profile from the image, as well as with the galaxy's spectral energy distribution. The background lensed source has an intrinsic luminosity approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) L(solar mass) and remains a highly luminous quasar with an extremely large ratio of infrared to optical/ultraviolet luminosity.

  3. A search for precursors of ultracompact H II regions in a sample of luminous IRAS sources. III. Circumstellar dust properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, S.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Palla, F.

    2000-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope has been used to obtain submillimeter and millimeter continuum photometry of a sample of 30 IRAS sources previously studied in molecular lines and centimeter radio continuum. All the sources have IRAS colours typical of very young stellar objects (YSOs) and are associated with dense gas.

  4. Temperature distribution of dust in luminous IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carico, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Work is currently in progress to obtain temperature distributions of dust in the most infrared-luminous galaxies. The results presented are of a preliminary nature, representing a zeroth-order approximation. The objects which have been analyzed so far are all galaxies from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities L sub IR greater than or equal to 10(exp 11) solar luminosity. They are: Arp 220, Mrk 231, Mrk 273, NGC 1614, NGC 3690, NGC 6285/6, and Zw 049.057. The analysis utilized 3.7 micron data from the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, IRAS data at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and 1 mm continuum data from the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea.

  5. Search for Obscured Nucleus in a Luminous IRAS Galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen

    1999-01-01

    IRAS discovered very luminous objects which emit the vast majority of their radiation in the infrared wavelength. The energy source of such a tremendous amount of emission is not understood. Starburst and active galactic nuclei (AGN) are thought to be the origin of their power. X-ray observations are expected to be able to reveal the characteristics of the AGN component. However, some are very X-ray quiet, because the AGN is thought to be obscured by a large column density. In order to determine the primary luminosity of the nucleus, we need an X-ray observation with a wide energy band at least up to several tens of keV. We propose to observe NGC 6240, one of the luminous IRAS galaxies, to investigate the characteristics of its AGN, which must be obscured by large column density.

  6. Extragalactic OH megamasers in strong IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Dennefeld, H.; Gouguenheim, L.; Martin, J. M.; Paturel, G.; Lesqueren, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    From the OH and HI survey of the strongest far infrared IRAS sources, 3 new powerful OH megamasers were discovered in Arp 143, IRAS 1510+0724 and in the uncatalogued IRAS source, IRAS 17208-0014. The HI line, the OH 1667 and 1665 MHz main lines and the 21 cm continuum observations were made with Nancy radio telescope. The optical spectra and images were obtained at the European Southern Observatory. The spectra are displayed in figures together with the main IR and OH properties of the 8 megamasers detected up to now, including IC 4553, NGC 3690 and Mrk 231, Mrk 273 and III ZW35.

  7. Supervised and unsupervised classification - The case of IRAS point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorf, Hans-Martin; Meurs, E. J. A.

    Progress is reported on a project which aims at mapping the extragalactic sky in order to derive the large scale distribution of luminous matter. The approach consists in selecting from the IRAS Point Source Catalog a set of galaxies which is as clean and as complete as possible. The decision and discrimination problems involved lend themselves to a treatment using methods from multivariate statistics, in particular statistical pattern recognition. Two different approaches, one based on supervised Bayesian classification, the other on unsupervised data-driven classification, are presented and some preliminary results are reported.

  8. Extreme optical Fe II emission in luminous IRAS active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipari, Sebastian; Terlevich, Roberto; Macchetto, F.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a program of studies and observations of strong optical Fe II emission in luminous and ultraluminous IRAS AGN are presented. New spectroscopic observations and studies of three known ultraluminous IRAS AGN with extreme optical Fe II emission, the discovery that PHL 1092 is a new ultraluminous IRAS AGN, and the detection of two new AGN with strongly variable flux in the optical Fe II emission lines are reported. These results are used to test the correlations between the Fe II emission and properties at other wavelengths such as the L(IR) and the radio emission. IR AGN with extreme Fe II emission are found to belong to a very important group of AGN, whose properties provide insight into the origin of the extreme Fe II emission and into the relation between the starburst and AGN phenomena.

  9. Systematic identification of IRAS point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, A.; Clowes, R. G.; Macgillivray, H. T.; Wolstencroft, R. D.; Leggett, S. K.; Puxley, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    A large scale program was initiated to identify IRAS point sources. At ROE the ideal facilities are at hand to undertake such a large program, viz. the rapid scanning capabilities of the COSMOS measuring machine to exploit the depth and resolution of the U.K. Schmidt Telescope J survey plates. Sources in 44 Schmidt plate areas were identified including 1300 sources and covering 1100 square degrees. The identification comprise 700 galaxy identifications and 600 stellar identifications. There are also about 40 sources with no obvious identification but which can be most easily explained by cirrus, confusion between two sources or sources just outside the 2 sigma error box. A major aim with the galaxy identification is to provide a data base from which sound statistical analyses can be made. Accurate blue magnitudes and morphological classifications for each identification were produced.

  10. Unidentified IRAS sources: Ultrahigh luminosity galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.; Schneider, D. P.; Danielson, G. E.; Beichman, C. A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.

    1985-01-01

    Optical imaging and spectroscopy measurements were obtained for six of the high galactic latitude infrared sources reported by Houck, et al. (1984) from the IRAS survey to have no obvious optical counterparts on the POSS prints. All are identified with visually faint galaxies that have total luminosities in the range 5 x 10 to the 11th power stellar luminosity to 5 x 10 to the 12th power stellar luminosity. This luminosity emerges virtually entirely in the infrared. The origin of the luminosity, which is one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, is not known at this time.

  11. Ira.

    PubMed

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2003-01-01

    For a quarter of a century in genetics if you said Ira the chances were you meant Ira Herskowitz. When he died, on April 28 this year, it left a hole in the fields of genetics and genomics the size of the Grand Canyon. PMID:12801403

  12. Extremely Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of Extremely Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of extremely active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the extreme ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two extreme ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.

  13. New LRS spectra for 356 bright IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Cohen, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The low-resolution spectra of all IRAS point sources with F(nu) (12 microns) greater than 40 Jy that were not included in the Atlas of Low-Resolution Spectra are presented. These have been classified into eight groups based upon the spectral morphology. Silicate emission spectra and red-continuum spectra associated with H II region sources form about 60 percent of this sample. All types of spectra in the LRS Atlas are represented in the sample except for emission-line sources. The sample is used to test a recent classification scheme for IRAS sources based on broadband colors. The spectra is used to test a recent classification scheme for IRAS sources based on broadband colors. The spectra are consistent with the classifications from the colors in most cases.

  14. Gas Chemistry in the Inner Disk of the Nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 04296+2923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) represent the most active members of the starburst population in the nearby universe. In the closest LIRGs, for example IRAS 04296+2923 (D = 29 Mpc) located behind the Taurus Molecular Cloud, it is possible to image the intimate connection between dense gas and star formation directly. We present high resolution 3'') imaging of selected dense gas tracers, including 13CO, C18O, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CN, HNCO, and CH3OH, towards the nuclear starburst and inner disk of IRAS 04296+2923 compiled with the OVRO and CARMA millimeter interferometers. HCN, HCO+ and HNC are used to constrain the properties of the dense gas component. On nuclear scales we observe the same correlation between dense gas column and the star formation rate seen in earlier global surveys of LIRGs. HCN/CO, HCN/HCO+ and HCN/HNC line ratios suggest that both the dense gas fraction and density are high toward the starburst and fall non-monotonically with radius. CO isotopic line ratios in the inner disk are anomalous, having extremely low 13CO/C18O values. To explain these ratios very high gas opacities, anomalously low 13CO abundances or pronounced non-LTE effects must be invoked. The HCN/CN ratio is used to characterize the extent of photon-dominated regions (PDRs) across the inner disk. This ratio is large compared to starbursts like M 82 and NGC 253 suggesting the burst is still in a young, embedded phase. HNCO and CH3OH are use to trace large scale shocks in this barred galaxy. The chemical morphology of the large-scale bar is compared with nuclear bars in Maffei 2, NGC 6946 and IC 342. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation grant AST-1009620.

  15. IGRINS Spectroscopy of Class I Sources: IRAS 03445+3242 and IRAS 04239+2436

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seokho; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kidder, Benjamin; Mace, Gregory N.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-08-01

    We have detected molecular and atomic line emission from the hot and warm disks of two Class I sources, IRAS 03445+3242 and IRAS 04239+2436, using the high-resolution Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS). CO overtone band transitions and near-IR lines of Na i and Ca i, all in emission, trace the hot inner disk, while CO rovibrational absorption spectra of the first overtone transition trace the warm gas within the inner few AU of the disk. The emission-line profiles for both sources show evidence for Keplerian disks. A thin Keplerian disk with power-law temperature and column density profiles with a projected rotational velocity of ˜60-75 km s-1 and a gas temperature of ˜3500 K at the innermost annulus can reproduce the CO overtone band emission. Na i and Ca i emission lines also arise from this disk, but they show complicated line features possibly affected by photospheric absorption lines. Multi-epoch observations show asymmetric variations of the line profiles on one-year (CO overtone bandhead and atomic lines for IRAS 03445+3242) or on one-day (atomic lines for IRAS 04239+2436) timescales, implying non-axisymmetric features in disks. The narrow CO rovibrational absorption spectra (v = 0 \\to 2) indicate that both warm (>150 K) and cold (˜20-30 K) CO gas are present along the line of sight to the inner disk. This study demonstrates the power of IGRINS as a tool for studies of the sub-AU-scale hot and AU-scale warm protoplanetary disks with its simultaneous coverage of the full H and K bands with high spectral resolution (R = 45,000) allowing many aspects of the sources to be investigated at once.

  16. IGRINS Spectroscopy of Class I Sources: IRAS 03445+3242 and IRAS 04239+2436

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seokho; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kidder, Benjamin; Mace, Gregory N.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-08-01

    We have detected molecular and atomic line emission from the hot and warm disks of two Class I sources, IRAS 03445+3242 and IRAS 04239+2436, using the high-resolution Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS). CO overtone band transitions and near-IR lines of Na i and Ca i, all in emission, trace the hot inner disk, while CO rovibrational absorption spectra of the first overtone transition trace the warm gas within the inner few AU of the disk. The emission-line profiles for both sources show evidence for Keplerian disks. A thin Keplerian disk with power-law temperature and column density profiles with a projected rotational velocity of ˜60–75 km s‑1 and a gas temperature of ˜3500 K at the innermost annulus can reproduce the CO overtone band emission. Na i and Ca i emission lines also arise from this disk, but they show complicated line features possibly affected by photospheric absorption lines. Multi-epoch observations show asymmetric variations of the line profiles on one-year (CO overtone bandhead and atomic lines for IRAS 03445+3242) or on one-day (atomic lines for IRAS 04239+2436) timescales, implying non-axisymmetric features in disks. The narrow CO rovibrational absorption spectra (v = 0 \\to 2) indicate that both warm (>150 K) and cold (˜20–30 K) CO gas are present along the line of sight to the inner disk. This study demonstrates the power of IGRINS as a tool for studies of the sub-AU-scale hot and AU-scale warm protoplanetary disks with its simultaneous coverage of the full H and K bands with high spectral resolution (R = 45,000) allowing many aspects of the sources to be investigated at once.

  17. Tracking Steady Light Sources Amid Luminous Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissh, Frank; Fowski, Walter; Miklus, Kenneth; Abreu, Rene; Bolin, Kenneth; Flynn, David

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Event Rejection for Acquisition and Tracking (TERAT) algorithm governs operation of image-data-acquisition and -processing system. TERAT processes digitized image data to acquire (that is, identify) candidate steady source of light, validate candidate source, and track validated source, all in presence of real or apparent luminous transients represented in image data. Source of light tracked could be star or distant luminous beacon. Transients caused by impacts of ionizing radiation on imaging array of photodetectors or by unsteady light sources not meant to be tracked. TERAT functions with limited data-processing resources. TERAT algorithm currently operational on NASA's TOPEX mission.

  18. Stellar density enhancements associated with IRAS sources in L1641

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Hua; Tokunaga, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    We obtained H and K' images of 59 Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sources associated with dense molecular gas in L1641. Some of the sources were also imaged in narrow-band L and M. Using these near-IR images and photometry, we are able to identify the near-IR counterparts for most of the IRAS sources. The spectral energy distributions of the sources suggest that all of them are young stellar objects (class I and II sources). Most importantly, we find in this study that 14 IRAS sources are associated with small (but statistically significant) groupings of bright near-IR sources defined as stellar density enhancements (SDEs). The spatial distribution of young stars in the Orion A molecular cloud can be characterized by a range of stellar densities, from the Trapezium Cluster, to the SDEs, to individual stars. We conjecture that the SDEs are regions of continuous star formation within or around dense molecular cores and that they may represent an important mode of star formation in L1641. If true, adjustments to the standard star formation model may be required.

  19. Optical Identifications of IRAS Point Sources. Galaxies. VIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2002-07-01

    A list of objects of the BIG (Byurakan-IRAS galaxies) sample is given: 89 galaxies identified with 55 point sources from the IRAS Point Source Catalog. The identifications were based on the Digital Sky Survey (DSS), the First Byurakan Survey, blue and red maps of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and infrared fluxes at wavelengths of 12, 25, 60, and 100 mm in the region of +61° +65° and 05h30m 18h 00m with an area of 340 deg2 (additional IR sources were identified). The optical coordinates of the identified galaxies, their departure from the IR coordinates, the V stellar magnitude, morphological type, angular size, and position angle were determined. The objects have optical magnitudes in the range of 12 m .5 - 21 m .5 and angular sizes in the range of 3″ - 43″. Finder charts for these objects from the DSS are given.

  20. The brightest high-latitude 12-micron IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, P.; Beichman, C.; Chester, T.; Neugebauer, G.; Emerson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source catalog was searched for sources brighter than 28 Jy (0 mag) at 12 microns with absolute galactic latitude greater than 30 deg excluding the Large Magellanic Cloud. The search resulted in 269 sources, two of which are the galaxies NGC 1068 and M82. The remaining 267 sources are identified with, or have infrared color indices consistent with late-type stars some of which show evidence of circumstellar dust shells. Seven sources are previously uncataloged stars. K and M stars without circumstellar dust shells, M stars with circumstellar dust shells, and carbon stars occupy well-defined regions of infrared color-color diagrams.

  1. Optical Identifications of IRAS Point Sources. Galaxies. VII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2001-04-01

    A seventh list of objects from the BIG (Byurakan-IRAS galaxies) sample is given: 95 galaxies identified with 63 point sources from the IRAS Point Source Catalog. The identifications were based on the Digital Sky Survey (DSS), the First Byurakan Survey, blue and red maps from the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and infrared fluxes at 12, 25, 60, and 100 m in the region of +65° 69° and 14h00m 18h05m with an area of 96 deg2. For the identified galaxies the optical coordinates, their departures from the IR coordinates, the stellar V magnitudes, morphological types, angular sizes, and position angles were determined. The objects have optical magnitudes in the range of 13 m .8-21 m .5 and angular sizes in the range of 4″-38″. Finder charts from the DSS are given for these objects.

  2. Lunar occultations of IRAS point sources, 1986-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.; Chen, W. P.; Cassar, L.

    1986-01-01

    A complete listing is given for objects in the IRAS Point Source Catalog which will be occulted by the moon over the course of 1986-1990. A total of 14,148 ASCII card images is encompassed by the complete listing of objects having geocentric events during this period. The results contained in this complete listing are illustrated in two of the present tables for the brightest objects at 12 and 100 micron wavelengths.

  3. Optical Identification of IRAS Point Sources. Galaxies. IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Sargsyan, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    The ninth list of objects from the BIG (Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies) sample is presented; 87 galaxies are identified with 60 point sources from the IRAS PSC catalog in the region +69° +73° and 03h50m 09h50m with an area of 117 deg2. Most of the identified galaxies are compact with bright bulges and faint peripheries. The identified objects include 7 Sy candidates, 8 interacting pairs (of which one is a merger” candidate), and 6 LSB galaxies. The optical coordinates and their deviations from the IR coordinates, the V magnitudes, morphological types, angular dimensions, and position angles are given. The identified galaxies are of morphological types Sa-Sc and have optical stellar magnitudes in the range 15.5m-21.5m with angular sizes in the range 3″-26″. Finding charts from DSS2 are provided for these objects.

  4. New low-resolution spectrometer spectra for IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun; Stencel, R. E.; Brugel, E.

    1991-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra of 486 IRAS point sources with F sub nu(12 microns) in the range 20-40 Jy are presented. This is part of an effort to extract and classify spectra that were not included in the Atlas of Low-Resolution Spectra and represents an extension of the earlier work by Volk and Cohen which covers sources with F sub nu(12 microns) greater than 40 Jy. The spectra have been examined by eye and classified into nine groups based on the spectral morphology. This new classification scheme is compared with the mechanical classification of the Atlas, and the differences are noted. Oxygen-rich stars of the asymptotic giant branch make up 33 percent of the sample. Solid state features dominate the spectra of most sources. It is found that the nature of the sources as implied by the present spectral classification is consistent with the classifications based on broad-band colors of the sources.

  5. Optical Identification of IRAS Point Sources. Galaxies. X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Sargsyan, L. A.

    2004-04-01

    The tenth list of objects from the BIG (Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies) sample, containing 104 galaxies identified with 60 point sources from the IRAS PSC catalog, is introduced. The identifications have been made in the region +69°+73° and 09h50m15h20m with an area of 107 sq.deg. The identified objects include 13 Sy candidates, 5 compact star-formation galaxies, 11 interacting pairs (including 5 merger candidates) and 1 interacting triple system, 5 LSB galaxies, and 5 groups. 21 objects are also identified with radio sources. The optical coordinates, their deviations from the IR coordinates, V stellar magnitudes, morphological types, angular sizes of the central regions, and position angles have been determined. The identified galaxies are of Sa-Sc, SB, and Irr morphological types, the optical stellar magnitudes lie in the range 15m.0-21m.5, and the angular sizes of the central regions lie in the range 3″-32″. Finding charts from the DSS2 are included for these objects.

  6. Infrared Images and Millimeter Data from Cold Southern IRAS Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloh, M.; Henning, Th.; Launhardt, R.

    1997-05-01

    We present near-infrared (H, K'), CO (2-1), CS (2-1), and 1.3 mm continuum data for 31 southern objects [δ(1950) <= 10°] known to have extremely red IRAS colors [Fν(100 μm) > Fν(60 μm) > Fν(25 μm) > 20 × Fν(12 μm)]. The data are meant to help reveal new, very young stellar objects. K'-band near-infrared counterparts to the IRAS point sources are detected in 22 of 25 good K' images. Most K' counterparts are multiples. Eighteen of 21 objects were detected in CS, implying the presence of dense gas. Completing the set of CS (2-1) spectra by including the data of Bronfman, Nyman, & Ray, we still find only three nondetections among all 31 objects; these three were also not detected in K'. Wings indicative of outflows are found in a large fraction (20/30) of CO spectra. Twenty-six of 31 observations in the millimeter continuum were detections and point to the presence of large amounts of circumstellar matter. Most of the objects have 103-105 times solar luminosity; we speculate that most contain at least one massive star capable of producing a compact/ultracompact H II region. Based on observations performed at the European Southern Observatory.

  7. Search for Compact Stellar Groups in the Vicinity of Iras Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatyan, N. M.; Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Khachatryan, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    The results of a search for compact clusters in the vicinity of 19 IRAS sources based on data from the GPS UKIDSS and Spitzer GLIMPSE surveys are presented. Overall, clusters have been identified in 15 regions. Clusters are identified for the first time in 4 regions (IRAS 18151-1208, IRAS 18316-0602, 18517+0437, 19110+1045). In 5 regions (IRAS 05168+3634, 05358+3543, IRAS 18507+0121, IRAS 20188+3928, IRAS 20198+3716) the compact groups we have identified are substructures within more extended clusters. The radii of the identified groups and the surface star density are widely scattered with ranges of 0.3-2.7 pc and 4-1360 stars/pc2, respectively. In 11 of the clusters, the IRAS sources are associated with a pair or even a group of YSOs. The groups identified in the NIR range include representatives of a later II evolutionary class among the stellar objects associated with the IRAS sources.

  8. The Complex Protostellar Source IRAS 04325+2402

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Allen, Lori; Chen, Hua; Jayawardhana, Ray

    1999-10-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared NICMOS observations of a remarkable low-luminosity Class I (protostellar) source in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. IRAS 04325+2402 exhibits a complex bipolar scattered light nebula. The central continuum source is resolved and may be multiple, or it may be crossed by a small dust lane. Complex arcs seen in scattered light surround the central source; the physical nature of these structures is not clear, but they may reflect perturbations from multiple stellar sources or from time-dependent mass ejection. A second, resolved continuum source is found at a projected distance of approximately 1150 AU from the central region, near the edge of a nebular lobe probably produced by outflow. The images indicate that this second source is another low-luminosity young stellar object, seen nearly edge-on through a dusty disk and envelope system with disk diameter of about 60 AU. We suggest that the scattered light ``streaks'' associated with this second source are limb-brightened outflow cavities in the dusty envelope, possibly perturbed by interaction with the outflow lobes of the main source. The nature of the companion is uncertain, since it is observed mostly in scattered light. But it is most probably a very low mass star or brown dwarf, with a minimum luminosity of approximately 10^-2 L_solar. Our results show that protostellar sources may have multiple centers of infall and nonaligned disks and outflows, even on relatively small scales.

  9. The infrared emission bands. III. Southern IRAS sources.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Tielens, A G; Bregman, J; Witteborn, F C; Rank, D M; Allamandola, L J; Wooden, D H; de Muizon, M

    1989-06-01

    We present airborne 5-8 micrometers spectra of southern IRAS sources which reveal strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. The good correlation between the bands, in particular the dominant 6.2 and "7.7" micrometers features, strongly imply a common carrier, reinforcing the PAH hypothesis. However, small but detectable spectral variations exist. Planetaries have a distinctly different ratio of I(6.2)/I(7.7) than other nebulae, accompanied by a redward shift in the actual wavelength of the "7.7" micrometers peak. Further, we have detected a new feature, previously predicted from laboratory spectra of PAH molecules, at 5.2 micrometers in many of these sources. Spectra of two rare [WC 10] planetary nebular nuclei indicate a very prominent plateau of emission, linking the 6.2 and 7.7 micrometers bands. Several of our sources show definite evidence for emission structure between 14 and 23 micrometers in their IRAS Low-Resolution Spectral Atlas spectra: we attribute this structure to PAH bands. too. We have defined the "generic" spectrum of emission bands relating the mean intensities of each band to that of the strongest, near 7.7 micrometers. We have added three more planetary or protoplanetary nebulae to our correlation between 7.7 micrometers band intensity and nebular gas phase C/O ratio, namely NGC 6302, HR 4049, and the highly carbon-rich [WC 10] nucleus, CPD--56 degrees 8032. For the latter we have determined a ratio for C/O of approximately 4.8 from IUE observations. The good correlation between the intensity ratio of the "7.7" micrometers feature relative to the far-infrared dust continuum and nebular C/O also supports a carbonaceous carrier for these emission features. PMID:11542167

  10. The infrared emission bands. III. Southern IRAS sources.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Tielens, A G; Bregman, J; Witteborn, F C; Rank, D M; Allamandola, L J; Wooden, D H; de Muizon, M

    1989-06-01

    We present airborne 5-8 micrometers spectra of southern IRAS sources which reveal strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. The good correlation between the bands, in particular the dominant 6.2 and "7.7" micrometers features, strongly imply a common carrier, reinforcing the PAH hypothesis. However, small but detectable spectral variations exist. Planetaries have a distinctly different ratio of I(6.2)/I(7.7) than other nebulae, accompanied by a redward shift in the actual wavelength of the "7.7" micrometers peak. Further, we have detected a new feature, previously predicted from laboratory spectra of PAH molecules, at 5.2 micrometers in many of these sources. Spectra of two rare [WC 10] planetary nebular nuclei indicate a very prominent plateau of emission, linking the 6.2 and 7.7 micrometers bands. Several of our sources show definite evidence for emission structure between 14 and 23 micrometers in their IRAS Low-Resolution Spectral Atlas spectra: we attribute this structure to PAH bands. too. We have defined the "generic" spectrum of emission bands relating the mean intensities of each band to that of the strongest, near 7.7 micrometers. We have added three more planetary or protoplanetary nebulae to our correlation between 7.7 micrometers band intensity and nebular gas phase C/O ratio, namely NGC 6302, HR 4049, and the highly carbon-rich [WC 10] nucleus, CPD--56 degrees 8032. For the latter we have determined a ratio for C/O of approximately 4.8 from IUE observations. The good correlation between the intensity ratio of the "7.7" micrometers feature relative to the far-infrared dust continuum and nebular C/O also supports a carbonaceous carrier for these emission features.

  11. Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Stawarz, Lukasz; Moderski, Rafal; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broad-band spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy ({gamma}-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars have also typically very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line-region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors production of {gamma}-rays via up-scattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical and {gamma}-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intra-day flares occasionally observed in powerful blazars sources.

  12. First Results from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolstencroft, R. D.; Wehrle, A. E.; Levine, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the first result from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey (IIFGS), a program designed to obtain ISO observations of the most distant and luminous galaxies in the IRAS Faint Source Survey by filling short gaps in the ISO observing schedule with pairs of 12um ISOCAM AND 90um ISOPHOT observation.

  13. Discovery of Luminous Star Formation in PMN 1452-5910/IRAS 14482-5857: the Pterodactyl Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. I.; Braiding, C. R.

    2015-02-01

    We present sensitive 1-3 GHz ATCA radio continuum observations of the hitherto unresolved star-forming region known as either IRAS 14482-5857 or PMN 1452-5910. At radio continuum frequencies, this source is characterized by a “filled bubble” structure reminiscent of a classical Hii region, dominated by three point sources and surrounded by low surface brightness emission out to the ˜ 3\\prime × 4\\prime source extent observed at other frequencies in the literature. The infrared emission corresponds well to the radio emission, with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission surrounding regions of hot dust toward the radio bubbles. A bright 4.5 μm point source is seen toward the center of the radio source, suggesting a young stellar object. There is also a linear, outflowlike structure radiating brightly at 8 and 24 μm toward the brightest peak of the radio continuum. In order to estimate the distance to this source, we have used Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey 12CO (1-0) and 13CO(1-0) molecular line emission data. Integrated intensity, velocity at peak intensity, and line fitting of the spectra all point toward the peak centered at V LSR =-1.1 km s-1 being connected to this cloud. This infers a distance to this cloud of ˜12.7 kpc. Assuming this distance, we estimate a column density and mass toward IRAS 14482-5857 of ˜ 1.5× {{10}21} cm-2 and 2 × 104 M ⊙ , implying that this source is a site of massive star formation. Reinforcing this conclusion, our broadband spectral fitting infers dust temperatures of 19 and 110 K, emission measures for the sub-parsec radio point source of EM˜ {{10}6-7} pc cm-6, electron densities of {{n}e}˜ {{10}3} cm-3, and photon ionization rates of {{N}Ly}˜ {{10}46-48} s-1. The evidence strongly suggests that IRAS 14482-5857 is a distant—hence intense—site of massive star formation.

  14. Discovery of luminous star formation in PMN 1452-5910/IRAS 14482-5857: The Pterodactyl nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D. I.

    2015-02-01

    We present sensitive 1–3 GHz ATCA radio continuum observations of the hitherto unresolved star-forming region known as either IRAS 14482-5857 or PMN 1452-5910. At radio continuum frequencies, this source is characterized by a “filled bubble” structure reminiscent of a classical Hii region, dominated by three point sources and surrounded by low surface brightness emission out to the ∼3{sup ′}×4{sup ′} source extent observed at other frequencies in the literature. The infrared emission corresponds well to the radio emission, with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission surrounding regions of hot dust toward the radio bubbles. A bright 4.5 μm point source is seen toward the center of the radio source, suggesting a young stellar object. There is also a linear, outflowlike structure radiating brightly at 8 and 24 μm toward the brightest peak of the radio continuum. In order to estimate the distance to this source, we have used Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey {sup 12}CO (1–0) and {sup 13}CO(1–0) molecular line emission data. Integrated intensity, velocity at peak intensity, and line fitting of the spectra all point toward the peak centered at V {sub LSR} =−1.1 km s{sup −1} being connected to this cloud. This infers a distance to this cloud of ∼12.7 kpc. Assuming this distance, we estimate a column density and mass toward IRAS 14482-5857 of ∼1.5×10{sup 21} cm{sup −2} and 2 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙} , implying that this source is a site of massive star formation. Reinforcing this conclusion, our broadband spectral fitting infers dust temperatures of 19 and 110 K, emission measures for the sub-parsec radio point source of EM∼10{sup 6−7} pc cm{sup −6}, electron densities of n{sub e}∼10{sup 3} cm{sup −3}, and photon ionization rates of N{sub Ly}∼10{sup 46−48} s{sup −1}. The evidence strongly suggests that IRAS 14482-5857 is a distant—hence intense—site of massive star formation.

  15. High-resolution study of luminous infrared galaxies. I - The composite nature of the Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 20044-6114 (NGC 6860)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipari, Sebastian; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Macchetto, F.

    1993-01-01

    The physical conditions in the ionized gas, the stellar population, and the kinematics of the Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 20044-6114 (NGC 6860) are studied by high spatial resolution optical imaging and optical and near-IR spectroscopy of this luminous IR source. The broadband images show a compact nucleus, two weak spiral arms, a bar, a bulge, an inner ring, and a possible outer ring. The I-alpha image reveals bright emission-line regions associated with the Seyfert nucleus and an inner ring of intense star formation. The forbidden O III 5007-A image shows that the high-excitation gas is elongated perpendicularly to the direction of the bar, and reveals a bright compact object at about 40 arcsec NE of the nucleus which is undetectable in the broadband images. This object is interpreted as a dwarf young H II galaxy. The optical, near-IR, and FIR results show clear evidence that the nuclear and circumnuclear regions have composite and complex structure: a variable Seyfert 1 nucleus embedded in an intense and dusty star formation. environment.

  16. Luminous Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); DiStefano, Roseanne

    2005-01-01

    One of the key accomplishments of the two preceding years was our development of an algorithm to select SSSs in external galaxies which have been observed by Chandra or XMM-Newton. By applying this algorithm to data from a number of galaxies, we discovered an extension of the class of SSSs to sources that are somewhat harder (100 - 300 eV, instead of tens of eV), but which are nevertheless much softer than canonical X-ray sources. We call these new sources quasisoft sources (QSSs). During this past year, we have built on and extended this work. We have (1) continued to identify SSSs and QSSs in external galaxies, (2) worked on models for the sources and find that black hole models seem promising for a subset of them, and (3) have studied individual systems, especially M101-ULX1. This special system has been observed as an SSS in its high &ate, with a luminosity in excess of 10(exp 41) erg/s. It has also been observed as a QSS when it is less luminous, and as a hard source in its low state. It is one of the best candidates to be an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. We have several papers in preparation. Below we list papers which are complete, including only new work and papers whose status has changed (e.g., been accepted for publication) since our last report. In addition, our work on QSSs has received some publicity. It was the subject of a Chandra press release and was picked up by several media outlets.

  17. Ultra Luminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N. A.; Godet, O.

    2015-12-01

    Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are X-ray bright objects that are not coincident with the central nucleus of the host galaxy and which have luminosities that exceed the Eddington limit for a stellar mass black hole, typically L > 3 × 10^{39} erg s^{-1} for a black hole of 20 M_⊙. The nature of these objects is still unclear. However, it is possible that these sources do not form a single class of objects. Many ULXs may house stellar mass black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates, even if the physical mechanism for such high accretion rates is still not understood. Some ULXs may contain intermediate mass black holes (˜1 × 10^{2} - ˜1 × 10^{5} M_⊙). These elusive black holes are thought to be the building blocks of the more massive supermassive black holes, observed at the centre of many galaxies. Other ULXs may not be accreting black holes at all. Recent evidence for the different types of ULXs is presented in this paper.

  18. IRAS 18455+0448: An OH Fountain Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. M.

    2015-08-01

    IRAS 18455+0448 has been monitored annually since its 1612 MHz masers disappeared in 2001. At Xmas 2012, an intense, new, 1665 MHz feature at ˜3ve appeared, which points to the initiation of a jet in this post-AGB star.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Methanol masers towards IRAS sources (van der Walt+ 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der, Walt D. J.; Gaylard, M. J.; MacLeod, G. C.

    1997-04-01

    We present the results of our second search for 6.7-GHz methanol masers towards colour-selected IRAS sources. Five hundred and twenty IRAS sources that meet the far-infrared colour criteria set by Wood & Churchwell (1989ApJ...340..265W) for ultra-compact HII regions were searched for 6.7-GHz methanol maser emission, to a sensitivity limit of 5Jy. Thirty one new maser sources were detected. We also compare the FIR colours of the newly detected maser sources with those detected by Schutte et al. (1993MNRAS.261..783S) and the IRAS counterparts of sources that have both methanol and hydroxyl maser emission. It was found that the average flux distribution of the newly detected sources differs significantly from that of all other known 6.7-GHz methanol maser sources. It is argued that the differences may be due either to intrinsic differences between the three groups of sources or to interstellar extinction. An analysis of the relation between the 6.7-GHz maser and IRAS flux densities shows that the maser flux density is always less than the 100μm flux density while only three sources have a maser flux density greater than the 60μm flux density. Far-infrared pumping of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers is therefore in principle viable although it was found that the apparent maser efficiency will exceed 10 per cent for a significant number of sources in the case of FIR pumping by photons between 50 and 100μm. The overall detection rates on the IRAS [25-12] vs [60-12] two-colour diagram are also presented. Possible new search strategies for masers in colour-selected IRAS sources are discussed. (2 data files).

  20. NEWLY IDENTIFIED CARBON STARS FROM SOURCES WITH UNUSUAL IRAS LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G.

    2012-07-15

    The 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature in either emission or absorption in the infrared is an important indicator for identification of carbon stars. Sources whose infrared spectra are sorted in Group U of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) low-resolution spectrum (LRS) are good samples for finding objects with the 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature. Therefore, we have carefully checked all spectra in Group U of the LRS. We have found 13 new objects, which probably have SiC emission, sometimes with unusually broad features, that are presumed to be carbon-rich objects. In addition, their evolutionary types are also estimated from IRAS and Two Micron All Sky Survey two-color diagrams. Besides finding 13 new carbon-rich objects, another important result in this paper is that four sources are estimated as new extreme carbon stars (ECSs) and five previously known carbon stars sorted in the Group U of the IRAS LRS are also estimated as ECSs.

  1. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. II. IRAS 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Jones, B.F.; Walker, H.J.; Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    The paper presents long-slit optical spectra and microwave CO spectra of four nebulous counterparts to IRAS sources showing PAH emission features: 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758. IRAS 22539+5758 is associated with a bipolar nebula. All are allied with B-type stars that suffer appreciable circumstellar extinction, and whose environs show atomic emission lines; three represent mixed reflection/emission nebulosities. Three show spectroscopic evidence for outflows at about 100 km/s. One, 06114+1745, exhibits indications of enhanced diffuse interstellar bands. It is concluded that extinction alone is insufficient to yield enhanced DIBs and that peculiar circumstellar abundances and/or physical conditions must play a role. 20 refs.

  2. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  3. DISCOVERY OF THE SECOND WARM CARBON-CHAIN-CHEMISTRY SOURCE, IRAS15398 - 3359 IN LUPUS

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Burton, Michael

    2009-05-20

    We have conducted a search for carbon-chain molecules toward 16 protostars with the Mopra 22 m and Nobeyama 45 m telescopes, and have detected high excitation lines from several species, such as C{sub 4}H (N = 9-8), C{sub 4}H{sub 2}(J = 10{sub 0,10}-9{sub 0,9}), CH{sub 3}CCH(J = 5-4, K = 2), and HC{sub 5}N(J = 32-31), toward the low-mass protostar, IRAS15398 - 3359 in Lupus. The C{sub 4}H line is as bright as 2.4 K measured with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The kinetic temperature is derived to be 12.6 {+-} 1.5 K from the K = 1 and K = 2 lines of CH{sub 3}CCH. These results indicate that the carbon-chain molecules exist in a region of warm and dense gas near the protostar. The observed features are similar to those found toward IRAS04368+2557 in L1527, which shows warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC). In WCCC, carbon-chain molecules are produced efficiently by the evaporation of CH{sub 4} from the grain mantles in a lukewarm region near the protostar. Our data clearly indicate that WCCC is no longer specific to L1527, but occurs in IRAS15398 - 3359. In addition, we draw attention to a remarkable contrast between WCCC and hot corino chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions. Carbon-chain molecules are deficient in hot corino sources like NGC1333 IRAS4B, whereas complex organic molecules seem to be less abundant in the WCCC sources. A possible origin for such source-to-source chemical variations is suggested to arise from the timescale of the starless-core phase in each source. If this is the case, the chemical composition provides an important clue to explore the variation of star formation processes between sources and/or molecular clouds.

  4. 2 Millimeter Observations of Bright-rimmed Clouds with IRAS Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitani, K.; Matsuo, H.; Nakano, M.; Tamura, M.; Ogura, K.

    2000-01-01

    We have made 2 mm continuum observations of 15 bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) associated with IRAS point sources and S140 with the Nobeyama Bolometer Array (NOBA) mounted on the 45 m telescope of Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Continuum emission was detected in five BRCs and in S140. These five BRCs are known to be associated with near-infrared YSO clusters, mostly on the side facing toward the exciting star(s) and, therefore, are likely the sites of small-scale sequential star formation. The detected emission peaks of these five sources correspond to the IRAS positions within the positional errors, and the IRAS sources are considered to be protostars (Class 0/I-like sources) that were formed most recently in the BRCs. Four of them are clearly extended more than the telescope beam, suggesting the presence of circumstellar structures. The circumstellar masses derived from the 2 mm continuum are ~5-90 Msolar, which are more massive than those of the nearby Class 0/I objects (<~1 Msolar). This fact and the relatively large bolometric luminosities of these objects suggest that the mass of the cluster or star(s) most recently formed in these BRCs could be higher than those of the previously formed stars found in the near-infrared cluster. The comparisons with previous observations of Bok globules unassociated with bright rims and other objects are discussed. Most noteworthy is that the ratios of the bolometric luminosity to the circumstellar mass are significantly higher for these BRCs than for Bok globules.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Warm IRAS sources. II. (de Grijp+, 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijp, M. H. K.; Keel, W. C.; Miley, G. K.; Goudfrooij, P.; Lub, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present optical spectra for a sample of 563 high-latitude IRAS sources selected from the Point Source Catalog to have relatively warm 25 to 60 micron colours. We have shown this selection criterion to be an efficient indicator for finding Seyfert galaxies. Plots of the optical spectra are shown and the fluxes of the strongest emission lines in these spectra are tabulated. After excluding 128 sources which are clearly galactic foreground objects, we obtained spectroscopic information for 358 extragalactic objects. Emission-line ratios have been used to classify these objects, resulting in 80 Seyfert 1, 141 Seyfert 2 and 133 HII-type objects. In comparison with samples of active nuclei selected in other ways, about 50% of known Seyfert nuclei are included by our colour criteria. This fraction is larger for high luminosities, reaching 80% for quasar luminosities. For lower-luminosity objects, contamination by the host galaxies becomes important and the sample becomes seriously incomplete. It should be moderately complete and representative for core luminosities greater than 1023.5W/Hz at 12m. Finally, the infrared luminosity function for each type of object is derived; the shapes for Seyfert 1 and 2 nuclei are identical, with a type 2/type 1 space-density ratio of 3.0. Our census is consistent with an obscuration scheme for producing both types of object from a single parent population, though the origin of excess cool IR radiation Irom many Seyferts is still unclear. We note the appearance of an apparent type II supernova in IRAS 0225-103 observed in 1985 September. Its spectrum suggests that it was observed between 1 and 2 months after maximum, perhaps in a "plateau" phase. (2 data files).

  6. A search for T Tauri stars based on the IRAS point source catalog.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Quast, G. R.; Torres, C. A. O.; de La Reza, R.

    1992-02-01

    The results of the first part of a survey for new T Tauri stars, with spectroscopic and photometric observations of about 100 stars, are presented. A list of candidates has been selected by means of the IRAS Point Source Catalog, based on appropriate far-infrared colors. Coude spectra of the selected objects in the 655-673 nm wavelength range, which includes H-alpha and the resonance Li I line, have been obtained. Thirty-three new T Tauri stars, and a number of other interesting objects, like early type premain-sequence stars and Li-rich K giants, have been detected. Several new isolated T Tauri were found, including Hen 1, which may be the T Tauri star with the highest galactic latitude known, if its nature is confirmed.

  7. IRAS 15099-5856: REMARKABLE MID-INFRARED SOURCE WITH PROMINENT CRYSTALLINE SILICATE EMISSION EMBEDDED IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH15-52

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Myungshin; McKee, Christopher F.; Suh, Kyung-Won; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi; Burton, Michael G.; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Bessell, Michael S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ezawa, Hajime; Kohno, Kotaro; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S.

    2011-05-01

    We report new mid-infrared (MIR) observations of the remarkable object IRAS 15099-5856 using the space telescopes AKARI and Spitzer, which demonstrate the presence of prominent crystalline silicate emission in this bright source. IRAS 15099-5856 has a complex morphology with a bright central compact source (IRS1) surrounded by knots, spurs, and several extended ({approx}4') arc-like filaments. The source is seen only at {>=}10 {mu}m. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of IRS1 shows prominent emission features from Mg-rich crystalline silicates, strong [Ne II] 12.81 {mu}m, and several other faint ionic lines. We model the MIR spectrum as thermal emission from dust and compare with the Herbig Be star HD 100546 and the luminous blue variable R71, which show very similar MIR spectra. Molecular line observations reveal two molecular clouds around the source, but no associated dense molecular cores. We suggest that IRS1 is heated by UV radiation from the adjacent O star Muzzio 10 and that its crystalline silicates most likely originated in a mass outflow from the progenitor of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-52. IRS1, which is embedded in the SNR, could have been shielded from the SN blast wave if the progenitor was in a close binary system with Muzzio 10. If MSH 15-52 is a remnant of Type Ib/c supernova (SN Ib/c), as has been previously proposed, this would confirm the binary model for SN Ib/c. IRS1 and the associated structures may be the relics of massive star death, as shaped by the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind, and the intense ionizing radiation of the embedded O star.

  8. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 5: The point source catalog declination range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 5, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg.

  9. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 3: The point source catalog declination range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 3, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg.

  10. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 2: The point source catalog declination range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 2, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg.

  11. Water Maser and Ammonia Survey toward IRAS Sources in the Galaxy I. H2O Maser Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Nakazato, Takeshi; Ikeda, Norio; Hongo, Satoshi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Yang, Ji

    2007-12-01

    We present H2O maser data from a survey toward IRAS sources in the Galaxy with the Nobeyama 45m telescope. This survey had a 1σ noise level as small as 0.24Jy, resulting in one of the most sensitive water-maser surveys. The maximum distance of the masers to be detected by our survey is estimated to be 3kpc for sources with Fν,1kpc < 10Jy and 10kpc for those with 10Jy ≤ Fν,1kpc < 100Jy, where Fν,1kpc is the maser flux density converted at a distance of 1kpc. For strong masers with Fν,1kpc ≥ 100Jy, our survey could detect all sources in the Galaxy. We carried out a total of 2229 observations toward 1563 sources and detected water-maser emission toward 222 sources. Our survey newly found masers from 75 of the 222 sources. The maser spectra of the new sources are shown in addition to the line parameters of all the detected sources. Furthermore, we discovered an extremely high-velocity component with VLSR = -146 km s-1 toward a well-known source, NGC 7538 IRS 11. For the three sources of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A/B, IRAS 05329-0512, and 06053-0622, we succeeded to spatially separate multiple-velocity components.

  12. Spectral variability of the IR source IRAS 01005+7910 optical component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, V. G.; Chentsov, E. L.; Panchuk, V. E.; Sendzikas, E. G.; Yushkin, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution optical spectra of the IR source IRAS01005+7910 are used to determine the spectral type of its central star, B1.5±0.3, identify the spectral features, and analyze their profile and radial-velocity variations. The systemic velocity V sys = -50.5 km s-1 is determined from the positions of the symmetric and stable profiles of the forbidden [NI], [N II], [OI], [S II], and [Fe II] emission lines. The presence of the [NII] and [SII] forbidden emissions indicates the onset of the ionization of the circumstellar envelope and the fact that the star is very close to undergoing the planetary nebula stage. The broad range of radial velocity V r estimates based on the line cores, which amounts to about 34 km s-1, is partly due to the deformations of the profiles caused by variable emissions. The variations of the V r in the line wings are smaller, about 23 km s-1, and may be due to pulsations and/or hidden binarity of the star. The deformations of the profiles of absorption-emission lines may result from variations of their absorption components caused by the variations of the geometry and kinematics in the wind base. The H α lines exhibit PCyg III type wind profiles. Deviations of the wind from spherical symmetry are shown to be small. The relatively low wind velocity (27-74 km s-1 from different observations) and the strong intensity of the red emission (it exceeds the continuum level by up to a factor of seven) are typical for hypergiants rather than the classical supergiants. IRAS01005 is an example of spectral mimicry of a low-mass post-AGB star masquerading as a massive hypergiant.

  13. Investigating the Extraordinary X-Ray Variability of the Infrared Quasar IRAS 13349+2439

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen M.

    1999-01-01

    We observed the luminous quasar IRAS 13349+2439 using RXTE (X Ray Timing Explorer) in order to search for rapid variability. Unfortunately, the source was in a low state during the observation (PCA count rate approximately 1 - 2 counts/s). It was therefore somewhat weak for RXTE and detailed analysis proved to be difficult.

  14. Infrared Astronomy After IRAS.

    PubMed

    Rieke, G H; Werner, M W; Thompson, R I; Becklin, E E; Hoffmann, W F; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Stein, W A; Witteborn, F C

    1986-02-21

    The 250,000 sources in the recently issued Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky infrared catalog are a challenge to astronomy. Many of these sources will be studied with existing and planned ground-based and airborne telescopes, but many others can no longer even be detected now that IRAS has ceased to operate. As anticipated by advisory panels of the National Academy of Sciences for a decade, study of the IRAS sources will require the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a cooled, pointed telescope in space. This instrument may be the key to our understanding of cosmic birth-the formation of planets, stars, galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and quasars. Compared with IRAS and existing telescopes, SIRTF's power derives from a thousandfold gain in sensitivity over five octaves of the spectrum.

  15. The ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harding E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey ISO Satellite observations of over 600 IRAS sources have been obtained with the ISOCAM instrument. Because our survey strategy involved relatively short integrations, great care was required in developing analysis software including cosmic-ray and transient removal and calibration. These observations have now been through final pipeline processing at IPAC and ground-based follow-up is ongoing. The observations are for sources from two samples: a " Filler' sample selected to be at z greater than 0.1 and a fainter sample which selected for the highest redshift galaxies in the IRAS survey, with redshifts 0.2 less than z less than 1.0. I now have obtained ground-based follow-up spectrophotometry at Lick and Palomar observatories for 100 LFIRGs with 0.1 less than z less than 0.7. Our observations have confirmed that these systems are comparable to nearby LFIRGs such as Arp 220, with L (sub -)(fir) greater than 10(exp 11) L(sub -) sun and typically HII/Liner optical excitation. About 10% of the galaxies show true AGN (Sy2) excitation. Based on our work on a nearby complete sample of LFIRGS, we believe that the majority of these systems are luminous Starbursts, thus this project is tracing the luminous end of the galaxy star-forming luminosity function - the (infrared) star-formation history of the Universe to z approx. 1, a topic of some considerable recent interest. A by-product of these ISOCAM observations is approximately 1 square degree of deep 2 microns pointings outside the IRAS error boxes, allowing us an independent estimate of the mid-infrared log N - log S relation. Ground-based observations of this sample are continuing.

  16. Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements of dosimetric parameters of the IRA-{sup 103}Pd brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Raisali, Gholamreza; Hosseini, S. Hamed; Shavar, Arzhang

    2008-04-15

    This article presents a brachytherapy source having {sup 103}Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (radial dose function, anisotropy function, and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the dose rate constant. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located the dosimeters and the source in a reproducible fixed geometry, providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code, version 4C simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model {sup 103}Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IRA-{sup 103}Pd source in water was found to be 0.678 cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} with an approximate uncertainty of {+-}0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), and the radial dose function, g(r), of the IRA-{sup 103}Pd source were also measured in a Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantoms.

  17. SIMBA survey of southern high-mass star forming regions. I. Physical parameters of the 1.2 mm/IRAS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faúndez, S.; Bronfman, L.; Garay, G.; Chini, R.; Nyman, L.-Å.; May, J.

    2004-10-01

    We report the results of a 1.2 mm continuum emission survey toward 146 IRAS sources thought to harbour high-mass star forming regions. The sources have FIR colors typical of UCHII regions and were detected in the CS(2->1) line survey of Bronfman et al. (\\cite{bnm}). Regions of 15 arcmin × 10 arcmin, centered on each IRAS source, were mapped with an angular resolution of ˜24 arcsec, using the SIMBA array on the SEST telescope. 1.2 mm emission was detected toward all IRAS sources. We find that the dust cores associated with these sources have typical sizes of 0.4 pc and masses of 5× 103 M⊙. Dust temperatures and luminosities, derived from the SED, are typically 32 K and 2.3 × 105 L⊙. Table 1 and Figs. 6 to 23 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  18. An examination of possible solar wind sources for a sudden brightening of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Baker, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    Terrestrial and near-earth measurements are examined in order to investigate possible solar wind sources for the sudden global brightenings noted in Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock. These brightenings are not found to be associated with increases in the solar wind momentum flux, quantity of solar energetic particles, or solar activity, in contradiction to the proposal of Lutz and Wagner (1986). If a radial alignment of the IMF seen at IMP-8 after about 0800 UT was not responsible for the cometary brightening, then it is suggested that the brightening must have been intrinsic to the comet.

  19. Ground-based infrared observations of variable IRAS sources as candidates for late asymptotic giant branch stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Sun; Boreiko, R. T.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the color distribution of OH/IR stars and IRAS low-resolution spectra class 30 objects suggests the presence of a well-defined evolutionary sequence which is populated by late asymptotic giant branch (LAGB) stars. The paper reports ground-based identification and infrared photometry of 10 candidates of news LAGB stars. None of the selected sources are found to have optical counterparts, and eight of the 10 show a strong 10-micron silicate absorption feature. It is suggested that these stars represent an invisible extension of extreme Mira variables and are some of the most evolved stars observed to date.

  20. Organic Chemistry of Southern Sources: Microwave Spectroscopy of Cha-MMS1 and IRAS 15194-5115

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    We report new spectra of molecule-rich sources in the southern hemisphere obtained using the 22-meter Mopra telescope. Spectra and maps are presented of organic molecules detected between 30 and 50 GHz in the young Class 0 protostar Chamaeleon MMS-1. The large abundances of polyynes, cyanopolyynes and methanol may be indicative of a warm carbon chemistry in the dense gas surrounding this protostar. Spectra are also presented from a 78-96 GHz scan of the carbon-rich AGB star IRAS 15194-5115, including new detections of HC5N, CCS and C13CH.

  1. The optical counterpart of IRAS 12496 - 7650 - A highly embedded Herbig AE star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; Hartigan, P.; Graham, J. A.; Emerson, J. P.; Marang, F.

    1991-03-01

    Optical and near-infrared observations of IRAS 12496 - 7650, an active young star and the most luminous IRAS source in the Chamaeleon II dark cloud, are reported. The object has become brighter at optical wavelengths since 1976, and has exhibited variations of more than a magnitude at K between January 1987 and May 1990. IRAS 12496 - 7650 is redder when fainter, and the amplitude of the brightness fluctuations decreases toward longer infrared wavelengths. Differing amounts of circumstellar extinction or intrinsic color variations of the source can produce most of the observed variability. Optical spectra confirm that IRAS 12496 - 7650 is an extremely active (probably Herbig Ae type) star with blueshifted forbidden lines of O I and S II and a prominent P-Cygni profile at H-alpha. The S II emission extends 3-4 arcsec on either side of the star and shows a significant velocity gradient, suggestive of a jetlike structure. The detection of outflowing material from IRAS 12496 - 7650 reinforces earlier evidence that this object is the exciting source for the HH 52 - 54 group Herbig-Haro objects. The broad spectral energy distribution suggests that IRAS 12496 - 7650 has a circumstellar disk.

  2. Searching for heavily obscured post-AGB stars and planetary nebulae. II. Near-IR observations of IRAS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Suárez, O.; Miranda, L. F.; Gómez, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    The most massive AGB stars are expected to result in heavily obscured post-AGB stars, proto-PNe and PNe with highly axisymmetric morphologies. To investigate this evolutionary connection, we have selected a sample of 165 presumably obscured IRAS post-AGB star and PN candidates and obtained near-IR JHK images for 164 of them. These images, in conjunction with DSS, 2MASS, Spitzer GLIMPSE, MSX, AKARI, and IRAS archival data, have allowed us to identify the near-IR counterparts of 154 of these sources, providing reliable finding charts and coordinates. Near-IR narrow-band Brγ, H2, and K continuum images were acquired for 6 of these sources that were found to be resolved in near-IR JHK images. Among the extended post-AGB source and PN candidates, three are round and seven have bipolar morphologies. Five of the extended sources are ionized and may have thus entered the PN stage. We note that all extended sources with water maser emission have bipolar morphology. We have investigated the Galactic distribution of sources with the largest flux drop from the 9 μm AKARI band to the near-IR J band and found that the width of the distribution in Galactic latitude is consistent with those of bipolar PNe and DUPLEX (DUst-Prominent Longitudinally EXtended) sources. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (081.D-0812), observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and on observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.

  3. CO STRUCTURE OF THE 21 {mu}m SOURCE IRAS 22272+5435: A SIGN OF A JET LAUNCH?

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Zhang Yong; Koning, Nico; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.

    2012-11-01

    We report the results of radio interferometric observations of the 21 {mu}m source IRAS 22272+5435 in the CO J = 2-1 line. 21 {mu}m sources are carbon-rich objects in the post-asymptotic-giant-branch phase of evolution, which show an unidentified emission feature at 21 {mu}m. Since 21 {mu}m sources usually also have circumstellar molecular envelopes, the mapping of CO emission from the envelope will be useful in tracing the nebular structure. From observations made with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we find that a torus and spherical wind model can explain only part of the CO structure. An additional axisymmetric region created by the interaction between an invisible jet and ambient material is suggested.

  4. Proper Motions of H2O Masers in the Water Fountain Source IRAS 19190+1102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, F. M.; Pihlström, Y. M.; Claussen, M. J.; Sahai, R.

    2010-04-01

    We report on the results of two epochs of Very Long Baseline Array observations of the 22 GHz water masers toward IRAS 19190+1102. The water maser emission from this object shows two main arc-shaped formations perpendicular to their NE-SW separation axis. The arcs are separated by ~280 mas in position and are expanding outward at an angular rate of 2.35 mas yr-1. We detect maser emission at velocities between -53.3 km s-1 and +78.0 km s-1, and there is a distinct velocity pattern where the NE masers are blueshifted and the SW masers are redshifted. The outflow has a three-dimensional outflow velocity of 99.8 km s-1 and a dynamical age of about 59 yr. A group of blueshifted masers not located along the arcs shows a change in velocity of more than 25 km s-1 between epochs, and may be indicative of the formation of a new lobe. These observations show that IRAS 19190+1102 is a member of the class of "water fountain" pre-planetary nebulae displaying bipolar structure.

  5. IRAS observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. G.; Matson, D. L.; Veeder, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The moderate spatial resolution and high sensitivity of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), which surveyed the celestial sphere during 1983 at wavelengths of 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, were particularly well suited to detecting extended thermal emission from cometary dust. Sources with infrared color temperatures characteristic of solar system bodies, and at the ephemerides position of known comets were selected for analysis by the IRAS Asteroid Data Analysis System (ADAS). The data base is now available for use by researchers. This paper describes the development of the data base, details its entries, and presents a statistical analysis of its contents. The IRAS survey contains multiple observations of many periodic comets. A brief description and analysis is given of the observed infrared and derived physical properties for several comets of special interest.

  6. Luminous Infrared Galaxies as Plausible y-ray Sources for GLAST and IACTs

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, D F; Reimer, O; Domingo-Santamaria, E; Digel, S W

    2004-07-08

    We argue that luminous infrared galaxies (LIGs) may constitute a newly detectable population of {gamma}-ray sources for the next generation of ground and space-based high energy telescopes. Additionally, we report for the first time upper limits on their fluxes using data obtained with the EGRET telescope.

  7. Efficient calculation of luminance variation of a luminaire that uses LED light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Peter

    2007-09-01

    Many luminaires have an array of LEDs that illuminate a lenslet-array diffuser in order to create the appearance of a single, extended source with a smooth luminance distribution. Designing such a system is challenging because luminance calculations for a lenslet array generally involve tracing millions of rays per LED, which is computationally intensive and time-consuming. This paper presents a technique for calculating an on-axis luminance distribution by tracing only one ray per LED per lenslet. A multiple-LED system is simulated with this method, and with Monte Carlo ray-tracing software for comparison. Accuracy improves, and computation time decreases by at least five orders of magnitude with this technique, which has applications in LED-based signage, displays, and general illumination.

  8. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 4: The point source catalog declination range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched 26 January 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 4, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg.

  9. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 6: The point source catalog declination range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 6, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg.

  10. Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources as Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.

    1996-01-01

    In some luminous supersoft X-ray sources, hydrogen accretes onto the surface of a white dwarf at rates more-or-less compatible with steady nuclear burning. The white dwarfs in these systems therefore have a good chance to grow in mass. Here we review what is known about the rate of Type la supernovae that may be associated with SSSS. Observable consequences of the conjecture that SSSs can be progenitors of Type Ia supernovae are also discussed.

  11. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  12. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M. Queen Mary College, London )

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs.

  13. A high-significance measurement of correlation between unresolved IRAS sources and optically-selected galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hincks, Adam D.; Hajian, Amir; Addison, Graeme E. E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca

    2013-05-01

    We cross-correlate the 100 μm Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) map and galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 in the maxBCG catalogue taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, measuring an angular cross-power spectrum over multipole moments 150 < l < 3000 at a total significance of over 40σ. The cross-spectrum, which arises from the spatial correlation between unresolved dusty galaxies that make up the cosmic infrared background (CIB) in the IRIS map and the galaxy clusters, is well-fit by a single power law with an index of −1.28±0.12, similar to the clustering of unresolved galaxies from cross-correlating far-infrared and submillimetre maps at longer wavelengths. Using a recent, phenomenological model for the spectral and clustering properties of the IRIS galaxies, we constrain the large-scale bias of the maxBCG clusters to be 2.6±1.4, consistent with existing analyses of the real-space cluster correlation function. The success of our method suggests that future CIB-optical cross-correlations using Planck and Herschel data will significantly improve our understanding of the clustering and redshift distribution of the faint CIB sources.

  14. Infrared astronomy after IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Thompson, R. I.; Werner, M. W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Becklin, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of infrared astronomy in the wake of IRAS is discussed. Attention is given to an overview of next generation infrared telescope technology, with emphasis on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) which has been built to replace IRAS in the 1990s. Among the instruments to be included on SIRTF are: a wide-field high-resolution camera covering the infrared range 3-30 microns with large arrays of detectors; an imaging photometer operating in the range 3-700 microns; and a spectrograph covering the range 2.5-200 microns with resolutions of 2 and 0.1 percent. Observational missions for the SIRTF are proposed in connection with: planetary formation; star formation; cosmic energy sources; active galactic nuclei; and quasars.

  15. Chandra Discovery of Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources in M81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Sulimanov, Valery; Tennant, Allyn F.; Wu, Kinwah; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Chandra ACIS-S imaging observation of the nearby galaxy M81 (NGC 3031) reveals 9 luminous soft X-ray sources. The local environments, X-ray spectral properties, and X-ray light curves of the sources are presented and discussed in the context of prevailing physical models for supersoft sources. It is shown that the sample falls within expectations based on population synthesis models taken from the literature though the high observed luminosities (L approx.2e36 to approx.3e38 ergs in the 0.2--2.0-keV band) and equivalent blackbody temperatures (T approx.40 to 80 eV) place the brightest detected M81 objects at the high luminosity end of the class of supersoft sources defined by previous ROSAT and Einstein studies of nearby galaxies. This is interpreted as a natural consequence of the higher sensitivity of Chandra to hotter and more luminous systems. Most of the sources can be explained as canonical supersoft sources, secreting white dwarfs powered by steady surface nuclear burning, with X-ray spectra well-fit by hot white dwarf local thermodynamic equilibrium atmosphere models. An exceptionally bright source is scrutinized in greater detail as its estimated barometric luminosity, L approx. 1.5e39 ergs, greatly exceeds theoretical estimates for supersoft sources. This source may be beyond the stability limit and undergoing a phase of mass outflow under extreme conditions. Alternatively, a model in which the observed X-ray spectrum arises from an accretion disk around a blacklists of mass approx.1200/sqrt(cosi) solar masses (viewed at an inclination angle 1) cannot be excluded.

  16. An XMM-Newton view of M101 - I. The luminous X-ray source population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Roberts, T. P.; Warwick, R. S.; Kilgard, R. E.; Ward, M. J.

    2004-04-01

    We present the first results of an XMM-Newton EPIC observation of the luminous X-ray source population in the face-on supergiant spiral galaxy M101. We have studied the spectral and temporal properties of the 14 most luminous sources, all of which have intrinsic X-ray luminosities exceeding the Eddington limit for a 1.4-Msolar neutron star, with a subset in the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) regime (LX>= 1039 erg s-1). Eleven sources show evidence of short-term variability, and most vary by a factor of ~2-4 over a baseline of 11-24 yr, providing strong evidence that these sources are accreting X-ray binary (XRB) systems. Our results demonstrate that these sources are a heterogeneous population, showing a variety of spectral shapes. Interestingly, there is no apparent spectral distinction between those sources above and below the ULX luminosity threshold. Nine sources are well fitted with either simple absorbed disc blackbody or power-law models. However, in three of the four sources best fitted with power-law models, we cannot exclude the disc blackbody fits and therefore conclude that, coupled with their high luminosities, eight out of nine single-component sources are possibly high-state XRBs. The nuclear source (XMM-10) has the only unambiguous power-law spectrum (Γ~ 2.3), which may be evidence for the presence of a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN). The remaining five sources require at least two-component spectral fits, with an underlying hard component that can be modelled by a power-law continuum or, in three cases, a hot disc blackbody (Tin= 0.9-1.5 keV), plus a soft component modelled as a cool blackbody/disc blackbody/thermal plasma. We have compared the spectral shapes of nine sources covered by both this observation and an archival 100-ks Chandra observation of M101; eight show behaviour typical of Galactic XRBs (i.e. softening with increasing luminosity), the only exception being a transient source (XMM-2) which shows little change in

  17. Luminous radio-quiet sources in the W3(MAIN) cloud core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynnwilliams, C. Gareth; Ladd, E. F.; Deane, James R.; Sanders, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    We have resolved 450 micrometer and 800 micrometer emission from the W3(Main) star forming region into three major peaks, using 8 inch - 14 inch beams with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea. One of the submillimeter sources is identified with W3 - IRS5, a well-known candidate protostar. However, to our surprise, we find that none of the submillimeter peaks coincides with any of the prominent compact HII regions in the area. We estimate that the three submillimeter sources together contribute 30-50 percent of the total bolometric luminosity of the region, and speculate that the contribution of luminous radio-quiet sources to the total luminosity of HII region/molecular cloud complexes may be larger than is often assumed.

  18. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Fowler, John W.; Chillemi, Joseph R.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the program and data used to identify known asteroids observed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and to compute albedos and diameters from their IRAS fluxes. It also presents listings of the results obtained. These results supplant those in the IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey, 1986. The present version used new and improved asteroid orbital elements for 4679 numbered asteroids and 2632 additional asteroids for which at least two-opposition elements were available as of mid-1991. It employed asteroid absolute magnitudes on the International Astronomical Union system adopted in 1991. In addition, the code was modified to increase the reliability of associating asteroids with IRAS sources and rectify several shortcomings in the final data products released in 1986. Association reliability was improved by decreasing the position difference between an IRAS source and a predicted asteroid position required for an association. The shortcomings addressed included the problem of flux overestimation for low SNR sources and the systematic difference in albedos and diameters among the three wavelength bands (12, 25, and 60 micrometers). Several minor bugs in the original code were also corrected.

  19. An infrared sky model based on the IRAS point source data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell; Wainscoat, Richard; Volk, Kevin; Walker, Helen; Schwartz, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    A detailed model for the infrared point source sky is presented that comprises geometrically and physically realistic representations of the galactic disk, bulge, spheroid, spiral arms, molecular ring, and absolute magnitudes. The model was guided by a parallel Monte Carlo simulation of the Galaxy. The content of the galactic source table constitutes an excellent match to the 12 micrometer luminosity function in the simulation, as well as the luminosity functions at V and K. Models are given for predicting the density of asteroids to be observed, and the diffuse background radiance of the Zodiacal cloud. The model can be used to predict the character of the point source sky expected for observations from future infrared space experiments.

  20. Energy source and pre-explosion progenitor evolution of Super-Luminous SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margutti, Raffaella

    2013-10-01

    With bolometric peak luminosities L >7x10^43 erg/sec, the new class of Super Luminous Super Novae (SLSNe) outshine ordinary SNe of more than a factor 10 and represent the death of the most massive stars in our Universe. Their exceptional luminosity requires exotic explosion mechanisms and/or sources of energy whose nature is unclear. Here we propose a focused XMM program to map their X-ray emission down to unprecedented limits as part of our multi-wavelength effort through our programs on the EVLA (radio), Swift (UV) and optical/NIR facilities. The final aim is to: (i) Pin down the energy source of SLSNe; (ii) Map the diversity of the pre-explosion evolution of their progenitors.

  1. IRAS 14348-1447, an ultraluminous pair of colliding, gas-rich galaxies - The birth of a quasar?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Soifer, B. T.; Scoville, N. Z.

    1988-01-01

    Ground-baed observations of the object IRAS 14348-1447, which was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, show that it is an extremely luminous colliding galaxy system that emits more than 95 percent of its energy at FIR wavelengths. IRAS 14348-1447, which is receeding from the sun at 8 percent of the speed of light, has a bolometric luminosity more than 100 times larger than that of the Galaxy, and is therefore as luminous as optical quasars. New optical, infrared, and spectroscopic measurements suggest that the dominant luminosity source is a dust-enshrouded quasar. The fuel for the intense activity is an enormous supply of molecular gas. Carbon monoxide emission has been detected at a wavelength of 2.6 millimeters by means of a new, more sensitive receiver recently installed on the 12-meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. IRAS 14348-1447 is the most distant and luminous source of carbon monoxide line emission yet detected.

  2. IRAS 14348-1447, an Ultraluminous Pair of Colliding, Gas-Rich Galaxies: The Birth of a Quasar?

    PubMed

    Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Soifer, B T

    1988-02-01

    Ground-based observations of the object IRAS 14348-1447, which was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, show that it is an extremely luminous colliding galaxy system that emits more than 95 percent of its energy at far-infrared wavelengths. IRAS 14348-1447, which is receeding from the sun at 8 percent of the speed of light, has a bolometric luminosity more than 100 times larger than that of our galaxy, and is therefore as luminous as optical quasars. New optical, infrared, and spectroscopic measurements suggest that the dominant luminosity source is a dustenshrouded quasar. The fuel for the intense activity is an enormous supply of molecular gas. Carbon monoxide emission has been detected at a wavelength of 2.6 millimeters by means of a new, more sensitive receiver recently installed on the 12-meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. IRAS 14348-1447 is the most distant and luminous source of carbon monoxide line emission yet detected. The derived mass of interstellar molecular hydrogen is 6 x 10(10) solar masses. This value is approximately 20 times that of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way and is similar to the largest masses of atomic hydrogen found in galaxies. A large mass of molecular gas may be a prerequisite for the formation of quasars during strong galactic collisions.

  3. OPTICAL STUDY OF THE HYPER-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE 2XMM J011942.7+032421

    SciTech Connect

    Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2014-12-10

    We present the identification and characterization of the optical counterpart to 2XMM J011942.7+032421, one of the most luminous and distant ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). The counterpart is located near a star-forming region in a spiral arm of the galaxy NGC 470 with u, g, and r magnitudes of 21.53, 21.69, and 21.71 mag, respectively. The luminosity of the counterpart is much larger than that of a single O-type star, indicating that it may be a stellar cluster. Our optical spectroscopic observations confirm the association of the X-ray source and the optical counterpart with its host galaxy NGC 470, which validates the high, ≳10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, X-ray luminosity of the source. Its optical spectrum is embedded with numerous emission lines, including H recombination lines, metallic forbidden lines, and more notably the high-ionization He II (λ4686) line. That line shows a large velocity dispersion of ≅410 km s{sup -1}, consistent with the existence of a compact (<5 AU) highly ionized accretion disk rotating around the central X-ray source. The ∼1.4 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1} luminosity of the He II line emission makes the source one of the most luminous ULXs in that emission. This, together with the high X-ray luminosity and the large velocity dispersion of the He II emission, suggests that the source is an ideal candidate for more extensive follow-up observations for understanding the nature of hyper-luminous X-ray sources, a more luminous subgroup of ULXs, and more likely candidates for intermediate-mass black holes.

  4. XMM-Newton observations of three interacting luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, Dale; Mathur, Smita; Guainazzi, Matteo; Piconcelli, Enrico; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Stefano; Komossa, S.; Vignali, Cristian; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Fiore, Fabrizio; Maiolino, Roberto

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the X-ray properties of three interacting luminous infrared galaxy systems. In one of these systems, IRAS 18329+5950, we resolve two separate sources. A second and third source, IRAS 19354+4559 and IRAS 20550+1656, have only a single X-ray source detected. We compare the observed emission to point-spread function (PSF) profiles and determine that they are all consistent with the PSF, albeit with large uncertainties for some of our sources. We then model the spectra to determine soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) luminosities for the resolved sources and compare these to relationships found in the literature between infrared and X-ray luminosities for starburst galaxies. We obtain luminosities (0.5-10 keV) ranging from 1.7 to 7.3 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1} for our systems. These X-ray luminosities are consistent with predictions for star-formation-dominated sources and thus are most likely due to starbursts, but we cannot conclusively rule out active galactic nuclei.

  5. LARGE HIGHLY IONIZED NEBULAE AROUND ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Dae-Sik; Shariff, Jamil A.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cenko, S. Bradley E-mail: shariff@astro.utoronto.ca E-mail: cenko@astro.berkeley.edu

    2011-04-20

    We present the results of deep optical spectroscopic observations using the LRIS spectrograph on the Keck I 10 m telescope of three ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs): Ho IX X-1, M81 X-6, and Ho II X-1. Our observations reveal the existence of large (100-200 pc diameter) highly ionized nebulae, identified by diffuse He II {lambda}4686 emission, surrounding these sources. Our results are the first to find highly ionized nebulae of this extent, and the detection in all three objects indicates this may be a common feature of ULXs. In addition to the extended emission, Ho IX X-1 has an unresolved central component containing about one-third of the total He II flux, with a significant velocity dispersion of {approx_equal}370 km s {sup -1}, suggestive of the existence of a photoionized accretion disk or an extremely hot early-type stellar counterpart. Most of the He II emission appears to be surrounded by significantly more extended H{beta} emission, and the intensity ratios between the two lines, which range from 0.12 to 0.33, indicate that photoionization is the origin of the He II emission. Sustaining these extended nebulae requires substantial X-ray emission, in the range {approx}10{sup 39}-10{sup 40} erg s {sup -1}, comparable to the measured X-ray luminosities of the sources. This favors models where the X-ray emission is isotropic, rather than beamed, which includes the interpretation that ULXs harbor intermediate-mass black holes.

  6. Optical and infrared signatures of ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperwheat, Christopher; Cropper, Mark; Soria, Roberto; Wu, Kinwah

    2005-09-01

    We have constructed a model to describe the optical emission from ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We assume a binary model with a black hole accreting matter from a Roche lobe filling companion star. We consider the effects of radiative transport and radiative equilibrium in the irradiated surfaces of both the star and a thin accretion disc. We have developed this model as a tool with which to positively identify the optical counterparts of ULXs, and subsequently derive parameters such as the black hole mass and the luminosity class and spectral type of the counterpart. We examine the dependence of the optical emission on these and other variables. We extend our model to examine the magnitude variation at infrared wavelengths, and we find that observations at these wavelengths may have more diagnostic power than in the optical. We apply our model to existing HST observations of the candidates for the optical counterpart of ULX X-7 in NGC 4559. All candidates could be consistent with an irradiated star alone, but we find that a number of them are too faint to fit with an irradiated star and disc together. Were one of these the optical counterpart to X-7, it would display a significant temporal variation.

  7. A deficit of ultraluminous X-ray sources in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, W.; Roberts, T. P.; Mineo, S.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Jackson, F. E.; Goulding, A. D.; Fischer, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a Chandra study of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in a sample of 17 nearby (DL < 60 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), selected to have star formation rates (SFRs) in excess of 7 M⊙ yr-1 and low foreground Galactic column densities (NH ≲ 5 × 1020 cm-2). A total of 53 ULXs were detected and we confirm that this is a complete catalogue of ULXs for the LIRG sample. We examine the evolution of ULX spectra with luminosity in these galaxies by stacking the spectra of individual objects in three luminosity bins, finding a distinct change in spectral index at luminosity ˜2 × 1039 erg s-1. This may be a change in spectrum as 10 M⊙ black holes transit from an ˜ Eddington to a super-Eddington accretion regime, and is supported by a plausible detection of partially ionized absorption imprinted on the spectrum of the luminous ULX (LX ≈ 5 × 1039 erg s-1) CXOU J024238.9-000055 in NGC 1068, consistent with the highly ionized massive wind that we would expect to see driven by a super-Eddington accretion flow. This sample shows a large deficit in the number of ULXs detected per unit SFR (0.2 versus 2 ULXs, per M⊙ yr-1) compared to the detection rate in nearby (DL < 14.5 Mpc) normal star-forming galaxies. This deficit also manifests itself as a lower differential X-ray luminosity function normalization for the LIRG sample than for samples of other star-forming galaxies. We show that it is unlikely that this deficit is a purely observational effect. Part of this deficit might be attributable to the high metallicity of the LIRGs impeding the production efficiency of ULXs and/or a lag between the star formation starting and the production of ULXs; however, we argue that the evidence - including very low NULX/LFIR, and an even lower ULX incidence in the central regions of the LIRGs - shows that the main culprit for this deficit is likely to be the high column of gas and dust in these galaxies, that fuels the high SFR but also acts to

  8. IRAS observations of AGN candidates at low flux levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degrijp, Marinus H. K.; Keel, William C.; Miley, George K.

    1987-01-01

    IRAS additional observations were used to obtain a sample of point sources at much fainter flux levels than hitherto available through the IRAS Point Source Catalogue. This sample is being used to compile an incomplete but representative catalogue of faint IRAS candidate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and to study the evolution of the infrared bright galaxies. Ground based follow up observations (optical spectroscopy) are mainly hampered by identification confusion.

  9. Relativistic radiative transfer in a moving stratus irradiated by a luminous flat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in a geometrically thin stratus (sheet-like gaseous cloud with finite optical depth), which is moving at a relativistic speed around a luminous flat source, such as accretion disks, and is irradiated by the source, is examined under the special relativistic treatment. Incident radiation is aberrated and Doppler-shifted when it is received by the stratus, and emitted radiation is also aberrated and Doppler-shifted when it leaves the stratus. Considering these relativistic effects, we analytically obtain the emergent intensity as well as other radiative quantities in the purely scattering case for both infinite and finite strati. We mainly consider the frequency-integrated case, but also briefly show the frequency-dependent one. We also solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation numerically, and compare the results with the analytical solutions. In the infinite stratus, the mean intensity in the comoving and inertial frames decreases and becomes constant, as the stratus speed increases. The flux in the comoving frame decreases exponentially with the optical depth. The emergent intensity decreases as the speed increases, since the incident photons are redshifted at the bottom-side of the stratus. In the finite stratus, the mean intensity in the comoving and inertial frames quickly increases in the top-side region due to the aberrated photons. The flux in the comoving frame is positive in the range of 0 < β ≤ 0.4, while it becomes negative for β ≳ 0.5. The behavior of the emergent intensity is similar to that of the infinite case, although there is an irradiation effect caused by the aberrated photons.

  10. PATCHY ACCRETION DISKS IN ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.; Rana, V.; Fabian, A. C.

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of the most extreme ultra-luminous X-ray sources—those with L ≥ 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}—remain something of a mystery. Spectral roll-over in the 5-10 keV band was originally detected in the deepest XMM-Newton observations of the brightest sources; this is confirmed in subsequent NuSTAR spectra. This emission can be modeled via Comptonization, but with low electron temperatures (kT{sub e} ≅ 2 keV) and high optical depths (τ ≅ 10) that pose numerous difficulties. Moreover, evidence of cooler thermal emission that can be fit with thin disk models persists, even in fits to joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. Using NGC 1313 X-1 as a test case, we show that a patchy disk with a multiple temperature profile may provide an excellent description of such spectra. In principle, a number of patches within a cool disk might emit over a range of temperatures, but the data only require a two-temperature profile plus standard Comptonization, or three distinct blackbody components. A mechanism such as the photon bubble instability may naturally give rise to a patchy disk profile, and could give rise to super-Eddington luminosities. It is possible, then, that a patchy disk (rather than a disk with a standard single-temperature profile) might be a hallmark of accretion disks close to or above the Eddington limit. We discuss further tests of this picture and potential implications for sources such as narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxies and other low-mass active galactic nuclei.

  11. IRAS images of nearby dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Douglas O. S.; Myers, Philip C.; Daugherty, Debra A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated approximately 100 nearby molecular clouds using the extensive, all-sky database of IRAS. The clouds in this study cover a wide range of physical properties including visual extinction, size, mass, degree of isolation, homogeneity and morphology. IRAS 100 and 60 micron co-added images were used to calculate the 100 micron optical depth of dust in the clouds. These images of dust optical depth compare very well with (12)CO and (13)CO observations, and can be related to H2 column density. From the optical depth images we locate the edges of dark clouds and the dense cores inside them. We have identified a total of 43 `IRAS clouds' (regions with A(sub v) greater than 2) which contain a total of 255 `IRAS cores' (regions with A(sub v) greater than 4) and we catalog their physical properties. We find that the clouds are remarkably filamentary, and that the cores within the clouds are often distributed along the filaments. The largest cores are usually connected to other large cores by filaments. We have developed selection criteria to search the IRAS Point Source Catalog for stars that are likely to be associated with the clouds and we catalog the IRAS sources in each cloud or core. Optically visible stars associated with the clouds have been identified from the Herbig and Bell catalog. From these data we characterize the physical properties of the clouds including their star-formation efficiency.

  12. Opto-thermal study of cooling strategies for high-luminance white-light solid-state sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, António; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2016-06-01

    Solid-state sources have become ubiquitous is many lighting applications. For general lighting, phosphors are typically employed to produce white light from the narrowband light emitted from solid-state sources. As the optical output power from solid-state sources keeps increasing, increasingly higher luminance can be obtained, which, unfortunately, also increases the phosphor's temperature. These materials' colour conversion potential, encoded by the quantum yield, has complex dependencies with temperature. To obtain an accurate assessment of the performance of a high-luminance white light source configuration based on individual solid-state sources, it is imperative to accurately model the temperature distribution inside the phosphor material and consider the effect of temperature on the quantum yield of the phosphor. In addition, the feedback of the varying quantum yield on the generated heat inside the phosphor should also be considered. An opto-thermal framework has been previously proposed to accurately simulate the opto-thermal effects in phosphors when designing lighting systems. In this paper, this framework is applied to a novel optical configuration to investigate thermal bottlenecks and test cooling strategies to avoid them. For the specific configuration tested, using an active cooling strategy and concentrating the laser light on the phosphor region with the best thermal dissipation proved to be the best solutions.

  13. The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Houck, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The IR-observable characteristics of the extragalactic sky are reviewed, summarizing the results of recent studies based on the IRAS survey, which covers over 96 percent of the sky to about 500 mJy at 12, 25, and 60 microns and to about 1.5 Jy at 100 microns. The numerical and morphological data are described; possible mechanisms for the IR emission are discussed; and the object classes are considered separately. Consideration is given to spiral and disk galaxies, barred and ring galaxies, irregular and dwarf galaxies, blue compact galaxies, elliptical and S0 galaxies, AGN observations (BL Lacs and OVV quasars, Seyfert galaxies, and quasars), highly luminous IR galaxies, and the cosmological implications of the IRAS findings. Diagrams, graphs, and tables are provided.

  14. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES NGC 4395, NGC 4736, AND NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Akyuz, A.; Avdan, H.; Kayaci, S.; Ozel, M. E.; Sonbas, E.; Balman, S.

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of a study of non-nuclear discrete sources in a sample of three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 4395, NGC 4736, and NGC 4258) based on XMM-Newton archival data supplemented with Chandra data for spectral and timing analyses. A total of 75 X-ray sources have been detected within the D{sub 25} regions of the target galaxies. The large collecting area of XMM-Newton makes the statistics sufficient to obtain spectral fitting for 16 (about 20%) of these sources. Compiling the extensive archival exposures available, we were able to obtain the detailed spectral shapes of diverse classes of point sources. We have also studied temporal properties of these luminous sources. Eleven of them are found to show short-term (less than 80 ks) variation while eight of them show long-term variation within factors of {approx}2-5 during a time interval of {approx}2-12 years. Timing analysis provides strong evidence that most of these sources are accreting X-ray binary systems. One source that has properties different from others was suspected to be a supernova remnant, and our follow-up optical observation confirmed this. Our results indicate that sources within the three nearby galaxies are showing a variety of source populations, including several ultraluminous X-ray sources, X-ray binaries, transients together with a super soft source, and a background active galactic nucleus candidate.

  15. Calcium transport in bovine rumen epithelium as affected by luminal Ca concentrations and Ca sources

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja R; Ricken, Gundula E; Leonhard-Marek, Sabine; Fraser, David R; Breves, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative role of different segments of the gastrointestinal tract for Ca absorption, the respective mechanisms, and their regulation are not fully identified for ruminants, that is, cattle. In different in vitro experiments the forestomach wall has been demonstrated to be a major site for active Ca absorption in sheep and goats. In order to further clarify the role of the bovine rumen for Ca transport with special attention to luminal Ca concentrations, its ionic form, and pH, electrophysiological and unidirectional flux rate measurements were performed with isolated bovine rumen epithelial tissues. For Ca flux studies (Jms, Jsm) in vitro Ussing chamber technique was applied. Standard RT-PCR method was used to characterize TRPV6 and PMCA1 as potential contributors to transepithelial active Ca transport. At Ca concentrations of 1.2 mmol L−1 on both sides of the tissues, Jms were higher than Jsm resulting under some conditions in significant Ca net flux rates (Jnet), indicating the presence of active Ca transport. In the absence of an electrical gradient, Jnet could significantly be stimulated in the presence of luminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Increasing the luminal Ca concentrations up to 11.2 mmol L−1 resulted in significant increases in Jms without influencing Jsm. Providing Ca in its form as respective chloride, formate, or propionate salts there was no significant effect on Jms. No transcripts specific for Ca channel TRPV6 could be demonstrated. Our results indicate different mechanisms for Ca absorption in bovine rumen as compared with those usually described for the small intestines. PMID:26564067

  16. Study of Interacting/Merging IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2003-07-01

    A new sample of 1178 faint IRAS galaxies (Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy sample, BIG) has been constructed by means of optical identifications of IRAS point sources from PSC in the region +61° <δ<+90° at high galactic latitudes with a surface of 1487 deg^{2}. Compact galaxies, interacting pairs and groups, mergers, radio, and X-ray sources are among the identified objects. Spectral observations in Byurakan (Armenia), SAO (Russia) and OHP (France) revealed new AGNs and high-luminosity infrared galaxies. 50 optical counterparts are interacting/merging pairs and multiple systems. 15 of them have been observed at SAO 6m telescope with Multi-Pupil Fibre Spectrograph (MPFS) to study their velocity fields and dynamics to reveal physical mergers. These objects are of special interest due to star-formation, nuclear activity and interaction phenomena occuring there, giving possibility to study connections between these phenomena and their interrelationship.

  17. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  18. Optical-faint, Far-infrared-bright Herschel Sources in the CANDELS Fields: Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies at z > 1 and the Effect of Source Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Somerville, Rachel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven "SDSS-invisible," very bright 250 μm sources (S 250 > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ~ 1-2 whose high L IR is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  19. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  20. A LUMINOUS Be+WHITE DWARF SUPERSOFT SOURCE IN THE WING OF THE SMC: MAXI J0158-744

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Lu, Ting-Ni; Charles, P. A.; Bartlett, E. S.; Coe, M. J.; McBride, V.; Rajoelimanana, A.; Udalski, A.; Masetti, N.; Franzen, Thomas

    2012-12-20

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the very fast X-ray transient MAXI J0158-744, which was detected by MAXI/GSC on 2011 November 11. The subsequent exponential decline of the X-ray flux was followed with Swift observations, all of which revealed spectra with low temperatures ({approx}100 eV), indicating that MAXI J0158-744 is a new Supersoft Source (SSS). The Swift X-ray spectra near maximum show features around 0.8 keV that we interpret as possible absorption from O VIII and emission from O, Fe, and Ne lines. We obtained SAAO and ESO optical spectra of the counterpart early in the outburst and several weeks later. The early spectrum is dominated by strong Balmer and He I emission, together with weaker He II emission. The later spectrum reveals absorption features that indicate a B1/2IIIe spectral type, and all spectral features are at velocities consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud. At this distance, it is a luminous SSS (>10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}) but whose brief peak luminosity of >10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} in the 2-4 keV band makes it the brightest SSS yet seen at ''hard'' X-rays. We propose that MAXI J0158-744 is a Be-WD binary, and the first example to possibly enter ULX territory. The brief hard X-ray flash could possibly be a result of the interaction of the ejected nova shell with the B star wind in which the white dwarf (WD) is embedded. This makes MAXI J0158-744 only the third Be/WD system in the Magellanic Clouds, but it is by far the most luminous. The properties of MAXI J0158-744 give weight to previous suggestions that SSS in nearby galaxies are associated with early-type stellar systems.

  1. The Integrated X-Ray Spectrum of Galactic Populations of Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.; Becker, C. M.; Fabbiano, G.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the composite X-ray spectrum of a population of unresolved SSS's in a spiral galaxy such as our own or M31. The sources are meant to represent the total underlying population corresponding to all sources which have bolometric luminosities in the range of 10(exp 37) - 10(exp 38) ergs/s and kT on the order of tens of eV. These include close-binary supersoft sources, symbiotic novae, and planetary nebulae, for example. In order to determine whether the associated X-ray signal would be detectable, we also 'seed' the galaxy with other types of X-ray sources, specifically low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's) and high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB's). We find that the total spectrum due to SSS's, LMXB's, and HMXB's exhibits a soft peak which owes its presence to the SSS population. Preliminary indications are that this soft peak may be observable.

  2. Is the Nova V2672 Oph a Luminous X-ray Source in Quiescence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Koji

    2014-09-01

    The very fast nova V2672 Oph had one of the shortest decay times (t2=2.3 d) and the broadest emission lines (FWZI up to 12,000 km/s) ever observed in novae. It may well be a recurrent nova with a near Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf. There is also a ROSAT all-sky survey Faint Source Catalog source consistent with its position: if confirmed, V2672 Oph would be only the third nova to have been detected in X-rays before the nova eruption. We therefore propose an ACIS-S imaging observation to provide the precise location, and rough timing and spectral characteristics of the ROSAT source. V2672 Oph may join V2487 Oph and V2491 Cyg as novae with quiescent X-ray luminosities not seen in normal cataclysmic variables.

  3. Optical Studies of Ultra Luminous X-ray Sources in NGC4490

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Aysun; Avdan, Hasan; Avdan, Senay; Aksaker, Nazim

    2016-07-01

    We present optical studies of Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the spiral galaxy NGC4490 which is interacting with the irregular galaxy NGC 4485. ULXs are extra-nuclear, point-like X-ray sources with isotropic luminosities (Lx > 10 ^{39} erg s ^{-1}) above the Eddington limit for a 10 Msun black hole. HST/ACS/WFC and WFPC3 archival data have been analyzed to investigate the optical counterparts of five ULXs in NGC4490. Using relative astrometry the corrected ULX positions were derived only for three sources within the 1σ error radius of 0.5 arcsec on the HST images. We discuss the properties of three optical counterparts and constraints on their physical nature from multiband optical observations.

  4. Monsters and babies from the first/IRAS survey

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bruegel, W J M

    1999-02-16

    Radio continuum emission at cm wavelengths is relatively little affected by extinction. When combined with far-infrared (FIR) surveys this provides for a convenient and unbiased method to select (radio-loud) AGN and starbursts deeply embedded in gas and dust-rich galaxies. Such radio-selected FIR samples are useful for detailed investigations of the complex relationships between (radio) galaxy and starburst activity, and to determine whether ULIRGs are powered by hidden quasars (monsters) or young stars (babies). We present the results of a large program to obtain identifications and spectra of radio-sleected, optically faint IRAS/FSC objects using the FIRST/VLA 20 cm survey (Becker, White and Helfand 1995). These objects are all radio-'quiet' in the sense that their radio power/FIR luminosities follow the well-known radio/FIR relationship for star forming galaxies. We compare these results to a previous study by our group of a sample of radio-'loud' IRAS/FSC ULIRGs selected from the Texas 365 MHz survey (Douglas et al. 1996). Many of these objects also show evidence for dominant, A-type stellar populations, as well as high ionization lines usually associated with AGN. These radio-loud ULIRGs have properties intermediate between those of starbursts and quasars, suggesting a possibile evolutionary connection. Deep Keck spectroscopic observations of three ULIRGs from these samples are presented, including high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetry. The polarimetry observations failed to show evidence of a hidden quasar in polarized (scattered) light in the two systems in which the stellar light was dominated by A-type stars. Although observations of a larger sample would be needed to allow a general conclusion, our current data suggest that a large fraction of ULIRGs may be powered by luminous starbursts, not by hidden, luminous AGN (quasars). While we used radio-selected FIR sources to search for evidence of a causal AGN/starburst connection, we conclude our

  5. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research activities related to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sky survey. About 745 luminous stars were examined for the presence of interstellar dust heated by a nearby star. The 'cirrus' discovered by IRAS is thermal radiation from interstellar dust at moderate and high galactic latitudes. The IRAS locates the dust which must (at some level) scatter ultraviolet starlight, although it was expected that thermal emission would be found around virtually every star, most stars shown no detectable emission. And the emission found is not uniform. It is not that the star is embedded in 'an interstellar medium', but rather what is found are discrete clouds that are heated by starlight. An exception is the dearth of clouds near the very hottest stars, implying that the very hottest stars play an active role with respect to destroying or substantially modifying the dust clouds over time. The other possibility is simply that the hottest stars are located in regions lacking in dust, which is counter-intuitive. A bibliography of related journal articles is attached.

  6. Submm observations of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chini, R.; Kreysa, E.; Kruegel, E.; Mezger, P. G.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-six galaxies from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) point source catalog were observed at 250 and 1300 microns. The Far Infrared (FIR) spectra from 25 to 1300 microns are interpreted in terms of two dust components of about 16 and 53 K. Flux densities at 1300 microns are used to estimate the total gas mass M sub g. The warm dust luminosity L sup W is considered to be proportional to M sub g sup 0.9 in the mass range 3 x 10 to the 8th is equal to or less than M sub g/solar mass is equal to or less than 10 to the 12th power. The efficiency of star formation seems to be four times higher in barred and peculiar galaxies than in Sc types.

  7. HECTOSPEC AND HYDRA SPECTRA OF INFRARED LUMINOUS SOURCES IN THE AKARI NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE SURVEY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Seong Jin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Ko, Jongwan; Karouzos, Marios; Papovich, Casey; Willmer, Christopher; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2013-08-15

    We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 {mu}m and 15 {mu}m, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are {approx}80% for objects with R < 21.5 mag. On the other hand, in WIYN/Hydra observations, the redshift identification rates are {approx}80% at R magnitudes brighter than 19 mag. The observed spectra were classified through the visual inspection or from the line diagnostics. We identified 1128 star-forming or absorption-line-dominated galaxies, 198 Type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 8 Type-2 AGNs, 121 Galactic stars, and 190 spectra in unknown category due to low signal-to-noise ratio. The spectra were flux-calibrated but to an accuracy of 0.1-0.18 dex for most of the targets and worse for the remainder. We derive star formation rates (SFRs) from the mid-infrared fluxes or from the optical emission lines, showing that our sample spans an SFR range of 0.1 to a few hundred M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter.

  8. Terminal speed of a gaseous stratus with finite optical depth over a luminous flat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Takao; Fukue, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We reexamine the terminal speed of a moving stratus irradiated by an infinite flat source, considering relativistic radiative transfer in the stratus. For the case of a particle, V. Icke (1989, A&A, 216, 294) analytically derived the terminal speed of (4-√{7})c/3 ˜ 0.45 c, whereas the terminal speed of a stratus with finite optical depth is calculated under the Eddington approximation (J. Fukue, 2014, PASJ, 66, 13), and becomes larger up to 0.7 c in the optically thin limit. In this paper, we numerically calculate radiative transfer in the stratus without the Eddington approximation, and obtain the terminal speed. In the optically thick limit the terminal speed approaches 0.47 c. In the optically thin limit, in contrast to the previous analytical study, it becomes small as the optical depth decreases, and approaches 0.26 c. This is due to the anisotropic effect of the radiation field in the optically thin regime.

  9. SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS z > 7 GALAXY CANDIDATES AND SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION IN z > 7 GALAXY SEARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Capak, P.; Jullo, E.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H.; Ilbert, O.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; LeFloch, E.; Carilli, C.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Kartaltepe, J.; Sanders, D. B.; Leauthaud, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Schinnerer, E.

    2011-04-01

    We present three bright z{sup +}-dropout candidates selected from deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. All three objects match the 0.8-8 {mu}m colors of other published z > 7 candidates but are 3 mag brighter, facilitating further study. Deep spectroscopy of two of the candidates covering 0.64-1.02 {mu}m with Keck-DEIMOS and all three covering 0.94-1.10 {mu}m and 1.52-1.80 {mu}m with Keck-NIRSPEC detects weak spectral features tentatively identified as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.95 and z = 7.69 in two of the objects. The third object is placed at z {approx} 1.6 based on a 24 {mu}m and weak optical detection. A comparison with the spectral energy distributions of known z < 7 galaxies, including objects with strong spectral lines, large extinction, and large systematic uncertainties in the photometry, yields no objects with similar colors. However, the {lambda} > 1 {mu}m properties of all three objects can be matched to optically detected sources with photometric redshifts at z {approx} 1.8, so the non-detection in the i {sup +} and z {sup +} bands is the primary factor which favors a z > 7 solution. If any of these objects are at z {approx} 7, the bright end of the luminosity function is significantly higher at z > 7 than suggested by previous studies, but consistent within the statistical uncertainty and the dark matter halo distribution. If these objects are at low redshift, the Lyman break selection must be contaminated by a previously unknown population of low-redshift objects with very strong breaks in their broadband spectral energy distributions and blue NIR colors. The implications of this result on luminosity function evolution at high redshift are discussed. We show that the primary limitation of z > 7 galaxy searches with broad filters is the depth of the available optical data.

  10. IRAS observations of NGC 1052

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Rice, W.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    The galaxy NGC 1052 has been observed with the IRAS satellite. The infrared emission at 100 microns is substantially larger than a smooth extrapolation of the radio data. Because of the large diaphragm size of IRAS, it is impossible to decide uniquely if the infrared radiation represents a self-absorbed nonthermal spectrum or thermal reradiation by heated dust.

  11. IRAS observations of NGC 1052

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B.T.; Rice, W.

    1984-12-01

    The galaxy NGC 1052 has been observed with the IRAS satellite. The infrared emission at 100 microns is substantially larger than a smooth extrapolation of the radio data. Because of the large diaphragm size of IRAS, it is impossible to decide uniquely if the infrared radiation represents a self-absorbed nonthermal spectrum or thermal reradiation by heated dust. 23 references.

  12. Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy Pairs as Indicators of Starburst and Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Sargsyan, L. A.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Byurakan-IRAS galaxies (BIG objects; Mickaelian 1995) are the result of a project of optical identifications of IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC; IRAS 1988) in a 1500 square degree high-galactic latitude (|b|>15°) area based on the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) images and the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, or digitized Markarian survey) low-dispersion spectra. As a result, 1278 galaxies have been identified (as well as galactic objects, Byurakan-IRAS Stars [BIS]), including 42 PSC sources identified with 103 galaxies that make up 30 physical pairs and 12 multiples.

  13. A Stellar-mass Black Hole in the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source M82 X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Ebisawa, Ken; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the archival XMM-Newton data of the archetypal Ultra-Luminous X-ray Source (ULX) M82 X-1 with an LO5 ksec exposure when the source was in the steady state. Thanks to the high photon statistics from the large effective area and long exposure, we were able to discriminate different X-ray continuum spectral models. Neither the standard accretion disk model (where the radial dependency of the disk effective temperature is T(r) proportional to r(sup -3/4)) nor a power-law model gives a satisfactory fit. In fact, observed curvature of the M82 X-1 spectrum was just between those of the two models. When the exponent of the radial dependence (p in T(r) proportional to r(sup -P)) of the disk temperature is allowed to be free, we obtained p = 0.61 (sup +0.03)(sub -0.02). Such a reduction of p from the standard value 3/4 under extremely high mass accretion rates is predicted from the accretion disk theory as a consequence of the radial energy advection. Thus, the accretion disk in M82 X-1 is considered to be in the Slim disk state, where an optically thick Advection Dominant Accretion Flow (ADAF) is taking place. We have applied a theoretical slim disk spectral model to M82 X-1, and estimated the black hole mass approximately equal to 19 - 32 solar mass. We conclude that M82 X-1 is a stellar black hole which has been produced through evolution of an extremely massive star, shining at a several times the super-Eddington luminosity.

  14. Spectroscopy of Luminous z > 7 Galaxy Candidates and Sources of Contamination in z > 7 Galaxy Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N. Z.; McCracken, H.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; Carilli, C.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Jullo, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Leauthaud, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; LeFloch, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Shioya, Y.; Shopbell, P.; Tanaguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Willott, C. J.

    2011-04-01

    We present three bright z +-dropout candidates selected from deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the COSMOS 2 deg2 field. All three objects match the 0.8-8 μm colors of other published z > 7 candidates but are 3 mag brighter, facilitating further study. Deep spectroscopy of two of the candidates covering 0.64-1.02 μm with Keck-DEIMOS and all three covering 0.94-1.10 μm and 1.52-1.80 μm with Keck-NIRSPEC detects weak spectral features tentatively identified as Lyα at z = 6.95 and z = 7.69 in two of the objects. The third object is placed at z ~ 1.6 based on a 24 μm and weak optical detection. A comparison with the spectral energy distributions of known z < 7 galaxies, including objects with strong spectral lines, large extinction, and large systematic uncertainties in the photometry, yields no objects with similar colors. However, the λ > 1 μm properties of all three objects can be matched to optically detected sources with photometric redshifts at z ~ 1.8, so the non-detection in the i + and z + bands is the primary factor which favors a z > 7 solution. If any of these objects are at z ~ 7, the bright end of the luminosity function is significantly higher at z > 7 than suggested by previous studies, but consistent within the statistical uncertainty and the dark matter halo distribution. If these objects are at low redshift, the Lyman break selection must be contaminated by a previously unknown population of low-redshift objects with very strong breaks in their broadband spectral energy distributions and blue NIR colors. The implications of this result on luminosity function evolution at high redshift are discussed. We show that the primary limitation of z > 7 galaxy searches with broad filters is the depth of the available optical data. Based on observations with the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space

  15. The nature of IRAS 19312+1950 revealed using Herschel: A massive YSO with peculiar maser properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, Steven B.; Boogert, Adwin; Justtanont, Kay; Cox, Nick; Smith, Robert G.; Tielens, Xander; Wirström, Eva S.

    2016-06-01

    IRAS 19312+1950 is a bright, compact infrared source that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery. The SiO and OH maser properties are indicative of a high mass-loss evolved star, yet the complex chemistry and rising far-infrared SED are more characteristic of the envelope of a young stellar object (YSO). In order to elucidate the physical properties of IRAS 19312+1950, we obtained Herschel PACS and HIFI observations of gas and dust in the range 54-550 micron. Numerous detections of CO and H2O rotational lines were obtained, spanning a broad range of upper-state energy levels and probing different excitation regimes of the source. The PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source, indicative of a large mass of cool dust, whereas the far-IR CO spectrum reveals the presence of an excited gas component at around 200 K. Our HIFI observations show a complex kinematic structure indicative of a cool circumstellar envelope and fast outflow with a velocity up to 90 km/s along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify the presence of ice absorption bands due to H2O at 5.8 micron and CO2 at 15 micron, characteristic of interstellar/protostellar material. Combining the Herschel and Spitzer data with previous continuum measurements, the SED is found to be consistent with a massive, luminous central source surrounded by a dense, warm disk and a dusty envelope with large bipolar outflow cavities. The distinctive infrared SED and far-IR spectral features with broad, Gaussian-like outflow wings strongly suggest that IRAS 19312+1950 should be classified as a rare example of an isolated, accreting high-mass YSO with unusual maser properties, rather than an evolved star. In this presentation, the implications of the unique properties of this source will be discussed, along with our proposed ALMA observations required to confirm the classification of this object.

  16. Early science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: observations of extremely luminous high-z sources identified by Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, Min S.; Cybulski, R.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Chavez, M.; De la Luz, V.; Erickson, N.; Ferrusca, D.; Gallup, A. D.; Hughes, D. H.; Montaña, A.; Narayanan, G.; Sánchez-Argüelles, D.; Schloerb, F. P.; Souccar, K.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Zeballos, M.; Zavala, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present 8.5 arcsec resolution 1.1-mm continuum imaging and CO spectroscopic redshift measurements of eight extremely bright submillimetre galaxies identified from the Planck and Herschel surveys, taken with the Large Millimeter Telescope's AzTEC and Redshift Search Receiver instruments. We compiled a candidate list of high-redshift galaxies by cross-correlating the Planck Surveyor mission's highest frequency channel (857 GHz, full width at half-maximum = 4.5 arcmin) with the archival Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver imaging data, and requiring the presence of a unique, single Herschel counterpart within the 150-arcsec search radius of the Planck source positions with 350-μm flux density larger than 100 mJy, excluding known blazars and foreground galaxies. All eight candidate objects observed are detected in 1.1 mm continuum by AzTEC bolometer camera, and at least one CO line is detected in all cases with a spectroscopic redshift between 1.3 < zCO < 3.3. Their infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) mapped using the Herschel and AzTEC photometry are consistent with cold dust emission with characteristic temperature between Td = 43 and 84 K. With apparent IR luminosity of up to LIR = 3 × 1014μ-1 L⊙, they are some of the most luminous galaxies ever found (with yet unknown gravitational magnification factor μ). The analysis of their SEDs suggests that star formation is powering the bulk of their extremely large IR luminosities. Derived molecular gas masses of M_{H_2}=(0.6-7.8)× 10^{11} M_{odot } (for μ ≈ 10) also make them some of the most gas-rich high-redshift galaxies ever detected.

  17. An active M star with X-ray double flares disguised as an ultra-luminous X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Song; Wu, Yue; Qin, Yu-Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Here we present research on an ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate 2XMM J140229.91+542118.8. The X-ray light curves of this ULX candidate in M101 exhibit features of a flare star. More importantly, the Chandra light curve displays unusual X-ray double flares, which is comprised of two close peaks. The X-ray (0.3-11.0 keV) flux of the first peak was derived from the two-temperature APEC model as ˜ 1.1 ± 0.1 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. The observed flux at its first peak increased by about two orders of magnitude in X-ray as compared to quiescence. The slope of the second fast decay phase is steeper than the slope of the first fast decay phase, indicating that the appearance of a second flare accelerated the cooling of the first flare in a way we do not understand yet. We also observed its optical counterpart using a 2.16 m telescope administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. By optical spectral fitting, it is confirmed to be a late type dMe2.5 star. According to the spectral type and apparent magnitude of its optical counterpart, we estimate the photometric distance to be ˜ 133.4 ± 14.2 pc. According to the X-ray spectral fitting, a possible explanation is provided. However, more similar close double flares are needed to confirm whether this accelerated cooling event is a unique coincidence or a common physical process during double flaring.

  18. Testing the Paradigm that Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray luminous objects possess the fattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra band pass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity > or equals 5x10(exp 39) ergs/s) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar-mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs - i.e., the "simple IMBH model" - is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to some large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find (1) that cool disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) that cool disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 10(exp 39) ergs/s, down to our sample limit of 10(exp 38:3) ergs/s. The fact that cool disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which a strong statistical support was never made.

  19. Binary black hole merger rates inferred from luminosity function of ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Isobe, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected direct signals of gravitational waves (GWs) from GW150914. The event was a merger of binary black holes whose masses are 36^{+5}_{-4} M_{{⊙}} and 29^{+4}_{-4} M_{{⊙}}. Such binary systems are expected to be directly evolved from stellar binary systems or formed by dynamical interactions of black holes in dense stellar environments. Here we derive the binary black hole merger rate based on the nearby ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) luminosity function (LF) under the assumption that binary black holes evolve through X-ray emitting phases. We obtain the binary black hole merger rate as 5.8(tULX/0.1 Myr)- 1λ- 0.6exp ( - 0.30λ) Gpc- 3 yr- 1, where tULX is the typical duration of the ULX phase and λ is the Eddington ratio in luminosity. This is coincident with the event rate inferred from the detection of GW150914 as well as the predictions based on binary population synthesis models. Although we are currently unable to constrain the Eddington ratio of ULXs in luminosity due to the uncertainties of our models and measured binary black hole merger event rates, further X-ray and GW data will allow us to narrow down the range of the Eddington ratios of ULXs. We also find the cumulative merger rate for the mass range of 5 M⊙ ≤ MBH ≤ 100 M⊙ inferred from the ULX LF is consistent with that estimated by the aLIGO collaboration considering various astrophysical conditions such as the mass function of black holes.

  20. X-ray QPOs from the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source in M82: Evidence Against Beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) CCD cameras onboard XMM-Newton of a 54 mHz quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) in the greater than 2 keV X-ray flux from the ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) X41.4+60 in the starburst galaxy M82. This is the first detection of a QPO in the X-ray flux from an extra-Galactic ULX, and confirms that the source is a compact object. The QPO is detected in the combined PN and MOS data at the approx. 6sigma level, and separately at lower significances in both the PN and MOS instruments. It had a centroid frequency of 54.3 +/- 0.9 mHz, a coherence Q is identical with nu(sub 0)/Delta nu(sub fwhm) is approx. 5, and an amplitude (rms) in the 2 - 10 keV band of 8.5%. Below about 0.2 Hz the power spectrum can be described by a power-law with index approx. 1, and integrated amplitude (rms) of 13.5%. The X-ray spectrum requires a curving continuum, with a disk-blackbody (diskbb) at T = 3.1 keV providing an acceptable, but not unique, fit. A broad Fe line centered at 6.55 keV is required in all fits, but the equivalent width (EW) of the line is sensitive to the choice of continuum model. There is no evidence of a reflection component. The implied bolometric luminosity is approx. 4 - 5 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. Data from several archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) pointings at M82 also show evidence for QPOs in the 50 - 100 mHz frequency range. Several Galactic black hole candidates (BHCs), including GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40, and XTE 1550-564, show QPOs in the same frequency range as the 50 - 100 mHz QPOs in X41.4+60, which at first glance suggests a possible connection with such objects. However, strong, narrow QPOs provide solid evidence for disk emission, and thus present enormous theoretical difficulties for models which rely on either geometrically or relativistically beamed emission to account for the high X-ray luminosities. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of the ULX sources.

  1. V1647 Orionis = IRAS 05436-0007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Kulkarni, V. K.

    2004-06-01

    S. Vig, S. K. Ghosh, and D. K. Ojha, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, in collaboration with V. K. Kulkarni (National Centre of Radio Astrophysics, Pune), report that a radio- continuum observation of IRAS 05436-0007, obtained at 1272 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope on Feb. 14.5 UT, shows no radio emission within a 1'.5 x 1'.5 region around IRAS 05436-0007 (R.A. = 5h46m13s.1, Decl. = -0o06'05", equinox 2000.0; from 2MASS), with a 5-sigma upper limit of 0.15 mJy/beam (synthesized beam size 5".61 x 2".72, p.a. -48.91 deg). All of the sources from the NRAO/VLA Sky Survey Catalog within this region (covering a 25'- diameter circular area centered on the nebula) were detected.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAS08589-4714 molecular gas (Saldano+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldano, H. P.; Vasquez, J.; Cappa, C. E.; Gomez, M.; Duronea, N.; Rubio, M.

    2016-09-01

    Files IRAS08589-4714CO.fits, IRAS08589-471413CO IRAS08589-4714C18O.fits, IRAS08589-4714HCO.fits and IRAS08589-4714_HCN.fits contain the 12CO, 13CO, C18O, HCO+ and HCN molecular lines (J=3-2) in the total velocity range (-20.0, +30.0)km/s with the velocity resolution of 0.11km/s, towards the IRAS08589-4714 source (RA,DE=09:00:40.5,-47:25:55) with a FOV 150x150-arcsec, observed with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, Chile. (2 data files).

  3. Analysis of IRAS solar system dust data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.; Nicholson, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Data in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Zodiacal History File were analyzed to extract dust band locations and peak brightness measurements from approximately 1,000 individual IRAS scans. The study had three goals. One was to show that the prominent solar system dust bands are associated with Hirayama asteroid families and thus that collisions between asteroids account for a significant fraction of the particles in the zodiacal cloud. Recent work suggests that while the Hirayama families are a major source of the dust in the bands, there may also be contributions from two or three smaller, more recently recognized asteroid families. A second goal was to show that there is evidence in the IRAS dust data for the transport of particles from asteroid belt to the Earth by Poynting-Robertson light drag and thus account for the fact that asteroid particles are collected in the Earth's stratosphere. Results of the study will confirm the location of the dust bands within the inner asteroid belt, and show conclusively that the material seen by IRAS is now spread over a wide range of distances from the sun. The third goal was to construct a model of the background zodiacal cloud that satisfies the proper dynamical constraints. Figures are provided to show the scans processed to remove zodiacal background and Galactic signals, and the resulting polynomial fits to the 25 micron scan. The latter provided objective estimates of band widths, peak locations, and peak fluxes. Modelling and analysis of the resulting band data has been presented at several conferences and is the subject of a number of forthcoming papers.

  4. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T

    2003-12-11

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (> 300 M{sub solar}). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super-Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and that their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  5. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-luminous X-ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Ebisawa, Ken; Zycki, Piotr; Kubota, Aya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Watarai, Ken-ya

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (greater than or approximately equal to 300 Solar Mass). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super- Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  6. Freeform lens design for light-emitting diode uniform illumination by using a method of source-target luminous intensity mapping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Huang, Ze-Yu; Liu, Te-Shu; Tsai, Ming-Da; Huang, Kuang-Lung

    2015-10-01

    We present a freeform lens for application to LED uniform illumination. This lens, which is designed with a method of simple source-target luminous intensity mapping, can produce irradiance uniformity of greater than 0.8 and optical efficiency above 90% with an arbitrary half-beam angle greater than 45 deg. Typically, as compared with a conventional source-target energy mapping method, this design method can achieve better optical performance of lenses for general LED lighting. When a non-Lambertian-type light source is employed, for example, the chip on board LED, the use of the method can result in a compact LED lens without losing the optical performances of high irradiance uniformity and high optical efficiency as yielded by lenses for Lambertian-type LED light sources. PMID:26479644

  7. Evolutionary status of dense cores in the NGC 1333 IRAS 4 star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumpia, E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Kwon, W.; Tobin, J. J.; Fuller, G. A.; Plume, R.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Protostellar evolution after the formation of the protostar is becoming reasonably well characterized, but the evolution from a prestellar core to a protostar is not well known, although the first hydrostatic core (FHSC) must be a pivotal step. Aims: NGC 1333 - IRAS 4C is a potentially very young object that we can directly compare with the nearby Class 0 objects IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. Observational constraints are provided by spectral imaging from the JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey (330-373 GHz). We present integrated intensity and velocity maps of several species, including CO, H2CO and CH3OH. CARMA observations provide additional information with which we can distinguish IRAS 4C from other evolutionary stages. Methods: We present the observational signatures of the velocity of an observed outflow, the degree of CO depletion, the deuterium fractionation of [DCO+]/[HCO+], and gas kinetic temperatures. Results: We report differences between the three sources in four aspects: a) the kinetic temperature as probed using the H2CO lines is much lower toward IRAS 4C than the other two sources; b) the line profiles of the detected species show strong outflow activity toward IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B, but not toward IRAS 4C; c) the HCN/HNC is <1 toward IRAS 4C, which confirms the cold nature of the source; d) the degree of CO depletion and the deuteration are lowest toward the warmest of the sources, IRAS 4B. Conclusions: IRAS 4C seems to be in a different evolutionary state than the sources IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. We can probably exclude the FHSC stage becaues of the relatively low Lsmm/Lbol ( 6%), and we investigate the earliest accretion phase of Class 0 stage and the transition between Class 0 to Class I. Our results do not show a consistent scenario for either case; the main problem is the absence of outflow activity and the cold nature of IRAS 4C. The number of FHSC candidates in Perseus is 10 times higher than current models predict, which suggests that the lifespan of

  8. IRAS observations of matter around nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic search of the IRAS point-source catalog has led to the identification of eight new nearby stars that are Vega-like in terms of their large 60-micron excess. These stars are distinguished by the predominance of spectral type A and the absence of double stars in the Vega-like group. Both effects are intuitively consistent with the interpretation that the 60-micron excess radiation is due to a disk of protoplanetary material, suggesting an early phase in the evolution of a planetary system; however, this distribution can also be due to luminosity and brightness selection effects.

  9. IRAS observations of matter around nearby stars

    SciTech Connect

    Aumann, H.H.

    1985-10-01

    A systematic search of the IRAS point-source catalog has led to the identification of eight new nearby stars that are Vega-like in terms of their large 60-micron excess. These stars are distinguished by the predominance of spectral type A and the absence of double stars in the Vega-like group. Both effects are intuitively consistent with the interpretation that the 60-micron excess radiation is due to a disk of protoplanetary material, suggesting an early phase in the evolution of a planetary system; however, this distribution can also be due to luminosity and brightness selection effects. 13 references.

  10. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 7: The small scale structure catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George (Editor); Walker, D. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. Volume 1 describes the instrument, the mission, and the data reduction process. Volumes 2 through 6 present the observations of the approximately 245,000 individual point sources detected by IRAS; each volume gives sources within a specified range of declination. Volume 7 gives the observations of the approximately 16,000 sources spatially resolved by IRAS and smaller than 8'. This is Volume 7, The Small Scale Structure Catalog.

  11. The Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy (BIG) Sample: The Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Balayan, Smbat K.; Hakopian, Susanna A.

    The Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy (BIG) sample (1513 galaxies) is based on optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at DEC > +61 and b > 15 (FBS area). A redshift survey for brighter objects (B < 18) is being carried out with 3 telescopes: Byurakan Observatory 2.6m, Special Observatory (Russia) 6m, and Observatoire de Haute-Provence 1.93m. 200 objects have been observed, and redshifts in the range 0.009-0.173 have been measured. For this subsample, 15% of objects are AGNs, and 5% are LIGs and ULIGs. Interesting cases of AGN containing interacting pairs are being studied by means of the 2D spectroscopy.

  12. Nuclear infrared emission and the colors of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    J, H, K, L', and N observations of galaxies detected at 12 microns by IRAS are combined with IRAS flux densities to investigate the relationship between the infrared sizes and colors of galaxian infrared sources. It is found that typical IRAS galaxies have 10 micron radii of 0.5 to 2.0 kpc, while active galaxies and galaxies with higher 25 to 60 micron color temperatures are smaller. One unusal object, 23060+0505, is at high redshift and has an infrared luminosity of 1.5 x 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Its 1 to 100 micron energy distribution resembles that of a Seyfert 1 galaxy, but it shows very little sign of broad line emission in the visible. Its properties suggest that it may be a prototype for a class of highly obscured active galaxy.

  13. The broad band X-ray spectrum of SN 1978k and two other luminous X-ray sources in the spiral galaxy NGC 1313

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Robert; Okada, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro; Makishima, Kazuo; Colbert, Edward J. M.

    1994-06-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) PV phase observation of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 1313. ASCA cleanly resolves the three previously known luminous sources, one of which is the very luminous supernova, SN 1978k. The spectrum of SN 1978k is described by either a power law with a photon index gamma approximately 2.2 or a thermal model with temperature kT approximately 3.0 keV and abundances Z approximately 0.2 Z(sun). There is no evidence for strong line emission from it or from the other two sources. The spectrum of SN 1978k arises either in shocked gas in extreme departure from ionization equilibrium or from synchrotron processes associated with a newborn pulsar. A second source, near the galactic center, is well-fit by a power-law with a photon index of approximately 1.8. It is possibly an active nucleus-like source, but physically displaced from the optical nucleus of the galaxy. The spectrum of the third source, located 8 kpc south of the nucleus, along with the absence of an optical counterpart, suggests that it is a low mass X-ray binary; but its high X-ray luminosity clouds this interpretation. This observation demonstrates the ability of ASCA to perform effective broad band spectroscopic measurements of sources at a 2-10 keV flux level of 5 x 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1.

  14. The broad band X-ray spectrum of SN 1978k and two other luminous X-ray sources in the spiral galaxy NGC 1313

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert; Okada, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro; Makishima, Kazuo; Colbert, Edward J. M.

    1994-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) PV phase observation of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 1313. ASCA cleanly resolves the three previously known luminous sources, one of which is the very luminous supernova, SN 1978k. The spectrum of SN 1978k is described by either a power law with a photon index gamma approximately 2.2 or a thermal model with temperature kT approximately 3.0 keV and abundances Z approximately 0.2 Z(sun). There is no evidence for strong line emission from it or from the other two sources. The spectrum of SN 1978k arises either in shocked gas in extreme departure from ionization equilibrium or from synchrotron processes associated with a newborn pulsar. A second source, near the galactic center, is well-fit by a power-law with a photon index of approximately 1.8. It is possibly an active nucleus-like source, but physically displaced from the optical nucleus of the galaxy. The spectrum of the third source, located 8 kpc south of the nucleus, along with the absence of an optical counterpart, suggests that it is a low mass X-ray binary; but its high X-ray luminosity clouds this interpretation. This observation demonstrates the ability of ASCA to perform effective broad band spectroscopic measurements of sources at a 2-10 keV flux level of 5 x 10(exp -13) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1).

  15. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  16. On the Nature of the Enigmatic Object IRAS 19312+1950: A Rare Phase of Massive Star Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Justtanont, K.; Cox, N. L. J.; Smith, R. G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Wirström, E. S.; Milam, S. N.; Keane, J. V.

    2016-09-01

    IRAS 19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS 19312+1950 in the range 5–550 μm using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 μm, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: ≈0.22 M ⊙ of material at 280 ± 18 K, and ≈1.6 M ⊙ of material at 157 ± 3 K. The O i 63 μm line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km s‑1 along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H2O at 5.8 μm and CO2 at 15 μm. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (∼2 × 104 L ⊙) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass ∼500–700 M ⊙, with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS 19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS 19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. On the Nature of the Enigmatic Object IRAS 19312+1950: A Rare Phase of Massive Star Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Justtanont, K.; Cox, N. L. J.; Smith, R. G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Wirström, E. S.; Milam, S. N.; Keane, J. V.

    2016-09-01

    IRAS 19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS 19312+1950 in the range 5-550 μm using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 μm, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: ≈0.22 M ⊙ of material at 280 ± 18 K, and ≈1.6 M ⊙ of material at 157 ± 3 K. The O i 63 μm line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km s-1 along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H2O at 5.8 μm and CO2 at 15 μm. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (˜2 × 104 L ⊙) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass ˜500-700 M ⊙, with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS 19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS 19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. High-resolution IRAS observations of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud core

    SciTech Connect

    Young, E.T.; Lada, C.J.; Wilking, B.A.

    1986-05-01

    IRAS high-resolution (12, 25, 60, and 100 microns) observations of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud core are presented. Analysis of the 12 micron data reveals 18 individual embedded sources with a surface brightness of greater than 1 Jy/sq arcmin and far-infrared luminosities ranging between 0.2-21 solar luminosities. Infrared observations collected at the Infrared Telescope Facility in Mauna Kea, Hawaii in July 1984 and April 1985 are utilized to identify 13 near-infrared objects in the IRAS data. The ground-based fluxes are compared to IRAS density fluxes; it is observed that the ground-based fluxes are lower by about a factor of three than the IRAS fluxes, indicating the presence of midinfrared emission due to hot dust on angular scales greater than 6-13 arcsec. It is noted that the IRAS observations provide a more complete description of the embedded population in the Rho Ophiuchi core than previous studies. 10 references.

  19. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) image reconstruction and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonsalves, R. A.; Lyons, T. D.; Price, S. D.; Levan, P. D.; Aumann, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    IRAS sky mapping data is being reconstructed as images, and an entropy-based restoration algorithm is being applied in an attempt to improve spatial resolution in extended sources. Reconstruction requires interpolation of non-uniformly sampled data. Restoration is accomplished with an iterative algorithm which begins with an inverse filter solution and iterates on it with a weighted entropy-based spectral subtraction.

  20. A very deep IRAS survey at the north ecliptic pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.; Hacking, P. B.; Condon, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    The data from approximately 20 hours observation of the 4- to 6-square degree field surrounding the north ecliptic pole have been combined to produce a very deep IR survey at the four IRAS bands. Scans from both pointed and survey observations were included in the data analysis. At 12 and 25 microns the deep survey is limited by detector noise and is approximately 50 times deeper than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). At 60 microns the problems of source confusion and Galactic cirrus combine to limit the deep survey to approximately 12 times deeper than the PSC. These problems are so severe at 100 microns that flux values are only given for locations corresponding to sources selected at 60 microns. In all, 47 sources were detected at 12 microns, 37 at 25 microns, and 99 at 60 microns. The data-analysis procedures and the significance of the 12- and 60-micron source-count results are discussed.

  1. A catalog of co-added IRAS fluxes of Orion population stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Wm. B.; Jones, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of co-added IRAS fluxes for the pre-main-sequence objects in the Herbig-Bell catalog (HBC) is presented. This catalog doubles the number of HBC stars with detected IRAS fluxes and provides improved flux values for the previously known sources. Noise level are given for all HBC fields in each band, permitting upper limits to be estimated for all undetected sources.

  2. Luminance requirements for lighted signage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Narendran, Nadarajah; Bullough, John D.

    2006-08-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is presently targeted to displace traditional light sources in backlighted signage. The literature shows that brightness and contrast are perhaps the two most important elements of a sign that determine its attention-getting capabilities and its legibility. Presently, there are no luminance standards for signage, and the practice of developing brighter signs to compete with signs in adjacent businesses is becoming more commonplace. Sign luminances in such cases may far exceed what people usually need for identifying and reading a sign. Furthermore, the practice of higher sign luminance than needed has many negative consequences, including higher energy use and light pollution. To move toward development of a recommendation for lighted signage, several laboratory human factors evaluations were conducted. A scale model of a storefront was used to present human subjects with a typical red channel-letter sign at luminances ranging from 8 cd/m2 to 1512 cd/m2 under four background luminances typical of nighttime outdoor and daytime inside-mall conditions (1, 100, 300, 1000 cd/m2), from three scaled viewing distances (30, 60, 340 ft), and either in isolation or adjacent to two similar signs. Subjects rated the brightness, acceptability, and ease of reading of the test sign for each combination of sign and background luminances and scaled viewing distances.

  3. Water masers in Compton-thick AGN. I. Detailed study of the new water megamaser in IRAS 15480-0344

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castangia, P.; Tarchi, A.; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.

    2016-02-01

    Context. A relationship between the water maser detection rate and large nuclear column densities in AGN has often been cited in the literature. Indeed, detailed studies of luminous water masers, typically associated with the nuclear activity, allow us to investigate the innermost regions of AGN, with an impact on the still debated Unified Model for this class of objects. Aims: We have recently entertained a search for maser emission in a well-defined sample of Compton-thick AGN aimed at investigating, on firm statistical bases, the aforementioned relationship. While the survey is still ongoing, and is the subject of a forthcoming publication, a new luminous water maser has been detected in the lenticular (field) S0 galaxy IRAS 15480-0344, whose origin, associated with an accretion disc or a nuclear outflow/jet, needs to be assessed. Methods: Multi-epoch single-dish observations and VLBI measurements were performed to investigate the distribution, spatial extension, and variability of the maser emission in order to infer the main characteristics of the water megamaser. Results: The new detection in IRAS 15480-0344 is reported: a megamaser with a total single-dish isotropic luminosity of ~200 L⊙ and a profile composed of two main features, a broad line with a full width to half maximum (FWHM) linewidth of ~90 km s-1 and a narrow (FWHM< 1 km s-1) one. We performed a follow-up to the detection with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and confidently detected only the narrow component, which is coincident with the nuclear radio continuum emission detected with the Very Large Array at 8.4 GHz. A weak narrow feature has also been detected in the velocity range of the broad feature and is located 15 pc to the north-west with respect to the stronger component. Neither maser spot is associated with the compact radio continuum sources derived from the same VLBA dataset. Conclusions: The different line profiles and the spatial separation between the two features in the

  4. Multiwavelength Observations and State Transitions of an Ultra-luminous Supersoft X-ray Source: Evidence for an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Rupen, M. P.; Sjouwerman, L. O.; di Stefano, R.

    We report the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of an ultra-luminous supersoft X-ray source in M101. M101 ULX-1 underwent 2 outbursts in 2004 during which the peak bolometric luminosities reached 1041 ergs s-1. The outburst spectra were very soft and can generally be fitted with a blackbody model with temperatures of 50-160 eV. In two of the observations, absorption edges at 0.33 keV, 0.56 keV, 0.66 keV, and 0.88 keV were found. A cool accretion disk was also found in the 2004 December outburst. During the low luminosity state, a power-law tail was seen up to 7 keV. It is clear the source changed from a low/hard state to a high/soft state. In addition, it showed at least 5 outbursts between 1996 and 2004. This is the first ultraluminous X-ray source for which recurrent outbursts with state transitions similar to Galactic X-ray binaries have been observed. From the Hubble Space Telescope data, we found an optical counterpart to the source. During the 2004 outbursts, we also performed radio and ground-based optical observations. All the results strongly suggest that the accreting object is a > 2800M⊙ black hole.

  5. Transcending boundaries with Ira Hirsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Punita G.

    2002-05-01

    Ira Hirsh has made many contributions to various fields of acoustics from speech, hearing, psychological and physiological acoustics, to musical and architectural acoustics. It was a privilege for me to have been his student in all these areas, and to have had him as a guide through masters and doctoral degree programs that focused on topics that lie at the boundaries connecting these disciplines. Ira was not a prescriptive advisor, imposing particular research topics or procedures on his graduate students. Rather, he encouraged originality, innovation, and personal goal setting. He would subtly suggest starting points and provide landmarks as references, rather than explicit directions leading to them. One had to navigate the path by ones own wits. This approach encouraged lateral, out-of-the box thinking, while also leading to respectful appreciation of historic trajectories in scientific research. During our time together, we worked on several aspects of music, including, rhythm, melody, pitch, and timber perception. Some of this work will be recapitulated, highlighting Ira's role in its exposition and development. His multidimensional personality, astute insights, colorful remarks, wry humor, care, and concern are qualities to be cherished-beyond the boundaries of campus, city, country, and contemporaneity.

  6. Interacting galaxies resolved by IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Surace, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss procedures, limitations and results of high resolution processing of interacting galaxies observed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). Among 56 potentially resolvable interacting groups selected from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample, 22 systems have been resolved yielding fluxes for a total of 51 galaxies. In about 2/3 of the resolved pairs, both galaxies were detected in the far-infrared. A set of isolated non-interacting galaxies was chosen from the Bright Galaxy Sample for comparison with the interacting galaxies. For the current sample, which naturally excludes close pairs and ultraluminous merging systems, the primary conclusions are: (1) It is not possible to distinguish individual interacting galaxies from isolated galaxies of similar luminosity on the basis of infrared properties alone. (2) No direct correlation was found between measures of interaction strength and indicators of enhanced star formation within the resolved systems. (3) Comparison of the interacting and isolated samples indicates statistically significant differences between their distributions of far-infrared color ratios, luminosities, and surface brightnesses. Even during the early stages of interaction spanned by these systems, in a statistical sense, tidal perturbations substantially boost far-infrared indicators of star formation compared to non-interacting systems. We also briefly discuss future prospects for pushing the IRAS data to its limits for additional interacting systems.

  7. A Chandra X-Ray Study of NGC 1068 IL the Luminous X-Ray Source Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the compact X-ray source population in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, imaged with a approx. 50 ks Chandra observation. We find a total of 84 compact sources on the S3 chip, of which 66 are located within the 25.0 B-mag/arcsec isophote of the galactic disk of NGC 1068. Spectra have been obtained for the 21 sources with at least 50 counts and modeled with both multicolor disk blackbody and power-law models. The power-law model provides the better description of the spectrum for 18 of these sources. For fainter sources, the spectral index has been estimated from the hardness ratio. Five sources have 0.4 - 8 keV intrinsic luminosities greater than 10(exp 39)ergs/ s, assuming that their emission is isotropic and that they are associated with NGC 1068. We refer to these sources as intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects (ISOs). If these five sources are X-ray binaries accreting with luminosities that are both sub-Eddington and isotropic, then the implied source masses are approx greater than 7 solar mass, and so they are inferred to be black holes. Most of the spectrally modeled sources have spectral shapes similar to Galactic black hole candidates. However, the brightest compact source in NGC 1068 has a spectrum that is much harder than that found in Galactic black hole candidates and other ISOs. The brightest source also shows large amplitude variability on both short-term and long-term timescales, with the count rate possibly decreasing by a factor of 2 in approx. 2 ks during our Chundra observation, and the source flux decreasing by a factor of 5 between our observation and the grating observations taken just over 9 months later. The ratio of the number of sources with luminosities greater than 2.1 x 10(exp 38) ergs/s in the 0.4 - 8 keV band to the rate of massive (greater than 5 solar mass) star formation is the same, to within a factor of 2, for NGC 1068, the Antennae, NGC 5194 (the main galaxy in M51), and the Circinus galaxy. This suggests

  8. IRA balances and contributions: an overview of the EBRI IRA database.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2010-09-01

    NEW IRA DATABASE: The Employee Benefit Research Institute created the EBRI IRA Database in order to more closely examine retirement savings behavior. The EBRI IRA Database is able to link individuals within and across the data providers and will also be able to link the data with participants in 401(k) plans, allowing retirement funds to be tracked as they are generated, rolled over, and ultimately used. This Issue Brief is the first of a series of publications analyzing the EBRI IRA Database, and highlights the distribution of IRA owners by IRA type, average and median account balances, and contributions to IRAs. The data security techniques used by the data providers assure that EBRI has no ability to identify individuals so that all privacy is assured. IRA TYPES: In the EBRI IRA Database, IRAs are classified into four types: traditional (originating from contributions), rollovers from other retirement plans, Roth, and SEP/SIMPLE. The distribution of the IRA accounts is 33.6 percent traditional IRAs; 33.4 percent rollover IRAs (combined with the traditional IRAs, 67 percent); 23.4 percent Roth IRAs; the remaining 9.6 percent are SEPs and SIMPLEs. OWNERSHIP BY AGE AND GENDER: IRA owners were more likely to be male, especially those having a rollover or a SEP/SIMPLE IRA. Among all IRA participants in the database, nearly one-half (48.3 percent) were ages 45-64. Only 16.7 percent of those owning a traditional IRA were under age 45, compared with 46.5 percent for those with a Roth, 30.4 percent for rollovers, and 34.8 percent for those with a SEP or SIMPLE. AVERAGE AND MEDIAN BALANCES: The average and median IRA account balance in 2008 was $54,863 and $15,756, respectively, while the average and median IRA individual balance (all accounts from the same person combined) was $69,498 and $20,046, Individuals with a rollover balance had the highest average and median balance at $91,783 and $31,264. Roth owners had the lowest average and median balance at $14,056 and $7

  9. Star formation and AGN activity in the most luminous LINERs in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, Mirjana; Márquez, Isabel; Netzer, Hagai; Masegosa, Josefa; Nordon, Raanan; Pérez, Enrique; Schoenell, William

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the properties of 42 objects in the group of the most luminous, highest star formation rate (SFR) low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) at z = 0.04-0.11. We obtained long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear regions for all sources, and FIR data (Herschel and IRAS) for 13 of them. We measured emission-line intensities, extinction, stellar populations, stellar masses, ages, active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosities, and SFRs. We find considerable differences from other low-redshift LINERs, in terms of extinction, and general similarity to star-forming galaxies. We confirm the existence of such luminous LINERs in the local universe, after being previously detected at z ˜ 0.3 by Tommasin et al. The median stellar mass of these LINERs corresponds to 6-7 × 1010 M⊙ which was found in previous work to correspond to the peak of relative growth rate of stellar populations and therefore for the highest SFRs. Other LINERs although showing similar AGN luminosities have lower SFR. We find that most of these sources have LAGN ˜ LSF suggesting co-evolution of black hole and stellar mass. In general, the fraction of local LINERs on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies is related to their AGN luminosity.

  10. An IRAS-based search for new Dusty Late-Type WC Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin

    1995-01-01

    I have examined all Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data relevant to the 173 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in an updated catalog, including the 13 stars newly discovered by Shara and coworkers. Using the W-R coordinates in these lists, I have examined the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), the Faint Source Catalog, and the Faint Source Reject Catalog, and have generated one-dimensional spatial profiles ('ADDSCANs') and two-dimensional full-resolution images ('FRESCOs'). The goal was to assemble the best set of observed IRAS color indices for different W-R types, in particular for known dusty late-type WC Wolf-Rayet (WCL) objects. I have also unsuccessfully sought differences in IRAS colors and absolute magnitudes between single and binary W-R stars. The color indices for the entire ensemble of W-R stars define zones in the IRAS color-color plane. By searching the PSC for otherwise unassociated sources that satisfy these colors, I have identified potential new W-R candidates, perhaps too faint to have been recognized in previous optical searches. I have extracted these candidates' IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) data and compared the spectra with the highly characteristic LRS shape for known dusty WCL stars. The 13 surviving candidates must now be examined by optical spectroscopy. This work represents a much more rigorous and exhaustive version of the LRS study that identified IRAS 17380 - 3031 (WR98a) as the first new W-R (WC9) star discovered by IRAS. This search should have detected dusty WCL stars to a distance of 7.0 kpc from the Sun, for the absolute value of l greater than 30 deg, and to 2.9 kpc even in the innermost Galaxy. For free-free-dominated W-R stars the corresponding distances are 2.5 and 1.0 kpc, respectively.

  11. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    More than 700 luminous stars in the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Skyflux plates were examined for the presence of dust heated by a nearby star. This dust may be distinguished from the ubiquitous cool cirrus by its higher temperature and thus enhanced 60 micron emission. More than 120 dust clouds were found around only 106 of the stars with a volume filling factor of 0.006 and an intercloud separation of 46 pc. A region of dust smoothly distributed through the volume of space heated by the star could not be found and hence an upper limit of 0.05 cm(exp -3) is placed on the equivalent gas density in the intercloud regions. The clouds have an average density of 0.22 cm(exp -3) and a radius of 1.9 pc, albeit with wide variations in their properties. Two different scale heights of 140 and 540 pc were found. This was interpreted as evidence for different distributions of dust in and out of the galactic disk.

  12. Search for brown dwarfs in the IRAS data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of two searches for brown dwarfs using IRAS data bases are reviewed. From one survey, it is concluded that all of the 5776 high-latitude point sources in the IRAS Point Source Catalog can be positionally associated with stars or galaxies by simple comparisons with optical catalogs and atlases. Only one object near the north Galactic pole possesses an optical/IR color cool enough to be considered as a candidate; it is found to be an unusual carbon star of 1300 K with a probable distance far out in the Galactic halo. The more sensitive Serendipitous Survey, which detected objects about five times fainter than the other survey, also found no brown dwarfs. This survey found fewer ordinary stars than the number extrapolated from the less sensitive survey.

  13. Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ Scientific Data Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, J. H.; Soifer, B. T.

    1980-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), to be launched in 1982, is discussed. It will systematically survey the entire sky over a large percentage of the infrared spectrum, in the wavelength region of 8 to 120 microns, at sensitivities a hundred times greater than previously achieved from high-altitude observatories, aircraft, balloons or sounding rockets. The Scientific Data Analysis System (SDAS), an off-line data processing facility, is examined. Its primary function is to produce a catalog of inertially fixed infrared-emitting point sources (mainly stars and galaxies) observed during the IRAS survey. Details for source detection and confirmation are given. It is estimated that the catalog will contain approximately a million objects having a brightness of 10 amtowatts per square centimeter or greater; 125,000 SDAS detections, if spurious events of signal-to-noise ratios greater than 2.5 are included, will be made every day.

  14. Three epochs of EVN observations towards IRAS 23365+3604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Canizales, C.; Perez-Torres, M.; Alberdi, A.

    The European VLBI Network (EVN) provides us with the necessary sensitivity and angular resolution to study the nuclear and circumnuclear regions in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. The high Star Formation Rates (SFR) inferred for these galaxies implies both the presence of a high number of massive stars and a dense surrounding medium. Therefore, bright radio SNe are expected to occur. With the aim of estimating the SFR in ULIRGs by means of Core Collapse supernova (CCSN) detections, we started an observing campaign with the EVN on a small sample of the brightest and farthest ULIRGs in the local Universe. We present here our results from three epochs of quasi-simultaneous observations with the EVN at 6 and 18 cm towards one of the objects in our sample: IRAS 23365+3604.

  15. IUE/IRA system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, J.

    1977-01-01

    The IUE/IRA rate sensor system designed to meet the requirements of the International Ultraviolet Explorer spacecraft mission is described. The system consists of the sensor unit containing six rate sensor modules and the electronic control unit containing the rate sensor support electronics and the command/control circuitry. The inertial reference assembly formed by the combined units will provide spacecraft rate information for use in the stabilization and control system. The system is described in terms of functional description, operation redundancy performance, mechanical interface, and electrical interface. Test data obtained from the flight unit are summarized.

  16. Monsters and babies from the first / iras survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breugel, Wil

    Radio continuum emission at cm wavelengths is relatively little affected by extinction. When combined with far-infrared (FIR) surveys this provides for a convenient and unbiased method to select (radio-loud) AGN and starbursts deeply embedded in gas and dust-rich galaxies. Such radio-selected FIR samples are useful for detailed investigations of the complex relationships between (radio) galaxy and starburst activity, and to determine whether ULIRGs are powered by hidden quasars (monsters) or young stars (babies). We present the results of a large program to obtain identifications and spectra of radio-selected, optically faint IRAS/FSC objects using the FIRST/VLA 20 cm survey (Becker, White and Helfand 1995). These objects are all radio- `quiet' in the sense that their radio power / FIR luminosities follow the well-known radio/FIR relationship for star forming galaxies. We compare these results to a previous study by our group of a sample of radio-`loud' IRAS/FSC ULIRGs selected from the Texas 365 MHz survey (Douglas etal. 1996). Many of these objects also show evidence for dominant, A-type stellar populations, as well as high ionization lines usually associated with AGN. These radio-loud ULIRGs have properties intermediate between those of starbursts and quasars, suggesting a possible evolutionary connection. Deep Keck spectroscopic observations of three ULIRGs from these samples are presented, including high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetry. The polarimetry observations failed to show evidence of a hidden quasar in polarized (scattered) light in the two systems in which the stellar light was dominated by A-type stars. Although observations of a larger sample would be needed to allow a general conclusion, our current data suggest that a large fraction of ULIRGs may be powered by luminous starbursts, not by hidden, luminous AGN (quasars).

  17. NuSTAR results on Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources: black holes or neutron stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are extremely bright, off-nuclear point sources in nearby galaxies. The only process known to power them is a very high accretion rate onto a compact object. If the compact object is similar to those observed in our own galaxy, i.e., a standard stellar remnant, the accretion rate has to exceed the Eddington rate by a factor of 10-100 in a so-called super-Eddington accretion regime. If on the other hand the compact were more massive, ULXs would be the only known evidence for intermediate mass black holes with masses of 100's or 1000's solar masses. Broadband spectral studies of a sample of ULXs, making full use of the hard X-ray sensitivity of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), are suggestive of super-Eddington accretion. A definitive answer has, however, not yet been reached owing to continued difficulty constraining ULX masses. I will report on recent, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations, which allow us to examine the evolution of these enigmatic sources and their accretion process by studying their time variability and hard X-ray spectrum above 10keV. In a surprising discovery we have recently shown that the ULX M82 X-2 harbors a neutron star, the first evidence for a neutron star in a ULX. I will discuss possible modes of super-Eddington accretion on neutron stars and compare M82 X-2 to known accreting neutron stars in our galaxy. On behalf of the NuSTAR ULX science team led by Fiona Harrison.

  18. Byurakan-IRAS galaxies: a survey for FIR flux limited objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2003-07-01

    A program of optical identifications of all IRAS sources in a large area (|b|>15° and ℓ>+61°) on the basis of the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra is aimed at revealing all FIR flux limited (0.6 Jy at 60μm, and 1.0 Jy at 100μm, i. e. the IRAS PSC completeness limit) objects and study its contents. 1577 previously unidentified IRAS point sources have been optically identified in an area with 1487 deg2, of which 1178 are galaxies, and 399 are stars. The identifications program brought to 2 samples of objects: BIS (Byurakan-IRAS Stars), and BIG (Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies). A redshift survey for BIG objects have been undertaken with 3 telescopes (Byurakan 2.6m, Russian SAO 6m, and Haute-Provence 1.93m): 213 galaxies have been observed so far, and their redshifts and activity types are available. The BIG objects contain Seyferts, LINERs, composite spectrum AGNs, high-luminosity IR galaxies, groups of galaxies, interacting and merging galaxies, as well as obscured IRAS galaxies. The redshifts are in the range 0.008-0.173, and the obtained FIR is in the range 3x10^9

  19. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous X-ray source in the outskirts of Circinus observed with NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Fabian, A. C.; Hailey, C. J.; Miller, J. M.; Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-12-20

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multi-epoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E > 10 keV) X-rays. Circinus ULX5 is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of ∼5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013 observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk reflection interpretation previously proposed to explain the 3-10 keV curvature in other ULXs. In addition to flux variability, clear spectral variability is also observed. While in many cases the interpretation of spectral components in ULXs is uncertain, the spectral and temporal properties of all the high quality data sets currently available strongly support a simple disk-corona model reminiscent of that invoked for Galactic binaries, with the accretion disk becoming more prominent as the luminosity increases. However, although the disk temperature and luminosity are well correlated across all time scales currently probed, the observed luminosity follows L∝T {sup 1.70±0.17}, flatter than expected for simple blackbody radiation. The spectral variability displayed here is highly reminiscent of that observed from known Galactic black hole binaries (BHBs) at high luminosities. This comparison implies a black hole mass of ∼90 M {sub ☉} for Circinus ULX5. However, given the diverse behavior observed from Galactic BHB accretion disks, this mass estimate is

  20. An Extremely Luminous and Variable Ultraluminous X-ray Source in the Outskirts of Circinus Observed with Nustar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Madsen, K. K.; Miller, J. M.; Ptak, Andrew Francis; Rana, V.; Webb, N. A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multiepoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E greater than 10 keV) X-rays. CircinusULX5is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of approx. 5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013 observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 × 10(exp 40) erg s(exp-1)). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk reflection interpretation previously proposed to explain the 3-10 keV curvature in other ULXs. In addition to flux variability, clear spectral variability is also observed. While in many cases the interpretation of spectral components in ULXs is uncertain, the spectral and temporal properties of all the high quality data sets currently available strongly support a simple disk-corona model reminiscent of that invoked for Galactic binaries, with the accretion disk becoming more prominent as the luminosity increases. However, although the disk temperature and luminosity are well correlated across all time scales currently probed, the observed luminosity follows L alpha T (exp 1.70+/-0.17), flatter than expected for simple blackbody radiation. The spectral variability displayed here is highly reminiscent of that observed from known Galactic black hole binaries (BHBs) at high luminosities. This comparison implies a black hole mass of approx. 90M for Circinus ULX5. However, given the diverse behavior observed from Galactic BHB accretion disks, this mass

  1. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Schwartz, D.E.; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking vertical sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars. 16 refs.

  2. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Walker, Helen J.; Volk, Kevin; Schwartz, Deborah E.

    1989-01-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking 'vertical' sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars.

  3. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  4. Automatic classification of spectra from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Self, Matthew; Taylor, William; Goebel, John; Volk, Kevin; Walker, Helen

    1989-01-01

    A new classification of Infrared spectra collected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is presented. The spectral classes were discovered automatically by a program called Auto Class 2. This program is a method for discovering (inducing) classes from a data base, utilizing a Bayesian probability approach. These classes can be used to give insight into the patterns that occur in the particular domain, in this case, infrared astronomical spectroscopy. The classified spectra are the entire Low Resolution Spectra (LRS) Atlas of 5,425 sources. There are seventy-seven classes in this classification and these in turn were meta-classified to produce nine meta-classes. The classification is presented as spectral plots, IRAS color-color plots, galactic distribution plots and class commentaries. Cross-reference tables, listing the sources by IRAS name and by Auto Class class, are also given. These classes show some of the well known classes, such as the black-body class, and silicate emission classes, but many other classes were unsuspected, while others show important subtle differences within the well known classes.

  5. Discovery of the Candidate Off-nuclear Ultrasoft Hyper-luminous X-Ray Source 3XMM J141711.1+522541

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Webb, Natalie A.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Dupke, Renato; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strader, Jay; Homan, Jeroen; Barret, Didier; Godet, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of an off-nuclear ultrasoft hyper-luminous X-ray source candidate 3XMM J141711.1+522541 in the inactive S0 galaxy SDSS J141711.07+522540.8 (z = 0.41827, dL = 2.3 Gpc) in the Extended Groth Strip. It is located at a projected offset of ˜1.″0 (5.2 kpc) from the nucleus of the galaxy and was serendipitously detected in five XMM-Newton observations in 2000 July. Two observations have enough counts and can be fitted with a standard thermal disk with an apparent inner disk temperature {{kT}}{MCD}˜ 0.13 {{keV}} and a 0.28-14.2 keV unabsorbed luminosity LX ˜ 4 × 1043 erg s-1 in the source rest frame. The source was still detected in three Chandra observations in 2002 August, with similarly ultrasoft but fainter spectra (kTMCD ˜ 0.17 keV, LX ˜ 0.5 × 1043 erg s-1). It was not detected in later observations, including two by Chandra in 2005 October, one by XMM-Newton in 2014 January, and two by Chandra in 2014 September-October, implying a long-term flux variation factor of >14. Therefore the source could be a transient with an outburst in 2000-2002. It has a faint optical counterpart candidate, with apparent magnitudes of mF606W = 26.3 AB mag and mF814W = 25.5 AB mag in 2004 December (implying an absolute V-band magnitude of ˜-15.9 AB mag). We discuss various explanations for the source and find that it is best explained as a massive black hole (BH) embedded in the nucleus of a possibly stripped satellite galaxy, with the X-ray outburst due to tidal disruption of a surrounding star by the BH. The BH mass is ˜105 M⊙, assuming the peak X-ray luminosity at around the Eddington limit.

  6. An IRAS-Based Search for New Dusty Late-Type WC Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin

    1995-01-01

    I have examined all Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data relevant to the 173 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in an updated catalog, including the 13 stars newly discovered by Shara and coworkers. Using the W-R coordinates in these lists, I have examined the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), the Faint Source Catalog, and the Faint Source Reject Catalog, and have generated one-dimensional spatial profiles, 'ADDSCANs', and two-dimensional full-resolution images, 'FRESCOS'. The goal was to assemble the best set of observed IRAS color indices for different W-R types, in particular for known dusty late-type WC Wolf-Rayet (WCL) objects. I have also unsuccessfully sought differences in IRAS colors and absolute magnitudes between single and binary W-R stars. The color indices for the entire ensemble of W-R stars define zones in the IRAS color-color ([12] - [25], [25] - [60])-plane. By searching the PSC for otherwise unassociated sources that satisfy these colors, I have identified potential new W-R candidates, perhaps too faint to have been recognized in previous optical searches. I have extracted these candidates' IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) data and compared the spectra with the highly characteristic LRS shape for known dusty WCL stars. The 13 surviving candidates must now be ex amined by optical spectroscopy. This work represents a much more rigorous and exhaustive version of the LRS study that identified IRAS 17380 - 3031 (WR98a) as the first new W-R (WC9) star discovered by IPAS. This search should have detected dusty WCL stars to a distance of 7.0 kpc from the Sun, for l is greater than 30 degrees, and to 2.9 kpc even in the innermost galaxy. For free-free-dominated W-R stars the corresponding distances are 2.5 and 1.0 kpc, respectively.

  7. The complex high-mass star-forming region IRAS 15507-5359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Elia, D.; López-Vázquez, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The far-infrared IRAS 15507-5359 source is known to be a medium-mass star-forming region associated with a compact H II region and a near-infrared embedded cluster. We present a survey of infrared-calibrated images ranging from 1.2 to 500 μm obtained with the Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Herschel space telescope with additional archive Spitzer data. We confirm the distance to the complex to be 5.0 kpc. Three Herschel far-infrared sources are found, I, II, III, identified with dense cores at different evolutionary stages. One (III) is a starless infrared dark cloud showing, near its edge, two infrared reflection nebulae (R1) and (R2) with dispersed young stellar populations, including a knot of shocked H2 line emission. Both show considerable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission. Core II has associated a radio H II region and a deeply embedded one-million-year-old cluster (Cl 1) that contains more than 45 young stellar objects, reddened by at least 20 visual magnitudes. About 20 per cent of them show considerable infrared excess emission. Core I appears void of a near-infrared population, and coincides with a long emission bar that resembles a photodissociation front. We determine the properties of the two most luminous Class I sources in the region by fitting models of young stars with accreting discs and envelopes to their 1-500 μm spectral energy distributions. This is another example of a medium-mass region with at least three well-defined active centres of star formation separated by about 1 pc and at different evolutionary stages.

  8. Revealing the Mid-Infrared Emission Structure of IRAS 16594-4656 and IRAS 07027-7934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.; García-Lario, P.; Cañete, A. Benítez; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; García, A. M.

    2006-04-01

    TIMMI2 diffraction-limited mid-infrared images of a multipolar proto-planetary nebula IRAS 16594-4656 and a young [WC] elliptical planetary nebula IRAS 07027-7934 are presented. Their dust shells are for the first time resolved (only marginally in the case of IRAS 07027-7934) by applying the Lucy-Richardson deconvolution algorithm to the data, taken under exceptionally good seeing conditions (<=0.5"). IRAS 16594-4656 exhibits a two-peaked morphology at 8.6, 11.5, and 11.7 μm, which is mainly attributed to emission from PAHs. Our observations suggest that the central star is surrounded by a toroidal structure, observed edge-on, with a radius of 0.4" (~640 AU at an assumed distance of 1.6 kpc) and with its polar axis at P.A.~80deg, coincident with the orientation defined by only one of the bipolar outflows identified in the HST optical images. We suggest that the material expelled from the central source is currently being collimated in this direction and that the multiple outflow formation has not been coeval. IRAS 07027-7934 shows a bright, marginally extended emission (FWHM=0.3") in the mid-infrared with a slightly elongated shape along the north-south direction, consistent with the morphology detected by HST in the near-infrared. The mid-infrared emission is interpreted as the result of the combined contribution of small, highly ionized PAHs and relatively hot dust continuum. We propose that IRAS 07027-7934 may have recently experienced a thermal pulse (likely at the end of the AGB) which has produced a radical change in the chemistry of its central star. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile), on observations made with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) with the participation of ISAS and NASA, and on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space

  9. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  10. High-velocity Interstellar Bullets in IRAS 05506+2414: A Very Young Protostar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Claussen, Mark; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen; Morris, Mark; Sarkar, Geetanjali

    2008-01-01

    We have made a serendipitous discovery of an enigmatic outflow source, IRAS 05506+2414 (hereafter IRAS 05506), as part of a multiwavelength survey of pre-planetary nebulae (PPNs). The HST optical and near-infrared images show a bright compact central source with a jet-like extension, and a fan-like spray of high-velocity (with radial velocities up to 350 km/s) elongated knots which appear to emanate from it. These structures are possibly analogous to the near-IR bullets'' seen in the Orion Nebula. Interferometric observations at 2.6 mm show the presence of a continuum source and a high-velocity CO outflow, which is aligned with the optical jet structure. IRAS 05506 is most likely not a PPN. We find extended NH3 (1,1) emission toward IRAS 05506; these data, together with the combined presence of far-IR emission, H2O and OH masers, and CO and CS J=2-1 emission, strongly argue for a dense, dusty star-forming core associated with IRAS 05506. IRAS 05506 is probably an intermediate-mass or massive protostar, and the very short timescale (200 yr) of its outflows indicates that it is very young. If IRAS 05506 is a massive star, then the lack of radio continuum and the late G to early K spectral type we find from our optical spectra imply that in this object we are witnessing the earliest stages of its life, while its temperature is still too low to provide sufficient UV flux for ionization.

  11. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I - IRAS pointed observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution.

  12. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I - IRAS pointed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1989-04-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution.

  13. CO detections and IRAS observations of bright radio spiral galaxies at cz equal or less than 9000 kilometers per second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1985-01-01

    CO emission has been detected from 20 of 21 bright radio spirals with strong extended nuclear sources, including the most distant (NGC 7674) and the most luminous (IC 4553 = Arp 220, NGC 6240) galaxies yet detected in CO. All of these galaxies are rich in molecular gas, with M total(H2) = 3 x 10 to the 8th - 2 x 10 to the 10th solar masses. IRAS observations show that they have a strong far-infrared (FIR) excess, with L(FIR)/L(B) approximately equal to 1-35 and L(FIR) (40-400 microns) approximately equal to 10 to the 10th - 10 to the 12th L solar masses. The primary luminosity source for these radio cores appears to be star formation in molecular clouds. A strong correlation is found between the FIR and extended 21 cm continuum flux, implying that the fraction of massive stars formed is independent of the star formation rate. The ratio L(FIR)/M(H2) provides a measure of the current rate of star formation, which is found to be a factor 3-20 larger in these galaxies than for the ensemble of molecular clouds in the Milky Way. At these rates their molecular gas will be depleted in about 10 to the 8th yr.

  14. New Light on IRAS After DIRBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisawitz, D.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Silverberg, R. F.; Odegard, N.; Stemwedel, S.; Weiland, J.; Burdick, S.; Gautier, T. N.; Gillett, F. C.; Murdock, T. L.; Neugebauer, G.; Reach, W. T.; Wheelock, S.

    1994-12-01

    The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) both surveyed the sky in broad photometric bands nominally at wavelengths of 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. The products of these surveys are publicly available and are the foundations for a number of astronomical studies. It is thus important to understand these two similar photometric systems, particularly as the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and other IRAS extended--emission data products are essential when spatial resolution better than the DIRBE's 42(') times 42(') field of view is needed. This poster reports the results from a comparison of DIRBE and IRAS photometry. A major result, found by comparing the IRAS Zodiacal Observation History File scans to DIRBE observations made at matching solar elongation angles, is that the quoted intensities are well--described by an equation of the form I_ν(DIRBE) = G_ν I_ν(IRAS) + O_ν at all four wavelengths. Gain (G_ν) and offset (O_ν) parameters are presented, and practical advice is offered to researchers who may wish to apply a correction to the IRAS extended emission intensities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group. The COBE program is supported by the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science. The COBE and IRAS data products may be obtained from the NSSDC.

  15. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS15398-3359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeli, Per; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2015-08-01

    The Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398-3359 is located in the Lupus I cloud at a distance of 155 pc. The source is known to harbour a molecular outflow, but the region has not attracted much interest until recently. IRAS 15398 is known to show interesting chemical signatures and being one of the very nearby, young outflow sources makes it an excellent target for detailed studies of the gas kinematics of different species.We present observations of several molecular species, carried out with the Submillimeter Array and ALMA, towards the IRAS 15398 outflow. The analysis of CO emission show obvious signs of episodic mass ejections, with a dynamical time scale between the knots in the jet, of the order 100 years. This is consistent with recent ALMA results where luminosity outbursts are estimated to occur on similar time-scales. The physical properties of the outflow, such as mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy and mass-loss rate are estimated at relatively low values. We argue that this source is of a very young age, possibly younger than ~1000 years. This is consistent with recent studies of the kinematics of the inner envelope/disk. The observed line profiles were compared to full 3D radiative transfer models of the source, constructed with the Line Modelling Engine (LIME). The observed line shapes can only be understood when considering several distinctly different physical components, viz. the outflow cavity, the infalling envelope and the surrounding cloud material. This allows us to put quantitative constraints on the kinematics of the material close to the central source.

  16. A Multiwavelength Study of the OH Megamaser Galaxy IRAS16399-0937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, D.

    2015-09-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the morphology and spectral energy distribution (SED) of the OH Megamaser galaxy (OHMG) IRAS16399- 0937, based on new HST ACS broad band (F814W) and emission line (Halpha+[NII]) images and archive data from HST, 2MASS, Spitzer, Herschel and the VLA (Fig. 1). This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of 6" (3.4 kpc) and have previously been optically identified as a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission Line Region (LINER) and Starburst (SB) nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation activity is widespread, but mostly heavily obscured (Fig. 1). The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, but deep silicate absorption and absorption features due to water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus (Fig. 2 and 3). The radio emission, including the compact component associated with the IRAS16399N nucleus, is generally consistent with star formation. The global star formation rate (SFR) is 20M(sun)/yr, with the two nuclei accounting for 40% of the total (Table 2). The 0.435 - 500 micron SED was fitted with a model including stellar, dusty+PAH ISM and AGN torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, clumpyDREAM (Fig. 4). The results indicate that the IRAS16399N nucleus contains an AGN of bolometric luminosity (Lbol 10^{44} ergs/s), which is deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction 1 (Table 1). We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OH megamaser emission in IRAS16399-0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks of velocity 100 - 200 km/s. The SED fits indicate SFRs of 2.9 and 2.4 M

  17. Critically evaluated/distributed database of IRAS LRS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Accomplishments under this grant effort include: successful scientific utilization of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) database of over 150,000 scans of 7-23 micron spectra for over 50,000 celestial sources; publication in refereed journal of an additional 486 critically evaluated spectra of sources brighter than 20 Jy, completing the LRS ATLAS (Olnon and Raimond 1986 A&A) uniformly to that level, and production of an additional 1,830 critically evaluated spectra of sources brighter than 10 Jy; creation and maintenance of on-line, remotely accessible LRS spectra of over 7500 sources; cooperation with Astrophysics Data System personnel for transitioning this LRS database to the ADS access system after funding for this project expires; and publication of research highlights, which include a systematic variation of the shapes of LRS silicate features among stars of differing IRAS broad-band colors, maser characteristics and light curve asymmetries, all correlated with the chemical and physical development and processing of solid phase materials, and preliminary evidence for silicate profile variations in individual stars as a function of visual light curve phase.

  18. The Nature of IRAS 04530-6916

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Sloan, G. C.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Wood, P. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Devost, D.; Houck, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Based on its infrared (IR) colors from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), IRAS 04530-6916 has typically been classified as an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. However, it shows little K-band variability (<0.2 mag) and is exceptionally bright for an AGB star. It has also been suggested that it might be an RSG based on its brightness. Recently, though, an optical spectrum has shown strong hydrogen emission lines as well as forbidden lines, implying that rather than an evolved star, IRAS 04530-6916 may be a young stellar object (YSO). Here, we present the 5-15 micron spectrum from the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on Spitzer. The IRS data show strong emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) superimposed on a silicate absorption feature. In the spectral data archives from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), this combination of features is found almost exclusively in YSOs, HII regions, and starburst galaxies. Additionally, the position of IRAS 04530-6916 in color-color and color-magnitude diagrams is (much) more consistent with it being a young object. IRAS 04530-6916 is most likely a massive YSO, rather than being on the AGB.

  19. Molecular jet of IRAS 04166+2706

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang-Yao; Shang, Hsien; Su, Yu-Nung; Hirano, Naomi; Lee, Chin-Fei; Santiago-García, Joaquín; Tafalla, Mario; Zhang, Qizhou

    2014-01-01

    The molecular outflow from IRAS 04166+2706 was mapped with the Submillimeter Array at a 350 GHz continuum and CO J = 3-2 at an angular resolution of ∼1''. The field of view covers the central arcminute, which contains the inner four pairs of knots of the molecular jet. On the channel map, conical structures are clearly present in the low-velocity range (|V – V {sub 0}| < 10 km s{sup –1}), and the highly collimated knots appear in the extremely high velocity range (50 >|V – V {sub 0}| > 30 km s{sup –1}). The higher angular resolution of ∼1'' reveals the first blue-shifted knot (B1) that was missing in previous Plateau de Bure Interferometer observation of Santiago-García et al. at an offset of ∼6'' to the northeast of the central source. This identification completes the symmetric sequence of knots in both the blue- and red-shifted lobes of the outflow. The innermost knots R1 and B1 have the highest velocities within the sequence. Although the general features appear to be similar to previous CO J = 2-1 images in Santiago-García et al., the emission in CO J = 3-2 almost always peaks further away from the central source than that of CO J = 2-1 in the red-shifted lobe of the channel maps. This gives rise to a gradient in the line-ratio map of CO J = 3-2/J = 2-1 from head to tail within a knot. A large velocity gradient analysis suggests that the differences may reflect a higher gas kinetic temperature at the head. We also explore possible constraints imposed by the nondetection of SiO J = 8-7.

  20. CARBON STARS WITH INFRARED SPECTRA IN GROUP P OF THE IRAS/LRS DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.

    2012-10-01

    Sources with infrared spectra in Group P of the IRAS/LRS database all show polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. They are often planetary nebulae, H II regions, reflection/dark nebulae, Wolf-Rayet stars, or external galaxies. However, we noted that some carbon stars are also included in this group. We searched for and investigated all infrared spectra in Group P of the IRAS/LRS database. Finally, we found 11 previously known carbon stars and identified 8 new candidate carbon stars in Group P. Infrared spectra of these stars may present the 11.2 {mu}m SiC emission features indicative of their carbon-rich properties.

  1. IRAS variables as galactic structure tracers - Classification of the bright variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. E.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Weinberg, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of the 'bright infrared variables' (BIRVs), a sample consisting of the 300 brightest stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog with IRAS variability index VAR of 98 or greater, are investigated with the purpose of establishing which of IRAS variables are AGB stars (e.g., oxygen-rich Miras and carbon stars, as was assumed by Weinberg (1992)). Results of the analysis of optical, infrared, and microwave spectroscopy of these stars indicate that, out of 88 stars in the BIRV sample identified with cataloged variables, 86 can be classified as Miras. Results of a similar analysis performed for a color-selected sample of stars, using the color limits employed by Habing (1988) to select AGB stars, showed that, out of 52 percent of classified stars, 38 percent are non-AGB stars, including H II regions, planetary nebulae, supergiants, and young stellar objects, indicating that studies using color-selected samples are subject to misinterpretation.

  2. Water emission in NGC 1333-IRAS 4. The physical structure of the envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maret, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caux, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Castets, A.

    2002-11-01

    analysis has been carried out. We found that IRAS 4 is probably a younger system than IRAS 16293-2422. This fact, coupled with the larger distance of IRAS 4 from the Sun, fully explains the apparent difference in the molecular emission of these two sources, which is much richer in IRAS 16293-2422. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  3. Specification of IRAS confused regions. Rept. for 11 Jan-11 May 90

    SciTech Connect

    Kennealy, J.P.; Woodward, C.E.; Korte, R.M.

    1990-06-19

    This document reports on the efforts to define the IRAS confused regions. The subset will be limited by the availability of survey data in the regions which are identified as point source confused by the current (Ver 2.0) IRAS point source catalog (PSC). Available coincident AO data will be an important validation source. The sensitivity and spatial resolution capabilities of the IRAS telescope failed to resolve individual sources in many regions of high source density. Approximately 10% of the sources catalogued in the PSC are tagged as 'confused' in some way; the location of a source, the number of sources at a location, the temporal occurrence and variation of a source, and/or the intensity of a source(s) was not discernible by the source identification/discrimination methods used to compile the PSC. In these regions of infrared clutter, the PSC can underestimate the number of point sources by as much as a factor of 3 to 5 in the IRAS Bands 1 and 2 (12 and 25 micrometers respectively). Analysis for improved source counts is designed to enhance the description and spatial definition of the mid- and long wavelength infrared celestial background, and includes generation of high spatial resolution images of the confused regions. Analysis of these images will improve the accuracy of source counts, locations, and flux estimates in the PSC. More detailed knowledge of the high source density regions will improve our ability to understand star formation and galactic evolution. It will also greatly improve our knowledge of a type of celestial background which presents a serious clutter problem for space-born surveillance system sensors.

  4. From IRAS Excesses to Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, D.; Lagrange, A.-M.

    2014-09-01

    Noted only as a shell star prior to 1984, beta Pictoris was originally observed in the first months of the IRAS mission as a comparison object for Vega. When Fred Gillett presented spectral energy distributions of Vega, Fomalhaut, beta Pictoris, and epsilon Eridani at the Protostars and Planets II conference, the news was relayed quickly to Brad Smith and Rich Terrile who were observing at Las Campanas with a coronagraph. Our understanding that beta Pictoris and other debris disks are clear evidence of maturing planetary systems solidified over the following 15 years with analyses of IRAS & ISO data coupled with spectroscopic observations of Falling Evaporating Bodies.

  5. High spatial resolution restoration of IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, Gary L.; Inguva, R.; Dyck, H. Melvin; Canterna, R.; Hackwell, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A general technique to improve the spatial resolution of the IRAS AO data was developed at The Aerospace Corporation using the Maximum Entropy algorithm of Skilling and Gull. The technique has been applied to a variety of fields and several individual AO MACROS. With this general technique, resolutions of 15 arcsec were achieved in 12 and 25 micron images and 30 arcsec in 60 and 100 micron images. Results on galactic plane fields show that both photometric and positional accuracy achieved in the general IRAS survey are also achieved in the reconstructed images.

  6. Hot DOGs: The Most Luminous Galaxies Found by WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Griffith, Roger; Yan, Lin; Stern, Daniel; Stanford, Adam; Blain, Andrew; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Petty, Sara

    2013-02-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has achieved its fundamental goal by delivering its all-sky survey at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 (micron) (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. One of the two primary science objectives for WISE is to identify the most luminous galaxies in the Universe (Ultra-Luminous IR Galaxies, or ULIRGs). We have used WISE photometry to select an all- sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous, and for which Herschel far-IR follow-up observations are underway. The objects are prominent in W3 and W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2. Available spectroscopy and far IR photometry for these objects show they typically have redshifts z > 2 and luminosities over 10^13 L_odot, with about 10% exceeding 10^14 L_odot and rivaling the brightest known QSOs. Their dust is more than twice as hot as other IR luminous objects: they are hot dust obscured galaxies or ``hot DOGs," and may represent a new phase in galaxy evolution. We request NOAO time to obtain redshifts and optical and near IR photometry for the all-sky sample of the brightest hot DOGs, all of which are in our Herschel program. With existing and allocated observations, this request should complete the acquisition of these crucial data for this primary WISE science objective.

  7. ASASSN-16ll: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in IRAS F18594+5429

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.

    2016-10-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy IRAS F18594+5429.

  8. An analysis of a full sky redshift survey of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Karl Booth

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an all-sky redshift survey of 5307 galaxies extracted from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalog. The analysis presented in this thesis focuses on the spatial distribution and clustering of IRAS galaxies in this survey. We present an in-depth analysis of the possibility of density evolution in the catalogue. We conclude that the 1.2 Jy IRAS survey is consistent with no evolution, if the comoving density of galaxies is characterized as evolving proportional to (1 + z)alpha, we find alpha = 2 +/- 3, where the quoted error includes both random and systematic components. The random errors in alpha, of order 2, arise primarily from counting statistics, and are comparable to those found by previous authors. We discuss a variety of important random and systematic errors which decrease the certainty with which we can measure evolution: limited knowledge of the cosmological model, the unknown intrinsic spectral energy distribution of IRAS galaxies from 16 to 140 mu m, the effect of density fluctuations, a Malmquist-like bias arising from flux errors in the parent IRAS Point Source Catalog, and possible incompleteness of the sample at high redshifts and low Galactic latitudes. We show that the Malmquist bias could result in a significant overestimation of the evolution rate, especially if the catalog has a flux limit near the completion limit of the Point Source Catalog. We examine the two-point correlation function of the sample in both real and redshift space. The redshift space correlation function, xi(s), is shown to be robust and independent of the depth of the sample in which it is computed. We have also computed the Fourier conjugate of the correlation function, the power spectrum of galaxy clustering, P(k), for the 1.2 Jy IRAS survey using a window function which minimizes the aliasing due to the sample boundaries. We compare the IRAS power spectrum qualitatively with a variety of theoretical models, and conclude

  9. AGB Stars In AKARI And IRAS Two-color Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, Kristen; Sjouwerman, L.; Claussen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Infrared measurements such as from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) all-sky survey and the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Galactic plane survey have been used to statistically distinguish between different types of objects. In particular, two-color diagrams characterize Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars with different circumstellar shell opacity and thickness, and whether the source is oxygen- or carbon-rich in nature (Van der Veen & Habing 1988, A&A 194, 125; Sjouwerman et al. 2009, ApJ 795, 1554). We present two-color diagrams for AGB stars using infrared data from the AKARI satellite all-sky survey (e.g. Ishihara et al. 2010, A&A 514, A1) and created categories analogous to those for IRAS and MSX two-color diagrams. Our system specifically selects for circumstellar envelopes that are conducive in sustaining SiO maser emission. About 200 new sources were identified in the AKARI data. This research was supported by the Research Experience for Undergraduate Program of the National Science Foundation, and was completed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, New Mexico.

  10. Ground-based follow up of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennefeld, M.; Karoji, H.; Bouchet, P.; Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1987-01-01

    Optical, near infrared, radio continuum and HI observations were undertaken of the galaxies identified with IRAS sources in a few fields roughly of the size of a sky survey plate. Results are presented from two fields at galactic latitude +27 and +43 deg over a total area of 100 sq. deg. These regions contained 115 IRAS point sources, out of which 26 were identified with stars and 81 with faint galaxies, 10 of which were difficult to recognize on the Schmidt plates. Spectroscopy was obtained with the ESO telescopes at a resolution of about 10 A. The vast majority of galaxies have low excitation spectra dominated by low ionization lines. The spectra are typical of HII region type galaxies, however of much lower excitation that other starbursts galaxies. The importance of the reddening as determined from the H alpha/H beta ratio is stressed: the visual absorption A sub v ranges from 2 to 6 magnitudes and as a consequence the corrected L sub IR/L sub B ratios are considerably reduced if those reddenings apply to the whole galaxy.

  11. On the calibration of the IRAS low-resolution spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Cohen, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The need for corrections to the LRS spectra based on a study of a number of normal stars observed by IRAS is discussed. The spectra of bright stars, such as alpha CMa, were found to be inconsistent with blackbody sources, this effect being generally observed in sources earlier than about K3. An attempt is made to correct the LRS spectra by changing the blackbody calibration temperature for Alpha Tau, assumed to be a 10,000-K blackbody source for the original LRS flux calibration. It is found that an anomalously low color temperature must be assumed for alpha Tau to produce reasonable results for earlier-type stars. Corrections based on a set of stars with well-determined effective temperatures are examined, as are the resulting color temperatures for 72 stars with Atlas spectra.

  12. The Most Luminous Object in the Universe: Shrouded Quasar or Proto-Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used ASCA to observe the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724, which is identified with a galaxy at a redshift of 2.286. When first discovered, it was believed to be the most luminous object in the universe. Subsequent HST images have established that it is gravitationally-lensed by a foreground cluster. It is still a very powerful object, but not extraordinarily so. Observations at other wavebands have not established whether it is a dust-shrouded quasar or a young, massive galaxy in the process of formation. Since quasars are strong emitters of hard X-rays, while proto-galaxies would not be, and since the opacity of gas and dust is relatively small in the energy regime probed by ASCA (3 to 30 keV in the galaxy rest frame), we undertook these observations to search for a heavily shrouded quasar that might be invisible at lower energies. However, the observations did not detect any emission from this object. This either means that the galaxy is in fact powered by a starburst or that the putative quasar is located behind a very high column density of absorbing gas (N_H > 10(exp 25)/sq cm), so that not even hard X-rays are transmitted. A hidden quasar should be visible in reflected light in X-ray data of higher sensitivity. Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory or ESA's XMM are required to settle the matter. No publication resulted from our null result.

  13. THE TOTAL LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY OF LUMINOUS BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E N

    1925-09-18

    Methods are described for measuring the light emitted by an emulsion of luminous bacteria of given thickness, and calculating the light emitted by a single bacterium, measuring 1.1 x 2.2 micra, provided there is no absorption of light in the emulsion. At the same time, the oxygen consumed by a single bacterium was measured by recording the time for the bacteria to use up .9 of the oxygen dissolved in sea water from air (20 per cent oxygen). The luminescence intensity does not diminish until the oxygen concentration falls below 2 per cent, when the luminescence diminishes rapidly. Above 2 per cent oxygen (when the oxygen dissolving in sea water from pure oxygen at 760 mm. Hg pressure = 100 per cent) the bacteria use equal amounts of oxygen in equal times, while below 2 per cent oxygen it seems very likely that rate of oxygen absorption is proportional to oxygen concentration. By measuring the time for a tube of luminous bacteria of known concentration saturated with air (20 per cent oxygen) to begin to darken (2 per cent oxygen) we can calculate the oxygen absorbed by one bacterium per second. The bacteria per cc. are counted on a blood counting slide or by a centrifugal method, after measuring the volume of a single bacterium (1.695 x 10(-12) cc.). Both methods gave results in good agreement with each other. The maximum value for the light from a single bacterium was 24 x 10(-14) lumens or 1.9 x 10(-14) candles. The maximum value for lumen-seconds per mg. of oxygen absorbed was 14. The average value for lumen-seconds per mg. O(2) was 9.25. The maximum values were selected in calculating the efficiency of light production, since some of the bacteria counted may not be producing light, although they may still be using oxygen. The "diet" of the bacteria was 60 per cent glycerol and 40 per cent peptone. To oxidize this mixture each mg. of oxygen would yield 3.38 gm. calories or 14.1 watts per second. 1 lumen per watt is therefore produced by a normal bacterium which

  14. An Embedded Active Nucleus in the OH Megamaser Galaxy IRAS16399-0937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Gallimore, J.; Kharb, P.; Curran, R. L.; O'Dea, C.; Baum, S.; Elitzur, M.; Mittal, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS16399-0937, based on new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F814W and Hα+[N II] images and archive data from HST, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and the Very Large Array. This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of ~6'' (3.4 kpc) and have previously been identified based on optical spectra as a low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) and starburst nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation is mostly heavily obscured. The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, but deep silicate and molecular absorption features are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus. The 0.435-500 μm spectral energy distribution was fitted with a model including stellar, interstellar medium and active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, CLUMPYDREAM. The results indicate that the IRAS16399N contains an AGN (L bol ~ 1044 erg s-1) deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction ≈1. We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OHM emission in IRAS16399-0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks (v ~ 100-200 km s-1). We infer that the ~108 M ⊙ black hole in IRAS16399N is accreting at a small fraction (~1%) of its Eddington rate. The low accretion rate and modest nuclear star formation rates suggest that while the gas-rich major merger forming the IRAS16399-0937 system has triggered widespread star formation, the massive gas inflows expected from merger simulations have not yet fully developed. Based partly on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space

  15. AN EMBEDDED ACTIVE NUCLEUS IN THE OH MEGAMASER GALAXY IRAS16399–0937

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Curran, R. L.; O'Dea, C.; Mittal, R.; Gallimore, J.; Kharb, P.; Baum, S.; Elitzur, M.

    2015-01-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS16399–0937, based on new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F814W and Hα+[N II] images and archive data from HST, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and the Very Large Array. This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of ∼6'' (3.4 kpc) and have previously been identified based on optical spectra as a low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) and starburst nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation is mostly heavily obscured. The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, but deep silicate and molecular absorption features are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus. The 0.435-500 μm spectral energy distribution was fitted with a model including stellar, interstellar medium and active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, CLUMPYDREAM. The results indicate that the IRAS16399N contains an AGN (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction ≈1. We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OHM emission in IRAS16399–0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks (v ∼ 100-200 km s{sup –1}). We infer that the ∼10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} black hole in IRAS16399N is accreting at a small fraction (∼1%) of its Eddington rate. The low accretion rate and modest nuclear star formation rates suggest that while the gas-rich major merger forming the IRAS16399–0937 system has triggered widespread star formation, the massive gas inflows expected from merger simulations have not yet fully developed.

  16. Molecular gas in the star-forming region IRAS 08589-4714

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldaño, Hugo P.; Vásquez, J.; Cappa, C. E.; Gómez, M.; Duronea, N.; Rubio, M.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present an analysis of the region IRAS 08589-4714 with the aim of characterizing the molecular environment. Methods: We observed the 12CO(3 -2), 13CO(3 -2), C18O(3 -2), HCO+(3 -2), and HCN(3 -2) molecular lines in a region of 150''× 150'', centered on the IRAS source, to analyze the distribution and characteristics of the molecular gas linked to the IRAS source. Results: The molecular gas distribution reveals a molecular clump that is coincident with IRAS 08589-4714 and with a dust clump detected at 1.2 mm. The molecular clump is 0.45 pc in radius and its mass and H2 volume density are 310 M⊙ and 1.2 × 104 cm-3, respectively. Two overdensities were identified within the clump in HCN(3-2) and HCO+(3-2) lines. A comparison of the LTE and virial masses suggests that the clump is collapsing in regions that harbor young stellar objects. An analysis of the molecular lines suggests that they are driving molecular outflows. Final reduced APEX data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A115

  17. OUTFLOWS AND MASSIVE STARS IN THE PROTOCLUSTER IRAS 05358+3543

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, Adam G.; Bally, John; Yan Chihung; Williams, Jonathan P. E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.ed

    2009-12-10

    We present new near-IR H{sub 2}, CO J = 2-1, and CO J = 3-2 observations to study outflows in the massive star-forming region IRAS 05358+3543. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope H{sub 2} images and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope CO data cubes of the IRAS 05358 region reveal several new outflows, most of which emerge from the dense cluster of submillimeter cores associated with the Sh 2-233IR NE cluster to the northeast of IRAS 05358. We used Apache Point Observatory JHK spectra to determine line-of-sight velocities of the outflowing material. Analysis of archival Very Large Array cm continuum data and previously published very long baseline interferometry observations reveal a massive star binary as a probable source of one or two of the outflows. We have identified probable sources for six outflows and candidate counterflows for seven out of a total of 11 seen to be originating from the IRAS 05358 clusters. We classify the clumps within Sh 2-233IR NE as an early protocluster and Sh 2-233IR SW as a young cluster, and conclude that the outflow energy injection rate approximately matches the turbulent decay rate in Sh 2-233IR NE.

  18. Chemical modelling of water deuteration in IRAS16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakelam, V.; Vastel, C.; Aikawa, Y.; Coutens, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.

    2014-12-01

    IRAS 16293-2422 is a well-studied low-mass protostar characterized by a strong level of deuterium fractionation. In the line of sight of the protostellar envelope, an additional absorption layer, rich in singly and doubly deuterated water has been discovered by a detailed multiline analysis of HDO. To model the chemistry in this source, the gas-grain chemical code NAUTILUS has been used with an extended deuterium network. For the protostellar envelope, we solve the chemical reaction network in infalling fluid parcels in a protostellar core model. For the foreground cloud, we explored several physical conditions (density, cosmic ionization rate, C/O ratio). The main results of the paper are that gas-phase abundances of H2O, HDO and D2O observed in the inner regions of IRAS16293-2422 are lower than those predicted by a 1D dynamical/chemical (hot corino) model in which the ices are fully evaporated. The abundance in the outer part of the envelope presents chaotic profiles due to adsorption/evaporation competition, very different from the constant abundance assumed for the analysis of the observations. We also found that the large abundances of gas-phase H2O, HDO and D2O observed in the absorption layer are more likely explained by exothermic surface reactions rather than photodesorption processes.

  19. Study of the Byurakan-IRAS galaxy sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Harutyunyan, Gohar S.

    2013-03-01

    The Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy (BIG) sample (Mickaelian 1995) is the result of optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at high-galactic latitudes using the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra (Markarian et al. 1989). Among the 1577 objects 1178 galaxies have been identified. Most are dusty spiral galaxies and there are a number of ULIRGs among these objects. Our spectroscopic observations carried out with three telescopes (Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory 2.6m, Russian Special Astrophysical Observatory 6m and Observatoire de Haute Provence 1.93m) (Mickaelian & Sargsyan 2010) for 172 galaxies, as well as the SDSS DR8 spectra for 83 galaxies make up the list of 255 spectroscopically studied BIG objects. The classification to activity types for narrow-line emission galaxies has been carried out using the diagnostic diagrams by Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987). All possible physical characteristics have been measured and/or calculated, including radial velocities and distances, angular and physical sizes, absolute magnitudes and luminosities (both optical and IR). IR luminosities and star-formation rates have been calculated from the IR fluxes (Duc et al. 1997).

  20. THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY (VANDAM) SURVEY OF PERSEUS PROTOSTARS. RESOLVING THE SUB-ARCSECOND BINARY SYSTEM IN NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chandler, Claire J.; Perez, Laura M.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Harris, Robert J.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Melis, Carl; Kratter, Kaitlin; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Plunkett, Adele L. E-mail: jeskj@nbi.dk

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting a Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to ∼0.''06 and ∼0.''35 in the Ka band and C band, respectively. Here we present first results from this survey that enable us to examine the source NGC 1333 IRAS2A in unprecedented detail and resolve it into a protobinary system separated by 0.''621 ± 0.''006 (∼143 AU) at 8 mm, 1 cm, and 4 cm. These two sources (IRAS2A VLA1 and VLA2) are likely driving the two orthogonal outflows known to originate from IRAS2A. The brighter source IRAS2A VLA1 is extended perpendicular to its outflow in the VLA data, with a deconvolved size of 0.''055 (∼13 AU), possibly tracing a protostellar disk. The recently reported candidate companions (IRAS2A MM2 and MM3) are not detected in either our VLA data, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 1.3 mm data, or Submillimeter Array (SMA) 850 μm data. SMA CO (J = 3 → 2), CARMA CO (J = 2 → 1), and lower-resolution CARMA CO (J = 1 → 0) observations are used to examine the outflow origins and the nature of the candidate companions to IRAS2A VLA1. The CO (J = 3 → 2) and (J = 2 → 1) data show that IRAS2A MM2 is coincident with a bright CO emission spot in the east-west outflow, and IRAS2A MM3 is within the north-south outflow. In contrast, IRAS2A VLA2 lies at the east-west outflow symmetry point. We propose that IRAS2A VLA2 is the driving source of the east-west outflow and a true companion to IRAS2A VLA1, whereas IRAS2A MM2 and MM3 may not be protostellar.

  1. Accretion disks in the IRAS 23151+5912 region

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.; Migenes, V. E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx

    2014-06-20

    We present observations of radio continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.6 cm and H{sub 2}O masers toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 23151+5912 carried out with the Very Large Array-Expanded Very Large Array (in transition phase) in configuration A. We detected one continuum source at 1.3 cm in the region, but the counterpart of this radio continuum source at 3.6 cm was not detected at a level of 3σ. We also detected 13 water maser spots toward IRAS 23151+5912, which are distributed in three groups aligned along the northeast-southwest direction. Our results suggest that the 1.3 cm emission is consistent with a hypercompact H II region, probably with an embedded zero-age main-sequence star of type B2. In particular, we find that this young star is spatially associated with a maser group, which is tracing a disk-like structure of about 460 AU. We also find that the masers of the second group are probably describing a circumstellar disk of about 86 AU, whose central protostar, still undetected, should have a mass of ∼11 M {sub ☉}. We also suggest that the third water maser group is possibly associated with the SiO outflow and the undetected driving source of the system. Finally, we noted that the 1.3 cm continuum source and the three maser groups are aligned in the northeast-southwest direction, similar to the elongation of the large ionized region, which probably is the result of shock-wave induced star formation on the densest region of the medium.

  2. The statistical uncertainty of flux densities in the IRAS serendipitous survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutri, Roc M.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical uncertainty in the flux densities reported in the IRAS Serendipitous Survey Catalog (1986) is analyzed by examining differences in the measurements of sources in two independent observations. An assessment of the statistical uncertainty as a function of flux density in the Catalog has been made by accumulating these differences for over 4000 sources spanning a brightness range from 0.05 to over 20 Jy. The functional forms of the relative uncertainties at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns are presented.

  3. Proof of Ira Gessel's lattice path conjecture

    PubMed Central

    Kauers, Manuel; Koutschan, Christoph; Zeilberger, Doron

    2009-01-01

    We present a computer-aided, yet fully rigorous, proof of Ira Gessel's tantalizingly simply stated conjecture that the number of ways of walking 2n steps in the region x + y ≥ 0,y ≥ 0 of the square lattice with unit steps in the east, west, north, and south directions, that start and end at the origin, equals 16n(5/6)n(1/2)n(5/3)n(2)n.

  4. Hot DOGs: The Most Luminous Galaxies Found by WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has achieved its fundamental goal by delivering an all-sky survey at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 (micron) (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. One of the two primary science objectives for WISE is to identify the most luminous galaxies in the Universe. We have used WISE photometry to select an all-sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous, and for which Herschel far-IR follow-up observations are 99% complete. The objects are prominent in W3 and W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2. The spectroscopy and far IR photometry for these objects show they typically have redshifts z > 2 and luminosities over 10^13 L_⊙, with about 5 - 10% exceeding 10^14 L_⊙ and rivaling the brightest known QSOs. Their dust is more than twice as hot as other IR luminous objects: they are hot dust obscured galaxies or ``hot DOGs," and may represent a new phase in galaxy evolution. Because our 2012B allocation had mixed weather, we request 2013B NOAO time to complete the collection of redshifts and optical and near IR photometry for this all-sky sample of the brightest hot DOGs. With existing and allocated observations, this request should complete the acquisition of these crucial data for this primary WISE science objective.

  5. INTEGRAL Spectroscopy of IRAS 17208-0014: Implications for the Evolutionary Scenarios of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Santiago; Colina, Luis

    2003-07-01

    New integral field optical fiber spectroscopy obtained with the INTEGRAL system, together with archival HST WFPC2 and NICMOS images, has been used to investigate the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) IRAS 17208-0014, one of the coldest and most luminous objects in the IRAS 1 Jy sample. We have found that the optical nucleus is not coincident with the true (near-IR and dynamical) nucleus, but that it is displaced by 1.3 kpc (1.5") from it. As a consequence, the previous optical spectral classifications for the nucleus of this galaxy have to be changed from H II to LINER. The ionized gas emission is concentrated around the optical nucleus, where a young (5-6 Myr), massive [(3+/-1)×108 Msolar], and luminous [(6+/-2)×1010 Lsolar] starburst is detected. Contrary to what is found in dynamically young ULIRGs, no strong line emission tracing star-forming regions, or tidal dwarf galaxies, is detected in the inner parts of the tidal tails. The two-dimensional gas velocity field identifies the optically faint K-band nucleus as the dynamical nucleus of the galaxy and shows that the 3 kpc, tilted (i~35deg) disk is rotating at Δvsini=250 km s-1. Radial motions of gas are found along the minor kinematic axis, which, according to the geometry of the system, are well interpreted as inflows perpendicular to the inner disk. The existence of such inflows supports the idea that, as a consequence of the merging process, gas is channeling from the external regions, several kiloparsecs away, into the nuclear regions where the massive starburst reported above is taking place. The kinematical, morphological, and photometric evidence presented here supports the idea that in IRAS 17208-0014 we are witnessing a luminous, cool ULIRG that is at the final coalescence phase of a system composed of two spiral galaxies with m<=m* and a mass ratio of ~2:1, each consisting of a disk+bulge internal structure, that have been involved in a prograde encounter. This system will most likely evolve

  6. IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.

    2002-01-01

    Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

  7. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; Mccallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-01-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  8. Wide Field CO Mapping in the Region of IRAS 19312+1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Ladeyschikov, Dmitry A.; Sobolev, Andrej M.; Zhang, Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Yung, Bosco H. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of wide field CO mapping in the region of IRAS 19312+1950. This Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) object exhibits SiO/H2O/OH maser emission, and is embedded in a chemically rich molecular component, the origin of which is still unknown. In order to reveal the entire structure and gas mass of the surrounding molecular component for the first time, we have mapped a wide region around IRAS 19312+1950 in the 12CO J = 1-0, 13CO J = 1-0 and C18O J = 1-0 lines using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In conjunction with archival CO maps, we investigated a region up to 20‧ × 20‧ in size around this IRAS object. We calculated the CO gas mass assuming local thermal equilibrium, the stellar velocity through the interstellar medium assuming an analytic model of bow shock, and the absolute luminosity, using the latest archival data and trigonometric parallax distance. The derived gas mass (225 M ⊙-478 M ⊙) of the molecular component and the relatively large luminosity (2.63 × 104 L ⊙) suggest that the central SiO/H2O/OH maser source is a red supergiant rather than an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star or post-AGB star.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLA & Chandra obs. of IRAS20126+4104 region (Montes+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V.

    2015-11-01

    We observed the IRAS 20126+4104 region with the Chandra ACIS-I instrument on 2003 March 17 for a total exposure time of 39.35ks. C-band (6cm) continuum observations of the massive star-forming region IRAS 20126+4104 were conducted with the VLA operated by NRAO on 2011 August 7. These data are augmented by NIR and optical archival data. We identify 150 X-ray sources, 88 of which have NIR counterparts. For the Mid-IR wavelength regions we searched the Spitzer Enhanced Imaging Products Point Source catalog. (3 data files).

  10. La Región de formación estelar masiva IRAS 085894714

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldaño, H.; Vázques, J.; Cappa, C. E.; Gómez, M.; Rubio, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this contribution we present an analysis of the IRAS 085894714 region with the aim of characterizing the molecular environment and deriving physical properties of young massive cores likely associated with this source. We use the APEX telescope to detect the CO, CO, and CO lines in 32 transition. We observe two molecular cores close to the IRAS source position. We estimate the LTE mass in 410 M for the principal core, which has a H mean density cm and a column density cm, characteristic of a massive core in a star formation process. We identify counterparts on the WISE and Herschel images for both cores and find two molecular outflows associated with each young embedded source.

  11. Ongoing star formation in the protocluster IRAS 22134+5834

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Audard, Marc; Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Busquet, Gemma; Palau, Aina; Beuther, Henrik; Tan, Jonathan C.; Estalella, Robert; Isella, Andrea; Gueth, Frédéric; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Massive stars form in clusters, and their influence on nearby starless cores is still poorly understood. The protocluster associated with IRAS 22134+5834 represents an excellent laboratory for studying the influence of massive YSOs on nearby starless cores and the possible implications in the clustered star formation process. Methods: IRAS 22134+5834 was observed in the cm range with (E)VLA, 3 mm with CARMA, 2 mm with PdBI, and 1.3 mm with SMA, to study both the continuum emission and the molecular lines that trace different physical conditions of the gas. Results: The multiwavelength centimeter continuum observations revealed two radio sources within the cluster, VLA1 and VLA2. VLA1 is considered to be an optically thin UCHii region with a size of 0.01 pc that sits at the edge of the near-infrared (NIR) cluster. The flux of ionizing photons of the VLA1 corresponds to a B1 ZAMS star. VLA2 is associated with an infrared point source and has a negative spectral index. We resolved six millimeter continuum cores at 2 mm, MM2 is associated with the UCHii region VLA1, and other dense cores are distributed around the UCHii region. Two high-mass starless clumps (HMSC), HMSC-E (east) and HMSC-W (west), are detected around the NIR cluster with N2H+(1-0) and NH3 emission, and they show different physical and chemical properties. Two N2D+ cores are detected on an NH3 filament close to the UCHii region with a projected separation of ~8000 AU at the assumed distance of 2.6 kpc. The kinematic properties of the molecular line emission confirm that the UCHii region is expanding and that the molecular cloud around the NIR cluster is also expanding. Conclusions: Our multiwavelength study has revealed different generations of star formation in IRAS 22134+5834. The formed intermediate-to-massive stars show a strong impact on nearby starless clumps. We propose that the starless clumps and HMPOs formed at the edge of the cluster while the stellar wind from the UCHii region and the

  12. Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Sametoglu, Ferhat

    2008-11-01

    Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations.

    PubMed

    Sametoglu, Ferhat

    2008-11-01

    Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

  14. Detection of glycolaldehyde toward the solar-type protostar NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutens, A.; Persson, M. V.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Wampfler, S. F.; Lykke, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Glycolaldehyde is a key molecule in the formation of biologically relevant molecules such as ribose. We report its detection with the Plateau de Bure interferometer toward the Class 0 young stellar object NGC 1333 IRAS2A, which is only the second solar-type protostar for which this prebiotic molecule is detected. Local thermodynamic equilibrium analyses of glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol (the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde), and methyl formate (the most abundant isomer of glycolaldehyde) were carried out. The relative abundance of ethylene glycol to glycolaldehyde is found to be ~5 - higher than in the Class 0 source IRAS 16293-2422 (~1), but similar to the lower limits derived in comets (≥3-6). The different ethylene glycol-to-glycolaldehyde ratios in the two protostars might be related to different CH3OH:CO compositions of the icy grain mantles. In particular, a more efficient hydrogenation on the grains in NGC 1333 IRAS2A would favor the formation of both methanol and ethylene glycol. In conclusion, it is possible that like NGC 1333 IRAS2A, other low-mass protostars show high ethylene glycol-to-glycolaldehyde abundance ratios. The cometary ratios might consequently be inherited from earlier stages of star formation if the young Sun experienced conditions similar to NGC 1333 IRAS2A. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Figures 3-4 and Table 1 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. The Most Luminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Woosley, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Recent observations have revealed a stunning diversity of extremely luminous supernovae, seemingly increasing in radiant energy without bound. We consider simple approximate limits for what existing models can provide for the peak luminosity and total radiated energy for non-relativistic, isotropic stellar explosions. The brightest possible supernova is a Type I explosion powered by a sub-millisecond magnetar with field strength B ∼ few × {10}13 G. In extreme cases, such models might reach a peak luminosity of 2× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and radiate a total energy of up to 4× {10}52 {erg}. Other less luminous models are also explored, including prompt hyper-energetic explosions in red supergiants, pulsational-pair instability supernovae, pair-instability supernovae, and colliding shells. Approximate analytic expressions and limits are given for each case. Excluding magnetars, the peak luminosity is near 3× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 for the brightest models and the corresponding limit on total radiated energy is 3× {10}51 {erg}. Barring new physics, supernovae with a light output over 3× {10}51 erg must be rotationally powered, either during the explosion itself or after, the most obvious candidate being a rapidly rotating magnetar. A magnetar-based model for the recent transient event, ASASSN-15lh is presented that strains, but does not exceed the limits of what the model can provide.

  16. IRAS 12556-7731: a "chamaeleonic" lithium-rich M-giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J. M.; Biazzo, K.; Covino, E.; Frasca, A.; Bedin, L. R.

    2011-07-01

    Aims: In this letter we characterise IRAS 12556-7731 as the first lithium-rich M-type giant. Based on its late spectral type and high lithium content, and because of its proximity in angular distance to the Chamaeleon II star-forming region, the star was misclassified as a young low-mass star in a previous work. Methods: Based on HARPS data, synthetic spectral modelling, and proper motions, we derive the astrophysical parameters and kinematics of the star and discuss its evolutionary status. Results: This solar-mass red giant (Teff = 3460 ± 60 K and log g = 0.6 ± 0.2) is characterised by a relatively fast rotation (vsini ~ 8 km s-1), slightly subsolar metallicity and a high-lithium abundance, A(Li) = 2.4 ± 0.2 dex. We discuss IRAS 12556-7731 within the context of other known lithium-rich K-type giants. Because it is close to the tip of the red giant branch, IRAS 12556-7731 is the coolest lithium-rich giant known so far, and it is among the least massive and most luminous giants where enhancement of lithium has been detected. Among several possible explanations, we cannot preclude the possibility that the lithium enhancement and rapid rotation of the star were triggered by the engulfment of a brown dwarf or a planet. Based on HARPS observations collected at the La Silla Observations.Figure 4 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. A molecular line study of NGC 1333/IRAS 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.; Sandell, Goran; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Groesbeck, T. D.; Mundy, Lee G.; Aspin, Colin

    1995-01-01

    Molecular line surveys and fully sampled spectral line maps at 1.3 and 0.87 mm are used to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of the extreme Class I sources IRAS 4A and 4B in the L1450/NGC 1333 molecular cloud complex. A very well collimated, jetlike molecular flow emanates from IRAS 4A, with a dynamical age of a few thousand years. Symmetric, clumpy structure along the outflow lobes suggests that there is considerable variability in the mass-loss rate or wind velocity even at this young age. Molecular emission lines toward IRAS 4A and 4B are observed to be weak in the velocity range corresponding to quiescent material surrounding the young stellar objects (YSOs). Depletion factors of 10-20 are observed for all molecules, including CO, even for very conservative mass estimates from the measured millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum. However, abundance scaled with respect to CO are similar to other dark molecular cloud cores. Such depletions could be mimicked by high dust and optical depths or increased grain emissivities at the observing frequencies of 230 and 435 GHz, but the millimeter and submillimeter spectral energy distributions suggest that this is unlikely over the single-dish size scales of 5000-10,000 AU. Dense, outflowing gas is found to be kinematically, but not spatially, distinct from the quiescent material on these size scales. If CO is used as a chemical standard for the high-velocity gas, we find substantial enhancements in abundances of several molecules in outflowing material, most notably CS, SIO, and CH3OH. The SiO emission is kinematically well displaced from the bulk cloud velocity and likely arises from directly shocked material. As is the case for CO, however, the outflow features from more volatile species are centered near the cloud velocity and are often characterized by quite low rotational temperatures. We suggest that grain-grain collisions induced by velocity shear zones surrounding the outflow axes transiently

  18. Detection of H I, OH, CO, and optical imaging of the distant galaxy IRAS 12112 + 0305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Kazes, I.; Sanders, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    The detection of H I absorption and OH and CO emission from the galaxy IRAS 12112 + 0305, which is receding from the sun at about 7 percent of the speed of light is reported. This galaxy, which appears to be an ongoing merger, radiates about 2 x 10 to the 12th solar luminosities in the infrared. The H I, OH, and CO spectra are indicative of large turbulent motions. From the millimeter wave CO observations, a total mass of molecular gas of 4 x 10 to the 10th solar masses is inferred. The OH emission in the 1667 MHz line is the most luminous extragalactic OH maser reported so far, with an isotropic luminosity of 1800 solar luminosities.

  19. Complex Resonance Absorption Structure in the X-Ray Spectrum of IRAS 13349+2438

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Behar, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Brinkman, A. C.; Boller, Th.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Starling, R.; Liedahl, D. A.; Clavel, J.

    2000-01-01

    The luminous infrared-loud quasar IRAS 13349+2438 was observed with the XMM - Newton Observatory as part of the Performance Verification program. The spectrum obtained by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) exhibits broad (FWHM - 1400 km/s) absorption lines from highly ionized elements including hydrogen- and helium-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and several iron L - shell ions (Fe XVII - XX). Also shown in the spectrum is the first astrophysical detection of a broad absorption feature around lambda = 16 - 17 A identified as an unresolved transition array (UTA) of 2p - 3d inner-shell absorption by iron M-shell ions in a much cooler medium; a feature that might be misidentified as an O VII edge when observed with moderate resolution spectrometers. No absorption edges are clearly detected in the spectrum. We demonstrate that the RGS spectrum of IRAS 13349+2438 exhibits absorption lines from two distinct regions, one of which is tentatively associated with the medium that produces the optical/UV reddening.

  20. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Catalogs and Atlases. Explanatory Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, T. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission is described. An overview of the mission, a description of the satellite and its telescope system, and a discussion of the mission design, requirements, and inflight modifications are given. Data reduction, flight tests, flux reconstruction and calibration, data processing, and the formats of the IRAS catalogs and atlases are also considered.

  1. IRAS constraints on the sizes of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Veeder, Glenn J., Jr.; Dunbar, R. Scott; Lebofsky, Larry A.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal emission models indicate that Charon contributes a significant amount of the infrared radiation detected by IRAS during the observation of mutual eclipse events. The IRAS observations also show that the most probable diameters for Pluto and Charon are 2200 and 1300 (+ or - 150) km. These results are consistent with there being some atmosphere on Pluto.

  2. Asteroid magnitudes, UBV colors, and IRAS albedos and diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper lists absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for known asteroids numbered through 3318. The values presented are those used in reducing asteroid IR flux data obtained with the IRAS. U-B colors are given for 938 asteroids, and B-V colors are given for 945 asteroids. The IRAS albedos and diameters are tabulated for 1790 asteroids.

  3. Wavelet analysis applied to the IRAS cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Wilson, Robert W.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of infrared cirrus clouds is analyzed with Laplacian pyramid transforms, a form of non-orthogonal wavelets. Pyramid and wavelet transforms provide a means to decompose images into their spatial frequency components such that all spatial scales are treated in an equivalent manner. The multiscale transform analysis is applied to IRAS 100 micrometer maps of cirrus emission in the north Galactic pole region to extract features on different scales. In the maps we identify filaments, fragments and clumps by separating all connected regions. These structures are analyzed with respect to their Hausdorff dimension for evidence of the scaling relationships in the cirrus clouds.

  4. Chandra Observations of Diffuse Gas and Luminous X-Ray Sources around the X-Ray-bright Elliptical Galaxy NGC 1600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2004-12-01

    We observed the X-ray-bright E3 galaxy NGC 1600 and nearby members of the NGC 1600 group with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS-S3 to study their X-ray properties. Unresolved emission dominates the observation; however, we resolved some of the emission into 71 sources, most of which are low-mass X-ray binaries associated with NGC 1600. Twenty-one of the sources have LX>2×1039 ergs s-1 (0.3-10.0 keV; assuming they are at the distance of NGC 1600), marking them as ultraluminous X-ray point source (ULX) candidates; we expect that only 11+/-2 are unrelated foreground/background sources. NGC 1600 may have the largest number of ULX candidates in an early-type galaxy to date; however, cosmic variance in the number of background active galactic nuclei cannot be ruled out. The spectrum and luminosity function (LF) of the resolved sources are more consistent with sources found in other early-type galaxies than with sources found in star-forming regions of galaxies. The source LF and the spectrum of the unresolved emission both indicate that there are a large number of unresolved point sources. We propose that these sources are associated with globular clusters (GCs) and that NGC 1600 has a large GC specific frequency. Observations of the GC population in NGC 1600 would be very useful for testing this prediction. Approximately 50%-75% of the unresolved flux comes from diffuse gaseous emission. The spectral fits, hardness ratios, and X-ray surface brightness profile all point to two gas components. We interpret the soft inner component (a<~25'', kT~0.85 keV) as the interstellar medium of NGC 1600 and the hotter outer component (a>~25'', kT~1.5 keV) as the intragroup medium of the NGC 1600 group. The X-ray image shows several interesting structures. First, there is a central region of excess emission that is roughly cospatial with Hα and dust filaments immediately west of the center of NGC 1600. There appear to be holes in the X-ray emission to the north and south of the

  5. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I. IRAS pointed observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.

    1989-04-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution. 81 refs.

  6. Lidar Luminance Quantizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, Gerard; DeMonthier, Jeffrey; Suarez, George

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses challenges in lidar imaging, particularly with the detection scheme and the shapes of the detected signals. Ideally, the echoed pulse widths should be extremely narrow to resolve fine detail at high event rates. However, narrow pulses require wideband detection circuitry with increased power dissipation to minimize thermal noise. Filtering is also required to shape each received signal into a form suitable for processing by a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) followed by a time-to-digital converter (TDC). As the intervals between the echoes decrease, the finite bandwidth of the shaping circuits blends the pulses into an analog signal (luminance) with multiple modes, reducing the ability of the CFD to discriminate individual events

  7. High-luminance LEDs replace incandescent lamps in new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David L.

    1997-04-01

    The advent of high luminance AlInGaP and InGaN LED technologies has prompted the use of LED devices in new applications formally illuminated by incandescent lamps. The luminous efficiencies of these new LED technologies equals or exceeds that attainable with incandescent sources, with reliability factors that far exceed those of incandescent sources. The need for a highly efficient, dependable, and cost effective replacement for incandescent lamps is being fulfilled with high luminance LED lamps. This paper briefly described some of the new applications incorporating high luminance LED lamps, traffic signals and roadway signs for traffic management, automotive exterior lighting, active matrix and full color displays for commercial advertising, and commercial aircraft panel lighting and military aircraft NVG compatible lighting.

  8. Active star formation at intermediate Galactic latitude: the case of IRAS 06345-3023

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. L.; Palmeirim, P. M.

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of a small aggregate of young stars seen in high-resolution, deep near-infrared (JHKS) images towards IRAS 06345-3023 in the outer Galaxy and well below the mid-plane of the Galactic disc. The group of young stars is likely to be composed of low-mass stars, mostly Class I young stellar objects. The stars are seen towards a molecular cloud whose CO map peaks at the location of the IRAS source. The near-infrared images reveal, additionally, the presence of nebular emission with rich morphological features, including arcs in the vicinity of embedded stars, wisps and bright rims of a butterfly-shaped dark cloud. The location of this molecular cloud as a new star formation site well below the Galactic plane in the outer Galaxy indicates that active star formation is taking place at vertical distances larger than those typical of the (thin) disc.

  9. Study and classification of SDSS spectra for Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, G. S.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2012-05-01

    The sample of Byurakan-IRAS galaxies (BIG) has been created based on optical identifications of the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC) at high galactic latitudes. As a result, 1178 galaxies have been identified. 171 of them have been observed spectroscopically with Byurakan 2.6 m, SAO (Special Astrophysical Observatory) 6 m, and OHP (Observatoire de Haute Provence) 1.93 m telescopes. In addition, 81 galaxies have been found to have spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have extracted these spectra, classified them, measured spectral features, made cross-correlations with multiwavelength catalogs. Diagnostic diagrams have been built and different physical properties of these objects have been studied. Among these 81 objects, 47 HIIs, 17 Seyfert galaxies, 1 LINER, 10 composite-spectrum objects, and 6 other emission-line galaxies have been revealed. 4 of these objects have been classified as ULIRGs.

  10. The nuclear X-ray source in NGC 3628: A strange active galactic nucleus or the most luminous high-mass X-ray binary known?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlem, Michael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1995-01-01

    After 12 years, during which its unabsorbed soft X-ray flux in the 0.1-2.0 keV band was almost constant at about f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) ergs/s/sq cm, the compact nuclear source in NGC 3628 was not detected in one of our ROSAT observations, with a limiting sensitivity of f(sub x) approximately 5 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm. Our data can be explained in two ways. The source is either the most massive X-ray binary known so far, with a greater than and approximately equal to 75 solar mass black hole, or an unusual low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The X-ray spectrum is typical of a high-mass X-ray binary, while the luminosity of the source of L(sub x) is approximately equal to 10(exp 40) ergs/s is more similar to those of low-luminosity AGNs. If it is an AGN, variable obscuration might explain the observed light curve.

  11. Independence of color and luminance edges in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2009-01-01

    Form vision is traditionally regarded as processing primarily achromatic information. Previous investigations into the statistics of color and luminance in natural scenes have claimed that luminance and chromatic edges are not independent of each other and that any chromatic edge most likely occurs together with a luminance edge of similar strength. Here we computed the joint statistics of luminance and chromatic edges in over 700 calibrated color images from natural scenes. We found that isoluminant edges exist in natural scenes and were not rarer than pure luminance edges. Most edges combined luminance and chromatic information but to varying degrees such that luminance and chromatic edges were statistically independent of each other. Independence increased along successive stages of visual processing from cones via postreceptoral color-opponent channels to edges. The results show that chromatic edge contrast is an independent source of information that can be linearly combined with other cues for the proper segmentation of objects in natural and artificial vision systems. Color vision may have evolved in response to the natural scene statistics to gain access to this independent information. PMID:19152717

  12. Trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350: a massive star-forming region on the solar circle

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Ross A.; Handa, Toshihiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Shizugami, Makoto

    2014-12-10

    We report our measurement of the trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350, obtained from the annual parallax of H{sub 2}O masers. Our distance of D=4.69{sub −0.51}{sup +0.65} kpc, which is 2.8 times larger than the near kinematic distance adopted in the literature, places IRAS 20056+3350 at the leading tip of the Local arm and proximal to the solar circle. Using our distance, we reevaluate past observations to reveal IRAS 20056+3350 as a site of massive star formation at a young stage of evolution. This result is consistent with the spectral energy distribution of the source evaluated with published photometric data from UKIDSS, WISE, AKARI, IRAS, and the submillimeter continuum. Both analytical approaches reveal the luminosity of the region to be 2.4 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ☉}, and suggest that IRAS 20056+3350 is forming an embedded star of ≥16 M {sub ☉}. We estimated the proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350 to be (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (–2.62 ± 0.33, –5.65 ± 0.52) mas yr{sup –1} from the group motion of H{sub 2}O masers, and use our results to estimate the angular velocity of Galactic rotation at the Galactocentric distance of the Sun, Ω{sub 0} = 29.75 ± 2.29 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}, which is consistent with the values obtained for other tangent point and solar circle objects.

  13. NuSTAR discovery of a young, energetic pulsar associated with the luminous gamma-ray source HESS J1640–465

    SciTech Connect

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Hailey, J. C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Christensen, F. E.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-06-20

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640–465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640–4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3–0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P-dot = 9.758(44) × 10{sup –13}, yielding a spin-down luminosity E-dot = 4.4 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}, characteristic age τ{sub c}≡P/2 P-dot = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 1.4 × 10{sup 13} G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3–0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640–465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E-dot . The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5–4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640–4631, but we find no γ-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640–465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n ≈ 2, and that its initial spin period was P {sub 0} ∼ 15 ms.

  14. NuSTAR Discovery of a Young, Energetic Pulsar Associated with the Luminous Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1640-465

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Halpern, J. P.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, J. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-06-01

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640-465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640-4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative \\dot{P} = 9.758(44) × 10-13, yielding a spin-down luminosity \\dot{E} = 4.4 × 1036 erg s-1, characteristic age \\tau _c \\equiv P/2\\dot{P} = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength Bs = 1.4 × 1013 G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3-0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640-465 is 6% of the pulsar's present \\dot{E}. The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5-4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640-4631, but we find no γ-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640-465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n ≈ 2, and that its initial spin period was P 0 ~ 15 ms.

  15. NuSTAR Discovery Of A Young, Energetic Pulsar Associated with the Luminous Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1640-465

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Halpern, J. P.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, J. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV gamme-ray source HESS J1640-465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640-4631 lies within the shelltype supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P = 9.758(44) × 10(exp -13), yielding a spin-down luminosity E = 4.4 × 10(exp 36) erg s(exp -1), characteristic age tau(sub c) if and only if P/2 P = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub s) = 1.4×10(exp 13) G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3-0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640-465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E. The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5-4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640-4631, but we find no gamma-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640-465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n approximately equal to 2, and that its initial spin period was P(sub 0) approximately 15 ms.

  16. Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.

  17. The IRAS project organisation and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Holtz, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The project organisation of IRAS is described, showing the tasks assigned to each project group during post-launch operations. The satellite is described, emphasizing the detectors. In the task division, the role of the U.S. is to construct the telescope and survey instrument, launch the satellite, process final science data for the survey instrument, and provide certain standard satellite items. The Netherlands construct the spacecraft and three additional instruments, integrates and tests the overall satellite, and designs and participates in the development of the operational system. The U.K. provides the operational control center and primary tracking station, generates a system for preliminary science analysis of the survey data, provides housekeeping analysis software and science data distribution software, and staffs the control center operations. The teams involved in mission planning and operations, and their roles, are identified, and a block diagram of the operations organisation is presented.

  18. Spectroscopic Study of Multiple IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hovhannisyan, L. R.; Sargsyan, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations by the 2.6 m BAO telescope of IRAS galaxies identified on the basis of the First Byurakan Survey (BIG objects) are reported. Slit spectra were obtained for 16 objects, including components of 7 multiple systems and 2 individual galaxies. The red shifts were measured, and the radial velocities, distances, absolute stellar magnitudes, and infrared and far infrared luminosities were calculated. A diagnostic diagram has been constructed based on the intensity ratios of emission lines and the activity types of the objects have been determined. Two LINERs, five galaxies with composite spectra (Comp, one of which has Sy2 features) and seven HII regions were found. Two objects are ultraluminous IR galaxies (ULIG). It is shown that all the multiple systems are physical pairs or groups. The observed high IR luminosity confirms the view that ULIG/HLIGs may be associated with interactions of galaxies.

  19. The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    The global properties of the IR emissions from optically bright galaxies observed with the IRAS are described. A histogram of the morphological types of the galaxies is presented. Analysis of the ratio of far IR to blue luminosity (IR/B) reveals that the ratio covers a large range of about five orders of magnitude; 'normal galaxies' in the IR/B ratio of about 0.1-1.0 and galaxies with an IR/B ratio of greater than 1 are observed. The IR/B ratios for galaxies as a function of the 100 micron-60 micron flux density ratio are examined and it is detected that the galaxies which are more active in the IR display a warmer color temperature.

  20. Dynamics of adaptation at high luminances: adaptation is faster after luminance decrements than after luminance increments.

    PubMed

    Poot, L; Snippe, H P; van Hateren, J H

    1997-09-01

    As is well known, dark adaptation in the human visual system is much slower than is recovery from darkness. We show that at high photopic luminances the situation is exactly opposite. First, we study detection thresholds for a small light flash, at various delays from decrement and increment steps in background luminance. Light adaptation is nearly complete within 100 ms after luminance decrements but takes much longer after luminance increments. Second, we compare sensitivity after equally visible pulses or steps in the adaptation luminance and find that detectability is initially the same but recovers much faster for pulses than for increment steps. This suggests that, whereas any residual threshold elevation after a step shows the incomplete luminance adaptation, the initial threshold elevation is caused by the temporal contrast of the background steps and pulses. This hypothesis is further substantiated in a third experiment, whereby we show that manipulating the contrast of a transition between luminances affects only the initial part of the threshold curve, and not later stages.

  1. ALMA 690 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS 16293-2422B: INFALL IN A HIGHLY OPTICALLY THICK DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Luis A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Hernandez-Hernandez, Vicente; Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso; Parise, Berengere

    2013-02-10

    We present sensitive, high angular resolution ({approx}0.''2) submillimeter continuum and line observations of IRAS 16293-2422B made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The 0.45 mm continuum observations reveal a single and very compact source associated with IRAS 16293-2422B. This submillimeter source has a deconvolved angular size of about 400 mas (50 AU) and does not show any inner structure inside of this diameter. The H{sup 13}CN, HC{sup 15}N, and CH{sub 3}OH line emission regions are about twice as large as the continuum emission and reveal a pronounced inner depression or ''hole'' with a size comparable to that estimated for the submillimeter continuum. We suggest that the presence of this inner depression and the fact that we do not see an inner structure (or a flat structure) in the continuum are produced by very optically thick dust located in the innermost parts of IRAS 16293-2422B. All three lines also show pronounced inverse P-Cygni profiles with infall and dispersion velocities larger than those recently reported from observations at lower frequencies, suggesting that we are detecting faster and more turbulent gas located closer to the central object. Finally, we report a small east-west velocity gradient in IRAS 16293-2422B that suggests that its disk plane is likely located very close to the plane of the sky.

  2. IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, M.W.; Lu, N.Y.; Houck, J.R.; Salpeter, E.E.; Lewis, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths. 16 references.

  3. Planetary transit candidates in Corot-IRa01 field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpano, S.; Cabrera, J.; Alonso, R.; Barge, P.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.-M.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Carone, L.; Deeg, H. J.; de La Reza, R.; Deleuil, M.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Fressin, F.; Fridlund, M.; Gondoin, P.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Magain, P.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; Ollivier, M.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Régulo, C.; Renner, S.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Schneider, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2009-10-01

    Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission devoted to the analysis of stellar variability and the photometric detection of extrasolar planets. Aims: We present the list of planetary transit candidates detected in the first field observed by CoRoT, IRa01, the initial run toward the Galactic anticenter, which lasted for 60 days. Methods: We analysed 3898 sources in the coloured bands and 5974 in the monochromatic band. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were taken into account using detrending tools before applying various transit search algorithms. Results: Fifty sources were classified as planetary transit candidates and the most reliable 40 detections were declared targets for follow-up ground-based observations. Two of these targets have so far been confirmed as planets, CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-4b, for which a complete characterization and specific studies were performed. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with contributions from Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA, Germany, and Spain. Four French laboratories associated with the CNRS (LESIA, LAM, IAS ,OMP) collaborate with CNES on the satellite development. First CoRoT data are available to the public from the CoRoT archive: http://idoc-corot.ias.u-psud.fr.

  4. IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, M. W.; Lu, N. Y.; Houck, J. R.; Salpeter, E. E.; Lewis, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths.

  5. DISTRIBUTION OF CH{sub 3}OH IN NGC 1333 IRAS4B

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Sakai, Takeshi

    2012-07-20

    Distribution of the CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} = 2{sub K}-1{sub K}, 96.7 GHz) emission has been investigated toward NGC 1333 IRAS4B, a low-mass Class 0 protostar which harbors a hot corino, with Nobeyama Millimeter Array. The CH{sub 3}OH emission is found to be prominent in the shocked region caused by an impact of the molecular outflow from the protostars. The direction of the outflow which is responsible for the shock seems to be opposite to that of a compact outflow known previously in the CO (J = 2-1), HCN (J = 1-0), H{sub 2}CO (3{sub 12}-2{sub 11}), and CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} = 7{sub K}-6{sub K}) emissions, whereas it is the same as that of the faint second outflow found in the H{sub 2}CO emission. This double outflow structure can be interpreted most naturally by the existence of more than two protostars in IRAS4B. On the other hand, a centrally condensed component associated apparently with IRAS4B cannot be recognized in our CH{sub 3}OH observation. Our observation suggests that, in this source, the CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} 2{sub K}-1{sub K}) emission preferentially traces the shocked regions rather than the hot corino around the protostar.

  6. Spectrum from Faint Galaxy IRAS F00183-7111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected the building blocks of life in the distant universe, albeit in a violent milieu. Training its powerful infrared eye on a faint object located at a distance of 3.2 billion light-years, Spitzer has observed the presence of water and organic molecules in the galaxy IRAS F00183-7111. With an active galactic nucleus, this is one of the most luminous galaxies in the universe, rivaling the energy output of a quasar. Because it is heavily obscured by dust (see visible-light image in the inset), most of its luminosity is radiated at infrared wavelengths.

    The infrared spectrograph instrument onboard Spitzer breaks light into its constituent colors, much as a prism does for visible light. The image shows a low-resolution spectrum of the galaxy obtained by the spectrograph at wavelengths between 4 and 20 microns. Spectra are graphical representations of a celestial object's unique blend of light. Characteristic patterns, or fingerprints, within the spectra allow astronomers to identify the object's chemical composition and to determine such physical properties as temperature and density.

    The broad depression in the center of the spectrum denotes the presence of silicates (chemically similar to beach sand) in the galaxy. An emission peak within the bottom of the trough is the chemical signature for molecular hydrogen. The hydrocarbons (orange) are organic molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, two of the most common elements on Earth. Since it has taken more than three billion years for the light from the galaxy to reach Earth, it is intriguing to note the presence of organics in a distant galaxy at a time when life is thought to have started forming on our home planet.

    Additional features in the spectrum reveal the presence of water ice (blue), carbon dioxide ice (green) and carbon monoxide (purple) in both gas and solid forms. The magenta peak corresponds to singly ionized neon gas, a spectral line often used by

  7. Application of MCM image construction to IRAS comet observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlapfer, Martin F.; Walker, Russell G.

    1994-01-01

    There is a wealth of IRAS comet data, obtained in both the survey and pointed observations modes. However, these measurements have remained largely untouched due to difficulties in removing instrumental effects from the data. We have developed a version of the Maximum Correlation Method for Image Construction algorithm (MCM) which operates in the moving coordinate system of the comet and properly treats both real cometary motion and apparent motion due to spacecraft parallax. This algorithm has been implemented on a 486/33 PC in FORTRAN and IDL codes. Preprocessing of the IRAS CRDD includes baseline removal, deglitching, and removal of long tails due to dielectric time constants of the detectors. The resulting images are virtually free from instrumental effects and have the highest possible spatial resolution consistent with the data sampling. We present examples of high resolution IRAS images constructed from survey observations of Comets P/Tempel 1 and P/Tempel 2, and pointed observations of IRAS-Araki-Alcock.

  8. Parallelization and Algorithmic Enhancements of High Resolution IRAS Image Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yu; Prince, Thomas A.; Tereby, Susan; Beichman, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite caried out a nearly complete survey of the infrared sky, and the survey data are important for the study of many astrophysical phenomena. However, many data sets at other wavelengths have higher resolutions than that of the co-added IRAS maps, and high resolution IRAS images are strongly desired both for their own information content and their usefulness in correlation. The HIRES program was developed by the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) to produce high resolution (approx. 1') images from IRAS data using the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM). We describe the port of HIRES to the Intel Paragon, a massively parallel supercomputer, other software developments for mass production of HIRES images, and the IRAS Galaxy Atlas, a project to map the Galactic plane at 60 and 100(micro)m.

  9. Measurement of breast lesion display luminance and overall image display luminance relative to optimum luminance for contrast perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawashdeh, Mohammad; Lee, Warwick; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Warren; McEntee, Mark; Bourne, Roger

    2011-03-01

    Introduction: To minimize fatigue due to eye adaptation and maximize contrast perception, it has been suggested that lesion luminance be matched to overall image luminance to perceive the greatest number of grey level differences. This work examines whether lesion display luminance matches the overall image and breast tissue display luminance and whether these factors are positioned within the optimum luminance for maximal contrast sensitivity. Methods: A set of 42 mammograms, collected from 21 patients and containing 15 malignant and 6 benign lesions, was used to assess overall image luminance. Each image displayed on the monitor was divided into 16 equal regions. The luminance at the midpoint of each region was measured using a calibrated photometer and the overall image luminance was calculated. Average breast tissue display luminance was calculated from the subset of regions containing of only breast tissue. Lesion display luminance was compared with both overall image display luminance and average breast tissue display luminance. Results: Statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) were noted between overall image display luminance (4.3+/-0.7 cd/m2) and lesion display luminance (15.0+/-6.8 cd/m2); and between average breast tissue display luminance (6.8+/-1.3 cd/m2) and lesion display luminance (p<0.002). Conclusions: Lesion luminance was significantly higher than the overall image and breast tissue luminance. Luminance of lesions and general breast tissue fell below the optimum luminance range for contrast perception. Breast lesion detection sensitivity and specificity may be enhanced by use of brighter monitor displays.

  10. A very deep IRAS survey at l(II) = 97 deg, b(II) = +30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, Perry; Houck, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A deep far-infrared survey is presented using over 1000 scans made of a 4 to 6 sq. deg. field at the north ecliptic pole by the IRAS. Point sources from this survey are up to 100 times fainter than the IRAS point source catalog at 12 and 25 micrometers, and up to 10 times fainter at 60 and 100 micrometers. The 12 and 25 micrometer maps are instrumental noise-limited, and the 60 and 100 micrometer maps are confusion noise-limited. The majority of the 12 micrometer point sources are stars within the Milky Way. The 25 micrometer sources are composed almost equally of stars and galaxies. About 80% of the 60 micrometer sources correspond to galaxies on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) enlargements. The remaining 20% are probably galaxies below the POSS detection limit. The differential source counts are presented and compared with what is predicted by the Bahcall and Soneira Standard Galaxy Model using the B-V-12 micrometer colors of stars without circumstellar dust shells given by Waters, Cote and Aumann. The 60 micrometer source counts are inconsistent with those predicted for a uniformly distributed, nonevolving universe. The implications are briefly discussed.

  11. Spectropolarimetry of hot, luminous stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.

    1994-01-01

    I review polarimetric observations of presumably single, hot luminous stars. The stellar types discussed are OB stars. B(e) supergiants, Luminous Blue Variables (LBV), Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, and type II supernovae (SN). It is shown that variable, intrinsic polarization is a common phenomenon in that part of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram which these stars occupy. However, much observational work remains to be done before we can answer the most basic, statistical questions about the polarimetric properties of different groups of hot, luminous stars. Insight into the diagnostic power of polarization observations has been gained, but cannot be exploited without detailed models. Thus, while polarimetric observations do tell us that the mass-loss processes of all types of massive stars are time-dependent and anisotropic, the significance that this might have for the accuracy of their stellar parameters and evolutionary paths remains elusive.

  12. Spectroscopic Variability of IRAS 22272+5435

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Začs, Laimons; Musaev, Faig; Kaminsky, Bogdan; Pavlenko, Yakiv; Grankina, Aija; Sperauskas, Julius; Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    A time series of high-resolution spectra was observed in the optical wavelength region for the bright proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272+5435 (HD 235858), along with a simultaneous monitoring of its radial velocity and BV RC magnitudes. The object is known to vary in light, color, and velocity owing to pulsation with a period of 132 days. The light and color variations are accompanied by significant changes in spectral features, most of which are identified as lines of carbon-bearing molecules. According to the observations, the C2 Swan system and CN Red system lines are stronger near the light minimum. A photospheric spectrum of the central star was calculated using new self-consistent atmospheric models. The observed intensity variations in the C2 Swan system and CN Red system lines were found to be much larger than expected if due solely to the temperature variation in the atmosphere of the pulsating star. In addition, the molecular lines are blueshifted relative to the photospheric velocity. The site of formation of the strong molecular features appears to be a cool outflow triggered by the pulsation. The variability in atomic lines seems to be mostly due variations of the effective temperature during the pulsation cycle. The profiles of strong atomic lines are split, and some of them are variable in a timescale of a week or so, probably because of shock waves in the outer atmosphere.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABILITY OF IRAS 22272+5435

    SciTech Connect

    Začs, Laimons; Grankina, Aija; Musaev, Faig; Kaminsky, Bogdan; Pavlenko, Yakiv; Sperauskas, Julius; Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    A time series of high-resolution spectra was observed in the optical wavelength region for the bright proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272+5435 (HD 235858), along with a simultaneous monitoring of its radial velocity and BV R{sub C} magnitudes. The object is known to vary in light, color, and velocity owing to pulsation with a period of 132 days. The light and color variations are accompanied by significant changes in spectral features, most of which are identified as lines of carbon-bearing molecules. According to the observations, the C{sub 2} Swan system and CN Red system lines are stronger near the light minimum. A photospheric spectrum of the central star was calculated using new self-consistent atmospheric models. The observed intensity variations in the C{sub 2} Swan system and CN Red system lines were found to be much larger than expected if due solely to the temperature variation in the atmosphere of the pulsating star. In addition, the molecular lines are blueshifted relative to the photospheric velocity. The site of formation of the strong molecular features appears to be a cool outflow triggered by the pulsation. The variability in atomic lines seems to be mostly due variations of the effective temperature during the pulsation cycle. The profiles of strong atomic lines are split, and some of them are variable in a timescale of a week or so, probably because of shock waves in the outer atmosphere.

  14. Image reconstruction of IRAS survey scans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bontekoe, Tj. Romke

    1990-01-01

    The IRAS survey data can be used successfully to produce images of extended objects. The major difficulties, viz. non-uniform sampling, different response functions for each detector, and varying signal-to-noise levels for each detector for each scan, were resolved. The results of three different image construction techniques are compared: co-addition, constrained least squares, and maximum entropy. The maximum entropy result is superior. An image of the galaxy M51 with an average spatial resolution of 45 arc seconds is presented, using 60 micron survey data. This exceeds the telescope diffraction limit of 1 minute of arc, at this wavelength. Data fusion is a proposed method for combining data from different instruments, with different spacial resolutions, at different wavelengths. Data estimates of the physical parameters, temperature, density and composition, can be made from the data without prior image (re-)construction. An increase in the accuracy of these parameters is expected as the result of this more systematic approach.

  15. DETECTION OF C{sub 60} IN THE PROTOPLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 01005+7910

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yong; Kwok Sun E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk

    2011-04-01

    We report the first detection of buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}) in a protoplanetary nebula. The vibrational transitions of C{sub 60} at 7.0, 17.4, and 18.9 {mu}m are detected in the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectrum of IRAS 01005+7910. This detection suggests that fullerenes are formed shortly after the asymptotic giant branch but before the planetary nebulae stage. A comparison with the observations of C{sub 60} in other sources is made and the implication for circumstellar chemistry is discussed.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NRC 1333 IRAS 4A H2O observations (Santangelo+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; Lorenzani, A.; Yildiz, U. A.; Antoniucci, S.; Bjerkeli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Giannini, T.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Mottram, J. C.; Tafalla, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2014-08-01

    We selected two active shock positions along the IRAS4A outflow: R1 (RA=03:29:10.82, DE=+31:13:51.9 (J2000)), at the origin of the jet from the driving source, and R2 (RA=03:29:14.59, DE=+31:14:45.8 (J2000)), which is the head of the red lobe of the outflow. They appear as very bright peaks in the PACS H2O (212-101) and CO (14-13) maps (4 data files).

  17. IRAS F13308+5946: A POSSIBLE TRANSITION PHASE FROM TYPE I ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY TO OPTICAL QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Xianmin; Wu Hong; Wang Jing; Gu Qiusheng; Cao Chen

    2010-08-01

    We present a stellar population synthesis study of a type I luminous infrared galaxy: IRAS F13308+5946. It is a quasar with absolute magnitude M{sub i} = -22.56 and has the spectral feature of a Seyfert 1.5 galaxy. Optical images show characteristics of later stages of a merger. With the help of the stellar synthesis code STARLIGHT and both Calzetti et al.'s and Leitherer et al.'s extinction curves, we estimate the past infrared (IR) luminosities of the host galaxy and find that it may have experienced an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phase for nearly 300 Myr, so this galaxy has probably experienced a type I ULIRG phase. Both nuclear starburst (SB) and active galactic nuclei contribute to the present IR luminosity budget, with the SB contributing {approx}70%. The mass of the supermassive black hole is M{sub BH} = 1.8 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} and the Eddington ratio L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} is 0.12, both of which are approximate typical values of Palomar-Green QSOs. These results indicate that IRAS F13308+5946 is probably at the transitional phase from a type I ULIRG to a classical QSO.

  18. The curious case of the ultra fast wind in IRAS17020+4544: perspectives for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longinotti, A.

    2016-06-01

    Outflowing winds from AGN may carry significant amount of mass and energy out to their host galaxies. I will present recent results on the newly discovered ultra fast outflow observed in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy IRAS17020+4544 by XMM-Newton. The exquisite data quality collected by the RGS instrument allowed us to detect a complex structure of the wind: for the first time, we could identify five components with different outflow velocities (in the range 0.08-0.11c) and distinct (moderate) ionization states. One of the outflow components may carry sufficient energy to substantially suppress star formation, and heat the gas in the host galaxy making IRAS17020+4544 a very interesting case for feedback by a moderately luminous Active Nucleus hosted in a spiral galaxy. This result comes after 15 years of XMM observations and it poses several open questions. Are moderate ionization X-ray ultra-fast winds so infrequent in AGN? What mechanism gives rise to the stratified structure of the wind? Is feedback from a spiral Galaxy truly unusual? How can we detect more winds of this type in the next decade? These and more questions will be reviewed and discussed in my presentation.

  19. Reprocessing in Luminous Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. R.

    1999-11-01

    We develop and investigate a procedure that accounts for disk reprocessing of photons that originate in the disk itself. Surface temperatures and simple, blackbody spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostellar disks are calculated. In disks that flare with radius, reprocessing of stellar photons results in temperature profiles that are not power-law at all radii but are consistently shallower than r-3/4. Including the disk as a radiation source (as in the case of active accretion) along with the stellar source further flattens the temperature profile. Disks that flare strongly near the star and then smoothly curve over and become shadowed at some distance (``decreasing curvature'' disks) exhibit nearly power-law temperature profiles that result in power-law infrared SEDs with slopes in agreement with typical observations of young stellar objects. Disk models in which the photospheric thickness is controlled by the local opacity and in which the temperature decreases with radius naturally have this shape. Uniformly flaring models do not match observations as well; progressively stronger reprocessing at larger radii leads to SEDs that flatten toward the infrared or even have a second peak at the wavelength corresponding (through the Wien law) to the temperature of the outer edge of the disk. In FU Orionis outbursting systems, the dominant source of energy is the inner disk. Reprocessing throughout the disk depends sensitively on the inner disk shape and emitted temperature profile. We show that the thermal instability outburst models of Bell & Lin reproduce trends in the observed SEDs of FU Ori systems with T~r-3/4 in the inner disk (r<~0.25 AU corresponding to λ<~10 μm) and T~r-1/2 in the outer disk. Surface irradiation during outburst and quiescence is compared in the region of planet formation (1-10 AU). The contrast between the two phases is diminished by the importance of the reprocessing of photons from the relatively high mass flux, outer disk (Ṁ=10

  20. Analysis of interstellar fragmentation structure based on IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalo, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop new tools for the analysis of the structure of densely sampled maps of interstellar star-forming regions. A particular emphasis was on the recognition and characterization of nested hierarchical structure and fractal irregularity, and their relation to the level of star formation activity. The panoramic IRAS images provided data with the required range in spatial scale, greater than a factor of 100, and in column density, greater than a factor of 50. In order to construct a densely sampled column density map of a cloud complex which is both self-gravitating and not (yet?) stirred up much by star formation, a column density image of the Taurus region has been constructed from IRAS data. The primary drawback to using the IRAS data for this purpose is that it contains no velocity information, and the possible importance of projection effects must be kept in mind.

  1. Cryogenic infrared imaging beryllium telescope for Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The IRAS mission is the result of an international project involving the cooperation of the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The Infrared Astronmical Satellite was placed into orbit on January 25, 1983. Its main function is to provide a survey of the entire sky as viewed in four octaves of infrared radiation in the wavelenth region from 8 to 120 microns. The cylindrical structure of the satellite contains a large dewar vessel with 70 liters of superfluid helium. The helium has the function to maintain the contents of the vessel at 2.5 K for the duration of the mission. The IRAS optics is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 24 inches aperture. Because of the operational requirements of the mission, it had been specified that all optical components should be beryllium. Attention is given to the cold performance test conducted with IRAS, plans for future infrared telescopes, and reflectance limits.

  2. Not a galaxy: IRAS 04186+5143, a new young stellar cluster in the outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. L.; Elia, Davide; Djupvik, A. A.; Torrelles, J. M.; Molinari, S.

    2015-09-01

    We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster in the outer Galaxy located at the position of an IRAS Point Source Catalog source that has been previously misidentified as an external galaxy. The cluster is seen in our near-infrared imaging towards IRAS 04186+5143 and in archive Spitzer images confirming the young stellar nature of the sources detected. There is also evidence of subclustering seen in the spatial distributions of young stars and of gas and dust. Near- and mid-infrared photometry indicates that the stars exhibit colours compatible with reddening by interstellar and circumstellar dust and are likely to be low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) with a large proportion of Class I YSOs. Ammonia and CO lines were detected, with the CO emission well centred near the position of the richest part of the cluster. The velocity of the CO and NH3 lines indicates that the gas is Galactic and located at a distance of about 5.5 kpc, in the outer Galaxy. Herschel data of this region characterize the dust environment of this molecular cloud core where the young cluster is embedded. We derive masses, luminosities, and temperatures of the molecular clumps where the young stars reside and discuss their evolutionary stages.

  3. An IRAS search for extra-solar Oort clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan; Stocke, John; Weissman, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The presumptively close connection between Oort cloud formation and planetary formation is that the detection of comet clouds around other stars would imply the presence of extrasolar planetary systems. Low-resolution IRAS data and an S/N-enhancement method are presently used to search 17 nearby stars for comet cloud-indicating IR emission. While no such detections were obtained, upper limits have been set for extrasolar Oort clouds (ESOCs) around the candidate stars; the nondetections may be a results either of the absence of the ESOCs around these stars or, with greater probability, of the sensitivity and background confusion limitations of IRAS data.

  4. IRAS observations of extended dust envelopes around evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, George

    1990-01-01

    Deconvolved IRAS profiles, with resolution 2-3 time better than detector sizes 1.5 and 3 arcmin at 60 and 100 microns, are presented for a number of evolved stars with extended emission. These include VY UMa, Mu Cep, S Sct, U Hya, Y CVn, U Ant, alpha Ori, Y Pav, UU aur, IRC + 10216, RZ Sgr, and R Lyr. Simple models suggest that extended IRAS emission results from stars which greater mass loss rates in the past, rather than from stars with large current mass loss rates.

  5. 78 FR 66785 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... consecutive weeks of ] a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant... applications for COLs with the NRC, pursuant to Section 103 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and... for Nuclear Power Plants:'' 1. On September 19, 2008, Luminant submitted an application for COLs...

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Byurakan-IRAS Stars (BIS) catalog (Mickaelian+ 1997-2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.

    2003-11-01

    The Byurakan-IRAS Stars (BIS objects) are optical identifications for IRAS PSC sources by means of the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra. The BIS area is defined by the FBS at DE>61{deg} having high galactic latitude fields (|b|>15). The total surface is 1504 square degrees. The program of optical identification of the IRAS PSC sources had a different approach compared to similar works, as it was aimed at identification of all point sources without a discrimination against their IR colors, and further compilation of lists of galactic and extragalactic objects (BIS and BIG objects, respectively) for their further study. 5 lists of BIS and 10 lists of BIG objects have been published (2 latter are in press), the BIG lists being continued. The first list contained both stars and galaxies, 4 others had consequent numeration, though 3 of them contained galaxies, and one, stars. The BIS/BIG numeration was introduced starting with the 6th pa per. At that moment, 179 galaxies and 137 stars had been published already (objects #1-316). Thus we decided to continue the numeration with BIG 180 and BIS 138. To avoid any confusion in the future, we call BIG (numbers 1-179) and BIS (numbers 1-137) also the previously published objects. To help users easily find objects both by the published and introduced later numbers, we give both in the catalog. A number of BIS objects had been known before (some bright stars, a number of FBS late-type stars), however the identification with IRAS source was not available because of either large errors in old catalogs, or proper motion and a shift between (typically) B1950 and the IRAS (1983) epochs. For the same reason (proper motions), positions measured from DSS1 and DSS2 can be different. Two objects, BIS 44 and BIS 238 (found from different FBS zones), have been found to be identical, after additional checking of our results we find 11 objects as doubtful identifications (all from the 1st list). We list them as rejected

  7. Preliminary scientific results from the first six months of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Houck, J. R.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was successfully launched on January 25, 1983. This paper presents results based on analysis of early scientific data returned from IRAS. Among the early results of IRAS are the discovery of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock, evidence for a shell of large particles around the nearby bright star Vega, detection of stars in the process of formation, and detection of many infrared bright galaxies. These early results demonstrate that the IRAS data will be a treasure chest for astronomers for years to come.

  8. A Dynamical Model of a Still-Forming Zodiacal Dust Band, as Constrained by IRAS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Ashley J.; Dermott, S. F.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

    2009-05-01

    When an asteroid is disrupted, the larger pieces remain on similar orbits and constitute an asteroid family. The smaller products of the disruption (10 microns- a few cm) decay into the inner solar system under the effect of Poynting-Roberston drag. Before these particles encounter the secular and mean-motion resonances at the inner edge of the main belt, they retain their proper orbital elements and share common forced elements, allowing for the existence of the dust band structure discovered by IRAS (Low et al., 1984). There are currently known to be at least three dust band pairs associated with relatively young (≤ 107 yr old) asteroidal disruptions (Grogan et al., 2001; Dermott et al., 2002; Nesvorny et al., 2003; 2008). A method of coadding the IRAS data set, revealed the existence of an additional solar system dust band at 17 degrees inclination, likely a confirmation of the M/N pair originally suggested by Sykes (1988). We see this new dust band at some but not all ecliptic longitudes, providing strong evidence for a very young dust band in the process of formation. In order to determine the parent body of this band, we create a full dynamical model of the formation of this dust band to constrain the parameters of a source body capable of producing the structure. The model is based on the dynamical evolution of the 10-1000 micron diameter dust particles from the disruption event. Comparison of the model to our co-added IRAS observations allows us to put bounds on the parameters of the parent body, including the node location and dispersion, which gives an age to the disruption that produced the partial band. We also investigate the effects that varying the orbital parameters has on the timescale and formation of a band pair.

  9. MILLIMETRIC AND SUBMILLIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS 05327+3404 ''HOLOEA'' IN M36

    SciTech Connect

    Morata, O.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-C.; Zhao-Geisler, R.; Magnier, E. A.

    2013-09-15

    The transition between the protostar, Class I, and the pre-main-sequence star, Class II, phases is still one of the most uncertain, and important, stages in the knowledge of the process of formation of an individual star because it is the stage that determines the final mass of the star. We observed the young stellar object ''Holoea'', associated with IRAS 05327+3404, which was classified as an object in the transition between the Class I and Class II phases with several unusual properties, and appears to be surrounded by large amounts of circumstellar material. We used the SMA and BIMA telescopes at millimeter and submillimeter (submm) wavelengths to observe the dust continuum emission and the CO (1-0) and (2-1), HCO{sup +} (1-0) and (3-2), and HCN (1-0) transitions in the region around IRAS 05327+3404. We detected two continuum emission peaks at 1.1 mm: SMM 1, the submm counterpart of IRAS 05327+3404, and SMM 2, {approx}6 arcsec to the west. The emissions of the three molecules show marked differences. The CO emission near the systemic velocity is filtered out by the telescopes, and CO mostly traces the high-velocity gas. The HCO{sup +} and HCN emissions are more concentrated around the central parts of the region, and show several intensity peaks coincident with the submm continuum peaks. We identify two main molecular outflows: a bipolar outflow in an E-W direction that would be powered by SMM 1 and the other in a NE direction, which we associate with SMM 2. We propose that the SMM sources are probably Class I objects, with SMM 1 in an earlier evolutionary stage.

  10. HDO abundance in the envelope of the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, B.; Caux, E.; Castets, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Loinard, L.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Bacmann, A.; Cazaux, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F.; Kahane, C.; Schilke, P.; van Dishoeck, E.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    2005-02-01

    We present IRAM 30 m and JCMT observations of HDO lines towards the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Five HDO transitions have been detected on-source, and two were unfruitfully searched for towards a bright spot of the outflow of IRAS 16293-2422. We interpret the data by means of the Ceccarelli et al. (\\cite{Ceccarelli1996}) model, and derive the HDO abundance in the warm inner and cold outer parts of the envelope. The emission is well explained by a jump model, with an inner abundance xHDO_in = 1×10-7 and an outer abundance xHDO_out ≤ 1×10-9 (3σ). This result is in favor of HDO enhancement due to ice evaporation from the grains in the inner envelope. The deuteration ratio HDO/H2O is found to be fin=3% and fout ≤0.2% (3σ) in the inner and outer envelope respectively and therefore, the fractionation also undergoes a jump in the inner part of the envelope. These results are consistent with the formation of water in the gas phase during the cold prestellar core phase and storage of the molecules on the grains, but do not explain why observations of H2O ices consistently derive a H2O ice abundance of several 10-5 to 10-4, some two orders of magnitude larger than the gas phase abundance of water in the hot core around IRAS 16293-2422. Based on observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope in Spain and with The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, operated by The Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands Organisation of Scientific Research, and the National Research Council of Canada.

  11. IRAS-based whole-sky upper limit on Dyson Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical construct of a star purposely cloaked by a thick swarm of broken-up planetary material to better utilize all of the stellar energy. A clean Dyson Sphere identification would give a significant signature for intelligence at work. A search for Dyson Spheres has been carried out using the 250,000 source database of the IRAS infrared satellite which covered 96% of the sky. The search has used the Calgary data collection of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) to look for fits to blackbody spectra. Searches have been conducted for both pure (fully cloaked) and partial Dyson Spheres in the blackbody temperature region 100 {le} T {le} 600 K. Other stellar signatures that resemble a Dyson Sphere are reviewed. When these signatures are used to eliminate sources that mimic Dyson Spheres very few candidates remain and even these are ambiguous. Upper limits are presented for both pure and partial Dyson Spheres. The sensitivity of the LRS was enough to find solar-sized Dyson Spheres out to 300 pc, a reach that encompasses a million solar-type stars.

  12. Contrast adaptation to luminance and brightness modulations.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Nakayama, Kazuki; Kawashima, Yuki; Yamauchi, Yasuki

    2016-03-01

    Perceptual brightness and color contrast decrease after seeing a light temporally modulating along a certain direction in a color space, a phenomenon known as contrast adaptation. We investigated whether contrast adaptation along the luminance direction arises from modulation of luminance signals or apparent brightness signals. The stimulus consisted of two circles on a gray background presented on a CRT monitor. In the adaptation phase, the luminance and chromaticity of one circle were temporally modulated, while the other circle was kept at a constant luminance and color metameric with an equal-energy white. We employed two types of temporal modulations, namely, in luminance and brightness. Chromaticity was sinusoidally modulated along the L-M axis, leading to dissociation between luminance and brightness (the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect). In addition, luminance modulation was minimized in the brightness modulation, while brightness modulation was minimized in the luminance modulation. In the test phase, an asymmetric matching method was used to measure the magnitude of contrast adaptation for both modulations. Our results showed that, although contrast adaptation along the luminance direction occurred for both modulations, contrast adaptation for luminance modulation was significantly stronger than that for the brightness modulation regardless of the temporal frequency of the adaptation modulation. These results suggest that luminance modulation is more influential in contrast adaptation than brightness modulation.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLASGAL clumps with IRAS flux and MALT90 data (Stephens+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, I. W.; Jackson, J. M.; Whitaker, J. S.; Contreras, Y.; Guzman, A. E.; Sanhueza, P.; Foster, J. B.; Rathborne, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90GHz (MALT90) survey (Foster+ 2011, J/ApJS/197/25; 2013PASA...30...38F; Jackson+ 2013PASA...30...57J) mapped 16 lines for 3246 clumps, primarily high-mass star-forming clumps that are >200Mȯ, as identified from the ATLASGAL 870um survey (Schuller et al. 2009A&A...504..415S). In order to compare luminosities derived from IRAS (LIR) to molecular line luminosities from MALT90 (Lmolecule), we first matched the MALT90 clumps to the IRAS Point Source Catalog v2.1 (PSC; see Cat. II/125). See section 2.1 for further explanations. (1 data file).

  14. Molecular abundances and low-mass star formation. 1: Si- and S-bearing species toward IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.; Dishoek, Ewine F. Van; Jansen, David J.; Groesbeck, T. D.; Mundy, Lee G.

    1994-01-01

    Results from millimeter and submillimeter spectral line surveys of the protobinary source Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 16293-2422 are presented. Here we outline the abundances of silicon- and sulfur-containing species. A combination of rotation diagram and full statistical equilibrium/radiative transfer calculations is used to constrain the physical conditions toward IRAS 16293 and to construct its beam-averaged chemical composition over a 10 to 20 sec (1600 to 3200 AU) scale. The chemical complexity as judged by species such as SiO, OCS, and H2S, is intermediate between that of dark molecular clouds such as L134N and hot molecular cloud cores such as Orion KL. From the richness of the spectra compared to other young stellar objects of similar luminosity, it is clear that molecular abundances do not scale simply with mass; rather, the chemistry is a strong function of evolutionary state, i.e., age.

  15. The distribution of IRAS galaxies towards the Bootes void

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Michael A.; Huchra, John

    1988-01-01

    A redshift survey was completed for 342 galaxies detected by the IRAS in the direction of the Bootes void discovered by Kirshner et al. The number density of IRAS galaxies is well determined from the shallower full-sky redshift survey of Strauss et al. Four IRAS galaxies are found within the void as defined by Kirshner et al., of which three are part of a complete sample, implying a density depression of a factor of 4. The underdense region continues to a distance of at least 4000 km/s from the nominal center of the void. Three of the IRAS galaxies studied in this paper were previously unknown. These galaxies have emission-line spectra characteristic of H II regions, and red continuum magnitudes ranging from 16 to 17.5 mag, and thus are bright enough to have been detected in a wide-angle redshift survey as deep as that of Kirshner et al. The luminosity function derived from this sample is in good agreement with that of Lawrence et al.

  16. The Beatrice experiment and the luminance concept in Dante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialdea, R.

    1984-05-01

    An experiment suggested by Beatrice in Dante's Divine Comedy is analyzed to show that Dante was well aware of the knowledge of his time to the point of exploring concepts not understood in the 13th century. The experiment shows that the luminance of a spherical light source as perceived by the retina, is independent of the source distance. Three mirrors are used in the experimental set-up.

  17. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references.

  18. VLA Ammonia Observations of IRAS 16253-2429: A Very Young and Low Mass Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    IRAS l6253-2429. the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source as possibly one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known.

  19. IRAS observations of dust heating and energy balance in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium process dust emission in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is studied. The luminosity of the cloud is found to closely match the luminosity of the clouds's known embedded and external radiation sources. There is no evidence for a large population of undetected low-luminosity sources within the cloud and unknown external heating is also only a minor source of energy. Most of the cloud's luminosity is emitted in the mid-to-far-IR. Dust temperature maps indicate that the dust is not hot enough to heat the gas to observed temperatures. A simple cloud model with a radiation field composed of flux HD 147889, S1, and Sco OB2 associations predicts the observed IRAS 60 to 100 micron in-band flux ratios for a mean cloud density n(H2) = 1400. Flattened 12 and 25 micron observations show much extended emission in these bands, suggesting stochastic heating of very small grains or large molecules.

  20. A very deep IRAS survey - Constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacking, Perry; Condon, J. J.; Houck, J. R.

    1987-05-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts.

  1. Analysis and Statistics of the Spectroscopic Sample of Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Gohar S.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-07-01

    A summary and general analysis of optical spectroscopic data for 255 Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies (BIG) obtained with BAO 2.6m, SAO 6m, OHP 1.93m telescopes, as well as SDSS DR7, DR8, and DR9 is given. The BIG sample is the result of optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at high-galactic latitudes using the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra. Among the 1178 objects most are spiral galaxies and there is a number of ULIRGs. All but one have emission lines; we have discovered 68 AGN and composite spectrum objects among them and the others are mostly Starburst Galaxies (SB). All possible physical characteristics have been measured and/or calculated, including physical sizes and optical and IR/FIR luminosities. The masses have been estimated based on mass-luminosity relations for spiral galaxies. As it appears, most of these objects are giant massive galaxies. Various multiwavelength (MW) data have been retrieved from recent catalogues from X-ray to radio and MW SEDs have been built, which have been matched to their optical classifications. Luminosity evolution of these objects has been studies.

  2. Byurakan-IRAS galaxies as massive galaxies with nuclear and starburst activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Harutyunyan, Gohar S.

    2013-07-01

    Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies (BIG) (Mickaelian 1995) are the result of optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at high-galactic latitudes using the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra (Markarian et al. 1989). Among the 1577 targets, 1178 galaxies have been identified. Most are dusty spiral galaxies and there is a number of ULIRGs among these objects. Our spectroscopic observations, carried out with three telescopes (Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory 2.6m, Russian Special Astrophysical Observatory 6m and Observatoire de Haute Provence 1.93m; Mickaelian & Sargsyan 2010), for 172 galaxies, as well as the SDSS DR8 spectra for 83 galaxies make up the list of 255 spectroscopically studied BIG objects. The classification regarding activity type for narrow-line emission galaxies has been carried out using the diagnostic diagrams by Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987). All possible physical characteristics have been measured and/or calculated, including radial velocities and distances, angular and physical sizes, absolute magnitudes and luminosities (both optical and IR). IR luminosities and star-formation rates have been calculated from the IR fluxes (Duc et al. 1997).

  3. PROPERTIES AND KEPLERIAN ROTATION OF THE HOT CORE IRAS 20126+4104

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jinlong; Wang Junjie; Ning Changchun

    2012-01-10

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the massive star-forming region IRAS 20126+4104 in the millimeter continuum and in several molecular line transitions. With the SMA data, we have detected nine molecular transitions, including deuterated hydrogen cyanide, CH{sub 3}OH, H{sub 2}CO, and HC{sub 3}N molecules, and imaged each molecular line. From the 1.3 mm continuum emission a compact millimeter source is revealed, which is also associated with H{sub 2}O, OH, and CH{sub 3}OH masers. Using a rotation temperature diagram, we derive that the rotational temperature and the column density of CH{sub 3}OH are 200 K and 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The calculated results and analysis further indicate that a hot core coincides with IRAS 20126+4104. The position-velocity diagrams of H{sub 2}CO (3{sub 0,3}-2{sub 0,2}) and HC{sub 3}N (25-24) clearly present Keplerian rotation. Moreover, H{sub 2}CO (3{sub 0,3}-2{sub 0,2}) is found to trace the disk rotation for the first time.

  4. IRAS 03063+5735: A BOWSHOCK NEBULA POWERED BY AN EARLY B STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Kerton, C. R. E-mail: mlundqui@uwyo.edu E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu

    2012-03-15

    Mid-infrared images from the Spitzer Space Telescope Galactic Legacy Infrared MidPlane Survey Extraordinaire program reveal that the infrared source IRAS 03063+5735 is a bowshock nebula produced by an early B star, 2MASS 03101044+5747035. We present new optical spectra of this star, classify it as a B1.5 V, and determine a probable association with a molecular cloud complex at V{sub LSR} = -38 to -42 km s{sup -1} in the outer Galaxy near l = 140.{sup 0}59, b = -0.{sup 0}250. On the basis of spectroscopic parallax, we estimate a distance of 4.0 {+-} 1 kpc to both the bowshock nebula and the molecular complex. One plausible scenario is that this is a high-velocity runaway star impinging upon a molecular cloud. We identify the H II region and stellar cluster associated with IRAS 03064+5638 at a projected distance of 64 pc as one plausible birth site. The spectrophotometric distance and linkage to a molecular feature provides another piece of data helping to secure the ill-determined rotation curve in the outer Galaxy. As a by-product of spectral typing this star, we present empirical spectral diagnostic diagrams suitable for approximate spectral classification of O and B stars using He lines in the little-used yellow-red portion of the optical spectrum.

  5. The complex environment around the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöier, Frederik L.; Jörgensen, Jes K.; Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoff A.; Evans, Neal J.; C2d Irs Team

    The deeply embedded, low-mass, proto-binary star IRAS 16293-2422 has attained considerable interest over the last decade, in particular, driven by the detection of millimetre line emission from a large number of complex organic molecules and the possibility of this source harbouring a 'hot core', similar to those found in regions of high-mass star formation (e.g. van Dishoeck et al. 1995; Ceccarelli et al. 2000; Schöier et al. 2002; Cazaux et al. 2003). High angular resolution observations of the central core region of IRAS 16293-2422 have been carried out for a number of molecules using the BIMA and OVRO millimetre arrays (Schöier et al. 2005; see Figure 1 for examples). Most molecules show a separation of red (4-7 km s-1) and blue (0-4 km s-1) emission peaks roughly perpendicular to the large-scale outflow, thought to be driven by one of the protostars (MM1), indicative of rotation in the envelope. Some species, e.g. HNC and N2H+, also seem to trace the interaction of the outflow with the circumstellar material. The observed chemical differentiation of C18O, HNC, and N2H+ is consistent with the recent chemical model of IRAS 16293-2422 by Doty et al. (2004). Moreover, SiO and CH3OH appear to be partly associated with outflow activity where the ices are liberated by grain-grain collisions. We also report the detection of mid-infrared (23-35 μm) emission from IRAS 16293-2422 by the Spitzer Space Telescope infrared spectrograph, IRS (Jørgensen et al. 2005). The detection of mid-infrared emission suggests that the envelope is optically thin at these wavelengths. A detailed, spherically symmetric, radiative transfer model reproducing the full SED from 23 μm to 1.3mm requires a large, approximately 1000AU, inner cavity of the envelope in order to avoid quenching the emission from the central source (Figure 2). This corroborates a previous suggestion based on high angular resolution millimetre interferometric data (Schöier et al. 2004). An alternative

  6. IRAS observations of optically selected galaxies. I - The properties of the UGC redshift sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothun, Gregory D.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Rice, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The FIR properties of more than 2400 optically selected galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalog are examined. The galaxies were detected by IRAS at 60 and 100 microns and have measured redshifts. A simple radiative transfer model is presented to study the nature of dust-heating sources. It is shown that for many normal disk galaxies, dust heated by old disk stars competes with dust heated by UV photons from newly formed stars. It is found that the 60-micron/100-micron flux density ratio may be used as an indicator of the dominant dust-heating source. Scaling relations with galaxy size and mass are presented which make it possible to estimate the contributions of any cirrus-like component to the total FIR luminosity.

  7. Characterization of FEL Lamps as Secondary Standard of Luminous Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Antonio F. G. Ferreira; Machado, Ilomar E. C.

    2008-04-01

    This work presents a study comparing the drift during seasoning of four of 1000W FEL-type lamp regarding the use of theses lamps as secondary luminous intensity standard. Three of these lamps are manufactured by Philips and the other lamp is manufactured by ORIEL. The lamps seasoning takes normally 30 hours and during the seasoning period relative drift of the lamp luminous intensity, lamp current and voltage are measured at each 5 minutes. The correlated color temperature of the lamps is measured at the end of lamp seasoning period. The luminous intensity is measured using a 4 1/2 digits photometer with thermal stabilized detector head, the lamp voltage is measured using a 6 1/2 digits voltmeter and the current is measured and controlled by a calibrated current power source shunt. The lamp sockets are adapted to a cinematic positioning device which is placed on an adjustable mounting device. A cross target is used as reference for alignment with a He-Ne Laser. In the 1st group of three lamps from Philips the minimum relative drift in luminous intensity per hour at the end of seasoning period was 0,0075 percent and the maximum relative drift was 0,02 percent. Voltage relative drift of the lamps were very similar in shape on the last few hours of the seasoning period, but different for one lamp at the beginning. The lamp current remained practically constant at 8 A which was the current adjusted in the current power source. One lamp had the luminous intensity calibrated by the National Institute of Metrology from Argentina and is used as a transfer standard for the other lamps.

  8. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE CONTINUUM AND WATER MASER EMISSION IN THE IRAS 19217+1651 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.; Migenes, V. E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx

    2012-12-20

    We report interferometric observations of the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 19217+1651. We observed the radio continuum (1.3 cm and 3.6 cm) and water maser emission using the Very Large Array (VLA-EVLA) in transition mode (configuration A). Two radio continuum sources were detected at both wavelengths, I19217-A and I19217-B. In addition, 17 maser spots were observed distributed mainly in two groups, M1 and M2, and one isolated maser. This latter could be indicating the relative position of another continuum source which we did not detect. The results indicate that I19217-A appears to be consistent with an ultracompact H II region associated with a zero-age main-sequence B0-type star. Furthermore, the 1.3 cm continuum emission of this source suggests a cometary morphology. In addition, I19217-B appears to be an H II region consisting of at least two stars, which may be contributing to its complex structure. It was also found that the H{sub 2}O masers of the group M1 are apparently associated with the continuum source I19217-A. These are tracing motions which are not gravitationally bound according to their spatial distribution and kinematics. They also seem to be describing outflows in the direction of the elongated cometary region. On the other hand, the second maser group, M2, could be tracing the base of a jet. Finally, infrared data from Spitzer, Midcourse Space Experiment, and IRIS show that IRAS 19217+1651 is embedded inside a large open bubble, like a broken ring, which possibly has affected the morphology of the cometary H II region observed at 1.3 cm.

  9. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    PubMed

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine.

  10. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Jha, S. W.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Thompson, T. A.; Morrell, N.; Thompson, I. B.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Bufano, F.; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E.; Danilet, A. B.; Falco, E.; Grupe, D.; Kiyota, S.; Masi, G.; Nicholls, B.; Olivares E., F.; Pignata, G.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G. V.; Szczygiel, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 1045 ergs s-1, which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 1052 ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine.

  11. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    PubMed

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine. PMID:26816375

  12. OH megamasers in high-luminosity IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    OH megamaser emission and H I and CO profiles from the distant infrared galaxies IRAS 10173 + 0828, III Zw 035, and Zw 475.056 are reported. The OH isotropic luminosities at 1667 MHz are 463, 534, and 6.6 solar luminosities, respectively. Far-infrared pumping efficiencies of the OH greater than 1 percent are found in IRAS 10173 + 0828 and III Zw 035. These two galaxies show anomalously large 1667/1665 MHz emission line ratios. OH megamasers reside in the nuclei of superluminous far-infrared galaxies that have a high content of molecular gas, high efficiency of star formation, and in some instances, a striking deficiency of atomic hydrogen.

  13. SIO Emission in the Multilobe Outflow Associated with IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Naomi; Mikami, Hitomi; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2001-02-01

    We have mapped the thermal emission line of SiO (v=0; J=2-1) associated with the quadrupolar molecular outflow driven by the very cold far-infrared source IRAS 16293-2422. The SiO emission is significantly enhanced in the northeastern red lobe and at the position ~50" east of the IRAS source. Strong SiO emission observed at ~50" east of the IRAS source presents evidence for a dynamical interaction between a part of the eastern blue lobe and the dense ambient gas condensation; however, such an interaction is unlikely to be responsible for producing the quadrupolar morphology. The SiO emission in the northeastern red lobe shows spatial and velocity structure similar to those of the CO outflow, suggesting that the SiO emission comes from the molecular outflow in the northeastern red lobe itself. The observed velocity structure is reproduced by a simple spatiokinematic model of bow shock with a shock velocity of 19-24 km s-1 inclined by 30°-45° from the plane of the sky. This implies that the northeastern red lobe is independent of the eastern blue lobe and that the quadrupolar structure is due to two separate bipolar outflows. The SiO emission observed in the western red lobe has a broad pedestal shape with low intensity. Unlike the SiO emission in the northeastern red lobe, the spatial extent of the SiO emission in the western red lobe is restricted to its central region. The spatial and velocity structures and the line profiles suggest that three different types of SiO emission are observed in this outflow: the SiO emission arising from the interface between the outflowing gas and the dense ambient gas clump, the SiO emission coming from the outflow lobe itself, and the broad SiO emission with low intensity observed at the central region of the outflow lobe. Based on observations made at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO). Nobeyama Radio Observatory is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, an interuniversity research institute operated by

  14. Observations of IRAS galaxies with the 6 m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hakopian, S. A.; Balayan, S. K.; Dodonov, S. N.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Burenkov, A. N.; Moiseev, A. V.

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations of the Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies (BIG) have been carried out with the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO, Russia) 6 m, Byurakan Observatory (BAO, Armenia) 2.6 m, and the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) 1.93 m telescopes to measure their redshifts and classify them. Some of the most interesting galaxies and interacting systmes have been observed with the SAO Multi Pupil Fiber Spectrograph (MPFS) for more detailed study.

  15. Origin of the solar system dust bands discovered by IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.; Nicholson, P. D.; Burns, J. A.; Houck, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that distinctive longitudinal variations in thermal flux and mean latitude can be used to determine the typical orbits of the grains comprising the Solar System bands. In particular, how the bands should vary if they are debris associated with the three principal asteroid families is predicted. Based on these ideas, IRAS observations may allow discrimination between asteroidal and cometary origins of the dust bands and, perhaps, of the entire zodiacal cloud.

  16. An analysis of IRAS' solar system dust bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.; Nicholson, P. D.; Burns, J. A.; Houck, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of longitudinal variations in the brightness and in the latitude of the solar system dust bands recently discovered by IRAS will determine the orbital elements of the particles involved and may discriminate between cometary and asteroidal models of the origin of these bands. The expected variations for bands of dust particles with common orbital elements and small eccentricity and inclination are calculated as functions of semimajor axis.

  17. A reinterpretation of millimeter observations of nearby IRAS excess stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weintraub, David A.; Stern, S. Alan

    1994-01-01

    We analyze new and previously published 1300, 870, and 800 micrometers, single-element bolometer observations of Vega (alpha Lyr), Formalhaut (alpha PsA), epsilon Eri, tau(sup1) Eri, and Beta Leo. We show that these data are consistent with models in which the dust disks around these stars are larger than the radio telescope beams with which they were observed; thus, these disks may be many hundreds of AU in radius or larger. Our interpretation of submillimeter/millimeter measurements of these stars also indicates that for some Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) IR excess stars the assumption that there is no astrophysical flux in the OFF beams, when using the standard ON-minus-OFF chopping technique and the chop distance is less than 1000AU, may be incorrect. Therefore, for IRAS IR excess stars within approximately 20 pc, virtually all submillimeter/millimeter chopping observations with chop throws less than 100" may have subtracted away some or most of the flux associated with their circumstellar disks. Finally, we present new 1300 micrometers continuum observations of Vega made with chop throws of 500 and 1000 AU. These data are consistent with an interpretation in which Vega has a disk that is at least 1000AU in radius; this disk could have a region with much less material per beam area near 500 AU than at both 100 AU and 1000 AU, corresponding to a gap at the orbital distance of alpha Lyr B. The observations of Vega are also consistent with the assumption that the circumVega dust structure is unresolved. Thus, these new data very effectively illustrate that the 'standard' model of small, unresolved, dust structures around main-sequence IRAS IR excess stars is not unique. Maps of IRAS IR excess stars, which soon will be available from submillimeter/millimeter array detectors, will determine whether the paradigm shift we propose will occur.

  18. Properties of unusually luminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tony Shih Arng

    This thesis is a theoretical study of the progenitors, event rates, and observational properties of unusually luminous supernova (SN), and aims to identify promising directions for future observations. In Chapter 2, we present model light curves and spectra of pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) over a range of progenitor masses and envelope structures for Pop III stars. We calculate the rates and detectability of PISNe, core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and Type Ia SNe at the Epoch of Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which can be used to determine the contribution of Pop III versus Pop II stars toward ionizing the universe. Although CCSNe are the least intrinsically luminous supernovae, Chapter 5 shows that a JWST survey targeting known galaxy clusters with Einstein radii > 35" should discover gravitationally lensed CCSNe at redshifts exceeding z = 7--8. In Chapter 3, we explain the Pop II/I progenitors of observed PISNe in the local universe can be created via mergers in runaway collisions in young, dense star clusters, despite copious mass loss via line-driven winds. The PISN rate from this mechanism is consistent with the observed volumetric rate, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could discover ~102 such PISNe per year. In Chapter 4, we identify 10 star clusters which may host PISN progenitors with masses up to 600 solar masses formed via runaway collisions. We estimate the probabilities of these very massive stars being in eclipsing binaries to be ≳ 30%, and find that their transits can be detected even under the contamination of the background cluster light, due to mean transit depths of ~10 6 solar luminosities. In Chapter 6, we show that there could be X-ray analogues of optically super-luminous SNe that are powered by the conversion of the kinetic energy of SN ejecta into radiation upon its collision with a dense but optically-thin circumstellar shell. We find shell configurations that can convert a large fraction of the SN

  19. The IR properties of ringed galaxies and the IRAS database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buta, Ronald J.; Crocker, Deborah A.

    1993-01-01

    Our study of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) properties of ringed galaxies has been largely successful. We have identified what we think is the probable cause of the differences in the IRAS properties among non-interacting barred galaxies as the pattern speed of the bar. The key to identifying this parameter has been our focusing the study on outer-ringed galaxies where we know precisely what is present in the central regions (from available BVI CCD images in our library of images). The theory is that outer rings, through their morphology and other characteristics, can be identified with the outer Lindblad resonance, one of the major resonances in galaxy structure. Using a library of n-body simulations for comparison, we can reliably infer both low and high pattern speed galaxies from the appearance of outer rings and the existence of other ring features. It is clear that in some barred galaxies, the bar pattern speed is high enough to avoid an inner Lindblad resonance, hence such objects do not contain nuclear or circumnuclear star formation. The IRAS observations are most sensitive to nuclear star formation in early-type barred galaxies, and will thus select those barred galaxies where the pattern speed is low enough to allow an inner Lindblad resonance to exist. High pattern speed barred galaxies therefore weaken the correlation between bars and infrared excess. This finding helps to reconcile the inconsistent results found between different studies on the correlation between bars and far-IR emission.

  20. The Properties of IRAS Detected Mergers in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpineti, Alfredo; Kaviraj, S.; Clements, D. L.; Darg, D.; Hyde, A. K.; Lintott, C.

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy merging is a fundamental aspect of the standard hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm. We have used a large, homogeneous set of nearby mergers, selected through direct visual inspection of the entire SDSS using the GalaxyZoo project, to perform the first blind far-infrared (FIR) study of the local merger population. 3300+ mergers were cross-matched with the Imperial IRAS-FSC Redshift Catalogue, resulting in 606 FIR detections. The IRAS- detected mergers are typically more massive, with smaller separations, weaker tidal forces and bluer colours than their undetected counterparts. The IRAS-detected mergers are mostly (98%) spiral-spiral systems, with a median FIR luminosity of 1011 LSun and a median star-formation rate of around 15 MSun per year. They reside in low density environments but we find no dependence between group richness and their infrared properties. Their SFR seems to depend on the total mass of the system with little dependence on the mass ratio. Optical emission line ratios indicate that the AGN fraction increases with increasing FIR luminosity with a dramatic increase in the members that are ULIRGs . Comparing the typical separations of mergers that are LIRGs and those that are ULIRGs we estimate the timescale for this transition and find a value of (50 ± 16) Myr .

  1. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-3 Contributions to Roth... contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a Roth IRA? A-1....

  2. Infrared atomic hydrogen line formation in luminous stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.; Smith, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared atomic hydrogen lines observed in luminous stars, generally attributed to compact circumstellar H II regions, can also be formed in the winds likely to emanate from these stars. Implications are discussed for the class of obscured infrared point sources showing these lines, and an illustrative model is derived for the BN object in Orion. Such stellar winds should also produce weak, but detectable, radio emission.

  3. High-velocity OH megamasers in IRAS 20100-4156: evidence for a supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Smith, L.; Allison, J. R.; Green, J. A.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A.; Edwards, P. G.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Lenc, E.; Marvil, J.; McConnell, D.; Phillips, C. J.; Sault, R. J.; Serra, P.; Stevens, J.; Voronkov, M.; Whiting, M.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of new, high-velocity narrow-line components of the OH megamaser in IRAS 20100-4156. Results from the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP)'s Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) provide two independent measurements of the OH megamaser spectrum. We found evidence for OH megamaser clumps at -409 and -562 km s-1 (blue-shifted) from the systemic velocity of the galaxy, in addition to the lines previously known. The presence of such high velocities in the molecular emission from IRAS 20100-4156 could be explained by a ˜50 pc molecular ring enclosing a ˜3.8 billion solar mass black hole. We also discuss two alternatives, i.e. that the narrow-line masers are dynamically coupled to the wind driven by the active galactic nucleus or they are associated with two separate galactic nuclei. The comparison between the BETA and ATCA spectra provides another scientific verification of ASKAP's BETA. Our data, combined with previous measurements of the source enabled us to study the variability of the source over a 26 yr period. The flux density of the brightest OH maser components has reduced by more than a factor of 2 between 1988 and 2015, whereas a secondary narrow-line component has more than doubled in the same time. Plans for high-resolution very long baseline interferometry follow-up of this source are discussed, as are prospects for discovering new OH megamasers during the ASKAP early science programme.

  4. Study of Starburst/Activity/Interaction Phenomena based on the Multiple Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Gohar S.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-07-01

    The Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy (BIG) sample is the result of optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at high-galactic latitudes using the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra. Among the 1178 objects most are spiral galaxies and many have been proved to be AGN and starburst by spectroscopic observations, as well as there is a number of ULIRGs among these objects. BIG objects contain galaxy pairs, multiples, and small groups that are subject for study on the matter of the real IR-emitter in these systems. Given that these objects are powerful IR sources, they are considered as young systems indicating high rate of evolution and starburst activity exceeding 100 M o /yr. Spectroscopic observations show that all these systems are physical ones and we were able to measure the mutual distances and sizes for all components. Cross-correlations with the recent more accurate IR catalogues, such as 2MASS and WISE, as well as radio ones (NVSS, FIRST), provided accurate coordinates of the IR source and possibility to find the individual galaxy responsible for the IR. However, in almost half of the cases, IR position indicates the intermediate region between the components, which means that it comes from the system as a whole. Some more MW data have been matched to IR and radio to have an overall understanding on these systems. Given that these systems are mostly interacting/merging ones often containing AGN and most of them may be considered as powerful starbursts, it is possible to study starburst/activity/interaction phenomena and their interrelationship.

  5. A HOT MOLECULAR OUTFLOW DRIVEN BY THE IONIZED JET ASSOCIATED WITH IRAS 16562-3959

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, Andres E.; Garay, Guido; Rathborne, Jill; Brooks, Kate J.; Guesten, Rolf

    2011-08-01

    We report molecular line observations in the CO J = 3 {yields} 2, 6 {yields} 5, and 7 {yields} 6 transitions, made using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope, toward the massive and dense core IRAS 16562-3959. This core harbors a string of radio sources thought to be powered by a central collimated jet of ionized gas. The molecular observations show the presence of high-velocity gas exhibiting a quadrupolar morphology, most likely produced by the presence of two collimated outflows. The southeast-northwest (SE-NW) molecular outflow is aligned with the string of radio continuum sources, suggesting it is driven by the jet. We find that the excitation temperature of the gas in the SE-NW outflow is high, with values of 145 and 120 K for the blueshifted and redshifted lobes, respectively. This outflow has a total mass of 1.92 M{sub sun}, a total momentum of {approx}89 M{sub sun} km s{sup -1}, and an averaged momentum rate of {approx}3.0 x 10{sup -2} M{sub sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, values characteristic of flows driven by young massive stellar objects with high luminosities (L{sub bol} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 4} L{sub sun}). Complementary data taken with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in high density and shock tracers support the picture that IRAS 16562-3959 is an accreting young massive star associated with an ionized jet, which is the energy source of a molecular outflow.

  6. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

  7. 78 FR 68100 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant... ML082680250. The application is also available at http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/new-reactors/col.html . NRC's... filed applications for COLs with the NRC, pursuant to Section 103 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,...

  8. 78 FR 69710 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant... ML082680250. The application is also available at http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/new-reactors/col.html . NRC's... filed applications for COLs with the NRC, pursuant to Section 103 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,...

  9. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA FOR THE GOALS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Kim, D. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Veilleux, S.; Evans, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Appleton, P.; Bothun, G.; Bridge, C. R.; and others

    2013-05-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present low resolution Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra covering 5-38 {mu}m and provide a basic analysis of the mid-IR spectral properties observed for nearby LIRGs. In a companion paper, we discuss detailed fits to the spectra and compare the LIRGs to other classes of galaxies. The GOALS sample of 244 nuclei in 180 luminous (10{sup 11} {<=} L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 12}) and 22 ultraluminous (L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} {>=} 10{sup 12}) IR galaxies represents a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample and covers a range of merger stages, morphologies, and spectral types. The majority (>60%) of the GOALS LIRGs have high 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} > 0.4 {mu}m) and low levels of silicate absorption (s {sub 9.7{mu}m} > -1.0). There is a general trend among the U/LIRGs for both silicate depth and mid-infrared (MIR) slope to increase with increasing L {sub IR}. U/LIRGs in the late to final stages of a merger also have, on average, steeper MIR slopes and higher levels of dust obscuration. Together, these trends suggest that as gas and dust is funneled toward the center of a coalescing merger, the nuclei become more compact and more obscured. As a result, the dust temperature increases also leading to a steeper MIR slope. The sources that depart from these correlations have very low PAH equivalent width (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} < 0.1 {mu}m) consistent with their emission being dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the MIR. These extremely low PAH EQW sources separate into two distinct types: relatively unobscured sources with a very hot dust component (and thus very shallow MIR slopes) and heavily dust obscured nuclei with a steep temperature gradient. The most heavily dust obscured sources are also the most compact in their MIR

  10. Night sky luminance under clear sky conditions: Theory vs. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths.

  11. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  12. Luminous efficiency functions at higher intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Lawrence Kent

    Two psychophysical measurement techniques, flicker photometry and successive heterochromatic brightness matching, were used to measure changes in luminance efficiency functions with increasing levels of light adaptation. Both measurement techniques were performed using the same optical system and the same seven healthy adults as subjects. Measurements were taken at four reference stimulus intensities, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 foot-lamberts. Luminous efficiency was found to depend on both the technique and the reference stimulus intensity with which the measurements were taken. For heterochromatic brightness matching, luminous efficiency increased for longer wavelengths as reference intensity increased. Peak luminous efficiency shifted from approximately 540nm to greater than 600nm with increasing intensity for all seven subjects. Peak luminous efficiency was constant for flicker photometry across all intensities but the function narrowed slightly at 100 foot-lamberts.

  13. The Multiple Systems in the Young Stellar Cluster IRAS 05137+3919

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Harutyunyan, H. A.; Azatyan, N. M.

    2016-09-01

    Four binary objects and one triplet have been revealed in the young stellar cluster located in the vicinity of IRAS 05137+3919 source on a distance 4.4 kpc with the use of statistic analysis. They are including the pair of Ae/Be Herbig stars. The percentage of the multiple systems in the cluster is mf = 5-6% and cp = 10-13%. The mass of the multiple systems' components are located in the range from ˜ 1 to 8 M⊙ and log P (rotation period in years) - from 4.4 to 4.7. The median value of the mass ratio of the components is q=0.86. The percentage of the multiple systems and their parameters in this cluster is resembling with the data obtained in the other star forming regions (ONC, Perseus, U Sco A), in which the values of mf and cp parameters are comparable with the results obtained for field's stellar population.

  14. El Perfil Sinusoidal del Jet HH 31 en la Protoestrella IRAS 042482612

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Gómez, M. N.

    In this contribution we study the HH 31 jet; associated with the Class I proto-star; IRAS 042482612 (age 10 yrs); in the Taurus molecular cloud. We use mid-infrared images; taken by Spitzer and WISE; to analyze the sinusoidal or S-shape chain of knots (or EGOs) that delineate the jet. The binarity of the central source naturally explains the wiggling jet. The orbital period is 2.7 times the estimated dynamical time of the jet. The spatial difference between knots agrees with time elapse expected between quasi-periodic FU Orionis events; suggesting that central star might have experimented this type of events several times since its birth. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Spectroscopic Study of HD 179821 (IRAS 19114+0002): Proto-Planetary Nebula or Supergiant?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, B. E.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed chemical composition analysis of the bright post-AGB candidate HD 179821 (IRAS 19114 + 0002) is presented. The LTE analysis, based on high-resolution (R approximately equal 50,000) and high-quality (S/N approximately equal 300) spectra, yields atmospheric parameters T(sub eff) = 6750 K, log g = 0.5, and xi(sub t) = 5.25 km/s. The elemental abundance results of HD 179821 are found to be [Fe/H] = -0.1, [C/Fe] = +0.2, [N/Fe] = +1.3, [O/Fe] = +0.2, [alpha-process/Fe] = +0.5, and [s-process/Fe] = +0.4. These values clearly differ from the elemental abundances of Population I F supergiants. The C, N, and O abundances and the total CNO abundance value relative to Fe, [C+N+O/Fe] = +0.5, indicate that the photosphere of HD 179821 is contaminated with both the H- and He-burning products of the AGB phase. The evidence for He burning through the 3.alpha process and deep AGB mixing also comes from the observed overabundances of s-process elements. Remarkably, the abundance of the element Na is found to be very large, [Na/Fe] = +0.9. The ratio O/C = 2.6 indicates that the atmosphere is oxygen rich. The results of this abundance study support the argument that HD 179821 is a proto-planetary nebula,. probably with an intermediate-mass progenitor. However, the strength of the O I triplet lines at 7774 A and the distance derived from the interstellar Na I D1 and D2 components imply that the star is a luminous object (M(sub bol) approximately -8.9 +/- 1) and thus a massive supergiant. Thus, while this study contributes important new observational results for this star, an unambiguous determination of its evolutionary status has yet to be achieved.

  16. Optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic lumineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    Lumineers are veneer laminates used as an alternative for aesthetic dental solutions of the highest quality, but the only current means of its performance assessment is visual inspection. The objective of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain to analyze in vivo in a single patient, 14 lumineers 180 days after cementation. It was possible to observe images in various kinds of changes in the cementing line and the laminate. It was concluded that the OCT is an effective and promising method to clinical evaluation of the cementing line in lumineers.

  17. WITNESSING THE KEY EARLY PHASE OF QUASAR EVOLUTION: AN OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PAIR IN THE INTERACTING GALAXY IRAS 20210+1121

    SciTech Connect

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Fiore, Fabrizio; Maiolino, Roberto; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Vignali, Cristian; Bianchi, Stefano; Mathur, Smita; Guainazzi, Matteo; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2010-10-20

    We report the discovery of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair in the interacting galaxy system IRAS 20210+1121 at z = 0.056. An XMM-Newton observation reveals the presence of an obscured (N {sub H} {approx} 5 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}), Seyfert-like (L {sub 2-10keV} = 4.7 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) nucleus in the northern galaxy, which lacks unambiguous optical AGN signatures. Our spectral analysis also provides strong evidence that the IR-luminous southern galaxy hosts a Type 2 quasar embedded in a bright starburst emission. In particular, the X-ray primary continuum from the nucleus appears totally depressed in the XMM-Newton band as expected in the case of a Compton-thick absorber, and only the emission produced by Compton scattering ('reflection') of the continuum from circumnuclear matter is seen. As such, IRAS 20210+1121 seems to provide an excellent opportunity to witness a key, early phase in the quasar evolution predicted by the theoretical models of quasar activation by galaxy collisions.

  18. IRAS: High-Throughput Identification of Novel Alternative Splicing Regulators.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a fundamental regulatory process of gene expression. Defects in alternative splicing can lead to various diseases, and modification of disease-causing splicing events presents great therapeutic promise. Splicing outcome is commonly affected by extracellular stimuli and signaling cascades that converge on RNA-binding splicing regulators. These trans-acting factors recognize cis-elements in pre-mRNA transcripts to affect spliceosome assembly and splice site choices. Identification of these splicing regulators and/or upstream modulators has been difficult and traditionally done by piecemeal. High-throughput screening strategies to find multiple regulators of exon splicing have great potential to accelerate the discovery process, but typically confront low sensitivity and low specificity of screening assays. Here we describe a unique screening strategy, IRAS (identifying regulators of alternative splicing), using a pair of dual-output minigene reporters to allow for sensitive detection of exon splicing changes. Each dual-output reporter produces green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) fluorescent signals to assay the two spliced isoforms exclusively. The two complementary minigene reporters alter GFP/RFP output ratios in the opposite direction in response to splicing change. Applying IRAS in cell-based high-throughput screens allows sensitive and specific identification of splicing regulators and modulators for any alternative exons of interest. In comparison to previous high-throughput screening methods, IRAS substantially enhances the specificity of the screening assay. This strategy significantly eliminates false positives without sacrificing sensitive identification of true regulators of splicing. PMID:27241759

  19. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 1: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, Thomas J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched on January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. Volume 1 describes the instrument, the mission, and data reduction.

  20. Design of infrared astronomical satellite /IRAS/ primary mirror mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreibman, M.; Young, P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an operational mount to rigidly secure the primary mirror to its baseplate without the introduction of figure error always proves to be a major task on diffraction limited optical systems. A summary of the design of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) primary mirror mount is given. The mirror was designed to be alligned and tested at room temperature and operated in a zero 'g' field at temperatures of 2K. To minimize overstressing, a stiffness requirement of greater than 150 Hz was required for cold launch and room temperature vibration acceptance testing. Additional isolation was required to minimize strains, introduced via the mounting base, due to thermal and mechanical distortions.

  1. High spatial-resolution IRAS images of M51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canterna, R.; Hackwell, John A.; Grasdalen, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    High spatial-resolution (approx. equal to 30 seconds) images of M51 in the four Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) bands (12, 25, 60, and 100 microns) have been obtained. The spatial variation in flux in all four bands is coincident with the spiral features seen in H alpha and 6 cm with a few exceptions. In the nuclear region (4 minutes) the position of the peak of maximum intensity shifts in relation to the visual nucleus: it is coincident with the nucleus at 12 microns, shifts approximately 45 seconds to south-southwest, and is 45 seconds northwest of the nucleus at 60 and 100 microns.

  2. The cosmic X-ray background-IRAS galaxy correlation and the local X-ray volume emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyaji, Takamitsu; Lahav, Ofer; Jahoda, Keith; Boldt, Elihu

    1994-01-01

    We have cross-correlated the galaxies from the IRAS 2 Jy redshift survey sample and the 0.7 Jy projected sample with the all-sky cosmic X-ray background (CXB) map obtained from the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 1 A-2 experiment. We have detected a significant correlation signal between surface density of IRAS galaxies and the X-ray background intensity, with W(sub xg) = (mean value of ((delta I)(delta N)))/(mean value of I)(mean value of N)) of several times 10(exp -3). While this correlation signal has a significant implication for the contribution of the local universe to the hard (E greater than 2 keV) X-ray background, its interpretation is model-dependent. We have developed a formulation to model the cross-correlation between CXB surface brightness and galaxy counts. This includes the effects of source clustering and the X-ray-far-infrared luminosity correlation. Using an X-ray flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which has IRAS 60 micrometer measurements, we have estimated the contribution of the AGN component to the observed CXB-IRAS galaxy count correlations in order to see whether there is an excess component, i.e., contribution from low X-ray luminosity sources. We have applied both the analytical approach and Monte Carlo simulations for the estimations. Our estimate of the local X-ray volume emissivity in the 2-10 keV band is rho(sub x) approximately = (4.3 +/- 1.2) x 10(exp 38) h(sub 50) ergs/s/cu Mpc, consistent with the value expected from the luminosity function of AGNs alone. This sets a limit to the local volume emissivity from lower luminosity sources (e.g., star-forming galaxies, low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs)) to rho(sub x) less than or approximately = 2 x 10(exp 38) h(sub 50) ergs/s/cu Mpc.

  3. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew; BLAST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100-hour flight from northern Sweden in June 2005 (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W 75N, Mrk 231, NGC 4565, and Arp 220 (this last source being our primary calibrator). The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. BLAST was particularly useful for constraining the slope of the submillimeter continuum.

  4. Planning and Measuring Luminance Contrast in Staircases.

    PubMed

    Houck, Leif D; Gundersen, Kristoffer; Strengen, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Norwegian legislation has requirements concerning luminance contrast for different elements in staircases. This paper investigates how architects work to meet the requirements, how to measure the actual built luminance contrasts and finally 21 staircases are measured using two different methods. The results show that some architects do not reflect on luminance contrasts at all, some use their "experience" and some try to measure the reflectance value of different materials during planning. The investigations also reveal that there is not any official predefined way to control luminance contrast, and this investigation shows that different approaches will give different results. To perform the measuring of the built staircases, it has been necessary to develop a defined measuring method. The results of the measuring generally shows that only a few of the staircases studied fully meet the legislation requirements. PMID:27534331

  5. IRAS 16293-2422: Evidence for Infall onto a Counter-Rotating Protostellar Accretion Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remijan, Anthony J.; Hollis, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution VLA observations of the low-mass star-forming region IRAS 16293-2422 using four molecular probes: ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN)) methyl formate (CH3OCHO), formic acid (HCOOH), and the ground vibrational state of silicon monoxide (SiO). Ethyl cyanide emission has a spatial scale of approx. 20" and encompasses binary cores A and B as determined by continuum emission peaks. Surrounded by formic acid emission, methyl formate emission has a spatial scale of approx. 6" and is confined to core B. SiO emission shows two velocity components with spatial scales less than 2" that map approx. 2" northeast of the A and B symmetry axis. The redshifted SiO is approx. 2" northwest of blueshifted SiO along a position angle of approx. 135deg which is approximately parallel to the A and B symmetry axis. We interpret the spatial position offset in red and blueshifted SiO emission as due to rotation of a protostellar accretion disk and we derive approx. 1.4 Solar Mass, interior to the SiO emission. In the same vicinity, Mundy et al. (1986) also concluded rotation of a nearly edge-on disk from OVRO observations of much stronger and ubiquitous CO-13 emission but the direction of rotation is opposite to the SiO emission findings. Taken together, SiO and CO-13 data suggest evidence for a counter-rotating disk. Moreover, archival BIMA array CO-12C data show an inverse P Cygni profile with the strongest absorption in close proximity to the SiO emission, indicating unambiguous material infall toward the counter-rotating protostellar disk at a new source location within the IRAS 16293-2422 complex. The details of these observations and our interpretations are discussed.

  6. Detection of OD towards the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, B.; Du, F.; Liu, F.-C.; Belloche, A.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.; Hübers, H.-W.; Klein, B.

    2012-06-01

    Context. Although water is an essential and widespread molecule in star-forming regions, its chemical formation pathways are still not very well constrained. Observing the level of deuterium fractionation of OH, a radical involved in the water chemical network, is a promising way to infer its chemical origin. Aims: We aim at understanding the formation mechanisms of water by investigating the origin of its deuterium fractionation. This can be achieved by observing the abundance of OD towards the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422, where the HDO distribution is already known. Methods: Using the GREAT receiver on board SOFIA, we observed the ground-state OD transition at 1391.5 GHz towards the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422. We also present the detection of the HDO 111-000 line using the APEX telescope. We compare the OD/HDO abundance ratio inferred from these observations with the predictions of chemical models. Results: The OD line is detected in absorption towards the source continuum. This is the first detection of OD outside the solar system. The SOFIA observation, coupled to the observation of the HDO 111-000 line, provides an estimate of the abundance ratio OD/HDO ~ 17-90 in the gas where the absorption takes place. This value is fairly high compared with model predictions. This may be reconciled if reprocessing in the gas by means of the dissociative recombination of H2DO+ further fractionates OH with respect to water. Conclusions: The present observation demonstrates the capability of the SOFIA/GREAT instrument to detect the ground transition of OD towards star-forming regions in a frequency range that was not accessible before. Dissociative recombination of H2DO+ may play an important role in setting a high OD abundance. Measuring the branching ratios of this reaction in the laboratory will be of great value for chemical models. Figure 5 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. The Census of Complex Organic Molecules in the Solar-type Protostar IRAS16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Ali A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Caux, E.

    2014-08-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) are considered to be crucial molecules, since they are connected with organic chemistry, at the basis of terrestrial life. More pragmatically, they are molecules which in principle are difficult to synthesize in harsh interstellar environments and, therefore, are a crucial test for astrochemical models. Current models assume that several COMs are synthesized on lukewarm grain surfaces (gsim30-40 K) and released in the gas phase at dust temperatures of gsim100 K. However, recent detections of COMs in lsim20 K gas demonstrate that we still need important pieces to complete the puzzle of COMs formation. Here, we present a complete census of the oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing COMs, previously detected in different Interstellar Medium (ISM) regions, toward the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The census was obtained from the millimeter-submillimeter unbiased spectral survey TIMASSS. Of the 29 COMs searched for, 6 were detected: methyl cyanide, ketene, acetaldehyde, formamide, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Multifrequency analysis of the last five COMs provides clear evidence that they are present in the cold (lsim30 K) envelope of IRAS16293-2422, with abundances of 0.03-2 × 10-10. Our data do not allow us to support the hypothesis that the COMs abundance increases with increasing dust temperature in the cold envelope, as expected if COMs were predominately formed on lukewarm grain surfaces. Finally, when also considering other ISM sources, we find a strong correlation over five orders of magnitude between methyl formate and dimethyl ether, and methyl formate and formamide abundances, which may point to a link between these two couples of species in cold and warm gas.

  8. Helical Magnetic Fields in the NGC 1333 IRAS 4A Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping; Zhang, Qizhou; Yang, Louis; Girart, Josep M.; Rao, Ramprasad

    2016-03-01

    We present Submillimeter Array polarization observations of the CO J = 3-2 line toward NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The CO Stokes I maps at an angular resolution of ˜1″ reveal two bipolar outflows from the binary sources of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The kinematic features of the CO emission can be modeled by wind-driven outflows at ˜20° inclined from the plane of the sky. Close to the protostars the CO polarization, at an angular resolution of ˜2.″3, has a position angle approximately parallel to the magnetic field direction inferred from the dust polarizations. The CO polarization direction appears to vary smoothly from an hourglass field around the core to an arc-like morphology wrapping around the outflow, suggesting a helical structure of magnetic fields that inherits the poloidal fields at the launching point and consists of toroidal fields at a farther distance of outflow. The helical magnetic field is consistent with the theoretical expectations for launching and collimating outflows from a magnetized rotating disk. Considering that the CO polarized emission is mainly contributed from the low-velocity and low-resolution data, the helical magnetic field is likely a product of the wind-envelope interaction in the wind-driven outflows. The CO data reveal a PA of ˜30° deflection in the outflows. The variation in the CO polarization angle seems to correlate with the deflections. We speculate that the helical magnetic field contributes to ˜10° deflection of the outflows by means of Lorentz force.

  9. The census of complex organic molecules in the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422

    SciTech Connect

    Jaber, Ali A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Caux, E.

    2014-08-10

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) are considered to be crucial molecules, since they are connected with organic chemistry, at the basis of terrestrial life. More pragmatically, they are molecules which in principle are difficult to synthesize in harsh interstellar environments and, therefore, are a crucial test for astrochemical models. Current models assume that several COMs are synthesized on lukewarm grain surfaces (≳30-40 K) and released in the gas phase at dust temperatures of ≳100 K. However, recent detections of COMs in ≲20 K gas demonstrate that we still need important pieces to complete the puzzle of COMs formation. Here, we present a complete census of the oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing COMs, previously detected in different Interstellar Medium (ISM) regions, toward the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The census was obtained from the millimeter-submillimeter unbiased spectral survey TIMASSS. Of the 29 COMs searched for, 6 were detected: methyl cyanide, ketene, acetaldehyde, formamide, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Multifrequency analysis of the last five COMs provides clear evidence that they are present in the cold (≲30 K) envelope of IRAS16293-2422, with abundances of 0.03-2 × 10{sup –10}. Our data do not allow us to support the hypothesis that the COMs abundance increases with increasing dust temperature in the cold envelope, as expected if COMs were predominately formed on lukewarm grain surfaces. Finally, when also considering other ISM sources, we find a strong correlation over five orders of magnitude between methyl formate and dimethyl ether, and methyl formate and formamide abundances, which may point to a link between these two couples of species in cold and warm gas.

  10. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  11. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses.

    PubMed

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-07-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats' ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing. PMID:22586211

  12. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats’ ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing. PMID:22586211

  13. IRAS observations of asteroid dust bands and cometary dust trails

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of data from the infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) resulted in the discovery of bands of dust surrounding the inner solar system, consisting of asteroid collision debris (Low et al., 1984). Narrow trails of dust were also discovered tracking the orbits of a number of short-period comets (Sykes et al., 1986). Pairs of dust bands are the product of individual collisional events in the asteroid belt. A dynamical model is developed that shows how the orbits of debris from such collisions evolve to form a band pair. A model of the surface-area evolution of such bands is also developed which, coupled with asteroid collision theories, indicates that some of the observed dust bands are the consequence of the disruption of approx.10 km diameter asteroids within the last approx.10/sup 7/ years. Observations of other bands are consistent with more ancient disruptions of much larger asteroids, which resulted in the formation of the Koronis and Themis asteroid families. Cometary dust trails consist of particles hundreds of microns and larger in diameter, ejected at low velocities (m/s) from the parent comet, and spreading out ahead and behind the comet's position along its orbital path, the initial stages in the evolution of meteor streams. Preliminary results from a survey of dust trails in the IRAS data indicate the presence of a large number of previously unobserved short-period comets.

  14. Ira at 80: The acronyms of a career in acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, Janet M.

    2002-05-01

    In a career that spans some 54 years to date, the name of Ira J. Hirsh has been associated with significant scientific contributions to psychoacoustics, outstanding mentoring of research scientists, and dedicated service to the fields of acoustics, audiology, and psychology. It is a career that can be traced by acronyms that are part of the daily vocabulary of hearing scientists. These include acronyms of location: Early work at the Psychoacoustics Laboratory at Harvard (PAL), a long tenure in research at the Central Institute for the Deaf (CID), service as faculty member, chair, and dean at Washington University (WashU); acronyms of professional societies that have honored him: Acoustical Society of America (ASA), International Commission of Acoustics (ICA), American Psychological Association (APA), American Psychological Society (APS), American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); acronyms of his service to the National Academy of Science: National Research Council (NRC), Commission on Behavioral and Social Science and Education (CBASSE); and acronyms of his contributions to psychoacoustics: Masking Level Difference (MLD), Temporal Order Judgments (TOJ). In large part, these acronyms are part of our vocabulary because of Ira's contributions, and tracing them over the past half-century yields a substantive look at the development of the field of hearing science.

  15. A quantitative analysis of IRAS maps of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.; Adams, Fred C.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of IRAS maps of five molecular clouds: Orion, Ophiuchus, Perseus, Taurus, and Lupus. For the classification and description of these astrophysical maps, we use a newly developed technique which considers all maps of a given type to be elements of a pseudometric space. For each physical characteristic of interest, this formal system assigns a distance function (a pseudometric) to the space of all maps: this procedure allows us to measure quantitatively the difference between any two maps and to order the space of all maps. We thus obtain a quantitative classification scheme for molecular clouds. In this present study we use the IRAS continuum maps at 100 and 60 micrometer(s) to produce column density (or optical depth) maps for the five molecular cloud regions given above. For this sample of clouds, we compute the 'output' functions which measure the distribution of density, the distribution of topological components, the self-gravity, and the filamentary nature of the clouds. The results of this work provide a quantitative description of the structure in these molecular cloud regions. We then order the clouds according to the overall environmental 'complexity' of these star-forming regions. Finally, we compare our results with the observed populations of young stellar objects in these clouds and discuss the possible environmental effects on the star-formation process. Our results are consistent with the recently stated conjecture that more massive stars tend to form in more 'complex' environments.

  16. Analysis of interstellar cloud structure based on IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalo, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop new tools for the analysis of the structure of densely sampled maps of interstellar star-forming regions. A particular emphasis was on the recognition and characterization of nested hierarchical structure and fractal irregularity, and their relation to the level of star formation activity. The panoramic IRAS images provided data with the required range in spatial scale, greater than a factor of 100, and in column density, greater than a factor of 50. In order to construct densely sampled column density maps of star-forming clouds, column density images of four nearby cloud complexes were constructed from IRAS data. The regions have various degrees of star formation activity, and most of them have probably not been affected much by the disruptive effects of young massive stars. The largest region, the Scorpius-Ophiuchus cloud complex, covers about 1000 square degrees (it was subdivided into a few smaller regions for analysis). Much of the work during the early part of the project focused on an 80 square degree region in the core of the Taurus complex, a well-studied region of low-mass star formation.

  17. Water deuterium fractionation in the low-mass protostar NGC1333-IRAS2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Kristensen, L.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Güsten, R.

    2011-03-01

    Context. Although deuterium enrichment of water may provide an essential piece of information in the understanding of the formation of comets and protoplanetary systems, only a few studies up to now have aimed at deriving the HDO/H2O ratio in low-mass star forming regions. Previous studies of the molecular deuteration toward the solar-type class 0 protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, have shown that the D/H ratio of water is significantly lower than other grain-surface-formed molecules. It is not clear if this property is general or particular to this source. Aims: In order to see if the results toward IRAS 16293-2422 are particular, we aimed at studying water deuterium fractionation in a second low-mass solar-type protostar, NGC1333-IRAS2A. Methods: Using the 1-D radiative transfer code RATRAN, we analyzed five HDO transitions observed with the IRAM 30 m, JCMT, and APEX telescopes. We assumed that the abundance profile of HDO in the envelope is a step function, with two different values in the inner warm (T > 100 K) and outer cold (T < 100 K) regions of the protostellar envelope. Results: The inner and outer abundance of HDO is found to be well constrained at the 3σ level. The obtained HDO inner and outer fractional abundances are xHDO_in = 6.6 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-7(3σ) and x^{HDO}out=9×10-11= 9 × 10-11-1.0-1.8 × 10-9(3σ). These values are close to those in IRAS 16293-2422, which suggests that HDO may be formed by the same mechanisms in these two solar-type protostars. Taking into account the (rather poorly onstrained) H2O abundance profile deduced from Herschel observations, the derived HDO/H2O in the inner envelope is ≥1% and in the outer envelope it is 0.9%-18%. These values are more than one order of magnitude higher than what is measured in comets. If the same ratios apply to the protosolar nebula, this would imply that there is some efficient reprocessing of the material between the protostellar and cometary phases. Conclusions: The H2O inner fractional

  18. The clustering of warm and cool IRAS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. G.; Saunders, W.; Taylor, A. N.

    1996-03-01

    We use a series of statistical techniques to compare the clustering of samples of IRAS galaxies selected on the basis of their far-infrared emission temperature, to see whether a temperature-dependent effect, such as might be produced by interaction-induced star formation, could be responsible for the increase in clustering strength with redshift in the QDOT redshift survey that has been reported by several authors. The temperature-luminosity relation for IRAS galaxies means that warm and cool samples drawn from a flux-limited sample like QDOT will sample quite different volumes of space. To overcome this problem, and to distinguish truly temperature-dependent results from those depending directly on the volume of space sampled, we consider a pair of samples of warmer and cooler galaxies with matched redshift distributions, as well as pairs of samples selected using a simple temperature cut. We find that the redshift-space autocorrelation function of warm QDOT galaxies is significantly stronger than that of cool galaxies on large scales, but that this difference disappears when we come to consider the warmer and cooler samples with matched redshift distributions. A counts- in-cells analysis reveals no significant difference between the clustering of the warm and cool QDOT samples, while the use of a new, symmetric estimator reveals that the cross-correlations of warm and cool IRAS galaxies with Abell clusters do not differ significantly. A higher signal-to-noise ratio test is provided by computing the projected cross- correlations of the matched samples with the parent two-dimensional catalogue from which QDOT is drawn, and this does yield a marginal detection of greater large-scale power for warmer galaxies. A direct comparison of the distributions of the warmer and cooler samples, using a new technique which tests the null hypothesis that they are drawn from the same population, reveals that the two classes of galaxy do cluster differently on small scales in

  19. The magnetic field of IRAS 16293-2422 as traced by shock-induced H2O masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, F. O.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Girart, J. M.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2012-06-01

    Context. Shock-induced H2O masers are important magnetic field tracers of very high density gas. Water masers are found in both high- and low-mass star-forming regions, and are a powerful tool for comparing magnetic field morphologies in both mass regimes. Aims: We present one of the first magnetic field determinations for the low-mass protostellar core IRAS 16293-2422 at volume densities as high as 108-10 cm-3. Our goal is to determine wether the collapsing regime of this source is controlled by magnetic fields or other factors such as turbulence. Methods: We used the Very Large Array (VLA) to carry out spectropolarimetric observations of the 22 GHz Zeeman emission from H2O masers. From the Stokes V line profile, we are then able to estimate the magnetic field strength in the dense regions around the protostar. Results: A blend of at least three maser features can be inferred from our relatively high spatial resolution data set (~0.1''), which is reproduced as a clear non-Gaussian line profile. The emission is very stable in terms of polarization fraction and position angle across the channels. The maser spots are aligned with some components of the complex outflow configuration of IRAS 16293-2422, and are excited in zones of compressed gas produced by shocks. The post-shock particle density is in the range of 1-3 × 109 cm-3, consistent with typical water-maser pumping densities. Zeeman emission is produced by a very strong line-of-sight magnetic field (B ~ 113 mG). Conclusions: The magnetic field pressure derived from our data is comparable to the ram pressure of the outflow dynamics. This indicates that the magnetic field is energetically important to the dynamical evolution of IRAS 16293-2422.

  20. EVN observations of the farthest and brightest ULIRGs in the local Universe: the case of IRAS 23365+3604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Cañizales, Cristina; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Ángel; Alberdi, Antxon

    2012-05-01

    We present high-resolution, high-sensitivity radio images of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) IRAS 23365+3604. We performed contemporaneous observations at 1.7 and 5.0 GHz, in three epochs separated by 1 year from each other, with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (EVN). We also present complementary Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometry Network (MERLIN) at 1.6 and 5.0 GHz, and archival Very Large Array data, taken at 1.4 and 4.9 GHz. We find that the emission at ˜5.0 GHz remains quite compact as seen at different resolutions, whereas at ˜1.7 GHz, high-resolution imaging reveals some extended structure. The nuclear region has an approximate linear size of 200 pc and shows the presence of two main emission components: (i) one with a composite spectrum due to ongoing non-thermal activity (probably due to recently exploded supernovae and the presence of an active galactic nucleus), and (ii) the other with a steep spectrum, likely dominated by an old population of radio emitters, such as supernova remnants. Radiative losses are important, so re-acceleration or replenishment of new electrons is necessary. We estimate a magnetic field strength of ˜ 18 μG at galactic and ˜ 175 μG at nuclear scales, which are typical for galaxies in advanced mergers.

  1. Duration expansion at low luminance levels.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Aurelio; Ayhan, Inci; Johnston, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Duration distortions have been shown to occur at the time of saccades and following high temporal frequency or contrast adaptation. Under all these conditions, changes in the temporal tuning of M neurons also occur, suggesting that there might be a link between the two phenomena. In order to explore this relationship further, we measured the apparent duration of visual stimuli in the dark, where the temporal impulse response has been reported to lengthen. We first measured a progressive shift and reduction of the occurrence of an apparent motion reversal as we decreased the luminance level, indicating a lengthening of the temporal impulse response. We then measured perceived duration at these luminance levels (0.75, 3, and 50 cd/m(2)) after matching for apparent contrast and temporal frequency. While perceived temporal frequency did not substantially differ across luminance levels, duration appeared expanded at the lowest luminance level relative to the highest by approximately 60 ms. Thus, we have shown that reduced luminance is associated with both a lengthening of the temporal impulse response and a duration expansion, linking the two and providing further evidence for a relationship between changes in the neuronal tuning in the early stages of the visual system and time perception.

  2. Dynamic coding of temporal luminance variation.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni

    2012-06-01

    The range of variation in environmental stimuli is much larger than the visual system can represent. It is therefore sensible for the system to adjust its responses to the momentary input statistics of the environment, such as when our pupils contract to limit the light entering the eye. Previous evidence indicates that the visual system increasingly centers responses on the mean of the visual input and scales responses to its variation during adaptation. To what degree does adaptation to a stimulus varying in luminance over time result in such adjustment of responses? The first two experiments were designed to test whether sensitivity to changes in the amplitude and the mean of a 9.6° central patch varying sinusoidally in luminance at 0.6 Hz would increase or decrease with adaptation. This was also tested for a dynamic peripheral stimulus (random patches rotating on the screen) to test to what extent the effects uncovered in the first two experiments reflect retinotopic mechanisms. Sensitivity to changes in mean and amplitude of the temporal luminance variation increased sharply the longer the adaptation to the variation, both for the large patch and the peripheral patches. Adaptation to luminance variation leads to increased sensitivity to temporal luminance variation for both central and peripheral presentation, the latter result ruling retinotopic mechanisms out as sole explanations for the adaptation effects.

  3. Water around IRAS 15398-3359 observed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Bergin, E. A.; Frimann, S.; Harsono, D.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Lindberg, J. E.; Persson, M.; Sakai, N.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Yamamoto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Understanding how protostars accrete their mass is one of the fundamental problems of star formation. High dust column densities and complex kinematical structures make direct observations challenging. Moreover, direct observations only provide a snapshot. Chemical tracers provide an interesting alternative to characterise the infall histories of protostars. Aims: We aim to map the distribution and kinematics of gaseous water towards the low-mass embedded protostar IRAS 15398-3359. Previous observations of H13CO+ showed a depression in the abundance towards IRAS 15398-3359. This is a sign of destruction of HCO+ by an enhanced presence of gaseous water in an extended region, possibly related to a recent burst in the accretion. Direct observations of water vapour can determine the exact extent of the emission and confirm the hypothesis that HCO+ is indeed a good tracer of the water snow-line. Methods: IRAS 15398-3359 was observed using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 0.5″ resolution in two setups at 390 and 460 GHz. Maps of HDO (101-000) and were taken simultaneously with observations of the CS (8-7) and N2H+ (5-4) lines and continuum at 0.65 and 0.75 mm. The maps were interpreted using dust radiative transfer calculations of the protostellar infalling envelope with an outflow cavity. Results: HDO is clearly detected and extended over the scales of the H13CO+ depression, although it is displaced by 500 AU in the direction of the outflow. HO is tentatively detected towards the red-shifted outflow lobe, but otherwise it is absent from the mapped region, which suggests that temperatures are low. Although we cannot entirely exclude a shock origin, this indicates that another process is responsible for the water emission. Conclusions: Based on the temperature structure obtained from dust radiative transfer models, we conclude that the water was most likely released from the grains in an extended hour-glass configuration during a

  4. Dosimetric comparison of four new design {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy sources: Optimal design using silver and copper rod cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, S. Hamed; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Ataeinia, Vahideh

    2009-07-15

    Four new brachytherapy sources, IRA1-{sup 103}Pd, IRA2-{sup 103}Pd, IRA3-{sup 103}Pd, and IRA4-{sup 103}Pd, have been developed at Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School and are designed for permanent implant application. With the goal of determining an optimal design for a {sup 103}Pd source, this article compares the dosimetric properties of these sources with reference to the authors' earlier IRA-{sup 103}Pd source. The four new sources differ in end cap configuration and thickness and in the core material, silver or copper, that carries the adsorbed {sup 103}Pd. Dosimetric data derived from the authors' Monte Carlo simulation results are reported in accordance with the updated AAPM Task Group No. 43 report (TG-43U1). For each source, the authors obtained detailed results for the dose rate constant {Lambda}, the radial dose function g(r), the anisotropy function F(r,{theta}), and the anisotropy factor {phi}{sub an}(r). In this study, the optimal source IRA3-{sup 103}Pd provides the most isotropic dose distribution in water with the dose rate constant of 0.678({+-}0.1%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. The IRA3-{sup 103}Pd design has a silver rod core combined with thin-wall, concave end caps. Finally, the authors compared the results for their optimal source with published results for those of other source manufacturers.

  5. Circumstellar shells resolved in IRAS survey data. II - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K.; Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    IRAS survey data for 512 red giant stars and young planetary nebulae were processed using a computer program which fitted the data to an idealized model of a circumstellar shell. Seventy-six of these stars were found to have circumstellar shells resolved in the 60-micron survey data. Forty pct of the 76 stars are carbon stars. Thirteen are Mira variables. The evolution of these shells, involving the interaction of the expelled material with the ISM, is modeled, and the results suggest that the period during which Mira variables lose mass lasts for approximately 10 exp 5 yr. Carbon stars are found to shed mass for about 2 x 10 exp 5 yr. The expansion velocity of the outer shell for the largest shells will normally be lower by a factor of 3-5 than the expansion velocity obtained from CO observations.

  6. IRAS observations of giant molecular clouds in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The IRAS data base has been used to study infrared radiation from molecular clouds in our galaxy. The sample of clouds was restricted to those with reliably determined molecular masses from large area, multi-isotope CO maps. They were normalized to X(CO-13)= 2x10 to the -6. Flux densities at 60 microns and 100 microns were determined by integrating the flux density within rectangles drawn on the sky flux plates after subtracting a suitable background. The rectangles were chosen to be coextensive with the areas mapped in CO. Color corrections were made and luminosites calculated by assuming the optical depths were proportional to frequency. The flux densities were converted to dust masses with a value for 4a rho/3Q = .04 g/cm at 100 microns.

  7. Phosphate/sulphate exchange studies on Amberlite IRA-400.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, S; Naeem, A; Rehana, N; Hamid, A; Dilara, B

    2004-10-01

    The sorption behaviour of phosphate on strong basic anion exchanger, Amberlite IRA-400 (SO4(2-) form) is studied as a function of pH (3-11) at two different initial concentration ranges (0.161 - 0.807 mmol l(-1), 3.874 - 6.134 mmol l(-1)) at 25 degrees C. The stiochiometry of the exchange reactions is observed to be dependent upon concentration and pH of the solutions. It is suggested that the sorption of phosphate takes place initially as PO4(3-) followed by HPO4(2-)/H2PO4(-). The data obtained is explained with the help of a modified Langmuir and mass law action equations.

  8. Mesopic luminance assessed with minimum motion photometry.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sabine; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2011-08-25

    We measured the relative contribution of rods and cones to luminance across a range of photopic, mesopic, and scotopic adaptation levels and at various retinal eccentricities. We isolated the luminance channel by setting motion-based luminance nulls (minimum motion photometry) using annular stimuli. Luminance nulls between differently colored stimuli require equality in a weighted sum of rod and cone excitations. The relative cone weight increases smoothly from the scotopic range, where rods dominate, to photopic levels, where rod influence becomes negligible. The change from rod to cone vision does not occur uniformly over the visual field. The more peripheral the stimulus location, the higher is the light level required for cones to participate strongly. The relative cone contribution can be described by a sigmoid function of intensity, with two parameters that each depend on the eccentricity and spatial frequency of the stimulus. One parameter determines the "meso-mesopic" luminance--the center of the mesopic range, at which rod and cone contributions are balanced. This increases with eccentricity, reflecting an increase in the meso-mesopic luminance from 0.04 scotopic cd/m(2) at 2° eccentricity to 0.44 scotopic cd/m(2) at 18°. The second parameter represents the slope of the log-log threshold-versus-intensity curve (TVI curve) for rod vision. This parameter inversely scales the width of the mesopic range and increases only slightly with eccentricity (from 0.73 at 2° to 0.78 for vision at 18° off-axis).

  9. Radio occultation experiments with INAF-IRA radiotelescopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Salerno, E.; Pupillo, G.

    The Radio Occultation research program performed at the Medicina and Noto Radioastronomical Stations of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) - Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) includes observations of spacecraft by satellite and satellite by satellite events. The Lunar Radio Occultation (LRO) part of the program consists in collecting data of the lunar Total Electron Content (TEC), at different limb longitudes and at different time, in order to study long term variation of the Moon's ionosphere. The LRO program started at Medicina in September 2006 with the observation of the European probe SMART-1 during its impact on the lunar soil. It proceeded in 2007 with the observation of the lunar occultations of Saturn and Venus, and with the observation of Mars in 2008. On this occasion the probes Cassini, Venus Express, Mars Express, Mars Reconaissance Orbiter and Mars Odissey were respectively occulted by the moon. On Dec 1st 2008 a Venus lunar occultation occurred. On that occasion we performed the first Italian-VLBI (I-VLBI) tracking experiment by detecting the carrier signals coming from the Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft with both the IRA radiotelescopes together with the Matera antenna of the Italian Space Agency. The second part of the radio occultation program includes the observation of satellite by satellite occultation events, as well as mutual occultations of Jupiter satellites. These events are referred to as mutual phenomena (PHEMU). These observations are aimed to measure the radio flux variation during the occultation and to derive surface spatial characteristics such as Io's hot spots. In this work preliminary results of the Radio Occultation program will be presented.

  10. Surgery for luminal Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) require surgery. Indications for surgery include failure of medical treatment, bowel obstruction, fistula or abscess formation. The most common surgical procedure is resection. In jejunoileal CD, strictureplasty is an accepted surgical technique that relieves the obstructive symptoms, while preserving intestinal length and avoiding the development of short bowel syndrome. However, the role of strictureplasty in duodenal and colonic diseases remains controversial. In extensive colitis, after total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA), the recurrence rates and functional outcomes are reasonable. For patients with extensive colitis and rectal involvement, total colectomy and end-ileostomy is safe and effective; however, a few patients can have subsequent IRA, and half of the patients will require proctectomy later. Proctocolectomy is associated with a high incidence of delayed perineal wound healing, but it carries a low recurrence rate. Patients undergoing proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis had poor functional outcomes and high failure rates. Laparoscopic surgery has been introduced as a minimal invasive procedure. Patients who undergo laparoscopic surgery have a more rapid recovery of bowel function and a shorter hospital stay. The morbidity also is lower, and the rate of disease recurrence is similar compared with open procedures. PMID:24415860

  11. An X-ray and radio study of the massive star-forming cluster IRAS 20126+4104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Virginie; Hofner, Peter; Anderson, Crystal; Rosero, Viviana

    2015-08-01

    Two main competitive theories intent to explain massive star formation: the turbulent core model, which is an extension of the low-mass star formation model (McKee & Tan 2003), and models involving competitive accretion or stellar collisions (Bonnell & Bate 2006). The characterization of the cluster in which massive stars remain can help discriminate between the two main scenarios of their formation.Until recently it was believed that massive stars were only formed in dense molecular clouds leading to a substantial cluster. However, a previous study of the massive star forming region IRAS 20126+4104 using Spitzer observations by Qiu et al. (2008), suggested that the massive protostar was isolated, and the region was showing no obvious cluster.Here we adopt a multiwavelength technique to characterize the stellar environment of the IRAS 20126+4104 region combining Chandra X-ray ACIS-I and VLA 6cm continuum observations, and near-infrared (2MASS) data of the region. We detected 150 X-ray sources in the ACIS-I field and 13 radio sources within the 9’.2 VLA primary beam. Associating X-ray sources with their near-infrared counterparts from the 2MASS catalog and a color study of those counterparts, allow us to determine the galactic foreground/background contamination, and we conclude that 90 X-ray sources are associated with the region.This study shows an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and a number of at least 42 YSOs within 1.2 pc distance from the massive protostar. This number is consistent with typical B-type stars clusters (Lada & Lada 2003).

  12. Multiple monopolar outflows driven by massive protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-López, M.; Girart, J. M.; Curiel, S.; Fonfría, J. P.; Zapata, L. A.; Qiu, K. E-mail: girart@ieec.cat

    2013-11-20

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO{sup +}, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 10{sup 3}-5 × 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  13. SPECTRAL VARIABILITY OF IRAS 18325-5926 AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE GEOMETRY OF THE SCATTERING MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Shruti; Misra, R.; Dewangan, G. C.; Cheeran, J.; Abraham, S.; Philip, N. S.

    2013-08-20

    We analyze Suzaku and XMM-Newton data of the highly variable Seyfert 2, IRAS 18325-5926. The spectra of the source are well modeled as a primary component described as an absorbed power law and a secondary power-law component which is consistent with being scattered emission from an on-axis extended highly ionized medium. We show that while the primary component varies on a wide range of timescales from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 8} s, the scattered emission is variable only on timescales longer than 10{sup 5} s. This implies that the extent of the scattering medium is greater than 10{sup 16} cm. The ratio of the scattered to primary flux ({approx}0.03) implies a column density for the scattering medium to be {approx}10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. We argue that for such a medium to be highly ionized it must be located less than 10{sup 17} cm from the X-ray source. Thus, we localize the position and extent of scattering region to be {approx}a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm, with an average particle density of {approx}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}. We consider the physical interpretation of these results, and as an aside we confirm the presence of a broad iron line emission in both the XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations.

  14. IRAS observations show that the Earth is embedded in a solar ring of asteroidal dust particles in resonant lock with the planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.; Jayaraman, S.; Xu, Y.-L.; Liou, J.-C.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed all the infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud obtained in 1983 by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and shown that when viewed at a constant elongation angle of 90 degrees, the elliptic brightness of the cloud is systematically greater by approx. 3 percent in the trailing direction than in the leading direction. This asymmetry is observed at all times of the year and in all three of the IRAS wavebands in which the zodiacal cloud is clearly observed. The orbits of cometary particles are highly eccentric and these particles are unlikely to be trapped in corotational resonances. Thus, the IRAS observations are evidence that the Earth is embedded in a ring of asteroidal particles. Similar rings are expected to be associated with Mars and Venus. The existence of asteroidal families and their associated dust bands (also discovered by IRAS) are evidence that the asteroid belt is a significant and maybe the dominant source of dust in the zodiacal cloud. These new observations give quantitative information both on the rate of transport of asteroidal dust to the Earth and on the rate of grinding down of the asteroid belt. Without resonant trapping most dust particles spiral past the Earth without striking the planet. However, most particles trapped in resonances are released from these resonances due to close encounter with the Earth. Thus, the ring may act as a funnel through which asteroidal particles are deposited in the Earth's atmosphere. This could have implications for the efficiency of the transport of carbonaceous material from the asteroid belt to the Earth and for the origin of life on the planet.

  15. A deep redshift survey of IRAS galaxies towards the Bootes void

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Arjun; Strauss, Michael A.; Huchra, John

    1990-01-01

    Redshifts were measured for a complete sample of galaxies detected by the IRAS within 11.5 deg of the center of the void in Bootes discovered by Kirshner et al (1981). There are 12 IRAS galaxies within the void as defined by the above authors, seven of which were discovered in this survey. One of these has a companion at the same redshift. The resulting density of IRAS galaxies in the void is measured to be between 1/6 and 1/3 of the average density; the uncertainty is dominated by Poisson statistics. Good agreement is found between the selection function and number density derived from the present sample and those derived from the all-sky sample of Strauss (1989). The optical spectra of the newly found galaxies in the void are typical of IRAS galaxies in the field.

  16. Individual retirement account balances, contributions, and rollovers, 2010: the EBRI IRA database.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2012-05-01

    In 2010, IRA owners were more likely to be male, especially those whose accounts originated from a rollover or were a SEP/SIMPLE. Among all IRA owners in the database, nearly one-half (45.8 percent) were ages 45-64. The average and median IRA account balance in 2010 was $67,438 and $17,863, respectively, while the average and median IRA individual balance (all accounts from the same person combined) was $91,864 and $25,296. Individuals with a traditional-originating from rollovers had the highest average and median balance of $123,426 and $38,138, respectively. Roth owners had the lowest average and median balance at $22,437 and $11,471. The average and median individual IRA balance increased with age through age 70. The average amount contributed to an IRA in the database was $3,335 in 2010. The average contribution was highest for accounts owned by those ages 65-69, and more contributions were made to Roth accounts than to traditional accounts (both those originating from contributions and rollovers). However, the average contribution to a traditional account was higher, at $3,517, compared with $3,240 to a Roth account. Yet, a higher overall amount was contributed to Roths ($2.3 billion for Roths compared with $1.3 billion for traditional accounts). Focusing on those owning traditional or Roth IRAs, 9.3 percent of the accounts received contributions, and 12.1 percent of the individuals owning these IRA types contributed to them in 2010. Among traditional IRA owners, 5.2 percent contributed, while 24.0 percent of those owning a Roth contributed to it during 2010. Of those individuals contributing to an IRA, 43.5 percent contributed the maximum amount. Of those contributing to a traditional IRA, 48.7 percent maxed out their contribution, while 39.3 percent did so with a Roth. The average and median account balances increased from $54,863 and $15,756 respectively in 2008 to $67,438 and $17,863 in 2010. This represents an increase of 22.9 percent in the average

  17. Physical properties and evolutionary state of the Lyman alpha emitting starburst galaxy IRAS 08339+6517

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otí-Floranes, H.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Schaerer, D.; Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Atek, H.; Kunth, D.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Though Lyα emission is one of the most used tracers of massive star formation at high redshift, it is strongly affected by neutral gas radiation transfer effects. A correct understanding of these effects is required to properly quantify the star formation rate along the history of the Universe. Aims: We aim to parameterize the escape of Lyα photons as a function of the galaxy properties, in order to properly calibrate the Lyα luminosity as a tracer of star formation intensity at any age of the Universe. Methods: We have embarked on a program to study the properties of the Lyα emission (spectral profile, spatial distribution, relation to Balmer lines intensity,...) in a number of starburst galaxies in the Local Universe. The study is based on Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopic and imaging observations at various wavelengths, X-ray data, and ground-based spectroscopy, complemented with the use of evolutionary population synthesis models. Results: We present here the results obtained for one of those sources, IRAS 08339+6517, a strong Lyα emitter in the Local Universe, which is undergoing an intense episode of massive star formation. We have characterized the properties of the starburst, which transformed 1.4 × 108 M⊙ of gas into stars around 5-6 Myr ago. The mechanical energy released by the central super stellar cluster (SSC), located in the core of the starburst, has created a cavity devoid of gas and dust around it, leaving a clean path through which the UV continuum of the SSC is observed, with almost no extinction. While the average extinction affecting the stellar continuum is significantly larger out of the cavity, with E(B - V) = 0.15 on average, we have not found any evidence for regions with very large extinctions, which could be hiding some young, massive stars not contributing to the global UV continuum. The observed soft and hard X-ray emissions are consistent with this scenario, being originated by the interstellar medium heated by

  18. Using the IRAS data to search in the asteroid belt for any potential evidence of galactic colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papagiannis, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    The end product of the biological evolution seems to be the appearance of technological civilizations, which are characterized by superior technology that supercedes biological capabilities. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has gained scientific recognition in recent years. The concept of galactic colonization is debated extensively, with opinions ranging from the impossible to the inevitable, but without a clear resolution. Answers can be obtained only with experimental tests and not with endless debates. A search for large space colonies in the asteroid belt, an ideal source of raw materials for a spaceborne civilization, is a test of the galactic colonization theory. The catalogue of solar system objects obtained form the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) observations at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, is an ideal source for such a search. The catalog is expected to be ready at the end of 1985 and will contain more than 10,000 objects.

  19. Characterization of the IRAS22129+7000 protostar and associated molecular outflow in B175 (=L1219)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Berné, O.; Gerin, M.; Joblin, C.; Teyssier, D.

    2006-06-01

    We present a multi--wavelength study of the cold and deeply embedded IRAS22129+7000 source and associated bipolar outflow, first detected by Nikolic & Kun (2004), near the Ced201 reflection nebula. We have detected and resolved the source that drives the extended molecular outflow at high angular resolution using the IRAC camera and IRS spectrometer on board Spitzer, and mapped the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission with the MAMBO bolometer (at the IRAM--30m telescope). We have also mapped the outflow in the CO J=3-2 line with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) and targeted some specific positions in C18O, 13CO and HCO^+ (with the IRAM-30m), and in CO, DCO^+ and HCN (with the CSO).

  20. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contributions to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-3 Section 1.408A-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-3 Contributions to Roth IRAs. This section sets...

  1. 78 FR 70964 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... for four consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company.../reactors/new-reactors/col.html . NRC's PDR: You may examine and purchase copies of public documents at the... INFORMATION: The following party has filed applications for COLs with the NRC, pursuant to Section 103 of...

  2. CO excitation in four IR luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, Simon J. E.; Solomon, P. M.; Downes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The correlation between the CO and far infrared luminosities of spiral galaxies is well established. The luminosity ration, L sub FIR/L sub CO in IR luminous active galaxies is, however, systematically five to ten times higher than in ordinary spirals and molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Furthermore, the masses of molecular hydrogen in luminous galaxies are large, M (H2) approx. equals 10(exp 10) solar magnitude, which indicates the observed luminosity ratios are due to an excess of infrared output, rather than a deficiency of molecular gas. These large amounts of molecular gas may fuel luminous galaxies through either star formation or nuclear activity. This interpretation rests on applying the M (H2)/L sub CO ratio calibrated in our Galaxy to galaxies with strikingly different luminosity ratios. But are the physical conditions of the molecular gas different in galaxies with different luminosity ratios. And, if so, does the proportionality between CO and H2 also vary among galaxies. To investigate these questions researchers observed CO (2 to 1) and (1 to 0) emission from four luminous galaxies with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Researchers conclude that most of the CO emission from these Arp 193, Arp 220, and Mrk 231 arises in regions with moderate ambient densities similar to the clouds in the Milky Way molecular ring. The emission is neither from dense hot cloud cores nor from the cold low density gas characteristic of the envelopes of dark clouds.

  3. Kinematics of luminous blue compact galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östlin, Göran; Amram, Philippe; Boulesteix, Jaques; Bergvall, Nils; Masegosa, Josefa; Márquez, Isabel

    We present results from a Fabry-Perot study of the Hα velocity fields and morphologies of a sample of luminous blue compact galaxies. We estimate masses from photometry and kinematics and show that many of these BCGs are not rotationally supported. Mergers or strong interactions appear to be the triggering mechanism of the extreme starbursts seen in these galaxies.

  4. Luminance in computer-aided lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

    1987-08-01

    Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually sees''. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

  5. Luminance in computer-aided lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

    1987-08-01

    Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually ``sees``. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

  6. GROUND-BASED Paα NARROW-BAND IMAGING OF LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. STAR FORMATION RATES AND SURFACE DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tateuchi, Ken; Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Nakashima, Asami; and others

    2015-03-15

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in optical wavelengths. We have carried out Paα narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Paα fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method (typically A{sub V} ∼ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of the IRAS data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for the Paα flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and surface densities of infrared luminosities (Σ{sub L(IR)}) and the SFR (Σ{sub SFR}) of star forming regions for individual galaxies, and we find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra-luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the L(IR)-Σ{sub L(IR)} and SFR-Σ{sub SFR} plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at L(IR) = 8 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences in their merging stages.

  7. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  8. The effect of spatial luminance distribution on dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Stokkermans, Mariska G M; Vogels, Ingrid M L C; Heynderickx, Ingrid E J

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies show that dark adaptation in the visual system depends on local luminance levels surrounding the viewing direction. These studies, however, do not explain to what extent veiling luminance is responsible for the outcome. To address the latter, in this study dark adaptation was measured for three different spatial luminance distributions surrounding a target to be detected, while keeping the veiling luminance at the location of the target equivalent. The results show that a background with bright areas close to the viewing direction yields longer adaptation times than a background with bright areas at a larger visual angle. Therefore, we conclude that dark adaptation is affected to a great extent by local luminance, even when controlling for veiling luminance. Based on our results, a simple but adequate model is proposed to predict the adaptation luminance threshold for backgrounds having a nonuniform luminance distribution.

  9. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF OUTFLOWS FROM INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Chandar, Rupali; Tremonti, Christy A.; Schaerer, Daniel E-mail: wofford@stsci.edu E-mail: tremonti@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-08-01

    We obtained medium-resolution ultraviolet (UV) spectra between 1150 and 1450 A of the four UV-bright, infrared-luminous starburst galaxies IRAS F08339+6517, NGC 3256, NGC 6090, and NGC 7552 using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The selected sightlines toward the starburst nuclei probe the properties of the recently formed massive stars and the physical conditions in the starburst-driven galactic superwinds. Despite being metal-rich and dusty, all four galaxies are strong Ly{alpha} emitters with equivalent widths ranging between 2 and 13 A. The UV spectra show strong P Cygni-type high-ionization features indicative of stellar winds and blueshifted low-ionization lines formed in the interstellar and circumgalactic medium. We detect outflowing gas with bulk velocities of {approx}400 km s{sup -1} and maximum velocities of almost 900 km s{sup -1}. These are among the highest values found in the local universe and comparable to outflow velocities found in luminous Lyman-break galaxies at intermediate and high redshift. The outflow velocities are unlikely to be high enough to cause escape of material from the galactic gravitational potential. However, the winds are significant for the evolution of the galaxies by transporting heavy elements from the starburst nuclei and enriching the galaxy halos. The derived mass outflow rates of {approx}100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} are comparable to or even higher than the star formation rates. The outflows can quench star formation and ultimately regulate the starburst as has been suggested for high-redshift galaxies.

  10. X-Ray and Radio Observations of the Massive Star-forming Region IRAS 20126+4104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V.

    2015-08-01

    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17‧ × 17‧ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.‧2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color-color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  11. X-RAY AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V.

    2015-08-15

    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17′ × 17′ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.′2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color–color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  12. A RECENT ACCRETION BURST IN THE LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA IMAGING OF ITS RELATED CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Brinch, Christian; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A.; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Harsono, Daniel; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Persson, Magnus V.

    2013-12-20

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates throughout their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C{sup 17}O, H{sup 13}CO{sup +}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sup 34}S and C{sub 2}H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.''5 (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H{sup 13}CO{sup +} is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.''5 (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO{sup +} is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 yr increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity. Such a burst in luminosity can also explain the centrally condensed CH{sub 3}OH and extended warm carbon-chain chemistry observed in this source and furthermore be reflected in the relative faintness of its compact continuum emission compared to other protostars.

  13. Variability of the soft X-ray excess in IRAS 13224-3809

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammoun, E.; Papadakis, I.; Sabra, B.

    2016-06-01

    We study the soft excess variability of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13224-3809. We applied the `flux-flux plot' (FFP) method to the five archival XMM-Newton observations. We found that the FFPs are highly affected by the choice of the light curves' time bin size, due to the fast and large amplitude variations, and the intrinsic non-linear flux-flux relations in this source. We constructed FFPs in 11 energy bands below 1.7 keV, and considered the 1.7-3 keV band, as representative of the primary emission. The FFPs are well fitted by a `power-law plus a constant' model. The constants are positive in three out of five observations, consistent with zero in one observation, and negative below 1 keV in another. The best-fit slopes are flatter than unity at energies below ˜ 0.9 keV, suggesting the presence of intrinsic spectral variability. A power-law-like primary component, variable in flux and spectral slope (Γ∝ N_{PL}^{0.1}) and a soft-excess component, varying with the primary continuum (F_{excess}∝ F_{primary}^{0.46}), can explain the FFPs. In fact, this can create positive `constants', even when a stable spectral component does not exist. The negative and null constants, unexplainable by spectral variability, may signify the presence of an intrinsic variable, warm absorber.

  14. The new nebula in LDN 1415 - A cry from the cradle of a low-luminosity source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecklum, B.; Melnikov, S. Y.; Meusinger, H.

    2007-02-01

    Aims:A survey for candidate Herbig-Haro objects was performed to search for evidence of star formation in Galactic dark clouds Methods: For this aim true colour images were created from blue, red, and infrared DSS2 plates and inspected. Follow-up I-band, Hα, and [S ii] CCD imaging as well as long-slit spectroscopy using the Tautenburg 2-m telescope was carried out to verify candidate objects. Results: In the case of LDN 1415, the presence of a Herbig-Haro flow could be revealed which is henceforth named HH 892. In addition, an arcuate nebula was found which is barely seen on the DSS2 infrared plate (epoch 1996) and not detected in archival Kiso Schmidt data (epoch 2001). Thus, this nebula must have brightened by about 3.8 mag in recent years. Conclusions: .The nebula is associated with IRAS 04376+5413. The 2MASS images show a red counterpart of the IRAS source, designated as L1415-IRS. Its morphology resembles that of a bipolar young object. The luminosity of this source integrated from 0.9 μm to 60 μm in the low state amounts to 0.13 Lsun for an assumed distance of 170 pc. Thus it seems to be a young very-low mass star or it might even be of substellar mass. The current brightness increase of the nebula is caused by a FUor- or EXor-like outburst as indicated by the presence of a P Cygni profile of the Hα line. L1415-IRS is by far the least luminous member of the sparse sample of FUor and EXor objects. Based on observations performed at the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg.

  15. The most luminous stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Barniske, Andreas; Liermann, Adriane; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Pasemann, Diana; Rühling, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Some of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are found to have very high bolometric luminosities (log L/L_⊙ > 6). We employ the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmospheres for their spectral analysis, which yields the bolometric corrections. Distance and interstellar reddening also enter the luminosity estimates. Among the Galactic stars, there is a group of very luminous WNL stars (i.e. WR stars of late subtype from nitrogen sequence with hydrogen being depleted in their atmospheres, but not absent). Their distances are often the major source of uncertainty. From K-band spectroscopy we found a very luminous star (log L/L_⊙ = 6.5) in the Galactic center region, which we termed the Peony Star because of the form of its surrounding dusty nebula. A similar group of very luminous WNL stars is found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) the majority of WR stars resides in binary systems. The single WNL stars in the SMC are not very luminous. We conclude that a significant number of very luminous WNL stars exist in the Galaxy and the LMC. With initial masses above 60 M_⊙, they apparently evolved directly to the WNL stage without a prior excursion to the red side of the HRD. At the low metallicity of the SMC, the binary channel may be dominant for the formation of WR stars.

  16. Characteristics of estrogen-induced peroxidase in mouse uterine luminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Jellinck, P.H.; Newbold, R.R.; McLachlan, J.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Peroxidase activity in the uterine luminal fluid of mice treated with diethylstilbestrol was measured by the guaiacol assay and also by the formation of 3H2O from (2-3H)estradiol. In the radiometric assay, the generation of 3H2O and 3H-labeled water-soluble products was dependent on H2O2 (25 to 100 microM), with higher concentrations being inhibitory. Tyrosine or 2,4-dichlorophenol strongly enhanced the reaction catalyzed either by the luminal fluid peroxidase or the enzyme in the CaCl2 extract of the uterus, but decreased the formation of 3H2O from (2-3H)estradiol by lactoperoxidase in the presence of H2O2 (80 microM). NADPH, ascorbate, and cytochrome c inhibited both luminal fluid and uterine tissue peroxidase activity to the same extent, while superoxide dismutase showed a marginal activating effect. Lactoferrin, a major protein component of uterine luminal fluid, was shown not to contribute to its peroxidative activity, and such an effect by prostaglandin synthase was also ruled out. However, it was not possible to exclude eosinophil peroxidase, brought to the uterus after estrogen stimulation, as being the source of peroxidase activity in uterine luminal fluid.

  17. Microstructure optimization of the composite phase ceramic phosphor for white LEDs with excellent luminous efficacy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan Ru; Zhou, Sheng Ming; Yi, Xue Zhuan; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Shuai; Hao, De Ming

    2015-12-01

    The two-phase MgAl2O4-Ce:YAG ceramic phosphor was fabricated by the solid-state reaction in vacuum, and it presented a better luminous efficacy than the single-phase transparent ceramic phosphor when directly combined with the blue light-emitting diodes. The addition of MgAl2O4 implemented the control of the grain sizes and the variation of microstructure, and the microstructure optimization further improved the luminous efficacy of the composite phase ceramic phosphor. A maximum luminous efficacy attaining 99 lm/W at the correlated color temperature 5000 K was obtained. The composite phase ceramic phosphor is expected to be a promising candidate for use in the high-power light source. PMID:26625030

  18. Structural Properties and Evidence for Interactions in a Sample of Luminous Blue Compact Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Cassidy L.; Fanelli, M.; Marcum, P.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the life cycles of galaxies over cosmic time is a primary effort in modern astrophysics. Here we explore the nature of luminous blue compact galaxies (LBCGs), a class of galaxy in the local (z < 0.05) universe exhibiting blue optical colors [(B-V) < 0.5], high luminosity (MB < -19), one or more high surface brightness regions, and moderate to high star formation rates [> 5 M(sun) per year]. LBCGs appear to be similar in their global properties to the early evolutionary phases of most galaxies, but are more amenable to detailed analysis due to their low redshifts. We describe an ultraviolet and optical investigation of a sample of 50 LBCGs using UBVR & Hα imagery obtained at McDonald Observatory, ultraviolet photometry from GALEX, and correlative data from IRAS, 2MASS, and SDSS. Using these data, we explore the evolutionary state of LBCGs. In particular, we determine the radial and azimuthal light distributions, explore the spatial extent of ionized gas (e.g., centrally- concentrated versus spatially diffuse), compare multiwavelength measures of the high-mass star formation rate, and quantify the interaction strength using a variety of merger diagnostics. Although selected independent of their environment, most systems display either a close companion or the signature of an interaction such as tails, bridges, and possible polar rings. Interpretation of the assembly history of LBCGs provides insight on massive galaxy evolution at earlier epochs.

  19. FAINT CO LINE WINGS IN FOUR STAR-FORMING (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Bolatto, Alberto; Weiss, Axel

    2015-09-20

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings—a commonly used signature of molecular outflows—in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen targets presented in Chung et al., who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km s{sup −1}-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high active galactic nucleus contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS 05083 (VII Zw 31), as a candidate molecular outflow.

  20. MN48: a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable revealed by Spitzer and SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the candidate evolved massive star MN48 disclosed via detection of a mid-infrared circular shell around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of MN48 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) carried out in 2011-2015 revealed significant changes in the spectrum of this star, which are typical of luminous blue variables (LBVs). The LBV status of MN48 was further supported by photometric monitoring which shows that in 2009-2011 this star has brightened by ≈0.9 and 1 mag in the V and Ic bands, respectively, then faded by ≈1.1 and 1.6 mag during the next four years, and apparently started to brighten again recently. The detected changes in the spectrum and brightness of MN48 make this star the 18th known Galactic bona fide LBV and increase the percentage of LBVs associated with circumstellar nebulae to more than 70 per cent. We discuss the possible birth place of MN48 and suggest that this star might have been ejected either from a putative star cluster embedded in the H II region IRAS 16455-4531 or the young massive star cluster Westerlund 1.

  1. Spatially Resolved Chemistry in Nearby Galaxies. III. Dense Molecular Gas in the Inner Disk of the LIRG IRAS 04296+2923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.

    2014-11-01

    We present a survey of 3 mm molecular lines in IRAS 04296+2923, one of the brightest known molecular-line emitting galaxies, and one of the closest luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). Data are from the Owens Valley and CARMA millimeter interferometers. Species detected at <~ 4'' resolution include C18O, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CN, CH3OH, and, tentatively, HNCO. Along with existing CO, 13CO, and radio continuum data, these lines constrain the chemical properties of the inner disk. Dense molecular gas in the nucleus fuels a star formation rate gsim10 M ⊙ yr-1 and is traced by lines of HCN, HCO+, HNC, and CN. A correlation between HCN and star formation rate is observed on sub-kiloparsec scales, consistent with global relations. Toward the nucleus, CN abundances are similar to those of HCN, indicating emission comes from a collection (~40-50) of moderate visual extinction, photon-dominated-region clouds. The CO isotopic line ratios are unusual: CO(1-0)/13CO(1-0) and CO(1-0)/C18O(1-0) line ratios are large toward the starburst, as is commonly observed in LIRGs, but farther out in the disk these ratios are remarkably low (lsim 3). 13CO/C18O abundance ratios are lower than in Galactic clouds, possibly because the C18O is enriched by massive star ejecta from the starburst. 13CO is underabundant relative to CO. Extended emission from CH3OH indicates that dynamical shocks pervade both the nucleus and the inner disk. The unusual CO isotopologue ratios, the CO/HCN intensity ratio versus L IR, the HCN/CN abundance ratio, and the gas consumption time versus inflow rate all indicate that the starburst in IRAS 04296+2923 is in an early stage of development.

  2. IRAS observations of the Pluto-Charon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H. H.; Walker, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    High-signal-to-noise-ratio observations of the Pluto-Charon system at 25, 60, and 100 microns using IRAS are combined with visual-magnitude and mutual-eclipse constraints to evaluate thermal models of Pluto and Charon. These models are consistent with eclipse observation by Dunbar and Tedesco (1986) but not with Reinsch and Pakull (1987). The most likely model for Charon is the standard asteroid model, typical for the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites. Charon models with a significant atmosphere can be ruled out. Based on currently available radius and albedo constraints, no significant numerical distinction is possible between Pluto models ranging from isothermal spheres with surface emissivity between 0.4 and 0.9. Concerns regarding the viability of an emissivity as low as 0.4 favor the higher-emissivity models. The globally uniform surface temperature of Pluto may thus at present be as low as 45 K, with a methane column abundance of 6.7 cm atm. The most likely models are centered on radii of 1180 and 747 km and albedos of 0.47 and 0.26 for Pluto and Charon, respectively.

  3. IRAS observations of the Pluto-Charon system

    SciTech Connect

    Aumann, H.H.; Walker, R.G.

    1987-10-01

    High-signal-to-noise-ratio observations of the Pluto-Charon system at 25, 60, and 100 microns using IRAS are combined with visual-magnitude and mutual-eclipse constraints to evaluate thermal models of Pluto and Charon. These models are consistent with eclipse observation by Dunbar and Tedesco (1986) but not with Reinsch and Pakull (1987). The most likely model for Charon is the standard asteroid model, typical for the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites. Charon models with a significant atmosphere can be ruled out. Based on currently available radius and albedo constraints, no significant numerical distinction is possible between Pluto models ranging from isothermal spheres with surface emissivity between 0.4 and 0.9. Concerns regarding the viability of an emissivity as low as 0.4 favor the higher-emissivity models. The globally uniform surface temperature of Pluto may thus at present be as low as 45 K, with a methane column abundance of 6.7 cm atm. The most likely models are centered on radii of 1180 and 747 km and albedos of 0.47 and 0.26 for Pluto and Charon, respectively. 21 references.

  4. Preliminary analysis of the IRAS solar system dust data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.; Nicholson, P. D.; Wolven, B.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the solar system dust cloud as revealed by IRAS all-sky survey data is discussed. Fourier analysis was used to separate the smooth, large-scale zodiacal background from the narrower dust lanes. The geometry of the background zodiacal cloud appears to show features associated with both the forced inclinations and the forced eccentricities of the dust particle orbits. The ecliptic latitude of the peak of the background zodiacal emission varies nearly sinusoidally with ecliptic longitude with an amplitude of 2.1 + or -0.2 degrees. However, there are marked displacements, both in latitude and longitude, between the leading or ascending curve and the trailing or descending curve, implying that the curves exhibit significant deviations from a simple sinusoidal variation. It is suggested that the plane of symmetry of the background cloud is inclined to the ecliptic by 1.47 + or -0.10 degrees with a descending node of 230 + or -4 degrees, and that the sun is not at the center of symmetry of the cloud.

  5. Image construction from the IRAS survey and data fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bontekoe, Tj. R.

    1990-01-01

    The IRAS survey data can be used successfully to produce images of extended objects. The major difficulty, viz. non-uniform sampling, different response functions for each detector, and varying signal-to-noise levels for each detector for each scan, were resolved. The results of three different image construction techniques are compared: co-addition, constrained least squares, and maximum entropy. The maximum entropy result is superior. An image of the galaxy M51 with an average spatial resolution of 45 arc seconds, is presented using 60 micron survey data. This exceeds the telescope diffraction limit of 1 minute of arc, at this wavelength. Data fusion is a proposed method for combining data from different instruments, with different spatial resolutions, at different wavelengths. Direct estimates of the physical parameters, temperature, density and composition, can be made from the data without prior images (re-)construction. An increase in the accuracy of these parameters is expected as the result of this more systematic approach.

  6. Highly ionized disc and transient outflows in the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325-5926

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasawa, K.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Reynolds, C. S.; Miniutti, G.; Tombesi, F.

    2016-08-01

    We report on strong X-ray variability and the Fe K-band spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325-5926 obtained from the 2001 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observation with a duration of ~120 ks. While the X-ray source is highly variable, the 8-10 keV band shows larger variability than that of the lower energies. Amplified 8-10 keV flux variations are associated with two prominent flares of the X-ray source during the observation. The Fe K emission is peaked at 6.6 keV with moderate broadening. It is likely to originate from a highly ionized disc with an ionization parameter of log ξ ≃ 3. The Fe K line flux responds to the main flare, which supports its disc origin. A short burst of the Fe line flux has no relation to the continuum brightness, for which we have no clear explanation. We also find transient, blueshifted Fe K absorption features that can be identified with high-velocity (~0.2c) outflows of highly ionized gas, as found in other active galaxies. The deepest absorption feature appears only briefly (~1 h) at the onset of the main flare and disappears when the flare declines. The rapid evolution of the absorption spectrum makes this source peculiar among the active galaxies with high-velocity outflows. Another detection of the absorption feature also precedes the other flare. The variability of the absorption feature partly accounts for the excess variability in the 8-10 keV band where the absorption feature appears. Although no reverberation measurement is available, the black hole mass of ~2 × 106M⊙ is inferred from the X-ray variability. When this mass is assumed, the black hole is accreting at around the Eddington limit, which may fit the highly ionized disc and strong outflows observed in this galaxy.

  7. Orbital masses of nearby luminous galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kudrya, Yuri N. E-mail: yukudrya@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    We use observational properties of galaxies accumulated in the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog to derive a dark matter mass of luminous galaxies via motions of their companions. The data on orbital-to-stellar mass ratio are presented for 15 luminous galaxies situated within 11 Mpc from us: the Milky Way, M31, M81, NGC 5128, IC342, NGC 253, NGC 4736, NGC 5236, NGC 6946, M101, NGC 4258, NGC 4594, NGC 3115, NGC 3627, and NGC 3368, as well as for a composite suite around other nearby galaxies of moderate and low luminosity. The typical ratio for these galaxies is M {sub orb}/M {sub *} = 31, corresponding to the mean local density of matter Ω {sub m} = 0.09, i.e., one-third of the global cosmic density. This quantity seems to be rather an upper limit of dark matter density, since the peripheric population of the suites may suffer from the presence of fictitious unbound members. We note that the Milky Way and M31 halos have lower dimensions and lower stellar masses than those of the other 13 nearby luminous galaxies. However, the dark-to-stellar mass ratio for both the Milky Way and M31 is typical for other neighboring luminous galaxies. The distortion in the Hubble flow, observed around the Local Group and five other neighboring groups, yields their total masses within the radius of a zero velocity surface, R {sub 0}; these masses are slightly lower than the orbital and virial values. This difference may be due to the effect of dark energy producing a kind of 'mass defect' within R {sub 0}.

  8. Luminal Conversion and Immunoregulation by Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Bhanu Priya; Versalovic, James

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes are responsible for the synthesis of nutrients and metabolites that are likely important for the maintenance of mammalian health. Many nutrients and metabolites derived from the gut microbiota by luminal conversion have been implicated in the development, homeostasis and function of innate and adaptive immunity. These factors clearly suggest that intestinal microbiota may influence host immunity via microbial metabolite-dependent mechanisms. We describe how intestinal microbes including probiotics generate microbial metabolites that modulate mucosal and systemic immunity. PMID:26617521

  9. Nonlinearities in the binocular combination of luminance and contrast.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel H; Wallis, Stuart A; Georgeson, Mark A; Meese, Tim S

    2012-03-01

    We studied the rules by which visual responses to luminous targets are combined across the two eyes. Previous work has found very different forms of binocular combination for targets defined by increments and by decrements of luminance, with decrement data implying a severe nonlinearity before binocular combination. We ask whether this difference is due to the luminance of the target, the luminance of the background, or the sign of the luminance excursion. We estimated the pre-binocular nonlinearity (power exponent) by fitting a computational model to ocular equibrightness matches. The severity of the nonlinearity had a monotonic dependence on the signed difference between target and background luminance. For dual targets, in which there was both a luminance increment and a luminance decrement (e.g. contrast), perception was governed largely by the decrement. The asymmetry in the nonlinearities derived from the subjective matching data made a clear prediction for visual performance: there should be more binocular summation for detecting luminance increments than for detecting luminance decrements. This prediction was confirmed by the results of a subsequent experiment. We discuss the relation between these results and luminance nonlinearities such as a logarithmic transform, as well as the involvement of contemporary model architectures of binocular vision.

  10. Connecting low- and high-mass star formation: the intermediate-mass protostar IRAS 05373+2349 VLA 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. M.; Johnston, K. G.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.

    2016-08-01

    Until recently, there have been few studies of the protostellar evolution of intermediate-mass (IM) stars, which may bridge the low-and high-mass regimes. This paper aims to investigate whether the properties of an IM protostar within the IRAS 05373+2349 embedded cluster are similar to that of low- and/or high-mass protostars. We carried out Very Large Array as well as Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy continuum and 12CO(J=1-0) observations, which uncover seven radio continuum sources (VLA 1-7). The spectral index of VLA 2, associated with the IM protostar is consistent with an ionised stellar wind or jet. The source VLA 3 is coincident with previously observed H2 emission line objects aligned in the north-south direction (P.A. -20 to -12°), which may be either an ionised jet emanating from VLA 2 or (shock-)ionised cavity walls in the large-scale outflow from VLA 2. The position angle between VLA 2 and 3 is slightly misaligned with the large-scale outflow we map at ˜5-arcsec resolution in 12CO (P.A. ˜30°), which in the case of a jet suggests precession. The emission from the mm core associated with VLA 2 is also detected; we estimate its mass to be 12-23 M⊙, depending on the contribution from ionised gas. Furthermore, the large-scale outflow has properties intermediate between outflows from low- and high-mass young stars. Therefore, we conclude that the IM protostar within IRAS 05373+2349 is phenomenologically as well as quantitatively intermediate between the low- and high-mass domains.

  11. Intercalibration of infrared channels of polar-orbiting IRAS/FY-3A with AIRS/Aqua data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Geng-Ming

    2010-02-15

    This work intercalibrated the infrared window channels 8 (12.47 microm), 9 (11.11 microm) and 19 (3.98 microm) of the InfraRed Atmospheric Sounder (IRAS) aboard the Chinese second generation polar-orbiting meteorological satellite FengYun 3A (FY-3A) with high spectral resolution data acquired by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard Aqua. A North Pole study area was selected according to the IRAS and AIRS' viewing geometry. The IRAS/FY-3A L1 data and AIRS/Aqua 1B Infrared geolocated and calibrated radiances (AIRIBRAD) in July of 2008 were used in this work. A sub-pixel registration method was developed and applied to the IRAS and AIRS images to improve the intercalibration accuracy. The co-located measurement pairs were picked out with absolute Viewing Zenith Angle differences less than 5 degrees (|Delta VZA|<5 degrees), absolute Viewing Azimuth Angle differences less than 90 degrees (|Delta VAA|<90 degrees) and absolute time differences less than 15 min (|Delta T|<15'). The results reveal that the convolved AIRS/Aqua measurements are highly linearly related to the IRAS/FY-3A measurements with correlation coefficients greater than 0.93, and calibration discrepancies exist between IRAS and AIRS channels indeed. When the brightness temperatures in IRAS/FY-3A channels change from 230.0 K to 310.0 K, the AIRS-IRAS temperature adjustment linearly varies from -3.3 K to 1.7 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 8, from -2.9 K to 2.6 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 9, and from -5.3 K to 1.1 K for IRAS/FY-3A channel 19.

  12. MSX And IRAS Two-Color Diagrams For Late-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capen, Stephanie; Sjouwerman, L.; Claussen, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a statistical study of late-type, oxygen-rich, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and their circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) using color-color diagrams based on data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). The study of the two-color diagram of CSEs using data from the IRAS survey (van der Veen and Habing 1988, A & A, 194, 125) was a revolutionary step in the understanding and characterization of late-type star CSEs, their mass-loss properties, and their evolution. We outline the steps of cross-identification, selection, and definition of distinct regions in MSX color-color diagrams in relation to those in the IRAS diagrams, and demonstrate that an MSX color-color diagram is a useful and sound translation for the IRAS diagram in the study of oxygen-rich AGB CSEs. This is a favorable result as it allows the selection of stars, based only on MSX data, for further studies, such as surveys for masers in circumstellar shells and in regions where IRAS was confused. This research was supported by the Research Experience for Undergraduate Program of the National Science Foundation, and was completed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, New Mexico.

  13. Outflows Driven by a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary System IRAS 16253-2429

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the molecular outflows driven by a potential proto-brown dwarf candidate IRAS 16253-2429 (hereafter IRAS 16253) with CO (2—1) using SMA and IRAM 30m telescope and CO (6—5) using APEX. Our SMA observations suggest that IRAS 16253 is hosting a binary system. The low mass of its envelope suggests that the central objects may eventually accrete only ~0.14 Msun of material (assuming the star formation efficiency is at most 0.3), which makes IRAS 16253 a potential proto brown dwarf binary system since the maximum mass of a brown dwarf is 0.08 Msun; one or two brown dwarfs may form depending on the current mass of the protostars and the future accretion process. The Position-Velocity diagrams of the outflows show sinusoidal structures which may be related to the outflow wiggling from the binary rotation. This allowed us to estimate the orbital period of the binary system. On the basis of Kepler's third law, we suggest that IRAS 16253 is very likely to contain at least one proto brown dwarf if the binary separation is less than ~0.5 arcsec. The large-scale outflows are further mapped with IRAM 30m telescope and APEX Champ+. We found that CO (6—5) traces high-excited gas around the precessing H2 jets and CO (2—1) likely probes the cold swept-up gas or entrained gas with cone-like structure.

  14. Dust around Mira variables: An analysis of IRAS LRS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slijkhuis, S.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial extent and spectral appearance of the thin dust shell around Mira variables is determined largely by the dust absorptivity, Q(sub abs)(lambda), and the dust condensation temperature T(sub cond). Both Q(sub abs)(lambda) and T(sub cond) are extracted from IRAS low-resolution spectra (LRS) spectra. In order to do this, the assumption that the ratio of total power in the 10 micron feature to that in the 20 micron feature should be equal to that measured in other amorphous silicates (e.g., synthesized amorphous Mg2SiO4). It was found that T(sub cond) decreases with decreasing strength of the 10 micron feature, from T(sub cond) = 1000 K to 500 K (estimated error 20 percent). A value for the near-infrared dust absorptivity could not be determined. Although this parameter strongly affects the condensation radius, it hardly affects the shape of the LRS spectrum (as long as the optically thin approximation is valid), because it scales the spatial distribution of the dust. Information on the magnitude of the near-infrared dust absorptivity may be deduced from the unique carbon star BM Gem. This star has a LRS spectrum with silicate features indication an inner dust shell temperature of at least 1000 K. However, on the basis of observations in the 1920s-30s one may infer an inner dust shell radius of at least 6x10(exp 12)m. To have this high temperature at such a large distance, the near-infrared absorptivity of the dust must be high.

  15. A MASSIVE PROGENITOR OF THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nathan; Li Weidong; Miller, Adam A.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Cooper, Michael C.; Matheson, Thomas; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.

    2011-05-10

    The bright, nearby, recently discovered supernova (SN) 2010jl is a luminous Type IIn SN. Here, we report archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of its host galaxy UGC 5189A taken roughly 10 yr prior to explosion, as well as early-time optical spectra of the SN. The HST images reveal a luminous, blue point source at the position of the SN, with an absolute magnitude of -12.0 in the F300W filter. If it is not just a chance alignment, the source at the SN position could be (1) a massive young (<6 Myr) star cluster in which the SN resided, (2) a quiescent, luminous blue star with an apparent temperature around 14,000 K, (3) a star caught during a bright outburst akin to those of luminous blue variables, or (4) a combination of option (1) and option (2) or (3). Although we cannot confidently choose between these possibilities with the present data, any of them imply that the progenitor of SN 2010jl had an initial mass above 30 M{sub sun}. This reinforces mounting evidence that many SNe IIn result from very massive stars, that massive stars can produce visible SNe without collapsing quietly to black holes, and that massive stars can sometimes retain their H envelopes until shortly before explosion. Standard stellar evolution models fail to account for these observed properties.

  16. Characterization of butyrate transport across the luminal membranes of equine large intestine.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Taoufik; Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-10-01

    The diet of the horse, pasture forage (grass), is fermented by the equine colonic microbiota to short-chain fatty acids, notably acetate, propionate and butyrate. Short-chain fatty acids provide a major source of energy for the horse and contribute to many vital physiological processes. We aimed to determine both the mechanism of butyrate uptake across the luminal membrane of equine colon and the nature of the protein involved. To this end, we isolated equine colonic luminal membrane vesicles. The abundance and activity of cysteine-sensitive alkaline phosphatase and villin, intestinal luminal membrane markers, were significantly enriched in membrane vesicles compared with the original homogenates. In contrast, the abundance of GLUT2 protein and the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, known markers of the intestinal basolateral membrane, were hardly detectable. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemistry, that monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) protein is expressed on the luminal membrane of equine colonocytes. We showed that butyrate transport into luminal membrane vesicles is energized by a pH gradient (out < in) and is not Na(+) dependent. Moreover, butyrate uptake is time and concentration dependent, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 5.6 ± 0.45 mm and maximal velocity of 614 ± 55 pmol s(-1) (mg protein)(-1). Butyrate transport is significantly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, phloretin and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, all potent inhibitors of MCT1. Moreover, acetate and propionate, as well as the monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, also inhibit butyrate uptake. Data presented here support the conclusion that transport of butyrate across the equine colonic luminal membrane is predominantly accomplished by MCT1.

  17. Luminal B breast cancer subtype displays a dicotomic epigenetic pattern.

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Naiara G; Beristain, Elena; Calvo, Borja; Viguri, María A; Gutierrez-Corres, Borja; Rezola, Ricardo; Ruiz-Diaz, Irune; Guerra, Isabel; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2016-01-01

    Luminal B breast tumors have aggressive clinical and biological features, and constitute the most heterogeneous molecular subtype, both clinically and molecularly. Unfortunately, the immunohistochemistry correlate of the luminal B subtype remains still imprecise, and it has now become of paramount importance to define a classification scheme capable of segregating luminal tumors into clinically meaningful subgroups that may be used clinically to guide patient management. With the aim of unraveling the DNA methylation profiles of the luminal subtypes currently being most used in the clinical setting, we have quantified the DNA methylation level of 27,578 CpG sites in 17 luminal B (ER+, Ki67 ≥ 20 % or PgR < 20 % and HER2-), 8 luminal A (ER+ and Ki67 > 20 %) and 4 luminal B-HER2+ (ER+ and HER2+) breast cancer samples by using the Illumina Infinium methylation microarray approach. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed that DNA methylation stratifies luminal B samples in two categories with differing epigenetic and clinical features. One subgroup of luminal B samples showed a methylator phenotype and clustered with the lumB-HER tumors, while the other showed less methylated events, clustered with the luminal A. A 3 CpG marker panel capable of discriminating methylator versus non-methylator luminal B samples was identified and further validated in an independent cohort of patients. Our results provide evidence that DNA methylation and, more specifically, a panel of 3 CpG markers, enables the stratification of luminal B samples in two categories with differing epigenetic and clinical features and support the utilization of this panel for therapeutic stratification of patients with luminal breast cancer. PMID:27330889

  18. A study of deuterated water in the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutens, A.; Vastel, C.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bottinelli, S.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Faure, A.; Scribano, Y.; Kahane, C.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Water is a primordial species in the emergence of life, and comets may have brought a large fraction to Earth to form the oceans. To understand the evolution of water from the first stages of star formation to the formation of planets and comets, the HDO/H2O ratio is a powerful diagnostic. Aims: Our aim is to determine precisely the abundance distribution of HDO towards the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422 and learn more about the water formation mechanisms by determining the HDO/H2O abundance ratio. Methods: A spectral survey of the source IRAS 16293-2422 was carried out in the framework of the CHESS (Chemical Herschel Surveys of Star forming regions) Herschel key program with the HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared) instrument, allowing detection of numerous HDO lines. Other transitions have been observed previously with ground-based telescopes. The spherical Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RATRAN was used to reproduce the observed line profiles of HDO by assuming an abundance jump. To determine the H2O abundance throughout the envelope, a similar study was made of the H218O observed lines, as the H2O main isotope lines are contaminated by the outflows. Results: It is the first time that so many HDO and H218O transitions have been detected towards the same source with high spectral resolution. We derive an inner HDO abundance (T ≥ 100 K) of about 1.7 × 10-7 and an outer HDO abundance (T < 100 K) of about 8 × 10-11. To reproduce the HDO absorption lines observed at 894 and 465 GHz, it is necessary to add an absorbing layer in front of the envelope. It may correspond to a water-rich layer created by the photodesorption of the ices at the edges of the molecular cloud. At a 3σ uncertainty, the HDO/H2O ratio is 1.4-5.8% in the hot corino, whereas it is 0.2-2.2% in the outer envelope. It is estimated at ~4.8% in the added absorbing layer. Conclusions: Although it is clearly higher than the cosmic D/H abundance, the HDO/H2O ratio remains

  19. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND THEIR DISKS IN THE CLUSTER IRAS 20050+2720

    SciTech Connect

    Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L.; Cody, A. M.; Covey, K. R.; Günther, H. M.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Plavchan, P.; Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Forbrich, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Song, Inseok

    2015-10-15

    We present a time-variability study of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cluster IRAS 20050+2720, performed at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope; this study is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) project. We have collected light curves for 181 cluster members over 60 days. We find a high variability fraction among embedded cluster members of ca. 70%, whereas young stars without a detectable disk display variability less often (in ca. 50% of the cases) and with lower amplitudes. We detect periodic variability for 33 sources with periods primarily in the range of 2–6 days. Practically all embedded periodic sources display additional variability on top of their periodicity. Furthermore, we analyze the slopes of the tracks that our sources span in the color–magnitude diagram (CMD). We find that sources with long variability time scales tend to display CMD slopes that are at least partially influenced by accretion processes, while sources with short variability timescales tend to display extinction-dominated slopes. We find a tentative trend of X-ray detected cluster members to vary on longer timescales than the X-ray undetected members.

  20. On the Identification of High-Mass Star Forming Regions Using IRAS: Contamination by Low-Mass Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourke, Tyler L.; Hyland, A. R.; Robinson, Garry

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of a survey of a small sample (14) of low-mass protostars (LIR<103 Lsolar) for 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission performed using the ATNF Parkes radio telescope. No new masers were discovered. We find that the lower luminosity limit for maser emission is near 103 Lsolar by comparison of the sources in our sample with previously detected methanol maser sources. We examine the IRAS properties of our sample and compare them with sources previously observed for methanol maser emission, almost all of which satisfy the Wood & Churchwell criterion for selecting candidate UC H II regions. We find that about half of our sample satisfy this criterion, and in addition, almost all of this subgroup have integrated fluxes between 25 and 60 μm that are similar to sources with detectable methanol maser emission. By identifying a number of low-mass protostars in this work and from the literature that satisfy the Wood & Churchwell criterion for candidate UC H II regions, we show conclusively for the first time that the fainter flux end of their sample is contaminated by lower mass nonionizing sources, confirming the suggestion by van der Walt and Ramesh & Sridharan.

  1. Peculiarities of the atmosphere and envelope of a post-AGB star, the optical counterpart of IRAS 23304+6347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.; Tavolzhanskaya, N. S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on our high-spectral-resolution observations performed with the echelle spectrograph of the 6-m telescope, we have studied the peculiarities of the spectrum and the velocity field in the atmosphere and envelope of the optical counterpart of the infrared source IRAS 23304+6347. We have reached the conclusion about the absence of significant variations in the radial velocity V r inferred from atmospheric absorptions and about its coincidence with the systemic velocity deduced from radio data. The envelope expansion velocity V exp = 15.5 km s-1 has been determined from the positions of rotational lines of the C2 Swan (0; 0) band. A complex emission-absorption profile of the Swan (0; 1) 5635 Å band has been recorded. Our analysis of the multicomponent Na I D doublet line profile has revealed interstellar components with velocities V (IS) = -61.6 and -13.2 km s-1 as well as a circumstellar component with V (CS) = -41.0 km s-1 whose position corresponds to the velocity inferred from C2 features. The presence of the interstellar component with V r = -61.6 km s-1 in the spectrum allows d = 2.5 kpc to be considered as a lower limit for the distance to the star. A splitting of the profiles for strong absorptions of ionized metals (Y II, Ba II, La II, Si II) attributable to the presence of a short-wavelength component originating in the circumstellar envelope has been detected in the optical spectrum of IRAS 23304+6347 for the first time.

  2. Evolving Our Evaluation of Luminous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The advance in solid state light emitting technologies and optics for lighting and visual communication necessitates the evaluation of how NASA envisions spacecraft lighting architectures and how NASA uses industry standards for the design and evaluation of lighting systems. Current NASA lighting standards and requirements for existing architectures focus on the separate ability of a lighting system to throw light against a surface or the ability of a display system to provide the appropriate visual contrast. This project investigated large luminous surface lamps as an alternative or supplement to overhead lighting. The efficiency of the technology was evaluated for uniformity and power consumption.

  3. Luminous variables in the Quintuplet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.; Matsumoto, S.; Carter, B. S.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1999-03-01

    We report observations of variability amongst the stars of the `Quintuplet' cluster located about 30 pc in projection from the centre of the Galaxy. Two of the five cocoon star members, which may be protostars or peculiar Wolf-Rayet stars, are seen to vary slowly with moderate amplitude (0.4-0.5 mag). The bright star within the `Pistol' H ii region, suspected of being a luminous blue variable (LBV), has in fact been found to show variability, confirming its tentative classification. A second nearby presumed LBV also varies. One of the apparent Quintuplet members is likely to be a Mira variable along the same line of sight.

  4. IRAS16293E revisited: a new understanding of a prestellar core in interaction with an outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Lefèvre, C.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K.; Parise, B.; Güsten, R.

    2016-05-01

    The study of prestellar cores starts with establishing their density and temperature structures. To explore the densest part, deu-terated species, N-bearing molecules, or dust are usually considered. Among prestellar cores, IRAS16293E is a rare case of a core being perturbed by the outflow of a nearby protostar (IRAS16293-2422 A/B). A part of the outflow hits the core and heats it, introducing a temperature gradient that makes the analysis difficult. It is only after having gathered observations from Spitzer, Herschel, SCUBA, MAMBO, and of various molecular lines from CSO, APEX, JCMT and IRAM that a clearer picture of this core has finally arisen.

  5. Observations of 40-70 micron bands of ice in IRAS 09371 + 1212 and other stars

    SciTech Connect

    Omont, A.; Forveille, T.; Moseley, S.H.; Glaccum, W.J.; Harvey, P.M.; Likkel, L.; Loewenstein, R.F.; Lisse, C.M. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD Texas Univ., Austin California Univ., Los Angeles Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI STX, Inc., Greenbelt, MD )

    1990-05-01

    IRAS 09371 + 1212 is still an absolutely unique object. This M giant star, with circumstellar CO and a spectacular bipolar nebula, displays unique IRAS FIR colors which had been attributed to strong emission in the 40-70-micron bands of ice, as subsequently supported by the observation of a strong 3.1-micron absorption band. The results of the KAO observations have confirmed its unusual nature: the far-infrared bands of ice are by far the strongest known. Its dust temperature, 50 K or less, is by far the lowest known for a late-type circumstellar envelope. 31 refs.

  6. Far infrared structure of spiral galaxies from the IRAS CPC images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.; Chokshi, Arati; Doyle, Laurance R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant extended far infrared (50 micron and 100 micron) structure was found for five face-on spiral galaxies (NGC2403, M51, M83, NGC6946, and IC342) from fourteen galaxies searched in the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) chopped photometric channel (CPC) catalogue. Images were initially processed to remove instrumental and background artifacts, the isophotal centroids of each image determined, and multiple images of each galaxy (for each wavelength) superimposed and averaged to improve signal-to-noise. Calibration of these images was performed using IRAS survey array data. Infrared isophotes were then superimposed on optical (blue) images so that direct structural comparisons could be made.

  7. Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.

    PubMed

    Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination. PMID:25606770

  8. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-01-01

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  9. Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.

    PubMed

    Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination.

  10. The Swift BAT Survey Detects Two Optical Broad Line, X-Ray Heavily Obscured Active Galaxies: NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Trippe, Margaret

    2012-06-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is discovering interesting new objects while monitoring the sky in the 14-195 keV band. Here we present the X-ray properties and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for two unusual active galactic nucleus sources. Both NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212 are absorbed, Compton-thin, but heavily obscured (N H ~ 1023 cm-2), X-ray sources at redshifts <0.1. The SEDs reveal these galaxies to be very red, with high extinction in the optical and UV. A similar SED is seen for the extremely red objects (EROs) detected in the higher redshift universe. This suggests that these unusual BAT-detected sources are a low-redshift (z Lt 1) analog to EROs, which recent evidence suggests are a class of the elusive type II quasars. Studying the multi-wavelength properties of these sources may reveal the properties of their high-redshift counterparts.

  11. Peripheral visual response time and retinal luminance-area relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to elucidate the stimulus luminance-retinal area relationship that underlies response time (RT) behavior. Mean RT was significantly faster to stimuli imaged beyond about 70 deg of arc from the fovea when their luminance was increased by an amount equal to the foveal stimulus luminance multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the peripheral stimuli and the line of sight. This and additional data are discussed in relation to previous psychophysical data and to possible response mechanisms.

  12. Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422. The high-resolution ALMA and SMA view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, M. V.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter. Aims: To measure the water deuterium fractionation in the warm gas of the deeply-embedded protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 53,2 - 44,1 transition of H218O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) as well as the 31,3 - 22,0 of H218O at 203.40752 GHz and the 31,2 - 22,1 transition of HDO at 225.89672 GHz from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) are presented. Results: The 692 GHz H218O line is seen toward both components of the binary protostar. Toward one of the components, "source B", the line is seen in absorption toward the continuum, slightly red-shifted from the systemic velocity, whereas emission is seen off-source at the systemic velocity. Toward the other component, "source A", the two HDO and H218O lines are detected as well with the SMA. From the H218O transitions the excitation temperature is estimated at 124 ± 12 K. The calculated HDO/H2O ratio is (9.2 ± 2.6) × 10-4 - significantly lower than previous estimates in the warm gas close to the source. It is also lower by a factor of ~5 than the ratio deduced in the outer envelope. Conclusions: Our observations reveal the physical and chemical structure of water vapor close to the protostars on solar-system scales. The red-shifted absorption detected toward source B is indicative of infall. The excitation temperature is consistent with the picture of water ice evaporation close to the protostar. The low HDO/H2O ratio deduced here suggests that the differences between the inner regions of the protostars and the Earth's oceans and comets are smaller than previously thought

  13. Luminance range compression for video film digitizers.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S; Wong, R

    1991-01-01

    Video cameras are used in many film digitization and teleradiology systems. However, the density range of medical radiographs often exceeds the dynamic range of the camera, and all diagnostic information in the original image may not be captured. Information in both the high and low density areas of the film can be captured in a single video frame if the transmitted luminance range of the radiograph is reduced. This can be accomplished by spatially modulating the back illumination of the film such that areas of lesser density receive less illumination while areas of greater density receive greater illumination. In this work, the use of a video monitor is shown to be an effective means to provide spatially modulated light for compressing the transmitted luminance range and thereby expanding the apparent dynamic range of the video camera. A simple computer-interfaced video feedback system that determines the appropriate compression mask and a scheme for linearization of system response are described. This system provides an interactive means for control of the degree of range compression. PMID:2046605

  14. Adaptive display luminance for viewing smartphones under low illuminance.

    PubMed

    Na, Nooree; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-06-29

    The study investigates the optimal display luminance for viewing smartphones in conditions of low illuminance. This proposes a model of adaptive display in that display luminance changes gradually with the passage of watching time. It starts at a fairly low display luminance of 10 cd/m2, and after 10 seconds, the luminance increases slowly until it reaches 40 cd/m2 for 20 seconds and maintains the luminance. For the development of the model, an experiment was conducted to identify the optimal luminance for initial viewing and that for continuous viewing, as well as the change speed of display luminance. In order to validate the model, users' subjective judgments and activation of alpha rhythm were observed, and the result confirmed the superiority of the adaptive display luminance compared to the current display luminance in terms of physiological comfort and psychological satisfaction. It is expected that this study contributes to the pleasing use of displays at night under low illuminance by applying to diverse types of display devices. PMID:26191702

  15. Adaptive display luminance for viewing smartphones under low illuminance.

    PubMed

    Na, Nooree; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-06-29

    The study investigates the optimal display luminance for viewing smartphones in conditions of low illuminance. This proposes a model of adaptive display in that display luminance changes gradually with the passage of watching time. It starts at a fairly low display luminance of 10 cd/m2, and after 10 seconds, the luminance increases slowly until it reaches 40 cd/m2 for 20 seconds and maintains the luminance. For the development of the model, an experiment was conducted to identify the optimal luminance for initial viewing and that for continuous viewing, as well as the change speed of display luminance. In order to validate the model, users' subjective judgments and activation of alpha rhythm were observed, and the result confirmed the superiority of the adaptive display luminance compared to the current display luminance in terms of physiological comfort and psychological satisfaction. It is expected that this study contributes to the pleasing use of displays at night under low illuminance by applying to diverse types of display devices.

  16. OBSCURATION BY GAS AND DUST IN LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, S. M.; Murray, S. S.; Hickox, R. C.; Brodwin, M.

    2014-06-10

    We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 < z ≲ 3 in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes multiwavelength survey field that are selected using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera colors and are well-detected as luminous X-ray sources (with >150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to mid-IR color, and measure the neutral hydrogen column density N {sub H} through fitting of the X-ray spectra. We find that all subsets of quasars have consistent power law photon indices Γ ≈ 1.9 that are uncorrelated with N {sub H}. We classify the quasars as gas-absorbed or gas-unabsorbed if N {sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} or N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, respectively. Of 24 dust-unobscured quasars in the sample, only one shows clear evidence for significant intrinsic N {sub H}, while 22 have column densities consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. In contrast, of the nine dust-obscured quasars, six show evidence for intrinsic gas absorption, and three are consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. We conclude that dust extinction in IR-selected quasars is strongly correlated with significant gas absorption as determined through X-ray spectral fitting. These results suggest that obscuring gas and dust in quasars are generally co-spatial, and confirm the reliability of simple mid-IR and optical photometric techniques for separating quasars based on obscuration.

  17. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 1011 < LIR < 1012 L[special character omitted]) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; 1012 < LIR < 1013 L[special character omitted]), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, I first spectroscopically examine U/LIRGs (1011 < LIR < 1013 L[special character omitted]) within the IRAS 2 Jansky Redshift Survey with 0.05 < z < 0.16. Using new spectrophotometric data, I classify the primary source of IR radiation as being a nuclear starburst or a type of AGN by using the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagrams. I show that for the U/LIRGs in my sample the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGN (e.g. star formation rate (SFR), L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hdelta)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these properties and objects' locations on the BPT diagrams. I then derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Halpha that are based on how these properties vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points. The paths involve U/LIRGs that decrease in SFR and increase in AGN activity. Paths with U/LIRGs that evolve into high luminosity AGN likely do so due to recent, strong starbursts. Second, to study how the properties of the IR power sources in U/LIRGs vary, I use a combination of photometric data points that I carefully measure (using photometry from SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer) and that I retrieve from catalogues (IRAS, AKARI, and ISO) to perform UV to FIR SED-fitting with CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) for 34 U/LIRGs from the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.01 < z < 0.16. I find evidence that the nuclear starburst forms first in U/LIRGs, and also find that U/LIRGs with relatively similar SFRs show

  18. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regarding contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a Roth... contributions means contributions other than qualified rollover contributions. Q-2. When are contributions... regarding recharacterization of certain contributions.) Q-3. What is the maximum aggregate amount of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regarding contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a Roth... contributions means contributions other than qualified rollover contributions. Q-2. When are contributions... regarding recharacterization of certain contributions.) Q-3. What is the maximum aggregate amount of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regarding contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a Roth... contributions means contributions other than qualified rollover contributions. Q-2. When are contributions... regarding recharacterization of certain contributions.) Q-3. What is the maximum aggregate amount of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or her... conversion under § 1.408A-5 A-9(a)(1) is not a conversion. Q-2. What are the modified AGI limitation and..., regardless of the individual's modified AGI. Q-3. Is a remedy available to an individual who makes a...

  2. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or her... conversion under § 1.408A-5 A-9(a)(1) is not a conversion. Q-2. What are the modified AGI limitation and..., regardless of the individual's modified AGI. Q-3. Is a remedy available to an individual who makes a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or her... conversion under § 1.408A-5 A-9(a)(1) is not a conversion. Q-2. What are the modified AGI limitation and..., regardless of the individual's modified AGI. Q-3. Is a remedy available to an individual who makes a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or her... conversion under § 1.408A-5 A-9(a)(1) is not a conversion. Q-2. What are the modified AGI limitation and..., regardless of the individual's modified AGI. Q-3. Is a remedy available to an individual who makes a...

  5. Just Footprints in the Sand? Questioning Sustainability of an IRA International Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Spector, Jill; Richardson, Judy S.; Janusheva, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers from the International Reading Association (IRA) participated in the teacher education component of Macedonia's Secondary Education Activity, an initiative to reform vocational/technical education (VET), funded from 2004 to 2008 by USAID. Volunteers offered professional development to VET teachers using a trainer-of-trainers model,…

  6. Post-outburst phase of LDN 1415 nebula (IRAS 04376+5413)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawade, V. S.; Ojha, D. K.; Ninan, J. P.; Tej, A.; Bhatt, B. C.; Sahu, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Kaurav, S. S.; Mohan, V.

    LDN 1415 nebula was first detected by Stecklum (2006) in early April 2006 in the vicinity of IRAS 04376+5413. In this paper, we present a study of the post-outburst phase of LDN 1415 nebula using optical (V, R, I) and near-infrared (J, H, K) photometric and low-resolution optical spectroscopic observations.

  7. Production of Ball-Lightning-Like Luminous Balls by Electrical Discharges in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Gerson Silva; Pavão, Antonio Carlos; Alpes de Vasconcelos, Elder; Mendes, Odim, Jr.; Felisberto da Silva, Eronides, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    We performed electric arc discharges in pure Si to generate luminous balls with lifetime in the order of seconds and several properties usually reported for natural ball lightning. This simple experiment does not rely on energy sources and excitation mechanisms that are improbable in the natural phenomenon and clearly demonstrates the role of vaporization and oxidation of Si, as proposed by the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory for ball-lightning formation.

  8. Production of ball-lightning-like luminous balls by electrical discharges in silicon.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Gerson Silva; Pavão, Antonio Carlos; Alpes de Vasconcelos, Elder; Mendes, Odim; da Silva, Eronides Felisberto

    2007-01-26

    We performed electric arc discharges in pure Si to generate luminous balls with lifetime in the order of seconds and several properties usually reported for natural ball lightning. This simple experiment does not rely on energy sources and excitation mechanisms that are improbable in the natural phenomenon and clearly demonstrates the role of vaporization and oxidation of Si, as proposed by the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory for ball-lightning formation.

  9. Production of ball-lightning-like luminous balls by electrical discharges in silicon.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Gerson Silva; Pavão, Antonio Carlos; Alpes de Vasconcelos, Elder; Mendes, Odim; da Silva, Eronides Felisberto

    2007-01-26

    We performed electric arc discharges in pure Si to generate luminous balls with lifetime in the order of seconds and several properties usually reported for natural ball lightning. This simple experiment does not rely on energy sources and excitation mechanisms that are improbable in the natural phenomenon and clearly demonstrates the role of vaporization and oxidation of Si, as proposed by the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory for ball-lightning formation. PMID:17358820

  10. Shell nebulae around luminous evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1989-01-01

    Shell nebulae around luminous Population I Wolf-Rayet, Of, and P-Cygni stars are astrophysically interesting since they are indicators of pre-supernova mass loss and how such massive stars prepare their surrounding interstellar medium prior to explosion. Some twenty-odd such nebulae are known, for which detailed study of their morphological and spectroscopic characteristics have only begun in this decade. In this paper, some of these characteristics are reviewed in general, and new observations are reported. Emphasis has been placed on several 'prototype 'objects (NGC 7635, NGC 2359, NGC 6888, and the Eta Carinae condensations) to illustrate the varied massive-star mass-loss, the physics of their winds and shell ejecta, and related nucleosynthesis effects in the compositions of the winds and shells.

  11. [Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) promotes wound healing].

    PubMed

    Winkel, R; Hoffmann, G; Hoffmann, R

    2014-11-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with high tissue penetration and low thermal load to the skin surface which promotes the healing of acute and chronic wounds both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. Water-filtered infrared-A increases tissue temperature (+ 2.7 °C at a tissue depth of 2 cm), tissue oxygen partial pressure (+ 32 % at a tissue depth of 2 cm) and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient supply of tissue with energy and oxygen and consequently also for wound healing and infection defense. Water-filtered infrared-A promotes normal as well as disturbed wound healing by diminishing inflammation and exudation, by promotion of infection defense and regeneration, and by alleviation of pain. These effects have been proven in a total of seven prospective studies (of these six randomized controlled studies) with most of the effects having an evidence level of Ia or Ib. The additional cases of complicated courses of wound healing presented in this article illustrate the proven effects of wIRA. Not only in the 6 presented cases wIRA turned the complicated courses of wound healing for the better and facilitated the healing of the wounds after varying total times of irradiation (in the 6 cases 51-550 h) and after variable times of wound care and mostly after transplantation of split skin grafts. In complicated courses of wound healing wIRA does not replace consultation and, when indicated, treatment by an experienced plastic surgeon and by a surgeon specialized in septic surgery. With these limitations wIRA can be recommended as a valuable complement for the treatment of acute as well as of chronic wounds.

  12. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Assef, Roberto J.; Blain, Andrew W.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Petty, Sara M.; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  13. ISM Properties of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Elbaz, David; Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2015-08-01

    Luminous and Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) represent the most important galaxy population at redshifts z > 1 as they account for more than 50% of all star formation produced in the Universe at those epochs; and encompass what it is called the main-sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Investigating their local counterparts -low luminosity LIRGs- is therefore key to understand the physical properties and phases of their inter-stellar medium (ISM) - a task that is rather challenging in the distant Universe. On the other hand, high-z star-bursting (out of the MS) systems, although small in number, account for a modest yet still significant fraction of the total energy production. Here I present far-IR line emission observations ([CII]158μm, [OI]63μm, [OIII]88μm and [NII]122μm) obtained with Herschel for two large samples of nearby LIRGs: The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), a sample of more than 240 relatively cold LIRGs, and a survey of 30 LIRGs selected to have very warm mid- to far-IR colors, suggestive of an ongoing intense nuclear starburst and/or an AGN. Using photo-dissociation region (PDR) models we derive the basic characteristics of the ISM (ionization intensity and density) for both samples and study differences among systems as a function of AGN activity, merger stage, dust temperature, and compactness of the starburst - parameters that are thought to control the life cycle of galaxies moving in and out of the MS, locally and at high-z.

  14. Covariation of Color and Luminance Facilitate Object Individuation in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The ability to individuate objects is one of our most fundamental cognitive capacities. Recent research has revealed that when objects vary in color or luminance alone, infants fail to individuate those objects until 11.5 months. However, color and luminance frequently covary in the natural environment, thus providing a more salient and reliable…

  15. Effects of luminance and spatial noise on interferometric contrast sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Nancy J.; Sharma, Vineeta

    1995-10-01

    Optical properties of the eye contribute to the reduced visibility of spatial patterns at low luminance. To study the limits of spatial vision when optical factors are minimized, we measured contrast-sensitivity functions (CSF's) for 543.5-nm laser interference fringes imaged directly on the retina. Measurements were made in the fovea at four luminance levels, ranging from 0.3 to 300 photopic trolands (Td). At each luminance the fraction of coherent light in the stimulus pattern was varied to assess the masking effects of laser speckle, which is visible as spatial noise in fields of coherent light. Compared with published CSF's obtained under natural viewing conditions, interferometric CSF's were similar in height but broader, with the range of visibility being extended to higher spatial frequencies. The masking effects of speckle were greatest at the highest luminance and were negligible at the lowest luminance. For low coherent fractions, contrast sensitivity improved over the entire luminance range at a rate consistent with a square-root law; with purely coherent light, sensitivity tended to level off at approximately 30 Td because of speckle masking. The results indicate that the optical quality of the eye reduces the spatial bandwidth of vision even at luminances near the foveal threshold. The change in interference fringe visibility with luminance is consistent with noise-limited behavior, and the masking

  16. Source-optimized irregular repeat accumulate codes with inherent unequal error protection capabilities and their application to scalable image transmission.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching-Fu; Xiong, Zixiang; Narayanan, Krishna R

    2006-07-01

    The common practice for achieving unequal error protection (UEP) in scalable multimedia communication systems is to design rate-compatible punctured channel codes before computing the UEP rate assignments. This paper proposes a new approach to designing powerful irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) codes that are optimized for the multimedia source and to exploiting the inherent irregularity in IRA codes for UEP. Using the end-to-end distortion due to the first error bit in channel decoding as the cost function, which is readily given by the operational distortion-rate function of embedded source codes, we incorporate this cost function into the channel code design process via density evolution and obtain IRA codes that minimize the average cost function instead of the usual probability of error. Because the resulting IRA codes have inherent UEP capabilities due to irregularity, the new IRA code design effectively integrates channel code optimization and UEP rate assignments, resulting in source-optimized channel coding or joint source-channel coding. We simulate our source-optimized IRA codes for transporting SPIHT-coded images over a binary symmetric channel with crossover probability p. When p = 0.03 and the channel code length is long (e.g., with one codeword for the whole 512 x 512 image), we are able to operate at only 9.38% away from the channel capacity with code length 132380 bits, achieving the best published results in terms of average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Compared to conventional IRA code design (that minimizes the probability of error) with the same code rate, the performance gain in average PSNR from using our proposed source-optimized IRA code design is 0.8759 dB when p = 0.1 and the code length is 12800 bits. As predicted by Shannon's separation principle, we observe that this performance gain diminishes as the code length increases. PMID:16830898

  17. Estimation of errors in luminance signals encoded by primate retina resulting from sampling of natural images with red and green cones.

    PubMed

    Osorio, D; Ruderman, D L; Cronin, T W

    1998-01-01

    Both long-wavelength-sensitive (L) and medium-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones contribute to luminance mechanisms in human vision. This means that luminance and chromatic signals may be confounded. We use power spectra from natural images to estimate the magnitude of the corruption of luminance signals encoded by an array of retinal ganglion cells resembling the primate magnocellular neurons. The magnitude of this corruption is dependent on the cone lattice and is most severe where cones form clumps of a single spectral type. We find that chromatic corruption may equal or exceed the amplitude of other sources of noise and so could impose constraints on visual performance and on eye design.

  18. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., III; Gelino, Chris; Griffith, Roger L.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Masci, Frank J.; Mason, Brian S.; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  19. Evolutionary paths along the BPT diagram for luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (10{sup 11} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 ≲ z ≲ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Hα that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  20. Starburst or AGN Dominance in Submillimetre-Luminous Candidate AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Pope, Alexandra; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Alexander, David M.; Dunlop, James

    2010-06-01

    It is widely believed that ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity are triggered by galaxy interactions and merging, with the peak of activity occurring at z~2, where submillimetre galaxies are thousands of times more numerous than local ULIRGs. In this evolutionary picture, submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) would host an AGN, which would eventually grow a black hole (BH) strong enough to blow off all of the gas and dust leaving an optically luminous QSO. To probe this evolutionary sequence we have focussed on the `missing link' sources, which demonstrate both strong starburst (SB) and AGN signatures, in order to determine if the SB is the main power source even in SMGs when we have evidence that an AGN is present from their IRAC colours. The best way to determine if a dominant AGN is present is to look for their signatures in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer IRS, since often even deep X-ray observations miss identifying the presence of AGN in heavily dust-obscured SMGs. We present the results of our audit of the energy balance between star-formation and AGN within this special sub-population of SMGs-where the BH has grown appreciably to begin heating the dust emission.

  1. Variability of the soft X-ray excess in IRAS 13224-3809

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammoun, E. S.; Papadakis, I. E.; Sabra, B. M.

    2015-10-01

    We study the soft excess variability of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13224-3809. We considered all five archival XMM-Newton observations, and we applied the flux-flux plot (FFP) method. We found that the FFPs were highly affected by the choice of the light curves' time bin size, most probably because of the fast and large amplitude variations, and the intrinsic non-linear flux-flux relations in this source. Therefore, we recommend that the smallest bin-size should be used in such cases. Hence, We constructed FFPs in 11 energy bands below 1.7 keV, and we considered the 1.7-3 keV band, as being representative of the primary emission. The FFPs are reasonably well fitted by a "power-law plus a constant" model. We detected significant positive constants in three out of five observations. The best-fit slopes are flatter than unity at energies below ~0.9 keV, where the soft excess is strongest. This suggests the presence of intrinsic spectral variability. A power-law-like primary component, which is variable in flux and spectral slope (as Γ∝ N_PL0.1) and a soft-excess component, which varies with the primary continuum (as Fexcess∝ F_primary0.46), can broadly explain the FFPs. In fact, this can create positive "constants", even when a stable spectral component does not exist. Nevertheless, the possibility of a stable, soft-band constant component cannot be ruled out, but its contribution to the observed 0.2-1 keV band flux should be less than ~15%. The model constants in the FFPs were consistent with zero in one observation, and negative at energies below 1 keV in another. It is hard to explain these results in the context of any spectral variability scenario, but they may signify the presence of a variable, warm absorber in the source.

  2. Alterations in rat intestinal mucin patterns following luminal infusion of acetylsalicylic acid and prostaglandin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, S; Cassidy, M M; Kharroubi, A T; Calvert, R J; Leeds, A R; Vahouny, G V

    1990-12-01

    The secretion of gastrointestinal mucin and/or the formation of mucoid caps have been implicated in cytoprotective or repair mechanisms related to mucosal injury models. In this study, rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or prostaglandins (PG), and their effects on the synthesis and secretion of small intestinal mucin were examined. A newly developed polyclonal antibody to rat intestinal mucin was used for immunoassay of rat intestinal luminal and tissue mucin. The mucin antigen source was obtained by vacuum aspiration of luminal mucus. A high-molecular-weight glycoprotein (2 x 10(6) Da) fraction injected into rabbits produced a primary mucin antibody. A sensitive and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed that yielded a highly reproducible and linear response with mucin aliquots containing 0-20 ng of protein/ml. Incorporation of the plasma tracers ([3H]glucose and [35S]sodium sulfate) into mucin derived from hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide precipitation after treatment with ASA (100 mg/kg body wt) decreased, although administration of dimethylprostaglandin E2 (100 micrograms/kg body wt) significantly increased the specific tracer incorporation values for the sialomucin and sulfomucin indices in luminal mucin fractions. The immunoassay data pattern for the ELISA technique was virtually identical to the results of the radiolabeled tracer method obtained for the same pharmacologic treatments. These experiments demonstrate that the estimation of synthesized mucin (tissue source) or secreted mucin (luminal source) as determined by the ELISA technique is similar to that obtained by the time-consuming and labor-intensive tracer incorporation methodology. PMID:1701376

  3. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Kaspi, Shai; Vignali, Cristian; Lira, Paulina; Gibson, Robert R.

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  4. The Nature of the IRAS Ring G159.6-18.5 in Perseus and its Exciting Star HD 278942

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannier, P.; Andersson, B.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Bakker, E.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss an extended feature in the Perseus molecular cloud complex, most prominent in the IRAS database as an almost complete ring of radius 0.75 degrees, but also clearly seen in optical surveys and in radio continuum emission.

  5. The effect of luminance on simulated driving speed.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Sarah J; Hammett, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Perceived speed is modulated by a range of stimulus attributes such as contrast, luminance and adaptation duration. It has been suggested that such changes in perceived speed may influence driving behaviour. In order to evaluate the effect of luminance on driving speed we have measured subjects' driving speed in a driving simulator for a range of luminance and speed over time. The results indicate that reducing luminance results in a decrease in driving speed for all speeds measured. This reduction in driving speed at low luminance is consistent with previous findings that perceived speed increases at low luminance. However, the results also indicated that driving speed remained stable over a 30s period. The stability of driving speed over time is inconsistent with previous findings that perceived speed reduces exponentially as a function of adaptation duration. The results are suggestive of a scheme whereby driving speed is consistent with the known effects of luminance upon perceived speed but may also be modulated by higher order processes that serve to maintain a constant speed over time.

  6. A functional role for trans-saccadic luminance differences.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Casimir J H; Davies, J Rhys; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    In typical natural environments, the visual system receives different inputs in quick succession as gaze moves around. We examined whether local trans-saccadic differences in luminance, contrast, and orientation influenced perception and target selection in the eye movement system. Observers initially fixated a peripheral position in a preview display that consisted of four patterns. They subsequently made a saccade to the center of the configuration. During the movement, two of the preview patterns were eliminated, and a small change in the luminance contrast of the remaining patterns was introduced. Observers had to make a second saccade to the test patch with the greater luminance contrast relative to the background. During the second fixation, test patterns could be in the same retinotopic location as one of the preview patterns during the initial fixation (a retinotopic match) or at a retinotopic location that was empty during the preview epoch (a retinotopic onset). We consistently found a preference to fixate retinotopic onsets over retinotopically matched patterns, but only when the patterns were defined by a luminance difference. Direct measurement of perceived luminance showed that the visual response to retinotopically matched inputs was attenuated, possibly because of retinotopic adaptation. As a consequence, the visual system responds more strongly to trans-saccadic differences in local luminance. We argue that a trans-saccadic comparison of the local luminance at the same retinotopic location is a simple way of finding high spatial frequency edge information in the visual scene. This information is important for image segmentation and interpretation.

  7. Luminance distribution modifies the perceived freshness of strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Lopera, Carlos; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Okajima, Katsunori

    2012-01-01

    Material perception studies focus on the analysis of visual cues that may underlie the ability to distinguish between the different properties of an object. Herein, we investigated the effects of luminance distribution on the perceived freshness of a strawberry independent from its colour information. We took photographs of the degradation of a strawberry over 169 hours in a controlled environment, then presented cropped square patches of the original images to subjects who then rated the perceived freshness using a visual analogue scale. Freshness ratings were significantly highly correlated with statistical measures of the luminance and colour channels. To clarify which of these visual cues affects freshness perception, we created artificial images by modifying only the luminance distribution and keeping the colour information unchanged. The modification of luminance resulted in a highly correlated change in freshness perception, suggesting that luminance visual cues are essential to the freshness perception of strawberries. Finally, by eliminating the colour information from the images, we examined the contribution of luminance distribution independent of colour information and found that luminance information suffices for accurate estimation of strawberry freshness. PMID:23145288

  8. IrAE – an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) in the gut of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Dvořák, Jan; Sajid, Mohammed; Franta, Zdeněk; Schneider, Eric L.; Craik, Charles S.; Vancová, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Bogyo, Matthew; Sexton, Kelly B.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Ticks are ectoparasitic blood-feeders and important vectors for pathogens including arboviruses, rickettsiae, spirochetes and protozoa. As obligate blood-feeders, one possible strategy to retard disease transmission is disruption of the parasite’s ability to digest host proteins. However, the constituent peptidases in the parasite gut and their potential interplay in the digestion of the blood meal are poorly understood. We have characterized a novel asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus (termed IrAE), which is the first such characterization of a clan CD family C13 cysteine peptidase (protease) in arthropods. By RT-PCR of different tissues, IrAE mRNA was only expressed in the tick gut. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized IrAE in the digestive vesicles of gut cells and within the peritrophic matrix. IrAE was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris and reacted with a specific peptidyl fluorogenic substrate, and acyloxymethyl ketone and aza-asparagine Michael acceptor inhibitors. IrAE activity was unstable at pH ≥ 6.0 and was shown to have a strict specificity for asparagine at P1 using a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial library. The enzyme hydrolyzed protein substrates with a pH optimum of 4.5, consistent with the pH of gut cell digestive vesicles. Thus, IrAE cleaved the major protein of the blood meal, hemoglobin, to a predominant peptide of 4 kDa. Also, IrAE trans-processed and activated the zymogen form of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 – an enzyme contributing to hemoglobin digestion in the gut of that bloodfluke. The possible functions of IrAE in the gut digestive processes of I. ricinus are compared with those suggested for other hematophagous parasites. PMID:17336985

  9. 25 CFR 151.5 - Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A. 151.5 Section 151.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.5 Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A. In addition to acquisitions for tribes which did not reject...

  10. 25 CFR 151.5 - Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A. 151.5 Section 151.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.5 Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A. In addition to acquisitions for tribes which did not reject...

  11. 25 CFR 151.5 - Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A. 151.5 Section 151.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.5 Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A. In addition to acquisitions for tribes which did not reject...

  12. 25 CFR 151.5 - Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A. 151.5 Section 151.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.5 Trust acquisitions in Oklahoma under section 5 of the I.R.A. In addition to acquisitions for tribes which did not reject...

  13. Identification of IRAS/Nischarin as an I1-imidazoline receptor in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Chang, Chung-Ho; Ernsberger, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The I1-imidazoline receptor (I1R) is a proposed target for drug action relevant to blood pressure and glucose control. The imidazoline receptor antisera-selected (IRAS) gene, also known as Nischarin, has several characteristics of an I1R. To test the contribution of IRAS to I1R binding capacity and cell-signaling function, an antisense probe targeting the initiating codon of rat IRAS gene was evaluated in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells, a well-established model for I1R action. The density of I1R was significantly reduced by antisense compared with control transfection (Bmax = 400 +/- 16 vs. 691 +/- 29 fmol/mg protein), without significantly affecting binding affinity (Kd = 0.30 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.05 nmol/L). Thus, IRAS expression is necessary for high-affinity binding to I1R. Western blots with polyclonal anti-IRAS showed reduced IRAS expression in the major 85-kDa band relative to an actin reference, paralleling the reduction in binding site density. To determine whether reduced IRAS expression attenuated I1R cell signaling, PC12 cells transfected with antisense or sense oligo-DNA were treated with moxonidine, an I1R agonist, then cell lysates were analyzed by western blot. Dose-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was attenuated without affecting the potency of the agonist. In contrast, extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by insulin was unchanged. The IRAS gene is likely to encode an I1R or a functional subunit.

  14. The effect of chromatic and luminance information on reaction times.

    PubMed

    O'Donell, Beatriz M; Barraza, Jose F; Colombo, Elisa M

    2010-07-01

    We present a series of experiments exploring the effect of chromaticity on reaction time (RT) for a variety of stimulus conditions, including chromatic and luminance contrast, luminance, and size. The chromaticity of these stimuli was varied along a series of vectors in color space that included the two chromatic-opponent-cone axes, a red-green (L-M) axis and a blue-yellow [S - (L + M)] axis, and intermediate noncardinal orientations, as well as the luminance axis (L + M). For Weber luminance contrasts above 10-20%, RTs tend to the same asymptote, irrespective of chromatic direction. At lower luminance contrast, the addition of chromatic information shortens the RT. RTs are strongly influenced by stimulus size when the chromatic stimulus is modulated along the [S - (L + M)] pathway and by stimulus size and adaptation luminance for the (L-M) pathway. RTs are independent of stimulus size for stimuli larger than 0.5 deg. Data are modeled with a modified version of Pieron's formula with an exponent close to 2, in which the stimulus intensity term is replaced by a factor that considers the relative effects of chromatic and achromatic information, as indexed by the RMS (square-root of the cone contrast) value at isoluminance and the Weber luminance contrast, respectively. The parameters of the model reveal how RT is linked to stimulus size, chromatic channels, and adaptation luminance and how they can be interpreted in terms of two chromatic mechanisms. This equation predicts that, for isoluminance, RTs for a stimulus lying on the S-cone pathway are higher than those for a stimulus lying on the L-M-cone pathway, for a given RMS cone contrast. The equation also predicts an asymptotic trend to the RT for an achromatic stimulus when the luminance contrast is sufficiently large.

  15. A Luminous Red Nova in M31 and its Progenitor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.; Bode, M. F.; Steele, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    We present observations of M31LRN 2015 (MASTER OT J004207.99+405501.1), discovered in M31 in 2015 January, and identified as a rare and enigmatic luminous red nova (LRN). Spectroscopic and photometric observations obtained by the Liverpool Telescope showed the LRN becoming extremely red as it faded from its {{M}V}=-9.4+/- 0.2 peak. Early spectra showed strong Hα emission that weakened over time as a number of absorption features appeared, including Na i D and Ba ii. At later times strong TiO absorption bands were also seen. A search of archival Hubble Space Telescope data revealed a luminous red source to be the likely progenitor system, with pre-outburst Hα emission also detected in ground-based data. The outburst of M31LRN 2015 shows many similarities, both spectroscopically and photometrically, with that of V838 Mon, the best studied LRN. We finally discuss the possible progenitor scenarios.

  16. Implementation of automatic white-balance based on adaptive-luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jian; Yao, Su-Ying; Xu, Jiang-Tao

    2009-03-01

    A novel automatic white-balance algorithm based on adaptive-luminance is proposed in this paper. This algorithm redefines the gray pixels region, which can filter the gray pixels accurately. Furthermore, with the relations between gray pixels’ luminance with standard light source and their chroma Cb, Cr shifts with other color temperatures, the algorithm establishes the equations between the captured pixels and the original ones, which can estimate the gains of RGB channels exactly. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, the objective comparison method and the subjective observation method are both used, and the test results prove that the effects of image emendated by the proposed algorithm are excelled to that by traditional algorithms. Finally, the algorithm is implemented with VLSI design, and the result of synthesis proves that it can satisfy real-time application.

  17. Spatially resolved chemistry in nearby galaxies. III. Dense molecular gas in the inner disk of the LIRG IRAS 04296+2923

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C. E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu

    2014-11-10

    We present a survey of 3 mm molecular lines in IRAS 04296+2923, one of the brightest known molecular-line emitting galaxies, and one of the closest luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). Data are from the Owens Valley and CARMA millimeter interferometers. Species detected at ≲ 4'' resolution include C{sup 18}O, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CN, CH{sub 3}OH, and, tentatively, HNCO. Along with existing CO, {sup 13}CO, and radio continuum data, these lines constrain the chemical properties of the inner disk. Dense molecular gas in the nucleus fuels a star formation rate ≳10 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and is traced by lines of HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, and CN. A correlation between HCN and star formation rate is observed on sub-kiloparsec scales, consistent with global relations. Toward the nucleus, CN abundances are similar to those of HCN, indicating emission comes from a collection (∼40-50) of moderate visual extinction, photon-dominated-region clouds. The CO isotopic line ratios are unusual: CO(1-0)/{sup 13}CO(1-0) and CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) line ratios are large toward the starburst, as is commonly observed in LIRGs, but farther out in the disk these ratios are remarkably low (≲ 3). {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O abundance ratios are lower than in Galactic clouds, possibly because the C{sup 18}O is enriched by massive star ejecta from the starburst. {sup 13}CO is underabundant relative to CO. Extended emission from CH{sub 3}OH indicates that dynamical shocks pervade both the nucleus and the inner disk. The unusual CO isotopologue ratios, the CO/HCN intensity ratio versus L {sub IR}, the HCN/CN abundance ratio, and the gas consumption time versus inflow rate all indicate that the starburst in IRAS 04296+2923 is in an early stage of development.

  18. A Second Luminous Blue Variable in the Quintuplet Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. R.; Najarro, F.; Figer, D. F.

    2000-02-01

    H- and K-band moderate-resolution and 4 μm high-resolution spectra have been obtained for FMM 362, a bright star in the Quintuplet Cluster near the Galactic center. The spectral features in these bands closely match those of the Pistol Star, a luminous blue variable and one of the most luminous stars known. The new spectra and previously obtained photometry imply a very high luminosity for FMM 362, L>=106 Lsolar, and a temperature of 10,000-13,000 K. Based on its luminosity, temperature, photometric variability, and similarities to the Pistol Star, we conclude that FMM 362 is a luminous blue variable.

  19. A Second Luminous Blue Variable in the Quintuplet Cluster.

    PubMed

    Geballe; Najarro; Figer

    2000-02-20

    H- and K-band moderate-resolution and 4 µm high-resolution spectra have been obtained for FMM 362, a bright star in the Quintuplet Cluster near the Galactic center. The spectral features in these bands closely match those of the Pistol Star, a luminous blue variable and one of the most luminous stars known. The new spectra and previously obtained photometry imply a very high luminosity for FMM 362, L>/=106 L middle dot in circle, and a temperature of 10,000-13,000 K. Based on its luminosity, temperature, photometric variability, and similarities to the Pistol Star, we conclude that FMM 362 is a luminous blue variable.

  20. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  1. Effects of Narrow-band IR-A and of Water-Filtered Infrared A on Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Knels, Lilla; Valtink, Monika; Piazena, Helmut; de la Vega Marin, Jamlec; Gommel, Kerstin; Lupp, Amelie; Roehlecke, Cora; Mehner, Mirko; Funk, Richard H W

    2016-05-01

    Exposures of the skin with electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths between 670 nm and 1400 nm are often used as a general treatment to improve wound healing and reduce pain, for example, in chronic diabetic skin lesions. We investigated the effects of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) and of narrow-band IR-A provided by a light-emitting diode LED (LED-IR-A) irradiation in vitro on 3T3 fibroblast cultures under defined conditions with and without glyoxal administration. Glyoxal triggers the formation of advanced glycation end products, thereby mimicking a diabetic metabolic state. Cell viability and apoptotic changes were determined by flow cytometry after vital staining with Annexin V, YO-PRO-1 and propidium iodide (PI), and by SubG1 assay. Mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were examined by vital staining for radical production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the ratio of reduced-to-oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). The metabolic state was monitored by a resazurin conversion assay. The numbers of apoptotic cells were reduced in cultures irradiated with wIRA or LED-IR-A. More mitochondria showed a well-polarized MMP after wIRA irradiation in glyoxal damaged cells. LED-IR-A treatment specifically restored the GSH/GSSG ratio. The immediate positive effects of wIRA and LED-IR-A observed in living cells, particularly on mitochondria, reflect the therapeutic benefits of wIRA and LED-IR-A.

  2. Imaging Polarimetry of Scattered Light from the Buried QSO in IRAS F15307+3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Jeffrey; Hines, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present new imaging polarimetry observations of the Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxy and Type 2 QSO IRAS F15307+3252 (z = 0.9257). The observations were obtained with the High-Resolution Camera (HRC) of the Advance Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The images show strongly polarized (p ≥ 20%) light extending ~8 kpc southwest from the center of the galaxy. The overall shape suggests that the extended emission has a single-sided, conical structure of apparent half-opening angle ~16 degrees and apex centered at the galaxy nucleus. The polarization position angle (at each resolution element) is perpendicular to the axis of the extended emission, implying that the structure is illuminated by a central source in the galaxy nucleus that is not seen directly. F15307+3252 is known to harbor a buried QSO that was revealed in a polarized spectrum by Hines et al. (1995); the degree of polarization and position angle of this polarized spectrum match those of the extended structure seen in our new HST/ACS data. We thus conclude that this extended emission is light from the buried QSO that is scattered (thus polarized) into our line of sight, and importantly, this object would be classified optically as a Type 1 QSO if viewed from the vantage point of the scattering material. The conical structure of the scattered light suggests that the material blocking our direct line of sight to the QSO has a spatial distribution similar to the dusty torus in lower redshift Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). Assuming that the scattered-light-cone half-opening angle is the same as the dusty torus half-opening angle, we derive a dust-covering fraction of ≥ 95%. This, and comparison between the observed spectral energy distribution of F15307+3252 and that of a composite Type 1 QSO, suggests that the majority of the luminosity in F15307+3252 is powered by the central QSO. Deep HST/ACS images in total light also show clearly that F15307+3252 sits at the center of a

  3. Herschel/HIFI-HRS observation of CH absorption in IRAS16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottinelli, S.; Caux, C.; Wakelam, V.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.

    2011-05-01

    We present high spectral resolution observations of CH absorption towards the low-mass protostar IRAS16293-2422. The data were obtained with the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) module of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on-board Herschel, as part of the CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star-forming regions) guaranteed time key program. CH is well known for having column densities correlated with those of H_2 and for its role as a product in the ion-molecule gas-phase chemistry. We derive CH column densities in the envelope of IRAS16293-2422, and investigate the implications when comparing with column densities of H_2 and of other carbon species such as CN or CCH. We also discuss the non-detections of CD and CH^+.

  4. DISCOVERY OF 6.035 GHz HYDROXYL MASER FLARES IN IRAS 18566+0408

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Marzouk, A. A.; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.

    2012-05-10

    We report the discovery of 6.035 GHz hydroxyl (OH) maser flares toward the massive star-forming region IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20), which is the only region known to show periodic formaldehyde (4.8 GHz H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH) maser flares. The observations were conducted between 2008 October and 2010 January with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico. We detected two flare events, one in 2009 March and one in 2009 September to November. The OH maser flares are not simultaneous with the H{sub 2}CO flares, but may be correlated with CH{sub 3}OH flares from a component at corresponding velocities. A possible correlated variability of OH and CH{sub 3}OH masers in IRAS 18566+0408 is consistent with a common excitation mechanism (IR pumping) as predicted by theory.

  5. THE EXCEPTIONALLY LUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2007if

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, F.; Akerlof, C. W.; Miller, J. M.; McKay, T. A.; Quimby, R. M.; Kulkarni, S.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vinko, J.; Chatzopoulos, E.; Aharonian, F.

    2010-06-01

    SN 2007if was the third over-luminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) detected after 2003fg and 2006gz. We present the photometric and spectroscopic observations of the SN and its host by ROTSE-III, HET, and Keck. From the H{sub {alpha}} line identified in the host spectra, we determine a redshift of 0.0736. At this distance, the SN reached an absolute magnitude of -20.4, brighter than any other SNe Ia ever observed. If the source of luminosity is radioactive decay, a large amount of radioactive nickel ({approx}1.5 M {sub sun}) is required to power the peak luminosity, more than can be produced realistically in a Chandrasekhar mass progenitor. Low expansion velocity, similar to that of 2003fg, is also measured around the maximum light. The observations may suggest that SN 2007if was from a massive white dwarf progenitor, plausibly exploding with mass well beyond 1.4 M {sub sun}. Alternatively, we investigate circumstellar interaction that may contribute to the excess luminosity.

  6. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA).

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, A; Tennert, C; Karygianni, L; Wrbas, K T; Hellwig, E; Altenburger, M J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) using visible light together with water-filtered infrared-A (VIS+wIRA) to eradicate single species of planktonic bacteria and micro-organisms during initial oral bacterial colonization in situ. A broadband VIS+wIRA radiator with a water-filtered spectrum in the range 580-1400 nm was used for irradiation. Toluidine blue (TB) was utilized as a photosensitizer at concentrations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg ml(-1). The unweighted (absolute) irradiance was 200 mW cm(-2) and it was applied for 1 min. Planktonic cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis were treated with APDT. Salivary bacteria harvested by centrifugation of native human saliva were also tested. In addition, initial bacterial colonization of bovine enamel slabs carried in the mouths of six healthy volunteers was treated in the same way. Up to 2 log(10) of S. mutans and E. faecalis were killed by APDT. Salivary bacteria were eliminated to a higher extent of 3.7-5 log(10). All TB concentrations tested proved to be highly effective. The killing rate of bacteria in the initial oral bacterial colonization was significant (P=0.004) at all tested TB concentrations, despite the interindividual variations found among study participants. This study has shown that APDT in combination with TB and VIS+wIRA is a promising method for killing bacteria during initial oral colonization. Taking the healing effects of wIRA on human tissue into consideration, this technique could be helpful in the treatment of peri-implantitis and periodontitis.

  7. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the valuation methods in § 1.408A-4T (as it appeared in the April 1, 2008, edition of 26 CFR part 1... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-4... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-4...

  8. 29 CFR 2509.99-1 - Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, (ERISA) and 29 CFR 2510.3-2(d... “pension plan” within the meaning of section 3 (2) (A) of ERISA. In this regard, 29 CFR 2510.3-2 (d) sets... intended to clarify the application of the IRA safe harbor set forth at 29 CFR 2510.3-2 (d) and,...

  9. 29 CFR 2509.99-1 - Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, (ERISA) and 29 CFR 2510.3-2(d... “pension plan” within the meaning of section 3 (2) (A) of ERISA. In this regard, 29 CFR 2510.3-2 (d) sets... intended to clarify the application of the IRA safe harbor set forth at 29 CFR 2510.3-2 (d) and,...

  10. Water-filtered infrared-A radiation (wIRA) is not implicated in cellular degeneration of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gebbers, Narcisa; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Scaletta, Corinne; Hoffmann, Gerd; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is involved in the complex biologic process of cutaneous aging. Wavelengths in the ultraviolet-A and -B range (UV-A and UV-B) have been shown to be responsible for the induction of proteases, e. g. the collagenase matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), which are related to cell aging. As devices emitting longer wavelengths are widely used in therapeutic and cosmetic interventions and as the induction of MMP-1 by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) had been discussed, it was of interest to assess effects of wIRA on the cellular and molecular level known to be possibly involved in cutaneous degeneration. Objectives: Investigation of the biological implications of widely used water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) radiators for clinical use on human skin fibroblasts assessed by MMP-1 gene expression (MMP-1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression). Methods: Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with approximately 88% wIRA (780-1400 nm) and 12% red light (RL, 665-780 nm) with 380 mW/cm² wIRA(+RL) (333 mW/cm² wIRA) on the one hand and for comparison with UV-A (330-400 nm, mainly UV-A1) and a small amount of blue light (BL, 400-450 nm) with 28 mW/cm² UV-A(+BL) on the other hand. Survival curves were established by colony forming ability after single exposures between 15 minutes and 8 hours to wIRA(+RL) (340-10880 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300-9600 J/cm² wIRA) or 15-45 minutes to UV-A(+BL) (25-75 J/cm² UV-A(+BL)). Both conventional Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR techniques were used to determine the induction of MMP-1 mRNA at two physiologic temperatures for skin fibroblasts (30°C and 37°C) in single exposure regimens (15-60 minutes wIRA(+RL), 340-1360 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300-1200 J/cm² wIRA; 30 minutes UV-A(+BL), 50 J/cm² UV-A(+BL)) and in addition at 30°C in a repeated exposure protocol (up to 10 times 15 minutes wIRA(+RL) with 340 J/cm² wIRA(+RL), 300 J

  11. ANOMALOUSLY STEEP REDDENING LAW IN QUASARS: AN EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLE OBSERVED IN IRAS 14026+4341

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Peng; Zhou Hongyan; Ji Tuo; Shu Xinwen; Liu Wenjuan; Dong Xiaobo; Wang Huiyuan; Wang Tinggui; Wang Jianguo

    2013-06-15

    A fraction of the heavily reddened quasars require a reddening curve that is even steeper than that of the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this paper, we thoroughly characterize the anomalously steep reddening law in quasars via an exceptional example observed in IRAS 14026+4341. By comparing the observed spectrum to the quasar composite spectrum, we derive a reddening curve in the rest-frame wavelength range of 1200-10000 A. It has a steep rise at wavelengths shorter than 3000 A, but no significant reddening at longer wavelengths. The absence of dust reddening in the optical continuum is confirmed by the normal broad-line Balmer decrement (the H{alpha}/H{beta} ratio) in IRAS 14026+4341. The anomalous reddening curve can be satisfactorily reproduced with a dust model containing silicate grains in a power-law size distribution, dn(a)/da{proportional_to}a {sup -1.4}, truncated at a maximum size of a{sub max} = 70 nm. The unusual size distribution may be caused by the destruction of large 'stardust' grains by quasar activities or a different dust formation mechanism (i.e., the in situ formation of dust grains in quasar outflows). It is also possible that the analogies of the dust grains observed near the Galactic center are responsible for the steep reddening curve. In addition, we find that IRAS 14026+4341 is a weak emission-line quasar (i.e., PHL 1811 analogies) with heavy dust reddening and blueshifted broad absorption lines.

  12. Anomalously Steep Reddening Law in Quasars: An Exceptional Example Observed in IRAS 14026+4341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo; Shu, Xinwen; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Jianguo; Dong, Xiaobo; Bai, Jinming; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui

    2013-06-01

    A fraction of the heavily reddened quasars require a reddening curve that is even steeper than that of the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this paper, we thoroughly characterize the anomalously steep reddening law in quasars via an exceptional example observed in IRAS 14026+4341. By comparing the observed spectrum to the quasar composite spectrum, we derive a reddening curve in the rest-frame wavelength range of 1200-10000 Å. It has a steep rise at wavelengths shorter than 3000 Å, but no significant reddening at longer wavelengths. The absence of dust reddening in the optical continuum is confirmed by the normal broad-line Balmer decrement (the Hα/Hβ ratio) in IRAS 14026+4341. The anomalous reddening curve can be satisfactorily reproduced with a dust model containing silicate grains in a power-law size distribution, dn(a)/davpropa -1.4, truncated at a maximum size of a max = 70 nm. The unusual size distribution may be caused by the destruction of large "stardust" grains by quasar activities or a different dust formation mechanism (i.e., the in situ formation of dust grains in quasar outflows). It is also possible that the analogies of the dust grains observed near the Galactic center are responsible for the steep reddening curve. In addition, we find that IRAS 14026+4341 is a weak emission-line quasar (i.e., PHL 1811 analogies) with heavy dust reddening and blueshifted broad absorption lines.

  13. A global mechanism creating low atmospheric luminous cold plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitle Hauge, Bjørn; Petter Strand, Erling

    2014-05-01

    Red, white/yellow and blue balls of light have been observed in the low atmosphere over the Hessdalen valley , Norway, standing still and moving horizontally with random speed. Characteristics of these transient luminous phenomena in Hessdalen, and data from America, suggest that the process which creates these low atmospheric plasmas is a global mechanism, not only localized to the remote and desolated Hessdalen valley in Norway (62Deg.N - 11Deg.E). Transient luminous phenomena's has been observed in the low atmosphere over the Hessdalen valley for over 200 years. The first written documentation goes back to 1811 when the priest Jakob Tode Krogh wrote about it in his diary. Since 1982, inhabitants, tourists, journalists and scientists have done recurrent observations. E.P.Strand conducted the first scientific campaign in 1984, documenting over 50 observations in one month. 15 years later, Norwegian and Italian scientists installed the first permanent automated research base here. In 2010 French researchers joined this collaboration and installed two additional research bases. This transient luminous phenomenon, TLP, has been detected simultaneously on optical and radar devices, but electromagnetic radiation from this phenomenon has until now eluded detection. Smirnov (1994) and Zou(1994) was among the first scientist who used plasma physics trying to explain this phenomenon. Work done by Pavia & Taft (2010 and 2012) suggests that the TLP in Hessdalen probably is dusty or cold plasma, arranged as a cluster of Coulomb crystals. Optical spectrum data obtained by Strand (1984), Teodorani (2004) and Hauge (2007) showing a continuous optical spectrum support this hypothesis. Pictures of spiraling light rays obtained by Strand in 1984, and Hauge in 2004 and 2010 suggests that this plasma is moving in a strong magnetic field, and might be created by it. Radar reflections from the TLP in Hessdalen obtained by Strand in 1984 and Montebugnoli and Monari in 2007 points

  14. Luminance uniformity compensation for OLED panels based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Peng; Yang, Gang; Jiang, Quan; Yu, Jun-Sheng; Wu, Qi-Peng; Shang, Fu-Hai; Yin, Wei; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Jian; Luo, Kai-Jun

    2009-09-01

    Aiming at the problem of luminance uniformity for organic lighting-emitting diode (OLED) panels, a new brightness calculating method based on bilinear interpolation is proposed. The irradiance time of each pixel reaching the same luminance is figured out by Matlab. Adopting the 64×32-pixel, single color and passive matrix OLED panel as adjusting luminance uniformity panel, a new circuit compensating scheme based on FPGA is designed. VHDL is used to make each pixel’s irradiance time in one frame period written in program. The irradiance brightness is controlled by changing its irradiance time, and finally, luminance compensation of the panel is realized. The simulation result indicates that the design is reasonable.

  15. Cue Combination of Conflicting Color and Luminance Edges.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes in the color or luminance of a visual image potentially indicate object boundaries. Here, we consider how these cues to the visual "edge" location are combined when they conflict. We measured the extent to which localization of a compound edge can be predicted from a simple maximum likelihood estimation model using the reliability of chromatic (L-M) and luminance signals alone. Maximum likelihood estimation accurately predicted the pattern of results across a range of contrasts. Predictions consistently overestimated the relative influence of the luminance cue; although L-M is often considered a poor cue for localization, it was used more than expected. This need not indicate that the visual system is suboptimal but that its priors about which cue is more useful are not flat. This may be because, although strong changes in chromaticity typically represent object boundaries, changes in luminance can be caused by either a boundary or a shadow. PMID:27551364

  16. Cue Combination of Conflicting Color and Luminance Edges

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt changes in the color or luminance of a visual image potentially indicate object boundaries. Here, we consider how these cues to the visual “edge” location are combined when they conflict. We measured the extent to which localization of a compound edge can be predicted from a simple maximum likelihood estimation model using the reliability of chromatic (L−M) and luminance signals alone. Maximum likelihood estimation accurately predicted the pattern of results across a range of contrasts. Predictions consistently overestimated the relative influence of the luminance cue; although L−M is often considered a poor cue for localization, it was used more than expected. This need not indicate that the visual system is suboptimal but that its priors about which cue is more useful are not flat. This may be because, although strong changes in chromaticity typically represent object boundaries, changes in luminance can be caused by either a boundary or a shadow. PMID:27551364

  17. Single luminal epithelial progenitors can generate prostate organoids in culture

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Chee Wai; Shibata, Maho; Lei, Ming; Toivanen, Roxanne; Barlow, LaMont J.; Bergren, Sarah K.; Badani, Ketan K.; McKiernan, James M.; Benson, Mitchell C.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Shen, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic ability to display self-organizing morphogenetic properties in ex vivo culture may represent a general property of tissue stem cells. Here we show that single luminal stem/progenitor cells can generate prostate organoids in a three-dimensional culture system in the absence of stroma. Organoids generated from CARNs (castration-resistant Nkx3.1-expressing cells) or normal prostate epithelium exhibit tissue architecture containing luminal and basal cells, undergo long-term expansion in culture, and display functional androgen receptor signaling. Lineage-tracing demonstrates that luminal cells are favored for organoid formation, and generate basal cells in culture. Furthermore, tumor organoids can initiate from CARNs after oncogenic transformation, and from mouse models of prostate cancer, and can facilitate analyses of drug response. Finally, we provide evidence supporting the feasibility of organoid studies of human prostate tissue. Our studies underscore the progenitor properties of luminal cells, and identify in vitro approaches for studying prostate biology. PMID:25241035

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Luminous X-ray candidates within D25 of galaxies (Gong+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, H.; Liu, J.; Maccarone, T.

    2016-02-01

    Using Chandra archive data we conduct a thorough survey of luminous X-ray sources. We directly analyze about 9400 ACIS Observations and cross-correlate the X-ray sources with 77000 galaxies within 250Mpc. The final catalog includes 119 unique luminous X-ray source candidates with LX>3x1040erg/s from 93 galaxies or 41 HLX candidates with LX>1x1041erg/s from 35 galaxies. We derive a moderate contamination rate due to foreground or background sources. We also cross-correlate the catalog with FIRST, perform variability and periodicity tests, and analyze one HLX candidate in particular. Our catalog could be a starting point to perform follow-up observations. (2 data files).

  19. Air Heating Associated with Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riousset, J. A.; Pasko, V. P.; Bourdon, A.

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of ambient gas heating processes initiated by needle-shaped filaments of ionization, called streamers, embedded in originally cold air (near room temperature) represents a long standing problem, which is of interest for studies of long laboratory sparks and natural lightning discharges [e.g., Gallimberti et al., C. R. Physique, 3, 1335, 2002]. The observed phenomenology of a subset of the recently observed transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere, which originate from thundercloud tops [e.g, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 21549, 2001; Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; Krehbiel et al., Nature Geoscience, 1, 233, 2008; Cummer et al., Nature Geoscience, 2, 617, 2009, Riousset et al., JGR, 10.1029/2009JA014286, 2009, in press], indicate that these events may be related to conventional lightning leader processes and therefore are associated with significant heating of the air in the regions of atmosphere through which they propagate [Pasko and George, JGR, 107, 1458, 2002]. Many of the small scale features observed in sprites at higher altitudes [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 104, L11105, 2007, and references therein] can be interpreted in terms of corona streamers, which, after appropriate scaling with air density, are fully analogous to those, which initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several cm) gaps at near ground pressure [Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009, and references therein] and which constitute building blocks of streamer zones of conventional lightning leaders in long gaps [Gallimberti et al., 2002]. The recent reports of infrasound bursts originating from 60-80 km altitudes in sprites, with durations consistent with the optical widths of the sprites [e.g., Farges, in Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications, p. 417, Betz et al., (eds.), Springer, 2009], provide an additional motivation for studies of the heating of the ambient air and associated chemical effects

  20. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M. ); Fein, G. ); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. )

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  1. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M.; Fein, G.; Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F.

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  2. Luminal flow alteration in presence of the stent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, E. S.; Hudrea, C. I.; Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A. F.; Bosioc, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Luminally protruding struts alter blood flow, creating areas of recirculation, separation, and stagnation. The impact of flow alterations around struts vary as the strut geometrical parameters change. We quantified the influence of the luminal flow alterations due to the presence of the stent struts by performing two-dimensional numerical simulation. Idealized computer models can facilitate understanding of the in-stent restenosis that is impossible to achieve in vivo.

  3. STAR FORMATION IN TWO LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Ashburn, Allison; Wright, Teresa; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Rubin, Vera C.; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Struve, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We examined star formation in two very luminous (M{sub V} = –22 to –23) Sc-type spiral galaxies, NGC 801 and UGC 2885, using ultra-deep Hα images. We combine these Hα images with UBV and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey JHK images and H I maps to explore the star formation characteristics of disk galaxies at high luminosity. Hα traces star formation in these galaxies to 4-6 disk scale lengths, but the lack of detection of Hα further out is likely due to the loss of Lyman continuum photons. Considering gravitational instabilities alone, we find that the gas and stars in the outer regions are marginally stable in an average sense, but considering dissipative gas and radial and azimuthal forcing, the outer regions are marginally unstable to forming spiral arms. Star formation is taking place in spiral arms, which are regions of locally higher gas densities. Furthermore, we have traced smooth exponential stellar disks over four magnitudes in V-band surface brightness and 4-6 disk scale lengths, in spite of a highly variable gravitational instability parameter. Thus, gravitational instability thresholds do not seem relevant to the stellar disk. One possibility for creating an exponential disk is that the molecular cloud densities and star formation rates have exponential profiles and this fact forces the stellar disk to build up such a profile. Another possibility is that the stellar disk is continuously adjusted to an exponential shape regardless of the star formation profile, for example, through global dynamical processes that scatter stars. However, such scattering processes are only known to operate in spiral systems, in which case they cannot explain the same dilemma of smooth exponential disks observed in dwarf irregular galaxies.

  4. FUSE Observations of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Young, P. R.; Ake, T. B.

    2000-12-01

    Luminous cool stars can address the evolution of magnetic activity and the dynamics of stellar winds and mass loss. The region of yellow supergiants in the HR diagram contains stars of intermediate mass both with coronas and those possessing a hot outer atmosphere in the presence of a strong wind (the ``hybrid'' stars). These hybrid objects hold particular significance for evolution studies because they represent the physically important connection between solar-like stars (with coronas and fast winds of low-mass loss rate) and the cool supergiant stars (Alpha Ori-like) with cool outer atmospheres and massive winds. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) measured the chromospheric and transition region emissions of the bright G2 Ib supergiant Beta Draconis (HD 159181) on 9 May 2000. Two exposures through the large aperture totaled 7695 s and were obtained in all channels covering the region λ λ 912-1180. Emission from chromospheric and transition region ions (C III, O VI, Si III, S IV, S VI) is detected along with a number of low ion stages. Profiles of strong lines are asymmetric suggesting the presence of a wind. A short exposure (3260 s) of Alpha Aquarii (HD 209750), a hybrid supergiant also of spectral type G2 Ib was obtained June 29, 2000. Dynamics of the atmospheres can be inferred from line profiles. The atmospheric temperature distribution, densities, and scale sizes can be evaluated from line fluxes to characterize the differences between a coronal star and a hybrid supergiant. FUSE is a NASA Origins mission operated by The Johns Hopkins University. Funding for this research is provided through NASA Contract NAS-532985.

  5. HIGH VELOCITY PRECESSING JETS FROM THE WATER FOUNTAIN IRAS 18286-0959 REVEALED BY VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J.

    2011-11-10

    We report the results of multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array observations of the 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission associated with the 'water fountain' IRAS 18286-0959. We suggest that this object is the second example of a highly collimated bipolar precessing outflow traced by H{sub 2}O maser emission, the other is W 43A. The detected H{sub 2}O emission peaks are distributed over a velocity range from -50 km s{sup -1} to 150 km s{sup -1}. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (jet 1) extended southeast to northwest; the remaining features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a 'double-helix' pattern which lies across {approx}200 mas. The maser distribution is reasonably fit by a model consisting of two bipolar precessing jets. The three-dimensional velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138 km s{sup -1} and 99 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years. For jet 2, three possible models are tested and they give different values for the kinematic parameters. We propose that the appearance of two jets is the result of a single driving source with significant proper motion.

  6. Long-term monitoring and interpretation of flares in the H2O maser emission of IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colom, P.; Lekht, E. E.; Pashchenko, M. I.; Rudnitskii, G. M.; Tolmachev, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a study of the H2O and OH maser emission from the cool IR source IRAS 16293-2422 are presented. The observations analyzed were obtained in H2O lines with the 22-m telescope of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory during 1999-2015 and in OH lines with the Nanç ay radio telescope (France). A large number of very strong flares of the H2O maser were detected, reaching fluxes of tens of thousands of Jansky. Individual features can form organized structures resembling chains ˜2 AU in length with a radial-velocity gradient along them. The observed drift of the H2O emission (2003-2004) in space and velocity (from 4.3 to 5.3 km/s) is not due solely to proper motion of the features. The other origin of the drift is a drift of the emission maximum during a flare as the shock consecutively excites spatially separated features in the structure in the form of a chain. The OH-line observations at 18 cm show that the emission remains unpolarized and thermal, with a line width of 0.7 km/s, which corresponds to a cloud temperature of ˜30 K.

  7. A 10 kpc SCALE SEYFERT GALAXY OUTFLOW: HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS F22456-5125

    SciTech Connect

    Borguet, Benoit C. J.; Edmonds, Doug; Arav, Nahum; Dunn, Jay; Kriss, Gerard A.

    2012-06-01

    We present analysis of the UV spectrum of the low-z AGN IRAS F22456-5125 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The spectrum reveals six main kinematic components, spanning a range of velocities of up to 800 km s{sup -1}, which for the first time are observed in troughs associated with C II, C IV, N V, Si II, Si III, Si IV, and S IV. We also obtain data on the O VI troughs, which we compare to those available from an earlier Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer epoch. Column densities measured from these ions allow us to derive a well-constrained photoionization solution for each outflow component. Two of these kinematic components show troughs associated with transitions from excited states of Si II and C II. The number density inferred from these troughs, in combination with the deduced ionization parameter, allows us to determine the distance to these outflow components from the central source. We find these components to be at a distance of {approx}10 kpc. The distances and the number densities derived are consistent with the outflow being part of a galactic wind.

  8. Dynamics of backlight luminance for using smartphone in dark environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Nooree; Jang, Jiho; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-02-01

    This study developed dynamic backlight luminance, which gradually changes as time passes for comfortable use of a smartphone display in a dark environment. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a user test was conducted to identify the optimal luminance by assessing the facial squint level, subjective glare evaluation, eye blink frequency and users' subjective preferences. Based on the results of the user test, the dynamics of backlight luminance was designed. It has two levels of luminance: the optimal level for initial viewing to avoid sudden glare or fatigue to users' eyes, and the optimal level for constant viewing, which is comfortable, but also bright enough for constant reading of the displayed material. The luminance for initial viewing starts from 10 cd/m2, and it gradually increases to 40 cd/m2 for users' visual comfort at constant viewing for 20 seconds; In the second stage, a validation test on dynamics of backlight luminance was conducted to verify the effectiveness of the developed dynamics. It involving users' subjective preferences, eye blink frequency, and brainwave analysis using the electroencephalogram (EEG) to confirm that the proposed dynamic backlighting enhances users' visual comfort and visual cognition, particularly for using smartphones in a dark environment.

  9. Induced contrast asynchronies may be useful for luminance photometry.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Arthur G; D'Antona, Anthony; Smith, Jared B; Belano, Lindsay A; Charles, Justin P

    2004-01-01

    Shapiro et al. (2004) introduced a new visual effect (the induced contrast asynchrony) that demonstrates a perceptual separation between the response to a modulated light and the response to contrast of the light relative to background. The effect is composed of two physically identical disks, one surrounded by a dark annulus and the other by a light annulus. The luminance levels of both central disks were modulated in time, producing a stimulus with in-phase luminance modulation and antiphase contrast modulation. Observers primarily perceived the disks to be modulating asynchronously (i.e. they perceived the contrast), but at low temporal frequencies could also track the luminance level. Here we document that the induced contrast asynchrony disappears when the surrounds are achromatic and the center lights are modulated near the equiluminant axis. Observers viewed 1-deg-diameter disks embedded 2-deg-diameter achromatic surrounds. The chromaticity of the disks was modulated in time (1 Hz) along lines in an S versus Luminance cardinal color plane and an L-M versus Luminance cardinal color plane; observers responded as to whether the modulation appeared in phase. For all observers and both color planes, the lights appeared in phase most frequently at angles near the standard observer's equiluminant line and out of phase at angles further away from that line. Observers differed in the range of angles that produce the appearance of in-phase modulation. The results suggest that induced contrast asynchronies may be useful as a technique for equating luminance of disparate lights.

  10. Link-specific adaptation in the luminance and chromatic channels.

    PubMed

    Ahn, S J; MacLeod, D I

    1993-11-01

    We present evidence that adaptation occurs in the separate links that connect the receptors to the luminance and the chromatic channels. The relative effectiveness of the L and M cone inputs to the luminance and red/green chromatic channels was determined by using, respectively, heterochromatic flicker photometry and a cancellation technique which maintained a pure yellow. The findings provide evidence for a link-specific adaptation model, wherein one receptor system provides two separate links to the luminance and chromatic channels and the outputs of an individual cone to these two postreceptoral channels can be separately attenuated or weighted at each of these links by colored adapting lights. One line of evidence for link-specific adaptation is that colored adapting fields selectively suppress L and M cone inputs to the red/green chromatic channel by a smaller factor than the luminance channel. A second line of evidence is that there is not only a magnitude difference but also a dynamic difference between adaptive processes operating in the luminance and chromatic channels: the luminance channel has a faster gain change and recovery from adaptation than does the chromatic channel. The results, together with other evidence, make it plausible that an important component of light adaptation in cone vision occurs at the cone-bipolar synapse.

  11. Evidence for color and luminance invariance of global form mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rentzeperis, Ilias; Kiper, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    Human visual cortex contains mechanisms that pool local orientation information over large areas of visual space to support percepts of global form. Initial studies concluded that some of these mechanisms are cue invariant, in that they yield form percepts irrespective of whether the visual signals contain luminance or chromatic information. Later studies reported that these mechanisms are chromatically selective, albeit with a broad tuning in color space. We used Glass patterns and the phenomenon of adaptation to determine whether Glass pattern perception is mediated by mechanisms that are color and/or luminance selective, or not. Subjects were adapted to either a radial or concentric Glass pattern of a given color or luminance polarity. We measured the effect of adaptation on subsequent detection of Glass patterns with the same or different visual attributes. Our results show that adapting to a concentric or radial pattern significantly elevates threshold for the subsequent detection of patterns of the same form, irrespective of their color or luminance polarity, but that adaptation to luminance leads to higher threshold elevations than adaptation to color. We conclude that Glass pattern perception is mediated by perceptual mechanisms that are color invariant but not totally insensitive to the difference between color and luminance information.

  12. Starburst or AGN dominance in submm-luminous candidate AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Alexander, Dave; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Chapman, Scott; Clements, Dave; Dunlop, James; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Hughes, David; Ivison, Rob; Kim, Sungeun; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mat; Pope, Alexandra; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Scott, Douglas; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Vaccari, Mattia; van Kampen, Eelco

    2008-03-01

    It is widely believed that starbursts/ULIRGs and AGN activity are triggered by galaxy interactions and merging; and sub-mm selected galaxies (SMGs) seem to be simply high redshift ULIRGs, observed near the peak of activity. In this evolutionary picture every SMG would host an AGN, which would eventually grow a black hole strong enough to blow off all of the gas and dust leaving an optically luminous QSO. In order to probe this evolutionary sequence, a crucial sub-sample to focus on would be the 'missing link' sources, which demonstrate both strong starburst and AGN signatures and to determine if the starburst is the main power source even in SMGs when we have evidence that an AGN is present. The best way to determine if a dominant AGN is present is to look in the mid-IR for their signatures, since often even deep X-ray observations miss identifying the presence of AGN in heavily dust-obscured SMGs. We have selected a sample of SMGs which are good candidates for harboring powerful AGN on the basis of their IRAC colours (S8um/S4.5um>2). Once we confirm these SMGs are AGN-dominated, we can then perform an audit of the energy balance between star-formation and AGN within this special sub-population of SMGs where the BH has grown appreciably to begin heating the dust emission. The proposed observations with IRS will probe the physics of how SMGs evolve from a cold-dust starburst-dominated ULIRG to an AGN/QSO by measuring the level of the mid-IR continuum, PAH luminosity, and Si absorption in these intermediate `transitory' AGN/SMGs.

  13. Star-forming Activity in the H II Regions Associated with the IRAS 17160–3707 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandakumar, G.; Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity toward the southern H ii regions associated with IRAS 17160–3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 8.3 × 105 L ⊙. The ionized gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths. The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission. At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties such as temperature: 24–30 K, mass: 300–4800 M ⊙ and luminosity: 9–317 × 102 L ⊙ using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 70 and 870 μm. We find 24 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared, with a few of them coincident with the compact radio sources. The SEDs of the YSOs have been fitted by the Robitaille models and the results indicate that those having radio compact sources as counterparts host massive objects in early evolutionary stages with best fit age ≤0.2 Myr. We compare the relative evolutionary stages of clumps using various signposts such as masers, ionized gas, presence of YSOs and infrared nebulosity, and find six massive star-forming clumps and one quiescent clump. Of the former, five are in a relatively advanced stage and one in an earlier stage.

  14. Luminal perfusion of isolated gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, S J; Geibel, J; Boron, W F; Modlin, I M

    1994-04-01

    We have extended to rabbit gastric glands the technique for perfusing single isolated renal tubules. We isolated glands by hand dissection and used concentric glass pipettes to hold them and perfuse their lumina. Parietal cells (PCs), which tended to be located toward the gland opening, were identified by their pyramidal shape, large size, and autofluorescence. Chief cells (CCs) were identified by their round shape and smaller size. In some experiments, we perfused the lumen with hydroxypyrenetrisulfonate, a pH-sensitive fluorophore, at pH 7.4 and used digital image processing to monitor luminal pH (pH1). Solutions were buffered with N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid to pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C. With fast perfusion, we found no evidence of decreased pH1, even with stimulation by 10 microM carbachol. With slow perfusion, pH1 often fell below the dye's sensitive range (pH < 5), especially at low perfusate buffering power. In other experiments, we loaded cells with the pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and monitored intracellular pH (pHi) in multiple individual PCs and CCs in a single gland. Mean pHi was 7.21 +/- 0.02 (n = 136 cells) for PCs and 7.27 +/- 0.03 (n = 103) for CCs. To examine the response to decreased pH1 and basolateral pH (pHb), we lowered pHb to 6.4 or lowered pH1 to 3.4 or 1.4. Lowering pHb to 6.4 for approximately 1 min caused pHi to fall reversibly by 0.39 +/- 0.05 (n = 53) in PCs and 0.58 +/- 0.03 (n = 50) in CCs. Lowering pH1 to 3.4 or 1.4 caused no significant pHi changes in PCs (n = 38 and 82) or in CCs (n = 44 and 77). Carbachol did not affect the response to changes in pH1 or pHb. We conclude that the apical surfaces of PCs and CCs are unusually resistant to extreme pH gradients.

  15. Evaluation of the Legibility for Characters Composed of Multiple Point Sources in Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Yuki; Toyofuku, Yoshinori; Aoki, Yoshiro

    The luminance conditions were investigated, at that the characters composed of multiple point sources were as legible as a character having a uniformly luminous surface in fog, in order to make the use of variable-message signs practical at airports. As the results, it was found that the thicker the fog or the higher the illuminance, the better the legibility of the point source characters become compared with the uniformly luminous surface characters. It is supposed that the ease of extracting each individual point source makes the characters composed of multiple point sources more legible even if their luminance is low. So the results show that if the conventional luminance standard is applied to the average luminance of a character composed of multiple point sources, a character composed of multiple point sources could be recognized without any degradation in legibility.

  16. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims: While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high mass protostars, very little exists on low mass protostars, which are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out a complete spectral survey of the bands at 3, 2, 1, and 0.9 mm towards the solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: The observations covered a range of about 200 GHz and were obtained with the IRAM-30 m and JCMT-15 m telescopes during about 300 h of observations. Particular attention was devoted to the inter-calibration of the acquired spectra with previous observations. All the lines detected with more than 3σ confidence-interval certainty and free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Results: More than 4000 lines were detected (with σ ≥ 3) and identified, yielding a line density of approximatively 20 lines per GHz, comparable to previous surveys in massive hot cores. The vast majority (about two-thirds) of the lines are weak and produced by complex organic molecules. The analysis of the profiles of more than 1000 lines belonging to 70 species firmly establishes the presence of two distinct velocity components associated with the two objects, A and B, forming the IRAS 16293-2422 binary system. In the source A, the line widths of several species increase with the upper level energy of the transition, a behavior compatible with gas infalling towards a ~1 M⊙ object. The source B, which does not show this effect, might have a much lower central mass of ~0.1 M⊙. The difference in the rest velocities

  17. Study of lumineers' interfaces by means of optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade Borges, Erica; Fernandes Cassimiro-Silva, Patrícia; Osório Fernandes, Luana; Leônidas Gomes, Anderson Stevens

    2015-06-01

    OCT has been used to evaluate dental materials, and is employed here to evaluate lumineers for the first time. Lumineers are used as esthetical indirect restoration, and after wearing and aging, several undesirable features such as gaps, bubbles and mismatch can appear in which would only be seen by invasive analysis. The OCT (spectral domain SD-OCT, 930nm central wavelength) was used to evaluate noninvasively the lumineer- cement-tooth interface. We analyzed 20 specimens of lumineers-teeth that were prepared in bovine teeth and randomly allocated in 4 experimental groups (n=5) with two different cementation techniques and two different types of cementing agent (RelyX U200 and RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE, with the adhesive recommended by the manufacture). The lumineers were made of lithium disilicate and obtained using a vacuum injection technique. The analysis was performed by using 2D and 3D OCT images, obtained before and after cementing and the thermal cycling process to simulate thermal stress in a oral cavity. Initial measurements showed that the SD-OCT was able to see through the 500μm thick lumineer, as delivered by the fabricant, and internal stress was observed. Failures were found in the cementing process and also after ageing simulation by thermal cycling. The adhesive failures as bubbles, gaps and degradation of the cementation line are the natural precursors of other defects reported by several studies of clinical follow-up (detachments, fractures and cracks). Bubble dimensions ranging from 146 μm to 1427 μm were measured and the OCT was validated as an investigative and precise tool for evaluation of the lumineer-cement-tooth.

  18. Contour interaction for foveal acuity targets at different luminances.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Harold E; Siderov, John; Waugh, Sarah J; Zemanová, Romana; Pluháček, František; Musilová, Lenka

    2013-08-30

    Single-letter visual acuity is impaired by nearby flanking stimuli, a phenomenon known as contour interaction. We showed previously that when foveal acuity is degraded by a reduction of letter contrast, both the magnitude and angular spatial extent of foveal contour interaction remain unchanged. In this study, we asked whether contour interaction also remains unchanged when foveal visual acuity is degraded by a reduction of the target's background luminance. Percent correct letter identification was measured for isolated, near-threshold black Sloan letters and for letters surrounded by 4 flanking bars in 10 normal observers, 5 at Anglia Ruskin University, UK (ARU) and 5 at Palacky University, Czech Republic (PU). A stepwise reduction in the background luminance over 3 log units resulted in an approximately threefold increase in the near-threshold letter size. At each background luminance, black flanking bars with a width equal to 1 letter stroke were presented at separations between approximately 0.45 and 4.5 min arc (ARU) or 0.32 and 3.2 min arc (PU). The results indicate that the angular extent of contour interaction remains unchanged at approximately 4 min arc at all background luminances. On the other hand, the magnitude of contour interaction decreases systematically as luminance is reduced, from approximately a 50% reduction to a 30% reduction in percent correct. The constant angular extent and decreasing magnitude of contour interaction with a reduction of background luminance suggest foveal contour interaction is mediated by luminance-dependent lateral inhibition within a fixed angular region.

  19. Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Graham, Daniel; Schwarz, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan; Leder, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    Natural scene luminance distributions typically have positive skew, and for single objects, there is evidence that higher skew is a correlate (but not a guarantee) of glossiness. Skewness is also relevant to aesthetics: preference for glossy single objects (with high skew) has been shown even in infants, and skewness is a good predictor of fruit freshness. Given that primate vision appears to efficiently encode natural scene luminance variation, and given evidence that natural scene regularities may be a prerequisite for aesthetic perception in the spatial domain, here we ask whether humans in general prefer natural scenes with more positively skewed luminance distributions. If humans generally prefer images with the higher-order regularities typical of natural scenes and/or shiny objects, we would expect this to be the case. By manipulating luminance distribution skewness (holding mean and variance constant) for individual natural images, we show that in fact preference varies inversely with increasing positive skewness. This finding holds for: artistic landscape images and calibrated natural scenes; scenes with and without glossy surfaces; landscape scenes and close-up objects; and noise images with natural luminance histograms. Across conditions, humans prefer images with skew near zero over higher skew images, and they prefer skew lower than that of the unmodified scenes. These results suggest that humans prefer images with luminances that are distributed relatively evenly about the mean luminance, i.e., images with similar amounts of light and dark. We propose that our results reflect an efficient processing advantage of low-skew images over high-skew images, following evidence from prior brain imaging results.

  20. ALMA Investigation of Vibrationally Excited HCN/HCO+/HNC Emission Lines in the AGN-Hosting Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 20551-4250

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Izumi, Takuma

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551-4250 at HCN/HCO+/HNC J = 3-2 lines at both vibrational ground (v = 0) and vibrationally excited (v 2 = 1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v 2 = 1f J = 4-3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO+/HNC J = 3-2 emission lines at v = 0 are clearly detected. The HCN and HNC v 2 = 1f J = 3-2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO+ v 2 = 1f J = 3-2 emission line is not. Given the high energy level of v 2 = 1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5-35 μm spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO+ and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation temperature between v 2 = 1f and v = 0, after correction for possible line opacity, suggests that infrared radiative pumping affects rotational (J-level) excitation at v = 0 at least for HCN and HNC. The HCN-to-HCO+ v = 0 flux ratio is higher than those of starburst-dominated regions, and will increase even more when the derived high HCN opacity is corrected. The enhanced HCN-to-HCO+ flux ratio in this AGN-hosting galaxy can be explained by the high HCN-to-HCO+ abundance ratio and sufficient HCN excitation at up to J = 4, rather than the significantly higher efficiency of infrared radiative pumping for HCN than HCO+.