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Sample records for luminous iras source

  1. Optical counterparts of unidentified IRAS point sources Infrared luminous galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaronson, M.; Olszewski, E. W.

    1984-05-01

    The results of a survey of deep, near-red pointlike objects using mainly the IRAS CCD array focused on sources emitting in the 60 micron region are reported. Data were gathered on 0358 + 223, 0404 + 101, 0412 + 085, 0413 + 122, 0422 + 009 and 0425 + 012. Photometric data of these and other objects are provided in terms of R - I colors. Spectra were obtained for 0422 + 009 and 0425 + 012. The IRAS data indicated that the sources are high intensity IR galaxies. The intense emissions may arise from star formation bursts or an embedded active Seyfert nucleus. Further spectroscopic and radio observations are required to characterize the sources of the IR emissions more accurately.

  2. HST Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, P. R.; Armus, L.; Hogg, D. W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data taken of the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 suggest that the object has been gravitationally lensed by a galaxy in the foreground and that this lensing may be magnifying the apparent brightness by roughly 100 times.

  3. Radio observations of nearby moderately luminous IRAS galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongsheng; Su, Bumei

    1999-05-01

    Six nearby moderately luminous IRAS galaxies have been observed at two wavelength by using the Australian AT. Among them, radio emissions have been detected for two galaxies, i.e. IRAS 20272-4738 and IRAS 23156-4238, and their radio parameters, like radio fluxes, peak positions, source sizes and spectral indices, are obtained. The radio sources are confirmed with infrared, radio and optical observations. Some characteristics of the radio emissions of these galaxies are discussed with previous observational data.

  4. Radio observations of nearby moderately luminous IRAS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-sheng; Su, Bu-mei

    Six nearby moderately luminous IRAS galaxies have been observed at two wavelengths with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Radio emission was detected in two of them, IRAS 20272-4738 and IRAS 23156-4238, and their parameters including flux, peak position, size and spectral index, obtained. These sources were confirmed with infrared, radio and optical data. Combining with previous results we discuss their emission characteristics.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Armus, Lee; Hogg, David W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    With a redshift of 2.3, the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 is apparently one of the most luminous objects known in the universe. We present an image of FSC 10214+4724 at 0.8 pm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 Planetary Camera. The source appears as an unresolved (less then 0.06) arc 0.7 long, with significant substructure along its length. The center of curvature of the arc is located near an elliptical galaxy 1.18 to the north. An unresolved component 100 times fainter than the arc is clearly detected on the opposite side of this galaxy. The most straightforward interpretation is that FSC 10214+4724 is gravitationally lensed by the foreground elliptical galaxy, with the faint component a counter-image of the IRAS source. The brightness of the arc in the HST image is then magnified by approx. 100, and the intrinsic source diameter is approx. 0.0l (80 pc) at 0.25 microns rest wavelength. The bolometric luminosity is probably amplified by a smaller factor (approx. 30) as a result of the larger extent expected for the source in the far-infrared. A detailed lensing model is presented that reproduces the observed morphology and relative flux of the arc and counterimage and correctly predicts the position angle of the lensing galaxy. The model also predicts reasonable values for the velocity dispersion, mass, and mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy for a wide range of galaxy redshifts. A redshift for the lensing galaxy of -0.9 is consistent with the measured surface brightness profile from the image, as well as with the galaxy's spectral energy distribution. The background lensed source has an intrinsic luminosity approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) L(solar mass) and remains a highly luminous quasar with an extremely large ratio of infrared to optical/ultraviolet luminosity.

  6. A search for precursors of ultracompact H II regions in a sample of luminous IRAS sources. III. Circumstellar dust properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, S.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Palla, F.

    2000-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope has been used to obtain submillimeter and millimeter continuum photometry of a sample of 30 IRAS sources previously studied in molecular lines and centimeter radio continuum. All the sources have IRAS colours typical of very young stellar objects (YSOs) and are associated with dense gas.

  7. HST Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC10214+4724: A gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, P. R.; Armus, L.; Hogg, D. W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    Observations of a distant object in space with the data being taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera. Scientific examination and hypothesis related to this object which appears to be either an extremely luminous dust embedded quasar, or a representative of a new class of astronomical objects (a primeval galaxy).

  8. Extragalactic OH megamasers in strong IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Dennefeld, H.; Gouguenheim, L.; Martin, J. M.; Paturel, G.; Lesqueren, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    From the OH and HI survey of the strongest far infrared IRAS sources, 3 new powerful OH megamasers were discovered in Arp 143, IRAS 1510+0724 and in the uncatalogued IRAS source, IRAS 17208-0014. The HI line, the OH 1667 and 1665 MHz main lines and the 21 cm continuum observations were made with Nancy radio telescope. The optical spectra and images were obtained at the European Southern Observatory. The spectra are displayed in figures together with the main IR and OH properties of the 8 megamasers detected up to now, including IC 4553, NGC 3690 and Mrk 231, Mrk 273 and III ZW35.

  9. IUE and IRAS observations of luminous M stars with varying gas-to dust ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, W.; Carpenter, K. G.; Stencel, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Circumstellar gas and dust surrounding M giants and supergiants show luminous M stars to split into two distinct classes. Stars with a high gas to dust ratio all show chromospheric Ca II, H, and K emission. Stars with a high dust to gas ratio do not show chromospheric Ca II emission but are the only ones to show Balmer emission indicative of atmospheric shocks and are also the only ones to show maser emission. In order to determine whether all chromospheric indicators disappear in high dust to gas ratio stars, a survey of stars in both these classes was conducted with the IUE satellite. Long wavelength infrared fluxes for the program stars were obtained from the IRAS point source catalog. There is no obvious difference in the long wavelength observations between the two groups of stars. The long wavelength excess tends to follow the 10 micron excess and not the dust to gas ratio.

  10. Extreme optical Fe II emission in luminous IRAS active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipari, Sebastian; Terlevich, Roberto; Macchetto, F.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a program of studies and observations of strong optical Fe II emission in luminous and ultraluminous IRAS AGN are presented. New spectroscopic observations and studies of three known ultraluminous IRAS AGN with extreme optical Fe II emission, the discovery that PHL 1092 is a new ultraluminous IRAS AGN, and the detection of two new AGN with strongly variable flux in the optical Fe II emission lines are reported. These results are used to test the correlations between the Fe II emission and properties at other wavelengths such as the L(IR) and the radio emission. IR AGN with extreme Fe II emission are found to belong to a very important group of AGN, whose properties provide insight into the origin of the extreme Fe II emission and into the relation between the starburst and AGN phenomena.

  11. The Seyfert II Nature of the IRAS Source FSC10214+4724

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, P.; Elston, R.; McCarthy, P.; Dickinson, M.; Spinrad, H.; Jannuzi, B.; Maloney, P.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed the rest-frame optical and UV spectra of the luminous, high redshift IRAS source FSC10214+4724. We find the optical emission lines to be characterized by ratios similar to those found in Seyfert II galaxies.

  12. Systematic identification of IRAS point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, A.; Clowes, R. G.; Macgillivray, H. T.; Wolstencroft, R. D.; Leggett, S. K.; Puxley, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    A large scale program was initiated to identify IRAS point sources. At ROE the ideal facilities are at hand to undertake such a large program, viz. the rapid scanning capabilities of the COSMOS measuring machine to exploit the depth and resolution of the U.K. Schmidt Telescope J survey plates. Sources in 44 Schmidt plate areas were identified including 1300 sources and covering 1100 square degrees. The identification comprise 700 galaxy identifications and 600 stellar identifications. There are also about 40 sources with no obvious identification but which can be most easily explained by cirrus, confusion between two sources or sources just outside the 2 sigma error box. A major aim with the galaxy identification is to provide a data base from which sound statistical analyses can be made. Accurate blue magnitudes and morphological classifications for each identification were produced.

  13. Radio properties of extragalactic IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, J. J.; Broderick, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The present study identifies extragalactic sources from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog by position coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy and lying north of +5 deg on the Green Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Published VLA maps, new 4.86 GHz VLA maps made with 15-arcsec resolution, and accurate optical positions are used to confirm 122 of these candidate identifications. Normal and starburst spiral galaxies were found to comprise about 97 percent of the FIR flux-limited sample. Radio-loud 'monsters' with q less than 2.25 dominate the radio emission from about 2 percent of the FIR source sample, and radio-quiet monsters are responsible for the FIR emission from less than about 1 percent of the FIR sample. All of the radio-identified sources are optically identified, mostly with relatively bright nearby galaxies. No evidence was found for any new populations of high-redshift FIR sources, nonthermal sources with steep FIR/optical spectra, or dust-shrouded sources visible only at FIR and radio wavelengths.

  14. Chandra X-ray observations of the hyper-luminous infrared galaxy IRAS F15307+3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Gandhi, P.; Hogan, M. T.; Gendron-Marsolais, M.-L.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Iwasawa, K.; Mezcua, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (HyLIRGs) lie at the extreme luminosity end of the IR galaxy population with LIR > 1013 L⊙. They are thought to be closer counterparts of the more distant sub-millimeter galaxies, and should therefore be optimal targets to study the most massive systems in formation. We present deep Chandra observations of IRAS F15307+3252 (100 ks), a classical HyLIRG located at z = 0.93 and hosting a radio-loud AGN (L1.4 GHz ˜ 3.5 × 1025 W Hz-1). The Chandra images reveal the presence of extended (r = 160 kpc), asymmetric X-ray emission in the soft 0.3-2.0 keV band that has no radio counterpart. We therefore argue that the emission is of thermal origin originating from a hot intragroup or intracluster medium virializing in the potential. We find that the temperature (˜2 keV) and bolometric X-ray luminosity (˜3 × 1043 erg s-1) of the gas follow the expected LX-ray-T correlation for groups and clusters, and that the gas has a remarkably short cooling time of 1.2 Gyr. In addition, VLA radio observations reveal that the galaxy hosts an unresolved compact steep-spectrum (CSS) source, most likely indicating the presence of a young radio source similar to 3C186. We also confirm that the nucleus is dominated by a redshifted 6.4 keV Fe Kα line, strongly suggesting that the AGN is Compton-thick. Finally, Hubble images reveal an overdensity of galaxies and sub-structure in the galaxy that correlates with soft X-ray emission. This could be a snapshot view of on-going groupings expected in a growing cluster environment. IRAS F15307+3252 might therefore be a rare example of a group in the process of transforming into a cluster.

  15. New LRS spectra for 356 bright IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Cohen, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The low-resolution spectra of all IRAS point sources with F(nu) (12 microns) greater than 40 Jy that were not included in the Atlas of Low-Resolution Spectra are presented. These have been classified into eight groups based upon the spectral morphology. Silicate emission spectra and red-continuum spectra associated with H II region sources form about 60 percent of this sample. All types of spectra in the LRS Atlas are represented in the sample except for emission-line sources. The sample is used to test a recent classification scheme for IRAS sources based on broadband colors. The spectra is used to test a recent classification scheme for IRAS sources based on broadband colors. The spectra are consistent with the classifications from the colors in most cases.

  16. IGRINS Spectroscopy of Class I Sources: IRAS 03445+3242 and IRAS 04239+2436

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seokho; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kidder, Benjamin; Mace, Gregory N.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-08-01

    We have detected molecular and atomic line emission from the hot and warm disks of two Class I sources, IRAS 03445+3242 and IRAS 04239+2436, using the high-resolution Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS). CO overtone band transitions and near-IR lines of Na i and Ca i, all in emission, trace the hot inner disk, while CO rovibrational absorption spectra of the first overtone transition trace the warm gas within the inner few AU of the disk. The emission-line profiles for both sources show evidence for Keplerian disks. A thin Keplerian disk with power-law temperature and column density profiles with a projected rotational velocity of ˜60-75 km s-1 and a gas temperature of ˜3500 K at the innermost annulus can reproduce the CO overtone band emission. Na i and Ca i emission lines also arise from this disk, but they show complicated line features possibly affected by photospheric absorption lines. Multi-epoch observations show asymmetric variations of the line profiles on one-year (CO overtone bandhead and atomic lines for IRAS 03445+3242) or on one-day (atomic lines for IRAS 04239+2436) timescales, implying non-axisymmetric features in disks. The narrow CO rovibrational absorption spectra (v = 0 \\to 2) indicate that both warm (>150 K) and cold (˜20-30 K) CO gas are present along the line of sight to the inner disk. This study demonstrates the power of IGRINS as a tool for studies of the sub-AU-scale hot and AU-scale warm protoplanetary disks with its simultaneous coverage of the full H and K bands with high spectral resolution (R = 45,000) allowing many aspects of the sources to be investigated at once.

  17. Luminous Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, Rosanne; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This grant was for the study of Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources (SSSs). During the first year a number of projects were completed and new projects were started. The projects include: 1) Time variability of SSSs 2) SSSs in M31; 3) Binary evolution scenarios; and 4) Acquiring new data.

  18. The brightest high-latitude 12-micron IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, P.; Beichman, C.; Chester, T.; Neugebauer, G.; Emerson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source catalog was searched for sources brighter than 28 Jy (0 mag) at 12 microns with absolute galactic latitude greater than 30 deg excluding the Large Magellanic Cloud. The search resulted in 269 sources, two of which are the galaxies NGC 1068 and M82. The remaining 267 sources are identified with, or have infrared color indices consistent with late-type stars some of which show evidence of circumstellar dust shells. Seven sources are previously uncataloged stars. K and M stars without circumstellar dust shells, M stars with circumstellar dust shells, and carbon stars occupy well-defined regions of infrared color-color diagrams.

  19. On the possible bipolar nature of 21 micron IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Kwok, S.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of another IRAS source (22574 + 6609) showing the unidentified 21-micron emission feature is reported. Its overall energy distribution is similar to the well-known edge-on bipolar nebulae AFGL 2688 and AFGL 618. Ground-based optical and infrared observations of this object and two other 21-micron sources show that while all three have very similar infrared properties, they differ greatly in the visual region. All three of these 21-micron sources are intrinsically similar bipolar nebulae, viewed at different orientations.

  20. Near-infrared observations of the z about 2.3 IRAS source FSC 10214 + 4724

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Graham, J. R.; Matthews, K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Lawrence, A.; Mcmahon, R.

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the extremely luminous IRAS source FSC 10214 + 4724 have been obtained using the Cassegrain infrared camera on the 200-inch Hale Telescope. A low-resolution spectrum in the 2.0-2.4 micron atmospheric window shows a very strong H-alpha line at the optically determined redshift z = 2.286. The observed rest-frame equivalent width of H-alpha is 0.07 +/-0.02 microns, consistent with the largest values found in quasars. The images show an unresolved source, while the near-infrared colors are somewhat redder than the mean colors of quasars observed at the same redshift. The reddening inferred is about 1.5 mag, with an upper limit of about 3.0 mag. If FSC 10214 + 4724 is a quasar, the reddening-corrected bolometric luminosity is approximately equal to the observed infrared luminosity.

  1. Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Stawarz, Lukasz; Moderski, Rafal; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broad-band spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy ({gamma}-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars have also typically very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line-region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors production of {gamma}-rays via up-scattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical and {gamma}-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intra-day flares occasionally observed in powerful blazars sources.

  2. New low-resolution spectrometer spectra for IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun; Stencel, R. E.; Brugel, E.

    1991-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra of 486 IRAS point sources with F sub nu(12 microns) in the range 20-40 Jy are presented. This is part of an effort to extract and classify spectra that were not included in the Atlas of Low-Resolution Spectra and represents an extension of the earlier work by Volk and Cohen which covers sources with F sub nu(12 microns) greater than 40 Jy. The spectra have been examined by eye and classified into nine groups based on the spectral morphology. This new classification scheme is compared with the mechanical classification of the Atlas, and the differences are noted. Oxygen-rich stars of the asymptotic giant branch make up 33 percent of the sample. Solid state features dominate the spectra of most sources. It is found that the nature of the sources as implied by the present spectral classification is consistent with the classifications based on broad-band colors of the sources.

  3. Compact radio sources in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Rodrigo

    2007-08-01

    Radio interferometry is an observational technique of high sensitivity and incomparably high spatial resolution. Moreover, because radio waves can freely propagate through interstellar dust and gas, it allows the study of regions of the universe completely obscured at other wavelengths. This thesis reports the observational and theoretical results of my research during the past four years which are mostly based on interferometric radio data. The COLA sample is an infrared selected sample of active star forming galaxies. We conducted 6 cm VLA and VLBI snapshot observations of the northern half of this sample. The radio emission seen at VLA scales is consistent with being powered by star formation activity because it follows the far infrared to radio correlation. We detect 22% of the sample sources in our VLBI snapshots. Based on luminosity arguments, we argue that these sub-parsec VLBI sources are powered by AGN activity. Furthermore, we find that VLBI detections are preferentially found in sources whose VLA scale structures have the highest peak brightnesses suggesting a strong correlation between compact starburst and AGN activity. This observational result is consistent with the theoretical picture of an Eddington-limited nuclear starburst acting as the last valve in the pipeline transporting the gas from kiloparsec scales onto the accretion disc of a buried AGN. Arp 220 is the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy. For many years this source has been known to harbour a compact (~100 pc) cluster of unresolved 18 cm bright sources believed to be bright core collapse supernovae. Using multiwavelength VLBI observations, we obtained for the first time radio spectra for 18 of these sources. We find that over a half of them have spectra consistent with young supernovae. The rest can be better explained as older supernova remnants interacting with the high density starburst ISM. This finding allowed us to constrain the number of possible scenarios for the Arp 220

  4. Luminous Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); DiStefano, Rosanne

    2003-01-01

    We have made remarkable progress in the study of luminous supersoft X-ray sources during the past year. We have begun to discover a population of ultraluminous SSSs (e.g., in NGC 300 [Kong & Di Stefano 20031 as well as in Ml0l [Di Stefano & Kong 2003]), which may be accreting intermediate-mass (50-100 solar mass) black holes. This work follows from an algorithm we have developed (Di Stefano & Kong 2003) to identify SSSs in external galaxies, selecting them from among each galaxy s total population of X-ray sources. We have applied the algorithm to approximately one dozen galaxies and will make it public after it has been published in its entirety. Through our own application of the algorithm, we have discovered SSSs in every galaxy, mapping their spatial distribution, to obtain important clues to their fundamental natures. We have discovered that there is a large population of X-ray sources which are slightly hotter (100-250 eV) than standard SSSs. Some of these may be accreting BHs with masses between roughly 50 anf 100 solar masses. To explore this possibility, we are working on theoretical models for the formation and evolution of such systems (Di Stefano 2003).

  5. Luminous Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); DiStefano, Roseanne

    2005-01-01

    One of the key accomplishments of the two preceding years was our development of an algorithm to select SSSs in external galaxies which have been observed by Chandra or XMM-Newton. By applying this algorithm to data from a number of galaxies, we discovered an extension of the class of SSSs to sources that are somewhat harder (100 - 300 eV, instead of tens of eV), but which are nevertheless much softer than canonical X-ray sources. We call these new sources quasisoft sources (QSSs). During this past year, we have built on and extended this work. We have (1) continued to identify SSSs and QSSs in external galaxies, (2) worked on models for the sources and find that black hole models seem promising for a subset of them, and (3) have studied individual systems, especially M101-ULX1. This special system has been observed as an SSS in its high &ate, with a luminosity in excess of 10(exp 41) erg/s. It has also been observed as a QSS when it is less luminous, and as a hard source in its low state. It is one of the best candidates to be an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. We have several papers in preparation. Below we list papers which are complete, including only new work and papers whose status has changed (e.g., been accepted for publication) since our last report. In addition, our work on QSSs has received some publicity. It was the subject of a Chandra press release and was picked up by several media outlets.

  6. Search for Compact Stellar Groups in the Vicinity of Iras Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatyan, N. M.; Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Khachatryan, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    The results of a search for compact clusters in the vicinity of 19 IRAS sources based on data from the GPS UKIDSS and Spitzer GLIMPSE surveys are presented. Overall, clusters have been identified in 15 regions. Clusters are identified for the first time in 4 regions (IRAS 18151-1208, IRAS 18316-0602, 18517+0437, 19110+1045). In 5 regions (IRAS 05168+3634, 05358+3543, IRAS 18507+0121, IRAS 20188+3928, IRAS 20198+3716) the compact groups we have identified are substructures within more extended clusters. The radii of the identified groups and the surface star density are widely scattered with ranges of 0.3-2.7 pc and 4-1360 stars/pc2, respectively. In 11 of the clusters, the IRAS sources are associated with a pair or even a group of YSOs. The groups identified in the NIR range include representatives of a later II evolutionary class among the stellar objects associated with the IRAS sources.

  7. The infrared emission bands. III. Southern IRAS sources.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Tielens, A G; Bregman, J; Witteborn, F C; Rank, D M; Allamandola, L J; Wooden, D H; de Muizon, M

    1989-06-01

    We present airborne 5-8 micrometers spectra of southern IRAS sources which reveal strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. The good correlation between the bands, in particular the dominant 6.2 and "7.7" micrometers features, strongly imply a common carrier, reinforcing the PAH hypothesis. However, small but detectable spectral variations exist. Planetaries have a distinctly different ratio of I(6.2)/I(7.7) than other nebulae, accompanied by a redward shift in the actual wavelength of the "7.7" micrometers peak. Further, we have detected a new feature, previously predicted from laboratory spectra of PAH molecules, at 5.2 micrometers in many of these sources. Spectra of two rare [WC 10] planetary nebular nuclei indicate a very prominent plateau of emission, linking the 6.2 and 7.7 micrometers bands. Several of our sources show definite evidence for emission structure between 14 and 23 micrometers in their IRAS Low-Resolution Spectral Atlas spectra: we attribute this structure to PAH bands. too. We have defined the "generic" spectrum of emission bands relating the mean intensities of each band to that of the strongest, near 7.7 micrometers. We have added three more planetary or protoplanetary nebulae to our correlation between 7.7 micrometers band intensity and nebular gas phase C/O ratio, namely NGC 6302, HR 4049, and the highly carbon-rich [WC 10] nucleus, CPD--56 degrees 8032. For the latter we have determined a ratio for C/O of approximately 4.8 from IUE observations. The good correlation between the intensity ratio of the "7.7" micrometers feature relative to the far-infrared dust continuum and nebular C/O also supports a carbonaceous carrier for these emission features.

  8. Discovery of luminous star formation in PMN 1452-5910/IRAS 14482-5857: The Pterodactyl nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D. I.

    2015-02-01

    We present sensitive 1–3 GHz ATCA radio continuum observations of the hitherto unresolved star-forming region known as either IRAS 14482-5857 or PMN 1452-5910. At radio continuum frequencies, this source is characterized by a “filled bubble” structure reminiscent of a classical Hii region, dominated by three point sources and surrounded by low surface brightness emission out to the ∼3{sup ′}×4{sup ′} source extent observed at other frequencies in the literature. The infrared emission corresponds well to the radio emission, with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission surrounding regions of hot dust toward the radio bubbles. A bright 4.5 μm point source is seen toward the center of the radio source, suggesting a young stellar object. There is also a linear, outflowlike structure radiating brightly at 8 and 24 μm toward the brightest peak of the radio continuum. In order to estimate the distance to this source, we have used Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey {sup 12}CO (1–0) and {sup 13}CO(1–0) molecular line emission data. Integrated intensity, velocity at peak intensity, and line fitting of the spectra all point toward the peak centered at V {sub LSR} =−1.1 km s{sup −1} being connected to this cloud. This infers a distance to this cloud of ∼12.7 kpc. Assuming this distance, we estimate a column density and mass toward IRAS 14482-5857 of ∼1.5×10{sup 21} cm{sup −2} and 2 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙} , implying that this source is a site of massive star formation. Reinforcing this conclusion, our broadband spectral fitting infers dust temperatures of 19 and 110 K, emission measures for the sub-parsec radio point source of EM∼10{sup 6−7} pc cm{sup −6}, electron densities of n{sub e}∼10{sup 3} cm{sup −3}, and photon ionization rates of N{sub Ly}∼10{sup 46−48} s{sup −1}. The evidence strongly suggests that IRAS 14482-5857 is a distant—hence intense—site of massive star formation.

  9. First Results from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolstencroft, R. D.; Wehrle, A. E.; Levine, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the first result from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey (IIFGS), a program designed to obtain ISO observations of the most distant and luminous galaxies in the IRAS Faint Source Survey by filling short gaps in the ISO observing schedule with pairs of 12um ISOCAM AND 90um ISOPHOT observation.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ammonia on YSOs IRAS sources (Molinari+ 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, S.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Palla, F.

    1996-04-01

    We present observations of NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) lines flux-limited samples of IRAS sources selected according to colour criteria which should result in a high fraction of Young Stellar Objects. The first sample contains sources (named 'LOW') whose evolutionary status is essentially unknown, while the second sample contains sources (named 'HIGH') possibly associated with ultracompact HII regions, the distinction being based on the IRAS [25-12] colour. (2 data files).

  11. The topology of the IRAS Point Source Catalogue Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavezes, A.; Springel, V.; Oliver, S. J.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Keeble, O.; White, S. D. M.; Saunders, W.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.; McMahon, R. G.; Maddox, S.; Sutherland, W.; Tadros, H.

    1998-07-01

    We investigate the topology of the new Point Source Catalogue Redshift Survey (PSCz) of IRAS galaxies by means of the genus statistic. The survey maps the local Universe with approximately 15 000 galaxies over 84.1 per cent of the sky, and provides an unprecedented number of resolution elements for the topological analysis. For comparison with the PSCz data we also examine the genus of large N-body simulations of four variants of the cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony. The simulations are part of the Virgo project to simulate the formation of structure in the Universe. We assume that the statistical properties of the galaxy distribution can be identified with those of the dark matter particles in the simulations. We extend the standard genus analysis by examining the influence of sampling noise on the genus curve and introducing a statistic able to quantify the amount of phase correlation present in the density field, the amplitude drop of the genus compared to a Gaussian field with identical power spectrum. The results for PSCz are consistent with the hypothesis of random-phase initial conditions. In particular, no strong phase correlation is detected on scales ranging from 10 to 32 h^-1 Mpc, whereas there is a positive detection of phase correlation at smaller scales. Among the simulations, phase correlations are detected in all models at small scales, albeit with different strengths. When scaled to a common normalization, the amplitude drop depends primarily on the shape of the power spectrum. We find that the constant-bias standard CDM model can be ruled out at high significance, because the shape of its power spectrum is not consistent with PSCz. The other CDM models with more large-scale power all fit the PSCz data almost equally well, with a slight preference for a high-density tauCDM model.

  12. Infrared properties of molecular cirrus. I - Photometry of extended sources on IRAS image products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verter, Frances; Rickard, Lee J.

    1998-02-01

    We have conducted a survey of IRAS images of the high-latitude molecular cirrus clouds cataloged by Magnani et al. (1985). This paper reports the data reduction methods used in our survey and also studies the photometric accuracy that can be achieved for faint extended sources on IRAS image products. The principal topics covered are the modeling and removal of sky backgrounds at high Galactic latitude, and as a function of ecliptic latitude; the relative accuracy of different background models and methods of background removal; the integration of source flux on background-subtracted images; the proper definition of flux error bars, their calculation, and the minimum uncertainties set by the performance of the IRAS detectors; the creation of multiple-wavelength composite images; and the creation of temperature and opacity maps. We find that most error bars quoted for IRAS fluxes in the literature are incorrect. We conclude that the limiting surface brightness to which Sky Flux Plates may be used to study faint extended sources is approximately 0.05 MJy/sr. The photometric issues discussed herein are relevant to all IRAS image products, including Sky Flux Plates, co-added images, and the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA). We compare the accuracy of data reduction on different products and discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Luminous Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, Rosanne; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This has been a remarkably productive year. We have completed an algorithm to select SSSs in external galaxies which have been observed by Chandru or XMM-Newton. By applying this algorithm to new data, we have discovered an extension of the class of SSSs to sources that are somewhat harder (100 - 300 eV, instead of tens of eV), but which are nevertheless much softer than canonical X-ray sources. We have completed a study of SSSs in M31 and have also considered several other galaxies. From these studies, some population characteristics are beginning to emerge; these provide clues to the natures of the systems. We have considered ultraluminous SSSs in M1O1 and NGC 300. It is possible that these may correspond to accreting intermediate-mass black holes, rather than accreting white dwarfs. We have also studied individual systems, such as CAL 83, and have followed up on additional sources in fields we have studied, such as in the galaxy NGC 1313. NASA has released a press release on some of our work.

  14. The Seyfert II nature of the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elston, Richard; Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Dickinson, Mark; Spinrad, Hyron; Januzzi, Buell T.; Maloney, Philip

    1994-01-01

    We have observed the rest-frame optical and UV spectra of the luminous, high redshift Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) source FSC 10214+4724. We find the optical emission lines to be characterized by ratios similar to those found in Seyfert II galaxies. We support the conclusion of previous work that the UV emission lines are similar to those attributed to Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) rather than to star formation. The ratio H alpha/H beta greater than or equal to 20 (2 sigma lower limit) implies substantial reddening of the narrow line region with A(sub V) greater than 5.5, sufficient to hide a broad line region in our H alpha observations. Given this large inferred reddening and the strength of the UV continuum and emission lines, we conclude (as have others) that simple screen models of reddening are not appropriate for this object. These properties are very similar to those of the infrared luminous galaxies at lower redshift, suggesting that FSC 10244+4724 is the luminous extreme of the same population. We also present H band (1.6 micrometer) imaging polarimetry observations and find that the rest-frame optical emission is unpolarized (P = 3.2% +/- 22.0%). This deep image of the field shows FSC 10214+4724 to possess an unresolved core, with several companions located within 10 sec of the point source. We find it unlikely that this group of objects is physically associated with FSC 10214+4724 at z = 2.3, and we argue that their magnitudes and colors are more consistant with those expected with those expected for galaxies in a foreground group. While galaxy number counts would suggest that such a projection has a low probability of being observed randomly, a foreground group might gravitational lens the z = 2.3 source, making such random statistics inappropriate, and contribute to the large observed luminosity of FSC 10214+4724. Comparison of H band images taken on two occasions one year apart show that FSC 10214+4724 had varied by 0.16 +/- 0.03 mag relative

  15. Identification of new young stellar objects associated with IRAS point sources. III. The northern Galactic plane

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.; Persson, S.E.; Matthews, K.; New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque; Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA )

    1989-08-01

    A third list of new candidate young stellar objects found by searching the vicinities of IRAS positions along the galactic plane is presented. The list comprises 40 new objects in 39 fields with 2.2-micron magnitudes brighter than 10.5, and with near-infrared colors similar to those of fiducial objects such as GL 490. An additional 12 objects are identified as probable YSOs on the basis of incomplete data. Positions accurate to + or - 2 arcsec and deep red CCD pictures of 31 of the fields are given. Contemporaneous 10-micron observations allow an assessment of the reliability of the identifications; at least 80 percent of the near-infrared sources are directly related to the IRAS source, and the remainder are probably associated, but may not be the exciting sources of the regions. 11 refs.

  16. The derived population of luminous supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, R.STEFANO; Rappaport, S.

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a new class of astrophysical object, luminous supersoft X-ray sources, has been established through ROSAT satellite observations and analysis during the past approximately 3 yr. Because most of the radiation emitted by supersoft sources spans a range of wavelengths readily absorbed by interstellar gas, a substantial fraction of these sources may not be detectable with present satellite instrumentation. It is therefore important to derive a reliable estimate of the underlying population, based on the approximately 30 sources that have been observed to date. The work reported here combines the observational results with a theoretical analysis, to obtain an estimate of the total number of sources likely to be present in M31, the Magellanic Clouds, and in our own Galaxy. We find that in M31, where approximately 15 supersoft sources have been identified and roughly an equal number of sources are being investigated as supersoft candidates, there are likely to be approximately 2500 active supersoft sources at the present time. In our own Galaxy, where about four supersoft sources have been detected in the Galactic plane, there are likely to be approximately 1000 active sources. Similarly, with about six and about four (nonforeground) sources observed in the Large (LMC) and Small Magellanic Clouds (SMC), respectively, there should be approximately 30 supersoft sources in the LMC, and approximately 20 in the SMC. The likely uncertainties in the numbers quoted above, and the properties of observable sources relative to those of the total underlying population, are also derived in detail. These results can be scaled to estimate the numbers of supersoft sources likely to be present in other galaxies. The results reported here on the underlying population of supersoft X-ray sources are in good agreement with the results of a prior population synthesis study of the white dwarf accretor model for luminous supersoft X-ray sources. It should be emphasized, however

  17. WATER MASER SURVEY ON AKARI AND IRAS SOURCES: A SEARCH FOR ''LOW-VELOCITY'' WATER FOUNTAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Henkel, Christian

    2013-05-20

    We present the results of a 22 GHz H{sub 2}O maser survey toward a new sample of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB star candidates. Most of the objects are selected for the first time based on the AKARI data, which have high flux sensitivity in the mid-infrared ranges. We aim at finding H{sub 2}O maser sources in the transient phase between the AGB and post-AGB stages of evolution, where the envelopes start to develop large deviations from spherical symmetry. The observations were carried out with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope. Among 204 observed objects, 63 detections (36 new) were obtained. We found four objects that may be ''water fountain'' sources (IRAS 15193+3132, IRAS 18056-1514, OH 16.3-3.0, and IRAS 18455+0448). They possess an H{sub 2}O maser velocity coverage much smaller than those in other known water fountains. However, the coverage is still larger than that of the 1612 MHz OH maser. It implies that there is an outflow with a higher velocity than the envelope expansion velocity (typically {<=}25 km s{sup -1}), meeting the criterion of the water fountain class. We suggest that these candidates are possibly oxygen-rich late AGB or early post-AGB stars in a stage of evolution immediately after the spherically symmetric AGB mass loss has ceased.

  18. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  19. Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements of dosimetric parameters of the IRA-103Pd brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Raisali, Gholamreza; Hosseini, S Hamed; Shavar, Arzhang

    2008-04-01

    This article presents a brachytherapy source having 103Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (radial dose function, anisotropy function, and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the dose rate constant. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located the dosimeters and the source in a reproducible fixed geometry, providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code, version 4C simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model 103Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IRA-103Pd source in water was found to be 0.678 cGy h(-1) U(-1) with an approximate uncertainty of +/-0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r, theta), and the radial dose function, g(r), of the IRA- 103Pd source were also measured in a Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantoms.

  20. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. II. IRAS 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Jones, B.F.; Walker, H.J.; Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    The paper presents long-slit optical spectra and microwave CO spectra of four nebulous counterparts to IRAS sources showing PAH emission features: 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758. IRAS 22539+5758 is associated with a bipolar nebula. All are allied with B-type stars that suffer appreciable circumstellar extinction, and whose environs show atomic emission lines; three represent mixed reflection/emission nebulosities. Three show spectroscopic evidence for outflows at about 100 km/s. One, 06114+1745, exhibits indications of enhanced diffuse interstellar bands. It is concluded that extinction alone is insufficient to yield enhanced DIBs and that peculiar circumstellar abundances and/or physical conditions must play a role. 20 refs.

  1. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. II - IRAS 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Jones, B. F.; Walker, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents long-slit optical spectra and microwave CO spectra of four nebulous counterparts to IRAS sources showing PAH emission features: 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758. IRAS 22539+5758 is associated with a bipolar nebula. All are allied with B-type stars that suffer appreciable circumstellar extinction, and whose environs show atomic emission lines; three represent mixed reflection/emission nebulosities. Three show spectroscopic evidence for outflows at about 100 km/s. One, 06114+1745, exhibits indications of enhanced diffuse interstellar bands. It is concluded that extinction alone is insufficient to yield enhanced DIBs and that peculiar circumstellar abundances and/or physical conditions must play a role.

  2. DISCOVERY OF THE SECOND WARM CARBON-CHAIN-CHEMISTRY SOURCE, IRAS15398 - 3359 IN LUPUS

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Burton, Michael

    2009-05-20

    We have conducted a search for carbon-chain molecules toward 16 protostars with the Mopra 22 m and Nobeyama 45 m telescopes, and have detected high excitation lines from several species, such as C{sub 4}H (N = 9-8), C{sub 4}H{sub 2}(J = 10{sub 0,10}-9{sub 0,9}), CH{sub 3}CCH(J = 5-4, K = 2), and HC{sub 5}N(J = 32-31), toward the low-mass protostar, IRAS15398 - 3359 in Lupus. The C{sub 4}H line is as bright as 2.4 K measured with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The kinetic temperature is derived to be 12.6 {+-} 1.5 K from the K = 1 and K = 2 lines of CH{sub 3}CCH. These results indicate that the carbon-chain molecules exist in a region of warm and dense gas near the protostar. The observed features are similar to those found toward IRAS04368+2557 in L1527, which shows warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC). In WCCC, carbon-chain molecules are produced efficiently by the evaporation of CH{sub 4} from the grain mantles in a lukewarm region near the protostar. Our data clearly indicate that WCCC is no longer specific to L1527, but occurs in IRAS15398 - 3359. In addition, we draw attention to a remarkable contrast between WCCC and hot corino chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions. Carbon-chain molecules are deficient in hot corino sources like NGC1333 IRAS4B, whereas complex organic molecules seem to be less abundant in the WCCC sources. A possible origin for such source-to-source chemical variations is suggested to arise from the timescale of the starless-core phase in each source. If this is the case, the chemical composition provides an important clue to explore the variation of star formation processes between sources and/or molecular clouds.

  3. The warp of the Galactic stellar disk detected in IRAS source counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Sosin, Craig

    1989-01-01

    About 90,000 IRAS point sources have been used as disk tracers in order to explore the possibility of warp in the Galactic stellar disk. The results imply that the Galactic stellar disk is warped at large radii in a way similar to the H-I layer, and that the warp is an important characteristic of the Galaxy as a whole. It is suggested that the warp may be a long-lasting phenomenon, possibly caused by asymmetries of the mass distribution in the outer regions of the Galactic dark halo.

  4. A study of the stellar population in the Lynds 1641 dark cloud. I - The IRAS catalog sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Karen M.; Newton, Geoffrey; Strom, Stephen E.; Seaman, Robert L.; Carrasco, Luis

    1989-01-01

    The character of the sources identified in the IRAS Point Source Catalog and located within the boundaries of the nearest giant molecular cloud, Lynds 1641 is discussed. New optical and near-infrared photometry are combined to provide spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these objects divided into three classes: class I objects with flat or rising spectra, class II objects with spectra intermediate in slope between a flat and blackbody spectrum, and class III objects with spectra similar to those of blackbodies. It is found that L1641 contains a much larger percentage of class I sources than does the nearby Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex. Spectral energy distributions for the IRAS-selected sample are examined and compared with SEDs for young stellar objects (YSOs) located in Taurus-Auriga. The IRAS-selected sources having optical counterparts in the H-R diagram are identified and discussed along with the distribution of masses and ages for these YSOs.

  5. Formation and evolution of luminous supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Di Stefano, R.; Smith, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Luminous supersoft X-ray sources, with characteristic luminosities of approximately 10(exp 38) ergs/s and temperatures, kT, of approximately 35 eV, have been established as a new and distinct class of X-ray source through recent Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) observations. Several possible physical models have been proposed for these sources. One promising scenario (van den Heuvel et al. 1992) involves mass transfer, which is unstable on a thermal timescale, from a main-sequence or subgiant donor star onto the surface of a white dwarf. For a narrow range of accretion rates, steady nuclear burning of the accreted matter can take place. This process can provide the high luminosities and the correct range of temperatures observed in the supersoft sources. However, given the limited range of mass transfer rates that are consistent with this phenomenon, it is far from obvious that a sufficient population of such systems exists in galaxies such as our own, M31, and the Magellanic Clouds, in order to account for the large number of supersoft sources which can be inferred from present observations. This work addresses the population question in detail, through a Monte Carlo simulation of the formation and evolution of such systems, which starts with zero-age primordial binaries. In order to evolve into close binary systems which contain a white dwarf component and a companion transferring mass at a rate within the requisite narrow range, a binary system must undergo a specific progression of evolutionary steps. We find that a sufficient subset of our initial binaries evolve to become systems with the requisite properties, so that they can account for the population of supersoft sources that is inferred from observations. In particular, we find that there should be more than 1000 systems in the Galaxy today with properties that very closely match those of the observed supersoft sources. From our models, we find expected luminosities, white dwarf effective temperatures, and

  6. A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicay, M. D.; Kojoian, G.; Seal, J.; Dickinson, D. F.; Malkan, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey of Markarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared data from the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKs observed at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% of those objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHz measurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from the National Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported. Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at 10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from the IRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, with reasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infrared characteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, that is well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratio among Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60 micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25 micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey the well-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightest correlation seen for starburst MRKs.

  7. The experimental determination of the luminous flux emitted by a few types of lighting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spunei, E.; Piroi, I.; Chioncel, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the luminous flux of several types of power sources used for the artificial lighting inside. The luminous flux was determined using a photometer integrator (lumenmeter Ulbricht) and a luxmeter from the laboratory of Electrical and Lighting University “Eftimie Murgu” Resita. Based on a reference source, the constant of the integrator photometer k was determined. The paper presents the measuring results of the luminous flux on several lighting sources: with incandescent, fluorescent, and LED. It has been found that the amount of luminous flux in the nominal data written in the box of lighting sources, does not correspond to the actual measured value. Using the photometric sphere, the actual light output from various sources were it is not known, can be determined.

  8. IRAS 15099-5856: REMARKABLE MID-INFRARED SOURCE WITH PROMINENT CRYSTALLINE SILICATE EMISSION EMBEDDED IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH15-52

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Myungshin; McKee, Christopher F.; Suh, Kyung-Won; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi; Burton, Michael G.; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Bessell, Michael S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ezawa, Hajime; Kohno, Kotaro; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S.

    2011-05-01

    We report new mid-infrared (MIR) observations of the remarkable object IRAS 15099-5856 using the space telescopes AKARI and Spitzer, which demonstrate the presence of prominent crystalline silicate emission in this bright source. IRAS 15099-5856 has a complex morphology with a bright central compact source (IRS1) surrounded by knots, spurs, and several extended ({approx}4') arc-like filaments. The source is seen only at {>=}10 {mu}m. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of IRS1 shows prominent emission features from Mg-rich crystalline silicates, strong [Ne II] 12.81 {mu}m, and several other faint ionic lines. We model the MIR spectrum as thermal emission from dust and compare with the Herbig Be star HD 100546 and the luminous blue variable R71, which show very similar MIR spectra. Molecular line observations reveal two molecular clouds around the source, but no associated dense molecular cores. We suggest that IRS1 is heated by UV radiation from the adjacent O star Muzzio 10 and that its crystalline silicates most likely originated in a mass outflow from the progenitor of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-52. IRS1, which is embedded in the SNR, could have been shielded from the SN blast wave if the progenitor was in a close binary system with Muzzio 10. If MSH 15-52 is a remnant of Type Ib/c supernova (SN Ib/c), as has been previously proposed, this would confirm the binary model for SN Ib/c. IRS1 and the associated structures may be the relics of massive star death, as shaped by the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind, and the intense ionizing radiation of the embedded O star.

  9. The IRAS 08589-4714 star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldaño, H. P.; Vasquez, J.; Cappa, C. E.; Gómez, M.; Duronea, N.; Rubio, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present an analysis of the IRAS 08589-4714 star-forming region. This region harbors candidate young stellar objects identified in the WISE and Herschel images using color index criteria and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The SEDs of some of the infrared sources and the 70 μm radial intensity profile of the brightest source are modeled using the DUSTY code. For these objects, we estimate the main parameters, which suggest that they are very young, massive and luminous objects at early stages of the formation process. We use the emission distribution in the infrared at 70 and 160 μm to estimate the dust temperature gradient. This suggests that the nearby massive starforming region RCW 38, located at ≈10 pc from the IRAS source position, may be contributing to the photodissociation of the molecular gas and to the heating of the interstellar dust in the environs of the IRAS source.

  10. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 2: The point source catalog declination range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 2, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg.

  11. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 5: The point source catalog declination range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 5, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg.

  12. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 3: The point source catalog declination range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 3, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg.

  13. Detection of spectral variability of the optical component of the IR source IRAS 20508+2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.; Tavolzhanskaya, N. S.; Zhao, G.

    2006-03-01

    Our high-resolution spectral observations have revealed variability of the optical spectrum of the cool star identified with the IR source IRAS 20508+2011. We measured the equivalent widths of numerous absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions at wavelengths 4300 7930 Å, along with the corresponding radial velocities. Over the four years of our observations, the radial velocity derived from photospheric absorption lines varied in the interval V r⊙ = 15 30 km/s. In the same period, the Hα profile varied from being an intense bell-shaped emission line with a small amount of core absorption to displaying two-peaked emission with a central absorption feature below the continuum level. At all but one epoch, the positions of the metallic photospheric lines were systematically shifted relative to the Hα emission: ΔV r = V r(met) - V r(Hα, emis) ≈ -23 km/s. The Na D doublet displayed a complex profile with broad (half-width ≈ 120 km/s) emission and photospheric absorption, as well as an interstellar component. We used model atmospheres to determine the physical parameters and chemical composition of the star’s atmosphere: T eff = 4800 K, log g = 1.5, ξt = 4.0 km/s. The metallicity of the star differs little from the solar value: [Fe/H]⊙ = -0.36. We detected overabundances of oxygen [O/Fe]⊙ = +1.79 (with the ratio [C/O] ≈ -0.9), and α-process elements, as well as a deficit of heavy metals. The entire set of the star’s parameters suggests that the optical component of IRAS 20508+2011 is an “O-rich” AGB star with luminosity M v ≈ -3m that is close to its evolutionary transition to the post-AGB stage.

  14. A study of the evolutionary stages of IRAS sources and outflows in the Mon OB1 dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf-Chase, G.; Davidson, J.

    1997-01-01

    An ongoing project aiming to relate the evolutionary stages of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) sources in the Mon OB1 dark cloud to the morphology and energetics of outflows associated with some of these sources, is reported on. Previous evolutionary classifications of IRAS sources are refined and potential class O objects are identified. The fully-sampled CO maps of the outflows in this cloud are presented. These observations yield information on outflow structure, kinematics and excitation conditions. Low-intensity, high velocity gas is observed in the youngest outflows. This emission is characterized by relatively flat line wings at the highest velocities in spectral line profiles obtained at the peaks of the outflow emission.

  15. Focal waveforms for various source waveforms driving a prolate-spheroidal impulse radiating antenna (IRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunc, Serhat; Baum, Carl E.; Christodoulou, Christos G.; Schamiloglu, Edl; Buchenauer, C. Jerald

    2008-08-01

    Impulse radiating antennas (IRAs) are designed to radiate very fast pulses in a narrow beam with low dispersion and high field amplitude. For this reason they have been used in a variety of applications. IRAs have been developed for use in the transient far-field region using parabolic reflectors. However, in this paper we focus in the near field region and develop the field waveform at the second focus of a prolate-spheroidal IRA. Certain skin cancers can be killed by the application of a high-amplitude electric field pulse. This can be accomplished by either inserting electrodes near the skin cancer or by applying fast, high-electric field pulses without direct contact. We investigate a new manifestation of an IRA, in which we use a prolate spheroid as a reflector instead of a parabolic reflector and focus in the near-field region instead of the far-field region. This technique minimizes skin damage associated with inserting electrodes near the tumor. Analytical and experimental behaviors for the focal waveforms of two and four-feed arm prolate-spheroidal IRAs are explored. With appropriate choice of the driving waveform we maximize the impulse field at the second focus. The focal waveform of a prolate-spheroidal IRA has been explained theoretically and verified experimentally.

  16. The ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harding E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey ISO Satellite observations of over 600 IRAS sources have been obtained with the ISOCAM instrument. Because our survey strategy involved relatively short integrations, great care was required in developing analysis software including cosmic-ray and transient removal and calibration. These observations have now been through final pipeline processing at IPAC and ground-based follow-up is ongoing. The observations are for sources from two samples: a " Filler' sample selected to be at z greater than 0.1 and a fainter sample which selected for the highest redshift galaxies in the IRAS survey, with redshifts 0.2 less than z less than 1.0. I now have obtained ground-based follow-up spectrophotometry at Lick and Palomar observatories for 100 LFIRGs with 0.1 less than z less than 0.7. Our observations have confirmed that these systems are comparable to nearby LFIRGs such as Arp 220, with L (sub -)(fir) greater than 10(exp 11) L(sub -) sun and typically HII/Liner optical excitation. About 10% of the galaxies show true AGN (Sy2) excitation. Based on our work on a nearby complete sample of LFIRGS, we believe that the majority of these systems are luminous Starbursts, thus this project is tracing the luminous end of the galaxy star-forming luminosity function - the (infrared) star-formation history of the Universe to z approx. 1, a topic of some considerable recent interest. A by-product of these ISOCAM observations is approximately 1 square degree of deep 2 microns pointings outside the IRAS error boxes, allowing us an independent estimate of the mid-infrared log N - log S relation. Ground-based observations of this sample are continuing.

  17. Infrared Astronomy After IRAS.

    PubMed

    Rieke, G H; Werner, M W; Thompson, R I; Becklin, E E; Hoffmann, W F; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Stein, W A; Witteborn, F C

    1986-02-21

    The 250,000 sources in the recently issued Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky infrared catalog are a challenge to astronomy. Many of these sources will be studied with existing and planned ground-based and airborne telescopes, but many others can no longer even be detected now that IRAS has ceased to operate. As anticipated by advisory panels of the National Academy of Sciences for a decade, study of the IRAS sources will require the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a cooled, pointed telescope in space. This instrument may be the key to our understanding of cosmic birth-the formation of planets, stars, galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and quasars. Compared with IRAS and existing telescopes, SIRTF's power derives from a thousandfold gain in sensitivity over five octaves of the spectrum.

  18. EXPLORATION OF A RELIC CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE IN THE ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' SOURCE IRAS 18286-0959

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Kwok, Sun; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J. E-mail: junichi@hku.hk E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk E-mail: diamond@skatelescope.org

    2013-07-01

    The water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959 (I18286) was reported as an object exhibiting highly collimated, double-helix stellar jets traced by the H{sub 2}O maser emission. Using the European VLBI Network, we measured the absolute coordinates of the 1612 MHz OH maser emission in I18286, which is very likely associated with a relic of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) developed in the asymptotic giant branch stage of the central star. The location of the OH maser is near the center of the H{sub 2}O maser feature cluster, where one of the originating points of the two jets is located. We also mapped 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission in this object using the Very Long Baseline Array in the seasons of 2006-2007 as well as 2008-2009. In the first three epochs in 2006-2007, we detected at least 90 maser features per epoch. In six epochs in 2008-2009, when the observation data had already been published and analyzed to identify the double-helix jets, we newly identified 14 proper motions of H{sub 2}O maser features which could not be measured in the previous analysis due to their short lifetimes. In this paper, together with the OH maser emission, we focus on ''outlier'' H{sub 2}O maser features, which exhibit slow expansion velocities (V{sub exp} {approx}< 30 km s{sup -1}) and are likely associated with either the relic CSE or an equatorial flow of I18286. They were marginally distinguishable from the maser features associated with the jets in I18286.

  19. Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements of dosimetric parameters of the IRA-{sup 103}Pd brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Raisali, Gholamreza; Hosseini, S. Hamed; Shavar, Arzhang

    2008-04-15

    This article presents a brachytherapy source having {sup 103}Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (radial dose function, anisotropy function, and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the dose rate constant. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located the dosimeters and the source in a reproducible fixed geometry, providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code, version 4C simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model {sup 103}Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IRA-{sup 103}Pd source in water was found to be 0.678 cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} with an approximate uncertainty of {+-}0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), and the radial dose function, g(r), of the IRA-{sup 103}Pd source were also measured in a Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantoms.

  20. A search for T Tauri stars in high-latitude molecular clouds. I. IRAS sources and CCD imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, L.; Caillault, J.; Armus, L. E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC Georgia Univ., Athens Maryland Univ., College Park )

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported from a search for excess H-alpha emission from point sources in 19 high-Galactic-latitude molecular clouds (two dark clouds and 17 translucent clouds). A total of 111 candidate sources from the IRAS Point Source Catalog were evaluated, but most of these (except for five T Tau stars in the dark clouds) were found to be 100-micron cirrus sources, galaxies, or field stars. CCD observations of 23 ambiguous sources were obtained in the red and H-alpha bands using a CCD detector on the 0.9-m telescope at KPNO during September 1987 and February 1988: no H-alpha/R ratios more than 5 sigma above the respective field averages were found. It is concluded that significant low-mass star formation in translucent high-latitude molecular clouds is unlikely. 30 refs.

  1. Ground-based infrared observations of variable IRAS sources as candidates for late asymptotic giant branch stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Sun; Boreiko, R. T.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the color distribution of OH/IR stars and IRAS low-resolution spectra class 30 objects suggests the presence of a well-defined evolutionary sequence which is populated by late asymptotic giant branch (LAGB) stars. The paper reports ground-based identification and infrared photometry of 10 candidates of news LAGB stars. None of the selected sources are found to have optical counterparts, and eight of the 10 show a strong 10-micron silicate absorption feature. It is suggested that these stars represent an invisible extension of extreme Mira variables and are some of the most evolved stars observed to date.

  2. Organic Chemistry of Southern Sources: Microwave Spectroscopy of Cha-MMS1 and IRAS 15194-5115

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    We report new spectra of molecule-rich sources in the southern hemisphere obtained using the 22-meter Mopra telescope. Spectra and maps are presented of organic molecules detected between 30 and 50 GHz in the young Class 0 protostar Chamaeleon MMS-1. The large abundances of polyynes, cyanopolyynes and methanol may be indicative of a warm carbon chemistry in the dense gas surrounding this protostar. Spectra are also presented from a 78-96 GHz scan of the carbon-rich AGB star IRAS 15194-5115, including new detections of HC5N, CCS and C13CH.

  3. Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources as Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.

    1996-01-01

    In some luminous supersoft X-ray sources, hydrogen accretes onto the surface of a white dwarf at rates more-or-less compatible with steady nuclear burning. The white dwarfs in these systems therefore have a good chance to grow in mass. Here we review what is known about the rate of Type la supernovae that may be associated with SSSS. Observable consequences of the conjecture that SSSs can be progenitors of Type Ia supernovae are also discussed.

  4. The optical counterpart of IRAS 12496 - 7650 - A highly embedded Herbig AE star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; Hartigan, P.; Graham, J. A.; Emerson, J. P.; Marang, F.

    1991-03-01

    Optical and near-infrared observations of IRAS 12496 - 7650, an active young star and the most luminous IRAS source in the Chamaeleon II dark cloud, are reported. The object has become brighter at optical wavelengths since 1976, and has exhibited variations of more than a magnitude at K between January 1987 and May 1990. IRAS 12496 - 7650 is redder when fainter, and the amplitude of the brightness fluctuations decreases toward longer infrared wavelengths. Differing amounts of circumstellar extinction or intrinsic color variations of the source can produce most of the observed variability. Optical spectra confirm that IRAS 12496 - 7650 is an extremely active (probably Herbig Ae type) star with blueshifted forbidden lines of O I and S II and a prominent P-Cygni profile at H-alpha. The S II emission extends 3-4 arcsec on either side of the star and shows a significant velocity gradient, suggestive of a jetlike structure. The detection of outflowing material from IRAS 12496 - 7650 reinforces earlier evidence that this object is the exciting source for the HH 52 - 54 group Herbig-Haro objects. The broad spectral energy distribution suggests that IRAS 12496 - 7650 has a circumstellar disk.

  5. The Visibility of Point Sources as a Function of Background Luminance, Target Luminance, Eccentricity, Wavelength, and Flicker Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    the German scientist, Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878), states that the increase in stimulus which is necessary to produce a just noticeable...thresholds at 60° eccentricity. 3 predict thresholds in the Weber range. Its threshold predictions as a function of eccentricity are based on...such as VIDEM that assume a constant Weber fraction tend to underestimate visual thresholds at low ambient luminances and overestimate them at

  6. Young Stellar Cluster in the Vicinity of the IRAS 05137+3919 Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Azatyan, N.

    2014-09-01

    84 PMS stellar objects are identified in a cluster located in the vicinity of IRAS 05137+3919 using the UKIDSS data base and Spitzer telescope (IRAC) images. The age of the cluster is 1.5-2.0 million years. Young stars are distributed nonuniformly in the cluster and form two subgroups. One is localized around the YSO CPM, which is a binary star, and the second contains a substantial number of objects with early spectral classes surrounded by gas-dust nebulae. The K luminosity functions of the PMS stars indicate that the cluster is at a distance of ~4.5 kpc. One of the components of CPM 15 appears to have Sp B3-B5 and is an Ae/Be Herbig star.

  7. Interstellar and circumstellar medium in the direction to IR source IRAS 01005+7910

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendzikas, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    Using the high-resolution spectra obtained at the 6-meter telescope of the SAO RAS over 2002-2013, we studied the spectral features of the lines of interstellar medium. The radial velocities of the Na I 5890 Å, Na I 5896 Å, Ca II 3934 Å and Ca II 3968 Å absorption lines were analyzed. Seven diffuse interstellar bands 4964, 5780, 5797, 6196, 6203, 6379 Å were identified in the optical spectrum of IRAS01005+7910. Radial velocities V r and equivalent widths W λ of these DIBs were measured, for which the values of the interstellar reddening E B-V and column density of neutral hydrogen log [N(H)] were calculated.

  8. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 6: The point source catalog declination range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 6, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg.

  9. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 4: The point source catalog declination range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched 26 January 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 4, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg.

  10. IRAS observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. G.; Matson, D. L.; Veeder, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The moderate spatial resolution and high sensitivity of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), which surveyed the celestial sphere during 1983 at wavelengths of 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, were particularly well suited to detecting extended thermal emission from cometary dust. Sources with infrared color temperatures characteristic of solar system bodies, and at the ephemerides position of known comets were selected for analysis by the IRAS Asteroid Data Analysis System (ADAS). The data base is now available for use by researchers. This paper describes the development of the data base, details its entries, and presents a statistical analysis of its contents. The IRAS survey contains multiple observations of many periodic comets. A brief description and analysis is given of the observed infrared and derived physical properties for several comets of special interest.

  11. Luminous radio-quiet sources in the W3(MAIN) cloud core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynnwilliams, C. Gareth; Ladd, E. F.; Deane, James R.; Sanders, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    We have resolved 450 micrometer and 800 micrometer emission from the W3(Main) star forming region into three major peaks, using 8 inch - 14 inch beams with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea. One of the submillimeter sources is identified with W3 - IRS5, a well-known candidate protostar. However, to our surprise, we find that none of the submillimeter peaks coincides with any of the prominent compact HII regions in the area. We estimate that the three submillimeter sources together contribute 30-50 percent of the total bolometric luminosity of the region, and speculate that the contribution of luminous radio-quiet sources to the total luminosity of HII region/molecular cloud complexes may be larger than is often assumed.

  12. On the black hole masses in ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin-Lin

    2015-05-01

    Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are off-nuclear X-ray sources in nearby galaxies with X-ray luminosities ⩾ 1039 erg s-1. The measurement of the black hole (BH) masses of ULXs is a long-standing problem. Here we estimate BH masses in a sample of ULXs with XMM-Newton observations using two different mass indicators, the X-ray photon index and X-ray variability amplitude based on the correlations established for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The BH masses estimated from the two methods are compared and discussed. We find that some extreme high-luminosity (LX > 5 ×1040 erg s-1) ULXs contain the BH of 104-105 M⊙ . The results from X-ray variability amplitude are in conflict with those from X-ray photon indices for ULXs with lower luminosities. This suggests that these ULXs generally accrete at rates different from those of X-ray luminous AGNs, or they have different power spectral densities of X-ray variability. We conclude that most of ULXs accrete at super-Eddington rate, thus harbor stellar-mass BH.

  13. Molecular clouds associated with luminous far-infrared sources in the outer Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, John M.; Snell, Ronald L.; Schloerb, F. Peter

    1990-01-01

    The stellar content and physical properties of the molecular clouds associated with 21 bright far-IR sources in the outer Galaxy have been determined through C-12O, C-13O, 6-cm radio continuum, and IRAS observations. The molecular cloud masses range from 200 to about 10,000 solar masses. The far-IR luminosity-to-mass ratio for these clouds has a mean value of 6.8 solar luminosity/solar masses and shows no correlation with the cloud mass, a result similar to that found for more massive clouds in the inner Galaxy. The radio continuum survey of the 21 bright far-IR sources indicates that most of these regions probably have a single, massive star providing most of the ionization. The cloud masses derived from virial and LTE analyses are in agreement, supporting the assumptions commonly made in their calculations, and a tight, near-linear correlation is found between the C-12O luminosity and the cloud mass. The H2 column density and integrated C-12O intensity are also correlated on a point-by-point basis, although the scatter is larger than the C-12O luminosity-cloud mass relation.

  14. Two very luminous variable X-ray sources in M82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collura, A.; Reale, Fabio; Schulman, Eric; Bregman, Joel N.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a variability study of X-ray sources in the starburst galaxy M82, based on ROSAT and Einstein High-Resolution Imager observations. In particular, we concentrate our analysis on two bright sources which exhibit significant variability. The brightest source in M82 is located in the central core of the galaxy, is variable within individual ROSAT observations, and indication are that it might have varied between the Einstein and the ROSAT observations. It is the most luminous X-ray binary candidate yet known. The other source is located outside the crowded central region and was very bright in the Einstein observation, but was not detected by ROSAT, despite the larger effective area of the instrument and the much longer exposure. The detection of variability poses strong constraints on the X-ray luminosity of individual components of the X-ray sources. Even if both sources are radiating at the Eddington limit, their mass would be at least several solar masses, making them candidates for extragalactic black holes.

  15. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  16. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M. Queen Mary College, London )

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs.

  17. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  18. IRAS 23385+6053: AN Example of Candidate Massive Protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, Francesco; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Testi, Leonardo; Walmsley, Malcolm

    We present the results of a multi-line study towards the source IRAS 23385+6053 performed with the IRAM-30m telescope the Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Very Large Array. We have obtained single-dish and interferometric maps in various transitions of the C18O C17O CH3CCH and NH3 molecular species. Our results confirm the findings of Molinari et al. (1998b) namely that IRAS 23385 a luminous (and therefore massive) source (L ~ 1.6 x 104 solar luminosities) is a good candidate high-mass class 0 object precursor of an ultracompact HII region. The source is approximately made out of two components: a compact molecular ~2 arcsec core with temperature of ~40 K and an H2 volume density of the order of 107 cm-3 and a more extended clump (~15 arcsec) with an average kinetic temperature of ~15 K and H2 volume density of the order of 105 cm-3. The core temperature is much smaller than typical temperatures found in hot molecular cores around massive ZAMS stars. This result supports the idea that IRAS 23385 is a massive protostar in a pre-ZAMS evolutionary stage still accreting material from its parental molecular cloud and deriving most of its luminosity from the release of gravitational energy.

  19. Luminous Infrared Sources in the Local Group: Identifying the Missing Links in Massive Star Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Mehner, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic survey of dusty massive stars (RSGs, LBVs, sgB[e]) in nearby galaxies, with the goal of understanding their importance in massive star evolution. Using the fact that these stars are bright in mid-infrared colors due to dust, we provide a technique for selecting and identifying dusty evolved stars based on the results of Bonanos et al. (2009, 2010), Britavskiy et al. (2014), and archival Spitzer/IRAC photometry. We present the results of our spectroscopic follow-up of luminous infrared sources in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies: Pegasus, Phoenix, Sextans A and WLM. The survey aims to complete the census of dusty massive stars in the Local Group.

  20. Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources in the Collisional Ring Galaxy NGC 922

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestwich, Andrea H.; Galache, J.; Kalogara, V.; Linden, T.; Kilgard, R.; Zezas, A.; Wolter, A.; Trinchieri, G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new Chandra observation of the nearby collisional ring galaxy NGC 922. NGC 922 is undergoing a violent burst of star formation as density waves are driven through the disk as a result of the collision. It is similar to the famous Cartwheel galaxy, except that the metallicity is somewhat higher and star formation rate lower. Our primary science goal is to determine whether a low metallicty environment is required to form the most luminous X-ray sources (Lx>1E40 ergs s-1). We find a total of 14 bright X-ray sources, 7 of which are ULX ((Lx>1E39 ergs s-1). One source has Lx 1E40 ergs/s. The X-ray sources are associated with the H-alpha ring. However, they are NOT associated with the brightest H-alpha patches, suggesting that the ULX phase starts >1 x 1E7 years after the starburst. Like the Cartwheel, the X-ray luminosity function of NGC 922 has a slope close to that of the “cannonical” HMXB slope of Gilfanov et al 2004. We conclude that NGC 922 is forming ULX as efficiently as the Cartwheel (after allowing for the difference in the star formation rate). We do not see a strong metallicity effect.

  1. A high-significance measurement of correlation between unresolved IRAS sources and optically-selected galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hincks, Adam D.; Hajian, Amir; Addison, Graeme E. E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca

    2013-05-01

    We cross-correlate the 100 μm Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) map and galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 in the maxBCG catalogue taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, measuring an angular cross-power spectrum over multipole moments 150 < l < 3000 at a total significance of over 40σ. The cross-spectrum, which arises from the spatial correlation between unresolved dusty galaxies that make up the cosmic infrared background (CIB) in the IRIS map and the galaxy clusters, is well-fit by a single power law with an index of −1.28±0.12, similar to the clustering of unresolved galaxies from cross-correlating far-infrared and submillimetre maps at longer wavelengths. Using a recent, phenomenological model for the spectral and clustering properties of the IRIS galaxies, we constrain the large-scale bias of the maxBCG clusters to be 2.6±1.4, consistent with existing analyses of the real-space cluster correlation function. The success of our method suggests that future CIB-optical cross-correlations using Planck and Herschel data will significantly improve our understanding of the clustering and redshift distribution of the faint CIB sources.

  2. An infrared sky model based on the IRAS point source data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell; Wainscoat, Richard; Volk, Kevin; Walker, Helen; Schwartz, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    A detailed model for the infrared point source sky is presented that comprises geometrically and physically realistic representations of the galactic disk, bulge, spheroid, spiral arms, molecular ring, and absolute magnitudes. The model was guided by a parallel Monte Carlo simulation of the Galaxy. The content of the galactic source table constitutes an excellent match to the 12 micrometer luminosity function in the simulation, as well as the luminosity functions at V and K. Models are given for predicting the density of asteroids to be observed, and the diffuse background radiance of the Zodiacal cloud. The model can be used to predict the character of the point source sky expected for observations from future infrared space experiments.

  3. Infrared astronomy after IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Thompson, R. I.; Werner, M. W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Becklin, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of infrared astronomy in the wake of IRAS is discussed. Attention is given to an overview of next generation infrared telescope technology, with emphasis on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) which has been built to replace IRAS in the 1990s. Among the instruments to be included on SIRTF are: a wide-field high-resolution camera covering the infrared range 3-30 microns with large arrays of detectors; an imaging photometer operating in the range 3-700 microns; and a spectrograph covering the range 2.5-200 microns with resolutions of 2 and 0.1 percent. Observational missions for the SIRTF are proposed in connection with: planetary formation; star formation; cosmic energy sources; active galactic nuclei; and quasars.

  4. Observation of the HH 1 and 2 region with IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Chester, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) observations of the region in Orion containing HH 1 and 2 reveal for the first time the large-scale distribution of newly formed stars. New infrared sources discovered in these observations are discussed, and attempts are made to untangle the complex infrared morphology of this field. A major finding of this study is that HH 1 is near the peak of an intense and broad plateau of 60 and 100 micron emission that spatially corresponds well with the boundaries of a previously detected molecular cloud. Other findings include the detection of an emitting circum-HH object dust complex around HH 2, 25 micron emission associated with the putative HH 1 and 2 exciting source discovered with the VLA, a new luminous far-infrared source, and numerous infrared source complexes, some in blank optical fields and others in fields containing optical emission-line stars.

  5. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Fowler, John W.; Chillemi, Joseph R.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the program and data used to identify known asteroids observed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and to compute albedos and diameters from their IRAS fluxes. It also presents listings of the results obtained. These results supplant those in the IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey, 1986. The present version used new and improved asteroid orbital elements for 4679 numbered asteroids and 2632 additional asteroids for which at least two-opposition elements were available as of mid-1991. It employed asteroid absolute magnitudes on the International Astronomical Union system adopted in 1991. In addition, the code was modified to increase the reliability of associating asteroids with IRAS sources and rectify several shortcomings in the final data products released in 1986. Association reliability was improved by decreasing the position difference between an IRAS source and a predicted asteroid position required for an association. The shortcomings addressed included the problem of flux overestimation for low SNR sources and the systematic difference in albedos and diameters among the three wavelength bands (12, 25, and 60 micrometers). Several minor bugs in the original code were also corrected.

  6. Relativistic radiative transfer in a moving stratus irradiated by a luminous flat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in a geometrically thin stratus (sheet-like gaseous cloud with finite optical depth), which is moving at a relativistic speed around a luminous flat source, such as accretion disks, and is irradiated by the source, is examined under the special relativistic treatment. Incident radiation is aberrated and Doppler-shifted when it is received by the stratus, and emitted radiation is also aberrated and Doppler-shifted when it leaves the stratus. Considering these relativistic effects, we analytically obtain the emergent intensity as well as other radiative quantities in the purely scattering case for both infinite and finite strati. We mainly consider the frequency-integrated case, but also briefly show the frequency-dependent one. We also solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation numerically, and compare the results with the analytical solutions. In the infinite stratus, the mean intensity in the comoving and inertial frames decreases and becomes constant, as the stratus speed increases. The flux in the comoving frame decreases exponentially with the optical depth. The emergent intensity decreases as the speed increases, since the incident photons are redshifted at the bottom-side of the stratus. In the finite stratus, the mean intensity in the comoving and inertial frames quickly increases in the top-side region due to the aberrated photons. The flux in the comoving frame is positive in the range of 0 < β ≤ 0.4, while it becomes negative for β ≳ 0.5. The behavior of the emergent intensity is similar to that of the infinite case, although there is an irradiation effect caused by the aberrated photons.

  7. PATCHY ACCRETION DISKS IN ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.; Rana, V.; Fabian, A. C.

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of the most extreme ultra-luminous X-ray sources—those with L ≥ 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}—remain something of a mystery. Spectral roll-over in the 5-10 keV band was originally detected in the deepest XMM-Newton observations of the brightest sources; this is confirmed in subsequent NuSTAR spectra. This emission can be modeled via Comptonization, but with low electron temperatures (kT{sub e} ≅ 2 keV) and high optical depths (τ ≅ 10) that pose numerous difficulties. Moreover, evidence of cooler thermal emission that can be fit with thin disk models persists, even in fits to joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. Using NGC 1313 X-1 as a test case, we show that a patchy disk with a multiple temperature profile may provide an excellent description of such spectra. In principle, a number of patches within a cool disk might emit over a range of temperatures, but the data only require a two-temperature profile plus standard Comptonization, or three distinct blackbody components. A mechanism such as the photon bubble instability may naturally give rise to a patchy disk profile, and could give rise to super-Eddington luminosities. It is possible, then, that a patchy disk (rather than a disk with a standard single-temperature profile) might be a hallmark of accretion disks close to or above the Eddington limit. We discuss further tests of this picture and potential implications for sources such as narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxies and other low-mass active galactic nuclei.

  8. IRAS 14348-1447, an ultraluminous pair of colliding, gas-rich galaxies - The birth of a quasar?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Soifer, B. T.; Scoville, N. Z.

    1988-01-01

    Ground-baed observations of the object IRAS 14348-1447, which was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, show that it is an extremely luminous colliding galaxy system that emits more than 95 percent of its energy at FIR wavelengths. IRAS 14348-1447, which is receeding from the sun at 8 percent of the speed of light, has a bolometric luminosity more than 100 times larger than that of the Galaxy, and is therefore as luminous as optical quasars. New optical, infrared, and spectroscopic measurements suggest that the dominant luminosity source is a dust-enshrouded quasar. The fuel for the intense activity is an enormous supply of molecular gas. Carbon monoxide emission has been detected at a wavelength of 2.6 millimeters by means of a new, more sensitive receiver recently installed on the 12-meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. IRAS 14348-1447 is the most distant and luminous source of carbon monoxide line emission yet detected.

  9. IRAS 14348-1447, an Ultraluminous Pair of Colliding, Gas-Rich Galaxies: The Birth of a Quasar?

    PubMed

    Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Soifer, B T

    1988-02-05

    Ground-based observations of the object IRAS 14348-1447, which was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, show that it is an extremely luminous colliding galaxy system that emits more than 95 percent of its energy at far-infrared wavelengths. IRAS 14348-1447, which is receeding from the sun at 8 percent of the speed of light, has a bolometric luminosity more than 100 times larger than that of our galaxy, and is therefore as luminous as optical quasars. New optical, infrared, and spectroscopic measurements suggest that the dominant luminosity source is a dustenshrouded quasar. The fuel for the intense activity is an enormous supply of molecular gas. Carbon monoxide emission has been detected at a wavelength of 2.6 millimeters by means of a new, more sensitive receiver recently installed on the 12-meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. IRAS 14348-1447 is the most distant and luminous source of carbon monoxide line emission yet detected. The derived mass of interstellar molecular hydrogen is 6 x 10(10) solar masses. This value is approximately 20 times that of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way and is similar to the largest masses of atomic hydrogen found in galaxies. A large mass of molecular gas may be a prerequisite for the formation of quasars during strong galactic collisions.

  10. Optical integral field spectroscopy and ROSAT X-ray imaging of IRAS 09104+4109

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, C. S.; Vanderriest, C.

    1996-12-01

    We present results from a long observation using the integral field spectrograph ARGUS of the ultraluminous IRAS source IRAS 09104+4109, which is associated with the central galaxy of a rich cluster at a redshift z=0.44. We map the distribution, kinematics and ionization state of its extended emission-line region, and show that both the nucleus and a secondary peak of line emission have ratios consistent with photoionization by a hidden, but luminous, quasar continuum. The kinematics of the ionized gas suggests that the galaxy and its extended emission-line region form a relatively static system at the cluster core. A strongly blueshifted component of emission-line gas around the nucleus reveals a central outflow, due either to a change in the central radio source, or to a massive supernova wind. We also present a ~30-ks ROSAT HRI pointed observation of IRAS 09104+4109. The X-ray image is extended, and a deprojection analysis confirms the presence of a 800-1100 M_solar yr^-1 cooling flow in the L_X=2.9x10^45 erg s^-1 cluster. A central dip is observed in the X-ray image, which may be caused by the outflow seen in the optical data. IRAS 09104+4109 is probably a very highly absorbed quasar, and presents the firmest case for a strong cooling flow occurring around a quasar, and the first to be discovered directly from an X-ray image.

  11. Opto-thermal study of cooling strategies for high-luminance white-light solid-state sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, António; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2016-06-01

    Solid-state sources have become ubiquitous is many lighting applications. For general lighting, phosphors are typically employed to produce white light from the narrowband light emitted from solid-state sources. As the optical output power from solid-state sources keeps increasing, increasingly higher luminance can be obtained, which, unfortunately, also increases the phosphor's temperature. These materials' colour conversion potential, encoded by the quantum yield, has complex dependencies with temperature. To obtain an accurate assessment of the performance of a high-luminance white light source configuration based on individual solid-state sources, it is imperative to accurately model the temperature distribution inside the phosphor material and consider the effect of temperature on the quantum yield of the phosphor. In addition, the feedback of the varying quantum yield on the generated heat inside the phosphor should also be considered. An opto-thermal framework has been previously proposed to accurately simulate the opto-thermal effects in phosphors when designing lighting systems. In this paper, this framework is applied to a novel optical configuration to investigate thermal bottlenecks and test cooling strategies to avoid them. For the specific configuration tested, using an active cooling strategy and concentrating the laser light on the phosphor region with the best thermal dissipation proved to be the best solutions.

  12. IRAS 23532+2513: a compact group including a Seyfert 1 and a starburst galaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Z.-L.; Xia, X.-Y.; Deng, Z.-G.; Wu, H.

    1995-12-01

    The very luminous infrared source IRAS 23532 coincides with a compact group of galaxies including MCG 04-01-002, MCG 04-01-003 and MCG 04-01-004. Spectroscopic observations show that the bright-nucleus galaxy MCG 04-01-002 is a Seyfert 1 and the disturbed spiral galaxy MCG 04-01-003 is a starburst galaxy. CCD images in V band reveal that clear tidal interaction exists between those two objects. This is another example of tidal interaction triggering starburst and Seyfert activity.

  13. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 {mu}m SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Catherine L.; Kastner, Joel H.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2009-12-15

    We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 {mu}m selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 {mu}m) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

  14. Calcium transport in bovine rumen epithelium as affected by luminal Ca concentrations and Ca sources

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja R; Ricken, Gundula E; Leonhard-Marek, Sabine; Fraser, David R; Breves, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative role of different segments of the gastrointestinal tract for Ca absorption, the respective mechanisms, and their regulation are not fully identified for ruminants, that is, cattle. In different in vitro experiments the forestomach wall has been demonstrated to be a major site for active Ca absorption in sheep and goats. In order to further clarify the role of the bovine rumen for Ca transport with special attention to luminal Ca concentrations, its ionic form, and pH, electrophysiological and unidirectional flux rate measurements were performed with isolated bovine rumen epithelial tissues. For Ca flux studies (Jms, Jsm) in vitro Ussing chamber technique was applied. Standard RT-PCR method was used to characterize TRPV6 and PMCA1 as potential contributors to transepithelial active Ca transport. At Ca concentrations of 1.2 mmol L−1 on both sides of the tissues, Jms were higher than Jsm resulting under some conditions in significant Ca net flux rates (Jnet), indicating the presence of active Ca transport. In the absence of an electrical gradient, Jnet could significantly be stimulated in the presence of luminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Increasing the luminal Ca concentrations up to 11.2 mmol L−1 resulted in significant increases in Jms without influencing Jsm. Providing Ca in its form as respective chloride, formate, or propionate salts there was no significant effect on Jms. No transcripts specific for Ca channel TRPV6 could be demonstrated. Our results indicate different mechanisms for Ca absorption in bovine rumen as compared with those usually described for the small intestines. PMID:26564067

  15. IRAS known asteroid prediction and association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kia, Tooraj; Fowler, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques and procedures employed to obtain data concerning the known asteroids from IRAS observations are discussed. The IRAS observations covered 95 percent of the sky with at least four scans of the telescope field of view. A search was first carried out for geometrical intersections of the trajectories of a given asteroid and the telescope boresight, following which a matched sighting was sought for each such intersection among the actual IRAS point source detections. By using ground based measurements of visual magnitudes, IRAS observations of IR brightness, and a thermal model, albedos and diameters have been computed for 1,822 known asteroids, increasing the amount of this kind of information by about an order of magnitude.

  16. BROAD COMPONENTS IN OPTICAL EMISSION LINES FROM THE ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE NGC 5408 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cseh, D.; Corbel, S.

    2011-02-10

    High-resolution optical spectra of the ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1 show a broad component with a width of {approx}750 km s{sup -1} in the He II and H{beta} lines in addition to the narrow component observed in these lines and [O III]. Reanalysis of moderate-resolution spectra shows a similar broad component in the He II line. The broad component likely originates in the ULX system itself, probably in the accretion disk. The central wavelength of the broad He II line is shifted by 252 {+-} 47 km s{sup -1} between the two observations. If this shift represents motion of the compact object, then its mass is less than {approx}1800 M{sub sun}.

  17. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations of a super-Eddington accretor as a model for ultra-luminous sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Takumi; Mineshige, Shin; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Ohsuga, Ken; Hashizume, Katsuya

    2017-03-01

    We perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of super-Eddington accretion flow and the accompanying outflow to investigate how they will be observed from various viewing directions. We consider gas flow around a 10 M⊙ black hole for mass injection rates of \\dot{M}_inj/{\\dot{M}_Edd}=102, 103, and 104 (in units of \\dot{M}_Edd≡ L_Edd/c^2, with LEdd and c being the Eddington luminosity and the speed of light, respectively), and solve gas dynamics and radiation transfer around the black hole, taking into account inverse Compton scattering. We confirm the tendency that the higher the mass accretion rate is, the larger the relative importance of outflow over accretion flow becomes. The observational appearance of the super-Eddington flow is distinct, depending on whether it is viewed from the edge-on direction or from the face-on direction. This is because nearly edge-on observers can only see the outer, cooler (∼106 K) surface of the inner, vertically inflated part of the flow. Observational properties are briefly discussed in the context of the ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs), the extreme ULXs (E-ULXs), and the ultra-luminous supersoft sources (ULSs). We find that the extremely high luminosities of E-ULXs (L ∼ 1041 erg s-1) can be explained when the flow on to the black hole with ≳20 M⊙ with a very high accretion rate, \\dot{m}}_{ acc} (≡ {{\\dot{M}}_{ acc}/ {\\dot{M}}_{ Edd}}) ≳ {103}, is observed from the nearly face-on direction. The high luminosity (∼1039 erg s-1) and the very soft blackbody-like spectra with temperatures around 0.1 keV, which are observed in the ULSs, can be explained if the super-Eddington flow with \\dot{m}}_acc ˜ 102-103 is viewed from large viewing angles, θ ≳ 30°.

  18. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  19. The Integrated X-Ray Spectrum of Galactic Populations of Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.; Becker, C. M.; Fabbiano, G.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the composite X-ray spectrum of a population of unresolved SSS's in a spiral galaxy such as our own or M31. The sources are meant to represent the total underlying population corresponding to all sources which have bolometric luminosities in the range of 10(exp 37) - 10(exp 38) ergs/s and kT on the order of tens of eV. These include close-binary supersoft sources, symbiotic novae, and planetary nebulae, for example. In order to determine whether the associated X-ray signal would be detectable, we also 'seed' the galaxy with other types of X-ray sources, specifically low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's) and high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB's). We find that the total spectrum due to SSS's, LMXB's, and HMXB's exhibits a soft peak which owes its presence to the SSS population. Preliminary indications are that this soft peak may be observable.

  20. Infalling-Rotating Motion and Associated Chemical Change in the Envelope of IRAS 16293-2422 Source A Studied with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Yoko; Sakai, Nami; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Lefloch, Bertrand; Favre, Cécile; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We have analyzed rotational spectral line emission of OCS, CH3OH, HCOOCH3, and H2CS observed toward the low-mass Class 0 protostellar source IRAS 16293-2422 Source A at a sub-arcsecond resolution (˜0.″6 × 0.″5) with ALMA. Significant chemical differentiation is found on a scale of 50 au. The OCS line is found to trace well the infalling-rotating envelope in this source. On the other hand, the distributions of CH3OH and HCOOCH3 are found to be concentrated around the inner part of the infalling-rotating envelope. With a simple ballistic model of the infalling-rotating envelope, the radius of the centrifugal barrier (a half of the centrifugal radius) and the protostellar mass are evaluated from the OCS data to be from 40 to 60 au and from 0.5 to 1.0 M ⊙, respectively, assuming the inclination angle of the envelope/disk structure to be 60° (90° for the edge-on configuration). Although the protostellar mass is correlated with the inclination angle, the radius of the centrifugal barrier is not. This is the first indication of the centrifugal barrier of the infalling-rotating envelope in a hot corino source. CH3OH and HCOOCH3 may be liberated from ice mantles by weak accretion shocks around the centrifugal barrier and/or by protostellar heating. The H2CS emission seems to come from the disk component inside the centrifugal barrier in addition to the envelope component. The centrifugal barrier plays a central role not only in the formation of a rotationally supported disk but also in the chemical evolution from the envelope to the protoplanetary disk.

  1. The Counterparts of the Luminous, Bursting X-ray Sources in Globular Clusters-LTSA98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Scott F.

    2003-01-01

    Under the fifth year of the LTSA, we have extended our HST and Chandra work to a number of additional globular clusters. The remarkable sensitivity and positional accuracy of the Chandra observations are enabling us to maximally exploit HST for UV/optical identifications for X-ray binaries in the cores of multiple globular clusters. The dozens of lower-luminosity X-ray sources in each globular cluster deeply examined thus far have moved us firmly into the era of studies which encompass populations of close; the large range of cluster properties we are studying have, for the first tine, established a firm empirical confirmation of the (long-suspected theoretically) high importance that close binaries play in the dynamical stability and evolution of globular clusters. The LTSA support has been a cornerstone of our success over the past 5 years in studies of globular cluster X-ray sources and their counterparts.

  2. Suzaku observations of spectral variations of the ultra-luminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shogo B.; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Makishima, Kazuo

    2017-02-01

    Observations of the ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 were carried out with Suzaku twice, once on 2012 April 13 and then on 2012 October 24, with exposures of 180 ks and 217 ks, respectively. The source showed a hard power-law shaped spectrum with a mild cutoff at ˜8 keV, which is typical of ULXs when they are relatively dim. On both occasions, the 0.6-11 keV spectrum was explained successfully in terms of a cool (˜0.2 keV) multi-color disk blackbody emission model and thermal Comptonization emission produced by an electron cloud with a relatively low temperature and high optical depth, assuming that a large fraction of the disk-blackbody photons are Comptonized whereas the rest are observed directly. The 0.5-10 keV luminosity was 1.2 × 1040 erg s-1 in April, and ˜14% higher in October. This brightening was accompanied by spectral softening in ≥2 keV, with little change in the ≤2 keV spectral shape. This behavior can be understood if the accretion disk remains unchanged while the electron cloud covers a variable fraction of the disk. The absorbing column density was consistent with the galactic line-of sight value, and did not vary by more than 1.6 × 1021 cm-2. Together with the featureless spectra, these properties may not be reconciled easily with the super-critical accretion scenario of this source.

  3. High energy gamma rays from nebulae associated with extragalactic microquasars and ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kobayashi, Shogo B.

    2017-04-01

    In the extragalactic sky, microquasars and ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are known as energetic compact objects locating at off-nucleus positions in galaxies. Some of these objects are associated with expanding bubbles with a velocity of 80-250 km s - 1. We investigate the shock acceleration of particles in those expanding nebulae. The nebulae having fast expansion velocity ≳ 120km s - 1 are able to accelerate cosmic rays up to ∼100 TeV. If 10% of the shock kinetic energy goes into particle acceleration, powerful nebulae such as the microquasar S26 in NGC 7793 would emit gamma rays up to several tens TeV with a photon index of ∼2. These nebulae will be good targets for future Cherenkov Telescope Array observations given its sensitivity and angular resolution. They would also contribute to ∼7% of the unresolved cosmic gamma-ray background radiation at ≥ 0.1 GeV. In contrast, particle acceleration in slowly expanding nebulae ≲ 120km s - 1 would be less efficient due to ion-neutral collisions and result in softer spectra at ≳ 10 GeV.

  4. Terminal speed of a gaseous stratus with finite optical depth over a luminous flat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Takao; Fukue, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We reexamine the terminal speed of a moving stratus irradiated by an infinite flat source, considering relativistic radiative transfer in the stratus. For the case of a particle, V. Icke (1989, A&A, 216, 294) analytically derived the terminal speed of (4-√{7})c/3 ˜ 0.45 c, whereas the terminal speed of a stratus with finite optical depth is calculated under the Eddington approximation (J. Fukue, 2014, PASJ, 66, 13), and becomes larger up to 0.7 c in the optically thin limit. In this paper, we numerically calculate radiative transfer in the stratus without the Eddington approximation, and obtain the terminal speed. In the optically thick limit the terminal speed approaches 0.47 c. In the optically thin limit, in contrast to the previous analytical study, it becomes small as the optical depth decreases, and approaches 0.26 c. This is due to the anisotropic effect of the radiation field in the optically thin regime.

  5. Models for infrared emission from IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1987-01-01

    Models for the infrared emission from Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) galaxies by Rowan-Robinson and Crawford, by deJong and Brink, and by Helou, are reviewed. Rowan-Robinson and Crawford model the 12 to 100 micron radiation from IRAS galaxies in terms of 3 components: a normal disk component, due to interstellar cirrus; a starburst component, modeled as hot stars in an optically thick dust cloud; and a Seyfert component, modeled as a power-law continuum immersed in an n(r) variation r sup -1 dust cloud associated with the narrow-line region of the Seyfert nucleus. The correlations between the luminosities in the different components, the blue luminosity, and the X-ray luminosity of the galaxies are consistent with the model. Spectra from 0.1 to 1000 microns are predicted and compared with available observations. The de Jong and Brink, and Helou, model IRAS non-Seyfert galaxies in terms of a cool (cirrus) component and a warm (starburst) component. The de Jong and Brink estimate the face-on internal extinction in the galaxies and find that it is higher in galaxies with more luminous starbursts. In Helou's model the spectrum of the warm component varies strongly with the luminosity in that component. The three models are briefly compared.

  6. SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS z > 7 GALAXY CANDIDATES AND SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION IN z > 7 GALAXY SEARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Capak, P.; Jullo, E.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H.; Ilbert, O.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; LeFloch, E.; Carilli, C.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Kartaltepe, J.; Sanders, D. B.; Leauthaud, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Schinnerer, E.

    2011-04-01

    We present three bright z{sup +}-dropout candidates selected from deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. All three objects match the 0.8-8 {mu}m colors of other published z > 7 candidates but are 3 mag brighter, facilitating further study. Deep spectroscopy of two of the candidates covering 0.64-1.02 {mu}m with Keck-DEIMOS and all three covering 0.94-1.10 {mu}m and 1.52-1.80 {mu}m with Keck-NIRSPEC detects weak spectral features tentatively identified as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.95 and z = 7.69 in two of the objects. The third object is placed at z {approx} 1.6 based on a 24 {mu}m and weak optical detection. A comparison with the spectral energy distributions of known z < 7 galaxies, including objects with strong spectral lines, large extinction, and large systematic uncertainties in the photometry, yields no objects with similar colors. However, the {lambda} > 1 {mu}m properties of all three objects can be matched to optically detected sources with photometric redshifts at z {approx} 1.8, so the non-detection in the i {sup +} and z {sup +} bands is the primary factor which favors a z > 7 solution. If any of these objects are at z {approx} 7, the bright end of the luminosity function is significantly higher at z > 7 than suggested by previous studies, but consistent within the statistical uncertainty and the dark matter halo distribution. If these objects are at low redshift, the Lyman break selection must be contaminated by a previously unknown population of low-redshift objects with very strong breaks in their broadband spectral energy distributions and blue NIR colors. The implications of this result on luminosity function evolution at high redshift are discussed. We show that the primary limitation of z > 7 galaxy searches with broad filters is the depth of the available optical data.

  7. Luminous supernovae.

    PubMed

    Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2012-08-24

    Supernovae, the luminous explosions of stars, have been observed since antiquity. However, various examples of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe; luminosities >7 × 10(43) ergs per second) have only recently been documented. From the accumulated evidence, SLSNe can be classified as radioactively powered (SLSN-R), hydrogen-rich (SLSN-II), and hydrogen-poor (SLSN-I, the most luminous class). The SLSN-II and SLSN-I classes are more common, whereas the SLSN-R class is better understood. The physical origins of the extreme luminosity emitted by SLSNe are a focus of current research.

  8. A Stellar-mass Black Hole in the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source M82 X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Ebisawa, Ken; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the archival XMM-Newton data of the archetypal Ultra-Luminous X-ray Source (ULX) M82 X-1 with an LO5 ksec exposure when the source was in the steady state. Thanks to the high photon statistics from the large effective area and long exposure, we were able to discriminate different X-ray continuum spectral models. Neither the standard accretion disk model (where the radial dependency of the disk effective temperature is T(r) proportional to r(sup -3/4)) nor a power-law model gives a satisfactory fit. In fact, observed curvature of the M82 X-1 spectrum was just between those of the two models. When the exponent of the radial dependence (p in T(r) proportional to r(sup -P)) of the disk temperature is allowed to be free, we obtained p = 0.61 (sup +0.03)(sub -0.02). Such a reduction of p from the standard value 3/4 under extremely high mass accretion rates is predicted from the accretion disk theory as a consequence of the radial energy advection. Thus, the accretion disk in M82 X-1 is considered to be in the Slim disk state, where an optically thick Advection Dominant Accretion Flow (ADAF) is taking place. We have applied a theoretical slim disk spectral model to M82 X-1, and estimated the black hole mass approximately equal to 19 - 32 solar mass. We conclude that M82 X-1 is a stellar black hole which has been produced through evolution of an extremely massive star, shining at a several times the super-Eddington luminosity.

  9. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research activities related to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sky survey. About 745 luminous stars were examined for the presence of interstellar dust heated by a nearby star. The 'cirrus' discovered by IRAS is thermal radiation from interstellar dust at moderate and high galactic latitudes. The IRAS locates the dust which must (at some level) scatter ultraviolet starlight, although it was expected that thermal emission would be found around virtually every star, most stars shown no detectable emission. And the emission found is not uniform. It is not that the star is embedded in 'an interstellar medium', but rather what is found are discrete clouds that are heated by starlight. An exception is the dearth of clouds near the very hottest stars, implying that the very hottest stars play an active role with respect to destroying or substantially modifying the dust clouds over time. The other possibility is simply that the hottest stars are located in regions lacking in dust, which is counter-intuitive. A bibliography of related journal articles is attached.

  10. THE SPATIOKINEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF H{sub 2}O AND OH MASERS IN THE ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' SOURCE IRAS 18460-0151

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun; Diamond, Philip J. E-mail: deguchishuji60@gmail.com E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk

    2013-08-20

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array and the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network, we have observed 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O and 1612 MHz OH masers in the water fountain source IRAS 18460-0151. The H{sub 2}O maser spectrum has a very wide line-of-sight velocity range ( Almost-Equal-To 310 km s{sup -1}) and consists of three groups of emission features at the blueshifted (-68 km s{sup -1}{approx}< V{sub LSR} {approx}< -17 km s{sup -1}) and redshifted (V{sub LSR} {approx_equal} 240 km s{sup -1}) edges as well as around the systemic velocity (112 km s{sup -1} {approx}< V{sub LSR} {approx}< 133 km s{sup -1}). The first two H{sub 2}O spectral components exhibit a highly collimated high-velocity bipolar jet on the sky, with an angular separation of Almost-Equal-To 120 milliarcsec (mas) (240 AU in linear length) and a three-dimensional flow velocity of Almost-Equal-To 160 km s{sup -1}. The flow dynamical age is estimated to be only Almost-Equal-To 6 yr (at the time of the observation epochs of 2006-2007). Interestingly, the systemic velocity component clearly exhibits a spherically expanding outflow with a radius of Almost-Equal-To 36 AU and a flow velocity of Almost-Equal-To 9 km s{sup -1}. On the other hand, the OH maser spectrum shows double peaks with a velocity separation of Almost-Equal-To 25 km s{sup -1} (V{sub LSR} = 111-116 and 138-141 km s{sup -1}), as typically seen in circumstellar envelopes of OH/IR stars. The angular offset between the velocity-integrated brightness peaks of the two high-velocity H{sub 2}O components is Almost-Equal-To 25 mas (50 AU). The offset direction and the alignment of the redshifted maser spots are roughly perpendicular to the axis of the H{sub 2}O maser flow. High-accuracy astrometry for the H{sub 2}O and OH masers demonstrates that the collimated fast jet and the slowly expanding outflow originate from a single or multiple sources which are located within 15 mas (30 AU). On the other hand, the estimated systemic velocity of

  11. IRIS: A New Generation of IRAS Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Lagache, G.

    2006-12-01

    In this contribution we present IRIS, a new generation of IRAS images at 12, 25, 60 and 100 μm. IRIS benefits from a better destriping, it keeps the full ISSA resolution, it includes well calibrated point sources and the diffuse emission calibration at scales smaller than 1° was corrected for the variation of the IRAS detector responsivity with scale and brightness. At 100 μm the IRIS product is also a significant improvement from the Schlegel et al. (1998) maps. The uncertainty on the IRIS calibration and zero level are dominated by the uncertainties on the DIRBE calibration and on the zodiacal light model.

  12. Spectroscopy of Luminous z > 7 Galaxy Candidates and Sources of Contamination in z > 7 Galaxy Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N. Z.; McCracken, H.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; Carilli, C.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Jullo, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Leauthaud, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; LeFloch, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Shioya, Y.; Shopbell, P.; Tanaguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Willott, C. J.

    2011-04-01

    We present three bright z +-dropout candidates selected from deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the COSMOS 2 deg2 field. All three objects match the 0.8-8 μm colors of other published z > 7 candidates but are 3 mag brighter, facilitating further study. Deep spectroscopy of two of the candidates covering 0.64-1.02 μm with Keck-DEIMOS and all three covering 0.94-1.10 μm and 1.52-1.80 μm with Keck-NIRSPEC detects weak spectral features tentatively identified as Lyα at z = 6.95 and z = 7.69 in two of the objects. The third object is placed at z ~ 1.6 based on a 24 μm and weak optical detection. A comparison with the spectral energy distributions of known z < 7 galaxies, including objects with strong spectral lines, large extinction, and large systematic uncertainties in the photometry, yields no objects with similar colors. However, the λ > 1 μm properties of all three objects can be matched to optically detected sources with photometric redshifts at z ~ 1.8, so the non-detection in the i + and z + bands is the primary factor which favors a z > 7 solution. If any of these objects are at z ~ 7, the bright end of the luminosity function is significantly higher at z > 7 than suggested by previous studies, but consistent within the statistical uncertainty and the dark matter halo distribution. If these objects are at low redshift, the Lyman break selection must be contaminated by a previously unknown population of low-redshift objects with very strong breaks in their broadband spectral energy distributions and blue NIR colors. The implications of this result on luminosity function evolution at high redshift are discussed. We show that the primary limitation of z > 7 galaxy searches with broad filters is the depth of the available optical data. Based on observations with the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space

  13. The IRAS galaxy 0421+040P06: An active spiral (?) galaxy with extended radio lobes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A.; Wynn-Williams, C. G.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Persson, S. E.; Heasley, J. N.; Miley, G. K.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Houck, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The infrared bright galaxy 0421+040P06 detected by IRAS at 25 and 60 microns was studied at optical, infrared, and radio wavelength. It is a luminous galaxy with apparent spiral structure emitting 4 x 10 to the 37th power from far-infrared to optical wavelengths. Optical spectroscopy reveals a Seyfert 2 emission line spectrum, making 0421+040P06 the first active galaxy selected from an unbiased infrared survey of galaxies. The fact that this galaxy shows a flatter energy distribution with more 25 micron emission than other galaxies in the infrared sample may be related to the presence of an intense active nucleus. The radio observations reveal the presence of a non-thermal source that, at 6 cm, shows a prominent double lobed structure 20 to 30 kpc in size extending beyond the optical confines of the galaxy. The radio source is three to ten times larger than structures previously seen in spiral galaxies.

  14. Testing the Paradigm that Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray luminous objects possess the fattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra band pass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity > or equals 5x10(exp 39) ergs/s) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar-mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs - i.e., the "simple IMBH model" - is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to some large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find (1) that cool disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) that cool disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 10(exp 39) ergs/s, down to our sample limit of 10(exp 38:3) ergs/s. The fact that cool disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which a strong statistical support was never made.

  15. Optimizing spectral compositions of multichannel LED light sources by IES color fidelity index and luminous efficacy of radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuzheng; Xu, Haisong; Wang, Zhehong

    2017-03-01

    The trade-off between the color fidelity index (Rf) released recently by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) and luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) was investigated by adjusting the peak wavelengths, spectral widths, and intensities of four-channel LEDs utilizing a multiobjective optimization algorithm based on differential evolution in the correlated color temperature (CCT) ranging from 2800 to 6500 K for general lighting. The results indicate that Rf at a specific LER value decreases with the increasing CCT, and vice versa, and that Rf has significant improvements over the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color rendering index (CRI) in avoiding spectral gaming and evaluating the light sources even with negative CIE general CRI (Ra). Further, the optimal peak wavelengths with regard to Rf were identified as 629 nm, 568 nm, 504 nm, and 447 nm, yielding high color rendering in terms of Rf(93∼94) and Ra(95∼97) and relatively excellent LER (299  lm/W∼339  lm/W) over a wide range of CCTs from 2800 to 6500 K. This suggests that Rf can be compatible with Ra, making it possible to obtain a common set of optimal peak wavelengths for Rf and Ra. Besides, the IES method could assess saturated red and skin tones more fairly than the CIE CRI. With a practical 17-channel LED array covering the resulted four optimal peak wavelengths, the improvements of the IES method over the CIE CRI were validated further.

  16. Binary black hole merger rates inferred from luminosity function of ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Isobe, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected direct signals of gravitational waves (GWs) from GW150914. The event was a merger of binary black holes whose masses are 36^{+5}_{-4} M_{{⊙}} and 29^{+4}_{-4} M_{{⊙}}. Such binary systems are expected to be directly evolved from stellar binary systems or formed by dynamical interactions of black holes in dense stellar environments. Here we derive the binary black hole merger rate based on the nearby ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) luminosity function (LF) under the assumption that binary black holes evolve through X-ray emitting phases. We obtain the binary black hole merger rate as 5.8(tULX/0.1 Myr)- 1λ- 0.6exp ( - 0.30λ) Gpc- 3 yr- 1, where tULX is the typical duration of the ULX phase and λ is the Eddington ratio in luminosity. This is coincident with the event rate inferred from the detection of GW150914 as well as the predictions based on binary population synthesis models. Although we are currently unable to constrain the Eddington ratio of ULXs in luminosity due to the uncertainties of our models and measured binary black hole merger event rates, further X-ray and GW data will allow us to narrow down the range of the Eddington ratios of ULXs. We also find the cumulative merger rate for the mass range of 5 M⊙ ≤ MBH ≤ 100 M⊙ inferred from the ULX LF is consistent with that estimated by the aLIGO collaboration considering various astrophysical conditions such as the mass function of black holes.

  17. X-ray QPOs from the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source in M82: Evidence Against Beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) CCD cameras onboard XMM-Newton of a 54 mHz quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) in the greater than 2 keV X-ray flux from the ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) X41.4+60 in the starburst galaxy M82. This is the first detection of a QPO in the X-ray flux from an extra-Galactic ULX, and confirms that the source is a compact object. The QPO is detected in the combined PN and MOS data at the approx. 6sigma level, and separately at lower significances in both the PN and MOS instruments. It had a centroid frequency of 54.3 +/- 0.9 mHz, a coherence Q is identical with nu(sub 0)/Delta nu(sub fwhm) is approx. 5, and an amplitude (rms) in the 2 - 10 keV band of 8.5%. Below about 0.2 Hz the power spectrum can be described by a power-law with index approx. 1, and integrated amplitude (rms) of 13.5%. The X-ray spectrum requires a curving continuum, with a disk-blackbody (diskbb) at T = 3.1 keV providing an acceptable, but not unique, fit. A broad Fe line centered at 6.55 keV is required in all fits, but the equivalent width (EW) of the line is sensitive to the choice of continuum model. There is no evidence of a reflection component. The implied bolometric luminosity is approx. 4 - 5 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. Data from several archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) pointings at M82 also show evidence for QPOs in the 50 - 100 mHz frequency range. Several Galactic black hole candidates (BHCs), including GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40, and XTE 1550-564, show QPOs in the same frequency range as the 50 - 100 mHz QPOs in X41.4+60, which at first glance suggests a possible connection with such objects. However, strong, narrow QPOs provide solid evidence for disk emission, and thus present enormous theoretical difficulties for models which rely on either geometrically or relativistically beamed emission to account for the high X-ray luminosities. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of the ULX sources.

  18. On the Nature of the Enigmatic Object IRAS 19312+1950: A Rare Phase of Massive Star Formation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Justtanont, K.; Cox, N. L. J.; Smith, R. G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Wirstrom, E. S.; Milam, S. N.; Keane, J. V.

    2016-01-01

    IRAS?19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS?19312+1950 in the range 5-550 microns using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 microns, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: approx. = 0.22 Stellar Mass of material at 280+/-18 K, and ˜1.6 Me of material at 157+/-3 K. The OI 63 micron line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km/s along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H2O at 5.8 microns and CO2 at 15 microns. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (approx. 2 × 10(exp 4) Stellar Luminosity) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass approx. 500-700 Stellar Mass with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs.

  19. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  20. Millimetre observations of the IRAS 18162-2048 outflow: evidence for cloud disruption around an intermediate-mass protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedettini, M.; Molinari, S.; Testi, L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the morphology and the dynamics of the molecular outflow associated with IRAS 18162-2048, a wide area of ~95 arcmin2 around the source has been mapped by means of CO and 13CO (1-0) lines, and has been complemented by a map of a smaller region surrounding the high-mass object using the C18O (1-0) and CH3OH (2k-1k) and (3k-2k) transitions. The lines profile reveals the presence of several velocity components among which two major line components at 11.9 and 12.8 km s-1 have been detected in all the tracers. Simple morphological and energetic considerations led us to interpret the observations in a relatively straightforward scenario in which the powerful jet ejected by IRAS 18162-2048 sets a big portion of the surrounding molecular cloud into motion. The energy and momentum deposited by the flow break the cloud apart, shifting the northern region to a blue velocity and the southern region to a red velocity, and giving rise to a giant outflow. We calculated the physical parameters of the outflow, which make the IRAS 18162-2048 outflow one of the most massive (M= 570 Msolar) and energetic (K > 1046 erg) known. Despite the intrinsic difficulties in giving a precise value of the age and of the inclination angle of the flow, we used different methods to derive a reliable estimate. Our data show evidence in favour of a small inclination angle (<50°) and of a maximum outflow age of ~106 yr. C18O and CH3OH trace the dense core surrounding IRAS 18162-2048 and show an elongated emission in the direction perpendicular to the outflow axis. Besides the peak emission associated with the IRAS source, we found another peak at the position which coincides with a red near-infrared source. We provided evidence that this second peak may be surrounded by a flattened rotating structure, suggesting that the newly discovered infrared source can be another site of recent star formation in this region. Our analysis suggest that the powerful wind/outflow from the luminous

  1. Studies of IRAS sources at high galactic latitudes. I - Source counts at /b/greater than 60 deg and evidence for a north-south anisotropy of cosmological significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Walker, D.; Chester, T.; Soifer, T.; Fairclough, J.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the IRAS sky at b with an absolute value greater than 60 deg is conducted. Source counts at 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns are presented, and it is shown that emission from interstellar dust at 100 microns is localized to a few small areas of tathe galactic polar caps. At 12 and 25 microns, the sky is dominated by stars; at 60 and 100 microns, by galaxies. Comparison with the minisurvey source counts indicates the 12and 25-micron source denstiy is lower at the present latitude than at a latitude whereby the absolute value of b equals 10-40 deg. Due to the greatly reduced effects of emission from interstellar dust, the 100 micron survey reaches a factor 1.6 deeper in flux at the present latitude than the minisurvey. An anisotropy significant at the 4-sigma level was found between the north and south galactic polar caps at 60 and 100 microns, after exclusion of the Virgo cluster and of the few remaining areas significantly affected by interstellar-dust emission. It is suggested that this anisotropy represents a cosmologically significant anisotropy in the galaxy distribution. The scale of associated inhomogeneity is of the order of at least 100(50/H)Mpc.

  2. Monsters and babies from the first/IRAS survey

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bruegel, W J M

    1999-02-16

    Radio continuum emission at cm wavelengths is relatively little affected by extinction. When combined with far-infrared (FIR) surveys this provides for a convenient and unbiased method to select (radio-loud) AGN and starbursts deeply embedded in gas and dust-rich galaxies. Such radio-selected FIR samples are useful for detailed investigations of the complex relationships between (radio) galaxy and starburst activity, and to determine whether ULIRGs are powered by hidden quasars (monsters) or young stars (babies). We present the results of a large program to obtain identifications and spectra of radio-sleected, optically faint IRAS/FSC objects using the FIRST/VLA 20 cm survey (Becker, White and Helfand 1995). These objects are all radio-'quiet' in the sense that their radio power/FIR luminosities follow the well-known radio/FIR relationship for star forming galaxies. We compare these results to a previous study by our group of a sample of radio-'loud' IRAS/FSC ULIRGs selected from the Texas 365 MHz survey (Douglas et al. 1996). Many of these objects also show evidence for dominant, A-type stellar populations, as well as high ionization lines usually associated with AGN. These radio-loud ULIRGs have properties intermediate between those of starbursts and quasars, suggesting a possibile evolutionary connection. Deep Keck spectroscopic observations of three ULIRGs from these samples are presented, including high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetry. The polarimetry observations failed to show evidence of a hidden quasar in polarized (scattered) light in the two systems in which the stellar light was dominated by A-type stars. Although observations of a larger sample would be needed to allow a general conclusion, our current data suggest that a large fraction of ULIRGs may be powered by luminous starbursts, not by hidden, luminous AGN (quasars). While we used radio-selected FIR sources to search for evidence of a causal AGN/starburst connection, we conclude our

  3. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-luminous X-ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Ebisawa, Ken; Zycki, Piotr; Kubota, Aya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Watarai, Ken-ya

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (greater than or approximately equal to 300 Solar Mass). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super- Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  4. Luminous presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paula

    2008-02-01

    The Luminous Presence project examines the use of standard film language in the framing, angle and of points of view of holographic subjects though eight digital holographic stereograms; seven 25 x 25 cm, Hail, Water, Rain, Snow, Sun, Text, Imprint and 1.5 x 1 m, Luminous Presences i. However, before embarking on a discussion of how filmic language can be used in digital holograms it is first important to explain why this line of investigation could be fruitful. Undoubtedly several of the compositional practices which sprung up and evolved throughout the development of the diverse forms of the holographic medium have contributed to a unique hologram pictorial language, however it is well known that the reading of visual imagery of any type relies a great deal on the viewer's knowledge of and experience of other images .The lens-recorded imagery of film is a far more familiar language than that of holograms and the correlation between certain filmic pictorial conventions and emotional responses are well documented and understood. ii . In short the language of film contains a highly nuanced vocabulary of shot types and lens types (which may be criticised as being formulaic) yet are effective in lending emotion to figures.

  5. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    tronomical Satellite (IRAS) and to compute albedos and diameters from their IRAS fluxes. It also presents listings of the results obtained. These...how this material should be referenced. The primary purpose of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was to survey the sky in four wavelength...bands centered near 12, 25, 60 and 100 pm. The satellite was launched in January 1983 and obtained observations until November 1983. In this period it

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAS PSC/FSC Combined Catalogue (Abrahamyan+ 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamyan, H. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Knyazyan, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical identifications of a few thousands of IRAS sources showed that IRAS Point Source and IRAS Faint Source catalogues (PSC and FSC, respectively) contain many quasars and active galactic nuclei, late-type stars, planetary nebulae, variables, etc. To increase the efficiency of using IRAS PSC and FSC, which contain a lot of common sources, one needs a joint catalogue of all IRAS point sources with improved data based on both catalogues. However, cross-correlation of the catalogues is not so easy, as the association of many sources is relative, and not always it is obvious, whose source from one catalogue corresponds to the other one in the second catalogue. This problem exists in case of using standard cross-correlation tools. Therefore, we have created a tool for cross-matching astronomical catalogues and we have applied it to IRAS PSC and FSC. Using this tool we have carried out identifications with a search radius corresponding to 3-σ of errors for each source individually rather than a standard radius for all sources. As a result, we obtained 73,770 associations. In addition, we have made cross-correlations with AKARI-IRC, AKARI-FIS and WISE catalogues. We created a catalogue of 345,163 IRAS sources with high positional accuracy and with 17 photometric measurements from 1.25 to 160 ?m range, providing a detailed catalogue for IRAS point sources. (1 data file).

  7. A Compton-thick active galactic nucleus powering the hyperluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 00182-7112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandra, K.; Iwasawa, K.

    2007-11-01

    We present X-ray observations of the hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) IRAS 00182- 7112 obtained using the XMM-Newton EPIC camera. A luminous hard X-ray source coincident with the nucleus is revealed, along with weaker soft X-ray emission which may be extended or offset from the hard emission. The EPIC spectrum is extremely flat and shows Fe Kα emission with very high equivalent width: both are typical characteristics of a buried, Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) which is seen only in scattered light. Perhaps the most remarkable characteristic of the spectrum is that the Fe Kα line energy is that of He-like iron, making IRAS 00182-7112 the first hidden AGN known to be dominated by ionized, Compton-thick reflection. Taking an appropriate bolometric correction, we find that this AGN could easily dominate the far-infrared (FIR) energetics. The nuclear reflection spectrum is seen through a relatively cold absorber with column density consistent with recent Spitzer observations. The soft X-ray emission, which may be thermal in nature and associated with star-forming activity, is seen unabsorbed. The soft X-rays and weak polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features both give estimates of the star formation rate ~300Msolar yr-1, insufficient to power the FIR emission and supportive of the idea that this HLIRG is AGN-dominated.

  8. [The role of IRA B cells in selected inflammatory processes].

    PubMed

    Zasada, Magdalena; Rutkowska-Zapała, Magdalena; Lenart, Marzena; Kwinta, Przemko

    2016-03-16

    The first report about the discovery of new, previously unknown immune cells named IRA B cells (innate response activator B cells) appeared in 2012. So far, their presence has been verified in both mice and humans. However, IRA B cells belong to the family of B lymphocytes and have a number of characteristics unique to this group of cells. IRA B cells are formed from activated B1a lymphocytes after their contact with a pathogen. B1a lymphocytes mainly reside within body cavities. Activated by the pathogen, they move on into secondary lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes) where they differentiate into IRA B cells. IRA B cells are a rich source of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF can stimulate IRA B cells in an autocrine manner for the secretion of intracellular stocks of immunoglobulin M (IgM), which can facilitate pathogens' phagocytosis by neutrophils. GM-CSF also stimulates neutrophils into active phagocytosis. Rapid eradication of the pathogen can prevent the development of an excessive inflammatory response, which can be dangerous for the organism. Until now the involvement of IRA B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of sepsis and pneumonia has been proven, as well as their role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in mice. There is research in progress on the possibility of increasing the number of IRA B cells, for example by intravenous supply of modified immunoglobulins. It is necessary to characterize human IRA B cells and to determine their role in the functioning of the immune system.

  9. IRIS: A New Generation of IRAS Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Lagache, Guilaine

    2005-04-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) had a tremendous impact on many areas of modern astrophysics. In particular, it revealed the ubiquity of infrared cirrus that are a spectacular manifestation of the interstellar medium complexity but also an important foreground for observational cosmology. With the forthcoming Planck satellite there is a need for all-sky complementary data sets with arcminute resolution that can bring informations on specific foreground emissions that contaminate the cosmic microwave background radiation. With its ~4' resolution matching perfectly the high-frequency bands of Planck, IRAS is a natural data set to study the variations of dust properties at all scales. But the latest version of the images delivered by the IRAS team (the ISSA plates) suffer from calibration, zero level, and striping problems that can preclude its use, especially at 12 and 25 μm. In this paper we present how we proceeded to solve each of these problems and enhance significantly the general quality of the ISSA plates in the four bands (12, 25, 60, and 100 μm). This new generation of IRAS images, called IRIS, benefits from a better zodiacal light subtraction, from a calibration and zero level compatible with DIRBE, and from a better destriping. At 100 μm the IRIS product is also a significant improvement from the Schlegel et al. maps. IRIS keeps the full ISSA resolution, it includes well-calibrated point sources, and the diffuse emission calibration at scales smaller than 1° was corrected for the variation of the IRAS detector responsivity with scale and brightness. The uncertainty on the IRIS calibration and zero level is dominated by the uncertainty on the DIRBE calibration and on the accuracy of the zodiacal light model.

  10. IRAS observations of NGC 1052

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B.T.; Rice, W.

    1984-12-01

    The galaxy NGC 1052 has been observed with the IRAS satellite. The infrared emission at 100 microns is substantially larger than a smooth extrapolation of the radio data. Because of the large diaphragm size of IRAS, it is impossible to decide uniquely if the infrared radiation represents a self-absorbed nonthermal spectrum or thermal reradiation by heated dust. 23 references.

  11. IRAS observations of NGC 1052

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Rice, W.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    The galaxy NGC 1052 has been observed with the IRAS satellite. The infrared emission at 100 microns is substantially larger than a smooth extrapolation of the radio data. Because of the large diaphragm size of IRAS, it is impossible to decide uniquely if the infrared radiation represents a self-absorbed nonthermal spectrum or thermal reradiation by heated dust.

  12. [IRA protection. Needs and possibilities].

    PubMed

    Schroeder, P; Krutmann, J

    2009-04-01

    When it comes to skin damage, solar radiation is often regarded to be identical to ultraviolet (UV) but it includes much more. Over 90% of solar radiation is in the non-UV-range. Infrared A radiation (IRA, 760-1440 nm) accounts for around 30% of the solar energy reaching the earth's surface and exert detrimental effects on the skin. IRA alters the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix by leading to an increased expression of the collagen degrading enzyme matrixmetalloproteinase-1 while decreasing the expression of the dominant collagen gene Col1alpha1. IRA therefore leads to endpoints similar to UV, but the underlying biological mechanisms are substantially different. IRA acts via the mitochondria. IRA-specific protective approaches should be added to conventional sun protections strategies.

  13. Analysis of IRAS solar system dust data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.; Nicholson, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Data in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Zodiacal History File were analyzed to extract dust band locations and peak brightness measurements from approximately 1,000 individual IRAS scans. The study had three goals. One was to show that the prominent solar system dust bands are associated with Hirayama asteroid families and thus that collisions between asteroids account for a significant fraction of the particles in the zodiacal cloud. Recent work suggests that while the Hirayama families are a major source of the dust in the bands, there may also be contributions from two or three smaller, more recently recognized asteroid families. A second goal was to show that there is evidence in the IRAS dust data for the transport of particles from asteroid belt to the Earth by Poynting-Robertson light drag and thus account for the fact that asteroid particles are collected in the Earth's stratosphere. Results of the study will confirm the location of the dust bands within the inner asteroid belt, and show conclusively that the material seen by IRAS is now spread over a wide range of distances from the sun. The third goal was to construct a model of the background zodiacal cloud that satisfies the proper dynamical constraints. Figures are provided to show the scans processed to remove zodiacal background and Galactic signals, and the resulting polynomial fits to the 25 micron scan. The latter provided objective estimates of band widths, peak locations, and peak fluxes. Modelling and analysis of the resulting band data has been presented at several conferences and is the subject of a number of forthcoming papers.

  14. IRAS colors of the Pleiades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S. J.; Shipman, R. F.; Clark, F. O.

    1996-10-01

    The authors present large scale images of the infrared emission of the region around the Pleiades using the ISSA data product from the IRAS mission. A new method of identifying dense molecular material through infrared emission properties is presented.

  15. Infrared Study of the Southern Galactic Star-Forming Regions Associated with IRAS 10049-5657 and IRAS 10031-5632

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Verma, R. P.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the physical conditions of the interstellar medium and stellar components in the regions of the southern Galactic star-forming complexes associated with IRAS 10049-5657 and IRAS 10031-5632. These regions have been mapped simultaneously in two far-infrared bands (λeff ~ 150 and 210 μm), with ~1' angular resolution using the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research 1 m balloon-borne telescope. Spatial distribution of the temperature of cool dust and optical depth at 200 μm have been obtained taking advantage of the similar beams in the two bands. The HIRES processed Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm have been used for comparison. Using the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared sources, we find the stellar populations of the embedded young clusters. A rich cluster of OB stars is seen in the IRAS 10049-5657 region. The fits to the stellar density radial profile of the cluster associated with IRAS 10049-5657 have been explored with the inverse radius profile as well as the King's profile; the cluster radius is ~2 pc. The source in the cluster closest to the IRAS peak is IRA-7, which lies above the zero-age main-sequence curve of spectral type O5 in the color-magnitude diagram. Unlike IRAS 10049-5657, a small cluster comprising a few deeply embedded sources is seen at the location of IRAS 10031-5632. Self-consistent radiative transfer modeling aimed at extracting important physical and geometrical details of the two IRAS sources shows that the best-fit models are in good agreement with the observed spectral energy distributions. The geometric details of the associated cloud and optical depths (τ100) have been estimated. A uniform density distribution of dust and gas is implied for both the sources. In addition, the infrared ionic fine-structure line emission from gas has been modeled for both the regions and compared with data from the IRAS low-resolution spectrometer. For IRAS 10049-5657, the observed and modeled

  16. IRAS Colors of the Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Sean J.; Shipman, R. F.; Clark, F. O.

    1996-01-01

    We present large scale images of the infrared emission of the region around the Pleiades using the ISSA data product from the IRAS mission. Residual Zodiacal background and a discontinuity in the image due to the scanning strategy of the satellite necessitated special background subtraction methods. The 60/100 color image clearly shows the heating of the ambient interstellar medium by the cluster. The 12/100 and 25/100 images peak on the cluster as expected for exposure of small dust grains to an enhanced UV radiation field; however, the 25/100 color declines to below the average interstellar value at the periphery of the cluster. Potential causes of the color deficit are discussed. A new method of identifying dense molecular material through infrared emission properties is presented. The difference between the 100 micron flux density and the 60 micron flux density scaled by the average interstellar 60/100 color ratio (Delta I(sub 100) is a sensitive diagnostic of material with embedded heating sources (Delta I(sub 100) less than 0) and cold, dense cores (Delta I(sub 100) greater than 0). The dense cores of the Taurus cloud complex as well as Lynds 1457 are clearly identified by this method, while the IR bright but diffuse Pleiades molecular cloud is virtually indistinguishable from the nearby infrared cirrus.

  17. A Chandra X-Ray Study of NGC 1068 IL the Luminous X-Ray Source Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the compact X-ray source population in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, imaged with a approx. 50 ks Chandra observation. We find a total of 84 compact sources on the S3 chip, of which 66 are located within the 25.0 B-mag/arcsec isophote of the galactic disk of NGC 1068. Spectra have been obtained for the 21 sources with at least 50 counts and modeled with both multicolor disk blackbody and power-law models. The power-law model provides the better description of the spectrum for 18 of these sources. For fainter sources, the spectral index has been estimated from the hardness ratio. Five sources have 0.4 - 8 keV intrinsic luminosities greater than 10(exp 39)ergs/ s, assuming that their emission is isotropic and that they are associated with NGC 1068. We refer to these sources as intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects (ISOs). If these five sources are X-ray binaries accreting with luminosities that are both sub-Eddington and isotropic, then the implied source masses are approx greater than 7 solar mass, and so they are inferred to be black holes. Most of the spectrally modeled sources have spectral shapes similar to Galactic black hole candidates. However, the brightest compact source in NGC 1068 has a spectrum that is much harder than that found in Galactic black hole candidates and other ISOs. The brightest source also shows large amplitude variability on both short-term and long-term timescales, with the count rate possibly decreasing by a factor of 2 in approx. 2 ks during our Chundra observation, and the source flux decreasing by a factor of 5 between our observation and the grating observations taken just over 9 months later. The ratio of the number of sources with luminosities greater than 2.1 x 10(exp 38) ergs/s in the 0.4 - 8 keV band to the rate of massive (greater than 5 solar mass) star formation is the same, to within a factor of 2, for NGC 1068, the Antennae, NGC 5194 (the main galaxy in M51), and the Circinus galaxy. This suggests

  18. Evolutionary status of dense cores in the NGC 1333 IRAS 4 star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumpia, E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Kwon, W.; Tobin, J. J.; Fuller, G. A.; Plume, R.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Protostellar evolution after the formation of the protostar is becoming reasonably well characterized, but the evolution from a prestellar core to a protostar is not well known, although the first hydrostatic core (FHSC) must be a pivotal step. Aims: NGC 1333 - IRAS 4C is a potentially very young object that we can directly compare with the nearby Class 0 objects IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. Observational constraints are provided by spectral imaging from the JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey (330-373 GHz). We present integrated intensity and velocity maps of several species, including CO, H2CO and CH3OH. CARMA observations provide additional information with which we can distinguish IRAS 4C from other evolutionary stages. Methods: We present the observational signatures of the velocity of an observed outflow, the degree of CO depletion, the deuterium fractionation of [DCO+]/[HCO+], and gas kinetic temperatures. Results: We report differences between the three sources in four aspects: a) the kinetic temperature as probed using the H2CO lines is much lower toward IRAS 4C than the other two sources; b) the line profiles of the detected species show strong outflow activity toward IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B, but not toward IRAS 4C; c) the HCN/HNC is <1 toward IRAS 4C, which confirms the cold nature of the source; d) the degree of CO depletion and the deuteration are lowest toward the warmest of the sources, IRAS 4B. Conclusions: IRAS 4C seems to be in a different evolutionary state than the sources IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. We can probably exclude the FHSC stage becaues of the relatively low Lsmm/Lbol ( 6%), and we investigate the earliest accretion phase of Class 0 stage and the transition between Class 0 to Class I. Our results do not show a consistent scenario for either case; the main problem is the absence of outflow activity and the cold nature of IRAS 4C. The number of FHSC candidates in Perseus is 10 times higher than current models predict, which suggests that the lifespan of

  19. IRAS study of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, S.

    1998-04-01

    Interacting galaxies are ideal laboratories for studying the influence of gravitational forces on galaxies. From theoretical and observational studies, we know how sensitive galaxies are to tidal interaction, from the formation of tidal tails, bridges, bursts of star formation up to a complete merging of the galaxies. The Far Infrared (FIR) properties of interacting galaxies give information on the dynamical and physical properties of these systems. Several earlier studies using the IRAS point source catalogue (IPSC) and IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), showed that the FIR emission from interacting/merging galaxies is enhanced with respect to isolated non-interacting galaxies; moreover, that high density environments have more influence in producing enhanced FIR emission over isolated interacting systems. In general the ratio of FIR to optical luminosity in interacting systems was found to be enhanced. It is regarded as an increased star formation (SF) rate in these systems. Later on, due to the rather high IPSC detection threshold, and its low resolution, several contradictory results have been reported. In this thesis the FIR emission from interacting galaxies is studied by using the high resolution IRAS software introduced by Bontekoe et al. (1994). This soft ware package uses a Maximum Entropy method (hereafter MaxEnt). The MaxEnt formulation is rooted in Bayesian probability theory. The raw IRAS data contains the Point Spread Function (PSF) of both the telescope mirror (60 cm --> 1 arcmin at 60 μm) and the PSF of the detectors (≃ 5 arcmin). Since there is much redundancy in the data, the MaxEnt routine can be used to remove the 5 arcmin PSF from the detectors. For many interacting galaxies this is enough to resolve them. The size of the images was chosen such that the objects could be studied including their surroundings. The absolute position calibration and flux estimates for the MaxEnt images are described in Allam et al. (1996). Because of the high

  20. IRAS observations of matter around nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic search of the IRAS point-source catalog has led to the identification of eight new nearby stars that are Vega-like in terms of their large 60-micron excess. These stars are distinguished by the predominance of spectral type A and the absence of double stars in the Vega-like group. Both effects are intuitively consistent with the interpretation that the 60-micron excess radiation is due to a disk of protoplanetary material, suggesting an early phase in the evolution of a planetary system; however, this distribution can also be due to luminosity and brightness selection effects.

  1. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 7: The small scale structure catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George (Editor); Walker, D. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. Volume 1 describes the instrument, the mission, and the data reduction process. Volumes 2 through 6 present the observations of the approximately 245,000 individual point sources detected by IRAS; each volume gives sources within a specified range of declination. Volume 7 gives the observations of the approximately 16,000 sources spatially resolved by IRAS and smaller than 8'. This is Volume 7, The Small Scale Structure Catalog.

  2. On the Nature of the Enigmatic Object IRAS 19312+1950: A Rare Phase of Massive Star Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Justtanont, K.; Cox, N. L. J.; Smith, R. G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Wirström, E. S.; Milam, S. N.; Keane, J. V.

    2016-09-01

    IRAS 19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS 19312+1950 in the range 5-550 μm using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 μm, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: ≈0.22 M ⊙ of material at 280 ± 18 K, and ≈1.6 M ⊙ of material at 157 ± 3 K. The O i 63 μm line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km s-1 along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H2O at 5.8 μm and CO2 at 15 μm. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (˜2 × 104 L ⊙) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass ˜500-700 M ⊙, with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS 19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS 19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  3. An Ultraviolet-Excess Optical Candidate for the Luminous Globular Cluster X-Ray Source in NGC 1851

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce; Downes, Ronald A.

    1996-01-01

    The intense, bursting X-ray source in the globular cluster NGC 1851 was one of the first cluster sources discovered, but has remained optically unidentified for 25 years. We report here on results from Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 multicolor images in NGC 1851. Our high spatial resolution images resolve approximately 200 objects in the 3 minute radius Einstein X-ray error circle, 40 times as many as in previous ground-based work. A color-magnitude diagram of the cluster clearly reveals a markedly UV-excess object with B approximately 21, (U - B) approximately -0.9, only 2 minutes from the X-ray position. The UV-excess candidate is 0.12 minutes distant from a second, unremarkable star that is 0.5 mag brighter in B; thus ground-based studies of this field are probably impractical. Three other UV-excess objects are also present among the approximately 16,000 objects in the surveyed region of the cluster, leaving an approximately 5% probability that a UV-excess object has fallen in the X-ray error circle by chance. No variability of the candidate is seen in these data, although a more complete study is required. If this object is in fact the counterpart of the X-ray source, previous inferences that some globular cluster X-ray sources are optically subluminous with respect to low-mass X-ray binaries in the field are now strengthened.

  4. A very deep IRAS survey. III - VLA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacking, Perry; Beichman, C. A.; Condon, J. J.; Houck, J. R.

    1989-04-01

    The 60-micron fluxes and positions of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) found in a deep IRAS survey by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with 1.49 HGz maps made by the Very Large Array. The radio results are consistent with radio measurements of brighter IRAS galaxies and provide evidence that infrared cirrus does not contaminate the 60-micron sample. The flux-independent ratio of infrared to radio flux densities implies that the 1.4 GHz luminosity function for spiral galaxies is evolving at less than (1 + z) to the power of 4 relative to the 60-micron luminosity function.

  5. Nuclear infrared emission and the colors of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    J, H, K, L', and N observations of galaxies detected at 12 microns by IRAS are combined with IRAS flux densities to investigate the relationship between the infrared sizes and colors of galaxian infrared sources. It is found that typical IRAS galaxies have 10 micron radii of 0.5 to 2.0 kpc, while active galaxies and galaxies with higher 25 to 60 micron color temperatures are smaller. One unusal object, 23060+0505, is at high redshift and has an infrared luminosity of 1.5 x 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Its 1 to 100 micron energy distribution resembles that of a Seyfert 1 galaxy, but it shows very little sign of broad line emission in the visible. Its properties suggest that it may be a prototype for a class of highly obscured active galaxy.

  6. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) image reconstruction and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonsalves, R. A.; Lyons, T. D.; Price, S. D.; Levan, P. D.; Aumann, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    IRAS sky mapping data is being reconstructed as images, and an entropy-based restoration algorithm is being applied in an attempt to improve spatial resolution in extended sources. Reconstruction requires interpolation of non-uniformly sampled data. Restoration is accomplished with an iterative algorithm which begins with an inverse filter solution and iterates on it with a weighted entropy-based spectral subtraction.

  7. NuSTAR results on Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources: black holes or neutron stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are extremely bright, off-nuclear point sources in nearby galaxies. The only process known to power them is a very high accretion rate onto a compact object. If the compact object is similar to those observed in our own galaxy, i.e., a standard stellar remnant, the accretion rate has to exceed the Eddington rate by a factor of 10-100 in a so-called super-Eddington accretion regime. If on the other hand the compact were more massive, ULXs would be the only known evidence for intermediate mass black holes with masses of 100's or 1000's solar masses. Broadband spectral studies of a sample of ULXs, making full use of the hard X-ray sensitivity of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), are suggestive of super-Eddington accretion. A definitive answer has, however, not yet been reached owing to continued difficulty constraining ULX masses. I will report on recent, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations, which allow us to examine the evolution of these enigmatic sources and their accretion process by studying their time variability and hard X-ray spectrum above 10keV. In a surprising discovery we have recently shown that the ULX M82 X-2 harbors a neutron star, the first evidence for a neutron star in a ULX. I will discuss possible modes of super-Eddington accretion on neutron stars and compare M82 X-2 to known accreting neutron stars in our galaxy. On behalf of the NuSTAR ULX science team led by Fiona Harrison.

  8. XMMU J010147.5-715550, another luminous supersoft X-ray source with a Be optical counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cracco, Valentina; Ciroi, Stefano; Orio, Marina; Colmenero, Encarni Romero; Gallagher, Jay; Kotulla, Ralf

    2016-11-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud putative B star suggested to be the optical counterpart of the transient or recurrent XMM supersoft X-ray source XMMU J010147.5-715550 (Sturm et al., 2012, A & A 57, 76) was observed by us on September 7th, 2016 (JD 2457640.5) with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS), equipped with the PG0900 grating in longslit mode, with a slit width of 1 arcsecond.

  9. High-resolution IRAS observations of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud core

    SciTech Connect

    Young, E.T.; Lada, C.J.; Wilking, B.A.

    1986-05-01

    IRAS high-resolution (12, 25, 60, and 100 microns) observations of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud core are presented. Analysis of the 12 micron data reveals 18 individual embedded sources with a surface brightness of greater than 1 Jy/sq arcmin and far-infrared luminosities ranging between 0.2-21 solar luminosities. Infrared observations collected at the Infrared Telescope Facility in Mauna Kea, Hawaii in July 1984 and April 1985 are utilized to identify 13 near-infrared objects in the IRAS data. The ground-based fluxes are compared to IRAS density fluxes; it is observed that the ground-based fluxes are lower by about a factor of three than the IRAS fluxes, indicating the presence of midinfrared emission due to hot dust on angular scales greater than 6-13 arcsec. It is noted that the IRAS observations provide a more complete description of the embedded population in the Rho Ophiuchi core than previous studies. 10 references.

  10. Star formation and AGN activity in the most luminous LINERs in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, I.; Povic, M.; Netzer, H.; Masegosa, J.; Nordon, R.; Pérez, E.; Schoenell, W.

    2017-03-01

    This work presents the properties of 42 objects in the group of the most luminous, highest star formation rate (SFR) low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) at z = 0.04 - 0.11. We obtained long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear regions for all sources, and FIR data (Herschel and IRAS) for 13 of them.We measured emission-line intensities, extinction, stellar populations, stellar masses, ages, active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosities, and SFRs. We find considerable differences from other low-redshift LINERs, and general similarity to star-forming galaxies. We confirm the existence of such luminous LINERs in the local universe, after being previously detected at z˜0.3 by Tommasin et al. The median stellar mass of these LINERs corresponds to 6 - 7× 10^{10} M_⊙ which was found in previous works to correspond to the peak of relative growth rate of stellar populations and therefore for the highest SFRs. Other LINERs although showing similar AGN luminosities have lower SFR. We find that most of these sources have LAGN ˜ LSF suggesting co-evolution of black hole and stellarmass. In general, the fraction of local LINERs on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies is related to their AGN luminosity.

  11. Star formation and AGN activity in the most luminous LINERs in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, Mirjana; Márquez, Isabel; Netzer, Hagai; Masegosa, Josefa; Nordon, Raanan; Pérez, Enrique; Schoenell, William

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the properties of 42 objects in the group of the most luminous, highest star formation rate (SFR) low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) at z = 0.04-0.11. We obtained long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear regions for all sources, and FIR data (Herschel and IRAS) for 13 of them. We measured emission-line intensities, extinction, stellar populations, stellar masses, ages, active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosities, and SFRs. We find considerable differences from other low-redshift LINERs, in terms of extinction, and general similarity to star-forming galaxies. We confirm the existence of such luminous LINERs in the local universe, after being previously detected at z ˜ 0.3 by Tommasin et al. The median stellar mass of these LINERs corresponds to 6-7 × 1010 M⊙ which was found in previous work to correspond to the peak of relative growth rate of stellar populations and therefore for the highest SFRs. Other LINERs although showing similar AGN luminosities have lower SFR. We find that most of these sources have LAGN ˜ LSF suggesting co-evolution of black hole and stellar mass. In general, the fraction of local LINERs on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies is related to their AGN luminosity.

  12. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    More than 700 luminous stars in the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Skyflux plates were examined for the presence of dust heated by a nearby star. This dust may be distinguished from the ubiquitous cool cirrus by its higher temperature and thus enhanced 60 micron emission. More than 120 dust clouds were found around only 106 of the stars with a volume filling factor of 0.006 and an intercloud separation of 46 pc. A region of dust smoothly distributed through the volume of space heated by the star could not be found and hence an upper limit of 0.05 cm(exp -3) is placed on the equivalent gas density in the intercloud regions. The clouds have an average density of 0.22 cm(exp -3) and a radius of 1.9 pc, albeit with wide variations in their properties. Two different scale heights of 140 and 540 pc were found. This was interpreted as evidence for different distributions of dust in and out of the galactic disk.

  13. An Extremely Luminous and Variable Ultraluminous X-ray Source in the Outskirts of Circinus Observed with Nustar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Madsen, K. K.; Miller, J. M.; Ptak, Andrew Francis; Rana, V.; Webb, N. A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multiepoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E greater than 10 keV) X-rays. CircinusULX5is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of approx. 5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013 observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 × 10(exp 40) erg s(exp-1)). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk reflection interpretation previously proposed to explain the 3-10 keV curvature in other ULXs. In addition to flux variability, clear spectral variability is also observed. While in many cases the interpretation of spectral components in ULXs is uncertain, the spectral and temporal properties of all the high quality data sets currently available strongly support a simple disk-corona model reminiscent of that invoked for Galactic binaries, with the accretion disk becoming more prominent as the luminosity increases. However, although the disk temperature and luminosity are well correlated across all time scales currently probed, the observed luminosity follows L alpha T (exp 1.70+/-0.17), flatter than expected for simple blackbody radiation. The spectral variability displayed here is highly reminiscent of that observed from known Galactic black hole binaries (BHBs) at high luminosities. This comparison implies a black hole mass of approx. 90M for Circinus ULX5. However, given the diverse behavior observed from Galactic BHB accretion disks, this mass

  14. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous X-ray source in the outskirts of Circinus observed with NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Fabian, A. C.; Hailey, C. J.; Miller, J. M.; Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-12-20

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multi-epoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E > 10 keV) X-rays. Circinus ULX5 is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of ∼5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013 observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk reflection interpretation previously proposed to explain the 3-10 keV curvature in other ULXs. In addition to flux variability, clear spectral variability is also observed. While in many cases the interpretation of spectral components in ULXs is uncertain, the spectral and temporal properties of all the high quality data sets currently available strongly support a simple disk-corona model reminiscent of that invoked for Galactic binaries, with the accretion disk becoming more prominent as the luminosity increases. However, although the disk temperature and luminosity are well correlated across all time scales currently probed, the observed luminosity follows L∝T {sup 1.70±0.17}, flatter than expected for simple blackbody radiation. The spectral variability displayed here is highly reminiscent of that observed from known Galactic black hole binaries (BHBs) at high luminosities. This comparison implies a black hole mass of ∼90 M {sub ☉} for Circinus ULX5. However, given the diverse behavior observed from Galactic BHB accretion disks, this mass estimate is

  15. A very deep IRAS survey at the north ecliptic pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.; Hacking, P. B.; Condon, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    The data from approximately 20 hours observation of the 4- to 6-square degree field surrounding the north ecliptic pole have been combined to produce a very deep IR survey at the four IRAS bands. Scans from both pointed and survey observations were included in the data analysis. At 12 and 25 microns the deep survey is limited by detector noise and is approximately 50 times deeper than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). At 60 microns the problems of source confusion and Galactic cirrus combine to limit the deep survey to approximately 12 times deeper than the PSC. These problems are so severe at 100 microns that flux values are only given for locations corresponding to sources selected at 60 microns. In all, 47 sources were detected at 12 microns, 37 at 25 microns, and 99 at 60 microns. The data-analysis procedures and the significance of the 12- and 60-micron source-count results are discussed.

  16. Discovery of the Candidate Off-nuclear Ultrasoft Hyper-luminous X-Ray Source 3XMM J141711.1+522541

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Webb, Natalie A.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Dupke, Renato; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strader, Jay; Homan, Jeroen; Barret, Didier; Godet, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of an off-nuclear ultrasoft hyper-luminous X-ray source candidate 3XMM J141711.1+522541 in the inactive S0 galaxy SDSS J141711.07+522540.8 (z = 0.41827, dL = 2.3 Gpc) in the Extended Groth Strip. It is located at a projected offset of ˜1.″0 (5.2 kpc) from the nucleus of the galaxy and was serendipitously detected in five XMM-Newton observations in 2000 July. Two observations have enough counts and can be fitted with a standard thermal disk with an apparent inner disk temperature {{kT}}{MCD}˜ 0.13 {{keV}} and a 0.28-14.2 keV unabsorbed luminosity LX ˜ 4 × 1043 erg s-1 in the source rest frame. The source was still detected in three Chandra observations in 2002 August, with similarly ultrasoft but fainter spectra (kTMCD ˜ 0.17 keV, LX ˜ 0.5 × 1043 erg s-1). It was not detected in later observations, including two by Chandra in 2005 October, one by XMM-Newton in 2014 January, and two by Chandra in 2014 September-October, implying a long-term flux variation factor of >14. Therefore the source could be a transient with an outburst in 2000-2002. It has a faint optical counterpart candidate, with apparent magnitudes of mF606W = 26.3 AB mag and mF814W = 25.5 AB mag in 2004 December (implying an absolute V-band magnitude of ˜-15.9 AB mag). We discuss various explanations for the source and find that it is best explained as a massive black hole (BH) embedded in the nucleus of a possibly stripped satellite galaxy, with the X-ray outburst due to tidal disruption of a surrounding star by the BH. The BH mass is ˜105 M⊙, assuming the peak X-ray luminosity at around the Eddington limit.

  17. An x-ray study of luminous infrared galaxies observed with ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misaki, K.; Iwasawa, K.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terashima, Y.; Kunieda, H.; Watarai, H.

    The discovery of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) has provided a clue to an evolutionary connection between starburst and active galactic nuclei. The IRAS color is suggested to be a possible trace of the evolution. We present the results of ASCA observations of two ULIRGs, IRAS20551-4250 and IRAS23128-5919, which are southern 100 μm bright galaxies with LIR ~ 1012Lsolar. Both are mergers and have a ``warm'' IRAS color (25μm100μm >= 0.15). The ASCA spectrum of IRAS20551-4250 can be characterized by two components, one of which is a soft thermal component (kT ~ 0.3keV) and the other is a hard power-law component absorbed by a column density of 1022 cm-2. The observed X-ray luminosity is ~ 2.5 × 1042 ergs/s in the rest frame 2-10keV band (assuming H0 = 50 km/s/Mpc). IRAS23128-5919 also shows a hard spectrum (LX ~ 3 × 1042 ergs/s), but thermal emission is not as clear as that in IRAS20551-4250. Since these targets are similar in infrared luminosity as well as in hard X-rays but not in soft X-rays, LIR would be associated with hard X-rays. In addition to these results, we here compare X-ray properties of ULIRGs with IR properties.

  18. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  19. A catalog of co-added IRAS fluxes of Orion population stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Wm. B.; Jones, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of co-added IRAS fluxes for the pre-main-sequence objects in the Herbig-Bell catalog (HBC) is presented. This catalog doubles the number of HBC stars with detected IRAS fluxes and provides improved flux values for the previously known sources. Noise level are given for all HBC fields in each band, permitting upper limits to be estimated for all undetected sources.

  20. Constraints on the optical polarization source in the luminous non-blazar quasar 3C 323.1 (PG 1545+210) from the photometric and polarimetric variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    We examine the optical photometric and polarimetric variability of the luminous type 1 non-blazar quasar 3C 323.1 (PG 1545+210). Two optical spectro-polarimetric measurements taken during the periods 1996-98 and 2003 combined with a V-band imaging polarimetric measurement taken in 2002 reveal that (1) as noted in the literature, the polarization of 3C 323.1 is confined only to the continuum emission, that is, the emission from the broad line region is unpolarized; (2) the polarized flux spectra show evidence of a time-variable broad absorption feature in the wavelength range of the Balmer continuum and other recombination lines; (3) weak variability in the polarization position angle (PA) of ˜ 4 deg over a time-scale of 4-6 years is observed; and (4) the V-band total flux and the polarized flux show highly correlated variability over a time-scale of one year. Taking the above-mentioned photometric and polarimetric variability properties and the results from previous studies into consideration, we propose a geometrical model for the polarization source in 3C 323.1, in which an equatorial absorbing region and an axi-asymmetric equatorial electron-scattering region are assumed to be located between the accretion disc and the broad line region. The scattering/absorbing regions can perhaps be attributed to the accretion disc wind or flared disc surface, but further polarimetric monitoring observations for 3C 323.1 and other quasars with continuum-confined polarization are needed to probe the true physical origins of these regions.

  1. The Duplicity of IRAS 16293-2422: A Protobinary Star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, Alwyn

    1989-02-01

    Continuum maps at wavelengths of 6 cm and 2 cm of the region surrounding the infrared object IRAS 16293-2422 reveal two related sources, A and B separated by ˜5" (750 AU) along P.A. -50°. These sources lie within the 3 mm continuum source mapped by Mundy, Wilking, and Myers, which located density maxima of the dust disk at the core of the surrounding L1689N molecular cloud. Both the A and B sites of centimeter wave emission probably arise from ionized gas associated with distinct sites of star formation within this dense core. Thus IRAS 16293-2422 presents a rare opportunity to observe a binary system in its earliest stages of formation. Higher resolution maps reveal that the brighter source, IRAS 16293- 2422A, is comprised of two unresolved sources, Al and A2, separated by 47 AU in projected distance, approximately perpendicular to the line between the more widely separated objects. A modest velocity-segregated cluster of water masers identifies these sources as associated with a bipolar flow, which must be collimated on a scale smaller than 50 AU. The ionized gas apparently exists as a trace constituent in a region where magnetohydrodynamic shocks impinging on the ambient cloud excite maser emission. Several arguments suggest that object B is less evolved than object A, and may be in a prestellar phase of its evolution. Interaction of the cores containing these objects may explain the complex pattern of the bipolar flow mapped by Wootten and Loren.

  2. Coexistence of a non-thermal jet and a complex ultra-fast X-ray outflow in a moderately luminous AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroletti, M.; Panessa, F.; Longinotti, A. L.; Krongold, Y.; Guainazzi, M.; Costantini, E.; Santos-Lleo, M.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Recent XMM-Newton observations have revealed that IRAS 17020+4544 is a very unusual example of black hole wind-produced feedback by a moderately luminous AGN in a spiral galaxy. Aims: Since the source is known to be a radio emitter, we investigated the presence and the properties of a non-thermal component. Methods: We observed IRAS 17020+4544 with the Very Long Baseline Array at 5, 8, 15, and 24 GHz within a month of the 2014 XMM-Newton observations. We further analysed archival data taken in 2000 and 2012. Results: We detect the source at 5 GHz and on short baselines at 8 GHz. At 15 and 24 GHz, the source is below our baseline sensitivity for fringe fitting, indicating a lack of prominent compact features. The morphology is that of an asymmetric double, with significant diffuse emission. The spectrum between 5 and 8 GHz is rather steep (S(ν) ν- (1.0 ± 0.2)). Our reanalysis of the archival data at 5 and 8 GHz provides results consistent with the new observations, suggesting that flux density and structural variability are not important in this source. We put a limit on the separation speed between the main components of <0.06c. Conclusions: IRAS 17020+4544 shows interesting features of several classes of objects: its properties are typical of compact steep spectrum sources, low power compact sources, and radio-emitting narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies. However, it cannot be classified in any of these categories, and remains a one-of-a-kind object. Reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A87 .

  3. THE ROTATING MOLECULAR STRUCTURES AND THE IONIZED OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH IRAS 16547-4247

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Hernandez, Ramiro; Moran, James M.; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Garay, Guido

    2009-08-20

    We present Very Large Array 1.3 cm radio continuum and water maser observations as well as Submillimeter Array SO{sub 2} (226.300 GHz) and 1.3 mm dust continuum observations toward the massive star formation region IRAS 16547-4247. We find evidence of multiple sources in the central part of the region. There is evidence of a rotating structure associated with the most massive of these sources, traced at small scales ({approx}50 AU) by the water masers. At large scales ({approx}1000 AU), we find a velocity gradient in the SO{sub 2} molecular emission with a barely resolved structure that can be modeled as a rotating ring or two separate objects. The velocity gradients of the masers and of the molecular emission have the same sense and may trace the same structure at different size scales. The position angles of the structures associated with the velocity gradients are roughly perpendicular to the outflow axis observed in radio continuum and several molecular tracers. We estimate the mass of the most massive central source to be around 30 solar masses from the velocity gradient in the water maser emission. The main source of error in this estimate is the radius of the rotating structure. We also find water masers that are associated with the large-scale molecular outflow of the system, as well as water masers that are associated with other sources in the region. Our results suggest that the formation of this source, one of the most luminous protostars or protostellar clusters known, is taking place with the presence of ionized jets and disk-like structures.

  4. Transcending boundaries with Ira Hirsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Punita G.

    2002-05-01

    Ira Hirsh has made many contributions to various fields of acoustics from speech, hearing, psychological and physiological acoustics, to musical and architectural acoustics. It was a privilege for me to have been his student in all these areas, and to have had him as a guide through masters and doctoral degree programs that focused on topics that lie at the boundaries connecting these disciplines. Ira was not a prescriptive advisor, imposing particular research topics or procedures on his graduate students. Rather, he encouraged originality, innovation, and personal goal setting. He would subtly suggest starting points and provide landmarks as references, rather than explicit directions leading to them. One had to navigate the path by ones own wits. This approach encouraged lateral, out-of-the box thinking, while also leading to respectful appreciation of historic trajectories in scientific research. During our time together, we worked on several aspects of music, including, rhythm, melody, pitch, and timber perception. Some of this work will be recapitulated, highlighting Ira's role in its exposition and development. His multidimensional personality, astute insights, colorful remarks, wry humor, care, and concern are qualities to be cherished-beyond the boundaries of campus, city, country, and contemporaneity.

  5. The times of Ira Hirsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divenyi, Pierre L.

    2002-05-01

    Ira Hirsh was among the first to recognize that the auditory system does not deal with temporal information in a unitary way across the continuum of time intervals involved in speech processing. He identified the ``short'' range (extending from 1 to 20 ms) as that of phase perception, the ``medium'' range between 20 and 100 ms as that in which auditory patterns emerge, and the ``long'' range from 100 ms on as that of separate auditory events. Further, he was also among the first to recognize that auditory time perception heavily depended on the spectral context. A study of the perception of sequences representing different temporal orders of three tones, by Ira and the author [e.g., Divenyi and Hirsh, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1369-1385 (1978)] demonstrated the dependence of auditory sequence perception on both time range and spectral context, and provided a bridge between Hirsh's view of auditory time and Bregman's view of stream segregation [Auditory Scene Analysis (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991)]. A subsequent search by the author for psychophysical underpinnings of the cocktail-party phenomenon [e.g., Divenyi et al., Moh. Mtn. Workshop Appl. SPAA (IEEE, Bellingham, WA, 1997)] suggest that the segregation of simultaneous streams of speech may rely on the ability to follow spectral changes in the demisyllabic-to-syllabic (100- to 200-ms) range, i.e., Ira's ``long'' range.

  6. IRA balances and contributions: an overview of the EBRI IRA database.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2010-09-01

    NEW IRA DATABASE: The Employee Benefit Research Institute created the EBRI IRA Database in order to more closely examine retirement savings behavior. The EBRI IRA Database is able to link individuals within and across the data providers and will also be able to link the data with participants in 401(k) plans, allowing retirement funds to be tracked as they are generated, rolled over, and ultimately used. This Issue Brief is the first of a series of publications analyzing the EBRI IRA Database, and highlights the distribution of IRA owners by IRA type, average and median account balances, and contributions to IRAs. The data security techniques used by the data providers assure that EBRI has no ability to identify individuals so that all privacy is assured. IRA TYPES: In the EBRI IRA Database, IRAs are classified into four types: traditional (originating from contributions), rollovers from other retirement plans, Roth, and SEP/SIMPLE. The distribution of the IRA accounts is 33.6 percent traditional IRAs; 33.4 percent rollover IRAs (combined with the traditional IRAs, 67 percent); 23.4 percent Roth IRAs; the remaining 9.6 percent are SEPs and SIMPLEs. OWNERSHIP BY AGE AND GENDER: IRA owners were more likely to be male, especially those having a rollover or a SEP/SIMPLE IRA. Among all IRA participants in the database, nearly one-half (48.3 percent) were ages 45-64. Only 16.7 percent of those owning a traditional IRA were under age 45, compared with 46.5 percent for those with a Roth, 30.4 percent for rollovers, and 34.8 percent for those with a SEP or SIMPLE. AVERAGE AND MEDIAN BALANCES: The average and median IRA account balance in 2008 was $54,863 and $15,756, respectively, while the average and median IRA individual balance (all accounts from the same person combined) was $69,498 and $20,046, Individuals with a rollover balance had the highest average and median balance at $91,783 and $31,264. Roth owners had the lowest average and median balance at $14,056 and $7

  7. IRAS observations of extended zodiacal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Mark V.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite discovered two pairs of dust bands, straddling the ecliptic plane and located in the asteroid belt. New analysis of the IRAS data has resulted in the detection of as many as eight additional bands, spread over more than 40 deg of ecliptic latitude. Dust band morphology is found to vary between different band pairs, having a typical apparent width of a few degrees. This limits the total number of bands which can be distinguished to near the number observed. The Tempel 2 and Encke dust trails are observed to extend over much more of their orbits than had been previously reported, and a new type of dust trail is found which has a relatively large angular width and no imbedded cometary source.

  8. An IRAS-based search for new Dusty Late-Type WC Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin

    1995-01-01

    I have examined all Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data relevant to the 173 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in an updated catalog, including the 13 stars newly discovered by Shara and coworkers. Using the W-R coordinates in these lists, I have examined the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), the Faint Source Catalog, and the Faint Source Reject Catalog, and have generated one-dimensional spatial profiles ('ADDSCANs') and two-dimensional full-resolution images ('FRESCOs'). The goal was to assemble the best set of observed IRAS color indices for different W-R types, in particular for known dusty late-type WC Wolf-Rayet (WCL) objects. I have also unsuccessfully sought differences in IRAS colors and absolute magnitudes between single and binary W-R stars. The color indices for the entire ensemble of W-R stars define zones in the IRAS color-color plane. By searching the PSC for otherwise unassociated sources that satisfy these colors, I have identified potential new W-R candidates, perhaps too faint to have been recognized in previous optical searches. I have extracted these candidates' IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) data and compared the spectra with the highly characteristic LRS shape for known dusty WCL stars. The 13 surviving candidates must now be examined by optical spectroscopy. This work represents a much more rigorous and exhaustive version of the LRS study that identified IRAS 17380 - 3031 (WR98a) as the first new W-R (WC9) star discovered by IRAS. This search should have detected dusty WCL stars to a distance of 7.0 kpc from the Sun, for the absolute value of l greater than 30 deg, and to 2.9 kpc even in the innermost Galaxy. For free-free-dominated W-R stars the corresponding distances are 2.5 and 1.0 kpc, respectively.

  9. Spatial deconvolution of IRAS galaxies at 60 UM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Using IRAS in a slow scan observing mode to increase the spatial sampling rate and a deconvolution analysis to increase the spatial resolution, several bright galaxies were resolved at 60 micron. Preliminary results for M 82, NGC 1068, NGC 3079 and NGC 2623 show partially resolved emission from 10 to 26 arcsec., full width at half maximum, and extended emission from 30 to 90 arcsec. from the center. In addition, the interacting system, Arp 82, along with Mark 231 and Arp 220 were studied using the program ADDSCAN to average all available survey mode observations. The Arp 82 system is well resolved after deconvolution and its brighter component is extended; the two most luminous objects are not resolved with an upper limit of 15 arcsec. for Arp 220.

  10. Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ Scientific Data Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, J. H.; Soifer, B. T.

    1980-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), to be launched in 1982, is discussed. It will systematically survey the entire sky over a large percentage of the infrared spectrum, in the wavelength region of 8 to 120 microns, at sensitivities a hundred times greater than previously achieved from high-altitude observatories, aircraft, balloons or sounding rockets. The Scientific Data Analysis System (SDAS), an off-line data processing facility, is examined. Its primary function is to produce a catalog of inertially fixed infrared-emitting point sources (mainly stars and galaxies) observed during the IRAS survey. Details for source detection and confirmation are given. It is estimated that the catalog will contain approximately a million objects having a brightness of 10 amtowatts per square centimeter or greater; 125,000 SDAS detections, if spurious events of signal-to-noise ratios greater than 2.5 are included, will be made every day.

  11. Monsters and babies from the first / iras survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breugel, Wil

    Radio continuum emission at cm wavelengths is relatively little affected by extinction. When combined with far-infrared (FIR) surveys this provides for a convenient and unbiased method to select (radio-loud) AGN and starbursts deeply embedded in gas and dust-rich galaxies. Such radio-selected FIR samples are useful for detailed investigations of the complex relationships between (radio) galaxy and starburst activity, and to determine whether ULIRGs are powered by hidden quasars (monsters) or young stars (babies). We present the results of a large program to obtain identifications and spectra of radio-selected, optically faint IRAS/FSC objects using the FIRST/VLA 20 cm survey (Becker, White and Helfand 1995). These objects are all radio- `quiet' in the sense that their radio power / FIR luminosities follow the well-known radio/FIR relationship for star forming galaxies. We compare these results to a previous study by our group of a sample of radio-`loud' IRAS/FSC ULIRGs selected from the Texas 365 MHz survey (Douglas etal. 1996). Many of these objects also show evidence for dominant, A-type stellar populations, as well as high ionization lines usually associated with AGN. These radio-loud ULIRGs have properties intermediate between those of starbursts and quasars, suggesting a possible evolutionary connection. Deep Keck spectroscopic observations of three ULIRGs from these samples are presented, including high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetry. The polarimetry observations failed to show evidence of a hidden quasar in polarized (scattered) light in the two systems in which the stellar light was dominated by A-type stars. Although observations of a larger sample would be needed to allow a general conclusion, our current data suggest that a large fraction of ULIRGs may be powered by luminous starbursts, not by hidden, luminous AGN (quasars).

  12. Fourier removal of stripe artifacts in IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Dave

    1987-01-01

    By working in the Fourier plane, approximate removal of stripe artifacts in IRAS images can be effected. The image of interest is smoothed and subtracted from the original, giving the high-spatial-frequency part. This 'filtered' image is then clipped to remove point sources and then Fourier transformed. Subtracting the Fourier components contributing to the stripes in this image from the Fourier transform of the original and transforming back to the image plane yields substantial removal of the stripes.

  13. IUE/IRA system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, J.

    1977-01-01

    The IUE/IRA rate sensor system designed to meet the requirements of the International Ultraviolet Explorer spacecraft mission is described. The system consists of the sensor unit containing six rate sensor modules and the electronic control unit containing the rate sensor support electronics and the command/control circuitry. The inertial reference assembly formed by the combined units will provide spacecraft rate information for use in the stabilization and control system. The system is described in terms of functional description, operation redundancy performance, mechanical interface, and electrical interface. Test data obtained from the flight unit are summarized.

  14. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas (IGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Thomas A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 we proposed a project to NASA having the goal of producing a new infrared map of our Galaxy. In particular, we proposed to reprocess the IRAS data taken in the early 1980's using modern image processing algorithms and the large Intel parallel computers of the Center for Advanced Computing Research, (at that time called the Caltech Concurrent Supercomputing Facilities - CCSF). The rationale was simple: what took approximately 100 days on a typical workstation would take less than a day on the multi-processor parallel computers, thus making a high-resolution infrared atlas of the Galaxy feasible.

  15. High-sensitivity IRAS observations of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Wesselius, P. R.; Young, E.; Beichman, C. A.; Emerson, J. P.; Harris, S.; Habing, H. J.; Jennings, R. E.; Marsden, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    Very sensitive IRAS observations of a region of 0.8 sq deg in the Chamaeleon I cloud have revealed 70 compact sources. Hot sources are field stars; warm sources are associated with pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in the cloud center; others may be in an even earlier phase of gravitational collapse. Cool sources, detected only at the long wavelengths, surround the main cloud and appear to be associated with small globules. Only a small fraction (less than 20 percent) of the total luminosity of the known PMS objects is emitted in the IRAS bands. This has important implications for the classification of the newly discovered embedded objects.

  16. The complex high-mass star-forming region IRAS 15507-5359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Elia, D.; López-Vázquez, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The far-infrared IRAS 15507-5359 source is known to be a medium-mass star-forming region associated with a compact H II region and a near-infrared embedded cluster. We present a survey of infrared-calibrated images ranging from 1.2 to 500 μm obtained with the Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Herschel space telescope with additional archive Spitzer data. We confirm the distance to the complex to be 5.0 kpc. Three Herschel far-infrared sources are found, I, II, III, identified with dense cores at different evolutionary stages. One (III) is a starless infrared dark cloud showing, near its edge, two infrared reflection nebulae (R1) and (R2) with dispersed young stellar populations, including a knot of shocked H2 line emission. Both show considerable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission. Core II has associated a radio H II region and a deeply embedded one-million-year-old cluster (Cl 1) that contains more than 45 young stellar objects, reddened by at least 20 visual magnitudes. About 20 per cent of them show considerable infrared excess emission. Core I appears void of a near-infrared population, and coincides with a long emission bar that resembles a photodissociation front. We determine the properties of the two most luminous Class I sources in the region by fitting models of young stars with accreting discs and envelopes to their 1-500 μm spectral energy distributions. This is another example of a medium-mass region with at least three well-defined active centres of star formation separated by about 1 pc and at different evolutionary stages.

  17. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Schwartz, D.E.; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking vertical sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars. 16 refs.

  18. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Walker, Helen J.; Volk, Kevin; Schwartz, Deborah E.

    1989-01-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking 'vertical' sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars.

  19. IRAS 09149-6206, a new Seyfert I galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, E.; Manchado, A.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Pottasch, S. R.

    1989-05-01

    The serendipitous discovery of a new type I Seyfert galaxy, IRAS 09149-6206, found during a search for planetary nebulae using the IRAS Point Source Catalog is reported. The optical spectrum of this galaxy shows very strong broad Balmer and Fe II emission, indicating the existence of large optical depths, while the emission spectrum from the narrow line region is relatively weak, with only the high excitation lines present. The object presents extended forbidden O III emission, and from the rotation curve, a mass of 8 x 10th the 9th solar masses is calculated within a radius of 3 kpc. It is suggested that the activity could have been triggered by interaction with a close faint companion.

  20. Automatic classification of spectra from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Self, Matthew; Taylor, William; Goebel, John; Volk, Kevin; Walker, Helen

    1989-01-01

    A new classification of Infrared spectra collected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is presented. The spectral classes were discovered automatically by a program called Auto Class 2. This program is a method for discovering (inducing) classes from a data base, utilizing a Bayesian probability approach. These classes can be used to give insight into the patterns that occur in the particular domain, in this case, infrared astronomical spectroscopy. The classified spectra are the entire Low Resolution Spectra (LRS) Atlas of 5,425 sources. There are seventy-seven classes in this classification and these in turn were meta-classified to produce nine meta-classes. The classification is presented as spectral plots, IRAS color-color plots, galactic distribution plots and class commentaries. Cross-reference tables, listing the sources by IRAS name and by Auto Class class, are also given. These classes show some of the well known classes, such as the black-body class, and silicate emission classes, but many other classes were unsuspected, while others show important subtle differences within the well known classes.

  1. 26 CFR 1.408A-2 - Establishing Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishing Roth IRAs. 1.408A-2 Section 1.408A... Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to establishing Roth IRAs: Q-1. Who can establish a Roth IRA? A-1. Except as provided in A-3 of this section,...

  2. 26 CFR 1.408A-2 - Establishing Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishing Roth IRAs. 1.408A-2 Section 1.408A... Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to establishing Roth IRAs: Q-1. Who can establish a Roth IRA? A-1. Except as provided in A-3 of this section,...

  3. 26 CFR 1.408A-2 - Establishing Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Establishing Roth IRAs. 1.408A-2 Section 1.408A... Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to establishing Roth IRAs: Q-1. Who can establish a Roth IRA? A-1. Except as provided in A-3 of this section,...

  4. An IRAS-Based Search for New Dusty Late-Type WC Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin

    1995-01-01

    I have examined all Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data relevant to the 173 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in an updated catalog, including the 13 stars newly discovered by Shara and coworkers. Using the W-R coordinates in these lists, I have examined the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), the Faint Source Catalog, and the Faint Source Reject Catalog, and have generated one-dimensional spatial profiles, 'ADDSCANs', and two-dimensional full-resolution images, 'FRESCOS'. The goal was to assemble the best set of observed IRAS color indices for different W-R types, in particular for known dusty late-type WC Wolf-Rayet (WCL) objects. I have also unsuccessfully sought differences in IRAS colors and absolute magnitudes between single and binary W-R stars. The color indices for the entire ensemble of W-R stars define zones in the IRAS color-color ([12] - [25], [25] - [60])-plane. By searching the PSC for otherwise unassociated sources that satisfy these colors, I have identified potential new W-R candidates, perhaps too faint to have been recognized in previous optical searches. I have extracted these candidates' IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) data and compared the spectra with the highly characteristic LRS shape for known dusty WCL stars. The 13 surviving candidates must now be ex amined by optical spectroscopy. This work represents a much more rigorous and exhaustive version of the LRS study that identified IRAS 17380 - 3031 (WR98a) as the first new W-R (WC9) star discovered by IPAS. This search should have detected dusty WCL stars to a distance of 7.0 kpc from the Sun, for l is greater than 30 degrees, and to 2.9 kpc even in the innermost galaxy. For free-free-dominated W-R stars the corresponding distances are 2.5 and 1.0 kpc, respectively.

  5. CO detections and IRAS observations of bright radio spiral galaxies at cz equal or less than 9000 kilometers per second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1985-01-01

    CO emission has been detected from 20 of 21 bright radio spirals with strong extended nuclear sources, including the most distant (NGC 7674) and the most luminous (IC 4553 = Arp 220, NGC 6240) galaxies yet detected in CO. All of these galaxies are rich in molecular gas, with M total(H2) = 3 x 10 to the 8th - 2 x 10 to the 10th solar masses. IRAS observations show that they have a strong far-infrared (FIR) excess, with L(FIR)/L(B) approximately equal to 1-35 and L(FIR) (40-400 microns) approximately equal to 10 to the 10th - 10 to the 12th L solar masses. The primary luminosity source for these radio cores appears to be star formation in molecular clouds. A strong correlation is found between the FIR and extended 21 cm continuum flux, implying that the fraction of massive stars formed is independent of the star formation rate. The ratio L(FIR)/M(H2) provides a measure of the current rate of star formation, which is found to be a factor 3-20 larger in these galaxies than for the ensemble of molecular clouds in the Milky Way. At these rates their molecular gas will be depleted in about 10 to the 8th yr.

  6. IRAS observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The IRAS survey gives an unbiased view of the infrared properties of the active galaxies. Seyfert galaxies occupy much the same area in color-color plots as to normal infrared bright galaxies, but extend the range towards flatter 60 to 25 mm slopes. Statistically the Seyfert 1 galaxies can be distinguished from the Seyfert 2 galaxies, lying predominantly closer to the area with constant slopes between 25 and 200 mm. The infrared measurements of the Seyfert galaxies cannot distinguish between the emission mechanisms in these objects although they agree with the currently popular ideas; they do provide a measure of the total luminosity of the Seyferts. The quasar's position in the color-color diagrams continue the trend of the Seyferts. The quasar 3C48 is shown to be exceptional among the radio loud quasars in that it has a high infrared luminosity which dominates the power output of the quasar and is most likely associated with the underlying host galaxy.

  7. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  8. High-velocity Interstellar Bullets in IRAS 05506+2414: A Very Young Protostar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Claussen, Mark; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen; Morris, Mark; Sarkar, Geetanjali

    2008-01-01

    We have made a serendipitous discovery of an enigmatic outflow source, IRAS 05506+2414 (hereafter IRAS 05506), as part of a multiwavelength survey of pre-planetary nebulae (PPNs). The HST optical and near-infrared images show a bright compact central source with a jet-like extension, and a fan-like spray of high-velocity (with radial velocities up to 350 km/s) elongated knots which appear to emanate from it. These structures are possibly analogous to the near-IR bullets'' seen in the Orion Nebula. Interferometric observations at 2.6 mm show the presence of a continuum source and a high-velocity CO outflow, which is aligned with the optical jet structure. IRAS 05506 is most likely not a PPN. We find extended NH3 (1,1) emission toward IRAS 05506; these data, together with the combined presence of far-IR emission, H2O and OH masers, and CO and CS J=2-1 emission, strongly argue for a dense, dusty star-forming core associated with IRAS 05506. IRAS 05506 is probably an intermediate-mass or massive protostar, and the very short timescale (200 yr) of its outflows indicates that it is very young. If IRAS 05506 is a massive star, then the lack of radio continuum and the late G to early K spectral type we find from our optical spectra imply that in this object we are witnessing the earliest stages of its life, while its temperature is still too low to provide sufficient UV flux for ionization.

  9. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I - IRAS pointed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1989-04-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution.

  10. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I - IRAS pointed observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution.

  11. IRAS low resolution spectra of 26 symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Brugel, Edward W.; Goodwill, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    Data related to the spectral scans for 26 symbiotic stars are described which were extracted from the IRAS low resolution database. Data from the 8-15- and 15-23-micron bands are merged in a program that scales the longer wavelength and produces a weighted average of the spectral scans for each source. The survey shows that active dust producers can probably be isolated and some theories related to the presence of dust emission features are discussed in terms of source variability for measurements made with low resolution spectra.

  12. Analysis of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    which were previously not known. 1. RESEARCH The Infrared Astronomical Satellite , IRAS, surveyed the sky in four wavelength bands centered on 12, 25, 60...agree at 12 Am unless a linear baseline is subtracted from the usable portion of the spectrum. The IRAS science team characterized the LRS spectra...that have silicate dust grain emission features extending from about 8 -14 Am with a maximum around 10 Am are characterized as 2n where n= I to 9

  13. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS15398-3359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeli, Per; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2015-08-01

    The Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398-3359 is located in the Lupus I cloud at a distance of 155 pc. The source is known to harbour a molecular outflow, but the region has not attracted much interest until recently. IRAS 15398 is known to show interesting chemical signatures and being one of the very nearby, young outflow sources makes it an excellent target for detailed studies of the gas kinematics of different species.We present observations of several molecular species, carried out with the Submillimeter Array and ALMA, towards the IRAS 15398 outflow. The analysis of CO emission show obvious signs of episodic mass ejections, with a dynamical time scale between the knots in the jet, of the order 100 years. This is consistent with recent ALMA results where luminosity outbursts are estimated to occur on similar time-scales. The physical properties of the outflow, such as mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy and mass-loss rate are estimated at relatively low values. We argue that this source is of a very young age, possibly younger than ~1000 years. This is consistent with recent studies of the kinematics of the inner envelope/disk. The observed line profiles were compared to full 3D radiative transfer models of the source, constructed with the Line Modelling Engine (LIME). The observed line shapes can only be understood when considering several distinctly different physical components, viz. the outflow cavity, the infalling envelope and the surrounding cloud material. This allows us to put quantitative constraints on the kinematics of the material close to the central source.

  14. A Multiwavelength Study of the OH Megamaser Galaxy IRAS16399-0937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, D.

    2015-09-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the morphology and spectral energy distribution (SED) of the OH Megamaser galaxy (OHMG) IRAS16399- 0937, based on new HST ACS broad band (F814W) and emission line (Halpha+[NII]) images and archive data from HST, 2MASS, Spitzer, Herschel and the VLA (Fig. 1). This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of 6" (3.4 kpc) and have previously been optically identified as a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission Line Region (LINER) and Starburst (SB) nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation activity is widespread, but mostly heavily obscured (Fig. 1). The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, but deep silicate absorption and absorption features due to water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus (Fig. 2 and 3). The radio emission, including the compact component associated with the IRAS16399N nucleus, is generally consistent with star formation. The global star formation rate (SFR) is 20M(sun)/yr, with the two nuclei accounting for 40% of the total (Table 2). The 0.435 - 500 micron SED was fitted with a model including stellar, dusty+PAH ISM and AGN torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, clumpyDREAM (Fig. 4). The results indicate that the IRAS16399N nucleus contains an AGN of bolometric luminosity (Lbol 10^{44} ergs/s), which is deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction 1 (Table 1). We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OH megamaser emission in IRAS16399-0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks of velocity 100 - 200 km/s. The SED fits indicate SFRs of 2.9 and 2.4 M

  15. Critically evaluated/distributed database of IRAS LRS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Accomplishments under this grant effort include: successful scientific utilization of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) database of over 150,000 scans of 7-23 micron spectra for over 50,000 celestial sources; publication in refereed journal of an additional 486 critically evaluated spectra of sources brighter than 20 Jy, completing the LRS ATLAS (Olnon and Raimond 1986 A&A) uniformly to that level, and production of an additional 1,830 critically evaluated spectra of sources brighter than 10 Jy; creation and maintenance of on-line, remotely accessible LRS spectra of over 7500 sources; cooperation with Astrophysics Data System personnel for transitioning this LRS database to the ADS access system after funding for this project expires; and publication of research highlights, which include a systematic variation of the shapes of LRS silicate features among stars of differing IRAS broad-band colors, maser characteristics and light curve asymmetries, all correlated with the chemical and physical development and processing of solid phase materials, and preliminary evidence for silicate profile variations in individual stars as a function of visual light curve phase.

  16. ALMA HCN and HCO+ J =3-2 Observations of Optical Seyfert and Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Confirmation of Elevated HCN-to-HCO+ Flux Ratios in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Izumi, Takuma

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of our ALMA observations of three active galactic nucleus (AGN)-dominated nuclei in optical Seyfert 1 galaxies (NGC 7469, I Zw 1, and IC 4329 A) and eleven luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with various levels of infrared estimated energetic contributions by AGNs at the HCN and HCO+ J = 3 - 2 emission lines. The HCN and HCO+ J = 3 - 2 emission lines are clearly detected at the main nuclei of all sources, except for IC 4329 A. The vibrationally excited (v 2 = 1f) HCN J = 3 - 2 and HCO+ J = 3 - 2 emission lines are simultaneously covered, and HCN v 2 = 1f J = 3 - 2 emission line signatures are seen in the main nuclei of two LIRGs, IRAS 12112+0305 and IRAS 22491-1808, neither of which shows clear buried AGN signatures in the infrared. If the vibrational excitation is dominated by infrared radiative pumping, through the absorption of infrared 14 μm photons, primarily originating from AGN-heated hot dust emission, then these two LIRGs may contain infrared-elusive, but (sub)millimeter-detectable, extremely deeply buried AGNs. These vibrationally excited emission lines are not detected in the three AGN-dominated optical Seyfert 1 nuclei. However, the observed HCN v 2 = 1f to v = 0 flux ratios in these optical Seyferts are still consistent with the intrinsic flux ratios in LIRGs with detectable HCN v 2 = 1f emission lines. The observed HCN-to-HCO+ J = 3 - 2 flux ratios tend to be higher in galactic nuclei with luminous AGN signatures compared with starburst-dominated regions, as previously seen at J = 1 - 0 and J = 4 - 3.

  17. The Most Luminous Object in the Universe: Shrouded Quasar or Proto-Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used ASCA to observe the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724, which is identified with a galaxy at a redshift of 2.286. When first discovered, it was believed to be the most luminous object in the universe. Subsequent HST images have established that it is gravitationally-lensed by a foreground cluster. It is still a very powerful object, but not extraordinarily so. Observations at other wavebands have not established whether it is a dust-shrouded quasar or a young, massive galaxy in the process of formation. Since quasars are strong emitters of hard X-rays, while proto-galaxies would not be, and since the opacity of gas and dust is relatively small in the energy regime probed by ASCA (3 to 30 keV in the galaxy rest frame), we undertook these observations to search for a heavily shrouded quasar that might be invisible at lower energies. However, the observations did not detect any emission from this object. This either means that the galaxy is in fact powered by a starburst or that the putative quasar is located behind a very high column density of absorbing gas (N_H > 10(exp 25)/sq cm), so that not even hard X-rays are transmitted. A hidden quasar should be visible in reflected light in X-ray data of higher sensitivity. Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory or ESA's XMM are required to settle the matter. No publication resulted from our null result.

  18. Further radio observations of IRAS extreme infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, R. R. J.; Olszewski, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    Aaronson and Olszewski (1984) have identified five IRAS infrared sources, previously considered to be blank fields, with faint galaxies. The authors reported previously the results of their VLA D-array observations at 6 cm (Antonucci and Olszewski, 1985), which resulted in detections of all objects at the mJy level. The sources were unresolved by the ≡16 arcsec beam. The present paper reports on B-array observations at 6 and 20 cm, made in order to determine or limit the source angular sizes, and to measure the spectral indices. The source 0358+223 has an angular size of ≡3 arcsec at 20 cm, but no redshift is available for this object; also 0404+101 is marginally resolved at 20 cm. The other sources are unresolved by the ≡1.1 arcsec resolution deep 6 cm maps, implying linear sizes <2 kpc. The spectra are steep, indicating that the radiation mechanism is optically thin synchrotron emission.

  19. Spatial studies of planetary nebulae with IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, G. W.; Zuckerman, B.

    1991-01-01

    The infrared sizes at the four IRAS wavelengths of 57 planetaries, most with 20-60 arcsec optical size, are derived from spatial deconvolution of one-dimensional survey mode scans. Survey observations from multiple detectors and hours confirmed (HCON) observations are combined to increase the sampling to a rate that is sufficient for successful deconvolution. The Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm is used to obtain an increase in resolution of a factor of about 2 or 3 from the normal IRAS detector sizes of 45, 45, 90, and 180 arcsec at wavelengths 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. Most of the planetaries deconvolve at 12 and 25 microns to sizes equal to or smaller than the optical size. Some of the planetaries with optical rings 60 arcsec or more in diameter show double-peaked IRAS profiles. Many, such as NGC 6720 and NGC 6543 show all infrared sizes equal to the optical size, while others indicate increasing infrared size with wavelength. Deconvolved IRAS profiles are presented for the 57 planetaries at nearly all wavelengths where IRAS flux densities are 1-2 Jy or higher.

  20. Molecular Jet of IRAS 04166+2706

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang-Yao; Shang, Hsien; Su, Yu-Nung; Santiago-García, Joaquín; Tafalla, Mario; Zhang, Qizhou; Hirano, Naomi; Lee, Chin-Fei

    2014-01-01

    The molecular outflow from IRAS 04166+2706 was mapped with the Submillimeter Array at a 350 GHz continuum and CO J = 3-2 at an angular resolution of ~1''. The field of view covers the central arcminute, which contains the inner four pairs of knots of the molecular jet. On the channel map, conical structures are clearly present in the low-velocity range (|V - V 0| < 10 km s-1), and the highly collimated knots appear in the extremely high velocity range (50 >|V - V 0| > 30 km s-1). The higher angular resolution of ~1'' reveals the first blue-shifted knot (B1) that was missing in previous Plateau de Bure Interferometer observation of Santiago-García et al. at an offset of ~6'' to the northeast of the central source. This identification completes the symmetric sequence of knots in both the blue- and red-shifted lobes of the outflow. The innermost knots R1 and B1 have the highest velocities within the sequence. Although the general features appear to be similar to previous CO J = 2-1 images in Santiago-García et al., the emission in CO J = 3-2 almost always peaks further away from the central source than that of CO J = 2-1 in the red-shifted lobe of the channel maps. This gives rise to a gradient in the line-ratio map of CO J = 3-2/J = 2-1 from head to tail within a knot. A large velocity gradient analysis suggests that the differences may reflect a higher gas kinetic temperature at the head. We also explore possible constraints imposed by the nondetection of SiO J = 8-7.

  1. Specification of IRAS confused regions. Rept. for 11 Jan-11 May 90

    SciTech Connect

    Kennealy, J.P.; Woodward, C.E.; Korte, R.M.

    1990-06-19

    This document reports on the efforts to define the IRAS confused regions. The subset will be limited by the availability of survey data in the regions which are identified as point source confused by the current (Ver 2.0) IRAS point source catalog (PSC). Available coincident AO data will be an important validation source. The sensitivity and spatial resolution capabilities of the IRAS telescope failed to resolve individual sources in many regions of high source density. Approximately 10% of the sources catalogued in the PSC are tagged as 'confused' in some way; the location of a source, the number of sources at a location, the temporal occurrence and variation of a source, and/or the intensity of a source(s) was not discernible by the source identification/discrimination methods used to compile the PSC. In these regions of infrared clutter, the PSC can underestimate the number of point sources by as much as a factor of 3 to 5 in the IRAS Bands 1 and 2 (12 and 25 micrometers respectively). Analysis for improved source counts is designed to enhance the description and spatial definition of the mid- and long wavelength infrared celestial background, and includes generation of high spatial resolution images of the confused regions. Analysis of these images will improve the accuracy of source counts, locations, and flux estimates in the PSC. More detailed knowledge of the high source density regions will improve our ability to understand star formation and galactic evolution. It will also greatly improve our knowledge of a type of celestial background which presents a serious clutter problem for space-born surveillance system sensors.

  2. IRAS 21391 + 5802 - A study in intermediate mass star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilking, Bruce; Mundy, Lee; Mcmullin, Joseph; Hezel, Thomas; Keene, Jocelyn

    1993-01-01

    We present infrared and millimeter wavelength observations of the cold IRAS source 21391 + 5802 and its associated molecular core. Infrared observations at lambda = 3.5 microns reveal a heavily obscured, central point source which is coincident with a compact lambda = 2.7 mm continuum and C18O emission region. The source radiates about 310 solar luminosities, primarily at FIR wavelengths, suggesting that it is a young stellar object of intermediate mass. The steeply rising spectral energy distribution and the large fraction of the system mass residing in circumstellar material imply that IRAS 21391 + 5802 is in an early stage of evolution. The inferred dust temperature indicates a temperature gradient in the core. A comprehensive model for the surrounding core of dust and gas is devised to match the observed dust continuum emission and multitransition CS emission from this and previous studies. We find a r exp -1.5 +/- 0.2 density gradient consistent with that of a gravitationally evolved core and a total core mass of 380 solar masses. The observed dust emission is most consistent with a lambda exp -1.5 - lambda exp -2 dust emissivity law; for a lambda exp -2 law, the data are best fit by a mass opacity coefficient of 3.6 x 10 exp -3 sq cm/g at lambda = 1.25 mm.

  3. 26 CFR 1.408A-2 - Establishing Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishing Roth IRAs. 1.408A-2 Section 1.408A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-2 Establishing Roth IRAs... establishing Roth IRAs: Q-1. Who can establish a Roth IRA? A-1. Except as provided in A-3 of this section,...

  4. CARBON STARS WITH INFRARED SPECTRA IN GROUP P OF THE IRAS/LRS DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.

    2012-10-01

    Sources with infrared spectra in Group P of the IRAS/LRS database all show polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. They are often planetary nebulae, H II regions, reflection/dark nebulae, Wolf-Rayet stars, or external galaxies. However, we noted that some carbon stars are also included in this group. We searched for and investigated all infrared spectra in Group P of the IRAS/LRS database. Finally, we found 11 previously known carbon stars and identified 8 new candidate carbon stars in Group P. Infrared spectra of these stars may present the 11.2 {mu}m SiC emission features indicative of their carbon-rich properties.

  5. IRAS cryogenic system flight performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbach, A. R.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is the first telescope to perform observations in the far infrared from orbit. IRAS was launched on January 25, 1983 into a 900 km orbit. The use of the first large superfluid helium dewar in space makes it possible to provide a 2 K telescope environment for an anticipated period of one year. A description of the cryogenic system of IRAS is presented, taking into account the superfluid helium tank, the insulation system, the vacuum shell, the aperture cover, and the fluid management system. The dynamic performance of the cryogenic system is considered along with aspects of prelaunch preparations. Details of flight performance are also discussed, giving attention to transient performance, and steady state performance.

  6. IRAS variables as galactic structure tracers - Classification of the bright variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. E.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Weinberg, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of the 'bright infrared variables' (BIRVs), a sample consisting of the 300 brightest stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog with IRAS variability index VAR of 98 or greater, are investigated with the purpose of establishing which of IRAS variables are AGB stars (e.g., oxygen-rich Miras and carbon stars, as was assumed by Weinberg (1992)). Results of the analysis of optical, infrared, and microwave spectroscopy of these stars indicate that, out of 88 stars in the BIRV sample identified with cataloged variables, 86 can be classified as Miras. Results of a similar analysis performed for a color-selected sample of stars, using the color limits employed by Habing (1988) to select AGB stars, showed that, out of 52 percent of classified stars, 38 percent are non-AGB stars, including H II regions, planetary nebulae, supergiants, and young stellar objects, indicating that studies using color-selected samples are subject to misinterpretation.

  7. On the calibration of the IRAS low-resolution spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Cohen, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The need for corrections to the LRS spectra based on a study of a number of normal stars observed by IRAS is discussed. The spectra of bright stars, such as alpha CMa, were found to be inconsistent with blackbody sources, this effect being generally observed in sources earlier than about K3. An attempt is made to correct the LRS spectra by changing the blackbody calibration temperature for Alpha Tau, assumed to be a 10,000-K blackbody source for the original LRS flux calibration. It is found that an anomalously low color temperature must be assumed for alpha Tau to produce reasonable results for earlier-type stars. Corrections based on a set of stars with well-determined effective temperatures are examined, as are the resulting color temperatures for 72 stars with Atlas spectra.

  8. Ira P. Gunn: educator, advocate, legend.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Maura S; Koch, Faan Kathy J

    2011-12-01

    This column examines the contributions of nurse anesthetist Ira P. Gunn, CRNA, MLN, FAAN (1927-2011), widely recognized as a visionary and tireless advocate for the profession of nurse anesthesia. Her contributions to nurse anesthesia practice, research, education, publication, consultation, credentialing, and government relations have significantly contributed to the preservation and advancement of nursing and nurse anesthesia.

  9. A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Huchra, J. P.; Low, F. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from a redshift survey of all 72 galaxies detected by IRAS in Band 3 at flux levels equal to or greater then 2 Jy. The luminosity function at the high luminosity end is proportional to L sup -2, however, a flattening was observed at the low luminosity end indicating that a single power law is not a good description of the entire luminosity function. Only three galaxies in the sample have emission line spectra indicative of AGN's, suggesting that, at least in nearby galaxies, unobscured nuclear activity is not a strong contributor to the far infrared flux. Comparisons between the selected IRAS galaxies and an optically complete sample taken from the CfA redshift survey show that they are more narrowly distributed than those optically selected, in the sence that the IRAS sample includes few galaxies of low absolute blue luminosity. It was also found that the space distributions of the two samples differ: the density enhancement or IRAS galaxies is only approx. 1/3 that of the optically selected galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster.

  10. Lidar Luminance Quantizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, Gerard; DeMonthier, Jeffrey; Suarez, George

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses challenges in lidar imaging, particularly with the detection scheme and the shapes of the detected signals. Ideally, the echoed pulse widths should be extremely narrow to resolve fine detail at high event rates. However, narrow pulses require wideband detection circuitry with increased power dissipation to minimize thermal noise. Filtering is also required to shape each received signal into a form suitable for processing by a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) followed by a time-to-digital converter (TDC). As the intervals between the echoes decrease, the finite bandwidth of the shaping circuits blends the pulses into an analog signal (luminance) with multiple modes, reducing the ability of the CFD to discriminate individual events

  11. High-luminance LEDs replace incandescent lamps in new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David L.

    1997-04-01

    The advent of high luminance AlInGaP and InGaN LED technologies has prompted the use of LED devices in new applications formally illuminated by incandescent lamps. The luminous efficiencies of these new LED technologies equals or exceeds that attainable with incandescent sources, with reliability factors that far exceed those of incandescent sources. The need for a highly efficient, dependable, and cost effective replacement for incandescent lamps is being fulfilled with high luminance LED lamps. This paper briefly described some of the new applications incorporating high luminance LED lamps, traffic signals and roadway signs for traffic management, automotive exterior lighting, active matrix and full color displays for commercial advertising, and commercial aircraft panel lighting and military aircraft NVG compatible lighting.

  12. OUTFLOWS AND MASSIVE STARS IN THE PROTOCLUSTER IRAS 05358+3543

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, Adam G.; Bally, John; Yan Chihung; Williams, Jonathan P. E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.ed

    2009-12-10

    We present new near-IR H{sub 2}, CO J = 2-1, and CO J = 3-2 observations to study outflows in the massive star-forming region IRAS 05358+3543. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope H{sub 2} images and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope CO data cubes of the IRAS 05358 region reveal several new outflows, most of which emerge from the dense cluster of submillimeter cores associated with the Sh 2-233IR NE cluster to the northeast of IRAS 05358. We used Apache Point Observatory JHK spectra to determine line-of-sight velocities of the outflowing material. Analysis of archival Very Large Array cm continuum data and previously published very long baseline interferometry observations reveal a massive star binary as a probable source of one or two of the outflows. We have identified probable sources for six outflows and candidate counterflows for seven out of a total of 11 seen to be originating from the IRAS 05358 clusters. We classify the clumps within Sh 2-233IR NE as an early protocluster and Sh 2-233IR SW as a young cluster, and conclude that the outflow energy injection rate approximately matches the turbulent decay rate in Sh 2-233IR NE.

  13. An assessment of image reconstruction from balloon-borne and the IRAS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Das, B.; Rengarajan, T. N.; Verma, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    Angular resolution and structural information from the far-infrared mapping of astronomical sources (Galactic star forming regions, spiral galaxies, etc.) made using the TIFR 1 m balloon-borne telescope and the IRAS have been compared. The effective wavelengths of the TIFR two-band photometer are 58 and 150 microns. From IRAS, the survey COADD data, additional observations (AO's) made with the survey detectors with different Macros (DPS, DSD, DPM), as well as the chopped photometric channel (CPC) data have been considered here. The observed signals have been processed using different deconvolution strategies, either based on a maximum entropy method (MEM) developed at TIFR or the HiRes package developed at IPAC. Relative merits of each of these, under different conditions of signal to noise ratio, are highlighted. The following sources have been selected for illustration: Carina complex, W31 region, IRAS 10361-5830 (all Galactic), M101 and M81 (extragalactic). The main conclusions are: far-infrared maps from MEM deconvolution of balloon-borne data have the best angular resolution; MEM deconvolution of IRAS AO's gives resolution comparable to HiRes but with less amount of computation, though the dynamic range in MEM maps is less than in HiRes maps.

  14. The Interstellar Bullet Engine IRAS 05506+2414

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stantzos, Nicholas W.; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2011-01-01

    Throughout their life-cycles, high-mass stars inject large amounts of energy and momentum into theirenvironments through stellar winds. Results from a study of the Orion BN/KL region indicate that disruption of a massive young stellar system can lead to an explosive event producing a wide-angle outflow, different from the classical bipolar flows driven by young stellar object (YSO) accretion disks. The discovery of a massive YSO, IRAS 05506+2414, may prove to be the second instance of this uncommon outflow. Prior to this study, data was collected using the Arizona Radio Observatory's 10-meter and 12-meter telescopes. Spectra of 16 different molecular line transitions were organized, reduced, and prepared for further analysis. A variety of molecular transitions were observed, such as 12CO 2-1, HCO+ 3-2, CS 3-2, in order to probe physical conditions of the YSO. From line transitions like HCO+ 3-2, we will determine physical properties like density, temperature, and velocity of our source object. For each molecular transition, the spectra were averaged in subsets, which were then averaged to produce a final spectra with an optimal signal to noise ratio. Future radiative modeling will yield mass and energetics of IRAS05506+2414.

  15. AN EMBEDDED ACTIVE NUCLEUS IN THE OH MEGAMASER GALAXY IRAS16399–0937

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Curran, R. L.; O'Dea, C.; Mittal, R.; Gallimore, J.; Kharb, P.; Baum, S.; Elitzur, M.

    2015-01-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS16399–0937, based on new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F814W and Hα+[N II] images and archive data from HST, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and the Very Large Array. This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of ∼6'' (3.4 kpc) and have previously been identified based on optical spectra as a low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) and starburst nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation is mostly heavily obscured. The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, but deep silicate and molecular absorption features are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus. The 0.435-500 μm spectral energy distribution was fitted with a model including stellar, interstellar medium and active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, CLUMPYDREAM. The results indicate that the IRAS16399N contains an AGN (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction ≈1. We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OHM emission in IRAS16399–0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks (v ∼ 100-200 km s{sup –1}). We infer that the ∼10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} black hole in IRAS16399N is accreting at a small fraction (∼1%) of its Eddington rate. The low accretion rate and modest nuclear star formation rates suggest that while the gas-rich major merger forming the IRAS16399–0937 system has triggered widespread star formation, the massive gas inflows expected from merger simulations have not yet fully developed.

  16. An Embedded Active Nucleus in the OH Megamaser Galaxy IRAS16399-0937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Gallimore, J.; Kharb, P.; Curran, R. L.; O'Dea, C.; Baum, S.; Elitzur, M.; Mittal, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS16399-0937, based on new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F814W and Hα+[N II] images and archive data from HST, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and the Very Large Array. This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of ~6'' (3.4 kpc) and have previously been identified based on optical spectra as a low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) and starburst nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation is mostly heavily obscured. The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, but deep silicate and molecular absorption features are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus. The 0.435-500 μm spectral energy distribution was fitted with a model including stellar, interstellar medium and active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, CLUMPYDREAM. The results indicate that the IRAS16399N contains an AGN (L bol ~ 1044 erg s-1) deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction ≈1. We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OHM emission in IRAS16399-0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks (v ~ 100-200 km s-1). We infer that the ~108 M ⊙ black hole in IRAS16399N is accreting at a small fraction (~1%) of its Eddington rate. The low accretion rate and modest nuclear star formation rates suggest that while the gas-rich major merger forming the IRAS16399-0937 system has triggered widespread star formation, the massive gas inflows expected from merger simulations have not yet fully developed. Based partly on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space

  17. NuSTAR Discovery Of A Young, Energetic Pulsar Associated with the Luminous Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1640-465

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Halpern, J. P.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, J. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV gamme-ray source HESS J1640-465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640-4631 lies within the shelltype supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P = 9.758(44) × 10(exp -13), yielding a spin-down luminosity E = 4.4 × 10(exp 36) erg s(exp -1), characteristic age tau(sub c) if and only if P/2 P = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub s) = 1.4×10(exp 13) G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3-0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640-465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E. The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5-4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640-4631, but we find no gamma-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640-465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n approximately equal to 2, and that its initial spin period was P(sub 0) approximately 15 ms.

  18. NuSTAR discovery of a young, energetic pulsar associated with the luminous gamma-ray source HESS J1640–465

    SciTech Connect

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Hailey, J. C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Christensen, F. E.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-06-20

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640–465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640–4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3–0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P-dot = 9.758(44) × 10{sup –13}, yielding a spin-down luminosity E-dot = 4.4 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}, characteristic age τ{sub c}≡P/2 P-dot = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 1.4 × 10{sup 13} G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3–0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640–465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E-dot . The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5–4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640–4631, but we find no γ-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640–465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n ≈ 2, and that its initial spin period was P {sub 0} ∼ 15 ms.

  19. Accretion disks in the IRAS 23151+5912 region

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.; Migenes, V. E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx

    2014-06-20

    We present observations of radio continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.6 cm and H{sub 2}O masers toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 23151+5912 carried out with the Very Large Array-Expanded Very Large Array (in transition phase) in configuration A. We detected one continuum source at 1.3 cm in the region, but the counterpart of this radio continuum source at 3.6 cm was not detected at a level of 3σ. We also detected 13 water maser spots toward IRAS 23151+5912, which are distributed in three groups aligned along the northeast-southwest direction. Our results suggest that the 1.3 cm emission is consistent with a hypercompact H II region, probably with an embedded zero-age main-sequence star of type B2. In particular, we find that this young star is spatially associated with a maser group, which is tracing a disk-like structure of about 460 AU. We also find that the masers of the second group are probably describing a circumstellar disk of about 86 AU, whose central protostar, still undetected, should have a mass of ∼11 M {sub ☉}. We also suggest that the third water maser group is possibly associated with the SiO outflow and the undetected driving source of the system. Finally, we noted that the 1.3 cm continuum source and the three maser groups are aligned in the northeast-southwest direction, similar to the elongation of the large ionized region, which probably is the result of shock-wave induced star formation on the densest region of the medium.

  20. 26 CFR 1.408(q)-1 - Deemed IRAs in qualified employer plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the requirements applicable to Roth IRAs under section 408A, the account or annuity is deemed to be a Roth IRA. Simplified employee pensions (SEPs) under section 408(k) and SIMPLE IRAs under section 408(p... traditional and Roth IRAs may be imposed on distributions from deemed IRAs (for example, early...

  1. THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY (VANDAM) SURVEY OF PERSEUS PROTOSTARS. RESOLVING THE SUB-ARCSECOND BINARY SYSTEM IN NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chandler, Claire J.; Perez, Laura M.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Harris, Robert J.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Melis, Carl; Kratter, Kaitlin; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Plunkett, Adele L. E-mail: jeskj@nbi.dk

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting a Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to ∼0.''06 and ∼0.''35 in the Ka band and C band, respectively. Here we present first results from this survey that enable us to examine the source NGC 1333 IRAS2A in unprecedented detail and resolve it into a protobinary system separated by 0.''621 ± 0.''006 (∼143 AU) at 8 mm, 1 cm, and 4 cm. These two sources (IRAS2A VLA1 and VLA2) are likely driving the two orthogonal outflows known to originate from IRAS2A. The brighter source IRAS2A VLA1 is extended perpendicular to its outflow in the VLA data, with a deconvolved size of 0.''055 (∼13 AU), possibly tracing a protostellar disk. The recently reported candidate companions (IRAS2A MM2 and MM3) are not detected in either our VLA data, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 1.3 mm data, or Submillimeter Array (SMA) 850 μm data. SMA CO (J = 3 → 2), CARMA CO (J = 2 → 1), and lower-resolution CARMA CO (J = 1 → 0) observations are used to examine the outflow origins and the nature of the candidate companions to IRAS2A VLA1. The CO (J = 3 → 2) and (J = 2 → 1) data show that IRAS2A MM2 is coincident with a bright CO emission spot in the east-west outflow, and IRAS2A MM3 is within the north-south outflow. In contrast, IRAS2A VLA2 lies at the east-west outflow symmetry point. We propose that IRAS2A VLA2 is the driving source of the east-west outflow and a true companion to IRAS2A VLA1, whereas IRAS2A MM2 and MM3 may not be protostellar.

  2. Higher order correlations of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Szapudi, Istvan; Szalay, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    The higher order irreducible angular correlation functions are derived up to the eight-point function, for a sample of 4654 IRAS galaxies, flux-limited at 1.2 Jy in the 60 microns band. The correlations are generally found to be somewhat weaker than those for the optically selected galaxies, consistent with the visual impression of looser clusters in the IRAS sample. It is found that the N-point correlation functions can be expressed as the symmetric sum of products of N - 1 two-point functions, although the correlations above the four-point function are consistent with zero. The coefficients are consistent with the hierarchical clustering scenario as modeled by Hamilton and by Schaeffer.

  3. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; Mccallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-01-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  4. IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.

    2002-01-01

    Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

  5. 26 CFR 1.408A-2 - Establishing Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Establishing Roth IRAs. 1.408A-2 Section 1.408A-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-2 Establishing Roth... establishing Roth IRAs: Q-1. Who can establish a Roth IRA? A-1. Except as provided in A-3 of this section,...

  6. Ongoing star formation in the protocluster IRAS 22134+5834

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Audard, Marc; Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Busquet, Gemma; Palau, Aina; Beuther, Henrik; Tan, Jonathan C.; Estalella, Robert; Isella, Andrea; Gueth, Frédéric; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Massive stars form in clusters, and their influence on nearby starless cores is still poorly understood. The protocluster associated with IRAS 22134+5834 represents an excellent laboratory for studying the influence of massive YSOs on nearby starless cores and the possible implications in the clustered star formation process. Methods: IRAS 22134+5834 was observed in the cm range with (E)VLA, 3 mm with CARMA, 2 mm with PdBI, and 1.3 mm with SMA, to study both the continuum emission and the molecular lines that trace different physical conditions of the gas. Results: The multiwavelength centimeter continuum observations revealed two radio sources within the cluster, VLA1 and VLA2. VLA1 is considered to be an optically thin UCHii region with a size of 0.01 pc that sits at the edge of the near-infrared (NIR) cluster. The flux of ionizing photons of the VLA1 corresponds to a B1 ZAMS star. VLA2 is associated with an infrared point source and has a negative spectral index. We resolved six millimeter continuum cores at 2 mm, MM2 is associated with the UCHii region VLA1, and other dense cores are distributed around the UCHii region. Two high-mass starless clumps (HMSC), HMSC-E (east) and HMSC-W (west), are detected around the NIR cluster with N2H+(1-0) and NH3 emission, and they show different physical and chemical properties. Two N2D+ cores are detected on an NH3 filament close to the UCHii region with a projected separation of ~8000 AU at the assumed distance of 2.6 kpc. The kinematic properties of the molecular line emission confirm that the UCHii region is expanding and that the molecular cloud around the NIR cluster is also expanding. Conclusions: Our multiwavelength study has revealed different generations of star formation in IRAS 22134+5834. The formed intermediate-to-massive stars show a strong impact on nearby starless clumps. We propose that the starless clumps and HMPOs formed at the edge of the cluster while the stellar wind from the UCHii region and the

  7. Detection of H I, OH, CO, and optical imaging of the distant galaxy IRAS 12112 + 0305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Kazes, I.; Sanders, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    The detection of H I absorption and OH and CO emission from the galaxy IRAS 12112 + 0305, which is receding from the sun at about 7 percent of the speed of light is reported. This galaxy, which appears to be an ongoing merger, radiates about 2 x 10 to the 12th solar luminosities in the infrared. The H I, OH, and CO spectra are indicative of large turbulent motions. From the millimeter wave CO observations, a total mass of molecular gas of 4 x 10 to the 10th solar masses is inferred. The OH emission in the 1667 MHz line is the most luminous extragalactic OH maser reported so far, with an isotropic luminosity of 1800 solar luminosities.

  8. Detection of glycolaldehyde toward the solar-type protostar NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutens, A.; Persson, M. V.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Wampfler, S. F.; Lykke, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Glycolaldehyde is a key molecule in the formation of biologically relevant molecules such as ribose. We report its detection with the Plateau de Bure interferometer toward the Class 0 young stellar object NGC 1333 IRAS2A, which is only the second solar-type protostar for which this prebiotic molecule is detected. Local thermodynamic equilibrium analyses of glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol (the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde), and methyl formate (the most abundant isomer of glycolaldehyde) were carried out. The relative abundance of ethylene glycol to glycolaldehyde is found to be ~5 - higher than in the Class 0 source IRAS 16293-2422 (~1), but similar to the lower limits derived in comets (≥3-6). The different ethylene glycol-to-glycolaldehyde ratios in the two protostars might be related to different CH3OH:CO compositions of the icy grain mantles. In particular, a more efficient hydrogenation on the grains in NGC 1333 IRAS2A would favor the formation of both methanol and ethylene glycol. In conclusion, it is possible that like NGC 1333 IRAS2A, other low-mass protostars show high ethylene glycol-to-glycolaldehyde abundance ratios. The cometary ratios might consequently be inherited from earlier stages of star formation if the young Sun experienced conditions similar to NGC 1333 IRAS2A. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Figures 3-4 and Table 1 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Complex Resonance Absorption Structure in the X-Ray Spectrum of IRAS 13349+2438

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Behar, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Brinkman, A. C.; Boller, Th.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Starling, R.; Liedahl, D. A.; Clavel, J.

    2000-01-01

    The luminous infrared-loud quasar IRAS 13349+2438 was observed with the XMM - Newton Observatory as part of the Performance Verification program. The spectrum obtained by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) exhibits broad (FWHM - 1400 km/s) absorption lines from highly ionized elements including hydrogen- and helium-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and several iron L - shell ions (Fe XVII - XX). Also shown in the spectrum is the first astrophysical detection of a broad absorption feature around lambda = 16 - 17 A identified as an unresolved transition array (UTA) of 2p - 3d inner-shell absorption by iron M-shell ions in a much cooler medium; a feature that might be misidentified as an O VII edge when observed with moderate resolution spectrometers. No absorption edges are clearly detected in the spectrum. We demonstrate that the RGS spectrum of IRAS 13349+2438 exhibits absorption lines from two distinct regions, one of which is tentatively associated with the medium that produces the optical/UV reddening.

  10. LED light engine concept with ultra-high scalable luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelen, Christoph; de Boer, Dick; Bruls, Dominique; van der Eyden, Joost; Koole, Rolf; Li, Yun; Mirsadeghi, Mo; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van den Bergh, John-John; Van de Voorde, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although LEDs have been introduced successfully in many general lighting applications during the past decade, high brightness light source applications are still suffering from the limited luminance of LEDs. High power LEDs are generally limited in luminance to ca 100 Mnit (108 lm/m2sr) or less, while dedicated devices for projection may achieve luminance values up to ca 300 Mnit with phosphor converted green. In particular for high luminous flux applications with limited étendue, like in front projection systems, only very modest luminous flux values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps. In this paper we introduce a light engine concept based on a light converter rod pumped with blue LEDs that breaks through the étendue and brightness limits of LEDs, enabling LED light source luminance values that are more than 4 times higher than what can be achieved with LEDs so far. In LED front projection systems, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green light emitting modules, peak luminance values well above 1.2 Gnit have been achieved, enabling doubling of the screen brightness of LED based DLP projection systems, and even more when this technology is applied to other colors as well. This light source concept, introduced as the ColorSpark High Lumen Density (HLD) LED technology, enables a breakthrough in the performance of LED-based light engines not only for projection, where >2700 ANSI lm was demonstrated, but for a wide variety of high brightness applications.

  11. Photometric monitoring of Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, Carla; Distefano, Elisa; Leto, Paolo; Schillirò, Francesco; Trigilio, Corrado; Umana, Grazia; Bernabei, Stefano; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from our program of intensive near-infrared photometric monitoring of a sample of confirmed and candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Clear long-term variability has been observed for Wray 17-96 and V481 Sct, with overall brightness variation greater than 1 mag in the J band. Other sources, such as LBV 1806-20 showed detectable variability with amplitudes of few tenths of a magnitude with a time-scale of about 60 days.

  12. The cluster of PMS stars in the vicinity of IRAS 05137+3919

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Azatyan, N.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of our study of the PMS stellar objects cluster in the vicinity of YSO CPM 15 which is associated with IRAS 05137+3919 source. The estimations of this cluster's distance are very inconsistent - from 4.3 kpc to 11 kpc. The KLF shows that nearer variant is more probable. Hence, with more probability, the pair of YSOs associated with CPM 15 is intermediate and not high mass objects, as was expected earlier.

  13. Circumstellar shells resolved in the IRAS survey data. I - Data processing procedure, results, and confidence tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K.; Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the IRAS 60 and 100 micron survey data covering 512 evolved stars and young planetary nebulae for evidence of spatially resolved structure. A simple model, consisting of a central unresolved source surrounded by a resolved isothermal shell, was fitted to the data for each star. Seventy-six stars were found to be resolved in the 60 micron data. Tests have been performed to verify that the extended structure seen is not an artifact of the data-processing algorithm.

  14. Luminous Extragalactic Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Jonker, Peter; Athena Explosive Transients Working Group

    2015-09-01

    The ESA Athena X-ray observatory mission will combine exceptionally high throughout with high spectral-energy resolution and will revolutionise many aspects of high-energy astrophysics. Many of the most powerful transient sources, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruptions events, are bright X-ray sources. Athena will be designed to have a fast-response capability permitting efficient observations of many transients. We will summarise the proposed capability of the mission and illustrate science programs to study transients ranging from the most distant GRBs to nuclear activity in nearby galaxies.

  15. Wavelet analysis applied to the IRAS cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Wilson, Robert W.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of infrared cirrus clouds is analyzed with Laplacian pyramid transforms, a form of non-orthogonal wavelets. Pyramid and wavelet transforms provide a means to decompose images into their spatial frequency components such that all spatial scales are treated in an equivalent manner. The multiscale transform analysis is applied to IRAS 100 micrometer maps of cirrus emission in the north Galactic pole region to extract features on different scales. In the maps we identify filaments, fragments and clumps by separating all connected regions. These structures are analyzed with respect to their Hausdorff dimension for evidence of the scaling relationships in the cirrus clouds.

  16. Asteroid magnitudes, UBV colors, and IRAS albedos and diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper lists absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for known asteroids numbered through 3318. The values presented are those used in reducing asteroid IR flux data obtained with the IRAS. U-B colors are given for 938 asteroids, and B-V colors are given for 945 asteroids. The IRAS albedos and diameters are tabulated for 1790 asteroids.

  17. Commentary: An Exchange of Views on IRA and Reading Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Patrick; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Groff argues against an IRA (International Reading Association) position statement assertion that no single method is the best for teaching reading, claiming that the phonics method results in the greatest reading achievement. The IRA Board of Directors replies that the position statement appropriately reflects the diverse views about reading held…

  18. Teaching with IRA in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This is a descriptive self-study of my experience participating in IRA's Diagnostic Teaching Project in Tanzania. The paper describes the teacher educators with whom I worked, their responses to IRA's curriculum, and what I learned about Tanzanian people, culture and education. Data are derived from a Likert survey, an open-item questionnaire, and…

  19. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Catalogs and Atlases. Explanatory Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, T. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission is described. An overview of the mission, a description of the satellite and its telescope system, and a discussion of the mission design, requirements, and inflight modifications are given. Data reduction, flight tests, flux reconstruction and calibration, data processing, and the formats of the IRAS catalogs and atlases are also considered.

  20. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I. IRAS pointed observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.

    1989-04-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution. 81 refs.

  1. Spectroscopy of IRAS 02091+6333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, Arntraud; Emprechtinger, Martin; Grömer, Gernot E.; Kapferer, Wolfgang; Kausch, Wolfgang; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; Lechner, Michaela F. M.; Lederle, Cornelia

    2003-07-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic investigation, spanning four winters, of the asymptotic giant branch star IRAS 02091+6333. Zijlstra & Weinberger (2002) found a giant wall of dust around this star and modelled this unique phenomenon. However their work suffered from the quality of the optical investigations of the central object. They could use only a single quick look spectrum and the original TYCHO Bt and Vt magnitudes to estimate the spectral type and the interstellar extinction towards the target. Thus we obtained spectra and photometry at the Innsbruck 60cm telescope (Kimeswenger 2001) of this unique object for several years to derive an accurate spectral type and the foreground extinction. This allowed us to determine more precisely the distance to the target which is important for the modelling of the dust shell found on IRAS images. Zijlstra & Weinberger (2002) outline such shells for various types of objects at late stages of their evolution. Their focus was especially on a swept up shell with a void in the interstellar matter around the target. This is crucial for both, the "Swiss cheese" like structure of the interstellar material and for the hydrodynamic evolution of the planetary nebula built after the current evolutionary stage. The measurements presented here suggest a weak irregular photometric variability of the target, while there is no evidence of a spectroscopic variability over the last four years.

  2. OT1_dweedman_1: Comparing [CII] 158 micron Luminosities to Spectral Properties of Luminous Starburst Galaxies and AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedman, D.

    2010-07-01

    Herschel PACS spectroscopy of the [CII] emission line at 158 microns is proposed for a carefully selected sample of 123 sources that already have complete low and high resolution mid-infrared spectra between 5 microns and 35 microns from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, and which also have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from IRAS and Akari photometry. [CII] 158 um is the strongest far-infrared emission line and therefore crucial to compare with other features in luminous, dusty galaxies. Sources have 0.004 < z < 0.34 and 43.0 < log L(IR) < 46.8 (erg per sec) and cover the full range of starburst galaxy and AGN classifications. Obtaining these [CII] line fluxes with PACS will allow: 1. determining how precisely [CII] luminosity measures star formation rate by comparing to PAH features and emission lines that arise in starburst galaxies; 2. determining how [CII] luminosity and equivalent width changes with starburst/AGN fraction, by comparing with strength and equivalent width of PAH and [NeII] emission arising from starbursts, and with strength of high ionization lines [NeV] and [OIV] and silicate absorption or emission arising from AGN; 3. determining how [CII] luminosity and equivalent width changes with dust temperature and bolometric luminosity, as derived from spectral energy distributions, and whether this depends on the starburst/AGN fraction. These determinations will allow interpretation of high redshift sources for which the only available diagnostics are the luminosity and equivalent width of the [CII] line and the far-infrared rest-frame SED. The total observing program requires 20.2 hours of Herschel observing time.

  3. Reprocessing in Luminous Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, K. Robbins; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We develop and investigate a procedure that accounts for disk reprocessing of photons that originate in the disk itself. Surface temperatures and simple, black body spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostellar disks are calculated. In disks that flare with radius, reprocessing of stellar photons results in temperature profiles considerably shallower than r(sup -3/4). Including the disk as a radiation source (as in the case of actively secreting disks) along with the stellar source further flattens the temperature profile. Disks that flare strongly near the star and then smoothly curve over and become shadowed at some distance ("decreasing curvature" disks) exhibit nearly power-law temperature profiles which result in power-law infrared SEDs with slopes in agreement with typical observations of young stellar objects. Disk models in which the photospheric thickness is controlled by the local opacity and in which the temperature decreases with radius naturally show this shape. Uniformly flaring models do not match observations as well; progressively stronger reprocessing at larger radii leads to SEDs that flatten toward the infrared or even have a second peak at the wavelength corresponding (through the Wien law) to the temperature of the outer edge of the disk. In FU Orionis outbursting systems, the dominant source of energy is the disk itself. The details of the reprocessing depend sensitively on the assumed disk shape and emitted temperature profile. The thermal instability outburst models of Bell Lin reproduce trends in the observed SEDs of Fuors with T varies as r(sup -3/4) in the inner disk (r approx. less than 0.25au corresponding to lambda approx. less than 10 microns) and T varies as r(sup -1/2) in the outer disk. Surface irradiation during outburst and quiescence is compared in the region of planet formation (1 - 10 au). The contrast between the two phases is diminished by the importance of the reprocessing of photons from the relatively high mass

  4. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-4... amounts to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or her traditional IRA...

  5. 26 CFR 1.408(q)-1 - Deemed IRAs in qualified employer plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... account or annuity meets the requirements applicable to Roth IRAs under section 408A, the account or annuity is deemed to be a Roth IRA. Simplified employee pensions (SEPs) under section 408(k) and SIMPLE... distributions from traditional and Roth IRAs may be imposed on distributions from deemed IRAs (for...

  6. 26 CFR 1.408(q)-1 - Deemed IRAs in qualified employer plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... account or annuity meets the requirements applicable to Roth IRAs under section 408A, the account or annuity is deemed to be a Roth IRA. Simplified employee pensions (SEPs) under section 408(k) and SIMPLE... distributions from traditional and Roth IRAs may be imposed on distributions from deemed IRAs (for...

  7. 26 CFR 1.408(q)-1 - Deemed IRAs in qualified employer plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... account or annuity meets the requirements applicable to Roth IRAs under section 408A, the account or annuity is deemed to be a Roth IRA. Simplified employee pensions (SEPs) under section 408(k) and SIMPLE... distributions from traditional and Roth IRAs may be imposed on distributions from deemed IRAs (for...

  8. 26 CFR 1.408(q)-1 - Deemed IRAs in qualified employer plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... account or annuity meets the requirements applicable to Roth IRAs under section 408A, the account or annuity is deemed to be a Roth IRA. Simplified employee pensions (SEPs) under section 408(k) and SIMPLE... distributions from traditional and Roth IRAs may be imposed on distributions from deemed IRAs (for...

  9. 78 FR 69710 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  10. 78 FR 66785 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of receipt... consecutive weeks of ] a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  11. 78 FR 70964 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Combined license... for four consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation...

  12. 78 FR 68100 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  13. Anatomy of the internal bow shocks in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostellar jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.; Su, Y.-N.; Shang, H.; Johnstone, D.; Zhang, Q.; Santiago-García, J.; Lee, C.-F.; Hirano, N.; Wang, L.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Highly collimated jets and wide-angle outflows are two related components of the mass-ejection activity associated with stellar birth. Despite decades of research, the relation between these two components remains poorly understood. Aims: We study the relation between the jet and the outflow in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostar. This Taurus protostar drives a molecular jet that contains multiple emission peaks symmetrically located from the central source. The protostar also drives a wide-angle outflow consisting of two conical shells. Methods: We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) interferometer to observe two fields along the IRAS 04166+2706 jet. The fields were centered on a pair of emission peaks that correspond to the same ejection event. The observations were carried out in CO(2-1), SiO(5-4), and SO(JN = 65-54). Results: Both ALMA fields present spatial distributions that are approximately elliptical and have their minor axes aligned with the jet direction. As the velocity increases, the emission in each field moves gradually across the elliptical region. This systematic pattern indicates that the emitting gas in each field lies in a disk-like structure that is perpendicular to the jet axis and whose gas is expanding away from the jet. A small degree of curvature in the first-moment maps indicates that the disks are slightly curved in the manner expected for bow shocks moving away from the IRAS source. A simple geometrical model confirms that this scenario fits the main emission features. Conclusions: The emission peaks in the IRAS 04166+2706 jet likely represent internal bow shocks where material is being ejected laterally away from the jet axis. While the linear momentum of the ejected gas is dominated by the component in the jet direction, the sideways component is not negligible, and can potentially affect the distribution of gas in the surrounding outflow and core.

  14. Calibration of imaging luminance measuring devices (ILMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zheng, Feng; Zhu, Lingxi; Li, Ye; Huan, Kewei; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    A method of calibration of imaging luminance measuring devices has been studied. By the device-independent color space transformation, the color image by digital camera could be converted to the CIE's absolute color space lab. Then, the calibration model is fitted between ln(L/t) and luminance. At last, luminance image is obtained and the dynamic range of luminance image could be adjusted by shutter speed.

  15. Trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350: a massive star-forming region on the solar circle

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Ross A.; Handa, Toshihiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Shizugami, Makoto

    2014-12-10

    We report our measurement of the trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350, obtained from the annual parallax of H{sub 2}O masers. Our distance of D=4.69{sub −0.51}{sup +0.65} kpc, which is 2.8 times larger than the near kinematic distance adopted in the literature, places IRAS 20056+3350 at the leading tip of the Local arm and proximal to the solar circle. Using our distance, we reevaluate past observations to reveal IRAS 20056+3350 as a site of massive star formation at a young stage of evolution. This result is consistent with the spectral energy distribution of the source evaluated with published photometric data from UKIDSS, WISE, AKARI, IRAS, and the submillimeter continuum. Both analytical approaches reveal the luminosity of the region to be 2.4 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ☉}, and suggest that IRAS 20056+3350 is forming an embedded star of ≥16 M {sub ☉}. We estimated the proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350 to be (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (–2.62 ± 0.33, –5.65 ± 0.52) mas yr{sup –1} from the group motion of H{sub 2}O masers, and use our results to estimate the angular velocity of Galactic rotation at the Galactocentric distance of the Sun, Ω{sub 0} = 29.75 ± 2.29 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}, which is consistent with the values obtained for other tangent point and solar circle objects.

  16. 26 CFR 1.408A-1 - Roth IRAs in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roth IRAs in general. 1.408A-1 Section 1.408A-1...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-1 Roth IRAs in general. This... Roth IRAs: Q-1. What is a Roth IRA? A-1. (a) A Roth IRA is a new type of individual retirement...

  17. 26 CFR 1.408A-1 - Roth IRAs in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roth IRAs in general. 1.408A-1 Section 1.408A-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-1 Roth IRAs in general... features of Roth IRAs: Q-1. What is a Roth IRA? A-1. (a) A Roth IRA is a new type of individual...

  18. 26 CFR 1.408A-1 - Roth IRAs in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roth IRAs in general. 1.408A-1 Section 1.408A-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-1 Roth IRAs in general... features of Roth IRAs: Q-1. What is a Roth IRA? A-1. (a) A Roth IRA is a new type of individual...

  19. 26 CFR 1.408A-1 - Roth IRAs in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Roth IRAs in general. 1.408A-1 Section 1.408A-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-1 Roth IRAs in general... features of Roth IRAs: Q-1. What is a Roth IRA? A-1. (a) A Roth IRA is a new type of individual...

  20. 26 CFR 1.408A-1 - Roth IRAs in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roth IRAs in general. 1.408A-1 Section 1.408A-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-1 Roth IRAs in general... features of Roth IRAs: Q-1. What is a Roth IRA? A-1. (a) A Roth IRA is a new type of individual...

  1. IRAS Observations of Delta Scuti Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, M. R.; Harrison, T. E.

    1998-07-01

    Mid-far infrared and radio observations of A-F stars are important for constraining the level of mass loss from these stars. It was theorized by Willson et al. (1987) that mass loss could play a significant role in the evolution of these stars, and could be responsible for shifting a star in the HR diagram by as much as one spectral class. Observations of normal A-F stars at 6 cm by Brown et al. (1990) and at the IRAS 12, 25, and 60 5m bands by Patten and Willson (1991) have shown that extreme mass loss rates (on the order of 10^-8 to 10^-9 solar masses per year) are not seen in these stars, but lower mass loss rates could still have significant impact on the evolution of these stars [see Guzik and Cox (1995) for example].

  2. Ira Remsen, saccharin, and the linear model.

    PubMed

    Warner, Deborah J

    2008-03-01

    While working in the chemistry laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, Constantin Fahlberg oxidized the 'ortho-sulfamide of benzoic acid' and, by chance, found the result to be incredibly sweet. Several years later, now working on his own, he termed this stuff saccharin, developed methods of making it in quantity, obtained patents on these methods, and went into production. As the industrial and scientific value of saccharin became apparent, Ira Remsen pointed out that the initial work had been done in his laboratory and at his suggestion. The ensuing argument, carried out in the courts of law and public opinion, illustrates the importance of the linear model to scientists who staked their identities on the model of disinterested research but who also craved credit for important practical results.

  3. Spectrum from Faint Galaxy IRAS F00183-7111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected the building blocks of life in the distant universe, albeit in a violent milieu. Training its powerful infrared eye on a faint object located at a distance of 3.2 billion light-years, Spitzer has observed the presence of water and organic molecules in the galaxy IRAS F00183-7111. With an active galactic nucleus, this is one of the most luminous galaxies in the universe, rivaling the energy output of a quasar. Because it is heavily obscured by dust (see visible-light image in the inset), most of its luminosity is radiated at infrared wavelengths.

    The infrared spectrograph instrument onboard Spitzer breaks light into its constituent colors, much as a prism does for visible light. The image shows a low-resolution spectrum of the galaxy obtained by the spectrograph at wavelengths between 4 and 20 microns. Spectra are graphical representations of a celestial object's unique blend of light. Characteristic patterns, or fingerprints, within the spectra allow astronomers to identify the object's chemical composition and to determine such physical properties as temperature and density.

    The broad depression in the center of the spectrum denotes the presence of silicates (chemically similar to beach sand) in the galaxy. An emission peak within the bottom of the trough is the chemical signature for molecular hydrogen. The hydrocarbons (orange) are organic molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, two of the most common elements on Earth. Since it has taken more than three billion years for the light from the galaxy to reach Earth, it is intriguing to note the presence of organics in a distant galaxy at a time when life is thought to have started forming on our home planet.

    Additional features in the spectrum reveal the presence of water ice (blue), carbon dioxide ice (green) and carbon monoxide (purple) in both gas and solid forms. The magenta peak corresponds to singly ionized neon gas, a spectral line often used by

  4. ALMA 690 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS 16293-2422B: INFALL IN A HIGHLY OPTICALLY THICK DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Luis A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Hernandez-Hernandez, Vicente; Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso; Parise, Berengere

    2013-02-10

    We present sensitive, high angular resolution ({approx}0.''2) submillimeter continuum and line observations of IRAS 16293-2422B made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The 0.45 mm continuum observations reveal a single and very compact source associated with IRAS 16293-2422B. This submillimeter source has a deconvolved angular size of about 400 mas (50 AU) and does not show any inner structure inside of this diameter. The H{sup 13}CN, HC{sup 15}N, and CH{sub 3}OH line emission regions are about twice as large as the continuum emission and reveal a pronounced inner depression or ''hole'' with a size comparable to that estimated for the submillimeter continuum. We suggest that the presence of this inner depression and the fact that we do not see an inner structure (or a flat structure) in the continuum are produced by very optically thick dust located in the innermost parts of IRAS 16293-2422B. All three lines also show pronounced inverse P-Cygni profiles with infall and dispersion velocities larger than those recently reported from observations at lower frequencies, suggesting that we are detecting faster and more turbulent gas located closer to the central object. Finally, we report a small east-west velocity gradient in IRAS 16293-2422B that suggests that its disk plane is likely located very close to the plane of the sky.

  5. IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, M.W.; Lu, N.Y.; Houck, J.R.; Salpeter, E.E.; Lewis, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths. 16 references.

  6. IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, M. W.; Lu, N. Y.; Houck, J. R.; Salpeter, E. E.; Lewis, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths.

  7. Chromospheres of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.; Avrett, Eugene

    2015-08-01

    Ultraviolet imaging of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) reveals a complex variable chromospheric structure. Such atmospheres in luminous cool stars can affect features in the optical spectrum. Constructing semi-empiricalmodel atmospheres of luminous stars including the temperature rise due to a chromosphere allows us to predict potential effects on optical transitions. The radiative transfer code, PANDORA, calculates line strengths in a LTE or non-LTE formulation, spherical symmetry, and includes velocity fields when present. Various aspects of the line calculations and their impact on equivalent widths will be discussed including developing appropriate chromospheric models, comparison to a pure radiative equilibrium model, transitions sensitive to non-LTE and the effects of a realistic spherical non-LTE approximation as compared to a plane-parallel approximation. We discuss the extent to which a chromosphere can impact the determination of stellar abundances.

  8. IRAS 19520+2759: a 105 L⊙ massive young stellar object driving a collimated outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, Aina; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Sahai, R.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Rizzo, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of massive star formation currently suffers from a scarce observational base of massive young stellar objects to compare with. In this paper, we present interferometric 12CO (1-0), 13CO (1-0), C18O (1-0) and 2.6 mm continuum images of the infrared source IRAS 19520+2759 together with complementary single-dish observations of CS (1-0), obtained with the 34 m antenna DSS-54 at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex, as well as archive images at different wavelengths. As a result from our work, IRAS 19520+2759, with a controversial nature in the past, is firmly established as a massive young stellar object associated with a strong and compact millimetre source and driving a collimated outflow. In addition, a second fainter millimetre source is discovered about 4 arcsec to the south, which is also driving an outflow. Furthermore, the two millimetre sources are associated with C18O clumps elongated perpendicularly to the outflows, which may be related to rotating toroids. The masses of gas and dust of the millimetre sources are estimated to be around 100 and 50 M⊙. MM1, the dominant source at all wavelengths, with a total luminosity of (1-2) × 105 L⊙ at 9 kpc, is however not associated with 6 cm emission down to an rms noise level of 0.1 mJy. We propose that IRAS 19520+2759 could be an example of the recent theoretical prediction of `bloated' or `swollen' star, i.e. a massive young stellar object whose radius has increased due to effects of accretion at a high-mass accretion rate.

  9. A very deep IRAS survey at l(II) = 97 deg, b(II) = +30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, Perry; Houck, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A deep far-infrared survey is presented using over 1000 scans made of a 4 to 6 sq. deg. field at the north ecliptic pole by the IRAS. Point sources from this survey are up to 100 times fainter than the IRAS point source catalog at 12 and 25 micrometers, and up to 10 times fainter at 60 and 100 micrometers. The 12 and 25 micrometer maps are instrumental noise-limited, and the 60 and 100 micrometer maps are confusion noise-limited. The majority of the 12 micrometer point sources are stars within the Milky Way. The 25 micrometer sources are composed almost equally of stars and galaxies. About 80% of the 60 micrometer sources correspond to galaxies on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) enlargements. The remaining 20% are probably galaxies below the POSS detection limit. The differential source counts are presented and compared with what is predicted by the Bahcall and Soneira Standard Galaxy Model using the B-V-12 micrometer colors of stars without circumstellar dust shells given by Waters, Cote and Aumann. The 60 micrometer source counts are inconsistent with those predicted for a uniformly distributed, nonevolving universe. The implications are briefly discussed.

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF CH{sub 3}OH IN NGC 1333 IRAS4B

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Sakai, Takeshi

    2012-07-20

    Distribution of the CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} = 2{sub K}-1{sub K}, 96.7 GHz) emission has been investigated toward NGC 1333 IRAS4B, a low-mass Class 0 protostar which harbors a hot corino, with Nobeyama Millimeter Array. The CH{sub 3}OH emission is found to be prominent in the shocked region caused by an impact of the molecular outflow from the protostars. The direction of the outflow which is responsible for the shock seems to be opposite to that of a compact outflow known previously in the CO (J = 2-1), HCN (J = 1-0), H{sub 2}CO (3{sub 12}-2{sub 11}), and CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} = 7{sub K}-6{sub K}) emissions, whereas it is the same as that of the faint second outflow found in the H{sub 2}CO emission. This double outflow structure can be interpreted most naturally by the existence of more than two protostars in IRAS4B. On the other hand, a centrally condensed component associated apparently with IRAS4B cannot be recognized in our CH{sub 3}OH observation. Our observation suggests that, in this source, the CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} 2{sub K}-1{sub K}) emission preferentially traces the shocked regions rather than the hot corino around the protostar.

  11. IRAS 18113-2503: THE WATER FOUNTAIN WITH THE FASTEST JET?

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Jose F.; Guerrero, MartIn A.; Ricardo Rizzo, J.; Suarez, Olga; Miranda, Luis F.

    2011-09-20

    We present Expanded Very Large Array water maser observations at 22 GHz toward the source IRAS 18113-2503. Maser components span over a very high velocity range of {approx_equal} 500 km s{sup -1}, the second largest found in a Galactic maser, only surpassed by the high-mass star-forming region W49N. Maser components are grouped into a blueshifted and a redshifted cluster, separated by 0.''12. Further mid-IR and radio data suggest that IRAS 18113-2503 is a post-asymptotic giant branch star, thus a new bona fide member of the rare class of 'water fountains' (WFs). It is the evolved object with the largest total velocity spread in its water masers and with the highest velocity dispersion within its redshifted and blueshifted lobes ({approx_equal} 170 km s{sup -1}). The large total velocity range of emission probably indicates that IRAS 18113-2503 has the fastest jet among the known WF stars. On the other hand, the remarkably high velocity dispersion within each lobe may be interpreted in terms of shocks produced by an episode of mass ejection whose velocity increased up to very high values or, alternatively, by projection effects in a jet with a large opening angle and/or precessing motions.

  12. Application of MCM image construction to IRAS comet observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlapfer, Martin F.; Walker, Russell G.

    1994-01-01

    There is a wealth of IRAS comet data, obtained in both the survey and pointed observations modes. However, these measurements have remained largely untouched due to difficulties in removing instrumental effects from the data. We have developed a version of the Maximum Correlation Method for Image Construction algorithm (MCM) which operates in the moving coordinate system of the comet and properly treats both real cometary motion and apparent motion due to spacecraft parallax. This algorithm has been implemented on a 486/33 PC in FORTRAN and IDL codes. Preprocessing of the IRAS CRDD includes baseline removal, deglitching, and removal of long tails due to dielectric time constants of the detectors. The resulting images are virtually free from instrumental effects and have the highest possible spatial resolution consistent with the data sampling. We present examples of high resolution IRAS images constructed from survey observations of Comets P/Tempel 1 and P/Tempel 2, and pointed observations of IRAS-Araki-Alcock.

  13. IRAS 20050+2720: Anatomy of a Young Stellar Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Allen, L.; Bourke, T. L.; Megeath, S. T.; Pipher, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N H/AK ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  14. The C-terminal domains of human neurofibromin and its budding yeast homologs Ira1 and Ira2 regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangming; Kim, Junwon; Song, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    The human tumor suppressor neurofibromin contains a cysteine and serine-rich domain/Ras-GTPase activating protein domain (CSRD/RasGAP) and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Domain studies of neurofibromin suggest it has other functions in addition to being a RasGAP, but the mechanisms underlying its tumor suppressor activity are not well understood. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a good model system for studying neurofibromin function because it possesses Ira1 and Ira2, which are homologous to human neurofibromin in both sequence and function. We found that overexpression of CTD or a neurofibromin CTD-homologous domain (CHD) of Ira1/2 in budding yeast delayed degradation of the securin protein Pds1, whereas overexpression of CSRD/RasGAP did not affect Pds1 degradation. We also found that when CTD or CHD was overexpressed, the number of cells in metaphase was higher than in the control. These results demonstrate that CTD and CHD function in the metaphase to anaphase transition. In addition, Δiraira2 cells bypassed mitotic arrest in response to spindle damage, indicating that Ira1 and Ira2 may be involved in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, Δiraira2Δmad2 cells are more sensitive to spindle damage than Δmad2 or Δiraira2 cells are, suggesting that Ira1/2 and Mad2 function in different pathways. Overexpression of CTD but not CSRD/RasGAP partially rescued the hypersensitivity of Δiraira2Δmad2 cells to microtubule-destabilizing drugs, indicating a role for CTD in the SAC pathway. Taken together, independently of RasGAP activity, the C-terminal domains of neurofibromin, Ira1, and Ira2 regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition in a Mad2-independent fashion.

  15. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2012-09-01

    We present the AKARI near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-5 {mu}m) spectroscopic study of 36 (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z = 0.01-0.4. We measure the NIR spectral features including the strengths of 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and hydrogen recombination lines (Br{alpha} and Br{beta}), optical depths at 3.1 and 3.4 {mu}m, and NIR continuum slope. These spectral features are used to identify optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that half of the (U)LIRGs optically classified as non-Seyferts show AGN signatures in their NIR spectra. Using a combined sample of (U)LIRGs with NIR spectra in the literature, we measure the contribution of buried AGNs to the infrared luminosity from the spectral energy distribution fitting to the IRAS photometry. The contribution of these buried AGNs to the infrared luminosity is 5%-10%, smaller than the typical AGN contribution of (U)LIRGs including Seyfert galaxies (10%-40%). We show that NIR continuum slopes correlate well with WISE [3.4]-[4.6] colors, which would be useful for identifying a large number of buried AGNs using the WISE data.

  16. Dust and gas environment of the young embedded cluster IRAS 18511+0146

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, S.; Testi, L.; Walmsley, C. M.; Cesaroni, R.; Molinari, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Since massive and intermediate mass stars form in clusters, a comparative investigation of the environments of the young embedded cluster members can reveal significant information about the conditions under which stars form and evolve. Aims: IRAS 18511+0146 is a young embedded (proto)cluster located at 3.5 kpc surrounding what appears to be an intermediate mass protostar. Here, we investigate the nature of cluster members (two of which are believed to be the most massive and luminous) using imaging and spectroscopy in the near and mid-infrared. In particular, we examine the three brightest mid-infrared objects, two of which are believed to be the most massive ones driving the luminosity of this region. Methods: Near-infrared spectroscopy of nine objects (bright in K-bands) towards IRAS 18511+0146 has been carried out. Several cluster members have also been investigated in the mid-infrared using spectroscopic and imaging with VISIR on the VLT. Far-infrared images from the Herschel Hi-GAL survey have been used to construct the column density and temperature maps of the region. Results: The brightest point-like object associated with IRAS 18511+0146 is referred to as S7 in the present work (designated UGPS J185337.88+015030.5 in the UKIRT Galactic Plane survey). S7 is likely the most luminous object in the cluster as it is bright at all wavelengths ranging from the near-infrared to millimetre. Seven of the nine objects show rising spectral energy distributions in the near-infrared, with four objects showing Br-γ emission. Three members: S7, S10 (also UGPS J185338.37+015015.3) and S11 (also UGPS J185338.72+015013.5) are bright in mid-infrared with diffuse emission being detected in the vicinity of S11 in PAH bands. Silicate absorption is detected towards these three objects, with an absorption maximum between 9.6 and 9.7 μm, large optical depths (1.8-3.2), and profile widths of 1.6-2.1μm. The silicate profiles of S7 and S10 are similar, in contrast to S11

  17. Research on effects of baffle position in an integrating sphere on the luminous flux measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fangsheng; Li, Tiecheng; Yin, Dejin; Lai, Lei; Xia, Ming

    2016-09-01

    In the field of optical metrology, luminous flux is an important index to characterize the quality of electric light source. Currently, the majority of luminous flux measurement is based on the integrating sphere method, so measurement accuracy of integrating sphere is the key factor. There are plenty of factors affecting the measurement accuracy, such as coating, power and the position of light source. However, the baffle which is a key part of integrating sphere has important effects on the measurement results. The paper analyzes in detail the principle of an ideal integrating sphere. We use moving rail to change the relative position of baffle and light source inside the sphere. By experiments, measured luminous flux values at different distances between the light source and baffle are obtained, which we used to take analysis of the effects of different baffle position on the measurement. By theoretical calculation, computer simulation and experiment, we obtain the optimum position of baffle for luminous flux measurements. Based on the whole luminous flux measurement error analysis, we develop the methods and apparatus to improve the luminous flux measurement accuracy and reliability. It makes our unifying and transferring work of the luminous flux more accurate in East China and provides effective protection for our traceability system.

  18. SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABILITY OF IRAS 22272+5435

    SciTech Connect

    Začs, Laimons; Grankina, Aija; Musaev, Faig; Kaminsky, Bogdan; Pavlenko, Yakiv; Sperauskas, Julius; Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    A time series of high-resolution spectra was observed in the optical wavelength region for the bright proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272+5435 (HD 235858), along with a simultaneous monitoring of its radial velocity and BV R{sub C} magnitudes. The object is known to vary in light, color, and velocity owing to pulsation with a period of 132 days. The light and color variations are accompanied by significant changes in spectral features, most of which are identified as lines of carbon-bearing molecules. According to the observations, the C{sub 2} Swan system and CN Red system lines are stronger near the light minimum. A photospheric spectrum of the central star was calculated using new self-consistent atmospheric models. The observed intensity variations in the C{sub 2} Swan system and CN Red system lines were found to be much larger than expected if due solely to the temperature variation in the atmosphere of the pulsating star. In addition, the molecular lines are blueshifted relative to the photospheric velocity. The site of formation of the strong molecular features appears to be a cool outflow triggered by the pulsation. The variability in atomic lines seems to be mostly due variations of the effective temperature during the pulsation cycle. The profiles of strong atomic lines are split, and some of them are variable in a timescale of a week or so, probably because of shock waves in the outer atmosphere.

  19. Spectroscopic Variability of IRAS 22272+5435

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Začs, Laimons; Musaev, Faig; Kaminsky, Bogdan; Pavlenko, Yakiv; Grankina, Aija; Sperauskas, Julius; Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    A time series of high-resolution spectra was observed in the optical wavelength region for the bright proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272+5435 (HD 235858), along with a simultaneous monitoring of its radial velocity and BV RC magnitudes. The object is known to vary in light, color, and velocity owing to pulsation with a period of 132 days. The light and color variations are accompanied by significant changes in spectral features, most of which are identified as lines of carbon-bearing molecules. According to the observations, the C2 Swan system and CN Red system lines are stronger near the light minimum. A photospheric spectrum of the central star was calculated using new self-consistent atmospheric models. The observed intensity variations in the C2 Swan system and CN Red system lines were found to be much larger than expected if due solely to the temperature variation in the atmosphere of the pulsating star. In addition, the molecular lines are blueshifted relative to the photospheric velocity. The site of formation of the strong molecular features appears to be a cool outflow triggered by the pulsation. The variability in atomic lines seems to be mostly due variations of the effective temperature during the pulsation cycle. The profiles of strong atomic lines are split, and some of them are variable in a timescale of a week or so, probably because of shock waves in the outer atmosphere.

  20. History of the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422 as told by the cyanopolyynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Viti, S.; Balucani, N.; Caux, E.; Faure, A.; Lefloch, B.; Lique, F.; Mendoza, E.; Quenard, D.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Cyanopolyynes are chains of carbon atoms with an atom of hydrogen and a CN group on either side. They are detected almost everywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM), as well as in comets. In the past, they have been used to constrain the age of some molecular clouds, since their abundance is predicted to be a strong function of time. Finally, cyanopolyynes can potentially contain a large portion of molecular carbon. Aims: We present an extensive study of the cyanopolyynes distribution in the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. The goals are (i) to obtain a census of the cyanopolyynes in this source and of their isotopologues; (ii) to derive how their abundance varies across the protostar envelope; and (iii) to obtain constraints on the history of IRAS 16293-2422 by comparing the observations with the predictions of a chemical model. Methods: We analysed the data from the IRAM-30 m unbiased millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey towards IRAS 16293-2422 named TIMASSS. The derived spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of each detected cyanopolyyne was compared with the predictions from the radiative transfer code GRenoble Analysis of Protostellar Envelope Spectra (GRAPES) to derive the cyanopolyyne abundances across the envelope of IRAS 16293-2422. Finally, the derived abundances were compared with the predictions of the chemical model UCL_CHEM. Results: We detect several lines from cyanoacetylene (HC3N) and cyanodiacetylene (HC5N), and report the first detection of deuterated cyanoacetylene, DC3N, in a solar-type protostar. We found that the HC3N abundance is roughly constant ( 1.3 × 10-11) in the outer cold envelope of IRAS 16293-2422, and it increases by about a factor 100 in the inner region where the dust temperature exceeds 80 K, namely when the volcano ice desorption is predicted to occur. The HC5N has an abundance similar to HC3N in the outer envelope and about a factor of ten lower in the inner region. The comparison with the chemical

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Imperial IRAS-FSC redshift catalogue (IIFSCz) (Wang+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2010-04-01

    We present a new catalogue, the Imperial IRAS-FSC Redshift Catalogue (IIFSCz), of 60303 galaxies selected at 60um from the IRAS Faint Source Catalogue (FSC). The IIFSCz consists of accurate position, optical, near-infrared and/or radio identifications, spectroscopic redshift (if available) or photometric redshift (if possible), predicted far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) fluxes ranging from 12 to 1380um based upon the best-fitting infrared template. About 55% of the galaxies in the IIFSCz have spectroscopic redshifts, and a further 20% have photometric redshifts obtained through either the training set or the template-fitting method. For S(60)>0.36Jy, the 90% completeness limit of the FSC, 90% of the sources have either spectroscopic or photometric redshifts. Scientific applications of the IIFSCz include validation of current and forthcoming infrared and submm/mm surveys such as AKARI, Planck and Herschel, follow-up studies of rare source populations, large-scale structure and galaxy bias, local multiwavelength luminosity functions and source counts. The catalogue is publicly available at http://astro.imperial.ac.uk/~mrr/fss/. (2 data files).

  2. Potassium selectivity of frog gastric luminal membrane.

    PubMed

    Kasbekar, D K

    1986-06-01

    Transmural potential difference (PD) and resistance (R) changes after luminal or serosal instillation of K+ were determined under various conditions in chambered preparations of frog gastric mucosae. Potassium selectivity of the luminal membrane is indicated by the rapid reversal of the inverted PD of mucosae bathed in NaCl-free, choline sulfate (Ch2SO4)-Ringer on the serosal side and unbuffered hypertonic Ch2SO4 solution on the luminal side on luminal K+ instillation. The delta PD responses are significantly attenuated, however, in histamine-stimulated mucosae bathed in hypotonic or in burimamide-inhibited mucosae bathed in hyper- and hypotonic luminal media, which suggests that the K+ selectivity of the luminal membrane resides largely in the tubular cell apical membrane. Imposing a serosal-to-luminal transmucosal K+ gradient in both histamine-stimulated and omeprazole-inhibited mucosae also reversed the normal orientation of PD but not in those inhibited with burimamide. In the latter, the PD inversion was attenuated but maintained its normal orientation. These data suggest that burimamide, but not omeprazole, acts by blocking luminal membrane K+ conductance. The inverted PD in mucosae bathed in Cl-free media may thus be due partially or fully to K+ diffusion driven by the cell-to-lumen K+ gradient via the luminal K+ conductance pathway. These findings have implications for the controversy surrounding the postulated electrogenicity of the gastric proton pump.

  3. A new emission feature in IRAS spectra and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    IRAS spectra of those sources which show strong 7.7 and 11.3 micron emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from 11.3 to about 13.0 microns. Like the 11.3 micron feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out-of-plane bending mode in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Its discovery reinforces the identification of the 'unidentified infrared emission features' as emission from PAHs. The wavelength of this new feature suggests that interstellar PAHs are not as partially hydrogenated as hitherto thought. It also constrains their molecular structure.

  4. DETECTION OF C{sub 60} IN THE PROTOPLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 01005+7910

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yong; Kwok Sun E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk

    2011-04-01

    We report the first detection of buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}) in a protoplanetary nebula. The vibrational transitions of C{sub 60} at 7.0, 17.4, and 18.9 {mu}m are detected in the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectrum of IRAS 01005+7910. This detection suggests that fullerenes are formed shortly after the asymptotic giant branch but before the planetary nebulae stage. A comparison with the observations of C{sub 60} in other sources is made and the implication for circumstellar chemistry is discussed.

  5. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Jha, S. W.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Thompson, T. A.; Morrell, N.; Thompson, I. B.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Bufano, F.; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E.; Danilet, A. B.; Falco, E.; Grupe, D.; Kiyota, S.; Masi, G.; Nicholls, B.; Olivares E., F.; Pignata, G.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G. V.; Szczygiel, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 1045 ergs s-1, which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 1052 ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine.

  6. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    PubMed

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine.

  7. A Survey for Water Maser Emission toward Planetary Nebulae: New Detection in IRAS 17347-3139

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Gómez, Yolanda; Anglada, Guillem; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Miranda, Luis F.; Gómez, José F.; Torrelles, José M.

    2004-02-01

    We report on a water maser survey toward a sample of 27 planetary nebulae (PNe) using the Robledo de Chavela and Medicina single-dish antennas, as well as the Very Large Array (VLA). Two detections have been obtained: the already known water maser emission in K3-35, and a new cluster of masers in IRAS 17347-3139. This low rate of detections is compatible with the short lifetime of water molecules in PNe (~100 yr). The water maser cluster at IRAS 17347-3139 are distributed on a ellipse of size ~=0.2"×0.1", spatially associated with compact 1.3 cm continuum emission (simultaneously observed with the VLA). From archive VLA continuum data at 4.9, 8.4, and 14.9 GHz, a spectral index α=0.76+/-0.03 (Sν~να) is derived for this radio source, which is consistent with either a partially optically thick ionized region or an ionized wind. However, the latter scenario can be ruled out by mass-loss considerations, thus indicating that this source is probably a young PN. The spatial distribution and the radial velocities of the water masers are suggestive of a rotating and expanding maser ring, tracing the innermost regions of a torus formed at the end of the asymptotic giant branch phase. Given that the 1.3 cm continuum emission peak is located near one of the tips of the major axis of the ellipse of masers, we speculate on a possible binary nature of IRAS 17347-3139, where the radio continuum emission could belong to one of the components and the water masers would be associated with a companion.

  8. A Cluster of Class 0 Protostars in Serpens: an IRAS HIRES Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, Robert L.; Barsony, Mary

    1996-03-01

    We present new 12, 25, 60, and 100 mu m high-resolution--processed (HIRES-processed) IRAS images of the nearby Serpens star-forming cloud core at FWHM resolutions of ~30"--1'. We use HIRES-processed point-source models of the IRAS emission to derive new flux values and flux upper limits for all the protostellar candidates in the Serpens core. Our fluxes (and flux upper limits) determine the spectral energy distributions necessary to derive the dust temperature, circumstellar mass, bolometric luminosity, and evolutionary status of each protostellar candidate. Remarkably, we find all five sources studied by Hurt, Barsony, & Wootten, FIRS 1, SMM 4, S68N, SMM 3, and SMM 2, to share the defining characteristics of class 0 protostars, the short-lived (a few times 104 yr), earliest observable protostellar stage. We can also set an upper limit of 8 L⊙ on the preoutburst bolometric luminosity of the recently discovered "FU Ori" source in this region.

  9. A Hot Molecular Outflow Driven by the Ionized Jet Associated with IRAS 16562-3959

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Garay, Guido; Brooks, Kate J.; Rathborne, Jill; Güsten, Rolf

    2011-08-01

    We report molecular line observations in the CO J = 3 → 2, 6 → 5, and 7 → 6 transitions, made using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope, toward the massive and dense core IRAS 16562-3959. This core harbors a string of radio sources thought to be powered by a central collimated jet of ionized gas. The molecular observations show the presence of high-velocity gas exhibiting a quadrupolar morphology, most likely produced by the presence of two collimated outflows. The southeast-northwest (SE-NW) molecular outflow is aligned with the string of radio continuum sources, suggesting it is driven by the jet. We find that the excitation temperature of the gas in the SE-NW outflow is high, with values of 145 and 120 K for the blueshifted and redshifted lobes, respectively. This outflow has a total mass of 1.92 M sun, a total momentum of ~89 M sun km s-1, and an averaged momentum rate of ~3.0 × 10-2 M sun km s-1 yr-1, values characteristic of flows driven by young massive stellar objects with high luminosities (L bol ~ 2 × 104 L sun). Complementary data taken with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in high density and shock tracers support the picture that IRAS 16562-3959 is an accreting young massive star associated with an ionized jet, which is the energy source of a molecular outflow.

  10. An Essential Function of the N-Terminus of Ira/Neurofibromin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    conserved throughout evolution [1, 2]. The yeast S. Cerevisiae has 2 homologs, Ira1 and Ira2 [3]. These yeast Ira’s not only have extensive sequence...the haploid offspring depend on IRA1 for survival. Several heterozygous diploid strains were subjected to tetrad analysis and viability of the... haploid offspring will be scored. A 2:2 life to death segregation should be observed if IRA1 is essential for yeast. However, many tetrads yielded

  11. Cryogenic infrared imaging beryllium telescope for Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The IRAS mission is the result of an international project involving the cooperation of the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The Infrared Astronmical Satellite was placed into orbit on January 25, 1983. Its main function is to provide a survey of the entire sky as viewed in four octaves of infrared radiation in the wavelenth region from 8 to 120 microns. The cylindrical structure of the satellite contains a large dewar vessel with 70 liters of superfluid helium. The helium has the function to maintain the contents of the vessel at 2.5 K for the duration of the mission. The IRAS optics is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 24 inches aperture. Because of the operational requirements of the mission, it had been specified that all optical components should be beryllium. Attention is given to the cold performance test conducted with IRAS, plans for future infrared telescopes, and reflectance limits.

  12. Ultraviolet properties of IRAS-selected Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Karen S.; Snow, Theodore P.

    1988-01-01

    New IUE observations were obtained of 35 Be stars from a list of stars which show excess infrared fluxes in IRAS data. The IRAS-selected Be stars show larger C IV and Si IV equivalent widths than other Be stars. Excess C IV and Si IV absorption seems to be independent of spectral type for IRAS-selected Be stars later than spectral type B4. This is interpreted as evidence for a possible second mechanism acting in conjunction with radiation pressure for producing the winds in Be stars. No clear correlation of IR excess of v sin i with C IV or Si IV equivalent widths is seen, although a threshold for the occurrence of excess C IV and Si IV absorption appears at a v sin i of 150 km/sec.

  13. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

  14. Some new luminance-gradient effects.

    PubMed

    Zavagno, D

    1999-01-01

    Three compelling luminance-gradient effects are described. The first effect concerns a brightness enhancement and a luminous mist spreading out from a central area having the same luminance as the white background and surrounded by four rectangular inducers shaded with a linear luminance gradient. The second effect is perceived with a photographically reversed configuration, and concerns what may be considered a brightness reduction or the enhancement of a darkness quality of a target area of the visual scene. The third effect concerns the perception of a self-luminous disk inside a somewhat foggy medium. The effects are worthy of further examination because they challenge current theories of luminosity perception and brightness perception in general.

  15. 26 CFR 1.408A-0 - Roth IRAs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roth IRAs; table of contents. 1.408A-0 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-0 Roth IRAs; table of contents. This table of contents lists the regulations relating to Roth IRAs under section 408A of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contributions to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-3 Section 1... Contributions to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules regarding contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a...

  17. 26 CFR 1.408A-0 - Roth IRAs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roth IRAs; table of contents. 1.408A-0 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-0 Roth IRAs; table of contents. This table of contents lists the regulations relating to Roth IRAs under section...

  18. 26 CFR 1.408A-0 - Roth IRAs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roth IRAs; table of contents. 1.408A-0 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-0 Roth IRAs; table of contents. This table of contents lists the regulations relating to Roth IRAs under section...

  19. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-4... Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or...

  20. 26 CFR 1.408A-0 - Roth IRAs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Roth IRAs; table of contents. 1.408A-0 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-0 Roth IRAs; table of contents. This table of contents lists the regulations relating to Roth IRAs under section...

  1. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-4... Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or...

  2. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-4... Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or...

  3. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contributions to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-3 Section 1... Contributions to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules regarding contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.408A-0 - Roth IRAs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roth IRAs; table of contents. 1.408A-0 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-0 Roth IRAs; table of contents. This table of contents lists the regulations relating to Roth IRAs under section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contributions to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-3 Section 1... Contributions to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules regarding contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a...

  6. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Contributions to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-3 Section 1... Contributions to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules regarding contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.408A-4 - Converting amounts to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-4 Section... Converting amounts to Roth IRAs. This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to Roth IRA conversions: Q-1. Can an individual convert an amount in his or...

  8. 26 CFR 1.408-11 - Net income calculation for returned or recharacterized IRA contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recharacterized IRA contributions. 1.408-11 Section 1.408-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.408-11 Net income calculation for returned or recharacterized IRA contributions. (a) Net income calculation for returned IRA contributions—(1) General rule. For purposes of...

  9. 29 CFR 2509.99-1 - Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IRA payroll deduction program clearly and prominently state, in language reasonably calculated to be... employer does not endorse or recommend either the sponsor or the funding media; that other IRA funding media are available to employees outside the payroll deduction program; that an IRA may not...

  10. 29 CFR 2509.99-1 - Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IRA payroll deduction program clearly and prominently state, in language reasonably calculated to be... employer does not endorse or recommend either the sponsor or the funding media; that other IRA funding media are available to employees outside the payroll deduction program; that an IRA may not...

  11. An IRAS search for extra-solar Oort clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan; Stocke, John; Weissman, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The presumptively close connection between Oort cloud formation and planetary formation is that the detection of comet clouds around other stars would imply the presence of extrasolar planetary systems. Low-resolution IRAS data and an S/N-enhancement method are presently used to search 17 nearby stars for comet cloud-indicating IR emission. While no such detections were obtained, upper limits have been set for extrasolar Oort clouds (ESOCs) around the candidate stars; the nondetections may be a results either of the absence of the ESOCs around these stars or, with greater probability, of the sensitivity and background confusion limitations of IRAS data.

  12. IRAS observations of extended dust envelopes around evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, George

    1990-01-01

    Deconvolved IRAS profiles, with resolution 2-3 time better than detector sizes 1.5 and 3 arcmin at 60 and 100 microns, are presented for a number of evolved stars with extended emission. These include VY UMa, Mu Cep, S Sct, U Hya, Y CVn, U Ant, alpha Ori, Y Pav, UU aur, IRC + 10216, RZ Sgr, and R Lyr. Simple models suggest that extended IRAS emission results from stars which greater mass loss rates in the past, rather than from stars with large current mass loss rates.

  13. The Dense Molecular Gas and Nuclear Activity in the Local ULIRG IRAS 13120-5453

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privon, George C.; Aalto, Susanne; Falstad, Niklas; Muller, Sebastien; González-Alfonso, Eduardo; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Treister, Ezequiel; Costagliola, Francesco; Armus, Lee; Evans, Aaron S.; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago; Izumi, Takuma; Sakamoto, Kazushi; van der Werf, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are the most luminous and concentrated star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. With a galaxy's worth of gas in the central kiloparsec and star formation rates in excess of 100 solar masses per year, these systems can have infrared surface densities that approach predictions for radiation pressure-limited starbursts. We will present a case study of a local ULIRG, IRAS 13120-5453, using ALMA observations of dense gas tracers HCN and HCO+, and the 330 GHz continuum emission. We find the HCN/HCO+ ratio to be elevated above typical values for star-forming galaxies and suggest the enhancement can be explained by increased HCN abundance driven by mechanical heating from supernovae in the starburst. The 330 GHz continuum size is resolved, with a size of ~500 pc. Using this as a measure of the starburst size, we show the IR luminosity surface density is below that for a radiation pressure-limited starburst. We also find tentative evidence for non-virial motions of HCN, suggesting dense molecular gas may be entrained the molecular wind (previously detected in OH).

  14. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  15. A remarkable multilobe molecular outflow - Rho Ophiuchi East, associated with IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, A.; Fukui, Y.; Iwata, T.; Nozawa, S.; Takano, T.

    1990-06-01

    Rho Ophiuchi East is one of the molecular outflows discovered in the Nagoya CO survey of star formation regions (Fukui et al., 1986) and was independently discovered by Wootten and Loren (1987). IRAS 16293-2422 is the driving source of the outflow. A detailed observational study of this outflow source in the J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 transitions of CO and in the (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) transitions of NH3 was made with angular resolutions of 17-80 arcsecs. The high-velocity CO emission has been resolved into four compact separate lobes, consisting of two pairs of bipolar lobes, in addition to an extended monopolar blueshifted lobe. The NH3 cloud has a size of 2.5 x 2.5 arcmin being peaked at 1.7 arcmin east of IRAS 16293-2422. This NH3 peak is located just toward the edge of one of the compact blue CO lobes, showing a blueshift of 0.5 km/s from the rest of the NH3 cloud. The momentum involved in the NH3 peak is nearly equal to that of the CO lobe. It is suggested that the CO lobe has dynamically interacted with the NH3 core, resulting in the acceleration of the NH3 core by 0.5 km/s.

  16. IRAS-based whole-sky upper limit on Dyson Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical construct of a star purposely cloaked by a thick swarm of broken-up planetary material to better utilize all of the stellar energy. A clean Dyson Sphere identification would give a significant signature for intelligence at work. A search for Dyson Spheres has been carried out using the 250,000 source database of the IRAS infrared satellite which covered 96% of the sky. The search has used the Calgary data collection of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) to look for fits to blackbody spectra. Searches have been conducted for both pure (fully cloaked) and partial Dyson Spheres in the blackbody temperature region 100 {le} T {le} 600 K. Other stellar signatures that resemble a Dyson Sphere are reviewed. When these signatures are used to eliminate sources that mimic Dyson Spheres very few candidates remain and even these are ambiguous. Upper limits are presented for both pure and partial Dyson Spheres. The sensitivity of the LRS was enough to find solar-sized Dyson Spheres out to 300 pc, a reach that encompasses a million solar-type stars.

  17. In Search of the Youngest Protostars: IRAS HIRES Results in the Serpens Cloud Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, R. L.; Barsony, M.

    1995-12-01

    Protostars which have yet to accrete the bulk of their initial main sequence mass from their infall envelopes, dubbed ``Class 0'' (Andre, Ward-Thompson, & Barsony 1993), represent the youngest (a few x 10(4) yr) protostellar sources. The defining observational characteristics for Class 0 protostars include a high ratio of mm/submm to bolometric luminosity, the presence of molecular outflows, invisibility shortward of 10 mu m, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) resembling modified blackbodies with T <= 30 K. Since Class 0 SEDs peak at ~ 100--200 mu m, far-infrared (FIR) data are required to produce SEDs for these sources. The nearby Serpens star-forming cloud core is a region of great interest for Class 0 protostar searches. Millimeter continuum maps of the central 6(') x 5(') reveal at least five cold dust continuum peaks which lack NIR counterparts (Casali, Eiroa, & Duncan 1993). A recent multi-transition H_2CO study of these millimeter continuum sources (FIRS1, SMM2, SMM3, SMM4, & S68N) confirms the presence of central heating sources and substantial masses of circumstellar gas in these objects, suggesting that they could all be Class 0 protostars (Hurt, Barsony & Wooten 1996). We present new 12, 25, 60, & 100 mu m HIRES processed IRAS images of the Serpens cloud core at FWHM resolutions of ~ 30('') --1(') . Such resolutions are necessary to help identify the individual contributions from the closely spaced sources. We use HIRES-processed point source models of the IRAS emission to determine new flux values and flux upper limits for all the protostellar candidates in the Serpens core. From the resulting SEDs we derive the dust temperature, circumstellar mass, bolometric luminosity, and evolutionary status of each protostellar candidate. Remarkably, we find all five millimeter continuum sources to share the defining characteristics of Class 0 protostars, potentially making the Serpens core the densest known collection of such objects.

  18. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA FOR THE GOALS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Kim, D. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Veilleux, S.; Evans, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Appleton, P.; Bothun, G.; Bridge, C. R.; and others

    2013-05-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present low resolution Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra covering 5-38 {mu}m and provide a basic analysis of the mid-IR spectral properties observed for nearby LIRGs. In a companion paper, we discuss detailed fits to the spectra and compare the LIRGs to other classes of galaxies. The GOALS sample of 244 nuclei in 180 luminous (10{sup 11} {<=} L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 12}) and 22 ultraluminous (L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} {>=} 10{sup 12}) IR galaxies represents a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample and covers a range of merger stages, morphologies, and spectral types. The majority (>60%) of the GOALS LIRGs have high 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} > 0.4 {mu}m) and low levels of silicate absorption (s {sub 9.7{mu}m} > -1.0). There is a general trend among the U/LIRGs for both silicate depth and mid-infrared (MIR) slope to increase with increasing L {sub IR}. U/LIRGs in the late to final stages of a merger also have, on average, steeper MIR slopes and higher levels of dust obscuration. Together, these trends suggest that as gas and dust is funneled toward the center of a coalescing merger, the nuclei become more compact and more obscured. As a result, the dust temperature increases also leading to a steeper MIR slope. The sources that depart from these correlations have very low PAH equivalent width (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} < 0.1 {mu}m) consistent with their emission being dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the MIR. These extremely low PAH EQW sources separate into two distinct types: relatively unobscured sources with a very hot dust component (and thus very shallow MIR slopes) and heavily dust obscured nuclei with a steep temperature gradient. The most heavily dust obscured sources are also the most compact in their MIR

  19. A Dynamical Model of a Still-Forming Zodiacal Dust Band, as Constrained by IRAS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Ashley J.; Dermott, S. F.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

    2009-05-01

    When an asteroid is disrupted, the larger pieces remain on similar orbits and constitute an asteroid family. The smaller products of the disruption (10 microns- a few cm) decay into the inner solar system under the effect of Poynting-Roberston drag. Before these particles encounter the secular and mean-motion resonances at the inner edge of the main belt, they retain their proper orbital elements and share common forced elements, allowing for the existence of the dust band structure discovered by IRAS (Low et al., 1984). There are currently known to be at least three dust band pairs associated with relatively young (≤ 107 yr old) asteroidal disruptions (Grogan et al., 2001; Dermott et al., 2002; Nesvorny et al., 2003; 2008). A method of coadding the IRAS data set, revealed the existence of an additional solar system dust band at 17 degrees inclination, likely a confirmation of the M/N pair originally suggested by Sykes (1988). We see this new dust band at some but not all ecliptic longitudes, providing strong evidence for a very young dust band in the process of formation. In order to determine the parent body of this band, we create a full dynamical model of the formation of this dust band to constrain the parameters of a source body capable of producing the structure. The model is based on the dynamical evolution of the 10-1000 micron diameter dust particles from the disruption event. Comparison of the model to our co-added IRAS observations allows us to put bounds on the parameters of the parent body, including the node location and dispersion, which gives an age to the disruption that produced the partial band. We also investigate the effects that varying the orbital parameters has on the timescale and formation of a band pair.

  20. MILLIMETRIC AND SUBMILLIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS 05327+3404 ''HOLOEA'' IN M36

    SciTech Connect

    Morata, O.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-C.; Zhao-Geisler, R.; Magnier, E. A.

    2013-09-15

    The transition between the protostar, Class I, and the pre-main-sequence star, Class II, phases is still one of the most uncertain, and important, stages in the knowledge of the process of formation of an individual star because it is the stage that determines the final mass of the star. We observed the young stellar object ''Holoea'', associated with IRAS 05327+3404, which was classified as an object in the transition between the Class I and Class II phases with several unusual properties, and appears to be surrounded by large amounts of circumstellar material. We used the SMA and BIMA telescopes at millimeter and submillimeter (submm) wavelengths to observe the dust continuum emission and the CO (1-0) and (2-1), HCO{sup +} (1-0) and (3-2), and HCN (1-0) transitions in the region around IRAS 05327+3404. We detected two continuum emission peaks at 1.1 mm: SMM 1, the submm counterpart of IRAS 05327+3404, and SMM 2, {approx}6 arcsec to the west. The emissions of the three molecules show marked differences. The CO emission near the systemic velocity is filtered out by the telescopes, and CO mostly traces the high-velocity gas. The HCO{sup +} and HCN emissions are more concentrated around the central parts of the region, and show several intensity peaks coincident with the submm continuum peaks. We identify two main molecular outflows: a bipolar outflow in an E-W direction that would be powered by SMM 1 and the other in a NE direction, which we associate with SMM 2. We propose that the SMM sources are probably Class I objects, with SMM 1 in an earlier evolutionary stage.

  1. Active galactic nucleus torus models and the puzzling infrared spectrum of IRAS F10214+4724

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, A.; Christopher, N.; Verma, A.; Siebenmorgen, R.

    2013-12-01

    We present a revised model for the infrared emission of the hyperluminous infrared galaxy IRAS F10214+4724 which takes into account recent photometric data from Spitzer and Herschel that sample the peak of its spectral energy distribution. We first present and discuss a grid of smooth active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus models computed with the method of Efstathiou & Rowan-Robinson and demonstrate that the combination of these models and the starburst models of Efstathiou and coworkers, while able to give an excellent fit to the average spectrum of Seyfert 2s and spectra of individual type 2 quasars measured by Spitzer, fails to match the spectral energy distribution of IRAS F10214+4724. This is mainly due to the fact that the νSν distribution of the galaxy falls very steeply with increasing frequency (a characteristic that is usually indicative of heavy absorption by dust) but shows a silicate feature in emission. Such emission features are not expected in sources with optical/near-infrared type 2 AGN spectral signatures. The Herschel data show that there is more power emitted in the rest-frame 20-50 μm wavelength range compared with the model presented by Efstathiou which assumes three components of emission: an edge-on torus, clouds (at a temperature of 610 and 200 K) that are associated with the narrow-line region (NLR) and a highly obscured starburst that dominates in the submillimetre. We present a revised version of that model that assumes an additional component of emission which we associate with NLR clouds at a temperature of 100 K. The 100 K dust component could also be explained by a highly obscured hot starburst. The model suggests that the NLR of IRAS F10214+4724 has an unusually high covering factor (≥17 per cent) or more likely the magnification of the emission from the NLR clouds is significantly higher than that of the emission from the torus.

  2. Molecular abundances and low-mass star formation. 1: Si- and S-bearing species toward IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.; Dishoek, Ewine F. Van; Jansen, David J.; Groesbeck, T. D.; Mundy, Lee G.

    1994-01-01

    Results from millimeter and submillimeter spectral line surveys of the protobinary source Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 16293-2422 are presented. Here we outline the abundances of silicon- and sulfur-containing species. A combination of rotation diagram and full statistical equilibrium/radiative transfer calculations is used to constrain the physical conditions toward IRAS 16293 and to construct its beam-averaged chemical composition over a 10 to 20 sec (1600 to 3200 AU) scale. The chemical complexity as judged by species such as SiO, OCS, and H2S, is intermediate between that of dark molecular clouds such as L134N and hot molecular cloud cores such as Orion KL. From the richness of the spectra compared to other young stellar objects of similar luminosity, it is clear that molecular abundances do not scale simply with mass; rather, the chemistry is a strong function of evolutionary state, i.e., age.

  3. Preliminary scientific results from the first six months of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Houck, J. R.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was successfully launched on January 25, 1983. This paper presents results based on analysis of early scientific data returned from IRAS. Among the early results of IRAS are the discovery of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock, evidence for a shell of large particles around the nearby bright star Vega, detection of stars in the process of formation, and detection of many infrared bright galaxies. These early results demonstrate that the IRAS data will be a treasure chest for astronomers for years to come.

  4. IRAS observations of dust heating and energy balance in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium process dust emission in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is studied. The luminosity of the cloud is found to closely match the luminosity of the clouds's known embedded and external radiation sources. There is no evidence for a large population of undetected low-luminosity sources within the cloud and unknown external heating is also only a minor source of energy. Most of the cloud's luminosity is emitted in the mid-to-far-IR. Dust temperature maps indicate that the dust is not hot enough to heat the gas to observed temperatures. A simple cloud model with a radiation field composed of flux HD 147889, S1, and Sco OB2 associations predicts the observed IRAS 60 to 100 micron in-band flux ratios for a mean cloud density n(H2) = 1400. Flattened 12 and 25 micron observations show much extended emission in these bands, suggesting stochastic heating of very small grains or large molecules.

  5. A very deep IRAS survey - Constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacking, Perry; Condon, J. J.; Houck, J. R.

    1987-05-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts.

  6. VLA Ammonia Observations of IRAS 16253-2429: A Very Young and Low Mass Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    IRAS l6253-2429. the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source as possibly one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known.

  7. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references.

  8. A Starfish Preplanetary Nebula: IRAS 19024+0044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen; Morris, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we have imaged the OH/IR star IRAS 19024+0044 (I19024) at 0.6, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.6 micrometers, as part of our surveys of candidate preplanetary nebulae. The images show a multipolar nebula of size approximately equal to 3.'7 2.'3, with at least six elongated lobes emanating from the center of the nebula. Two of the lobes show limb-brightened tips having point-symmetric structure with respect to the expected location of the central star. The central region shows two dark bands southwest and northeast of a central shallow maximum that may be either two inclined dusty toroidal structures or the dense parts of a single wide, inhomogeneous, toroid. Avery faint, surface brightness-limited, diffuse halo surrounds the lobes. Long-slit/echelle optical spectroscopy obtained at the Mount Palomar and Keck observatories shows a spatially compact source of H(alpha) emission; the H(alpha) line shows a strong, narrow, central core with very broad (+/-1000 km/sec), weak wings, and a narrower blueshifted absorption feature signifying the presence of an approximately 100 km/sec(exp -1) outflow. The spectrum is characterized by a strong, relatively featureless, continuum and lacks the strong forbidden emission lines characteristic of planetary nebulae, confirming that IRAS 19024 is a preplanetary nebula; the spectral type for the central star, although uncertain, is most likely early G. Interferometric observations of the CO J = 1 -0 line emission with the Owens Valley Radio Interferometer show a marginally resolved molecular envelope (size 5.'5 x 4.'4) with an expansion velocity of 13 km/sec (exp -1), resulting from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor's dense, slow wind. We derive a kinematic distance of 3.5 kpc to I19024, based on its radial velocity. The bolometric flux is 7:3 x 10(exp -9) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2), and the luminosity 2850 L. The relatively low luminosity of I19024, in comparison with stellar evolutionary models, indicates

  9. IRAS 20050+2720: ANATOMY OF A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Allen, L.; Megeath, S. T.; Pipher, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N{sub H}/A{sub K} ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  10. The distribution of IRAS galaxies towards the Bootes void

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Michael A.; Huchra, John

    1988-01-01

    A redshift survey was completed for 342 galaxies detected by the IRAS in the direction of the Bootes void discovered by Kirshner et al. The number density of IRAS galaxies is well determined from the shallower full-sky redshift survey of Strauss et al. Four IRAS galaxies are found within the void as defined by Kirshner et al., of which three are part of a complete sample, implying a density depression of a factor of 4. The underdense region continues to a distance of at least 4000 km/s from the nominal center of the void. Three of the IRAS galaxies studied in this paper were previously unknown. These galaxies have emission-line spectra characteristic of H II regions, and red continuum magnitudes ranging from 16 to 17.5 mag, and thus are bright enough to have been detected in a wide-angle redshift survey as deep as that of Kirshner et al. The luminosity function derived from this sample is in good agreement with that of Lawrence et al.

  11. Optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic lumineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    Lumineers are veneer laminates used as an alternative for aesthetic dental solutions of the highest quality, but the only current means of its performance assessment is visual inspection. The objective of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain to analyze in vivo in a single patient, 14 lumineers 180 days after cementation. It was possible to observe images in various kinds of changes in the cementing line and the laminate. It was concluded that the OCT is an effective and promising method to clinical evaluation of the cementing line in lumineers.

  12. Predicting a Luminous Red Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noord, Daniel; Molnar, Larry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Steenwyk, Steven; Alexander, Cara; Spedden, Chris; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Luminous Red Novae (LRN) are rare transient events believed to be caused by the merger of a main sequence contact binary. Since the discovery of the prototype, V838 Mon, only a handful of LRN events have been observed. Tylenda et al. (2011) analyzed the OGLE data preceding the 2008 Novae of V1309 Sco and found that it exhibited a similar light curve to that of a contact binary with one interesting exception, the orbital period of V1309 Sco showed exponential period change going to zero. Unfortunately the system was discovered to be a binary after the merger, preventing any targeted observations to narrow down how the system entered this unusual state. However the extreme period change observed in V1309 Sco gives us a signature to look for in other contact binaries, allowing the discovery of merger candidates for follow up. We will present an analysis of light curves and spectra of KIC 9832227 (NSVS 5597755) that show it is a contact binary system with a negative period derivative that is becoming more extreme with time. These data span more than 15 years and are taken from the NSVS, ASAS, WASP, and Kepler surveys, with ongoing measurements from the Calvin College Observatory and the Apache Point Observatory. The ongoing period change observed in the system is consistent with the exponential model fit from V1309 Sco and the rate of period change has surpassed that of all other measured contact binaries with the exception of V1309 Sco. If the exponential period decay continues the system will likely merge between 2019 and 2022 resulting in a naked eye nova. If this event occurs, this star will present the unprecedented opportunity to study a LRN progenitor and to follow the evolution of the merger.

  13. OT2_mcordine_2: Revealing the nature of the remarkable object IRAS 19312+1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M.

    2011-09-01

    The IRAS source 19312+1950 is a peculiar bipolar nebula that has eluded firm characterisation since its discovery. It exhibits maser and outflow properties similar to a massive O-rich AGB star, but shows molecular species such as CH3OH and HC3N that are more typically found in molecular clouds or YSOs. The source is surrounded by remarkable NIR nebulosity and has an unusual SED. The puzzle over the true nature of this object is confounded by our Spitzer IR spectrum that shows amorphous silicates and CO2 ice, but also emission from what may be crystalline silicates. In order to understand the physical properties of the gas and dust in the vicinity of IRAS 19312+1950, we propose to perform Herschel observations of emission from CO and H2O across a broad wavelength range from sub-mm to IR. Observations of transitions from a variety of energy levels will allow us to probe different temperature and density regimes within the source, from which we will construct a picture of its physical structure through radiative transfer/excitation modelling. HIFI observations will allow us to separate the broad and narrow molecular line components and PACS IFU mapping will provide crucial spatial information on the physical structure of the source. We also propose to perform a PACS SED scan to better characterise the source SED, and measure diagnostic spectral features of the dust and gas such as the forsterite 69 micron band, the OI 63 micron line and the N II 122 and 205 micron lines. The combination of these unique observations will help solve the puzzle of the nature of this peculiar object.

  14. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  15. Ratio model serves suprathreshold color- luminance discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankeralli, Marcel J.; Mullen, Kathy T.; Hine, Trevor J.

    2002-03-01

    We extended earlier results [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2625 (1999)] to examine how the responses of the three postreceptoral mechanisms are combined to subserve discrimination of suprathreshold stimuli. Test thresholds were obtained in the presence of suprathreshold pedestals selected in different quadrants of the red-green/luminance and blue-yellow/luminance planes of cardinal color space. We showed that (1) test threshold was directly proportional to pedestal contrast for pedestal contrasts exceeding five times pedestal contrast threshold, and (2) there were exceptions to this proportionality, notably when the test and pedestal directions were fixed in the cardinal directions. Results support a ratio model of suprathreshold color-luminance discrimination, in which discrimination depends on a ratio of outputs of the postreceptoral mechanisms. We also observed that when test threshold was measured as a function of test color-space direction, masking by the achromatic component of the pedestal was less than that by the chromatic component. In addition, masking by a dark (negative luminance component) pedestal was lower than masking by a light (positive luminance) pedestal of a similar contrast. Our results demonstrated that (1) there is no fundamental difference between discrimination in the isoluminant and in the two chromoluminant cardinal planes, (2) there exists the possibility that discrimination in cardinal directions differs from that in noncardinal (intermediate) directions, and (3) suprathreshold discrimination of luminance differences may be more sensitive than that of chromatic differences for a given suprathreshold pedestal.

  16. IRAS 03063+5735: A BOWSHOCK NEBULA POWERED BY AN EARLY B STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Kerton, C. R. E-mail: mlundqui@uwyo.edu E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu

    2012-03-15

    Mid-infrared images from the Spitzer Space Telescope Galactic Legacy Infrared MidPlane Survey Extraordinaire program reveal that the infrared source IRAS 03063+5735 is a bowshock nebula produced by an early B star, 2MASS 03101044+5747035. We present new optical spectra of this star, classify it as a B1.5 V, and determine a probable association with a molecular cloud complex at V{sub LSR} = -38 to -42 km s{sup -1} in the outer Galaxy near l = 140.{sup 0}59, b = -0.{sup 0}250. On the basis of spectroscopic parallax, we estimate a distance of 4.0 {+-} 1 kpc to both the bowshock nebula and the molecular complex. One plausible scenario is that this is a high-velocity runaway star impinging upon a molecular cloud. We identify the H II region and stellar cluster associated with IRAS 03064+5638 at a projected distance of 64 pc as one plausible birth site. The spectrophotometric distance and linkage to a molecular feature provides another piece of data helping to secure the ill-determined rotation curve in the outer Galaxy. As a by-product of spectral typing this star, we present empirical spectral diagnostic diagrams suitable for approximate spectral classification of O and B stars using He lines in the little-used yellow-red portion of the optical spectrum.

  17. PROPERTIES AND KEPLERIAN ROTATION OF THE HOT CORE IRAS 20126+4104

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jinlong; Wang Junjie; Ning Changchun

    2012-01-10

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the massive star-forming region IRAS 20126+4104 in the millimeter continuum and in several molecular line transitions. With the SMA data, we have detected nine molecular transitions, including deuterated hydrogen cyanide, CH{sub 3}OH, H{sub 2}CO, and HC{sub 3}N molecules, and imaged each molecular line. From the 1.3 mm continuum emission a compact millimeter source is revealed, which is also associated with H{sub 2}O, OH, and CH{sub 3}OH masers. Using a rotation temperature diagram, we derive that the rotational temperature and the column density of CH{sub 3}OH are 200 K and 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The calculated results and analysis further indicate that a hot core coincides with IRAS 20126+4104. The position-velocity diagrams of H{sub 2}CO (3{sub 0,3}-2{sub 0,2}) and HC{sub 3}N (25-24) clearly present Keplerian rotation. Moreover, H{sub 2}CO (3{sub 0,3}-2{sub 0,2}) is found to trace the disk rotation for the first time.

  18. An accretion disks in the high-mass star forming region IRA 23151+5912

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migenes, Victor; Rodríguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of radio continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.6 cm and H2O masers toward the high-mass star-forming regions IRA 23151+5912 carried out with the VLA-EVLA. We detected one continuum source at 1.3 cm and 13 water maser spots which are distributed in three groups aligned along the northeast-southwest direction. Our results suggest that the 1.3 cm emission is consistent with an HC HII region, probably with an embedded zero-age main sequence star of type B2. In particular, we find that this radio continuum source is probably associated with a circumstellar disk of about 68 AU, as traced by water masers. Furthermore, the masers of the second group are probably describing another circumstellar disk of about 86 AU, whose central protostar is still undetected. We discuss this results in the light of more recent high-resolution observations.

  19. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE CONTINUUM AND WATER MASER EMISSION IN THE IRAS 19217+1651 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.; Migenes, V. E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx

    2012-12-20

    We report interferometric observations of the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 19217+1651. We observed the radio continuum (1.3 cm and 3.6 cm) and water maser emission using the Very Large Array (VLA-EVLA) in transition mode (configuration A). Two radio continuum sources were detected at both wavelengths, I19217-A and I19217-B. In addition, 17 maser spots were observed distributed mainly in two groups, M1 and M2, and one isolated maser. This latter could be indicating the relative position of another continuum source which we did not detect. The results indicate that I19217-A appears to be consistent with an ultracompact H II region associated with a zero-age main-sequence B0-type star. Furthermore, the 1.3 cm continuum emission of this source suggests a cometary morphology. In addition, I19217-B appears to be an H II region consisting of at least two stars, which may be contributing to its complex structure. It was also found that the H{sub 2}O masers of the group M1 are apparently associated with the continuum source I19217-A. These are tracing motions which are not gravitationally bound according to their spatial distribution and kinematics. They also seem to be describing outflows in the direction of the elongated cometary region. On the other hand, the second maser group, M2, could be tracing the base of a jet. Finally, infrared data from Spitzer, Midcourse Space Experiment, and IRIS show that IRAS 19217+1651 is embedded inside a large open bubble, like a broken ring, which possibly has affected the morphology of the cometary H II region observed at 1.3 cm.

  20. OH megamasers in high-luminosity IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    OH megamaser emission and H I and CO profiles from the distant infrared galaxies IRAS 10173 + 0828, III Zw 035, and Zw 475.056 are reported. The OH isotropic luminosities at 1667 MHz are 463, 534, and 6.6 solar luminosities, respectively. Far-infrared pumping efficiencies of the OH greater than 1 percent are found in IRAS 10173 + 0828 and III Zw 035. These two galaxies show anomalously large 1667/1665 MHz emission line ratios. OH megamasers reside in the nuclei of superluminous far-infrared galaxies that have a high content of molecular gas, high efficiency of star formation, and in some instances, a striking deficiency of atomic hydrogen.

  1. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) superfluid helium tank temperature control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrac, D.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    The infrared detectors on the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), which was placed into a polar orbit in January 1983, are cooled to a temperature of less than 3 K by thermal coupling to the main cryogenic tank (MCT) containing superfluid helium. A porous plug built into the vent line entrance acts as a superfluid helium liquid/vapor separator in zero gravity. A description of the IRAS MCT flight porous plug is presented, and tests of the plug in situ are discussed, taking into account submerged plug tests, a restart test, and a cold vapor flow test. Aspects of flow rate determination in the case of an unavailability of flight flow rate data are also considered.

  2. IRAS galaxies versus POTENT mass - Density fields, biasing, and Omega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Bertschinger, Edmund; Yahil, Amos; Strauss, Michael A.; Davis, Marc; Huchra, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of the galaxy density field extracted from a complete redshift survey of IRAS galaxies brighter than 1.936 Jy with the mass-density field reconstructed by the POTENT procedure from the observed peculiar velocities of 493 objects is presented. A strong correlation is found between the galaxy and mass-density fields; both feature the Great Attractor, part of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster, and the large void between them. Monte Carlo noise simulations show that the data are consistent with the hypotheses that the smoothed fluctuations of galaxy and mass densities at each point are proportional to each other with the 'biasing' factor of IRAS galaxies, b(I), and that the peculiar velocity field is related to the mass-density field as expected according to the gravitational instability theory. Under these hypotheses, the two density fields can be related by specifying b(I) and the cosmological density parameter, Omega.

  3. Study of Starburst/Activity/Interaction Phenomena based on the Multiple Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Gohar S.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-07-01

    The Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy (BIG) sample is the result of optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at high-galactic latitudes using the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra. Among the 1178 objects most are spiral galaxies and many have been proved to be AGN and starburst by spectroscopic observations, as well as there is a number of ULIRGs among these objects. BIG objects contain galaxy pairs, multiples, and small groups that are subject for study on the matter of the real IR-emitter in these systems. Given that these objects are powerful IR sources, they are considered as young systems indicating high rate of evolution and starburst activity exceeding 100 M o /yr. Spectroscopic observations show that all these systems are physical ones and we were able to measure the mutual distances and sizes for all components. Cross-correlations with the recent more accurate IR catalogues, such as 2MASS and WISE, as well as radio ones (NVSS, FIRST), provided accurate coordinates of the IR source and possibility to find the individual galaxy responsible for the IR. However, in almost half of the cases, IR position indicates the intermediate region between the components, which means that it comes from the system as a whole. Some more MW data have been matched to IR and radio to have an overall understanding on these systems. Given that these systems are mostly interacting/merging ones often containing AGN and most of them may be considered as powerful starbursts, it is possible to study starburst/activity/interaction phenomena and their interrelationship.

  4. High-velocity OH megamasers in IRAS 20100-4156: evidence for a supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Smith, L.; Allison, J. R.; Green, J. A.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A.; Edwards, P. G.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Lenc, E.; Marvil, J.; McConnell, D.; Phillips, C. J.; Sault, R. J.; Serra, P.; Stevens, J.; Voronkov, M.; Whiting, M.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of new, high-velocity narrow-line components of the OH megamaser in IRAS 20100-4156. Results from the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP)'s Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) provide two independent measurements of the OH megamaser spectrum. We found evidence for OH megamaser clumps at -409 and -562 km s-1 (blue-shifted) from the systemic velocity of the galaxy, in addition to the lines previously known. The presence of such high velocities in the molecular emission from IRAS 20100-4156 could be explained by a ˜50 pc molecular ring enclosing a ˜3.8 billion solar mass black hole. We also discuss two alternatives, i.e. that the narrow-line masers are dynamically coupled to the wind driven by the active galactic nucleus or they are associated with two separate galactic nuclei. The comparison between the BETA and ATCA spectra provides another scientific verification of ASKAP's BETA. Our data, combined with previous measurements of the source enabled us to study the variability of the source over a 26 yr period. The flux density of the brightest OH maser components has reduced by more than a factor of 2 between 1988 and 2015, whereas a secondary narrow-line component has more than doubled in the same time. Plans for high-resolution very long baseline interferometry follow-up of this source are discussed, as are prospects for discovering new OH megamasers during the ASKAP early science programme.

  5. Absolute activity measurement of radon gas at IRA-METAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Philippe; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude; Triscone, Gilles; Bochud, François

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the system of the Swiss national metrological institute (IRA-METAS) for the absolute standardisation of radon gas. This method relies on condensing radon under vacuum conditions within a specified cold area using a cryogenerator, and detecting its alpha particles with an ion-implanted silicon detector, through a very accurately defined solid angle. The accuracy of this defined solid angle standardisation technique was corroborated by another primary measurement method involving 4 πγ NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo efficiency calculations. The 222Rn standard submitted by IRA-METAS to the Système International de Référence (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has also been found to be consistent with an analogous standard submitted by the German national metrological institute (PTB). IRA-METAS is able to deliver radon standards, with activities ranging from a few kBq to 350 kBq, in NIST-Type ampoules, and glass or steel containers usable for calibrating radon-measuring instruments.

  6. The Properties of IRAS Detected Mergers in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpineti, Alfredo; Kaviraj, S.; Clements, D. L.; Darg, D.; Hyde, A. K.; Lintott, C.

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy merging is a fundamental aspect of the standard hierarchical galaxy formation paradigm. We have used a large, homogeneous set of nearby mergers, selected through direct visual inspection of the entire SDSS using the GalaxyZoo project, to perform the first blind far-infrared (FIR) study of the local merger population. 3300+ mergers were cross-matched with the Imperial IRAS-FSC Redshift Catalogue, resulting in 606 FIR detections. The IRAS- detected mergers are typically more massive, with smaller separations, weaker tidal forces and bluer colours than their undetected counterparts. The IRAS-detected mergers are mostly (98%) spiral-spiral systems, with a median FIR luminosity of 1011 LSun and a median star-formation rate of around 15 MSun per year. They reside in low density environments but we find no dependence between group richness and their infrared properties. Their SFR seems to depend on the total mass of the system with little dependence on the mass ratio. Optical emission line ratios indicate that the AGN fraction increases with increasing FIR luminosity with a dramatic increase in the members that are ULIRGs . Comparing the typical separations of mergers that are LIRGs and those that are ULIRGs we estimate the timescale for this transition and find a value of (50 ± 16) Myr .

  7. Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Analysis of the Nuclear and Long-Slit Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, S.; Kim, D.-C.; Sanders, D. B.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Soifer, B. T.

    1995-05-01

    A spectroscopic survey of a sample of 200 luminous IRAS galaxies (LIGs: L_ir_^7^ > 3 x 10^10^ L_sun_; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^) was carried out using the Palomar 5 meter and University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescopes. Kim et al. (1995) described the data-taking and data-reduction procedures and presented line and continuum measurements extracted from the nucleus of these objects. In this paper, the nuclear data are combined with circumnuclear measurements on 23 of these galaxies to investigate the properties of the line-emitting gas and underlying stellar population in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear spectra of these galaxies were classified as H II region-like" or "AGN-like" using a large number of line-ratio diagnostics corrected for the underlying stellar absorption features. This correction is an important source of errors in some previous studies. The emission-line spectra of many AGNs were found to-be of relatively low ionization level and were therefore classified as LINER. We confirm that both the fraction of LIGs with AGN spectra and the fraction of Seyferts among the AGN increase with infrared luminosity, reaching values of 62% and 54% at the highest observed luminosities, respectively. The fraction of LINERs, on the other hand, is relatively constant at ~27%. The source of the ionization of the emission-line gas often is a function of the distance from the nucleus. Based on the emission-line ratios and the strengths of the stellar absorption features, circumnuclear starburst activity is a common feature of LIGs, regardless of their nuclear spectral types. The emission-line, absorption-line, continuum, radio, and IRAS properties of the LINERs suggest that most of the LINER emission in these infrared-selected galaxies is produced through shock ionization rather than photoionization by a genuine active nucleus. The nuclear region of Seyfert LIGs is found to be slightly less reddened than that of the LINERs and H II galaxies. The dust distribution generally

  8. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  9. Digital image comparison using feature extraction and luminance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachnak, Ray A.; Steidley, Carl W.; Funtanilla, Jeng

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the results of comparing two digital images acquired using two different light sources. One of the sources is a 50-W metal halide lamp located in the compartment of an industrial borescope and the other is a 1 W LED placed at the tip of the insertion tube of the borescope. The two images are compared quantitatively and qualitatively using feature extraction and luminance matching approaches. Quantitative methods included the images' histograms, intensity profiles along a line segment, edges, and luminance measurement. Qualitative methods included image registration and linear conformal transformation with eight control points. This transformation is useful when shapes in the input image are unchanged, but the image is distorted by some combination of translation, rotation, and scaling. The gray-level histogram, edge detection, image profile and image registration do not offer conclusive results. The LED light source, however, produces good images for visual inspection by the operator. The paper presents the results and discusses the usefulness and shortcomings of various comparison methods.

  10. 26 CFR 1.408A-3 - Contributions to Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions to Roth IRAs. 1.408A-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-3 Contributions to Roth... contributions to Roth IRAs: Q-1. What types of contributions are permitted to be made to a Roth IRA? A-1....

  11. SUB-LUMINOUS {gamma}-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, R. W.; Kerr, M.; Craig, H. A.; Johnston, S.; Cognard, I.; Smith, D. A.

    2011-09-01

    Most pulsars observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope have {gamma}-ray luminosities scaling with spin-down power E-dot as L{sub {gamma}}{approx}(E-dot x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}){sup 1/2}. However, there exist one detection and several upper limits an order of magnitude or more fainter than this trend. We describe these 'sub-luminous' {gamma}-ray pulsars and discuss the case for this being an orientation effect. Of the 12 known young radio pulsars with E-dot >10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} and d {<=} 2 kpc several are substantially sub-luminous. The limited available geometrical constraints favor aligned geometries for these pulsars, although no one case for alignment is compelling. In this scenario GeV emission detected from such sub-luminous pulsars can be due to a lower altitude, lower-power accelerator gap.

  12. Mesopic luminance assessed with minimum motion photometry.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sabine; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2011-08-25

    We measured the relative contribution of rods and cones to luminance across a range of photopic, mesopic, and scotopic adaptation levels and at various retinal eccentricities. We isolated the luminance channel by setting motion-based luminance nulls (minimum motion photometry) using annular stimuli. Luminance nulls between differently colored stimuli require equality in a weighted sum of rod and cone excitations. The relative cone weight increases smoothly from the scotopic range, where rods dominate, to photopic levels, where rod influence becomes negligible. The change from rod to cone vision does not occur uniformly over the visual field. The more peripheral the stimulus location, the higher is the light level required for cones to participate strongly. The relative cone contribution can be described by a sigmoid function of intensity, with two parameters that each depend on the eccentricity and spatial frequency of the stimulus. One parameter determines the "meso-mesopic" luminance--the center of the mesopic range, at which rod and cone contributions are balanced. This increases with eccentricity, reflecting an increase in the meso-mesopic luminance from 0.04 scotopic cd/m(2) at 2° eccentricity to 0.44 scotopic cd/m(2) at 18°. The second parameter represents the slope of the log-log threshold-versus-intensity curve (TVI curve) for rod vision. This parameter inversely scales the width of the mesopic range and increases only slightly with eccentricity (from 0.73 at 2° to 0.78 for vision at 18° off-axis).

  13. The Multiple Systems in the Young Stellar Cluster IRAS 05137+3919

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Harutyunyan, H. A.; Azatyan, N. M.

    2016-09-01

    Four binary objects and one triplet have been revealed in the young stellar cluster located in the vicinity of IRAS 05137+3919 source on a distance 4.4 kpc with the use of statistic analysis. They are including the pair of Ae/Be Herbig stars. The percentage of the multiple systems in the cluster is mf = 5-6% and cp = 10-13%. The mass of the multiple systems' components are located in the range from ˜ 1 to 8 M⊙ and log P (rotation period in years) - from 4.4 to 4.7. The median value of the mass ratio of the components is q=0.86. The percentage of the multiple systems and their parameters in this cluster is resembling with the data obtained in the other star forming regions (ONC, Perseus, U Sco A), in which the values of mf and cp parameters are comparable with the results obtained for field's stellar population.

  14. El Perfil Sinusoidal del Jet HH 31 en la Protoestrella IRAS 042482612

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Gómez, M. N.

    In this contribution we study the HH 31 jet; associated with the Class I proto-star; IRAS 042482612 (age 10 yrs); in the Taurus molecular cloud. We use mid-infrared images; taken by Spitzer and WISE; to analyze the sinusoidal or S-shape chain of knots (or EGOs) that delineate the jet. The binarity of the central source naturally explains the wiggling jet. The orbital period is 2.7 times the estimated dynamical time of the jet. The spatial difference between knots agrees with time elapse expected between quasi-periodic FU Orionis events; suggesting that central star might have experimented this type of events several times since its birth. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. The carbon-rich proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272 + 5435

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Kwok, Sun

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based photometry and spectroscopy is presented for IRAS 22272 + 5435, a 9th mag star with a large infrared excess. The flux distribution is 'double-peaked', with a visible and near-infrared component due to the reddened photosphere and a far-infrared component presumably due to a detached dust shell. About equal amounts of energy are detected from each. The spectrum is that of a peculiar G supergiant, Gp Ia. In addition, strong molecular bands of C3 and C2 are observed. The flux distribution is modeled and, together with published molecular-line radio observations, allows the determination of basic parameters of the central star and the dust shell. The source has the characteristics one would expect of a proto-planetary nebula, an object in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase.

  16. The carbon-rich proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272 + 5435

    SciTech Connect

    Hrivnak, B.J.; Kwok, Sun Calgary, University )

    1991-04-01

    Ground-based photometry and spectroscopy is presented for IRAS 22272 + 5435, a 9th mag star with a large infrared excess. The flux distribution is 'double-peaked', with a visible and near-infrared component due to the reddened photosphere and a far-infrared component presumably due to a detached dust shell. About equal amounts of energy are detected from each. The spectrum is that of a peculiar G supergiant, Gp Ia. In addition, strong molecular bands of C3 and C2 are observed. The flux distribution is modeled and, together with published molecular-line radio observations, allows the determination of basic parameters of the central star and the dust shell. The source has the characteristics one would expect of a proto-planetary nebula, an object in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase. 31 refs.

  17. The carbon-rich proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272 + 5435

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Kwok, Sun

    1991-04-01

    Ground-based photometry and spectroscopy is presented for IRAS 22272 + 5435, a 9th mag star with a large infrared excess. The flux distribution is 'double-peaked', with a visible and near-infrared component due to the reddened photosphere and a far-infrared component presumably due to a detached dust shell. About equal amounts of energy are detected from each. The spectrum is that of a peculiar G supergiant, Gp Ia. In addition, strong molecular bands of C3 and C2 are observed. The flux distribution is modeled and, together with published molecular-line radio observations, allows the determination of basic parameters of the central star and the dust shell. The source has the characteristics one would expect of a proto-planetary nebula, an object in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase.

  18. Serendipitous Discovery of a Radio Transient in the Luminous Radio Galaxy Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Richard A.; Perley, Daniel A.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Dhawan, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Recent Jansky Very Large Array observations of the luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A have revealed the presence of a 3 mJy, flat-spectrum, unresolved radio source located 0.4" (450 pc) from the nucleus. This source was not present in observations made 25 years ago. The luminosity and SED of the transient are comparable to the most luminous supernovae in the universe, and to GRB afterglows, although the most likely interpretation is that the transient represents a luminous flare from the nucleus of a minor galaxy merging with the host of Cygnus A -- possibly in the form of a tidal disruption event. We present our observations and interpretation of this event using recent JVLA and VLBA observations, and discuss its implications for the Cygnus A system and for dusty, merging galaxies generally.

  19. SEARCH FOR CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS AND RADIO JETS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMATION REGION IRAS 23033+5951

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, T.; Trinidad, M. A.; Migenes, V. E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx

    2012-08-20

    We present radio continuum (1.3 and 3.6 cm) and H{sub 2}O maser observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 23033+5951 carried out with the VLA-EVLA (in transition phase) in the A configuration. Three radio continuum sources are detected at 3.6 cm, which are aligned in the east-west direction. However, no continuum emission is detected in the region at 1.3 cm. Based on the continuum information, we find that the two continuum sources detected in the region could be consistent with ultracompact H II regions harboring ZAMS B2 and B2.5 stars; however, we do not rule out that they could be associated with a radio jet. In addition, nine water maser spots are detected toward IRAS 23033+5951, which are clustered in two groups and located about 2'' to the south of the continuum sources. The spatio-kinematical distribution of the water masers suggests that they are tracing a circumstellar disk associated with a central star ZAMS B0, which could be the least evolved source in the region and has not developed an H II region yet. Moreover, as the circumstellar disk seems to be associated with the CO molecular outflow observed in the region, this conforms to a disk-YSO-outflow system, similar to that found in low-mass stars.

  20. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew; BLAST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100-hour flight from northern Sweden in June 2005 (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W 75N, Mrk 231, NGC 4565, and Arp 220 (this last source being our primary calibrator). The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. BLAST was particularly useful for constraining the slope of the submillimeter continuum.

  1. CO excitation in four IR luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, Simon J. E.; Solomon, P. M.; Downes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The correlation between the CO and far infrared luminosities of spiral galaxies is well established. The luminosity ration, L sub FIR/L sub CO in IR luminous active galaxies is, however, systematically five to ten times higher than in ordinary spirals and molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Furthermore, the masses of molecular hydrogen in luminous galaxies are large, M (H2) approx. equals 10(exp 10) solar magnitude, which indicates the observed luminosity ratios are due to an excess of infrared output, rather than a deficiency of molecular gas. These large amounts of molecular gas may fuel luminous galaxies through either star formation or nuclear activity. This interpretation rests on applying the M (H2)/L sub CO ratio calibrated in our Galaxy to galaxies with strikingly different luminosity ratios. But are the physical conditions of the molecular gas different in galaxies with different luminosity ratios. And, if so, does the proportionality between CO and H2 also vary among galaxies. To investigate these questions researchers observed CO (2 to 1) and (1 to 0) emission from four luminous galaxies with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Researchers conclude that most of the CO emission from these Arp 193, Arp 220, and Mrk 231 arises in regions with moderate ambient densities similar to the clouds in the Milky Way molecular ring. The emission is neither from dense hot cloud cores nor from the cold low density gas characteristic of the envelopes of dark clouds.

  2. CO excitation in four IR luminous galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Simon J. E.; Solomon, P. M.; Downes, Dennis

    1990-07-01

    The correlation between the CO and far infrared luminosities of spiral galaxies is well established. The luminosity ration, LFIR/L sub CO in IR luminous active galaxies is, however, systematically five to ten times higher than in ordinary spirals and molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Furthermore, the masses of molecular hydrogen in luminous galaxies are large, M (H2) approx. equals 1010 solar magnitude, which indicates the observed luminosity ratios are due to an excess of infrared output, rather than a deficiency of molecular gas. These large amounts of molecular gas may fuel luminous galaxies through either star formation or nuclear activity. This interpretation rests on applying the M (H2)/LCO ratio calibrated in our Galaxy to galaxies with strikingly different luminosity ratios. But are the physical conditions of the molecular gas different in galaxies with different luminosity ratios. And, if so, does the proportionality between CO and H2 also vary among galaxies. To investigate these questions researchers observed CO (2 to 1) and (1 to 0) emission from four luminous galaxies with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Researchers conclude that most of the CO emission from these Arp 193, Arp 220, and Mrk 231 arises in regions with moderate ambient densities similar to the clouds in the Milky Way molecular ring. The emission is neither from dense hot cloud cores nor from the cold low density gas characteristic of the envelopes of dark clouds.

  3. The Interstellar Bullet Engine IRAS05506+2414: A Molecular-Line Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Patel, N.; Claussen, M. J.; Sanchez Contreras, C.; Morris, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    High-mass stars play a decisive role in the evolution of galaxies. An exciting recent development in the understanding of those early evolutionary stages, based on a new study of the Orion BN/KL region, is that the disruption of a massive young stellar system can lead to an explosive event producing a wide-angle outflow. This is an entirely different phenomenon from the classical bipolar flows driven by YSO accretion disks. We report here preliminary results from a molecular-line study of a serendipitously discovered object, IRAS05506+2414, which most likely is only the second known example of this phenomenon in our Galaxy. Our HST images show a fan-like spray of high-velocity (up to 350 km/s) elongated knots which appear to emanate from a bright compact central source. The physical properties (opening angle, outflow speeds, knot masses, Herbig-Haro-object like optical line emission) of the IRAS05506 wide-angle outflow are very similar to the one in Orion. A second jet engine, similar to those which drive the classical accretion-driven jets seen in low-mass YSOs, also appears to be operating simultaneously in IRAS05506. This is indicated by an optical jet-like feature aligned with a high-velocity (>100 km/s) molecular outflow which appears to be bipolar and nearly perpendicular to the average direction of the knot spray. Our molecular-line study includes (a) single-dish observations at 1.1-1.3 and 2.6-3 mm of high-density tracers such as HCO+, CS and SO, and mapping of the ambient molecular cloud in CO and 13CO using the ARO's 10- and 12-m dishes, and (b) interferometric observations at 2.6 and 1.3 mm with OVRO and the SMA of CO, 13CO, SO and SiO lines and the dust continuum. Preliminary results on the mass, density and temperature of the outflow and ambient cloud using simple excitation/radiative transfer models will be presented.

  4. Mission design for the infrared astronomical satellite /IRAS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundy, S. A.; Mclaughlin, W. I.; Pouw, A.

    1979-01-01

    IRAS, a joint United States, Netherlands, United Kingdom astronomical satellite, is scheduled to be launched early in 1981 with the purpose of completing an all-sky survey in the infrared wavelengths from 8 to 120 microns and to observe objects of special interest. The mission design is driven by thermal constraints primarily determined by the Sun and Earth; the orbit and survey strategy must be chosen so as to satisfy the mission requirements before the cryogenic system is depleted of its liquid helium. Computer graphics help the designer choose valid survey strategies and evaluate resulting sky coverage.

  5. Properties of grains derived from IRAS observations of dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselius, P. R.; Chlewicki, Grzegorz; Laureijs, Rene J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors used the results of Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) observations of diffuse medium dust to develop a theoretical model of the infrared properties of grains. Recent models based entirely on traditional observations of extinction and polarization include only particles whose equilibrium temperatures do not exceed 20 K in the diffuse interstellar medium. These classical grains, for which the authors have adopted the multipopulation model developed by Hong and Greenberg (1980), can explain only the emission in the IRAS 100 micron band. The measurements at shorter wavelengths (12, 25 and 60 microns) require two new particle populations. Vibrational fluorescence from aromatic molecules provides the most likely explanation for the emission observed at 12 microns, with polycyclic aeromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing about 10 percent of cosmic carbon. A simplified model of the emission process shows that PAH molecules can also explain most of the emission measured by IRAS at 25 microns. The authors identified the warm particles responsible for the excess 60 microns emission with small (a approx. equals 0.01 microns) iron grains. A compilation of the available data on the optical properties of iron indicates that the diffuse medium temperature of small iron particles should be close to 50 K and implies that a large, possibly dominant, fraction of cosmic iron must be locked up in metallic particles in order to match the observed 60 microns intensities. The model matches the infrared fluxes typically observed by IRAS in the diffuse medium and can also reproduce the infrared surface brightness distribution in individual clouds. In particular, the combination of iron and classical cool grains can explain the surprising observations of the 60/100 microns flux ratio in clouds, which is either constant or increases slightly towards higher opacities. The presence of metallic grains has significant implications for the physics of the interstellar medium, including

  6. 26 CFR 1.408A-10 - Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs. 1.408A-10 Section 1.408A-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-10 Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs. Q-1. Can...

  7. 26 CFR 1.408A-10 - Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs. 1.408A-10 Section 1.408A-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-10 Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs. Q-1. Can...

  8. 26 CFR 1.408A-10 - Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs. 1.408A-10 Section 1.408A-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-10 Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs....

  9. 26 CFR 1.408A-10 - Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs. 1.408A-10 Section 1.408A-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-10 Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs....

  10. 26 CFR 1.408A-10 - Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs. 1.408A-10 Section 1.408A-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-10 Coordination between designated Roth accounts and Roth IRAs....

  11. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 1: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, Thomas J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched on January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. Volume 1 describes the instrument, the mission, and data reduction.

  12. 29 CFR 2509.99-1 - Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employer does not endorse or recommend either the sponsor or the funding media; that other IRA funding media are available to employees outside the payroll deduction program; that an IRA may not be... materials distributed to employees identified the funding medium as having as one of its purposes...

  13. 29 CFR 2509.99-1 - Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employer does not endorse or recommend either the sponsor or the funding media; that other IRA funding media are available to employees outside the payroll deduction program; that an IRA may not be... materials distributed to employees identified the funding medium as having as one of its purposes...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical spectral variability of IRAS 20508+2011 (Klochkova+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.; Tavolganskaya, N. S.; Zhao, G.

    2007-01-01

    Based on high-resolution spectra we revealed variability of the optical spectrum of the cool star identified with the IR source IRAS 20508+2011. Over the five years of our observations, the radial velocity derived from photospheric absorption lines varied in the interval Vr=15-30km/s. In the same time, the H(alpha) profile varied from an intense bell-shaped emission line with a small absorption to 2-peaked emission with a central absorption feature below the continuum level. At all but one epoch, the positions of the metallic photospheric lines were systematically shifted relative to the H(alpha) emission: Delta Vr=Vr(met)-Vr(Halpha,emis)~-23km/s. The NaD doublet lines shown a complex profile with broad (half-width about 120km/s) emission and photospheric absorption, as well as an interstellar component. We used model atmospheres to determine the physical parameters and chemical composition of the star's atmosphere: Teff=4800K, logg=1.5, Vt=4.0km/s and metallicity [Fe/H]=-0.36. We detected overabundances of oxygen [O/Fe]=+1.79 (with the ratio [C/O]~-0.9), and alpha-process elements, as well as a deficit of heavy metals. The totality of the parameters suggests that the optical component of IRAS 20508+2011 is an "O-rich" AGB star with luminosity Mv~-3mag that is close to its evolution transition to the post-AGB stage. (1 data file).

  15. The Physical Environment around IRAS 17599-2148: Infrared Dark Cloud and Bipolar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Zinchenko, I.; Janardhan, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Luna, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a multiscale and multiwavelength study to investigate the star formation process around IRAS 17599-2148, which is part of an elongated filamentary structure (EFS) (extension ˜21 pc) seen in the Herschel maps. Using the Herschel data analysis, at least six massive clumps (M clump ˜ 777-7024 M ⊙) are found in the EFS with a range of temperature and column density of ˜16-39 K and ˜(0.6-11) × 1022 cm-2 (A V ˜ 7-117 mag), respectively. The EFS hosts cold gas regions (i.e., infrared dark cloud) without any radio detection and a bipolar nebula (BN) linked with the H ii region IRAS 17599-2148, tracing two distinct environments inferred through the temperature distribution and ionized emission. Based on virial analysis and higher values of self-gravitating pressure, the clumps are found unstable against gravitational collapse. We find 474 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the selected region, and ˜72% of these YSOs are found in the clusters distributed mainly toward the clumps in the EFS. These YSOs might have spontaneously formed due to processes not related to the expanding H ii region. At the edges of BN, four additional clumps are also associated with YSO clusters, which appear to be influenced by the expanding H ii region. The most massive clump in the EFS contains two compact radio sources traced in the Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope 1.28 GHz map and a massive protostar candidate, IRS 1, prior to an ultracompact H ii phase. Using the Very Large Telescope/NACO near-infrared images, IRS 1 is resolved with a jet-like feature within a 4200 au scale.

  16. IRAS 16293-2422: Evidence for Infall onto a Counter-Rotating Protostellar Accretion Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remijan, Anthony J.; Hollis, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution VLA observations of the low-mass star-forming region IRAS 16293-2422 using four molecular probes: ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN)) methyl formate (CH3OCHO), formic acid (HCOOH), and the ground vibrational state of silicon monoxide (SiO). Ethyl cyanide emission has a spatial scale of approx. 20" and encompasses binary cores A and B as determined by continuum emission peaks. Surrounded by formic acid emission, methyl formate emission has a spatial scale of approx. 6" and is confined to core B. SiO emission shows two velocity components with spatial scales less than 2" that map approx. 2" northeast of the A and B symmetry axis. The redshifted SiO is approx. 2" northwest of blueshifted SiO along a position angle of approx. 135deg which is approximately parallel to the A and B symmetry axis. We interpret the spatial position offset in red and blueshifted SiO emission as due to rotation of a protostellar accretion disk and we derive approx. 1.4 Solar Mass, interior to the SiO emission. In the same vicinity, Mundy et al. (1986) also concluded rotation of a nearly edge-on disk from OVRO observations of much stronger and ubiquitous CO-13 emission but the direction of rotation is opposite to the SiO emission findings. Taken together, SiO and CO-13 data suggest evidence for a counter-rotating disk. Moreover, archival BIMA array CO-12C data show an inverse P Cygni profile with the strongest absorption in close proximity to the SiO emission, indicating unambiguous material infall toward the counter-rotating protostellar disk at a new source location within the IRAS 16293-2422 complex. The details of these observations and our interpretations are discussed.

  17. The census of complex organic molecules in the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422

    SciTech Connect

    Jaber, Ali A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Caux, E.

    2014-08-10

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) are considered to be crucial molecules, since they are connected with organic chemistry, at the basis of terrestrial life. More pragmatically, they are molecules which in principle are difficult to synthesize in harsh interstellar environments and, therefore, are a crucial test for astrochemical models. Current models assume that several COMs are synthesized on lukewarm grain surfaces (≳30-40 K) and released in the gas phase at dust temperatures of ≳100 K. However, recent detections of COMs in ≲20 K gas demonstrate that we still need important pieces to complete the puzzle of COMs formation. Here, we present a complete census of the oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing COMs, previously detected in different Interstellar Medium (ISM) regions, toward the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The census was obtained from the millimeter-submillimeter unbiased spectral survey TIMASSS. Of the 29 COMs searched for, 6 were detected: methyl cyanide, ketene, acetaldehyde, formamide, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Multifrequency analysis of the last five COMs provides clear evidence that they are present in the cold (≲30 K) envelope of IRAS16293-2422, with abundances of 0.03-2 × 10{sup –10}. Our data do not allow us to support the hypothesis that the COMs abundance increases with increasing dust temperature in the cold envelope, as expected if COMs were predominately formed on lukewarm grain surfaces. Finally, when also considering other ISM sources, we find a strong correlation over five orders of magnitude between methyl formate and dimethyl ether, and methyl formate and formamide abundances, which may point to a link between these two couples of species in cold and warm gas.

  18. HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE NGC 1333 IRAS 4A PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping; Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M.; Yang, Louis; Rao, Ramprasad

    2016-03-10

    We present Submillimeter Array polarization observations of the CO J = 3–2 line toward NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The CO Stokes I maps at an angular resolution of ∼1″ reveal two bipolar outflows from the binary sources of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The kinematic features of the CO emission can be modeled by wind-driven outflows at ∼20° inclined from the plane of the sky. Close to the protostars the CO polarization, at an angular resolution of ∼2.″3, has a position angle approximately parallel to the magnetic field direction inferred from the dust polarizations. The CO polarization direction appears to vary smoothly from an hourglass field around the core to an arc-like morphology wrapping around the outflow, suggesting a helical structure of magnetic fields that inherits the poloidal fields at the launching point and consists of toroidal fields at a farther distance of outflow. The helical magnetic field is consistent with the theoretical expectations for launching and collimating outflows from a magnetized rotating disk. Considering that the CO polarized emission is mainly contributed from the low-velocity and low-resolution data, the helical magnetic field is likely a product of the wind–envelope interaction in the wind-driven outflows. The CO data reveal a PA of ∼30° deflection in the outflows. The variation in the CO polarization angle seems to correlate with the deflections. We speculate that the helical magnetic field contributes to ∼10° deflection of the outflows by means of Lorentz force.

  19. Characteristics of estrogen-induced peroxidase in mouse uterine luminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Jellinck, P.H.; Newbold, R.R.; McLachlan, J.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Peroxidase activity in the uterine luminal fluid of mice treated with diethylstilbestrol was measured by the guaiacol assay and also by the formation of 3H2O from (2-3H)estradiol. In the radiometric assay, the generation of 3H2O and 3H-labeled water-soluble products was dependent on H2O2 (25 to 100 microM), with higher concentrations being inhibitory. Tyrosine or 2,4-dichlorophenol strongly enhanced the reaction catalyzed either by the luminal fluid peroxidase or the enzyme in the CaCl2 extract of the uterus, but decreased the formation of 3H2O from (2-3H)estradiol by lactoperoxidase in the presence of H2O2 (80 microM). NADPH, ascorbate, and cytochrome c inhibited both luminal fluid and uterine tissue peroxidase activity to the same extent, while superoxide dismutase showed a marginal activating effect. Lactoferrin, a major protein component of uterine luminal fluid, was shown not to contribute to its peroxidative activity, and such an effect by prostaglandin synthase was also ruled out. However, it was not possible to exclude eosinophil peroxidase, brought to the uterus after estrogen stimulation, as being the source of peroxidase activity in uterine luminal fluid.

  20. Characterization of IRA/IRB hybrid insulin receptors using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Blanquart, Christophe; Achi, Josepha; Issad, Tarik

    2008-10-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) is composed of two alpha-chains that bind ligands and two beta-chains that possess an intracellular tyrosine kinase activity. The IR is expressed in cells as two isoforms containing or not exon 11 (IRB and IRA, respectively). Several mRNA studies have demonstrated that the two isoforms are co-expressed in different tissues and in several cancer cells. IRA/IRB hybrid receptors, constituting of an alphabeta-chain from IRA and an alphabeta-chain from IRB, are likely to occur in cells co-expressing both isoforms, but their study has been hampered by the lack of specific tools. In previous work, we used BRET to study IR and IGF1R homodimers and heterodimers. Here, we have used BRET to characterize IRA/IRB hybrids. BRET saturation experiments showed that IRA/IRB hybrids are randomly formed in cells. Moreover, by co-transfecting HEK-293 cells with a luciferase-tagged kinase-dead version of one isoform and a wild-type untagged version of the other isoform, we showed that IRA/IRB hybrids can recruit, upon ligand stimulation, a YFP-tagged intracellular partner. Finally, using BRET, we have studied ligand-induced conformational changes within IRA/IRB hybrids. Dose-response experiments showed that hybrid receptors bind IGF-2 with the same affinity than IRA homodimers, whereas they bind IGF-1 with a lower affinity. Altogether, our data indicate that IRA/IRB hybrid receptors can form in cells co-expressing both IR isoforms, that they are capable of recruiting intracellular partners upon ligand stimulation, and that they have pharmacological properties more similar to those of IRA than those of IRB homodimers with regards to IGF-2.

  1. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  2. Water deuterium fractionation in the low-mass protostar NGC1333-IRAS2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Kristensen, L.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Güsten, R.

    2011-03-01

    Context. Although deuterium enrichment of water may provide an essential piece of information in the understanding of the formation of comets and protoplanetary systems, only a few studies up to now have aimed at deriving the HDO/H2O ratio in low-mass star forming regions. Previous studies of the molecular deuteration toward the solar-type class 0 protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, have shown that the D/H ratio of water is significantly lower than other grain-surface-formed molecules. It is not clear if this property is general or particular to this source. Aims: In order to see if the results toward IRAS 16293-2422 are particular, we aimed at studying water deuterium fractionation in a second low-mass solar-type protostar, NGC1333-IRAS2A. Methods: Using the 1-D radiative transfer code RATRAN, we analyzed five HDO transitions observed with the IRAM 30 m, JCMT, and APEX telescopes. We assumed that the abundance profile of HDO in the envelope is a step function, with two different values in the inner warm (T > 100 K) and outer cold (T < 100 K) regions of the protostellar envelope. Results: The inner and outer abundance of HDO is found to be well constrained at the 3σ level. The obtained HDO inner and outer fractional abundances are xHDO_in = 6.6 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-7(3σ) and x^{HDO}out=9×10-11= 9 × 10-11-1.0-1.8 × 10-9(3σ). These values are close to those in IRAS 16293-2422, which suggests that HDO may be formed by the same mechanisms in these two solar-type protostars. Taking into account the (rather poorly onstrained) H2O abundance profile deduced from Herschel observations, the derived HDO/H2O in the inner envelope is ≥1% and in the outer envelope it is 0.9%-18%. These values are more than one order of magnitude higher than what is measured in comets. If the same ratios apply to the protosolar nebula, this would imply that there is some efficient reprocessing of the material between the protostellar and cometary phases. Conclusions: The H2O inner fractional

  3. QSO clustering - II. The correlation function of IRAS seyfert galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgantopoulos, I.; Shanks, T.

    1994-12-01

    We investigate the clustering properties of 192 Seyfert galaxies from the IRAS all-sky survey. Using the spatial correlation function, we detect evidence of Seyfert clustering at the 2σ confidence level at < 10 h^-1^ Mpc separations, and at the 3{SIGMA} level at < 20 h^-1^ Mpc separations. Comparison of the QSO correlation function amplitude at high redshifts, z = 1.4, with that of Seyferts below 10 h^-1^ comoving Mpc leads us to reject the stable model of AGN clustering evolution at the 4σ level, whereas a comoving model where QSOs randomly sample the galaxy distribution is more consistent. The main uncertainty here now lies in the statistical error on the amplitude of the clustering in the faint QSO surveys at z = 1.4. The Seyfert-QDOT cross-correlation function is measured to be approximately a factor of 2 higher than the QDOT galaxy autocorrelation function, suggesting an enhanced environment for Seyferts with respect to IRAS galaxies, but it is not clear whether this is also the case with respect to optical galaxies. We conclude that the comoving model is probably favoured overall, at least on the r < 10 h^-1^ Mpc scales investigated here, but it is not yet possible to rule out intermediate models: for example, an enhanced-environment, stable model with ξ(r)=(r/3)^-1.8^ at z = 1.4, which is statistically consistent with the faint QSO data.

  4. A quantitative analysis of IRAS maps of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.; Adams, Fred C.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of IRAS maps of five molecular clouds: Orion, Ophiuchus, Perseus, Taurus, and Lupus. For the classification and description of these astrophysical maps, we use a newly developed technique which considers all maps of a given type to be elements of a pseudometric space. For each physical characteristic of interest, this formal system assigns a distance function (a pseudometric) to the space of all maps: this procedure allows us to measure quantitatively the difference between any two maps and to order the space of all maps. We thus obtain a quantitative classification scheme for molecular clouds. In this present study we use the IRAS continuum maps at 100 and 60 micrometer(s) to produce column density (or optical depth) maps for the five molecular cloud regions given above. For this sample of clouds, we compute the 'output' functions which measure the distribution of density, the distribution of topological components, the self-gravity, and the filamentary nature of the clouds. The results of this work provide a quantitative description of the structure in these molecular cloud regions. We then order the clouds according to the overall environmental 'complexity' of these star-forming regions. Finally, we compare our results with the observed populations of young stellar objects in these clouds and discuss the possible environmental effects on the star-formation process. Our results are consistent with the recently stated conjecture that more massive stars tend to form in more 'complex' environments.

  5. Ira at 80: The acronyms of a career in acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, Janet M.

    2002-05-01

    In a career that spans some 54 years to date, the name of Ira J. Hirsh has been associated with significant scientific contributions to psychoacoustics, outstanding mentoring of research scientists, and dedicated service to the fields of acoustics, audiology, and psychology. It is a career that can be traced by acronyms that are part of the daily vocabulary of hearing scientists. These include acronyms of location: Early work at the Psychoacoustics Laboratory at Harvard (PAL), a long tenure in research at the Central Institute for the Deaf (CID), service as faculty member, chair, and dean at Washington University (WashU); acronyms of professional societies that have honored him: Acoustical Society of America (ASA), International Commission of Acoustics (ICA), American Psychological Association (APA), American Psychological Society (APS), American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); acronyms of his service to the National Academy of Science: National Research Council (NRC), Commission on Behavioral and Social Science and Education (CBASSE); and acronyms of his contributions to psychoacoustics: Masking Level Difference (MLD), Temporal Order Judgments (TOJ). In large part, these acronyms are part of our vocabulary because of Ira's contributions, and tracing them over the past half-century yields a substantive look at the development of the field of hearing science.

  6. Analysis of interstellar cloud structure based on IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalo, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop new tools for the analysis of the structure of densely sampled maps of interstellar star-forming regions. A particular emphasis was on the recognition and characterization of nested hierarchical structure and fractal irregularity, and their relation to the level of star formation activity. The panoramic IRAS images provided data with the required range in spatial scale, greater than a factor of 100, and in column density, greater than a factor of 50. In order to construct densely sampled column density maps of star-forming clouds, column density images of four nearby cloud complexes were constructed from IRAS data. The regions have various degrees of star formation activity, and most of them have probably not been affected much by the disruptive effects of young massive stars. The largest region, the Scorpius-Ophiuchus cloud complex, covers about 1000 square degrees (it was subdivided into a few smaller regions for analysis). Much of the work during the early part of the project focused on an 80 square degree region in the core of the Taurus complex, a well-studied region of low-mass star formation.

  7. Achromatic Emission Velocity Measurements in Luminous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, S. J.; Fulghum, S. F.; Rostler, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new velocity measurement instrument for luminous flows was developed by Science Research Laboratory for NASA. The SIEVE (Segmented Image Emission VElocimeter) instrument uses broadband light emitted by the flow for the velocity measurement. This differs from other velocimetry techniques in that it does not depend on laser illumination and/or light scattering from particles in the flow. The SIEVE is a passive, non-intrusive diagnostic. By moving and adjusting the imaging optics, the SIEVE can provide three-dimensional mapping of a flow field and determine turbulence scale size. A SIEVE instrument was demonstrated on an illuminated rotating disk to evaluate instrument response and noise and on an oxy-acetylene torch to measure flame velocities. The luminous flow in rocket combustors and plumes is an ideal subject for the SIEVE velocity measurement technique.

  8. The Least Luminous Galaxies in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, Beth

    2011-05-01

    In the past six years, more than two dozen dwarf galaxies have been discovered around the Milky Way and M31. Many of these discoveries are 100 times less luminous than any galaxy previously known, and a million times less luminous than the Milky Way itself. These discoveries have made astronomers question the very meaning of the word "galaxy", and hint that such ultra-faint dwarf galaxies may be the most numerous type of galaxy in the universe. This talk will highlight i. how we can see galaxies that are effectively invisible in images of the sky, ii. the brewing controversy over the definition of the term "galaxy", and iii. what ultra-faint galaxies can reveal about the distribution of dark matter in our Universe.

  9. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    SciTech Connect

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Stepanov, S. A. Yangyang, Ju; Lukash, V. S.

    2016-01-15

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  10. Roche Potential with Luminous Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun; Hanamoto, Keishi

    2002-12-01

    The radiative environments of an interacting binary, which contains a luminous accretion disk, are investigated. The disk radiation field has no effect in the direction of the orbital plane, while it significantly affects in the polar direction. As the disk luminosity increases, the Roche potential around the compact star becomes hollow in the polar direction. It further crashes toward the pole, and a cone of avoidance appears at the normalized luminosity Γd ≡ Ld/LE = 0.5, where Ld is the disk luminosity and LE the Eddington luminosity of the compact star. The disk corona, the wind-fed accretion flow, and the common envelope suffer a remarkable influence by the luminous disk in active binaries. Of these, the wind-fed accretion is briefly discussed.

  11. Gas content of infrared luminous markarian galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandalian, R.; Martin, J.-M.; Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1995-10-01

    The atomic and molecular hydrogen gas properties of a complete sample of Markarian galaxies with flux density at 60 µm higher than 1.95 Jy are presented. We present the improved far-infrared luminosity function of Markarian galaxies; and its comparison with other samples. We find that 40% of the bright IRAS galaxies of far-infrared luminosity higher than 1010.5 L ⊙ are Markarian galaxies. There is an absence of correlation between HI content of Markarian galaxies and current star formation activity, implying that star formation in these systems has complex structure and it is not a simple function of the HI content. On the contrary, the H2 content of Markarian galaxies is well correlated with star formation activity. It is argued that tight correlation between HI and H2 contents is a consequence of transformation of atomic hydrogen into molecular.

  12. Dosimetric comparison of four new design {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy sources: Optimal design using silver and copper rod cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, S. Hamed; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Ataeinia, Vahideh

    2009-07-15

    Four new brachytherapy sources, IRA1-{sup 103}Pd, IRA2-{sup 103}Pd, IRA3-{sup 103}Pd, and IRA4-{sup 103}Pd, have been developed at Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School and are designed for permanent implant application. With the goal of determining an optimal design for a {sup 103}Pd source, this article compares the dosimetric properties of these sources with reference to the authors' earlier IRA-{sup 103}Pd source. The four new sources differ in end cap configuration and thickness and in the core material, silver or copper, that carries the adsorbed {sup 103}Pd. Dosimetric data derived from the authors' Monte Carlo simulation results are reported in accordance with the updated AAPM Task Group No. 43 report (TG-43U1). For each source, the authors obtained detailed results for the dose rate constant {Lambda}, the radial dose function g(r), the anisotropy function F(r,{theta}), and the anisotropy factor {phi}{sub an}(r). In this study, the optimal source IRA3-{sup 103}Pd provides the most isotropic dose distribution in water with the dose rate constant of 0.678({+-}0.1%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. The IRA3-{sup 103}Pd design has a silver rod core combined with thin-wall, concave end caps. Finally, the authors compared the results for their optimal source with published results for those of other source manufacturers.

  13. Orbital masses of nearby luminous galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kudrya, Yuri N. E-mail: yukudrya@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    We use observational properties of galaxies accumulated in the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog to derive a dark matter mass of luminous galaxies via motions of their companions. The data on orbital-to-stellar mass ratio are presented for 15 luminous galaxies situated within 11 Mpc from us: the Milky Way, M31, M81, NGC 5128, IC342, NGC 253, NGC 4736, NGC 5236, NGC 6946, M101, NGC 4258, NGC 4594, NGC 3115, NGC 3627, and NGC 3368, as well as for a composite suite around other nearby galaxies of moderate and low luminosity. The typical ratio for these galaxies is M {sub orb}/M {sub *} = 31, corresponding to the mean local density of matter Ω {sub m} = 0.09, i.e., one-third of the global cosmic density. This quantity seems to be rather an upper limit of dark matter density, since the peripheric population of the suites may suffer from the presence of fictitious unbound members. We note that the Milky Way and M31 halos have lower dimensions and lower stellar masses than those of the other 13 nearby luminous galaxies. However, the dark-to-stellar mass ratio for both the Milky Way and M31 is typical for other neighboring luminous galaxies. The distortion in the Hubble flow, observed around the Local Group and five other neighboring groups, yields their total masses within the radius of a zero velocity surface, R {sub 0}; these masses are slightly lower than the orbital and virial values. This difference may be due to the effect of dark energy producing a kind of 'mass defect' within R {sub 0}.

  14. HIGH-RESOLUTION STUDY OF THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 06061+2151

    SciTech Connect

    Trinidad, M. A.; RodrIguez, T.

    2010-12-15

    We present observations of 3.6 cm continuum and water maser emission toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 06061+2151 (AFGL 5182), made at {approx}0.''3 and {approx}0.''1 resolution, respectively, using the Very Large Array (VLA) in the A configuration. Continuum and maser emission are not detected toward the center of AFGL 5182. However, we detected two groups of continuum sources located {approx}12'' and {approx}3' to the west and northeast of AFGL 5182, respectively. The first group, labeled as the G188.79+1.03 complex, is composed of three continuum sources in a region of about 6'' x 10'', while the second group, associated with the source G188.77+1.07, is composed of at least two continuum sources in a region {approx}1'' in diameter. The physical parameters estimated, based on the morphology and the continuum emission, suggest that all the continuum sources in both groups are ultracompact H II regions, associated with ZAMS B-type stars. Water maser emission is only detected toward the compact source VLA N2, which is located in the G188.79+1.03 complex. Accuracy in the relative positions between the radio continuum source and the water masers is of the order of 15 mas. In addition, the observed spatial and kinematical distribution of the water maser features has remained stable for several years, and we confirm that they are tracing a bipolar outflow, where the best candidate of the source powering the water masers and the outflow is VLA 2N.

  15. Luminal breast cancer: from biology to treatment.

    PubMed

    Ignatiadis, Michail; Sotiriou, Christos

    2013-09-01

    Oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive--or luminal--tumours represent around two-thirds of all breast cancers. Luminal breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease comprising different histologies, gene-expression profiles and mutational patterns, with very varied clinical courses and responses to systemic treatment. Despite adjuvant endocrine therapy and chemotherapy treatment for patients at high risk of relapse, both early and late relapses still occur, a fact that highlights the unmet medical needs of these patients. Ongoing research aims to identify those patients who can be spared adjuvant chemotherapy and who will benefit from extended adjuvant hormone therapy. This research also aims to explore the role of adjuvant bisphosphonates, to interrogate new agents for targeting minimal residual disease, and to address endocrine resistance. Data from next-generation sequencing studies have given us new insight into the biology of luminal breast cancer and, together with advances in preclinical models and the availability of newer targeted agents, have led to the testing of rationally chosen combination treatments in clinical trials. However, a major challenge will be to make sense of the large amount of patient genomic data that is becoming increasingly available. This analysis will be critical to our understanding how intertumour and intratumour heterogeneity can influence treatment response and resistance.

  16. The magnetic field of IRAS 16293-2422 as traced by shock-induced H2O masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, F. O.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Girart, J. M.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2012-06-01

    Context. Shock-induced H2O masers are important magnetic field tracers of very high density gas. Water masers are found in both high- and low-mass star-forming regions, and are a powerful tool for comparing magnetic field morphologies in both mass regimes. Aims: We present one of the first magnetic field determinations for the low-mass protostellar core IRAS 16293-2422 at volume densities as high as 108-10 cm-3. Our goal is to determine wether the collapsing regime of this source is controlled by magnetic fields or other factors such as turbulence. Methods: We used the Very Large Array (VLA) to carry out spectropolarimetric observations of the 22 GHz Zeeman emission from H2O masers. From the Stokes V line profile, we are then able to estimate the magnetic field strength in the dense regions around the protostar. Results: A blend of at least three maser features can be inferred from our relatively high spatial resolution data set (~0.1''), which is reproduced as a clear non-Gaussian line profile. The emission is very stable in terms of polarization fraction and position angle across the channels. The maser spots are aligned with some components of the complex outflow configuration of IRAS 16293-2422, and are excited in zones of compressed gas produced by shocks. The post-shock particle density is in the range of 1-3 × 109 cm-3, consistent with typical water-maser pumping densities. Zeeman emission is produced by a very strong line-of-sight magnetic field (B ~ 113 mG). Conclusions: The magnetic field pressure derived from our data is comparable to the ram pressure of the outflow dynamics. This indicates that the magnetic field is energetically important to the dynamical evolution of IRAS 16293-2422.

  17. GROUND-BASED Paα NARROW-BAND IMAGING OF LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. STAR FORMATION RATES AND SURFACE DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tateuchi, Ken; Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Nakashima, Asami; and others

    2015-03-15

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in optical wavelengths. We have carried out Paα narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Paα fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method (typically A{sub V} ∼ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of the IRAS data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for the Paα flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and surface densities of infrared luminosities (Σ{sub L(IR)}) and the SFR (Σ{sub SFR}) of star forming regions for individual galaxies, and we find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra-luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the L(IR)-Σ{sub L(IR)} and SFR-Σ{sub SFR} plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at L(IR) = 8 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences in their merging stages.

  18. From the ashes: JVLA observations of water fountain nebula candidates show the rebirth of IRAS 18455+0448

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Amiri, N.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Tafoya, D.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The class of water fountain nebulae is thought to represent the stage of the earliest onset of collimated bipolar outflows during the post-asymptotic giant branch phase. They thus play a crucial role in the study of the formation of bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe). To date, 14 water fountain nebulae have been identified. The identification of more sources in this unique stage of stellar evolution will enable us to study the origin of bipolar PNe morphologies in more detail. Aims: Water fountain candidates can be identified based on the often double peaked 22 GHz H2O maser spectrum with a large separation between the maser peaks (often >100 km s-1). However, even a fast bipolar outflow will only have a moderate velocity extent in its maser spectrum when located close to the plane of the sky. In this project we aim to enhance the water fountain sample by identifying objects whose jets are aligned close to the plane of the sky. Methods: We present the results of seven sources observed with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) that were identified as water fountain candidates in an Effelsberg 100 m telescope survey of 74 AGB and early post-AGB stars. Results: We find that our sample of water fountain candidates displays strong variability in their 22 GHz H2O maser spectra. The JVLA observations show an extended bipolar H2O maser outflow for one source, the OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448. This source was previously classified as a dying OH/IR star based on the exponential decrease of its 1612 MHz OH maser and the lack of H2O masers. We therefore also re-observed the 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz OH masers. We confirm that the 1612 MHz masers have not reappeared and find that the1665/1667 MHz masers have decreased in strength by several orders of magnitude during the last decade. The JVLA observations also reveal a striking asymmetry in the red-shifted maser emission of IRAS 19422+3506. Conclusions: The OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448 is confirmed to be a new addition to the

  19. MN48: a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable revealed by Spitzer and SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the candidate evolved massive star MN48 disclosed via detection of a mid-infrared circular shell around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of MN48 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) carried out in 2011-2015 revealed significant changes in the spectrum of this star, which are typical of luminous blue variables (LBVs). The LBV status of MN48 was further supported by photometric monitoring which shows that in 2009-2011 this star has brightened by ≈0.9 and 1 mag in the V and Ic bands, respectively, then faded by ≈1.1 and 1.6 mag during the next four years, and apparently started to brighten again recently. The detected changes in the spectrum and brightness of MN48 make this star the 18th known Galactic bona fide LBV and increase the percentage of LBVs associated with circumstellar nebulae to more than 70 per cent. We discuss the possible birth place of MN48 and suggest that this star might have been ejected either from a putative star cluster embedded in the H II region IRAS 16455-4531 or the young massive star cluster Westerlund 1.

  20. FAINT CO LINE WINGS IN FOUR STAR-FORMING (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Bolatto, Alberto; Weiss, Axel

    2015-09-20

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings—a commonly used signature of molecular outflows—in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen targets presented in Chung et al., who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km s{sup −1}-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high active galactic nucleus contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS 05083 (VII Zw 31), as a candidate molecular outflow.

  1. NIST traceable measurements of radiance and luminance levels of night-vision-goggle test-instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Podobedov, V. B.

    2014-05-01

    In order to perform radiance and luminance level measurements of night-vision-goggle (NVG) test instruments, NIST developed new-generation transfer-standard radiometers (TR). The new TRs can perform low-level radiance and luminance measurements with SI traceability and low uncertainty. The TRs were calibrated against NIST detector/radiometer standards holding the NIST photometric and radiometric scales. An 815 nm diode laser was used at NIST for the radiance responsivity calibrations. A spectrally flat (constant) filter correction was made for the TRs to correct the spectral responsivity change of the built-in Si photodiode for LEDs peaking at different wavelengths in the different test sets. The radiance responsivity transfer to the test instruments (test-sets) is discussed. The radiance values of the test instruments were measured with the TRs. The TRs propagate the traceablity to the NIST detector-based reference scales. The radiance uncertainty obtained from three TR measurements was 4.6 % (𝑘=2) at a luminance of 3.43 x 10-4 cd/m2. The output radiance of the previously used IR sphere source and the radiance responsivity of a previously used secondary standard detector unit, which was originally calibrated against an IR sphere source, were also measured with the TRs. The performances of the NVG test instruments were evaluated and the manufacturer produced radiance and luminance levels were calibrated with SI/NIST traceability.

  2. A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. V - The acceleration on the Local Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Michael A.; Yahil, Amos; Davis, Marc; Huchra, John P.; Fisher, Karl

    1992-01-01

    The acceleration on the Local Group is calculated based on a full-sky redshift survey of 5288 galaxies detected by IRAS. A formalism is developed to compute the distribution function of the IRAS acceleration for a given power spectrum of initial perturbations. The computed acceleration on the Local Group points 18-28 deg from the direction of the Local Group peculiar velocity vector. The data suggest that the CMB dipole is indeed due to the motion of the Local Group, that this motion is gravitationally induced, and that the distribution of IRAS galaxies on large scales is related to that of dark matter by a simple linear biasing model.

  3. Characterization of butyrate transport across the luminal membranes of equine large intestine.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Taoufik; Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-10-01

    The diet of the horse, pasture forage (grass), is fermented by the equine colonic microbiota to short-chain fatty acids, notably acetate, propionate and butyrate. Short-chain fatty acids provide a major source of energy for the horse and contribute to many vital physiological processes. We aimed to determine both the mechanism of butyrate uptake across the luminal membrane of equine colon and the nature of the protein involved. To this end, we isolated equine colonic luminal membrane vesicles. The abundance and activity of cysteine-sensitive alkaline phosphatase and villin, intestinal luminal membrane markers, were significantly enriched in membrane vesicles compared with the original homogenates. In contrast, the abundance of GLUT2 protein and the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, known markers of the intestinal basolateral membrane, were hardly detectable. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemistry, that monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) protein is expressed on the luminal membrane of equine colonocytes. We showed that butyrate transport into luminal membrane vesicles is energized by a pH gradient (out < in) and is not Na(+) dependent. Moreover, butyrate uptake is time and concentration dependent, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 5.6 ± 0.45 mm and maximal velocity of 614 ± 55 pmol s(-1) (mg protein)(-1). Butyrate transport is significantly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, phloretin and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, all potent inhibitors of MCT1. Moreover, acetate and propionate, as well as the monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, also inhibit butyrate uptake. Data presented here support the conclusion that transport of butyrate across the equine colonic luminal membrane is predominantly accomplished by MCT1.

  4. Nucleus of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983 VII)

    SciTech Connect

    Sekanina, Z.

    1988-06-01

    Optical, radar, infrared, UV, and microwave-continuum observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcok were obtained in May 1983, the week of the comet's close approach to earth. The comet has a nucleus dimension and a rotation period which are similar to those of Comet Halley, but a different morphological signature (a persisting sunward fan-shaped coma). Time variations are noted in the projected nucleus cross section. Results suggest significant limb-darkening effects in the relevant domains of radio waves, and that the comet's interior must be extremely cold. It is found that the thermal-infrared fluxes from the inner coma of the comet are dominated by the nucleus. 63 references.

  5. IRAS observations of the nuclear bulge of M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Rice, W. L.; Mould, J. R.; Gillett, F. C.; Robinson, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    IRAS observations of the nuclear bulge of M31 are reported. The 12-micron and 25-micron emission is attributed to circumstellar dust emission from late-type stars, while the 60 and 100-micron emission is attributed to interstellar dust emission. The total input rate of circumstellar gas and dust into the interstellar medium is estimated to be 0.015 solar masses/yr. The mass of dust in the interstellar medium estimated from the far-infared flux is about 1500 solar masses. The color temperature of the far-infrared-emitting dust is 45 K. The time required to accumulate the observed mass in interstellar dust is about 10 million yr. Either supernova-generated winds or star formation can deplete this gas without violating the observations.

  6. Equilibrium sorption isotherms for nitrate on resin Amberlite IRA 400.

    PubMed

    Chabani, M; Amrane, A; Bensmaili, A

    2009-06-15

    The adsorption isotherms of nitrate on resin Amberlite IRA 400 at various pH, in the range 2-12, were experimentally determined by batch tests. The experimental data have been analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms models. In order to determine the best fit isotherm, two error analysis methods were used to evaluate the data: the regression correlation coefficient, and the statistic Chi-square test. In the range of pH tested, the Sips model was found to give the best fit of the adsorption isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacity can be deduced from the obtained correlation coefficients and was found to decrease for increasing pH.

  7. IRAS observations of giant molecular clouds in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The IRAS data base has been used to study infrared radiation from molecular clouds in our galaxy. The sample of clouds was restricted to those with reliably determined molecular masses from large area, multi-isotope CO maps. They were normalized to X(CO-13)= 2x10 to the -6. Flux densities at 60 microns and 100 microns were determined by integrating the flux density within rectangles drawn on the sky flux plates after subtracting a suitable background. The rectangles were chosen to be coextensive with the areas mapped in CO. Color corrections were made and luminosites calculated by assuming the optical depths were proportional to frequency. The flux densities were converted to dust masses with a value for 4a rho/3Q = .04 g/cm at 100 microns.

  8. Near-infrared observations of IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carico, David P.; Soifer, B. T.; Elias, J. H.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.; Persson, C. J.; Persson, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    Near infrared photometry at J, H, and K was obtained for 82 galaxies from the IRAS minisurvey. The near infrared colors of these galaxies cover a larger range in J-H and H-K than do normal field spiral galaxies, and evidence is presented of a tighter correlation between the near and far infrared emission in far infrared bright galaxies than exists between the far infrared and the visible emission. These results suggest the presence of dust in the far infrared bright galaxies, with hot dust emission contributing to the 2.2 micron emission, and extinction by dust affecting both the near infrared colors and the visible luminosities. In addition, there is some indication that the infrared emission in many of the minisurvey galaxies is coming from a strong nuclear component.

  9. An X-ray and radio study of the massive star-forming cluster IRAS 20126+4104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Virginie; Hofner, Peter; Anderson, Crystal; Rosero, Viviana

    2015-08-01

    Two main competitive theories intent to explain massive star formation: the turbulent core model, which is an extension of the low-mass star formation model (McKee & Tan 2003), and models involving competitive accretion or stellar collisions (Bonnell & Bate 2006). The characterization of the cluster in which massive stars remain can help discriminate between the two main scenarios of their formation.Until recently it was believed that massive stars were only formed in dense molecular clouds leading to a substantial cluster. However, a previous study of the massive star forming region IRAS 20126+4104 using Spitzer observations by Qiu et al. (2008), suggested that the massive protostar was isolated, and the region was showing no obvious cluster.Here we adopt a multiwavelength technique to characterize the stellar environment of the IRAS 20126+4104 region combining Chandra X-ray ACIS-I and VLA 6cm continuum observations, and near-infrared (2MASS) data of the region. We detected 150 X-ray sources in the ACIS-I field and 13 radio sources within the 9’.2 VLA primary beam. Associating X-ray sources with their near-infrared counterparts from the 2MASS catalog and a color study of those counterparts, allow us to determine the galactic foreground/background contamination, and we conclude that 90 X-ray sources are associated with the region.This study shows an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and a number of at least 42 YSOs within 1.2 pc distance from the massive protostar. This number is consistent with typical B-type stars clusters (Lada & Lada 2003).

  10. Radio occultation experiments with INAF-IRA radiotelescopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Salerno, E.; Pupillo, G.

    The Radio Occultation research program performed at the Medicina and Noto Radioastronomical Stations of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) - Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) includes observations of spacecraft by satellite and satellite by satellite events. The Lunar Radio Occultation (LRO) part of the program consists in collecting data of the lunar Total Electron Content (TEC), at different limb longitudes and at different time, in order to study long term variation of the Moon's ionosphere. The LRO program started at Medicina in September 2006 with the observation of the European probe SMART-1 during its impact on the lunar soil. It proceeded in 2007 with the observation of the lunar occultations of Saturn and Venus, and with the observation of Mars in 2008. On this occasion the probes Cassini, Venus Express, Mars Express, Mars Reconaissance Orbiter and Mars Odissey were respectively occulted by the moon. On Dec 1st 2008 a Venus lunar occultation occurred. On that occasion we performed the first Italian-VLBI (I-VLBI) tracking experiment by detecting the carrier signals coming from the Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft with both the IRA radiotelescopes together with the Matera antenna of the Italian Space Agency. The second part of the radio occultation program includes the observation of satellite by satellite occultation events, as well as mutual occultations of Jupiter satellites. These events are referred to as mutual phenomena (PHEMU). These observations are aimed to measure the radio flux variation during the occultation and to derive surface spatial characteristics such as Io's hot spots. In this work preliminary results of the Radio Occultation program will be presented.

  11. Multiple Monopolar Outflows Driven by Massive Protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-López, M.; Girart, J. M.; Curiel, S.; Zapata, L. A.; Fonfría, J. P.; Qiu, K.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO+, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 103-5 × 103 L ⊙ protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  12. Infrared and visible detector electronics for the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, D. L.; Simmonds, J. J.; Ozawa, T.; Long, E. C.; Paris, R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the detectors, preamplifiers, and processing electronics; the system characterization test methods and results; and the performance of the detectors and electronics during the first month of on-orbit operation of the IRAS telescope. The Focal Plane Array (FPA) consists of 62 IR channels and 8 visible channels operating at 2.5 K. The IR detectors are grouped in eight 7 or 8 channel staggered linear subarrays with shared bias voltage; the visible detectors are grouped in two 4 channel skewed arrays, also with shared bias. Each channel detector is dc coupled to a TIA preamplifier through a very low power thermally isolated JFET source follower operating at about 65 K within the FPA housing. The visible channel detectors are ac coupled to TIA preamplifiers and signal chain electronics using MOSFET source followers operating at about 2.5 K within the FPA housing. The detectors, preamplifiers, analog electronics, and grounding are discussed as they evolved and were implemented during FPA retrofit, telescope integration, and preparation for launch.

  13. Multiple monopolar outflows driven by massive protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-López, M.; Girart, J. M.; Curiel, S.; Fonfría, J. P.; Zapata, L. A.; Qiu, K. E-mail: girart@ieec.cat

    2013-11-20

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO{sup +}, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 10{sup 3}-5 × 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  14. Evolving Our Evaluation of Luminous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The advance in solid state light emitting technologies and optics for lighting and visual communication necessitates the evaluation of how NASA envisions spacecraft lighting architectures and how NASA uses industry standards for the design and evaluation of lighting systems. Current NASA lighting standards and requirements for existing architectures focus on the separate ability of a lighting system to throw light against a surface or the ability of a display system to provide the appropriate visual contrast. This project investigated large luminous surface lamps as an alternative or supplement to overhead lighting. The efficiency of the technology was evaluated for uniformity and power consumption.

  15. Using the IRAS data to search in the asteroid belt for any potential evidence of galactic colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papagiannis, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    The end product of the biological evolution seems to be the appearance of technological civilizations, which are characterized by superior technology that supercedes biological capabilities. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has gained scientific recognition in recent years. The concept of galactic colonization is debated extensively, with opinions ranging from the impossible to the inevitable, but without a clear resolution. Answers can be obtained only with experimental tests and not with endless debates. A search for large space colonies in the asteroid belt, an ideal source of raw materials for a spaceborne civilization, is a test of the galactic colonization theory. The catalogue of solar system objects obtained form the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) observations at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, is an ideal source for such a search. The catalog is expected to be ready at the end of 1985 and will contain more than 10,000 objects.

  16. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus.

    PubMed

    Sahai, R; Vlemmings, W H T; Gledhill, T; Sánchez Contreras, C; Lagadec, E; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-01-20

    We have mapped (12)CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10(6) cm(-3)), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10(-4)M⊙ yr(-1) in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed.

  17. Luminal-B breast cancer and novel therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has led to a new molecular classification of breast cancer characterized by four intrinsic subtypes: basal-like, HER2-positive, luminal A, and luminal B. Despite expressing estrogen receptor, the luminal-B subtype confers increased risk of early relapse with endocrine therapy compared with the luminal-A subtype. Although luminal-B definitions vary, the hallmark appears to be increased expression of proliferation-related genes. Several biological pathways are identified as possible contributors to the poor outcomes, and novel agents targeting these pathways are being developed with aims to improve survival. We review the definition of luminal-B breast cancer, its pathological and clinical features, and potential targets for treatment. PMID:22217398

  18. IRAS observations show that the Earth is embedded in a solar ring of asteroidal dust particles in resonant lock with the planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.; Jayaraman, S.; Xu, Y.-L.; Liou, J.-C.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed all the infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud obtained in 1983 by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and shown that when viewed at a constant elongation angle of 90 degrees, the elliptic brightness of the cloud is systematically greater by approx. 3 percent in the trailing direction than in the leading direction. This asymmetry is observed at all times of the year and in all three of the IRAS wavebands in which the zodiacal cloud is clearly observed. The orbits of cometary particles are highly eccentric and these particles are unlikely to be trapped in corotational resonances. Thus, the IRAS observations are evidence that the Earth is embedded in a ring of asteroidal particles. Similar rings are expected to be associated with Mars and Venus. The existence of asteroidal families and their associated dust bands (also discovered by IRAS) are evidence that the asteroid belt is a significant and maybe the dominant source of dust in the zodiacal cloud. These new observations give quantitative information both on the rate of transport of asteroidal dust to the Earth and on the rate of grinding down of the asteroid belt. Without resonant trapping most dust particles spiral past the Earth without striking the planet. However, most particles trapped in resonances are released from these resonances due to close encounter with the Earth. Thus, the ring may act as a funnel through which asteroidal particles are deposited in the Earth's atmosphere. This could have implications for the efficiency of the transport of carbonaceous material from the asteroid belt to the Earth and for the origin of life on the planet.

  19. 29 CFR 2509.99-1 - Interpretive Bulletin Relating to Payroll Deduction IRAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IRA payroll deduction program clearly and prominently state, in language reasonably calculated to be... promotional materials provided a statement along the lines of in the first sentence of footnote 5,...

  20. The structure of the nearby universe traced by theIRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahil, Amos

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important discoveries of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) has been the detection of about 20,000 galaxies with 60 microns fluxes above 0.5 Jy. From the observational point of view, the IRAS galaxies are ideal tracers of density, since they are homogeneously detected over most of the sky, and their fluxes are unaffected by galactic extinction. The nearby universe was mapped by the IRAS galaxies to a distance of approximately 200 h(exp -1) Mpc for the absolute value of b less than 5 deg. The ability to map down to such low galactic latitudes has proven to be particularly imporant, since some of the most important nearby large-scale structures, such as the Great Attractor, the Perseus-Pisces region, and the Shapley concentration, all lie there. Two major results of the U.S. IRAS redshift survey are discussed.

  1. Peripheral visual response time and retinal luminance-area relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to elucidate the stimulus luminance-retinal area relationship that underlies response time (RT) behavior. Mean RT was significantly faster to stimuli imaged beyond about 70 deg of arc from the fovea when their luminance was increased by an amount equal to the foveal stimulus luminance multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the peripheral stimuli and the line of sight. This and additional data are discussed in relation to previous psychophysical data and to possible response mechanisms.

  2. Individual retirement account balances, contributions, and rollovers, 2010: the EBRI IRA database.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2012-05-01

    In 2010, IRA owners were more likely to be male, especially those whose accounts originated from a rollover or were a SEP/SIMPLE. Among all IRA owners in the database, nearly one-half (45.8 percent) were ages 45-64. The average and median IRA account balance in 2010 was $67,438 and $17,863, respectively, while the average and median IRA individual balance (all accounts from the same person combined) was $91,864 and $25,296. Individuals with a traditional-originating from rollovers had the highest average and median balance of $123,426 and $38,138, respectively. Roth owners had the lowest average and median balance at $22,437 and $11,471. The average and median individual IRA balance increased with age through age 70. The average amount contributed to an IRA in the database was $3,335 in 2010. The average contribution was highest for accounts owned by those ages 65-69, and more contributions were made to Roth accounts than to traditional accounts (both those originating from contributions and rollovers). However, the average contribution to a traditional account was higher, at $3,517, compared with $3,240 to a Roth account. Yet, a higher overall amount was contributed to Roths ($2.3 billion for Roths compared with $1.3 billion for traditional accounts). Focusing on those owning traditional or Roth IRAs, 9.3 percent of the accounts received contributions, and 12.1 percent of the individuals owning these IRA types contributed to them in 2010. Among traditional IRA owners, 5.2 percent contributed, while 24.0 percent of those owning a Roth contributed to it during 2010. Of those individuals contributing to an IRA, 43.5 percent contributed the maximum amount. Of those contributing to a traditional IRA, 48.7 percent maxed out their contribution, while 39.3 percent did so with a Roth. The average and median account balances increased from $54,863 and $15,756 respectively in 2008 to $67,438 and $17,863 in 2010. This represents an increase of 22.9 percent in the average

  3. Reducing luminance intensity can improve motion perception in noise

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Rémy; Arleo, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Visual perception generally improves under brighter environments. For instance, motion sensitivity is known to improve with luminance intensity especially at high temporal frequencies. However, the current study counter-intuitively shows that increasing luminance intensity can impair motion sensitivity in noise. Motion sensitivity was measured with and without noise added to a drifting Gabor patch as a function of the temporal frequency and luminance intensity. As expected, motion sensitivity in absence of noise reached a ceiling performance at a relatively low luminance intensity (about 35 td) for low temporal frequencies and improved with luminance intensity up to the highest luminance intensity tested (353 td) for high temporal frequencies. In noise, reducing mean luminance intensity facilitated motion sensitivity (up to a factor of about 1.7) for temporal frequencies up to 7.5 Hz and impaired sensitivity at higher temporal frequencies (15 and 30 Hz). We conclude that reducing luminance intensity is effectively equivalent to applying a low-pass filter, which can improve motion sensitivity in noise to low and middle temporal frequencies. This counterintuitive facilitation effect can be explained by two known properties of the visual system: decreasing luminance intensity impairs the visibility of high temporal frequencies (equivalent to a low-pass filter) and motion detectors are broadly tuned. PMID:28220883

  4. Luminance-model-based DCT quantization for color image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Peterson, Heidi A.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to approximate visibility thresholds for discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficient quantization error based on the peak-to-peak luminance of the error image. Experimentally measured visibility thresholds for R, G, and B DCT basis functions can be predicted by a simple luminance-based detection model. This model allows DCT coefficient quantization matrices to be designed for display conditions other than those of the experimental measurements: other display luminances, other veiling luminances, and other spatial frequencies (different pixel spacings, viewing distances, and aspect ratios).

  5. Adaptive display luminance for viewing smartphones under low illuminance.

    PubMed

    Na, Nooree; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-06-29

    The study investigates the optimal display luminance for viewing smartphones in conditions of low illuminance. This proposes a model of adaptive display in that display luminance changes gradually with the passage of watching time. It starts at a fairly low display luminance of 10 cd/m2, and after 10 seconds, the luminance increases slowly until it reaches 40 cd/m2 for 20 seconds and maintains the luminance. For the development of the model, an experiment was conducted to identify the optimal luminance for initial viewing and that for continuous viewing, as well as the change speed of display luminance. In order to validate the model, users' subjective judgments and activation of alpha rhythm were observed, and the result confirmed the superiority of the adaptive display luminance compared to the current display luminance in terms of physiological comfort and psychological satisfaction. It is expected that this study contributes to the pleasing use of displays at night under low illuminance by applying to diverse types of display devices.

  6. Night vision goggle luminance disparity and the Pulfrich phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, Harry L.

    2004-09-01

    When night vision goggle (NVG) image intensifier tubes (I2Ts) are replaced during maintenance, the output luminances of the two channels must not exceed a ratio of 1.5 (brighter channel luminance divided by the dimmer channel luminance) in order to meet the current allowed binocular luminance disparity specification. Two studies were performed to investigate the validity of this requirement. The first study estimated thresholds of binocular luminance disparity detection for observers looking through NVGs. For eight observers, the 25% corrected-for-chance probability of detecting an ocular luminance difference, yielded an average ratio of 1.43 indicating that the current 1.5 specification is perhaps too loose. The second study investigated the Pulfrich phenomenon, a pseudo-stereo effect that can be induced by presenting luminance imbalances to the eyes. This study created NVG luminance imbalances using neutral density (ND) filters and then investigated whether or not the various imbalance levels were sufficient to cause the Pulfrich phenomenon to be perceived. Results indicated an imbalance ratio of 1.10 was insufficient to cause the effect to be seen, but a ratio of 1.26 was sufficient (p <= 0.0003) for the effect to be seen, at least part of the time. Based on these results, it is apparent the allowed binocular luminance disparity ratio should probably be tightened to at least 1.3 with a goal of 1.2.

  7. OBSCURATION BY GAS AND DUST IN LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, S. M.; Murray, S. S.; Hickox, R. C.; Brodwin, M.

    2014-06-10

    We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 < z ≲ 3 in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes multiwavelength survey field that are selected using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera colors and are well-detected as luminous X-ray sources (with >150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to mid-IR color, and measure the neutral hydrogen column density N {sub H} through fitting of the X-ray spectra. We find that all subsets of quasars have consistent power law photon indices Γ ≈ 1.9 that are uncorrelated with N {sub H}. We classify the quasars as gas-absorbed or gas-unabsorbed if N {sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} or N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, respectively. Of 24 dust-unobscured quasars in the sample, only one shows clear evidence for significant intrinsic N {sub H}, while 22 have column densities consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. In contrast, of the nine dust-obscured quasars, six show evidence for intrinsic gas absorption, and three are consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. We conclude that dust extinction in IR-selected quasars is strongly correlated with significant gas absorption as determined through X-ray spectral fitting. These results suggest that obscuring gas and dust in quasars are generally co-spatial, and confirm the reliability of simple mid-IR and optical photometric techniques for separating quasars based on obscuration.

  8. X-RAY AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V.

    2015-08-15

    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17′ × 17′ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.′2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color–color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  9. Low number of luminance levels in the luminance noise increases color discrimination thresholds estimated with pseudoisochromatic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Souza, Givago S; Malone, Felecia L; Crawford, Teera L; Miquilini, Letícia; Salomão, Raílson C; Guimarães, Diego L; Ventura, Dora F; Fitzgerald, Malinda E C; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2014-01-01

    In pseudoisochromatic stimuli the presence of spatial and luminance noise forces the subject to discriminate the target from the background solely on the basis of chromaticity difference. Color-blind subjects may show difficulty to identify the target due to the elimination of borders and brightness clues caused by the luminance and spatial noise. Few studies have fully described the features of pseudoisochromatic stimuli. Fewer investigators have focused their studies in the effects of specific pseudoisochromatic parameters on color discrimination. We used the Cambridge Color Test (CCT) to investigate the influence on color discrimination thresholds due to the number of luminance levels present in the luminance noise. The CCT default has six luminance steps; however, in our investigation a total of eight different conditions were tested from 2 to 16 luminance steps. It was found that the CCT provided very robust values for color discrimination thresholds, which were degraded only for very small number of luminance steps. When the number of steps was increased, the color discrimination thresholds improved from 2 to 6 luminance steps and gradually reached a plateau for 10 or more luminance steps. The area of color discrimination ellipses as a function of luminance steps matches the relative proportion of ineffective contrasts between mosaic patches as a function of luminance steps, assuming that contrast becomes ineffective for values 18.6% or less. The lower number of color and luminance interactions in these conditions could explain the measured increase of color discrimination thresholds. The primary conclusion from this investigation was that results from pseudoisochromatic tests should have their parameters described in more detail. This type of description would allow a better understanding of the results provided, interpretations, and therefore cross study comparison of results obtained from different laboratories.

  10. Low number of luminance levels in the luminance noise increases color discrimination thresholds estimated with pseudoisochromatic stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Givago S.; Malone, Felecia L.; Crawford, Teera L.; Miquilini, Letícia; Salomão, Raílson C.; Guimarães, Diego L.; Ventura, Dora F.; Fitzgerald, Malinda E. C.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    In pseudoisochromatic stimuli the presence of spatial and luminance noise forces the subject to discriminate the target from the background solely on the basis of chromaticity difference. Color-blind subjects may show difficulty to identify the target due to the elimination of borders and brightness clues caused by the luminance and spatial noise. Few studies have fully described the features of pseudoisochromatic stimuli. Fewer investigators have focused their studies in the effects of specific pseudoisochromatic parameters on color discrimination. We used the Cambridge Color Test (CCT) to investigate the influence on color discrimination thresholds due to the number of luminance levels present in the luminance noise. The CCT default has six luminance steps; however, in our investigation a total of eight different conditions were tested from 2 to 16 luminance steps. It was found that the CCT provided very robust values for color discrimination thresholds, which were degraded only for very small number of luminance steps. When the number of steps was increased, the color discrimination thresholds improved from 2 to 6 luminance steps and gradually reached a plateau for 10 or more luminance steps. The area of color discrimination ellipses as a function of luminance steps matches the relative proportion of ineffective contrasts between mosaic patches as a function of luminance steps, assuming that contrast becomes ineffective for values 18.6% or less. The lower number of color and luminance interactions in these conditions could explain the measured increase of color discrimination thresholds. The primary conclusion from this investigation was that results from pseudoisochromatic tests should have their parameters described in more detail. This type of description would allow a better understanding of the results provided, interpretations, and therefore cross study comparison of results obtained from different laboratories. PMID:25566106

  11. A RECENT ACCRETION BURST IN THE LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA IMAGING OF ITS RELATED CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Brinch, Christian; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A.; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Harsono, Daniel; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Persson, Magnus V.

    2013-12-20

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates throughout their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C{sup 17}O, H{sup 13}CO{sup +}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sup 34}S and C{sub 2}H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.''5 (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H{sup 13}CO{sup +} is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.''5 (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO{sup +} is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 yr increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity. Such a burst in luminosity can also explain the centrally condensed CH{sub 3}OH and extended warm carbon-chain chemistry observed in this source and furthermore be reflected in the relative faintness of its compact continuum emission compared to other protostars.

  12. The Inferred Magnetic Field on 50 AU Scales Around IRAS 4A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilfoil Cox, Erin; Harris, Robert J.; Looney, Leslie; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Tobin, John J.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Tychoniec, Lukasz; Chandler, Claire J.; Dunham, Michael; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Melis, Carl; Perez, Laura M.; Sadavoy, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a key role on all size scales of star formation. On the small scale, they can regulate disk formation, accretion and jet launching. Until recently, it has been difficult to obtain high resolution observations of the magnetic fields of the youngest protostars (Class 0 objects) in this critical region close to the protostar. The VLA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) survey is a high resolution (~0.2'') survey of continuum emission at 8.1 mm, 10.3 mm, 4.1 cm and 6.4 cm from all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. Here we present the polarization results from 8.1 mm and 10.3 mm of one of our sources, NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. We then use CARMA polarization data of L1527 (another Class 0 object), and compare the two results. The CARMA data was taken at 1.3 mm and had a resolution of ~0.35''. By characterizing the magnetic fields of these young protostars, we are able to better understand the conditions in which young stars form.

  13. High Velocity Precessing Jet from the Water Fountain IRAS 18286-0959 Revealed by VLBA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco; Nakashima, J.; Imai, H.; Deguchi, S.; Diamond, P. J.; Kwok, S.

    2011-05-01

    We report the multi-epoch VLBA observations of 22.2GHz water maser emission associated with the "water fountain" star IRAS 18286-0959. The detected maser emission are distributed in the velocity range from -50km/s to 150km/s. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (namely, jet 1) extended from southeast to northwest direction, and the rest of the features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a "double-helix" pattern which lies across 200 milliarcseconds (mas). The maser features are reasonably fit by a model consisting of two precessing jets. The velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138km/s and 99km/s, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years, and for jet 2 it is about 73 years. We propose that the appearance of two jets observed are the result of a single driving source with a significant proper motion. This research was supported by grants from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, the Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research of the University of Hong Kong, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists from the Ministry 9 of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for Promotion Science.

  14. Production of ball-lightning-like luminous balls by electrical discharges in silicon.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Gerson Silva; Pavão, Antonio Carlos; Alpes de Vasconcelos, Elder; Mendes, Odim; da Silva, Eronides Felisberto

    2007-01-26

    We performed electric arc discharges in pure Si to generate luminous balls with lifetime in the order of seconds and several properties usually reported for natural ball lightning. This simple experiment does not rely on energy sources and excitation mechanisms that are improbable in the natural phenomenon and clearly demonstrates the role of vaporization and oxidation of Si, as proposed by the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory for ball-lightning formation.

  15. Energy Diagnoses of Nine Infrared Luminous Galaxies Based on 3-4 Micron Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-20

    spectrometer (CGS4; Moun- tain et al. 1990) to obtain 3È4 km spectra of the IRLGs and NGC 253 with UKIRT on Mauna Kea , Hawaii. An observ- ing log is...DIAGNOSES OF NINE INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES BASED ON 3È4 MICRON SPECTRA MASATOSHI IMANISHI1 National Astronomical Observatory , Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588...feature at 7.7 km, systematic studies of the energy sources of IRLGs have been reported based on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectra at

  16. Shell nebulae around luminous evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1989-01-01

    Shell nebulae around luminous Population I Wolf-Rayet, Of, and P-Cygni stars are astrophysically interesting since they are indicators of pre-supernova mass loss and how such massive stars prepare their surrounding interstellar medium prior to explosion. Some twenty-odd such nebulae are known, for which detailed study of their morphological and spectroscopic characteristics have only begun in this decade. In this paper, some of these characteristics are reviewed in general, and new observations are reported. Emphasis has been placed on several 'prototype 'objects (NGC 7635, NGC 2359, NGC 6888, and the Eta Carinae condensations) to illustrate the varied massive-star mass-loss, the physics of their winds and shell ejecta, and related nucleosynthesis effects in the compositions of the winds and shells.

  17. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Assef, Roberto J.; Blain, Andrew W.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Petty, Sara M.; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  18. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., III; Gelino, Chris; Griffith, Roger L.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Masci, Frank J.; Mason, Brian S.; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  19. Effects of luminance and spatial noise on interferometric contrast sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Nancy J.; Sharma, Vineeta

    1995-10-01

    Optical properties of the eye contribute to the reduced visibility of spatial patterns at low luminance. To study the limits of spatial vision when optical factors are minimized, we measured contrast-sensitivity functions (CSF's) for 543.5-nm laser interference fringes imaged directly on the retina. Measurements were made in the fovea at four luminance levels, ranging from 0.3 to 300 photopic trolands (Td). At each luminance the fraction of coherent light in the stimulus pattern was varied to assess the masking effects of laser speckle, which is visible as spatial noise in fields of coherent light. Compared with published CSF's obtained under natural viewing conditions, interferometric CSF's were similar in height but broader, with the range of visibility being extended to higher spatial frequencies. The masking effects of speckle were greatest at the highest luminance and were negligible at the lowest luminance. For low coherent fractions, contrast sensitivity improved over the entire luminance range at a rate consistent with a square-root law; with purely coherent light, sensitivity tended to level off at approximately 30 Td because of speckle masking. The results indicate that the optical quality of the eye reduces the spatial bandwidth of vision even at luminances near the foveal threshold. The change in interference fringe visibility with luminance is consistent with noise-limited behavior, and the masking

  20. Covariation of Color and Luminance Facilitate Object Individuation in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The ability to individuate objects is one of our most fundamental cognitive capacities. Recent research has revealed that when objects vary in color or luminance alone, infants fail to individuate those objects until 11.5 months. However, color and luminance frequently covary in the natural environment, thus providing a more salient and reliable…

  1. Highly ionized disc and transient outflows in the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325-5926

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasawa, K.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Reynolds, C. S.; Miniutti, G.; Tombesi, F.

    2016-08-01

    We report on strong X-ray variability and the Fe K-band spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325-5926 obtained from the 2001 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observation with a duration of ~120 ks. While the X-ray source is highly variable, the 8-10 keV band shows larger variability than that of the lower energies. Amplified 8-10 keV flux variations are associated with two prominent flares of the X-ray source during the observation. The Fe K emission is peaked at 6.6 keV with moderate broadening. It is likely to originate from a highly ionized disc with an ionization parameter of log ξ ≃ 3. The Fe K line flux responds to the main flare, which supports its disc origin. A short burst of the Fe line flux has no relation to the continuum brightness, for which we have no clear explanation. We also find transient, blueshifted Fe K absorption features that can be identified with high-velocity (~0.2c) outflows of highly ionized gas, as found in other active galaxies. The deepest absorption feature appears only briefly (~1 h) at the onset of the main flare and disappears when the flare declines. The rapid evolution of the absorption spectrum makes this source peculiar among the active galaxies with high-velocity outflows. Another detection of the absorption feature also precedes the other flare. The variability of the absorption feature partly accounts for the excess variability in the 8-10 keV band where the absorption feature appears. Although no reverberation measurement is available, the black hole mass of ~2 × 106M⊙ is inferred from the X-ray variability. When this mass is assumed, the black hole is accreting at around the Eddington limit, which may fit the highly ionized disc and strong outflows observed in this galaxy.

  2. Therapy of acute wounds with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA)

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Mark; Illing, Peter; Mercer, James B.; Lademann, Jürgen; Daeschlein, Georg; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) as a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and with a low thermal load to the skin surface acts both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat in the tissue and increases tissue temperature, tissue oxygen partial pressure, and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen and consequently as well for wound healing and infection defense. wIRA can considerably alleviate the pain (with remarkably less need for analgesics) and diminish an elevated wound exudation and inflammation and can show positive immunomodulatory effects. wIRA can advance wound healing or improve an impaired wound healing both in acute and in chronic wounds including infected wounds. Even the normal wound healing process can be improved. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study with 111 patients after major abdominal surgery at the University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany, showed with 20 minutes irradiation twice a day (starting on the second postoperative day) in the group with wIRA and visible light VIS (wIRA(+VIS), approximately 75% wIRA, 25% VIS) compared to a control group with only VIS a significant and relevant pain reduction combined with a markedly decreased required dose of analgesics: during 230 single irradiations with wIRA(+VIS) the pain decreased without any exception (median of decrease of pain on postoperative days 2-6 was 13.4 on a 100 mm visual analog scale VAS 0-100), while pain remained unchanged in the control group (p<0.001). The required dose of analgesics was 57-70% lower in the subgroups with wIRA(+VIS) compared to the control subgroups with only VIS (median 598 versus 1398 ml ropivacaine, p<0.001, for peridural catheter analgesia; 31 versus 102 mg piritramide, p=0.001, for patient-controlled analgesia; 3.4 versus 10.2 g metamizole, p=0.005, for intravenous

  3. Therapy of acute wounds with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA).

    PubMed

    Hartel, Mark; Illing, Peter; Mercer, James B; Lademann, Jürgen; Daeschlein, Georg; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2007-12-28

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) as a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and with a low thermal load to the skin surface acts both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat in the tissue and increases tissue temperature, tissue oxygen partial pressure, and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen and consequently as well for wound healing and infection defense. wIRA can considerably alleviate the pain (with remarkably less need for analgesics) and diminish an elevated wound exudation and inflammation and can show positive immunomodulatory effects. wIRA can advance wound healing or improve an impaired wound healing both in acute and in chronic wounds including infected wounds. Even the normal wound healing process can be improved.A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study with 111 patients after major abdominal surgery at the University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany, showed with 20 minutes irradiation twice a day (starting on the second postoperative day) in the group with wIRA and visible light VIS (wIRA(+VIS), approximately 75% wIRA, 25% VIS) compared to a control group with only VIS a significant and relevant pain reduction combined with a markedly decreased required dose of analgesics: during 230 single irradiations with wIRA(+VIS) the pain decreased without any exception (median of decrease of pain on postoperative days 2-6 was 13.4 on a 100 mm visual analog scale VAS 0-100), while pain remained unchanged in the control group (p<0.001). The required dose of analgesics was 57-70% lower in the subgroups with wIRA(+VIS) compared to the control subgroups with only VIS (median 598 versus 1398 ml ropivacaine, p<0.001, for peridural catheter analgesia; 31 versus 102 mg piritramide, p=0.001, for patient-controlled analgesia; 3.4 versus 10.2 g metamizole, p=0.005, for intravenous and

  4. Image construction from the IRAS survey and data fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bontekoe, Tj. R.

    1990-01-01

    The IRAS survey data can be used successfully to produce images of extended objects. The major difficulty, viz. non-uniform sampling, different response functions for each detector, and varying signal-to-noise levels for each detector for each scan, were resolved. The results of three different image construction techniques are compared: co-addition, constrained least squares, and maximum entropy. The maximum entropy result is superior. An image of the galaxy M51 with an average spatial resolution of 45 arc seconds, is presented using 60 micron survey data. This exceeds the telescope diffraction limit of 1 minute of arc, at this wavelength. Data fusion is a proposed method for combining data from different instruments, with different spatial resolutions, at different wavelengths. Direct estimates of the physical parameters, temperature, density and composition, can be made from the data without prior images (re-)construction. An increase in the accuracy of these parameters is expected as the result of this more systematic approach.

  5. IRAS observations of the Pluto-Charon system

    SciTech Connect

    Aumann, H.H.; Walker, R.G.

    1987-10-01

    High-signal-to-noise-ratio observations of the Pluto-Charon system at 25, 60, and 100 microns using IRAS are combined with visual-magnitude and mutual-eclipse constraints to evaluate thermal models of Pluto and Charon. These models are consistent with eclipse observation by Dunbar and Tedesco (1986) but not with Reinsch and Pakull (1987). The most likely model for Charon is the standard asteroid model, typical for the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites. Charon models with a significant atmosphere can be ruled out. Based on currently available radius and albedo constraints, no significant numerical distinction is possible between Pluto models ranging from isothermal spheres with surface emissivity between 0.4 and 0.9. Concerns regarding the viability of an emissivity as low as 0.4 favor the higher-emissivity models. The globally uniform surface temperature of Pluto may thus at present be as low as 45 K, with a methane column abundance of 6.7 cm atm. The most likely models are centered on radii of 1180 and 747 km and albedos of 0.47 and 0.26 for Pluto and Charon, respectively. 21 references.

  6. It's about time: Presentation in honor of Ira Hirsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Ken

    2002-05-01

    Over his long and illustrious career, Ira Hirsh has returned time and time again to his interest in the temporal aspects of pattern perception. Although Hirsh has studied and published articles and books pertaining to many aspects of the auditory system, such as sound conduction in the ear, cochlear mechanics, masking, auditory localization, psychoacoustic behavior in animals, speech perception, medical and audiological applications, coupling between psychophysics and physiology, and ecological acoustics, it is his work on auditory timing of simple and complex rhythmic patterns, the backbone of speech and music, that are at the heart of his more recent work. Here, we will focus on several aspects of temporal processing of simple and complex signals, both within and across sensory systems. Data will be reviewed on temporal order judgments of simple tones, and simultaneity judgments and intelligibility of unimodal and bimodal complex stimuli where stimulus components are presented either synchronously or asynchronously. Differences in the symmetry and shape of ``temporal windows'' derived from these data sets will be highlighted.

  7. Starburst or AGN Dominance in Submillimetre-Luminous Candidate AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Pope, Alexandra; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Alexander, David M.; Dunlop, James

    2010-06-01

    It is widely believed that ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity are triggered by galaxy interactions and merging, with the peak of activity occurring at z~2, where submillimetre galaxies are thousands of times more numerous than local ULIRGs. In this evolutionary picture, submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) would host an AGN, which would eventually grow a black hole (BH) strong enough to blow off all of the gas and dust leaving an optically luminous QSO. To probe this evolutionary sequence we have focussed on the `missing link' sources, which demonstrate both strong starburst (SB) and AGN signatures, in order to determine if the SB is the main power source even in SMGs when we have evidence that an AGN is present from their IRAC colours. The best way to determine if a dominant AGN is present is to look for their signatures in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer IRS, since often even deep X-ray observations miss identifying the presence of AGN in heavily dust-obscured SMGs. We present the results of our audit of the energy balance between star-formation and AGN within this special sub-population of SMGs-where the BH has grown appreciably to begin heating the dust emission.

  8. Connecting low- and high-mass star formation: the intermediate-mass protostar IRAS 05373+2349 VLA 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. M.; Johnston, K. G.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, there have been few studies of the protostellar evolution of intermediate-mass (IM) stars, which may bridge the low- and high-mass regimes. This paper aims to investigate whether the properties of an IM protostar within the IRAS 05373+2349 embedded cluster are similar to that of low- and/or high-mass protostars. We carried out Very Large Array as well as Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy continuum and 12CO(J=1-0) observations, which uncover seven radio continuum sources (VLA 1-7). The spectral index of VLA 2, associated with the IM protostar is consistent with an ionized stellar wind or jet. The source VLA 3 is coincident with previously observed H2 emission line objects aligned in the north-south direction (P.A. -20 to -12°), which may be either an ionized jet emanating from VLA 2 or (shock-)ionized cavity walls in the large-scale outflow from VLA 2. The position angle between VLA 2 and 3 is slightly misaligned with the large-scale outflow we map at ˜5-arcsec resolution in 12CO (P.A. ˜ 30°), which in the case of a jet suggests precession. The emission from the mm core associated with VLA 2 is also detected; we estimate its mass to be 12-23 M⊙, depending on the contribution from ionized gas. Furthermore, the large-scale outflow has properties intermediate between outflows from low- and high-mass young stars. Therefore, we conclude that the IM protostar within IRAS 05373+2349 is phenomenologically as well as quantitatively intermediate between the low- and high-mass domains.

  9. Therapy of chronic wounds with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA)

    PubMed Central

    von Felbert, Verena; Schumann, Hauke; Mercer, James B.; Strasser, Wolfgang; Daeschlein, Georg; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The central portion of chronic wounds is often hypoxic and relatively hypothermic, representing a deficient energy supply of the tissue, which impedes wound healing or even makes it impossible. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and a low thermal load to the skin surface. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat and increases temperature, oxygen partial pressure and perfusion of the tissue. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen and consequently as well for wound healing, especially in chronic wounds, and infection defense. wIRA acts both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. wIRA can advance wound healing or improve an impaired wound healing process and can especially enable wound healing in non-healing chronic wounds. wIRA can considerably alleviate the pain and diminish wound exudation and inflammation and can show positive immunomodulatory effects. In a prospective, randomized, controlled study of 40 patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs irradiation with wIRA and visible light (VIS) accelerated the wound healing process (on average 18 vs. 42 days until complete wound closure, residual ulcer area after 42 days 0.4 cm² vs. 2.8 cm²) and led to a reduction of the required dose of pain medication in comparison to the control group of patients treated with the same standard care (wound cleansing, wound dressing with antibacterial gauze, and compression garment therapy) without the concomitant irradiation. Another prospective study of 10 patients with non-healing chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs included extensive thermographic investigation. Therapy with wIRA(+VIS) resulted in a complete or almost complete wound healing in 7 patients and a marked reduction of the ulcer size in another 2 of the 10 patients, a clear reduction of pain and required dose of pain medication

  10. Innate Response Activator (IRA) B Cells Reside in Human Tonsils and Internalize Bacteria In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Nico; Cantisani, Rocco; Pancotto, Laura; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rosa, Domenico; Manetti, Andrea; Romano, Antonio; Montagnani, Francesca; Bertholet, Sylvie; Castellino, Flora; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Innate response activator (IRA) B cells have been described in mice as a subset of B-1a B cells that produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and have been found in the spleen upon activation. In humans, identification, tissue localization and functionality of these lymphocytes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that IRA B cells could reside in human palatine tonsils, which are a first line of defense from infection of the upper respiratory tract. In the present work, we used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify and characterize human IRA (hIRA) B cells in tonsils. We show that CD19⁺CD20⁺GM-CSF⁺ B cells are present in the tonsils of all the subjects studied at a frequency ranging between ~0.2% and ~0.4% of the conventional CD19⁺CD20⁺GM-CSF⁻ B cells. These cells reside within the B cell follicles, are mostly IgM⁺IgD⁺, express CD5 and show phagocytic activity. Our results support a role for hIRA B cells in the effector immune response to infections in tonsils.

  11. Outflows Driven by a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary System IRAS 16253-2429

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the molecular outflows driven by a potential proto-brown dwarf candidate IRAS 16253-2429 (hereafter IRAS 16253) with CO (2—1) using SMA and IRAM 30m telescope and CO (6—5) using APEX. Our SMA observations suggest that IRAS 16253 is hosting a binary system. The low mass of its envelope suggests that the central objects may eventually accrete only ~0.14 Msun of material (assuming the star formation efficiency is at most 0.3), which makes IRAS 16253 a potential proto brown dwarf binary system since the maximum mass of a brown dwarf is 0.08 Msun; one or two brown dwarfs may form depending on the current mass of the protostars and the future accretion process. The Position-Velocity diagrams of the outflows show sinusoidal structures which may be related to the outflow wiggling from the binary rotation. This allowed us to estimate the orbital period of the binary system. On the basis of Kepler's third law, we suggest that IRAS 16253 is very likely to contain at least one proto brown dwarf if the binary separation is less than ~0.5 arcsec. The large-scale outflows are further mapped with IRAM 30m telescope and APEX Champ+. We found that CO (6—5) traces high-excited gas around the precessing H2 jets and CO (2—1) likely probes the cold swept-up gas or entrained gas with cone-like structure.

  12. Innate Response Activator (IRA) B Cells Reside in Human Tonsils and Internalize Bacteria In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pancotto, Laura; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rosa, Domenico; Manetti, Andrea; Romano, Antonio; Montagnani, Francesca; Bertholet, Sylvie; Castellino, Flora; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Innate response activator (IRA) B cells have been described in mice as a subset of B-1a B cells that produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and have been found in the spleen upon activation. In humans, identification, tissue localization and functionality of these lymphocytes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that IRA B cells could reside in human palatine tonsils, which are a first line of defense from infection of the upper respiratory tract. In the present work, we used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify and characterize human IRA (hIRA) B cells in tonsils. We show that CD19+CD20+GM-CSF+ B cells are present in the tonsils of all the subjects studied at a frequency ranging between ~0.2% and ~0.4% of the conventional CD19+CD20+GM-CSF- B cells. These cells reside within the B cell follicles, are mostly IgM+IgD+, express CD5 and show phagocytic activity. Our results support a role for hIRA B cells in the effector immune response to infections in tonsils. PMID:26066485

  13. NIR And MIR Emission From The Central High-mass Protostar In IRAS19410

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray F.; Sridharan, T. K.; De Buizer, J. M.; Kassis, M.; Whitney, B.; Hora, J. L.; Beuther, H.; Eshelman, E.; Moriarty, J. C.; Towner, A. P.; Saito, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present IRTF-MIRSI photometry and a grism spectrum, IRAC photometry, and high-resolution Gemini mid-IR images of IRAS 19410+2336 mm1, a member of a rich cluster of mm cores located in one of the candidate regions of high-mass star formation identified by Sridharan et al. (2002). The Gemini images show a bipolar-like pair of IR sources separated by 0.7" that straddle the PdBI mm1 core (Beuther et al. 2004). They align well with one of the multiple outflows in the mm complex (Qui et al. 2008), suggesting that they may be images of hot dust emission from the upper and lower surfaces of a single accretion disk seen almost edge-on, and/or upper and lower surfaces of bipolar outflow cavities in an accreting envelope. We discuss initial Monte Carlo models of the SED and images at the near distance of 2.1 kpc computed at Colby with the Whitney et al. (2004) code, and models from the SED library of Robitaille et al. (2007). Fitting all of the near-IR to mid-IR photometric, spectral, and image data of the pair as a bipolar source heated by a central YSO or as separate objects is proving difficult, but the huge parameter spaces have not been fully explored. Beuther, et al. 2004, Science, 303, 1167; Qiu, K et al 2008, ApJ 685,1005; Robitaille, et al. 2007, ApJS, 167, 256; Sridharan, et al. 2002, ApJ, 566, 931; Whitney, et al, 2003, ApJ, 591, 1049.

  14. Luminance distribution modifies the perceived freshness of strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Lopera, Carlos; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Okajima, Katsunori

    2012-01-01

    Material perception studies focus on the analysis of visual cues that may underlie the ability to distinguish between the different properties of an object. Herein, we investigated the effects of luminance distribution on the perceived freshness of a strawberry independent from its colour information. We took photographs of the degradation of a strawberry over 169 hours in a controlled environment, then presented cropped square patches of the original images to subjects who then rated the perceived freshness using a visual analogue scale. Freshness ratings were significantly highly correlated with statistical measures of the luminance and colour channels. To clarify which of these visual cues affects freshness perception, we created artificial images by modifying only the luminance distribution and keeping the colour information unchanged. The modification of luminance resulted in a highly correlated change in freshness perception, suggesting that luminance visual cues are essential to the freshness perception of strawberries. Finally, by eliminating the colour information from the images, we examined the contribution of luminance distribution independent of colour information and found that luminance information suffices for accurate estimation of strawberry freshness. PMID:23145288

  15. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared Variability of Young Stellar Objects and Their Disks in the Cluster IRAS 20050+2720

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppenhaeger, K.; Cody, A. M.; Covey, K. R.; Günther, H. M.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Plavchan, P.; Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Wolk, S. J.; Espaillat, C.; Forbrich, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Hora, J. L.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Song, Inseok

    2015-10-01

    We present a time-variability study of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cluster IRAS 20050+2720, performed at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope; this study is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) project. We have collected light curves for 181 cluster members over 60 days. We find a high variability fraction among embedded cluster members of ca. 70%, whereas young stars without a detectable disk display variability less often (in ca. 50% of the cases) and with lower amplitudes. We detect periodic variability for 33 sources with periods primarily in the range of 2-6 days. Practically all embedded periodic sources display additional variability on top of their periodicity. Furthermore, we analyze the slopes of the tracks that our sources span in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We find that sources with long variability time scales tend to display CMD slopes that are at least partially influenced by accretion processes, while sources with short variability timescales tend to display extinction-dominated slopes. We find a tentative trend of X-ray detected cluster members to vary on longer timescales than the X-ray undetected members.

  16. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND THEIR DISKS IN THE CLUSTER IRAS 20050+2720

    SciTech Connect

    Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L.; Cody, A. M.; Covey, K. R.; Günther, H. M.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Plavchan, P.; Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Forbrich, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Song, Inseok

    2015-10-15

    We present a time-variability study of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cluster IRAS 20050+2720, performed at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope; this study is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) project. We have collected light curves for 181 cluster members over 60 days. We find a high variability fraction among embedded cluster members of ca. 70%, whereas young stars without a detectable disk display variability less often (in ca. 50% of the cases) and with lower amplitudes. We detect periodic variability for 33 sources with periods primarily in the range of 2–6 days. Practically all embedded periodic sources display additional variability on top of their periodicity. Furthermore, we analyze the slopes of the tracks that our sources span in the color–magnitude diagram (CMD). We find that sources with long variability time scales tend to display CMD slopes that are at least partially influenced by accretion processes, while sources with short variability timescales tend to display extinction-dominated slopes. We find a tentative trend of X-ray detected cluster members to vary on longer timescales than the X-ray undetected members.

  17. Mass loss from very luminous OB stars and the Cygnus superbubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D. C.; Bieging, J. H.; Churchwell, E.

    1981-11-01

    A description is presented of radio continuum measurements of mass loss from OB stars made at a wavelength of 6 cm with the Very Large Array (VLA). Five of the six most luminous members of the stellar association Cyg OB2 were detected. The considered investigation concentrates on the most luminous stars known in the Galaxy. The stars were selected because they would exhibit the most extreme consequences of mass loss and because they tend to be the brightest radio sources. The new mass loss rates are used to predict the properties of the interstellar bubble produced by the stellar winds of Cyg OB2. The results support the interpretation of Cash et al. (1980) that X-ray emission in the direction of Cygnus indicates a superbubble whose hot interior cavity contains the Cyg OB2 association.

  18. Evolutionary paths along the BPT diagram for luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (10{sup 11} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 ≲ z ≲ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Hα that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  19. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  20. A Second Luminous Blue Variable in the Quintuplet Cluster.

    PubMed

    Geballe; Najarro; Figer

    2000-02-20

    H- and K-band moderate-resolution and 4 µm high-resolution spectra have been obtained for FMM 362, a bright star in the Quintuplet Cluster near the Galactic center. The spectral features in these bands closely match those of the Pistol Star, a luminous blue variable and one of the most luminous stars known. The new spectra and previously obtained photometry imply a very high luminosity for FMM 362, L>/=106 L middle dot in circle, and a temperature of 10,000-13,000 K. Based on its luminosity, temperature, photometric variability, and similarities to the Pistol Star, we conclude that FMM 362 is a luminous blue variable.

  1. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SPITZER-SELECTED LUMINOUS STARBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, A.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N.; Beelen, A.; Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Lonsdale, C.; Polletta, M.; Greve, T. R.; Borys, C.; Dowell, C. D.; Bell, T. A.; Cox, P.; De Breuck, C.; Farrah, D.; Menten, K. M.; Owen, F.

    2010-07-01

    We present SHARC-2 350 {mu}m data on 20 luminous z {approx} 2 starbursts with S{sub 1.2{sub mm}} > 2 mJy from the Spitzer-selected samples of Lonsdale et al. and Fiolet et al. All the sources were detected, with S{sub 350{sub {mu}m}} > 25 mJy for 18 of them. With the data, we determine precise dust temperatures and luminosities for these galaxies using both single-temperature fits and models with power-law mass-temperature distributions. We derive appropriate formulae to use when optical depths are non-negligible. Our models provide an excellent fit to the 6 {mu}m-2 mm measurements of local starbursts. We find characteristic single-component temperatures T{sub 1} {approx_equal} 35.5 {+-} 2.2 K and integrated infrared (IR) luminosities around 10{sup 12.9{+-}0.1} L{sub sun} for the SWIRE-selected sources. Molecular gas masses are estimated at {approx_equal}4 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, assuming {kappa}{sub 850{sub {mu}m}} = 0.15 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and a submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG)-like gas-to-dust mass ratio. The best-fit models imply {approx_gt}2 kpc emission scales. We also note a tight correlation between rest-frame 1.4 GHz radio and IR luminosities confirming star formation as the predominant power source. The far-IR properties of our sample are indistinguishable from the purely submillimeter-selected populations from current surveys. We therefore conclude that our original selection criteria, based on mid-IR colors and 24 {mu}m flux densities, provides an effective means for the study of SMGs at z {approx} 1.5-2.5.

  2. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  3. Comparison of chitin and Amberlite IRA-938 for alpha-galactosidase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Onal, Seçil; Telefoncu, Azmi

    2003-02-01

    Watermelon alpha-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.22) was immobilized on a natural (chitin) and a synthetic anion-exchange (Amberlite IRA-938) support by covalent coupling methods. The procedure entails the activation of supports with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), followed by immobilization of the enzyme on to these supports without and with a spacer arm; gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Optimization of activation was performed by changing the CDI concentrations and coupling efficiencies. The comparison of two immobilization techniques for both chitin and Amberlite IRA-938 was made by comparing different enzyme concentrations against enzyme activity yield. Furthermore, the storage stability of the immobilized enzymes was also investigated and chitin immobilized alpha-galactosidase was found to be better. Although the activity yield of immobilized enzymes were the same for both supports, the short storage stability of immobilized enzyme on Amberlite IRA-938 is currently a drawback to its applications.

  4. Not the next IRA: how health savings accounts shape public opinion.

    PubMed

    Barabas, Jason

    2009-04-01

    Scholars suspect that public policies affect public opinion, but the empirical evidence is mixed, and contemporary theories advance offsetting predictions. This study examines two allegedly similar private investment account programs that differ in politically relevant ways. Statistical analyses show that owners of Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) and Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) experience policy feedback effects, but in opposite directions. More specifically, matched comparisons of respondents in a national survey indicate that IRA participants are more likely to favor Social Security privatization than individuals without IRAs. In contrast, HSA participants are less likely to prefer consumer-driven health coverage in which individuals are empowered to make choices. Overall, the findings suggest that policies alter public opinion preferences but that the effects depend on programmatic design and performance.

  5. Molecular variation and evolution of the tyrosine kinase domains of insulin receptor IRa and IRb genes in Cyprinidae.

    PubMed

    Kong, XiangHui; Wang, XuZhen; He, ShunPing

    2011-07-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) gene plays an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation and development. In the present study, DNA sequences of insulin receptor genes, IRa and IRb, were amplified and sequenced from 37 representative species of the Cyprinidae and from five outgroup species from non-cyprinid Cypriniformes. Based on coding sequences (CDS) of tyrosine kinase regions of IRa and IRb, molecular evolution and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed to better understand the characteristics of IR gene divergence in the family Cyprinidae. IRa and IRb were clustered into one lineage in the gene tree of the IR gene family, reconstructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). IRa and IRb have evolved into distinct genes after IR gene duplication in Cyprinidae. For each gene, molecular evolution analyses showed that there was no significant difference among different groups in the reconstructed maximum parsimony (MP) tree of Cyprinidae; IRa and IRb have been subjected to similar evolutionary pressure among different lineages. Although the amino acid sequences of IRa and IRb tyrosine kinase regions were highly conserved, our analyses showed that there were clear sequence variations between the tyrosine kinase regions of IRa and IRb proteins. This indicates that IRa and IRb proteins might play different roles in the insulin signaling pathway.

  6. A global mechanism creating low atmospheric luminous cold plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitle Hauge, Bjørn; Petter Strand, Erling

    2014-05-01

    Red, white/yellow and blue balls of light have been observed in the low atmosphere over the Hessdalen valley , Norway, standing still and moving horizontally with random speed. Characteristics of these transient luminous phenomena in Hessdalen, and data from America, suggest that the process which creates these low atmospheric plasmas is a global mechanism, not only localized to the remote and desolated Hessdalen valley in Norway (62Deg.N - 11Deg.E). Transient luminous phenomena's has been observed in the low atmosphere over the Hessdalen valley for over 200 years. The first written documentation goes back to 1811 when the priest Jakob Tode Krogh wrote about it in his diary. Since 1982, inhabitants, tourists, journalists and scientists have done recurrent observations. E.P.Strand conducted the first scientific campaign in 1984, documenting over 50 observations in one month. 15 years later, Norwegian and Italian scientists installed the first permanent automated research base here. In 2010 French researchers joined this collaboration and installed two additional research bases. This transient luminous phenomenon, TLP, has been detected simultaneously on optical and radar devices, but electromagnetic radiation from this phenomenon has until now eluded detection. Smirnov (1994) and Zou(1994) was among the first scientist who used plasma physics trying to explain this phenomenon. Work done by Pavia & Taft (2010 and 2012) suggests that the TLP in Hessdalen probably is dusty or cold plasma, arranged as a cluster of Coulomb crystals. Optical spectrum data obtained by Strand (1984), Teodorani (2004) and Hauge (2007) showing a continuous optical spectrum support this hypothesis. Pictures of spiraling light rays obtained by Strand in 1984, and Hauge in 2004 and 2010 suggests that this plasma is moving in a strong magnetic field, and might be created by it. Radar reflections from the TLP in Hessdalen obtained by Strand in 1984 and Montebugnoli and Monari in 2007 points

  7. Far infrared structure of spiral galaxies from the IRAS CPC images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.; Chokshi, Arati; Doyle, Laurance R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant extended far infrared (50 micron and 100 micron) structure was found for five face-on spiral galaxies (NGC2403, M51, M83, NGC6946, and IC342) from fourteen galaxies searched in the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) chopped photometric channel (CPC) catalogue. Images were initially processed to remove instrumental and background artifacts, the isophotal centroids of each image determined, and multiple images of each galaxy (for each wavelength) superimposed and averaged to improve signal-to-noise. Calibration of these images was performed using IRAS survey array data. Infrared isophotes were then superimposed on optical (blue) images so that direct structural comparisons could be made.

  8. Observations of 40-70 micron bands of ice in IRAS 09371 + 1212 and other stars

    SciTech Connect

    Omont, A.; Forveille, T.; Moseley, S.H.; Glaccum, W.J.; Harvey, P.M.; Likkel, L.; Loewenstein, R.F.; Lisse, C.M. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD Texas Univ., Austin California Univ., Los Angeles Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI STX, Inc., Greenbelt, MD )

    1990-05-01

    IRAS 09371 + 1212 is still an absolutely unique object. This M giant star, with circumstellar CO and a spectacular bipolar nebula, displays unique IRAS FIR colors which had been attributed to strong emission in the 40-70-micron bands of ice, as subsequently supported by the observation of a strong 3.1-micron absorption band. The results of the KAO observations have confirmed its unusual nature: the far-infrared bands of ice are by far the strongest known. Its dust temperature, 50 K or less, is by far the lowest known for a late-type circumstellar envelope. 31 refs.

  9. Air Heating Associated with Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riousset, J. A.; Pasko, V. P.; Bourdon, A.

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of ambient gas heating processes initiated by needle-shaped filaments of ionization, called streamers, embedded in originally cold air (near room temperature) represents a long standing problem, which is of interest for studies of long laboratory sparks and natural lightning discharges [e.g., Gallimberti et al., C. R. Physique, 3, 1335, 2002]. The observed phenomenology of a subset of the recently observed transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere, which originate from thundercloud tops [e.g, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 21549, 2001; Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; Krehbiel et al., Nature Geoscience, 1, 233, 2008; Cummer et al., Nature Geoscience, 2, 617, 2009, Riousset et al., JGR, 10.1029/2009JA014286, 2009, in press], indicate that these events may be related to conventional lightning leader processes and therefore are associated with significant heating of the air in the regions of atmosphere through which they propagate [Pasko and George, JGR, 107, 1458, 2002]. Many of the small scale features observed in sprites at higher altitudes [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 104, L11105, 2007, and references therein] can be interpreted in terms of corona streamers, which, after appropriate scaling with air density, are fully analogous to those, which initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several cm) gaps at near ground pressure [Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009, and references therein] and which constitute building blocks of streamer zones of conventional lightning leaders in long gaps [Gallimberti et al., 2002]. The recent reports of infrasound bursts originating from 60-80 km altitudes in sprites, with durations consistent with the optical widths of the sprites [e.g., Farges, in Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications, p. 417, Betz et al., (eds.), Springer, 2009], provide an additional motivation for studies of the heating of the ambient air and associated chemical effects

  10. FUSE Observations of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Young, P. R.; Ake, T. B.

    2000-12-01

    Luminous cool stars can address the evolution of magnetic activity and the dynamics of stellar winds and mass loss. The region of yellow supergiants in the HR diagram contains stars of intermediate mass both with coronas and those possessing a hot outer atmosphere in the presence of a strong wind (the ``hybrid'' stars). These hybrid objects hold particular significance for evolution studies because they represent the physically important connection between solar-like stars (with coronas and fast winds of low-mass loss rate) and the cool supergiant stars (Alpha Ori-like) with cool outer atmospheres and massive winds. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) measured the chromospheric and transition region emissions of the bright G2 Ib supergiant Beta Draconis (HD 159181) on 9 May 2000. Two exposures through the large aperture totaled 7695 s and were obtained in all channels covering the region λ λ 912-1180. Emission from chromospheric and transition region ions (C III, O VI, Si III, S IV, S VI) is detected along with a number of low ion stages. Profiles of strong lines are asymmetric suggesting the presence of a wind. A short exposure (3260 s) of Alpha Aquarii (HD 209750), a hybrid supergiant also of spectral type G2 Ib was obtained June 29, 2000. Dynamics of the atmospheres can be inferred from line profiles. The atmospheric temperature distribution, densities, and scale sizes can be evaluated from line fluxes to characterize the differences between a coronal star and a hybrid supergiant. FUSE is a NASA Origins mission operated by The Johns Hopkins University. Funding for this research is provided through NASA Contract NAS-532985.

  11. Remote Sensing of Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, M.; Whitley, T.; Mezentsev, A.; van der Velde, O. A.; Soula, S.; Chanrion, O.; Neubert, T.; Roussel-Dupre, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Transient Luminous Events are investigated by remote sensing with several networks of radio receivers. Spectacular sprites are detected by use of their characteristic signatures following the continuing current of their parent positive cloud to ground lightning discharges which are recorded with a global network of four radio receivers operating at a frequency range from ~1-1000 Hz. This novel data set reveals a new class of sprites, where the intensity of the sprite exceeds the intensity of the parent lightning discharge, presumably as a result of continued horizontal lightning activity. These Mega-Sprites occur mainly during night-time and with a likelihood of less than ~10% during day-time. The spectra of Mega-Sprites are inferred from the electromagnetic recordings. Sprites with more moderate luminousity are occaisonally associated with weak electromagnetic signatures in the frequency range from ~40-400 kHz. It is shown that one of these signatures coincides with an extremely weak rebrightening of an ongoing sprite. The rebrightening exhibits an emission of ~50 photons over ~1 ms as measured with a fast scanning photomultiplier tube. This optical signature may result from relativisitc electrons in the mesosphere in agreement with corresponding model calculations. To test this hypothesis in more detail, a network of ten wideband digital radio receivers is deployed in southern France to operate as a small scale interferometer. The first results are obatined at a frequency of 100 kHz and show the bearings to radio transmitters and lightning discharges from distant thunderstorms and reveal an anisotropic wave propagation velocity.

  12. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M. ); Fein, G. ); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. )

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  13. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M.; Fein, G.; Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F.

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  14. Radio and infrared study of the star-forming region IRAS 20286+4105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Varsha; Das, S. R.; Tej, A.; Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the star-forming complex IRAS 20286+4105, located in the Cygnus X region. Near-infrared K-band data are used to revisit the cluster/stellar group identified in previous studies. Radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz show the presence of a H II region possibly powered by a star of spectral type B0-B0.5. The cometary morphology of the ionized region is explained by invoking the bow-shock model, where the likely association with a nearby supernova remnant is also explored. A compact radio knot with a non-thermal spectral index is detected towards the centre of the cloud. Mid-infrared data from the Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Cygnus X region show the presence of six Class I young stellar objects inside the cloud. Thermal dust emission in this complex is modelled using Herschel far-infrared data to generate dust temperature and column density maps. Herschel images also show the presence of two clumps in this region, the masses of which are estimated to be ∼175 and 30 M⊙. The mass-radius relation and the surface density of the clumps mean that they do not qualify as massive star-forming sites. An overall picture of a runaway star ionizing the cloud and a triggered population of intermediate-mass, Class I sources located towards the cloud centre emerges from this multiwavelength study. Variation in the dust emissivity spectral index is shown to exist in this region and is seen to have an inverse relation with the dust temperature.

  15. Star formation towards the southern cometary H II region IRAS 17256-3631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A.; Varricatt, W. P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ashok, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    IRAS 17256-3631 is a southern Galactic massive star-forming region located at a distance of 2 kpc. In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the embedded cluster, the H II region, as well as the parent cloud. Radio images at 325, 610 and 1372 MHz were obtained using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India while the near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy were carried out using United Kingdom Infrared Telescope and Mt. Abu Infrared Telescope, India. The near-infrared K-band image reveals the presence of a partially embedded infrared cluster. The spectral features of the brightest star in the cluster, IRS-1, spectroscopically agree with a late O or early B star and could be the driving source of this region. Filamentary H2 emission detected towards the outer envelope indicates the presence of highly excited gas. The parent cloud is investigated at far-infrared to millimetre wavelengths and 18 dust clumps have been identified. The spectral energy distributions of these clumps have been fitted as modified blackbodies and the best-fitting peak temperatures are found to range from 14 to 33 K, while the column densities vary from 0.7 to 8.5 × 1022 cm-2. The radio maps show a cometary morphology for the distribution of ionized gas that is density bounded towards the north-west and ionization bounded towards the south-east. This morphology is better explained with the champagne flow model as compared to the bow-shock model. Using observations at near-, mid- and far-infrared, submillimetre and radio wavelengths, we examine the evolutionary stages of various clumps.

  16. Power spectrum of the cosmic infrared background at 60 and 100 \\umwith IRAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Lagache, G.; Puget, J.-L.

    2002-10-01

    Based on a power spectrum analysis of the IRAS ISSA maps, we present the first detection of the Cosmic far-Infrared Background (CIB) fluctuations at 60 and 100 ~\\ump. The power spectrum of 12 low cirrus emission regions is characterized by a power excess at spatial frequencies higher than k ~ 0.02 arcmin-1. Most of this excess is due to noise and to nearby point sources with a flux stronger than 1 Jy. But we show that when these contributions are carefully removed, there is still a power excess that is the signature of the CIB fluctuations. The power spectrum of the CIB at 60 and 100 ~\\um is compatible with a Poissonian distribution, at spatial frequencies between 0.025 and 0.2 arcmin-1. The fluctuation level is ~ 1.6*E3 Jy2/sr and ~ 5.8*E3 Jy2/sr at 60 and 100 ~\\um respectively. The levels of the fluctuations are used in a larger framework, with other observationnal data, to constrain the evolution of IR galaxies (Lagache et al. 2002). The detections reported here, coupled with the level of the fluctuations at 170 mu m, give strong constraints on the evolution of the IR luminosity function. The combined results at 60, 100 and 170 mu m for the CIB and its fluctuations allows, on the CIB at 60 mu m, to put a firm upper limit of 0.27 MJy/sr and to give an estimate of 0.18 MJy/sr. Figures A.1 to A.9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  17. Induced contrast asynchronies may be useful for luminance photometry.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Arthur G; D'Antona, Anthony; Smith, Jared B; Belano, Lindsay A; Charles, Justin P

    2004-01-01

    Shapiro et al. (2004) introduced a new visual effect (the induced contrast asynchrony) that demonstrates a perceptual separation between the response to a modulated light and the response to contrast of the light relative to background. The effect is composed of two physically identical disks, one surrounded by a dark annulus and the other by a light annulus. The luminance levels of both central disks were modulated in time, producing a stimulus with in-phase luminance modulation and antiphase contrast modulation. Observers primarily perceived the disks to be modulating asynchronously (i.e. they perceived the contrast), but at low temporal frequencies could also track the luminance level. Here we document that the induced contrast asynchrony disappears when the surrounds are achromatic and the center lights are modulated near the equiluminant axis. Observers viewed 1-deg-diameter disks embedded 2-deg-diameter achromatic surrounds. The chromaticity of the disks was modulated in time (1 Hz) along lines in an S versus Luminance cardinal color plane and an L-M versus Luminance cardinal color plane; observers responded as to whether the modulation appeared in phase. For all observers and both color planes, the lights appeared in phase most frequently at angles near the standard observer's equiluminant line and out of phase at angles further away from that line. Observers differed in the range of angles that produce the appearance of in-phase modulation. The results suggest that induced contrast asynchronies may be useful as a technique for equating luminance of disparate lights.

  18. Starburst or AGN dominance in submm-luminous candidate AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Alexander, Dave; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Chapman, Scott; Clements, Dave; Dunlop, James; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Hughes, David; Ivison, Rob; Kim, Sungeun; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mat; Pope, Alexandra; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Scott, Douglas; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Vaccari, Mattia; van Kampen, Eelco

    2008-03-01

    It is widely believed that starbursts/ULIRGs and AGN activity are triggered by galaxy interactions and merging; and sub-mm selected galaxies (SMGs) seem to be simply high redshift ULIRGs, observed near the peak of activity. In this evolutionary picture every SMG would host an AGN, which would eventually grow a black hole strong enough to blow off all of the gas and dust leaving an optically luminous QSO. In order to probe this evolutionary sequence, a crucial sub-sample to focus on would be the 'missing link' sources, which demonstrate both strong starburst and AGN signatures and to determine if the starburst is the main power source even in SMGs when we have evidence that an AGN is present. The best way to determine if a dominant AGN is present is to look in the mid-IR for their signatures, since often even deep X-ray observations miss identifying the presence of AGN in heavily dust-obscured SMGs. We have selected a sample of SMGs which are good candidates for harboring powerful AGN on the basis of their IRAC colours (S8um/S4.5um>2). Once we confirm these SMGs are AGN-dominated, we can then perform an audit of the energy balance between star-formation and AGN within this special sub-population of SMGs where the BH has grown appreciably to begin heating the dust emission. The proposed observations with IRS will probe the physics of how SMGs evolve from a cold-dust starburst-dominated ULIRG to an AGN/QSO by measuring the level of the mid-IR continuum, PAH luminosity, and Si absorption in these intermediate `transitory' AGN/SMGs.

  19. Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Dong, Tianming; Wu, Huiying

    2006-08-01

    Dimming is an important and necessary feature for light sources used in general lighting applications. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power colored and pc-white LEDs under continuous current reduction (CCR) and pulse-width modulation (PWM) dimming schemes. For InGaN-based blue, green, and pc-white LEDs, the peak wavelength shifts were in opposite directions for the two dimming schemes. The peak wavelength showed a blue shift with increased current, most likely due to band filling and QCSE dominated effects. InGaN LEDs exhibited red shifts with increased duty cycle, which is dominated by junction heat. AlInGaP red LEDs show mainly thermal-induced red shift with increased current or duty cycle. In addition, the luminous efficacy was always higher for the CCR dimming scheme at dimmed levels, irrespective of the LED type. Keywords: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), white LEDs, mixed-color white LEDs, pulse-width modulation (PWM), continuous current reduction (CCR), peak wavelength shift, luminous efficacy

  20. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Gledhill, T.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Lagadec, E.; Nyman, L.-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have mapped 12CO J = 3–2 and other molecular lines from the “water fountain” bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with ∼0.″35 resolution using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows; (ii) a central high-density (> {few}× {10}6 cm‑3), expanding torus of diameter 1300 au; and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5× {10}-4 M⊙ yr‑1 in the past ∼455 years. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (∼millimeter-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age ∼160 years) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age ∼110 years) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common-envelope evolution are needed.

  1. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.H.T.; Gledhill, T.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Lagadec, E.; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have mapped 12CO J=3–2 and other molecular lines from the “water-fountain” bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with ∼0⋅″35 resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 106 cm−3), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10−4 M⊙ yr−1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed. PMID:28191303

  2. Evaluation of the Legibility for Characters Composed of Multiple Point Sources in Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Yuki; Toyofuku, Yoshinori; Aoki, Yoshiro

    The luminance conditions were investigated, at that the characters composed of multiple point sources were as legible as a character having a uniformly luminous surface in fog, in order to make the use of variable-message signs practical at airports. As the results, it was found that the thicker the fog or the higher the illuminance, the better the legibility of the point source characters become compared with the uniformly luminous surface characters. It is supposed that the ease of extracting each individual point source makes the characters composed of multiple point sources more legible even if their luminance is low. So the results show that if the conventional luminance standard is applied to the average luminance of a character composed of multiple point sources, a character composed of multiple point sources could be recognized without any degradation in legibility.

  3. Post-outburst phase of LDN 1415 nebula (IRAS 04376+5413)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawade, V. S.; Ojha, D. K.; Ninan, J. P.; Tej, A.; Bhatt, B. C.; Sahu, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Kaurav, S. S.; Mohan, V.

    LDN 1415 nebula was first detected by Stecklum (2006) in early April 2006 in the vicinity of IRAS 04376+5413. In this paper, we present a study of the post-outburst phase of LDN 1415 nebula using optical (V, R, I) and near-infrared (J, H, K) photometric and low-resolution optical spectroscopic observations.

  4. Adsorption of 4-nitrophenol onto Amberlite IRA-900 modified with metallophthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Marais, Eloïse; Nyokong, Tebello

    2008-03-21

    The adsorption of 4-nitrophenol using commercially available Amberlite IRA-900 modified with metal phthalocyanines (MPc) was investigated. The metallophthalocyanines immobilised onto the surface of Amberlite IRA-900 include Fe (FePcS4), Co (CoPcS4) and Ni (NiPcS4) tetrasulphophthalocyanines, and differently sulphonated phthalocyanine mixtures of Fe (FePcSmix), Co (CoPcSmix) and Ni (NiPcSmix). Adsorption rates were fastest for the modified adsorbents at a loading of 1x10(-3)g MPc/g Amberlite, at pH 9. The highest amount of 4-NP removal was obtained on FePcSmix modified Amberlite IRA-900 with Qt=42.9mmolg(-1) and adsorption efficiency of 86%. The recovery efficiency of 4-NP within 150min was 76%. Using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, the complexes showed an order of 4-nitrophenol adsorption to be as follows: CoPcSmix>NiPcS4>NiPcSmix>FePcS4>FePcSmix>CoPcS4. The MPc modified Amberlite IRA-900 was used repeatedly, following removal of 4-NP by nitric acid, without any significant loss of activity.

  5. Just Footprints in the Sand? Questioning Sustainability of an IRA International Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Spector, Jill; Richardson, Judy S.; Janusheva, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers from the International Reading Association (IRA) participated in the teacher education component of Macedonia's Secondary Education Activity, an initiative to reform vocational/technical education (VET), funded from 2004 to 2008 by USAID. Volunteers offered professional development to VET teachers using a trainer-of-trainers model,…

  6. Contour interaction for foveal acuity targets at different luminances.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Harold E; Siderov, John; Waugh, Sarah J; Zemanová, Romana; Pluháček, František; Musilová, Lenka

    2013-08-30

    Single-letter visual acuity is impaired by nearby flanking stimuli, a phenomenon known as contour interaction. We showed previously that when foveal acuity is degraded by a reduction of letter contrast, both the magnitude and angular spatial extent of foveal contour interaction remain unchanged. In this study, we asked whether contour interaction also remains unchanged when foveal visual acuity is degraded by a reduction of the target's background luminance. Percent correct letter identification was measured for isolated, near-threshold black Sloan letters and for letters surrounded by 4 flanking bars in 10 normal observers, 5 at Anglia Ruskin University, UK (ARU) and 5 at Palacky University, Czech Republic (PU). A stepwise reduction in the background luminance over 3 log units resulted in an approximately threefold increase in the near-threshold letter size. At each background luminance, black flanking bars with a width equal to 1 letter stroke were presented at separations between approximately 0.45 and 4.5 min arc (ARU) or 0.32 and 3.2 min arc (PU). The results indicate that the angular extent of contour interaction remains unchanged at approximately 4 min arc at all background luminances. On the other hand, the magnitude of contour interaction decreases systematically as luminance is reduced, from approximately a 50% reduction to a 30% reduction in percent correct. The constant angular extent and decreasing magnitude of contour interaction with a reduction of background luminance suggest foveal contour interaction is mediated by luminance-dependent lateral inhibition within a fixed angular region.

  7. Study of lumineers' interfaces by means of optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade Borges, Erica; Fernandes Cassimiro-Silva, Patrícia; Osório Fernandes, Luana; Leônidas Gomes, Anderson Stevens

    2015-06-01

    OCT has been used to evaluate dental materials, and is employed here to evaluate lumineers for the first time. Lumineers are used as esthetical indirect restoration, and after wearing and aging, several undesirable features such as gaps, bubbles and mismatch can appear in which would only be seen by invasive analysis. The OCT (spectral domain SD-OCT, 930nm central wavelength) was used to evaluate noninvasively the lumineer- cement-tooth interface. We analyzed 20 specimens of lumineers-teeth that were prepared in bovine teeth and randomly allocated in 4 experimental groups (n=5) with two different cementation techniques and two different types of cementing agent (RelyX U200 and RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE, with the adhesive recommended by the manufacture). The lumineers were made of lithium disilicate and obtained using a vacuum injection technique. The analysis was performed by using 2D and 3D OCT images, obtained before and after cementing and the thermal cycling process to simulate thermal stress in a oral cavity. Initial measurements showed that the SD-OCT was able to see through the 500μm thick lumineer, as delivered by the fabricant, and internal stress was observed. Failures were found in the cementing process and also after ageing simulation by thermal cycling. The adhesive failures as bubbles, gaps and degradation of the cementation line are the natural precursors of other defects reported by several studies of clinical follow-up (detachments, fractures and cracks). Bubble dimensions ranging from 146 μm to 1427 μm were measured and the OCT was validated as an investigative and precise tool for evaluation of the lumineer-cement-tooth.

  8. The Nature of Optically-Luminous Stellar Clusters in a Large Sample of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilkin, Tatjana

    2011-08-01

    Luminous Star Clusters (SCs) are fundamental building blocks of galaxies, and they provide basic information regarding the mechanisms of star formation and the process of galaxy formation and evolution. In my PhD thesis project I investigated properties of young SCs in a sample of 87 nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs: LIR>10^11 L_sun) imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys at 0.4μm (F435W) and 0.9μm (F814W). Many LIRGs are observed to be ongoing mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies. They contain extreme starbursts and hence are expected to host particularly rich and luminous populations of SCs. This project represents the largest sample of galaxies with uniformly characterized properties of their SC population. The size of the sample allows an identification of trends in SC properties with merger stage and star formation rate. A large fraction (∼17%) of the cluster population is younger than 10 Myr. There is uncertainty in the determination of the ages of the bulk of the SCs due to an age-extinction degeneracy--the majority of the detected cluster population may have ages of up to a few hundred Myr. The median SC luminosity function index of the LIRG sample is alpha=-1.8, which is in a good agreement with previously published studies in various galaxy types. This sample contains some of the most luminous clusters observed so far, with Mmax (F435W) exceeding -17 mag. LIRGs follow the "brightest cluster--star formation rate" correlation observed for lower luminosity star-forming galaxies quite closely, although a large degree of scatter possibly due to extinction and over-estimation of Star Formation Rates (SFRs) in galaxies containing an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) is present. Thus, the size-of-sample effect and the observed high SFRs are responsible for high luminosity of SCs found in LIRGs. The specific luminosity TL(F435W)--SFR(far-IR + far-UV) relation observed for nearby non-interacting spiral galaxies is not applicable

  9. Changes of MMP-1 and collagen type Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA are differentially regulated by Trx-1.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Nicole; Schroeder, Peter; Jakob, Sascha; Kunze, Kerstin; Maresch, Tanja; Calles, Christian; Krutmann, Jean; Haendeler, Judith

    2008-07-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar radiation, which includes ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVA and UVB) visible light and infrared radiation, induces skin aging. The effects of light have been attributed to irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, but the specific signaling pathways are not well understood. Detrimental effects of solar radiation are dermal diseases and photoaging. Exposure of cultured human dermal fibroblasts to UVA, UVB or IRA increased ROS formation in vitro. One important redox regulator is the oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx). Trx is ubiquitously expressed and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. Besides its function to reduce H(2)O(2), Trx binds to and regulates transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Trx influences the regulation of MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1 by UVA, UVB and IRA. We irradiated human dermal fibroblasts with UVA, UVB and IRA. UVA, UVB and IRA upregulated MMP-1 expression. Trx inhibited UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation in a NFkappaB dependent manner. UVA, UVB and IRA reduced collagen Ialpha1 expression. Incubation with Trx inhibited the effects of UVB and IRA on collagen Ialpha1 expression. In conclusion, MMP-1 and collagen Ialpha1, which play important roles in aging processes, seems to be regulated by different transcriptional mechanisms and Trx can only influence distinct signaling pathways induced by UVA, UVB and probably IRA. Thus, Trx may serve as an important contributor to an "anti-aging therapeutic cocktail".

  10. HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Treister, Ezequiel; Sanders, David B.; Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-10-20

    We take advantage of the rich multiwavelength data available in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), including the 4 Ms Chandra observations (the deepest X-ray data to date), in order to search for heavily obscured low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among infrared-luminous galaxies. In particular, we obtained a stacked rest-frame X-ray spectrum for samples of galaxies binned in terms of their IR luminosity or stellar mass. We detect a significant signal at E {approx} 1-8 keV, which we interpret as originating from a combination of emission associated with star formation processes at low energies combined with a heavily obscured AGN at E > 5 keV. We further find that the relative strength of this AGN signal decays with decreasing IR luminosity, indicating a higher AGN fraction for more luminous IR sources. Together, these results strongly suggest the presence of a large number of obscured AGNs in IR-luminous galaxies. Using samples binned in terms of stellar mass in the host galaxy, we find a significant excess at E = 6-7 keV for sources with M > 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, consistent with a large obscured AGN population in high mass galaxies. In contrast, no strong evidence of AGN activity was found for less-massive galaxies. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, {approx}22%, occurs in heavily obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations. There are also indications that the number of low-luminosity, heavily obscured AGNs does not evolve significantly with redshift, in contrast to the strong evolution seen in higher luminosity sources.

  11. Methanol observation of IRAS 19312+1950: A possible new type of class I methanol maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Sobolev, Andrej M.; Salii, Svetlana V.; Zhang, Yong; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Deguchi, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    We report the result of a systematic methanol observation toward IRAS 19312+1950. The properties of the SiO, H2O, and OH masers of this object are consistent with those of mass-losing evolved stars, but some other properties are difficult to explain in the standard scheme of stellar evolution in its late stage. Interestingly, a tentative detection of radio methanol lines was suggested toward this object by a previous observation. To date, there are no confirmed detections of methanol emission towards evolved stars, so investigation of this possible detection is important to better understand the circumstellar physical/chemical environment of IRAS 19312+1950. In this study, we systematically observed multiple methanol lines of IRAS 19312+1950 in the λ = 3 mm, 7 mm, and 13 mm bands, and detected six lines including four thermal lines and two class I maser lines. We derived basic physical parameters, including kinetic temperature and relative abundances, by fitting a radiative transfer model. According to the derived excitation temperature and line profiles, a spherically expanding outflow lying at the center of the nebulosity is excluded from the possibilities for methanol emission regions. The detection of class I methanol maser emission suggests that a shock region is involved in the system of IRAS 19312+1950. If the central star of IRAS 19312+1950 is an evolved star as suggested in the past, the class I maser detected in the present observation is the first case detected in an interaction region between an evolved star outflow and ambient molecular gas.

  12. [Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) promotes wound healing].

    PubMed

    Winkel, R; Hoffmann, G; Hoffmann, R

    2014-11-01

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with high tissue penetration and low thermal load to the skin surface which promotes the healing of acute and chronic wounds both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. Water-filtered infrared-A increases tissue temperature (+ 2.7 °C at a tissue depth of 2 cm), tissue oxygen partial pressure (+ 32 % at a tissue depth of 2 cm) and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient supply of tissue with energy and oxygen and consequently also for wound healing and infection defense. Water-filtered infrared-A promotes normal as well as disturbed wound healing by diminishing inflammation and exudation, by promotion of infection defense and regeneration, and by alleviation of pain. These effects have been proven in a total of seven prospective studies (of these six randomized controlled studies) with most of the effects having an evidence level of Ia or Ib. The additional cases of complicated courses of wound healing presented in this article illustrate the proven effects of wIRA. Not only in the 6 presented cases wIRA turned the complicated courses of wound healing for the better and facilitated the healing of the wounds after varying total times of irradiation (in the 6 cases 51-550 h) and after variable times of wound care and mostly after transplantation of split skin grafts. In complicated courses of wound healing wIRA does not replace consultation and, when indicated, treatment by an experienced plastic surgeon and by a surgeon specialized in septic surgery. With these limitations wIRA can be recommended as a valuable complement for the treatment of acute as well as of chronic wounds.

  13. An Exponential Luminous Efficiency Model for Hypervelocity Impact into Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, W. R.; Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Cooke, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The flash of thermal radiation produced as part of the impact-crater forming process can be used to determine the energy of the impact if the luminous efficiency is known. From this energy the mass and, ultimately, the mass flux of similar impactors can be deduced. The luminous efficiency, eta, is a unique function of velocity with an extremely large variation in the laboratory range of under 6 km/s but a necessarily small variation with velocity in the meteoric range of 20 to 70 km/s. Impacts into granular or powdery regolith, such as that on the moon, differ from impacts into solid materials in that the energy is deposited via a serial impact process which affects the rate of deposition of internal (thermal) energy. An exponential model of the process is developed which differs from the usual polynomial models of crater formation. The model is valid for the early time portion of the process and focuses on the deposition of internal energy into the regolith. The model is successfully compared with experimental luminous efficiency data from both laboratory impacts and from lunar impact observations. Further work is proposed to clarify the effects of mass and density upon the luminous efficiency scaling factors. Keywords hypervelocity impact impact flash luminous efficiency lunar impact meteoroid 1

  14. Luminal Ca2+ dynamics during IP3R mediated signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Lucia F.; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2016-06-01

    The role of cytosolic Ca2+ on the kinetics of Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and on the dynamics of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals has been studied at large both experimentally and by modeling. The role of luminal Ca2+ has not been investigated with that much detail although it has been found that it is relevant for signal termination in the case of Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors. In this work we present the results of observing the dynamics of luminal and cytosolic Ca2+ simultaneously in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Combining observations and modeling we conclude that there is a rapid mechanism that guarantees the availability of free Ca2+ in the lumen even when a relatively large Ca2+ release is evoked. Comparing the dynamics of cytosolic and luminal Ca2+ during a release, we estimate that they are consistent with a 80% of luminal Ca2+ being buffered. The rapid availability of free luminal Ca2+ correlates with the observation that the lumen occupies a considerable volume in several regions across the images.

  15. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-08-04

    structure formation. In these notes we will leave the discussion of feedback to lecture notes by Ferrara & Salvaterra and by Madau & Haardt in this same book and focus only on the aspects of the formation of the first objects. The advent of cosmological numerical hydrodynamics in particular allow a fresh new look at these questions. Hence, these notes will touch on aspects of theoretical cosmology to chemistry, computer science, hydrodynamics and atomic physics. For further reading and more references on the subject we refer the reader to other relevant reviews such as Barkana & Loeb 2001, and more recently Ciardi & Ferrara 2004, Glover 2004 and Bromm & Larson 2004. In these notes, we try to give a brief introduction to only the most relevant aspects. We will start with a brief overview of the relevant cosmological concepts in section 2, followed by a discussion of the properties of primordial material (with particular emphasis to its cooling and its chemistry) in section 3. We will then review the technique and the results of numerical simulations in sections 4 and 5: the former will deal with detailed 3D simulations of the formation of gaseous clouds which are likely to transform into luminous objects, while the latter will examine results (mostly from 1D codes) about the modalities of such transformation. Finally, in section 6 we will critically discuss the results of the previous sections, examining their consequences and comparing them to our present knowledge of the universe.

  16. Green and red high-silica luminous glass suitable for near-ultraviolet excitation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luyun; Yamashita, Masaru; Akai, Tomoko

    2009-04-13

    We report on the preparation of transparent and colorless green-and red-emitting luminous glasses by sintering high-silica porous glass impregnated with rare-earth ions. These kinds of glasses can be efficiently excited by near-UV sources. The fluorescence of the glasses under near-UV excitation is dependent on energy transfer processes. In order to obtain strong visible emission, it is necessary to co-dope some optically inert rare-earth ions into the glasses. The roles of the optically inert rare-earth ions are discussed.

  17. Molecular jets driven by high-mass protostars: a detailed study of the IRAS 20126+4104 jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratti o Garatti, A.; Froebrich, D.; Eislöffel, J.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.

    2008-07-01

    Context: Protostellar jets from intermediate- and high-mass protostars provide an excellent opportunity to understand the mechanisms responsible for intermediate- and high-mass star-formation. A crucial question is if they are scaled-up versions of their low-mass counterparts. Such high-mass jets are relatively rare and, usually, they are distant and highly embedded in their parental clouds. The IRAS 20126+4104 molecular jet, driven by a 10^4 L⊙ protostar, represents a suitable target to investigate. Aims: We present here an extensive analysis of this protostellar jet, deriving the kinematical, dynamical, and physical conditions of the H2 gas along the flow. Methods: The jet was investigated by means of near-IR H2 and [Fe II] narrow-band imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy of the 1-0 S(1) line (2.12 μm), NIR (0.9-2.5 μm) low-resolution spectroscopy, along with ISO-SWS and LWS spectra (from 2.4 to 200 μm). Results: The flow shows a complex morphology. In addition to the large-scale jet precession presented in previous studies, we detect a small-scale wiggling close to the source, which may indicate the presence of a multiple system. The peak radial velocities of the H2 knots range from -42 to -14 km s-1 in the blue lobe, and from -8 to 47 km s-1 in the red lobe. The low-resolution spectra are rich in H2 emission, and relatively faint [Fe II] (NIR), [O I] and [C II] (FIR) emission is observed in the region close to the source. A warm H2 gas component has an average excitation temperature that ranges between 2000 K and 2500 K. Additionally, the ISO-SWS spectrum reveals a cold component (520 K) that strongly contributes to the radiative cooling of the flow and plays a major role in the dynamics of the flow. The estimated L_H2 of the jet is 8.2 ± 0.7 L⊙, suggesting that IRAS 20126+4104 has a significantly increased accretion rate compared to low-mass YSOs. This is also supported by the derived mass flux rate from the H2 lines (dot{M}_out(H2)˜ 7.5× 10-4 M

  18. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and waterfiltered infrared A (wIRA) in patients with recalcitrant common hand and foot warts

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Silke M.; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Bankova, Lora; Tittelbach, Jörg; Hoffmann, Gerd; Elsner, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Background: Common warts (verrucae vulgares) are human papilloma virus (HPV) infections with a high incidence and prevalence, most often affecting hands and feet, being able to impair quality of life. About 30 different therapeutic regimens described in literature reveal a lack of a single striking strategy. Recent publications showed positive results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in the treatment of HPV-induced skin diseases, especially warts, using visible light (VIS) to stimulate an absorption band of endogenously formed protoporphyrin IX. Additional experiences adding waterfiltered infrared A (wIRA) during 5-ALA-PDT revealed positive effects. Aim of the study: First prospective randomised controlled blind study including PDT and wIRA in the treatment of recalcitrant common hand and foot warts. Comparison of "5-ALA cream (ALA) vs. placebo cream (PLC)" and "irradiation with visible light and wIRA (VIS+wIRA) vs. irradiation with visible light alone (VIS)". Methods: Pre-treatment with keratolysis (salicylic acid) and curettage. PDT treatment: topical application of 5-ALA (Medac) in "unguentum emulsificans aquosum" vs. placebo; irradiation: combination of VIS and a large amount of wIRA (Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 4 mm water cuvette, waterfiltered spectrum 590-1400 nm, contact-free, typically painless) vs. VIS alone. Post-treatment with retinoic acid ointment. One to three therapy cycles every 3 weeks. Main variable of interest: "Percent change of total wart area of each patient over the time" (18 weeks). Global judgement by patient and by physician and subjective rating of feeling/pain (visual analogue scales). 80 patients with therapy-resistant common hand and foot warts were assigned randomly into one of the four therapy groups with comparable numbers of warts at comparable sites in all groups. Results: The individual total wart area decreased during 18 weeks in group 1 (ALA+VIS+wIRA) and in group 2 (PLC+VIS+wIRA

  19. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

  20. Mapping luminance onto lightness in vision and art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Most natural images span a large range of luminance values, often a thousand-to-one and sometimes a million-to-one (Heckaman and Fairchild, 2009). This luminance range must be mapped by the visual system onto a scale of perceived gray shades (called lightness) with a range of roughly thirty-to-one (90% to 3% reflectance). For the painter who wants to represent this scene on a canvas, the challenge is a bit different. The high-range scene must be represented using pigments with a range of only thirty-to-one. Let's begin with vision. Even without a high range in the scene, understanding the mapping of luminance onto lightness has proven elusive. But we can think of the problem as having two parts: Anchoring and scaling.