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Sample records for lumpur malaysia 22-25

  1. Risk mapping of dengue in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hafiz; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R

    2012-11-01

    Dengue fever is a recurring public health problem afflicting thousands of Malaysians annually. In this paper, the risk map for dengue fever in the peninsular Malaysian states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was modelled based on co-kriging and geographical information systems. Using population density and rainfall as the model's only input factors, the area with the highest risk for dengue infection was given as Gombak and Petaling, two districts located on opposite sides of Kuala Lumpur city that was also included in the risk assessment. Comparison of the modelled risk map with the dengue case dataset of 2010, obtained from the Ministry of Health of Malaysia, confirmed that the highest number of cases had been found in an area centred on Kuala Lumpur as predicted our risk profiling.

  2. Temporal and spatial characteristics of rainfall in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, M. N.; Niemczynowicz, J.

    Knowledge of temporal and spatial characteristics of rainfall in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia is still lacking and they are still considered important for more efficient management of the implemented urban water resources projects. In view of this, a study was conducted to characterise the historical rainfall phenomena (from 1982 to 1992). Statistical properties of annual, monthly, and minutes rainfall were derived. Spatial correlation fields for the annual and monthly rainfalls were studied. The results showed that the temporal and spatial characteristics of rainfall in this region were pronounced, even on the basis of two groups of monthly rainfall. Thus they give the basis for further understanding of rainfall processes in Kuala Lumpur region and, in general, in humid tropics.

  3. Social Factors in Relation to Physical Abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Mohd Sham; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This report details demographic factors associated with 119 cases of physical child abuse occurring in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Findings address severity of abuse, age factors, perpetrator characteristics, family social class, family problems, psychological disorders, and substance abuse. (DB)

  4. Paediatric intensive care in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a developing subspecialty.

    PubMed

    Goh, A Y; Lum, L C; Chan, P W

    1999-12-01

    Paediatric intensive care in Malaysia is a developing subspecialty with an increasing number of specialists with a paediatric background being involved in the care of critically ill children. A part prospective and part retrospective review of 118 consecutive non-neonatal ventilated patients in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was carried out from 1 June 1995 to 31 December 1996 to study the clinical epidemiology and outcome in our paediatric intensive case unit (PICU). The mean age of the patients was 33.9 +/- 6.0 months (median 16 months). The main mode of admission was emergency (96.6 per cent) with an overall mortality rate of 42 per cent (50/118). The mean paediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score was 20 +/- 0.98 SEM, with 53 per cent of patients having a score of over 30 per cent. Multiorgan dysfunction (MODS) was identified in 71 per cent of patients. Admission efficiency (mortality risk > 1 per cent) was 97 per cent. Standardized mortality rate using PRISM was an acceptable 1.06. The main diagnostic categories were respiratory (32 per cent), neurology (22 per cent), haematology-oncology (18 per cent); the aetiology of dysfunction was mainly infective. Non-survivors were older (29.5 vs. 13.8 months, p < 0.0001), had more severe illness (mean PRISM score 30 vs. 14, p < 0.0001), were more likely to develop MODS (96 vs. 53 per cent, p < 0.0001) and required more intervention and monitoring. Paediatric intensive care in Malaysia differs widely from that in developed countries in patient characteristics, severity of illness, and care modalities provided.

  5. Evolution of Influenza B Virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 1995 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Sam, I-Ching; Su, Yvonne C F; Chan, Yoke Fun; Nor'E, Siti Sarah; Hassan, Ardalinah; Jafar, Faizatul Lela; Joseph, Udayan; Halpin, Rebecca A; Ghedin, Elodie; Hooi, Poh Sim; Fourment, Mathieu; Hassan, Hamimah; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Wentworth, David E; Smith, Gavin J D

    2015-09-01

    Influenza B virus causes significant disease but remains understudied in tropical regions. We sequenced 72 influenza B viruses collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 1995 to 2008. The predominant circulating lineage (Victoria or Yamagata) changed every 1 to 3 years, and these shifts were associated with increased incidence of influenza B. We also found poor lineage matches with recommended influenza virus vaccine strains. While most influenza B virus lineages in Malaysia were short-lived, one circulated for 3 to 4 years.

  6. Politics, Economics and Identity: Mapping the Linguistic Landscape of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manan, Syed Abdul; David, Maya Khemlani; Dumanig, Francisco Perlas; Naqeebullah, Khan

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the linguistic landscape of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Using photographs as a source of data, the study collects samples from both government and private signage from five selected neighbourhoods of the city. In addition to photographs, interviews with business owners have been conducted and used for triangulation purposes. The…

  7. The seroepidemiology of rubella in Kuala Lumpur, West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lam, S K

    1972-01-01

    Rubella antibody rates in the female population of Kuala Lumpur were lower than those reported from temperate countries, though similar to rates found in other tropical countries excepting Singapore. Among the major ethnic groups, the immunity status of the Chinese was higher than that of the Malay and Indian groups.

  8. Short report: Predictors of severe disease in melioidosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Roslani, Ardita Dewi Roslani; Tay, Sun Tee; Puthucheary, Savithri D; Rukumani, Devi V; Sam, I-Ching

    2014-12-01

    The predictors of severe disease or death were determined for 85 melioidosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Most of the patients were male, > 40 years old, and diabetic. Severe disease or death occurred in 28 (32.9%) cases. Lower lymphocyte counts and positive blood cultures were significant independent predictors of severe disease, but age, presentations with pneumonia, inappropriate empirical antibiotics, or flagellin types of the infecting isolates were not. Knowledge of local predictors of severe disease is useful for clinical management.

  9. Chronic liver disease in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kudva, M V; Zawawi, M M

    1990-08-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse the clinical spectrum of chronic liver disease (cirrhosis, and others with portal hypertension) in Kuala Lumpur. Eighty patients were diagnosed over a 6-year period. Twenty-two had biopsy proven cirrhosis while 58 others had portal hypertension with clinical and biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. The commonest aetiology was alcohol (36%), followed by the idiopathic variety and hepatitis B. The male to female ratio was 4.4:1. Indians had a high prevalence of alcohol-associated chronic liver disease. Overall, ascites was the commonest presentation. Eight patients presented with hepatocellular carcinoma. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was diagnosed in 13% of patients undergoing abdominal paracentesis. Gallstones were detected in 37% of patients who underwent ultrasonography. Diabetes mellitus and peptic ulcer disease were noted in 22% and 31% of patients respectively.

  10. Molecular detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infection among wild rats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Y L; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Fong, M Y; Siti, C O S; Siti, F A

    2014-12-01

    Entamoeba histolytica infection is the third-greatest parasitic disease responsible for death in the world. Wild rats harbouring E. histolytica can be the possible reservoir hosts for human amoebiasis. There were numerous studies on prevalence of intestinal parasites among wild rats in Malaysia but none has reported E. histolytica. Rats were captured from Sentul and Chow Kit areas, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The preserved stool samples were used for microscopy examination and molecular analysis. Out of 137 samples collected, 12 were positive for E. histolytica / E. dispar / E. moshkovskii microscopically. Two E. histolytica (1.4%), 1 E. dispar (0.7%) and 6 mixed infections of E. histolytica and E. dispar (4.3%) were detected using PCR. This is the first report of molecular detection of E. histolytica/dispar infection among wild rats in Malaysia. This study provides useful information about the potential risks of zoonotic agents and the importance of developing control measures to prevent zoonotic transmission.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of human metapneumovirus among children with acute respiratory infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor'e, S S; Sam, I C; Mohamad Fakri, E F; Hooi, P S; Nathan, A M; de Bruyne, J A; Jafar, F; Hassan, A; AbuBakar, S; Chan, Y F

    2014-09-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered cause of viral respiratory infections. We describe clinical and molecular epidemiology of HMPV cases diagnosed in children with respiratory infection at University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The prevalence rate of HMPV between 2010 and 2012 was 1.1%, and HMPV contributed 6.5% of confirmed viral respiratory infections. The HMPV patients had a median age of 1.6 years, and a median hospital admission of 4 days. The most common clinical presentations were fever, rhinitis, pneumonia, vomiting/diarrhoea, and bronchiolitis. Based on the partial sequences of F fusion gene from 26 HMPV strains, 14 (54%) were subgenotype A2b, which was predominant in 2010; 11 (42%) were subgenotype B1, which was predominant in 2012; and 1 (4%) was subgenotype A2a. Knowledge of the circulating subgenotypes in Malaysia, and the displacement of predominant subgenotypes within 3 years, is useful data for future vaccine planning.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, M N; Ismail, A R; Barras, C D; Tan, W J

    2000-12-01

    Despite advancements in endoscopy and pharmacology in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease the overall mortality has remained constant at 10% for the past four decades. The aim of this study was to determine the age, gender, racial distribution, incidence and causes of endoscopically diagnosed cases of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding to summarise treatments undertaken and to report their outcome. A prospective study of UGI bleeding in 128 patients was performed in two surgical wards of Kuala Lumpur Hospital, involving both elective and emergency admissions. The study group comprised of 113 (88.2%) males and 15 (11.7%) females. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 14 to 85 years) and 37.5% (48 of 128 patients) were older than 60 years. The Indian race was over-represented in all disease categories. Smoking (50.1%), alcohol consumption (37.5%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (17.2%), traditional remedies (5.5%), anti-coagulants (2.3%) and steroids (0.8%) were among the risk factors reported. Common presenting symptoms and signs included malaena (68.8%), haematemesis (59.4%) and fresh per rectal bleeding (33.6%). The commonest causes of UGI bleeding were duodenal ulcer (32%), gastric ulcer (29.7%), erosions (duodenal and gastric) (21.9%), oesophageal varices (10.9%) and malignancy (3.9%). UGI bleeding was treated non-surgically in 90.6% of cases. Blood transfusions were required in 62.6% (67/107) of peptic ulcer disease patients. Surgical intervention for bleeding peptic ulcer occurred in around 10% of cases and involved under-running of the bleeding vessel in most high risk duodenal and gastric ulcer patients. The overall mortality from bleeding peptic ulcer disease was 4.7%. Six patients died from torrential UGI haemorrhage soon after presentation, without the establishment of a cause. Active resuscitative protocols, early endoscopy, more aggressive interventional therapy, early surgery by more senior surgeons, increasing intensive care unit

  13. Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in the Tropics: Comparative studies between Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, R. H.; Jojo, P. J.; Pereira, C. E.; Amin, Y. M.

    2011-03-01

    The radiation dose received by man from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest at more than 50% of total dose received. The seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in Kerala, India and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were studied. The Southwest coast of the Kerala state in India is known to have very high levels of natural background radiation owing to the rare earths rich monazite sand available in large amount. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia used to be a famous tin mining area where it was done using open cast system. One-year measurements of radon concentration in houses were done for these two regions. It was found that there is considerable seasonal variation in the levels of radon in Kerala but the variation in Kuala Lumpur is only less than 10%.

  14. Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in the Tropics: Comparative studies between Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mahat, R. H.; Amin, Y. M.; Jojo, P. J.; Pereira, C. E.

    2011-03-30

    The radiation dose received by man from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest at more than 50% of total dose received. The seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in Kerala, India and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were studied. The Southwest coast of the Kerala state in India is known to have very high levels of natural background radiation owing to the rare earths rich monazite sand available in large amount. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia used to be a famous tin mining area where it was done using open cast system. One-year measurements of radon concentration in houses were done for these two regions. It was found that there is considerable seasonal variation in the levels of radon in Kerala but the variation in Kuala Lumpur is only less than 10%.

  15. Seroprevalence of seasonal and pandemic influenza a in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Sam, I-Ching; Shaw, Robert; Chan, Yoke-Fun; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Hurt, Aeron C; Barr, Ian G

    2013-08-01

    Relatively little is known about the burden of influenza in tropical countries. The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009, seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 was determined in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Pre- and post-pandemic residual laboratory sera were tested by hemagglutination-inhibition. The seroprevalence of A(H1N1)pdm09 increased from 3.7% pre-pandemic to 21.9% post-pandemic, giving an overall cumulative incidence of 18.1% (95% CI, 13.8-22.5%), mainly due to increases in those <5, 5-17, and 18-29 years old. In contrast with findings from USA, Europe, and Australia, pre-existing seroprevalence to A(H1N1)pdm09 was low at 5.6% in the elderly age group of >55 years. A(H1N1)pdm09 affected almost a third of those <30 years in Kuala Lumpur. Pre-pandemic seroprevalence was 14.7% for seasonal H1N1 and 21.0% for H3N2, and these rates did not change significantly after the pandemic. Seasonal and pandemic influenza cause a considerable burden in tropical Malaysia, particularly in children and young adults.

  16. Vertical distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, K W; Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Izzul, A A; Asri-Isa, M; Zulfadli, M; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the vertical distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted for 4 continuous weeks in multiple storey buildings in 4 residential areas located in Selangor [Kg. Baiduri (KB)] and Kuala Lumpur [Student Hostel of University of Malaya (UM), Kg. Kerinchi (KK) and Hang Tuah (HT)]. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found from ground floor to highest floor of multiple storey buildings and data from different elevation did not show significant difference. Ovitrap index for UM, KB, HT and KK ranged from 0 - 29.17%, 0 - 55.56%, 8.33 - 83.33% and 0 - 91.17% respectively. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found breeding in HT, KK and KB; while only Ae. albopictus was obtained from UM. The results indicate that the invasion of Aedes mosquitoes in high-rise apartments could facilitate the transmission of dengue virus and new approaches to vector control in this type of residential area should be developed. PMID:23665706

  17. Vertical distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, K W; Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Izzul, A A; Asri-Isa, M; Zulfadli, M; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the vertical distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted for 4 continuous weeks in multiple storey buildings in 4 residential areas located in Selangor [Kg. Baiduri (KB)] and Kuala Lumpur [Student Hostel of University of Malaya (UM), Kg. Kerinchi (KK) and Hang Tuah (HT)]. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found from ground floor to highest floor of multiple storey buildings and data from different elevation did not show significant difference. Ovitrap index for UM, KB, HT and KK ranged from 0 - 29.17%, 0 - 55.56%, 8.33 - 83.33% and 0 - 91.17% respectively. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found breeding in HT, KK and KB; while only Ae. albopictus was obtained from UM. The results indicate that the invasion of Aedes mosquitoes in high-rise apartments could facilitate the transmission of dengue virus and new approaches to vector control in this type of residential area should be developed.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Siti Shafiyyah, C O; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Lau, Y L; Siti Aminah, F

    2012-12-01

    A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 137 stool and blood samples were collected from wild rats from Sentul and Chow Kit areas. Five species of rats were captured and supplied by Kuala Lumpur City Hall. The most common was Rattus rattus diardii (Malayan Black rat), 67%, followed by Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat), 10%, Rattus argentiventer (rice-field rat), 10%, Rattus tiomanicus (Malaysian field rat), 9% and Rattus exulans (Polynesian rat), 4%. Rattus rattus diardii is commonly known to live in human environment and they are normally identified as pests to human community. More male rats were captured (61%) compared to female (39%). Out of 137 samples, 81.8% samples were positive with intestinal parasites, with 86.2% from Sentul area and 78.5% from Chow Kit area. Six different parasites were detected. The most common intestinal helminth parasite detected was Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (80.3%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (23.4%), Capillaria hepatica (13.9%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (2.9%). Intestinal protozoan detected was Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (8.8%). Trypanosoma lewisi (1.5%) was the only blood parasite detected.

  19. Fluxes of ions in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in an urban forest in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Radzi Abas, M; Ahmad-Shah, A; Nor Awang, M

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the chemical composition of bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in an urban forest in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean weekly rainfall recorded during the period of study was 63.2 mm. Throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception of incident precipitation were 77.1%, 1.2% and 21.7% respectively. Bulk precipitation, througfall and stemflow were acidic, the pH recorded being 4.37, 4.71 and 4.15 respectively. In all cases the dominant ions were NO3, SO4, Cl, NH4, K, Ca and Na. Of the ions studied Ca, K, Cl, SO4, Mg and Mn showed net increases in passing through the forest canopy, while NH4, Na, NO3, Zn, H and Fe showed net retention. This study shows that the urban environment of Kuala Lumpur contributes considerable amounts of materials to the atmosphere, as reflected by the high ionic contents in bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow.

  20. Suburban sprawl in the developing world: duplicating past mistakes? The case of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loh, Lawrence C; Brieger, William B

    Newly affluent developing world cities increasingly adopt the same unfortunate low-density suburban paradigm that shaped cities in the industrialized world. Identified by a World Bank report as a "mini-Los Angeles," Kuala Lumpur is a sentinel example of the results of unrestrained sprawl in the developing world. Factors driving sprawl included government policies favoring foreign investment, "mega-projects," and domestic automobile production; fragmented governance structures allowing federal and state government influence on local planning; increasing middle-class affluence; an oligopoly of local developers; and haphazard municipal zoning and transport planning. The city's present form contributes to Malaysia's dual burden of disease, with inner-city shantytown dwellers facing communicable disease and malnutrition while suburban citizens experience increasing chronic disease, injury, and mental health issues. Despite growing awareness in city plans targeted toward higher density development, Kuala Lumpur presents a warning to other emerging economies of the financial, societal, and population health costs imposed by quickly-built suburban sprawl.

  1. Suburban sprawl in the developing world: duplicating past mistakes? The case of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loh, Lawrence C; Brieger, William B

    Newly affluent developing world cities increasingly adopt the same unfortunate low-density suburban paradigm that shaped cities in the industrialized world. Identified by a World Bank report as a "mini-Los Angeles," Kuala Lumpur is a sentinel example of the results of unrestrained sprawl in the developing world. Factors driving sprawl included government policies favoring foreign investment, "mega-projects," and domestic automobile production; fragmented governance structures allowing federal and state government influence on local planning; increasing middle-class affluence; an oligopoly of local developers; and haphazard municipal zoning and transport planning. The city's present form contributes to Malaysia's dual burden of disease, with inner-city shantytown dwellers facing communicable disease and malnutrition while suburban citizens experience increasing chronic disease, injury, and mental health issues. Despite growing awareness in city plans targeted toward higher density development, Kuala Lumpur presents a warning to other emerging economies of the financial, societal, and population health costs imposed by quickly-built suburban sprawl. PMID:24928611

  2. Isodose mapping of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, M S M; Ramli, A T; Gabdo, H T; Garba, N N; Heryanshah, A; Wagiran, H; Said, M N

    2014-09-01

    A terrestrial gamma radiation survey for the state of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya was conducted to obtain baseline data for environmental radiological health practices. Based on soil type, geological background and information from airborne survey maps, 95 survey points statistically representing the study area were determined. The measured doses varied according to geological background and soil types. They ranged from 17 nGy h(-1) to 500 nGy h(-1). The mean terrestrial gamma dose rate in air above the ground was 182 ± 81 nGy h(-1). This is two times higher than the average dose rate of terrestrial gamma radiation in Malaysia which is 92 nGy h(-1) (UNSCEAR 2000). An isodose map was produced to represent exposure rate from natural sources of terrestrial gamma radiation.

  3. Seasonal prevalence of air-borne pollen and spores in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, T M; Tan, B H; Ismail, S; Bujang, M K

    1995-06-01

    Aerosampling using Rotorod samplers was conducted in the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from December 1991 to November 1993. Samples were collected twice a week between 10.00 hours to 12.00 hours. Rods were stained and examined microscopically. A total of 8 and 20 types of pollens and mold spores were collected, respectively. More mold spores were collected than pollens. Grass pollen constituted more than 40 percent of total pollen counts. Gramineae pollen counts peaked in March and September. The most abundant mold spore was Cladosporium followed by Rust, Nigrospora, Curvularia and Smut. Cladosporium counts peaked in February and August. Rust counts peaked in June and December whereas counts for Nigrospora peaked in February and October. Highest counts of Smut were recorded in March and October. Curvularia counts peaked in January, June and September.

  4. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana.

  5. HIV infection in Malaysia: a report of cases seen at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R; Doi, S; Naganathna, N

    1995-12-01

    The spread of HIV infection into Malaysia is estimated to have occurred in the early 1980's. The first case of AIDS was reported here in 1986. As of March 31, 1994, the numbers have increased to 8049 HIV positive individuals detected in the country. The risk behaviours among those tested positive were intravenous drug use in 77.2%, sexual transmission in 4.5%, while the remainder are still under investigation. Pediatric AIDS constitutes 0.2% of positives. The high prevalence among intravenous drug users (IVDU) is likely to be due to mandatory testing for HIV upon entry to rehabilitation centres. The trend of HIV infection in this country seems to be highest amongst the intravenous drug users. The increasing number of HIV infected prostitutes and heterosexuals in our population is worrying. Since 1986, a total of 104 HIV positive individuals have been treated at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Of these, 25 have died and of those still alive, 5 have symptomatic disease. The most common AIDS-defining illness is Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Education programmes have been developed targeting the various high risk groups and the general population.

  6. Correlates of anal sex roles among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin How

    2016-03-01

    Identifying roles for anal sex is an important issue for populations of MSM. We describe the prevalence of identifying as being 'top', 'bottom', 'versatile', or 'don't know/not applicable' among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and behavioural outcomes according to these labels for sexual role identity. Data analysis was conducted on a survey administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur in 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM who reported roles for anal sex. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the odds of behavioural outcomes among MSM who identified as 'bottom', 'versatile,' and 'don't know' compared to MSM who reported that 'top' was their sexual role. Labels for anal sex roles were significantly associated with condom use for last anal sex. Among MSM who used labels for anal sex roles, MSM who identified as 'bottom' had highest level of not using condoms for last anal sex (24.1%, p = .045). In binary logistic regression model, identifying as 'top' was significantly associated with reporting using a condom during last anal sex and reported consistent condom use for anal sex in the past six months (p = .039 and .017, respectively). With regard to sexual role identity, some MSM may be a part of a special subgroup of at-risk men to be targeted. Future research should evaluate the origins, meanings, and perceptions of these labels, and the developmental process of how these MSM identify with any of these categories. Research should also uncover condom use decision making with regard to these labels for sexual positioning. PMID:25887064

  7. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  8. Correlates of anal sex roles among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin How

    2016-03-01

    Identifying roles for anal sex is an important issue for populations of MSM. We describe the prevalence of identifying as being 'top', 'bottom', 'versatile', or 'don't know/not applicable' among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and behavioural outcomes according to these labels for sexual role identity. Data analysis was conducted on a survey administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur in 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM who reported roles for anal sex. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the odds of behavioural outcomes among MSM who identified as 'bottom', 'versatile,' and 'don't know' compared to MSM who reported that 'top' was their sexual role. Labels for anal sex roles were significantly associated with condom use for last anal sex. Among MSM who used labels for anal sex roles, MSM who identified as 'bottom' had highest level of not using condoms for last anal sex (24.1%, p = .045). In binary logistic regression model, identifying as 'top' was significantly associated with reporting using a condom during last anal sex and reported consistent condom use for anal sex in the past six months (p = .039 and .017, respectively). With regard to sexual role identity, some MSM may be a part of a special subgroup of at-risk men to be targeted. Future research should evaluate the origins, meanings, and perceptions of these labels, and the developmental process of how these MSM identify with any of these categories. Research should also uncover condom use decision making with regard to these labels for sexual positioning.

  9. Lifestyle factors and breast cancer: a case-control study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Rozanim; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Hidayah, Noor

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and the commonest cause of death due to cancer for women in Malaysia. This study was performed to identify the relationship with lifestyle factors. A case-control study was conducted among females with breast cancer who came for treatment to the Breast Clinic Hospital Kuala Lumpur in July until September 2004. A total of 203 female patients were recruited as cases along with 203 patients who attended the Outpatient Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur during the study period as the controls. The study showed women who did not exercise regularly to have four times higher risk (adjusted odds ratio is 3.49, 95% CI is 1.84 to 6.62) compared to those who exercised regularly. Women with a high fat diet were also at elevated risk (adjusted odds ratio 3.84, 95% CI is 1.20 to 12.34) compared to those consuming a low fat diet. Women without breast cancer generally had a longer duration of lifetime lactation with a median of thirty-three months compared to women with breast cancer (twenty months, p<0.05). Women who did not take oral contraceptive pills but had breast-fed their child have a 56.0% lower risk (crude odds ratio 0.44, CI is 0.22 to 0.87) compared to women who did not take oral contraceptive pill and also did not breast-feed their child. If they had breast fed for thirteen months and above, they faced a 61.0% lower risk (crude odds ratio 0.39, 95% CI is 0.17 to 0.87). There was a significant inverse trend for lifetime lactation and breast cancer risk. In conclusion certain life styles of women are associated with a higher risk of breast cancer development. Therefore, the promotion of a healthy life style should be emphasized.

  10. Types of thalassemia among patients attending a large university clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    George, E; Li, H J; Fei, Y J; Reese, A L; Baysal, E; Cepreganova, B; Wilson, J B; Gu, L H; Nechtman, J F; Stoming, T A

    1992-01-01

    We have identified the beta-thalassemia mutations in 59 patients with thalassemia major and 47 patients with Hb E-beta-thalassemia, and the deletional and nondeletional alpha-thalassemia determinants in 23 out of 24 patients with Hb H disease. All persons were attending the Haematology Clinic at the National University of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Most patients (76) were of Malay descent, while 52 patients were Chinese, and two came from elsewhere. The most frequently occurring beta-thalassemia alleles among the Malay patients were IVS-I-5 (G----C) and G----A at codon 26 (Hb E), while a few others were present at lower frequencies. The Chinese patients carried the mutation characteristic for Chinese [mainly codons 41/42 (-TTCT) and IVS-II-654 (C----T)]; Malay mutations were not observed among Chinese and Chinese mutations were virtually absent in the Malay patients. The large group of patients with Hb E-beta-thalassemia and different beta-thalassemia alleles offered the opportunity of comparing hematological data; information obtained for patients with Hb E-beta-thalassemia living in other countries was included in this comparison. Twenty-three patients with Hb H disease carried the Southeast Asian (SEA) alpha-thalassemia-1 deletion; 13 had the alpha CS alpha (Constant Spring) nondeletional alpha-thalassemia-2 determinant, while the deletional alpha-thalassemia-2 (-3.7 or -4.2 kb) was present in 10 subjects. The --/alpha CS alpha condition appeared to be the most severe with higher Hb H values. Both deletional and nondeletional types of alpha-thalassemia-2 were seen among Malay and Chinese patients.

  11. Total hip arthroplasty in Malaysia--the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Hospital Kuala Lumpur experience.

    PubMed

    Tay, B H; Masbah, O; Razak, M; Ruslan, G N

    2000-09-01

    The results of 109 primary total hip arthroplasties in 92 patients performed in Hospital Kuala Lumpur from January 1987 to December 1996 were reviewed after a mean follow-up of 30.8 months. There were 22 males and 70 females with the average age of 49.9 years (range 19 to 94 years). Chinese females comprised the largest group of patients (52.2%). Avascular necrosis was the most common diagnosis (33.1%) followed by hip dysplasia and primary osteoarthritis (17.4%). The procedure was performed more on the right hip (64.2%) compared to the left (35.8%). All patients received prophylactic antibiotics but none were given deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. The Charnley prosthesis was most commonly used and the majority of the arthroplasties were cemented (60.5%). About 80% of the THA were performed via the lateral approach. The functional hip score improved from an average of 8.9 to 15.0 with 66.3% of the patients categorized as good and excellent results. There were 16 patients (17.4%) with poor outcome. The most common complications encountered were dislocation (10.1%), aseptic loosening (9.2%) and periprosthetic fracture (5.5%). Other complications were deep infection (1.8%), deep vein thrombosis (0.9%), trochanteric osteotomy complications (1.8%), superficial infection (7.3%), urinary tract infection (5.5%), pressure sore (3.7%) and respiratory complication (1.8%). Fifteen hips (13.8%) required revision. The causes for revision were aseptic loosening, dislocation and infection. Technical anomalies were recognized as one of the factors contributing to poor results. Five-year survival rate was 87.3%. Better results can be expected with increasing experience and technical skulls.

  12. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers. PMID:25821810

  13. Organic composition of aerosol particulate matter during a haze episode in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzi Bin Abas, M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Maah, M. Jamil; Abu Samah, Azizan; Oros, Daniel R.; Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The solvent-extractable compounds of urban airborne particulate matter were analyzed to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker tracers. Samples were collected by high-volume air filtration during the haze episode of 1997 around the University of Malaya campus near Petaling Jaya, a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These results show that the samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanols, methyl n-alkanoates, n-alkyl nitriles, n-alkanals, n-alkanoic acids, levoglucosan, PAHs, and UCM as the dominant components, with minor amounts of terpenoids, glyceryl esters and sterols, all derived from natural biogenic sources (vascular plant wax), from burning of biomass, and from anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuel products (lubricating oil, vehicle emissions, etc.). Some compositional differences are observed in the samples and greater atmospheric concentrations were found for almost all organic components in the samples collected near a roadway. The results interpreted in terms of major sources are due to local build-up of organic contaminants from vehicular emissions, smoke from biomass burning, and natural background as a result of the atmospheric stability during the haze episodes. The organic components transported in from areas outside the region, assuming all smoke components are external to the city, amount to about 30% of the total organic particle burden.

  14. Development of permethrin resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wan-Norafikah, Othman; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Lee, Han Lim; Zainol-Ariffin, Pawanchee; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-07-01

    The resistance status towards permethrin among the laboratory strain, the permethrin-selected strain and four field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was determined using three standard laboratory methods: WHO larval bioassay, WHO adult bioassay and biochemical microplate assay. Cx. quinquefasciatus permethrin-selected strain larvae were the least susceptible to permethrin with a resistance ratio of 47.28-folds, whereas all field strain larvae of the same species were tolerant to permethrin with resistance ratios of more than 3-folds. In contrast, in adult stage, the permethrin exposed permethrin-selected strain (resistance ratio = 1.27) was found to be more susceptible to permethrin than all permethrin-exposed field strains (resistance ratios = 2.23-2.48). Complete mortalities for all strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus adults proved the effectiveness of the synergist; piperonyl butoxide (PBO). For the biochemical microplate assay, the reduction of the mean optical density of elevated oxidase activity of three field strains upon exposure to PBO confirmed the association between oxidase activity and permethrin tolerance. On the other hand, irregular patterns of the mean optical density of elevated oxidase activity in the laboratory strain, permethrin-selected strain and Jalan Fletcher strain illustrated the gene variation within these mosquito colonies as well as the involvement of other enzyme activities in the permethrin resistance occurred.

  15. Electromagnetic spectrum survey of the environment in a locality in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abood, Wafa Ali; Din, Norashidah Md; Ismail, Aiman; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2013-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum in the environment is becoming a scarce resource with the emergence of a high number of wireless communications services Cognitive radio (CR) is viewed as a possible solution to the spectrum bottleneck which work in a premise that at an any given time and spatial region there are frequency bands that has no signal occupancy. The CR technique utilizes a temporarily unoccupied licensed band by allowing secondary users to exploit opportunistically the underutilized spectrum licensed to primary users without any harmful interference. Before investigating the technical and political implications of CR, it is necessary to know to what extent the licensed bands are temporally unoccupied. In this paper a spectrum occupancy measurements is conducted to study the utilization of RF spectrum in an environment. The measurements are performed on UHF TV, GSM900 and GSM1800 frequency bands in an urban area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The evaluation made is based on the power detection principle. From the measurements, the spectrum holes are identified. The obtained results show that the spectral usage is 7.37% for UHF TV band, 12.8% for GSM900 and 5.3% for GSM1800 band leading to the conclusion that a significant amount of spectrum is available for deployment of cognitive radio.

  16. Molecular characterization of a Toxocara variant from cats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X Q; Jacobs, D E; Chilton, N B; Sani, R A; Cheng, N A; Gasser, R B

    1998-08-01

    The ascaridoid nematode of cats from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, previously identified morphologically as Toxocara canis, was characterized using a molecular approach. The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region spanning the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1), the 5.8S gene and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) was amplified and sequenced. The sequences for the parasite from Malaysian cats were compared with those for T. canis and T. cati. The sequence data showed that this taxon was genetically more similar to T. cati than to T. canis in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2. Differences in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences between the taxa (9.4-26.1%) were markedly higher than variation between samples within T. canis and T. cati (0-2.9%). The sequence data demonstrate that the parasite from Malaysian cats is neither T. canis nor T. cati and indicate that it is a distinct species. Based on these data, PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) methods were employed for the unequivocal differentiation of the Toxocara variant from T. canis and T. cati. These methods should provide valuable tools for studying the life-cycle, transmission pattern(s) and zoonotic potential of this parasite.

  17. Non-occupational exposure of Malay women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Moon, C S; Zhang, Z W; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Ismail, N H; Hashim, J H; Lkeda, M

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood and 24-h total food duplicate samples were obtained from 49 adult Malay women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in July, 1995. Samples of boiled and uncooked (raw) rice were also collected from the subjects. The blood samples, homogenates of each food duplicates and rice samples (both cooked and raw) were digested by heating in the presence of mineral acids, and the digests were subjected to analysis for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) with a system composed of a fully automated liquid sampler, a graphiie furnace atomic absorption spectrometer and a data processor. The geometric mean metal concentrations in blood were 0.71 ng Cd per ml and 45.6 ng Pb per ml, and the dietary metal intakes were 7.31 μg Cd per day and 10.1 μg Pb per day. The metal intake via rice accounted for 53% and 13% of total dietary intake of cadmium and lead, respectively. When the absorption from the air and foods was compared, the cadmium burden came almost exclusively from foods, whereas the lead burden came both from air (44%) and foods (56%).

  18. Hepatitis B infection among Chinese STD patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gan, C Y; Yap, S F; Ngeow, Y F; Wong, H C

    1991-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence of Hepatitis B serological markers among STD patients who have had multiple sexual partners in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and compares the rates with those of a sample of the population with single or no sexual partners. A total of 336 Chinese STD patients (multiple partners group) and 234 Chinese control subjects (non-multiple partner group) were screened. Those with a history of blood transfusion or parenteral drug abuse had been excluded from the study, and all study subjects were heterosexuals. The overall carrier rate was 9.2% for the multiple partner group (MP group) and 6.8% for the non-multiple partner group (NMP group). Infection rates were 64.3% for the MP-group and 38.9% for the NMP group. After adjustments for age and sex, there was no significant difference in carrier rates between the two groups, but infection rates were significantly different with the MP group, being 3.2 times more likely to acquire infection than the NMP group. The study concludes that in heterosexuals, those with multiple sexual partners have increased chances of acquiring HBV infection.

  19. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  20. Hepatitis B infection among Chinese STD patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gan, C Y; Yap, S F; Ngeow, Y F; Wong, H C

    1991-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence of Hepatitis B serological markers among STD patients who have had multiple sexual partners in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and compares the rates with those of a sample of the population with single or no sexual partners. A total of 336 Chinese STD patients (multiple partners group) and 234 Chinese control subjects (non-multiple partner group) were screened. Those with a history of blood transfusion or parenteral drug abuse had been excluded from the study, and all study subjects were heterosexuals. The overall carrier rate was 9.2% for the multiple partner group (MP group) and 6.8% for the non-multiple partner group (NMP group). Infection rates were 64.3% for the MP-group and 38.9% for the NMP group. After adjustments for age and sex, there was no significant difference in carrier rates between the two groups, but infection rates were significantly different with the MP group, being 3.2 times more likely to acquire infection than the NMP group. The study concludes that in heterosexuals, those with multiple sexual partners have increased chances of acquiring HBV infection. PMID:1862464

  1. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  2. The results of a worksite health promotion programme in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Moy, Foongming; Sallam, Atiya A B; Wong, Meelian

    2006-12-01

    The worksite is one of the key channels for the delivery of interventions to reduce chronic diseases among adult populations. It provides easy and regular access to a relatively stable population and it encourages sustained peer support. This paper reports a 2-year follow-up of the impact of a worksite health promotion programme on serum cholesterol and dietary changes among employees in a city in Malaysia. A quasi-experimental study was conducted among Malay-Muslim male security guards, with those working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur comprising the intervention group, and those working in the teaching hospital of the same university as the comparison group. They were comparable in socio-demographic characteristics. The intervention group received intensive individual and group counselling on diet, physical activity and quitting smoking. The comparison group was given minimal education on the same lifestyle changes through mail and group counselling. The intervention group showed a statistically significant reduction in their mean total cholesterol levels as compared with the comparison group, with an intervention effect of -0.38 (95% CI = -0.63, -0.14) mmol/l. The intervention group also reported a reduction in the amount of cigarettes smoked. The worksite was shown to be an effective channel for health promotion. The adoption of the new lifestyle behaviours should be supported and sustained through modification of work policies. PMID:16963785

  3. Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Low-Income Urban Dwellers in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers. PMID:25821810

  4. The results of a worksite health promotion programme in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Moy, Foongming; Sallam, Atiya A B; Wong, Meelian

    2006-12-01

    The worksite is one of the key channels for the delivery of interventions to reduce chronic diseases among adult populations. It provides easy and regular access to a relatively stable population and it encourages sustained peer support. This paper reports a 2-year follow-up of the impact of a worksite health promotion programme on serum cholesterol and dietary changes among employees in a city in Malaysia. A quasi-experimental study was conducted among Malay-Muslim male security guards, with those working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur comprising the intervention group, and those working in the teaching hospital of the same university as the comparison group. They were comparable in socio-demographic characteristics. The intervention group received intensive individual and group counselling on diet, physical activity and quitting smoking. The comparison group was given minimal education on the same lifestyle changes through mail and group counselling. The intervention group showed a statistically significant reduction in their mean total cholesterol levels as compared with the comparison group, with an intervention effect of -0.38 (95% CI = -0.63, -0.14) mmol/l. The intervention group also reported a reduction in the amount of cigarettes smoked. The worksite was shown to be an effective channel for health promotion. The adoption of the new lifestyle behaviours should be supported and sustained through modification of work policies.

  5. Zoonotic Brugia pahangi filariasis in a suburbia of Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lian Huat; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Muslim, Azdayanti; Lau, Yee Ling; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2011-01-01

    Five local Malaysian patients with clinical manifestations consistent with lymphatic filariasis were referred to our medical centre between 2003 and 2006. Although no microfilariae (mf) were detected in their nocturnal blood samples, all were diagnosed to have lymphatic filariasis on the basis of clinical findings and positive serology results. PCR on their blood samples revealed that two of the patients were infected with Brugia pahangi, an animal filarial worm hitherto not known to cause human disease in the natural environment. All the patients were successfully treated with anti-filarial drugs: four patients were treated with a combination of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole, and one with doxycycline. Four of them were residents of Petaling Jaya, a residential suburbia located 10 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The fifth patient was a frequent visitor of the suburbia. This suburbia has no history or record of B. malayi infection. The most likely vector of the worm was Armigeres subalbatus as extensive entomological surveys within the suburbia revealed only adult females of this mosquito species were infected with B. pahangi larvae. Wild monkeys caught in the suburbia were free from B. pahangi mf, but domestic cats were mf positive. This suggests that infected cats might be the source of the zoonotic infection in the suburbia.

  6. Quality of life in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Felix B.; Kiung, Sze T.; Yap, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of data on quality of life issues in patients with leprosy suffering from erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Thus, we aim to study the effect of ENL on quality of life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hansen's Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 2010 and December 2013 among patients with multibacillary leprosy using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Results: A total of 153 patients participated with 31.4% suffering from ENL. The mean age at presentation was 40.5 ± 16.49 years. The mean DLQI was 7.1 ± 3.72. Patients with ENL were younger (mean age 36.5 vs. 42.4, P = 0.026), had higher mean bacteriologic index (4.3 vs. 3.8, P = 0.004), had physical deformities (47.9% vs. 31.4%, P = 0.049), and had higher mean DLQI score (9.1 vs. 6.2, P < 0.001). All the DLQI domains were higher in patients suffering from ENL except the treatment domain. Symptoms and feeling was the domain with the largest effect followed by daily activities and leisure. Personal relationship had the lowest effect. Conclusion: Quality of life impairment in patients with leprosy in Malaysia is moderate, with larger effect among patients with ENL. The impairment in ENL is comparable to itchy skin conditions such as urticarial and is worse than chronic skin disease such as psoriasis. Thus, it is essential that management of leprosy incorporate quality of life issues. PMID:27559497

  7. Vertical infestation of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in apartments in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units.

  8. Screening and detection of heterogenous vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in Hospital Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, using the glycopeptide resistance detection Etest and population analysis profiling.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Siti Roszilawati; Neoh, Hui-Min; Aziz, Muhammad Nazri; Hussin, Salasawati

    2012-01-01

    In a 3-month study done in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), 7 out of 320 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were confirmed as heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) using the glycopeptide resistance detection e-test and population analysis, giving a prevalence rate of 2.19%. This is the first report of hVISA in Malaysia.

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Technologies 2013 (ICEduTech 2013) (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 29-December 1, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Sharef, Nurfadhlina Mohd, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference on Educational Technologies 2013 (ICEduTech 2013), which has been organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and co-organised by the Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur,…

  10. Evaluation of nutritional status among a group of young Chinese adults in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Karim, N; Leong, S W

    2000-06-01

    A nutritional status study was carried out among a group of young Chinese adults, aged between 19 and 25, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Subjects comprised 108 young adults (55 women, 53 men) who were students at two institutes of higher learning. Physical characteristics were evaluated by anthropometric measurements while food intake was determined with a 3-day food record. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were assessed using the Reflotron analyser. Birthweight was obtained from birth certificates or by proxy. The results showed that the mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women was 21.4 ± 3.3 and 20.0 ± 2.0, respectively, indicating normal weight. Further analysis of BMI classification demonstrated that 28% of men and 39% of women were underweight, 11% of men and 2% of women were overweight while 2% of men were obese. Mean waist-to-hip ratio showed that the subjects had a low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (0.72 ± 0.03 women; 0.81 ± 0.05 men). Mean energy intake was 8841 ± 1756 kJ per day for men and 6426 ± 1567 kJ per day for women. Closer analysis of energy intake of the subjects showed that 86% of men and 91% of women were consuming below the Malaysian recommendation for energy. Nutrients found to be deficient in at least one third of women were calcium, vitamin A, niacin and iron. Mean cholesterol intake in the diet was 278.7 ± 108.7 mg in men and 207.0 ± 82.5 mg in women and there was a significant difference between genders. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 3.88 ± 0.76 mmol/L and 1.08 ± 0.33 mmol/L, respectively in men, while these levels were lower in women, 3.87 ± 0.80 mmol/L for cholesterol and 0.99 ± 0.29 mmol/L for triglyceride. A general trend of higher mean blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels was shown in adults who were born with lower birthweights.

  11. Evaluation of diet quality and its associated factors among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rezali, Fara Wahida; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Sanker, Kaartina; Woon, Fui Chee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aims to determine contribution of meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods towards diet quality of adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted among 373 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years old. Diet quality of the respondents was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians. Meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were assessed through the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire (EBQ), self-efficacy for healthy eating scale, and availability of healthy foods scale, respectively. RESULTS The majority of the respondents (80.7%) were at risk of poor diet quality. Males (mean = 34.2 ± 8.2%) had poorer diet quality than females (mean = 39.9 ± 9.0%) (t = -5.941, P < 0.05). Malay respondents (mean = 36.9 ± 8.7%) had poorer diet quality than Indian respondents (mean = 41.3 ± 10.0%) (F = 2.762, P < 0.05). Age (r = 0.123, P < 0.05), self-efficacy for healthy eating (r = 0.129, P < 0.05), and availability of healthy foods (r = 0.159, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. However, meal frequency was not correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that being a male, being a Malay, low self-efficacy for healthy eating, and low availability of healthy foods contributed significantly towards poor diet quality among respondents. CONCLUSIONS In short, sex, ethnicity, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were associated with diet quality among adolescents. Health practitioners should take into consideration of differences in sex and ethnicity during implementation of nutrition-related intervention programs. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and availability of healthy foods should be included as important components in improving diet quality of adolescents. PMID:26425281

  12. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  13. Services for Urban Poor Families in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Low Wah; Yusof, Khairuddin

    1991-01-01

    The squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur exhibit a high incidence of communicable diseases, teenage pregnancies, and psychological and familial stress. The Sang Kancil Intervention Program responds to this situation by providing preschool education, maternal and child health care clinics, and activities that generate income for low-income…

  14. Was Anopheles donaldi a vector of malaria in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in the past?

    PubMed

    Reid, J A

    1980-01-01

    Anopheles donaldi Reid, a member of the A. barbirostris species group, is a vector of human filariasis and probably malaria. The discovery of some old specimens of this species, collected in Kuala Lumpur town where it no longer occurs, together with evidence from the literature about past malaria in the town, suggest that donaldi may have played a part in transmitting that malaria.

  15. Services for urban poor families in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Yun, L W; Yusof, K

    1991-01-01

    With 25% of its population living in over 148 squatter settlements, with a high incidence of communicable diseases, teenage pregnancies, and psychological and familial stress, the city of Kuala Lumpur has sought ways to improve conditions. This article describes one particularly promising approach: community-based centers integrating three socioeconomic components--preschool education, maternal and child health clinics, and income-generating activities.

  16. Awareness and utilization of HIV services of an AIDS community-based organization in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Yap, Ivan; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin H

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, homosexuality is illegal; little is known about access to HIV prevention services among Malaysian men who have sex with men (MSM). We analysed PT Foundation outreach data to describe the profiles among MSM who accessed PT Foundation services and to examine factors associated with being aware of PT Foundation and having visited the organization. A survey was administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur from March-December 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of participants who were and were not aware of the PT Foundation. Binary logistic regression was used to identify correlates of MSM visiting the PT Foundation among those who had heard of the organization. Of 614 MSM, this study found significantly higher awareness of the PT Foundation among MSM who perceived they had "good" HIV knowledge (p = .026) and participants who reported always using condoms (p = .009). MSM who reported being paid for sex were 2.81 times as likely to visit the PT Foundation compared to men who did not. A subgroup of MSM known to be at high risk for HIV infection is accessing prevention services. Future studies should uncover motivations and barriers of accessing these services among MSM in Malaysia.

  17. Distressed animal behaviors and some recommendations for improvements at the Kuala Lumpur Zoo, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Haque, Amber

    2006-01-01

    The artificial living conditions of captive animals present numerous challenges for animal caretakers. In this study I explored abnormal behaviors in certain caged animals at the Kuala Lumpur Zoo. Findings obtained from observations of animals and interviews of the zoo staff are followed by recommendations: including the development of standards and manuals, licensing of zoos and animals, and increased budgets from governments or alternative sources. Such interventions should bring considerable improvements in animal welfare at the zoos in the region. PMID:17209757

  18. An outbreak of acute conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus A24 in Kuala-Lumpur, Malaysia, 1978.

    PubMed

    Tan, D S; Yin-Murphy, M; Kandiah, S

    1980-03-01

    An investigation of an outbreak of acute conjunctivitis in Kuala Lumpur from May to August 1978 was made. A total of 2,133 cases was involved, most of whom were adult Malay males of low income status from the surrounding villages and low-cost flats. The majority of cases had bilateral conjunctivitis with clear discharge. Pain and subconjunctival haemorrhage were not common and recovery, mostly without complications, occurred within 1 week. Eye scrapings and paired sera specimens were examined and the causal agent was found to be Coxsackievirus A24 (CA24).

  19. Concentrations of PAHs in atmospheric particles (PM-10) and roadside soil particles collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Abas, M. Radzi Bin; Ketuly, Kamal Aziz; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric particles and roadside soil particles were measured at eight locations in the city center and the suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Atmospheric particles were collected using high-volume PM-10 sampler on glass fiber filters over 24 h average sampling period. Both types of samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonic agitation. The extracts were then fractionated on an alumina-silica column and the aromatic fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Total PAH concentrations in the atmospheric particles and roadside soil particles were found to be 6.28±4.35 ng m -3 and 0.22±0.11 μg g -1, respectively. Benzo[ g, h, i]perylene and coronene were found to be the most abundant PAHs in airborne particles at all locations. The most abundant PAHs in the roadside soil particles were fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene.

  20. Clinical audit teaching in record-keeping for dental undergraduates at International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Jun A; Chew, Jamie K Y; Ravindranath, Sneha; Pau, Allan

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of clinical audit training on record-keeping behavior of dental students and students' perceptions of the clinical audit training. The training was delivered to Year 4 and Year 5 undergraduates at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It included a practical audit exercise on patient records. The results were presented by the undergraduates, and guidelines were framed from the recommendations proposed. Following this, an audit of Year 4 and Year 5 students' patient records before and after the audit training was carried out. A total of 100 records were audited against a predetermined set of criteria by two examiners. An email survey of the students was also conducted to explore their views of the audit training. Results showed statistically significant improvements in record-keeping following audit training. Responses to the email survey were analyzed qualitatively. Respondents reported that the audit training helped them to identify deficiencies in their record-keeping practice, increased their knowledge in record-keeping, and improved their record-keeping skills. Improvements in clinical audit teaching were also proposed.

  1. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Kamaruddin, Alia Annessa Ain; Low, Nie Yen; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis. PMID:27358558

  2. Waste management and recycling practices of the urban poor: a case study in Kuala lumpur city, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murad, Md Wahid; Siwar, Chamhuri

    2007-02-01

    This study assesses waste management and recycling practices of the urban poor households residing as squatters and in low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. To attain the objective, the study employed some statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way analysis of variance, chi-squared 'likelihood ratio' tests, and simple descriptive statistics. The statistical techniques were used to determine and analyse the factors that significantly influence the environmental behaviour of the urban poor concerning solid waste management, particularly their recycling practices. The findings of the study show that the urban poor and low-income communities have been proved to behave in ways that are consistent with and conducive to environmentally friendly solid waste management. This study provides evidence that the urban poor and low-income communities are the main recyclers, re-users, and source-reducers of their household solid waste. The study, however, suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, and the skills of the urban poor and, in addition, to empower them as a means of improving their quality of life.

  3. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.

  4. Prevalence of overweight and obese school children aged between 7 to 16 years amongst the major 3 ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasmini, K; Idris, M N; Fatimah, A; Hanafiah, S; Iran, H; Asmah Bee, M N

    1997-09-01

    6239 children aged 7 to 16 years, attending 22 primary and secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened using a self report questionnaire, with their heights and weights measured using a digital electronic SECA beam balance. The selection was done by a two staged stratified random sampling from a total of 226 schools in Kuala Lumpur. The racial distribution was 56.7% Malays, 33.8% Chinese and 8.1% Indians; 3.6% (n:222) of the children were identified as obese and 6% (n:373) identified as overweight. The definitions of obese and overweight were computed using growth charts of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) from the median of the reference population. There were no significant differences amongst the 3 major ethnic groups in the obese group. The differences were significant in the overweight group with the Indians most overweight, followed by the Chinese and the Malays.

  5. A study of the acceptability and effectiveness of Norplant (R) contraceptive implants in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Arshat, H; Rachagan, S P; Kwa Siew Kim; Ang Eng Suan; Karim, H A; Ismail, M T

    1990-06-01

    A clinical trial was carried out on the levonorgestrel-containing subdermal contraceptive implant to evaluate its efficacy and acceptability among Malaysian women. The study recruited 121 women in and around the Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory over a 13-month period (March 1986-March 19870 and followed regularly for 2 years at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The acceptors consisted of 53.7% Malays, 24.8% Indians, and 21.5% Chinese. 81% of the selected females were between 20-34 years in age (mean=30). The average parity was 3.9 children; 81.8% reported that they did not want to have a child in the he next 3 years. In the last 6 months, 45.5% of the study group had used the oral contraceptive pills, 15.7% had used the intrauterine contraceptive device, and 17.4% had not employed any method. The results showed that the subdermal implant Norplant (R) is effective and safe. The gross cumulative continuation rate was 93.8 at 6 months, 88.2 at 12 months, and 72.2 at 24 months. Within the 24 month period, 26 terminations occurred as a result of pregnancy (n=1), menstrual problems (n=9), medical reasons (n=12), and personal reasons (n=4). the gross cumulative termination rate/100 women for pregnancy was 0 at 12 months and 1.7 at 24 months. Major side effects include menstrual problems, weight gain, dizziness, and headache. After 1 year, 13.3% of the cases (n=2) had the implant removed. The acceptability of the method among our women in 4 clinics around Kuala Lumpur and other Norplant (R) studies in other countries is comparable to the intrauterine devices among Malaysian women; the termination rate for accidental pregnancy is lower than that of IUD. The device is easy to administer in a small clinical set-up though it requires personnel specially trained in the surgical techniques; 86.0% of the acceptors reported complication-free insertion. This may be a method to be introduced to our National Family Planning Program in our efforts to offer a wider range of safe and

  6. A study of the acceptability and effectiveness of Norplant (R) contraceptive implants in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Arshat, H; Rachagan, S P; Kwa Siew Kim; Ang Eng Suan; Karim, H A; Ismail, M T

    1990-06-01

    A clinical trial was carried out on the levonorgestrel-containing subdermal contraceptive implant to evaluate its efficacy and acceptability among Malaysian women. The study recruited 121 women in and around the Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory over a 13-month period (March 1986-March 19870 and followed regularly for 2 years at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The acceptors consisted of 53.7% Malays, 24.8% Indians, and 21.5% Chinese. 81% of the selected females were between 20-34 years in age (mean=30). The average parity was 3.9 children; 81.8% reported that they did not want to have a child in the he next 3 years. In the last 6 months, 45.5% of the study group had used the oral contraceptive pills, 15.7% had used the intrauterine contraceptive device, and 17.4% had not employed any method. The results showed that the subdermal implant Norplant (R) is effective and safe. The gross cumulative continuation rate was 93.8 at 6 months, 88.2 at 12 months, and 72.2 at 24 months. Within the 24 month period, 26 terminations occurred as a result of pregnancy (n=1), menstrual problems (n=9), medical reasons (n=12), and personal reasons (n=4). the gross cumulative termination rate/100 women for pregnancy was 0 at 12 months and 1.7 at 24 months. Major side effects include menstrual problems, weight gain, dizziness, and headache. After 1 year, 13.3% of the cases (n=2) had the implant removed. The acceptability of the method among our women in 4 clinics around Kuala Lumpur and other Norplant (R) studies in other countries is comparable to the intrauterine devices among Malaysian women; the termination rate for accidental pregnancy is lower than that of IUD. The device is easy to administer in a small clinical set-up though it requires personnel specially trained in the surgical techniques; 86.0% of the acceptors reported complication-free insertion. This may be a method to be introduced to our National Family Planning Program in our efforts to offer a wider range of safe and

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among adolescent ten-pin bowlers in kuala lumpur, malaysia.

    PubMed

    Teo, Eng-Wah; Khoo, Selina; Wong, Rebecca; Wee, Eng-Hoe; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy, Shabesan Sit

    2015-03-29

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation) was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01) between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among ten-pin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25) or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61) motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers.

  8. Social factors in relation to physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Shafie, H M; Cheah, I

    1994-05-01

    Available evidence has shown that the type of abuse perpetrated on children depends considerably on the social and other factors inherently faced by these children. A total of 119 cases of physical abuse was detected by the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) Team of General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur in 1991. Eighty-two cases were categorized as mild and 37 as severe. The average age of those mildly abused was 7.9 years, for those severely abused the average age was 4.2 years. The perpetrators of those mildly abused were often their own parents. However, among those severely abused, the child-minder was the most frequent abuser. Ninety-two of all cases were in families of social classes IV and V. In 47 cases, there was definite evidence of family disharmony or disruption. Among the 37 severely abused, the parents were either divorced or separated in 14 cases. There was a personality disorder in seven of the cases. Six of the abusers were also using drugs and nine were alcoholics. This paper shows that, even in a developing country, the social milieu is important in the type of abuse inflicted.

  9. Enterovirus survey before and after poliomyelitis vaccination in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, D S; Lam, S K

    1978-09-01

    Stool samples from healthy children mainly of the low income group aged 0 to 7 years of age from five Maternal and Child Health Centres in Kuala Lumpur were obtained for isolation of enteroviruses. The specimens were collected before and after the mass vaccination given in the face of polio type 1 epidemic which started in October, 1971. The prevelance rate of enteroviruses was 11.9% (3.0% polioviruses, 8.9% non-polio enteroviruses) before the vaccination and essentially the same after. Coxsackie A viruses predominated over the other enteroviruses in the pre- and post-vaccination phases. The highest isolation rate of enteroviruses was observed in children 0 to 2 years age. No significant differences in distribution by sex, race and month were noted. A sharp fall in the prevalence rates of total enteroviruses and polioviruses was noted shortly after the mass vaccination campaign However, the rates reverted to the pre-vaccination state during the next successive years.

  10. Regional study of nutritional status of urban primary schoolchildren. 3. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tee, E-Siong; Khor, Swan-Choo; Ooi, Hoon-Eng; Young, Swee-Ing; Zakiyah, Omar; Zulkafli, Hamzah

    2002-03-01

    A total of 5,995 (7.8% of all 7- to 10-year-old primary schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur), randomly selected from 166 schools (97.6% of all schools), were measured for their weight and height. The analyses of all weight and height data, including the cutoffs used for defining stunting, underweight, and wasting and for thinness and overweight, were carried out as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalances of stunting (height-for-age Z score < -2 SD), underweight (weight-for-age Z score < -2 SD) and wasting (weight-for-height Z score < -2 SD) among all the children studies were 6.7%, 7.1%, and 4.5%, respectively. Undernutrition among boys was more serious than among girls according to all three indicators. Because it was not possible to analyze the weight-for-height data for most of the children above 8.5 years of age, body mass index (BMI)-for-age was used to determine the prevalences of thinness and overweight for all the children. Based on the reference data, the prevalence of overweight (at or above the 95th percentile) was 9.7% and 7.1% for boys and girls, respectively, and 8.4% overall. PMID:11975368

  11. Birds communities of fragmented forest within highly urbanized landscape in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd-Taib, F. S.; Rabiatul-Adawiyah, S.; Md-Nor, S.

    2014-09-01

    Urbanization is one form of forest modification for development purposes. It produces forest fragments scattered in the landscape with different intensity of disturbance. We want to determine the effect of forest fragmentation towards bird community in urbanized landscapes in Kuala Lumpur, namely Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (FR), Bukit Nenas FR and Bukit Sungei Puteh FR. We used mist-netting and direct observation method along established trails. These forests differ in size, vegetation composition and land use history. Results show that these forests show relatively low number of species compared to other secondary forest with only 39 bird species recorded. The largest fragment, Sg. Besi encompassed the highest species richness and abundance with 69% species but lower in diversity. Bukit Nenas, the next smallest fragment besides being the only remaining primary forest has the highest diversity index with 1.866. Bkt. Sg. Puteh the smallest fragment has the lowest species richness and diversity with Shanon diversity index of 1.332. The presence of introduced species such as Corvus splendens (House crow) in all study areas suggest high disturbance encountered by these forests. Nonetheless, these patches comprised of considerably high proportion of native species. In conclusion, different intensity of disturbance due to logging activities and urbanization surrounding the forest directly influenced bird species richness and diversity. These effects however can be compensated by maintaining habitat complexity including high vegetation composition and habitat structure at the landscape level.

  12. Patterns of risk behaviour for patients with sexually transmitted diseases and surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lye, M S; Archibald, C; Ghazali, A A; Low, B T; Teoh, B H; Sinniah, M; Rus, S C; Singh, J; Nair, R C

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a sentinel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system involving patients with sexually transmitted diseases attending private clinics and a government sexually transmitted disease clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Information on risk behaviours for HIV infection were also collected. A total of 84 female and 91 male patients were interviewed and tested for HIV infection; 41.7% of the women reported working as prostitutes, other occupations included masseuses, hairdressers, waitresses, salesgirls, receptionists, factory workers, and others. The most common diagnosis was gonorrhoea. Other diagnoses included non-specific genital infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital herpes and syphilis. 58.3% of the women had a hundred or more sex partners during the previous month; 99% had 6 or more sex partners. Only 4.8% of female patients had their male partners using condoms most of the time, 11.9% hardly used condoms at all. Of the males, 93.3% were heterosexual, while 6.7% were bisexuals, 41.1% had between 6-20 different partners in the previous year. 78.0% of them had prostitutes as their sex partners most of the time. 41.8% had experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. 73.6% never used condoms, while 19.8% only used condoms rarely. Although all patients were tested negative for HIV antibodies, lot quality assurance sampling methods indicate that the upper limits of prevalences for females and males were 3.5% and 3.3% respectively, at a 5% type I error. The study has shown that it is feasible to carry out a sentinel surveillance programme among STD patients and provided useful baseline data for future comparisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among adolescent ten-pin bowlers in kuala lumpur, malaysia.

    PubMed

    Teo, Eng-Wah; Khoo, Selina; Wong, Rebecca; Wee, Eng-Hoe; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy, Shabesan Sit

    2015-03-29

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation) was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01) between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among ten-pin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25) or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61) motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers. PMID:25964827

  14. Surveillance of Aedes mosquitoes in a university campus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wan Norafikah, O; Chen, C D; Soh, H N; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2009-08-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was initiated for eight continuous weeks to determine the distribution and abundance of Aedes sp. mosquitoes in the University of Malaya campus, Kuala Lumpur, and the impact of meteorological conditions on the Aedes populations. Two study areas within the campus were selected: Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College. The abundance of Aedes populations in Varsity Lake was indicated by ovitrap index (OI) which ranged from 60.00%-90.00%. The mean number of larvae per ovitrap of Aedes albopictus in Varsity Lake ranged from 11.23+/-2.42-43.80+/-6.22. On the other hand, the outdoor OI for Seventh Residential College ranged from 73.33%-93.33%, respectively, while the mean number larvae per ovitrap for this area ranged from 19.33+/-4.55-35.27+/-5.46, respectively. In addition, the indoor OI of Seventh Residential College ranged from 0.00%-30.00%, while the mean number of larvae per ovitrap for Ae. albopictus ranged from 0-5.90+/-3.55. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) of Ae. albopictus population between Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College. The studies showed a correlation between OI and mean number of larvae per ovitrap for outdoor Ae. albopictus populations in Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College (r=0.794). There was also a correlation between the mean larvae number per ovitrap of Ae. albopictus obtained from eight weeks indoor ovitrap surveillance in Seventh Residential College with rainfall (r=0.584). However, there was no correlation between the mean larvae number per ovitrap of Ae. albopictus in both study areas with temperature and relative humidity. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were found neither indoor nor outdoor in both study areas. This study indicated that the principal dengue vector in the university campus was most likely Ae. albopictus. PMID:19901907

  15. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Among Adolescent Ten-Pin Bowlers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Eng-Wah; Khoo, Selina; Wong, Rebecca; Wee, Eng-Hoe; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy, Shabesan Sit

    2015-01-01

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation) was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01) between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among ten-pin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=−1.15, df=238, p=0.25) or extrinsic (t=−0.51, df=238, p=0.61) motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers. PMID:25964827

  16. Nutritional Status of Adolescents Attending the Iranian Secondary School in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Maryam; MSL, Huang; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Zarei, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim or this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status among Iranian adolescents in the two Secondary Schools run by the Embassy in Kuala Lumpur. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was used to assess socio demographic characteristics, physical activity, and body image. Dietary intake was recorded through individual interviews with the researcher. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children (PAQ-C) was used to evaluate levels of physical activity of the adolescents. Results: One-third (32.2%) of respondents were of normal weight, 14.5% and 11.1% were overweight and obese respectively, while 18.6% and 23.6% were severe thinness and thinness respectively. While the distribution of obese respondents by gender was almost the same, overweight females (16.4%) exceeded overweight males (12.7%) and although more females were in the thinness category (24.7% compared to 22.7%), more males were severely thin (20.0%) compared to 17.1% of the females. Body weight status was significantly associated with age (p < 0.05), gender (p < 0.05) and grade (p < 0.05). Males had significantly higher physically activity scores than females (p < 0.05). Intake of all micronutrients were higher than Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), except for vitamins B1, B2, C, D and E, Folate, Zinc, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium and Phosphorus. There was a tendency for the females to overestimate their weight and 72.6% of them expressed their desire to lose weight while 60% of the males wanted to gain weight. There was also significant association between body weight status and perception of ideal body size (p = 0.000) and healthy body size (p = 0.000). Conclusion: This study provides some information for the Iranian Secondary school to design intervention programs to improve the body weight status of their students. PMID:25363094

  17. Evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE transmission clusters among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Lim, Sin How; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9%) were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253-3275) showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2-7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1) were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion.

  18. Relationship between Breteau and House indices and cases of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Pawanchee, Z A; Arifin, Z; Wahab, A

    1996-09-01

    The relationship between the Breteau index, the House index, and the occurrence of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever in the 6 zones of Kuala Lumpur was studied throughout 1994. Cases of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever varied between zones and between months, ranging from 0 to 21 cases. In most of the zones in Kuala Lumpur, the occurrence of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever has no relationship with the Breteau and House indices. Cases of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever occurred in all zones despite the low Breteau and House indices.

  19. Risk behaviour and HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in a multiethnic society: a venue-based study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kanter, J; Koh, C; Razali, K; Tai, R; Izenberg, J; Rajan, L; Van Griensven, F; Kamarulzaman, A

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to determine HIV prevalence, risk behaviour and knowledge of transmission methods among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Venue-day-time sampling (VDTS) was applied to identify venues where men congregate to solicit sex from other men. Participants recruited from clubs, massage parlours, saunas and one park self-completed a computerized behavioural questionnaire, were administered an oral rapid HIV test and given the opportunity to return later to receive full counselling and learn their HIV status. A total of 517 men were enrolled into the study. The majority were Malays (47.0%) and Chinese (43.7%). Twenty tested HIV positive (3.9%). Significant predictors of HIV infection included having unprotected anal sex with a casual partner (44.9% of participants, odds ratio [OR] = 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.90; P = 0.027), having unprotected receptive anal sex (27.9%, OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.10-6.54; P = 0.030) and having group sex (33.3%, OR = 3.95; 95% CI 1.55-10.09; P = 0.004). One in five participants (20.1% and 19.5%) did not believe that HIV could be transmitted through insertive or receptive anal sex, respectively. Risk behaviour is high and knowledge of HIV transmission methods was low among MSM in Kuala Lumpur. Future prevention efforts should focus on providing risk reduction education to this community. PMID:21364064

  20. Isolation and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolates from the urban rat populations of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Benacer, Douadi; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Amran, Fairuz; Galloway, Renee L; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-04-01

    Rats are considered the principal maintenance hosts of Leptospira. The objectives of this study were isolation and identification of Leptospira serovars circulating among urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur. Three hundred urban rats (73% Rattus rattus and 27% R. norvegicus) from three different sites were trapped. Twenty cultures were positive for Leptospira using dark-field microscopy. R. rattus was the dominant carrier (70%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that all isolates were pathogenic Leptospira species. Two Leptospira serogroups, Javanica and Bataviae, were identified using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified two serovars in the urban rat populations: L. borgpetersenii serovar Javanica (85%) and L. interrogans serovar Bataviae (15%). We conclude that these two serovars are the major serovars circulating among the urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur. Despite the low infection rate reported, the high pathogenicity of these serovars raises concern of public health risks caused by rodent transmission of leptospirosis.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale: a study of husbands of breast cancer patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nasir; Low, Wah Yun; Yip, Cheng-Har

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), tested on 67 husbands of the women who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The eligible husbands were retrieved from the Clinical Oncology Clinic at three hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data was collected at three weeks and ten weeks following surgery for breast cancer of their wives. The psychometric properties of the HADS were reported based on Cronbach' alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Effect Size Index (ESI), sensitivity and discriminity of the scale. Internal consistency of the scale is excellent, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for Anxiety subscale and 0.79 for Depression subscale. Test-retest Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is 0.35 and 0.42 for Anxiety and Depression Subscale, respectively. Small mean differences were observed at test-retest measurement with ESI of 0.21 for Anxiety and 0.19 for Depression. Non-significant result was revealed for the discriminant validity (mastectomy vs lumpectomy). The Malay Version of the HADS is appropriate to measure the anxiety and depression among the husbands of the women with breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:21790225

  2. A comparison of cardiovascular risk factors among Indo-Asian and caucasian patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Birmingham, England.

    PubMed

    Dhanjal, T S; Lal, M; Haynes, R; Lip, G

    2001-12-01

    Indo-Asians in the UK are at an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD); this may be a reflection of their cardiovascular risk factor profile as well as of a more sedentary lifestyle. We hypothesised that Indo-Asians in Malaysia and the UK may exhibit a similar cardiovascular risk factor and physical activity profile, which would be more adverse compared with caucasians. We studied 70 consecutive Indo-Asian patients admitted to hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n=42; 35 males; mean age 60.6 years, SD 11.8); and Birmingham, England (n=28; 20 males; mean age 60.8 years, SD 12.9). Both groups of Indo-Asian patients were compared with 20 caucasian patients (13 males; mean age 62.7 years, SD 9.4) admitted with myocardial infarction from Birmingham. There was a higher prevalence of diabetes among Indo-Asians in both countries than among caucasians (p=0.0225). By contrast, caucasians had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (p=0.0113), peripheral vascular disease (p=0.0008), regular alcohol consumption (p<0.0001) and family history of CAD (p=0.0041). There were no significant differences in mean age, body mass index or blood pressures. There was a significantly lower leisure activity score (p=0.001) and total physical activity score (p=0.003) among Indo-Asians in both countries than among caucasians. This survey has demonstrated differences in cardiovascular risk factors among Indo-Asian and caucasian patients. The high prevalence of diabetes, as well as the lower physical activity and sedentary lifestyles among Indo-Asians, in both Malaysia and the UK, may in part contribute to the high incidence of CAD in this ethnic group.

  3. Effects of plateletpheresis on blood coagulation parameters in healthy donors at National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Siti Nadiah, A K; Nor Asiah, M; Nur Syimah, A T; Normi, M; Anza, E; Aini, A Nor; Mohd Zahari, T H; Shahnaz, M; Faraizah, A K; Faisal, M A

    2013-12-01

    Plateletpheresis is a method used to remove platelet from the body either from random volunteer donors, patient's family members or HLA matched donors. A cross sectional study was carried out on 59 plateletpheresis donors aged between 18 and 55 years at National Blood Center (NBC), Kuala Lumpur. We compared the blood parameters before and after plateletpheresis and we found that the platelet count, FVIII, fibrinogen and thrombophilia markers anti-thrombin (AT), protein C and protein S were significantly reduced (p<0.05) with prolonged PT and APTT. There were significant changes in blood coagulation parameters but it is within acceptable range.

  4. Predictors of death among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: A retrospective cohort study from 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health threat. However, little is known about the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB patients, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study adopted a retrospective cohort study design and involved laboratory-confirmed drug-resistant TB patients (n=426) from January 2009 to June 2013. A Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to model the outcome measure. Data were analysed by using SPSS v.20.0 for Windows. In this study, 15.3% (n=65) of the patients died. Among the study patients, 70.9% were monoresistant TB cases, 9.4% were poly-resistant TB and 19.7% were MDR-TB. MDR-TB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.95], ethnicity [Malay (aHR=5.95, 95% CI 2.30-15.41), Chinese (aHR=4.01, 95% CI 1.38-11.66) and Indian (aHR=3.76, 95% CI 1.19-11.85)], coronary heart disease (aHR=6.82, 95% CI 2.16-21.50), drug abuse (aHR=3.79, 95% CI 2.07-6.93) and treatment non-compliance (aHR=1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.27) were independent predictors of poorer survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study suggests that MDR-TB, local ethnicity, coronary heart disease, history of drug abuse and treatment non-compliance are factors predicting poor survival in drug-resistant TB patients. More emphasis should be given to the management of drug-resistant TB patients with these characteristics to achieve better treatment outcomes.

  5. Predictors of death among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: A retrospective cohort study from 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health threat. However, little is known about the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB patients, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study adopted a retrospective cohort study design and involved laboratory-confirmed drug-resistant TB patients (n=426) from January 2009 to June 2013. A Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to model the outcome measure. Data were analysed by using SPSS v.20.0 for Windows. In this study, 15.3% (n=65) of the patients died. Among the study patients, 70.9% were monoresistant TB cases, 9.4% were poly-resistant TB and 19.7% were MDR-TB. MDR-TB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.95], ethnicity [Malay (aHR=5.95, 95% CI 2.30-15.41), Chinese (aHR=4.01, 95% CI 1.38-11.66) and Indian (aHR=3.76, 95% CI 1.19-11.85)], coronary heart disease (aHR=6.82, 95% CI 2.16-21.50), drug abuse (aHR=3.79, 95% CI 2.07-6.93) and treatment non-compliance (aHR=1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.27) were independent predictors of poorer survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study suggests that MDR-TB, local ethnicity, coronary heart disease, history of drug abuse and treatment non-compliance are factors predicting poor survival in drug-resistant TB patients. More emphasis should be given to the management of drug-resistant TB patients with these characteristics to achieve better treatment outcomes. PMID:27530850

  6. Application of Geophysical Techniques for 3D Geohazard Mapping to Delineate Cavities and Potential Sinkholes in the Northern Part of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshipour, Zeinab; Huat, Bujang B. K.; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Asadi, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the application of the electrical resistivity (ER) method to delineating subsurface structures and cavities in Kuala Lumpur Limestone within the Batu Cave area of Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. In all, 17 ER profiles were measured by using a Wenner electrode configuration with 2 m spacing. The field survey was accompanied by laboratory work, which involves taking resistivity measurements of rock, soil, and water samples taken from the field to obtain the formation factor. The relationship between resistivity and the formation factor and porosity for all the samples was established. The porosity values were plotted and contoured. A 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional representation of the subsurface topography of the area was prepared through use of commercial computer software. The results show the presence of cavities and sinkholes in some parts of the study area. This work could help engineers and environmental managers by providing the information necessary to produce a sustainable management plan in order to prevent catastrophic collapses of structures and other related geohazard problems. PMID:24501583

  7. Application of geophysical techniques for 3D geohazard mapping to delineate cavities and potential sinkholes in the northern part of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bakhshipour, Zeinab; Huat, Bujang B K; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Asadi, Afshin; Kura, Nura Umar

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the application of the electrical resistivity (ER) method to delineating subsurface structures and cavities in Kuala Lumpur Limestone within the Batu Cave area of Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. In all, 17 ER profiles were measured by using a Wenner electrode configuration with 2 m spacing. The field survey was accompanied by laboratory work, which involves taking resistivity measurements of rock, soil, and water samples taken from the field to obtain the formation factor. The relationship between resistivity and the formation factor and porosity for all the samples was established. The porosity values were plotted and contoured. A 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional representation of the subsurface topography of the area was prepared through use of commercial computer software. The results show the presence of cavities and sinkholes in some parts of the study area. This work could help engineers and environmental managers by providing the information necessary to produce a sustainable management plan in order to prevent catastrophic collapses of structures and other related geohazard problems.

  8. Infections due to beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae at the University Hospital Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of infections due to beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing in many parts of the world. An epidemiologic survey of infections caused by beta-lactamase-producing strains of N. gonorrhoeae at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, from February 1977 to December 1985 (106 months) showed that the incidence rose from 4.8% (two cases) in 1977 to 49.4% (39 cases) by the end of 1985. The highest incidence of gonococcal infections was found to be in the group aged 20-39 years; the male-to-female ratio was 1.55:1. The mean inhibitory concentrations of benzylpenicillin were 0.12 microgram/ml for non-beta-lactamase-producing strains and 16 micrograms/ml for isolates of N. gonorrhoeae that produce beta-lactamase.

  9. Colombo Plan Intra-Regional Technician Training Colloquium (6th, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 21-25, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo Plan Bureau (Sri Lanka).

    Proceedings of the Sixth Colloquium on Intra-Regional Technical Training sponsored jointly by the Colombo Plan and the Government of Malaysia are presented in this report. Four working papers are presented centered around three main areas of concern: influence of technical education on economic development; how the status of technicians could be…

  10. The Voices of Malaysia on Online Learning: Highlights of the Second Annual Symposium on Online Learning, SOLE 2001, September 5-6, 2001, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2001-01-01

    Explains how this issue that includes papers from the 2001 Symposium on Online Learning (SOLE) in Malaysia was developed and describes the main activities of the symposium. Provides an overview of the 14 papers included in this issues, including academic papers and corporate papers. (LRW)

  11. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-01

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region.

  12. Prevalence of pregnancy experiences and contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Results A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), p<0.05. Likewise, male participants who had experienced impregnating their partners had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), p<0.05. Conclusion The results showed evidence of premarital unplanned pregnancy among this suburban community. The low level of contraceptive knowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge. PMID:25438066

  13. Is forced migration a barrier to treatment success? Similar HIV treatment outcomes among refugees and a surrounding host community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Schilperoord, Marian; Spiegel, Paul; Balasundaram, Susheela; Radhakrishnan, Anuradha; Lee, Christopher K C; Larke, Natasha; Grant, Alison D; Sondorp, Egbert; Ross, David A

    2014-02-01

    In response to an absence of studies among refugees and host communities accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban settings, our objective was to compare adherence and virological outcomes among clients attending a public clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients (≥18 years). Data sources included a structured questionnaire that measured self-reported adherence, a pharmacy-based measure of HAART prescription refills over the previous 24 months, and HIV viral loads. The primary outcome was unsuppressed viral load (≥40 copies/mL). Among a sample of 153 refugees and 148 host community clients, refugees were younger (median age 35 [interquartile range, IQR 31, 39] vs 40 years [IQR 35, 48], p < 0.001), more likely to be female (36 vs 21 %, p = 0.004), and to have been on HAART for less time (61 [IQR 35, 108] vs 153 weeks [IQR 63, 298]; p < 0.001). Among all clients, similar proportions of refugee and host clients were <95 % adherent to pharmacy refills (26 vs 34 %, p = 0.15). When restricting to clients on treatment for ≥25 weeks, similar proportions from each group were not virologically suppressed (19 % of refugees vs 16 % of host clients, p = 0.54). Refugee status was not independently associated with the outcome (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.28, 95 % CI 0.52, 3.14). Overall, the proportions of refugee and host community clients with unsuppressed viral loads and sub-optimal adherence were similar, supporting the idea that refugees in protracted asylum situations are able to sustain good treatment outcomes and should explicitly be included in the HIV strategic plans of host countries with a view to expanding access in accordance with national guidelines for HAART.

  14. Is forced migration a barrier to treatment success? Similar HIV treatment outcomes among refugees and a surrounding host community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Schilperoord, Marian; Spiegel, Paul; Balasundaram, Susheela; Radhakrishnan, Anuradha; Lee, Christopher K C; Larke, Natasha; Grant, Alison D; Sondorp, Egbert; Ross, David A

    2014-02-01

    In response to an absence of studies among refugees and host communities accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban settings, our objective was to compare adherence and virological outcomes among clients attending a public clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients (≥18 years). Data sources included a structured questionnaire that measured self-reported adherence, a pharmacy-based measure of HAART prescription refills over the previous 24 months, and HIV viral loads. The primary outcome was unsuppressed viral load (≥40 copies/mL). Among a sample of 153 refugees and 148 host community clients, refugees were younger (median age 35 [interquartile range, IQR 31, 39] vs 40 years [IQR 35, 48], p < 0.001), more likely to be female (36 vs 21 %, p = 0.004), and to have been on HAART for less time (61 [IQR 35, 108] vs 153 weeks [IQR 63, 298]; p < 0.001). Among all clients, similar proportions of refugee and host clients were <95 % adherent to pharmacy refills (26 vs 34 %, p = 0.15). When restricting to clients on treatment for ≥25 weeks, similar proportions from each group were not virologically suppressed (19 % of refugees vs 16 % of host clients, p = 0.54). Refugee status was not independently associated with the outcome (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.28, 95 % CI 0.52, 3.14). Overall, the proportions of refugee and host community clients with unsuppressed viral loads and sub-optimal adherence were similar, supporting the idea that refugees in protracted asylum situations are able to sustain good treatment outcomes and should explicitly be included in the HIV strategic plans of host countries with a view to expanding access in accordance with national guidelines for HAART. PMID:23748862

  15. World Beat: Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldberg, Gregory H.

    1994-09-01

    Malaysia is soaring economically, but it lags behind in science education. Starting virtually from scratch, astronomy proponents are building an astronomy education program. Its focus is a gleaming new planetarium in Kuala Lumpur.

  16. School Evaluation for Quality Improvement. Meeting of the Asian Network of Training and Research Institutions in Educational Planning (ANTRIEP) (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, July 2-4, 2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grauwe, Anton, Ed.; Naidoo, Jordan P., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The papers brought together in this volume are a selection from among those presented at the seminar organized in Kuala Lumpur, in July 2002 by the Asian Network of Training and Research Institutions in Educational Planning (ANTRIEP). The network consists of institutions whose main mandate includes training and research in educational planning and…

  17. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin

    2014-01-01

    We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7.6%) medium risk, 11 (30.6%) high risk, and 13 (7.7%) unsure risk). We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk.

  18. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin

    2014-01-01

    We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7.6%) medium risk, 11 (30.6%) high risk, and 13 (7.7%) unsure risk). We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk. PMID:25053941

  19. Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1988-08-01

    In this discussion of Malaysia, attention is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Malaysia. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.5 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000 with a life expectancy of 66 years. Peninsular Malaysia borders Thailand in the north and is separated from Singapore in the south by the narrow Johore Strait. About 50% of the area is covered by tropical jungle. The population distribution is uneven, with some 13.5 of the 16.5 million residents concentrated on the Peninsular Malaysia lowlands. The Malays, the largest population group, make up 49%. Nearly 1/3 of the Malaysians are Chinese, and Malaysians of Indian descent comprise slightly over 9% of the population. The early Buddhist Malay kingdom of Srivijaya, based at what currently is Palembang, Sumatra, dominated much of the Malay Peninsula from the 9th to the 13th centuries A.D. Full European control over the sultanates of the Malay Peninsula, Sabah, and Sarawak was not achieved until the latter half of the 19th century. During British control, a well-ordered system of public administration was created, public services were extended, and large-scale rubber and tin production was developed. Colonial rule was interrupted by the Japanese invasion and occupation from 1942-45. Malaysia achieved independence on August 31, 1957, and is a constitutional monarchy, nominally headed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or paramount ruler. The ruler also is the leader of the Islamic faith in Malaysia. Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the prime minister. The Malaysian legal system is based on English common law. The currently ruling Barisan Nasional, formed in 1973, includes 13 parties, among them the chief components of the former Alliance, a coalition of community-based parties. Malaysia's economic record is 1

  20. Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1988-08-01

    In this discussion of Malaysia, attention is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Malaysia. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.5 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000 with a life expectancy of 66 years. Peninsular Malaysia borders Thailand in the north and is separated from Singapore in the south by the narrow Johore Strait. About 50% of the area is covered by tropical jungle. The population distribution is uneven, with some 13.5 of the 16.5 million residents concentrated on the Peninsular Malaysia lowlands. The Malays, the largest population group, make up 49%. Nearly 1/3 of the Malaysians are Chinese, and Malaysians of Indian descent comprise slightly over 9% of the population. The early Buddhist Malay kingdom of Srivijaya, based at what currently is Palembang, Sumatra, dominated much of the Malay Peninsula from the 9th to the 13th centuries A.D. Full European control over the sultanates of the Malay Peninsula, Sabah, and Sarawak was not achieved until the latter half of the 19th century. During British control, a well-ordered system of public administration was created, public services were extended, and large-scale rubber and tin production was developed. Colonial rule was interrupted by the Japanese invasion and occupation from 1942-45. Malaysia achieved independence on August 31, 1957, and is a constitutional monarchy, nominally headed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or paramount ruler. The ruler also is the leader of the Islamic faith in Malaysia. Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the prime minister. The Malaysian legal system is based on English common law. The currently ruling Barisan Nasional, formed in 1973, includes 13 parties, among them the chief components of the former Alliance, a coalition of community-based parties. Malaysia's economic record is 1

  1. A report from the 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (June 30-July 3, 2013 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2013-08-01

    Effective antiretroviral drugs have been developed that, if continuously administered (although with simplification strategies once a patient's viral titer is suppressed) allow for a functional cure resulting in an almost normal life despite the presence of viral reservoirs. In that sense, observations that combination antiretroviral therapy has an untoward suppressive effect on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against T cells permitting the establishment of such viral reservoirs were discussed for its implications in the use of vaccines and/or modulators of the immune function to clear latent infections and the risk for reactivation (Madhavi, V. et al., Abst MOLBPE05). In addition to latent viral reservoirs, individual patient characteristics may also influence response to antiretroviral therapy, as exemplified by the increased likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients carrying certain polymorphic variants (rs2229109, rs6961419) of the P-glycoprotein 1 gene (Dias, J. et al., Abst MOPE034). These, and many other important news derived from research into novel approaches to fight HIV infection were discussed during the International AIDS Society (IAS) meeting in Kuala Lumpur, as summarized in the following report.

  2. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996.

    PubMed

    Zain, R B; Ikeda, N; Gupta, P C; Warnakulasuriya, S; van Wyk, C W; Shrestha, P; Axéll, T

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit.

  3. Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Niel, Eloise Smith; Schelander, Bjorn

    This book provides an overview of Malaysia's history and culture. The book begins with a prehistoric times and continues through nationhood. Each chapter provides background information along with student activities and project suggestions. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Early Trade and Civilization"; (3) "The British Presence in the…

  4. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  5. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  6. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  7. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  8. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  9. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  10. 27 CFR 22.25 - Right of entry and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and examination. 22.25 Section 22.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL...

  11. 78 FR 22237 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... executive led education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from... the Philippines and Malaysia. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  12. Supervision Practices and Teachers' Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools: Malaysia and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Wei, Yan; Ahmad, Jamil; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore supervision practices among school management teams and teachers' satisfaction in secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and He Fei, China. The samples consist of 248 managers and 367 teachers in Kuala Lumpur, and 175 managers and 346 teachers in He Fei. The study indicates that the level of supervision…

  13. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... FR 22237, April 15, 2013, regarding the education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia scheduled for October 23-October 30, 2013, to revise the mission description from... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International...

  14. Molecular diversity of HIV-1 and surveillance of transmitted drug resistance variants among treatment Naïve patients, 5 years after active introduction of HAART in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lai Yee; Razak, Siti Nur Humaira; Lee, Yeat Mei; Sri La Sri Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Azwa, Raja Iskandar; Tee, Kok Keng; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-01-01

    Expansion of antiretroviral treatment programs have led to the growing concern for the development of antiretroviral drug resistance. The aims were to assess the prevalence of drug resistant HIV-1 variants and to identify circulating subtypes among HAART-naïve patients. Plasma specimens from N = 100 HIV+ HAART-naïve adult were collected between March 2008 and August 2010 and viral RNA were extracted for nested PCR and sequenced. PR-RT sequences were protein aligned and checked for transmitted drug resistance mutations. Phylogenetic reconstruction and recombination analysis were performed to determine the genotypes. Based on the WHO consensus guidelines, none of the recruited patients had any transmitted drug resistance mutations. When analyzed against the Stanford guidelines, 35% of patients had at least one reported mutation that may reduce drug susceptibility to PI (24%), NRTI (5%), and NNRTI (14%). The commonly detected mutation that may affect current first line therapy was V179D (3%), which may lead to reduced susceptibility to NNRTI. The predominant circulating HIV-1 genotypes were CRF01_AE (51%) and CRF33_01B (17%). The prevalence of unique recombinant forms (URF) was 7%; five distinct recombinant structures involving CRF01_AE and subtype B' were observed, among them a cluster of three isolates that could form a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF) candidate. Transmitted drug resistance prevalence among HAART-naïve patients was low in this cohort of patients in Kuala Lumpur despite introduction of HAART 5 years ago. Owing to the high genetic diversity, continued molecular surveillance can identify the persistent emergence of HIV-1 URF and novel CRF with significant epidemiological impact.

  15. Chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: review of results at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Khanijow, V K; Prasad, U; Chang, C M

    1989-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the commonest presentation of head and neck cancers in Malaysia, especially in the Chinese. The standard treatment is radical radiotherapy to the post-nasal space and the neck. Chemotherapy is given to patients with primary advanced disease and to patients with recurrence. The study reviews results of chemotherapy given to 33 patients at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, over the last four years.

  16. Predictors of contraceptive use among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Tan Boon Ann; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine some socioeconomic factors that are associated with family planning practice in a metropolitan area of a developing country, namely Malaysia. Data collected during the 1977 Family and Health Survey in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya is utilized. The study population comprised currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, the 2 densely populated, rapidly expanding and adjoining metropolitan areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The study population was selected using a 2-stage systematic sampling technique from specifically defined areas in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya. These areas were selected accourding to socioeconomic criteria, namely, the squatter or slum areas, the new villages located on the periphery of the metropolitan area, other Kuala Lumpur and other Petaling Jaya. Family planning behavior, specifically, contraceptive use is also associated with socioeconomic variables. It is determined that the best predictors of contraceptive use, in order of importance are ethnicity, age and area. However, the relationship between age and contraceptive use varies across ethnic groups. In particular, among Malay and Chinese women, contraceptive use decreases as age increases, but among Indian women usage is not related to age. For the Malay women, usage decreases rapidly after age 24 years but the decline is more gradual for the Chinese women. In general, Chinese women are more likely to be current users in comparison to Malays, while the Indians occupy an intermediate position. The probability of usage is higher for women residing in Petaling Jaya and squatter areas in comparison to those residing in Kuala Lumpur and new villages. PMID:12314885

  17. Predictors of contraceptive use among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Tan Boon Ann; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine some socioeconomic factors that are associated with family planning practice in a metropolitan area of a developing country, namely Malaysia. Data collected during the 1977 Family and Health Survey in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya is utilized. The study population comprised currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, the 2 densely populated, rapidly expanding and adjoining metropolitan areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The study population was selected using a 2-stage systematic sampling technique from specifically defined areas in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya. These areas were selected accourding to socioeconomic criteria, namely, the squatter or slum areas, the new villages located on the periphery of the metropolitan area, other Kuala Lumpur and other Petaling Jaya. Family planning behavior, specifically, contraceptive use is also associated with socioeconomic variables. It is determined that the best predictors of contraceptive use, in order of importance are ethnicity, age and area. However, the relationship between age and contraceptive use varies across ethnic groups. In particular, among Malay and Chinese women, contraceptive use decreases as age increases, but among Indian women usage is not related to age. For the Malay women, usage decreases rapidly after age 24 years but the decline is more gradual for the Chinese women. In general, Chinese women are more likely to be current users in comparison to Malays, while the Indians occupy an intermediate position. The probability of usage is higher for women residing in Petaling Jaya and squatter areas in comparison to those residing in Kuala Lumpur and new villages.

  18. Molecular diversity of HIV-1 among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: massive expansion of circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B and emergence of multiple unique recombinant clusters.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Ong, Lai Yee; Razak, Siti Humaira; Lee, Yeat Mei; Ng, Kim Tien; Yong, Yean Kong; Azmel, Azureen; Takebe, Yutaka; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B in Malaysia in the early 2000 s, continuous genetic diversification and active recombination involving CRF33_01B and other circulating genotypes in the region including CRF01_AE and subtype B' of Thai origin, have led to the emergence of novel CRFs and unique recombinant forms. The history and magnitude of CRF33_01B transmission among various risk groups including people who inject drugs (PWID) however have not been investigated despite the high epidemiological impact of CRF33_01B in the region. We update the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among PWIDs recruited in Malaysia between 2010 and 2011 by population sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 128 gag-pol sequences. HIV-1 CRF33_01B was circulating among 71% of PWIDs whilst a lower prevalence of other previously dominant HIV-1 genotypes [subtype B' (11%) and CRF01_AE (5%)] and CRF01_AE/B' unique recombinants (13%) were detected, indicating a significant shift in genotype replacement in this population. Three clusters of CRF01_AE/B' recombinants displaying divergent yet phylogenetically-related mosaic genomes to CRF33_01B were identified and characterized, suggestive of an abrupt emergence of multiple novel CRF clades. Using rigorous maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of CRF33_01Bpol sequences to elucidate the past population dynamics, we found that the founder lineages of CRF33_01B were likely to have first emerged among PWIDs in the early 1990 s before spreading exponentially to various high and low-risk populations (including children who acquired infections from their mothers) and later on became endemic around the early 2000 s. Taken together, our findings provide notable genetic evidence indicating the widespread expansion of CRF33_01B among PWIDs and into the general population. The emergence of numerous previously unknown recombinant clades highlights the escalating

  19. Molecular Diversity of HIV-1 among People Who Inject Drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Massive Expansion of Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF) 33_01B and Emergence of Multiple Unique Recombinant Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Ng, Kim Tien; Yong, Yean Kong; Azmel, Azureen; Takebe, Yutaka; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B in Malaysia in the early 2000 s, continuous genetic diversification and active recombination involving CRF33_01B and other circulating genotypes in the region including CRF01_AE and subtype B′ of Thai origin, have led to the emergence of novel CRFs and unique recombinant forms. The history and magnitude of CRF33_01B transmission among various risk groups including people who inject drugs (PWID) however have not been investigated despite the high epidemiological impact of CRF33_01B in the region. We update the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among PWIDs recruited in Malaysia between 2010 and 2011 by population sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 128 gag-pol sequences. HIV-1 CRF33_01B was circulating among 71% of PWIDs whilst a lower prevalence of other previously dominant HIV-1 genotypes [subtype B′ (11%) and CRF01_AE (5%)] and CRF01_AE/B′ unique recombinants (13%) were detected, indicating a significant shift in genotype replacement in this population. Three clusters of CRF01_AE/B′ recombinants displaying divergent yet phylogenetically-related mosaic genomes to CRF33_01B were identified and characterized, suggestive of an abrupt emergence of multiple novel CRF clades. Using rigorous maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of CRF33_01Bpol sequences to elucidate the past population dynamics, we found that the founder lineages of CRF33_01B were likely to have first emerged among PWIDs in the early 1990 s before spreading exponentially to various high and low-risk populations (including children who acquired infections from their mothers) and later on became endemic around the early 2000 s. Taken together, our findings provide notable genetic evidence indicating the widespread expansion of CRF33_01B among PWIDs and into the general population. The emergence of numerous previously unknown recombinant clades highlights the

  20. Molecular alterations of Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathways in colorectal cancers from a tertiary hospital at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yip, Wai Kien; Choo, Chee Wei; Leong, Vincent Ching-Shian; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Jabar, Mohd Faisal; Seow, Heng Fong

    2013-10-01

    Molecular alterations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and PTEN have been implicated in designing targeted therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to determine the status of these molecular alterations in Malaysian CRCs as such data are not available in the literature. We investigated the mutations of KRAS, BRAF, and PTEN, the gene amplification of PIK3CA, and the protein expression of PTEN and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (p110α) by direct DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 49 CRC samples. The frequency of KRAS (codons 12, 13, and 61), BRAF (V600E), and PTEN mutations, and PIK3CA amplification was 25.0% (11/44), 2.3% (1/43), 0.0% (0/43), and 76.7% (33/43), respectively. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated loss of PTEN protein in 54.5% (24/44) of CRCs and no significant difference in PI3K p110α expression between CRCs and the adjacent normal colonic mucosa (p = 0.380). PIK3CA amplification was not associated with PI3K p110α expression level, but associated with male cases (100% of male cases vs 56% of female cases harbored amplified PIK3CA, p = 0.002). PI3K p110α expression was significantly higher (p = 0.041) in poorly/moderately differentiated carcinoma compared with well-differentiated carcinoma. KRAS mutation, PIK3CA amplification, PTEN loss, and PI3K p110α expression did not correlate with Akt phosphorylation or Ki-67 expression. KRAS mutation, PIK3CA amplification, and PTEN loss were not mutually exclusive. This is the first report on CRC in Malaysia showing comparable frequency of KRAS mutation and PTEN loss, lower BRAF mutation rate, higher PIK3CA amplification frequency, and rare PTEN mutation, as compared with published reports.

  1. A microbiological study of genital ulcers in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Zainah, S; Cheong, Y M; Sinniah, M; Gan, A T; Akbal, K

    1991-09-01

    The microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, Haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and Chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). Syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. Two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphilis and one (0.5%) had both gonorrhoea and syphilis. No organism was isolated in the remaining 151 (61.5%) patients. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 58% for single infection, 67% for herpes, 63% for syphilis, 47% for chancroid and 0% for lymphogranuloma venereum. Therefore, our study confirms the need for laboratory tests to diagnose accurately the aetiology of genital ulcer disease.

  2. Audit of pediatric hematology-oncology outpatients in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Menon, Bina Sharine; Juraida, Eni; Ibrahim, Hishamshah; Mohamed, Mahfuzah; Ho, Caroline; Khuzaiah, Raja

    2008-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the types of cancers and hematological disorders in patients attending a pediatric hematology-oncology clinic. This was a prospective study at the Pediatric Institute, General Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from June 2005-November 2006. During the 18-month study, 803 patients attended the clinic, 730 had oncological problems and 73 had hematological problems. The age range was from 2 months to 28 years (median 6 years). The patients were Malay (66%), Chinese (23%), Indian (10%) and other races (1%). Of the oncological patients, 51% had either leukemia (n=293) or lymphoma (n=77). The other most common diagnoses were retinoblastoma, followed by Wilm's tumor and germ cell tumors. Six patients (0.8%) developed a second malignant neoplasm. Of the hematological patients, 60% had platelet disorders, most commonly chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Twenty-four per cent had bone marrow failure and 16% had red cell disorders.

  3. History of Neurosurgery in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    RAFFIQ, Azman; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin; HASPANI, Saffari; ADNAN, Johari Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The development of neurosurgical services and training in Malaysia began in 1963, with the first centre established in its capital city at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, aimed to provide much needed neurosurgical services and training in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. This center subsequently expanded in 1975 with the establishment of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Neuroscience Institute (IKTAR); which integrated the three allied interdependent disciplines of neurosurgery, neurology and psychiatry. The establishment of this institute catalysed the rapid expansion of neurosurgical services in Malaysia and paved the way for development of comprehensive training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics. This culminated in the establishments of a local comprehensive neurosurgery training program for doctors in 2001; followed by a training program for nurses and paramedics in 2006. To date, there are more than 60 neurosurgeons providing expert care in 11 centers across Malaysia, along with trained personnel in the field of neurosciences. PMID:27006632

  4. History of Neurosurgery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Raffiq, Azman; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Haspani, Saffari; Adnan, Johari Siregar

    2015-12-01

    The development of neurosurgical services and training in Malaysia began in 1963, with the first centre established in its capital city at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, aimed to provide much needed neurosurgical services and training in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. This center subsequently expanded in 1975 with the establishment of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Neuroscience Institute (IKTAR); which integrated the three allied interdependent disciplines of neurosurgery, neurology and psychiatry. The establishment of this institute catalysed the rapid expansion of neurosurgical services in Malaysia and paved the way for development of comprehensive training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics. This culminated in the establishments of a local comprehensive neurosurgery training program for doctors in 2001; followed by a training program for nurses and paramedics in 2006. To date, there are more than 60 neurosurgeons providing expert care in 11 centers across Malaysia, along with trained personnel in the field of neurosciences. PMID:27006632

  5. History of Neurosurgery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Raffiq, Azman; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Haspani, Saffari; Adnan, Johari Siregar

    2015-12-01

    The development of neurosurgical services and training in Malaysia began in 1963, with the first centre established in its capital city at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, aimed to provide much needed neurosurgical services and training in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. This center subsequently expanded in 1975 with the establishment of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Neuroscience Institute (IKTAR); which integrated the three allied interdependent disciplines of neurosurgery, neurology and psychiatry. The establishment of this institute catalysed the rapid expansion of neurosurgical services in Malaysia and paved the way for development of comprehensive training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics. This culminated in the establishments of a local comprehensive neurosurgery training program for doctors in 2001; followed by a training program for nurses and paramedics in 2006. To date, there are more than 60 neurosurgeons providing expert care in 11 centers across Malaysia, along with trained personnel in the field of neurosciences.

  6. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  7. 4 CFR 22.25 - Protective Orders and In Camera Review [Rule 25].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective Orders and In Camera Review . 22.25 Section 22... ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.25 Protective Orders and In Camera Review . (a) Protective... specified in an order of the Board. (b) In camera review. Generally, all documents and evidence provided...

  8. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  9. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  10. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  11. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  12. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  13. An analysis of glaucoma patients seen at the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a five year period: 1986 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, S

    1998-03-01

    The records of all the glaucoma patients seen at the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a five year period were analysed. The racial, age and sex distribution of patients with primary open angle glaucoma and primary angle closure glaucoma was determined. The causes of secondary glaucoma were analysed. As no previous records of glaucoma statistics are available in Malaysia, it is hoped that these findings will form an initial mosaic to build on in the future.

  14. Profile of narcotic abuse in peninsula Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N; Haq, S

    1980-01-01

    Demographic and drug abuse characteristics of 3,484 new drug abuse contacts presenting to the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are reported. The large majority were heroin inhalers. They were different from the traditional Eastern opium inhalers and similar to Western heroin injectors in that they were young, male, single, and frequently unemployed. These features and the relative underrepresentation of Chinese suggest that the Chinese of this study did not learn narcotic abuse from opium-smoking relatives. PMID:7446511

  15. Spatial pattern of 2009 dengue distribution in Kuala Lumpur using GIS application.

    PubMed

    Aziz, S; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Sholehah, I; Nur Farhana, J; Azizan, A S; Wan Yusoff, W S

    2012-03-01

    In the last few years in Malaysia, dengue fever has increased dramatically and has caused huge public health concerns. The present study aimed to establish a spatial distribution of dengue cases in the city of Kuala Lumpur using a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistical tools. Collation of data from 1,618 dengue cases in 2009 was obtained from Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL). These data were processed and then converted into GIS format. Information on the average monthly rainfall was also used to correlate with the distribution pattern of dengue cases. To asses the spatial distribution of dengue cases, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) Analysis was applied together with spatial analysis with the ESRI ArcGIS V9.3 programme. Results indicated that the distribution of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur for the year 2009 was spatially clustered with R value less than 1 (R = 0.42; z-scores = - 4.47; p < 0.001). Nevertheless, when this pattern was further analyzed according to month by each zone within Kuala Lumpur, two distinct patterns were observed which include a clustered pattern (R value < 1) between April to June and a dispersed pattern (R value > 1) between August and November. In addition, the mean monthly rainfall has not influenced the distribution pattern of the dengue cases. Implementation of control measures is more difficult for dispersed pattern compared to clustered pattern. From this study, it was found that distribution pattern of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur in 2009 was spatially distributed (dispersed or clustered) rather than cases occurring randomly. It was proven that by using GIS and spatial statistic tools, we can determine the spatial distribution between dengue and population. Utilization of GIS tools is vital in assisting health agencies, epidemiologist, public health officer, town planner and relevant authorities in developing efficient control measures and contingency programmes to effectively combat dengue fever

  16. Spatial pattern of 2009 dengue distribution in Kuala Lumpur using GIS application.

    PubMed

    Aziz, S; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Sholehah, I; Nur Farhana, J; Azizan, A S; Wan Yusoff, W S

    2012-03-01

    In the last few years in Malaysia, dengue fever has increased dramatically and has caused huge public health concerns. The present study aimed to establish a spatial distribution of dengue cases in the city of Kuala Lumpur using a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistical tools. Collation of data from 1,618 dengue cases in 2009 was obtained from Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL). These data were processed and then converted into GIS format. Information on the average monthly rainfall was also used to correlate with the distribution pattern of dengue cases. To asses the spatial distribution of dengue cases, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) Analysis was applied together with spatial analysis with the ESRI ArcGIS V9.3 programme. Results indicated that the distribution of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur for the year 2009 was spatially clustered with R value less than 1 (R = 0.42; z-scores = - 4.47; p < 0.001). Nevertheless, when this pattern was further analyzed according to month by each zone within Kuala Lumpur, two distinct patterns were observed which include a clustered pattern (R value < 1) between April to June and a dispersed pattern (R value > 1) between August and November. In addition, the mean monthly rainfall has not influenced the distribution pattern of the dengue cases. Implementation of control measures is more difficult for dispersed pattern compared to clustered pattern. From this study, it was found that distribution pattern of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur in 2009 was spatially distributed (dispersed or clustered) rather than cases occurring randomly. It was proven that by using GIS and spatial statistic tools, we can determine the spatial distribution between dengue and population. Utilization of GIS tools is vital in assisting health agencies, epidemiologist, public health officer, town planner and relevant authorities in developing efficient control measures and contingency programmes to effectively combat dengue fever.

  17. The pattern of maternal mortality at maternity hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nafisah Adeeb

    1983-01-01

    National data on maternal health status in Malaysia is minimal. These data, from Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, are presented toward the goal of accumulation of basic information. From 1978-81, there were 74,105 deliveries and 9,899 abortion admissions in this hospital, which serves as a referral center for areas within a 100-mile radius. 39 maternal mortalities were recorded in this time. Maternal mortality excluding that associated with abortions was 29.27/100,000 births; when abortions are included, the figure increases to 70.54. 50% of the women who died were under 30 years of age. 28.2% of deaths occurred among primigravida, and 25.64% were associated with parity 5 or above. Malays had a mortality rate double that of Chinese or Indians. Major causes of death were toxemia, hemorrhage, embolism, medical disease, and sepsis. These causes accounted for 89% of deaths, while the remaining 11% were due to uterine inversion, obstetric trauma, and pulmonary edema. Avoidable factors were isolated in all the deaths except 3, 1 due to infective hepatitis, and 2 due to cardiac disease. Inefficient hospital care occurred in 17 patients, defective care before admission in 2, and 4 death were associated with patients' failure to seek or accept medical attention. The need for documenting all maternal mortalities is a priority in Malaysia.

  18. Attempted suicide in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Habil, M H; Ganesvaran, T; Agnes, L S

    A total of 306 patients were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur in 1989 after attempting suicide. Fourteen of them succumbed to injuries. Psychosocial data of 296 patients out of the 306 survivors are reported. Suicidal behaviour is more common in the young and especially amongst the females. Nearly 45.0% of them are from social class IV and V. Persons of Indian ethnic origin are overrepresented, while in Malays suicidal behavior seemed to be less common. Self-poisoning was reported to be the commonest method in attempting suicide. Diagnosis of adjustment disorder was made in 58.5% of the patients. Two-thirds of the patients had an intention score of less than 10 on the Pierce's Scale.

  19. Medical education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Victor K E

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has a long history of medical education, with Singapore becoming the first medical school to serve the region after its foundation in 1905. The first school to be established in Kuala Lumpur after independence from the British was the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya in 1963. Whilst today there are 21 public and private medical schools, all offering a 5 year undergraduate programme, some private schools have diversified by developing international collaboration and conduct twinning or credit-transfer programmes. All medical schools require accreditation by the National Accreditation Board and the Malaysian Medical Council. Although the criteria for accreditation is comprehensive and covers a broad range of areas of assessment, it is debatable whether it always matches the needs of the country. The dramatic increase in medical schools in the last two decades has posed challenges in terms of maintenance of quality, physical infrastructure and suitably qualified faculty.

  20. Cryptococcosis in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur and review of published cases.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, R; Soo-Hoo Tuck Soon

    1982-01-01

    Between January 1974 and June 1980, 85 cases of cryptococcosis were diagnosed in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The diagnosis was based on positive culture of the organism in 81 cases; the remaining four were diagnosed on histopathological findings. Cerebral cryptococcosis was the most common presentation and Chinese are particularly susceptible (72% of cases). The incidence of the disease is shown to be far greater than previously suspected. Association with compromised host status is uncommon (14%). The local literature is briefly reviewed and the findings discussed.

  1. HIV Prevalence Among People Who Inject Drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur Recruited Using Respondent-Driven Sampling.

    PubMed

    Bazazi, Alexander R; Crawford, Forrest; Zelenev, Alexei; Heimer, Robert; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-12-01

    The HIV epidemic in Malaysia is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID). Accurate estimates of HIV prevalence are critical for developing appropriate treatment and prevention interventions for PWID in Malaysia. In 2010, 461 PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Participants completed rapid HIV testing and behavioral assessments. Estimates of HIV prevalence were computed for each of the three recruitment sites and the overall sample. HIV prevalence was 15.8 % (95 % CI 12.5-19.2 %) overall but varied widely by location: 37.0 % (28.6-45.4 %) in Kampung Baru, 10.3 % (5.0-15.6 %) in Kajang, and 6.3 % (3.0-9.5 %) in Shah Alam. Recruitment extended to locations far from initial interview sites but was concentrated around discrete geographic regions. We document the high prevalence of HIV among PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur. Sustained support for community surveillance and HIV prevention interventions is needed to stem the HIV epidemic among PWID in Malaysia.

  2. [Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-03-01

    This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia.

  3. [Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-03-01

    This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia. PMID:8341176

  4. Trends in Self-Harm in Kuala Lumpur, 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Christopher J; Abdul Rahim, Wirda; Rowe, Richard; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Acts of self-harm are not routinely tracked in Malaysia. The present study investigates the prevalence of self-harm in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a 7-year period. The aims were to: (a) assess the prevalence of self-harm; (b) examine any changes over a period of 7 years, and (c) identify correlates of methods of self-harm. Data were extracted from the hospital records of Kuala Lumpur Hospital to review trends in self-harm between 2005 and 2011. There were 918 episodes of self-harm across the 7-year period, with a significant peak in 2007-2009. The average rate of self-harm (7.7 per 100,000 population per year) was similar or lower than the rate of suicide (6-8 or 8-13 per 100,000) suggesting that genuine cases of self-harm are often attributed to other causes. Nevertheless, over-representation of young people, women and Indians suggest areas in which resources to prevent self-harm might usefully be targeted. Estimating rates of self-harm are fraught with problems and further research is needed to understand the economic and cultural barriers around seeking treatment for self-harm, reporting self-harm and classifying self-harm.

  5. Leprosy in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, P

    1994-06-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease and is still a public health problem in Malaysia. In 1926, the Leper Enactment Act was established which required compulsory notification and isolation of leprosy patients. As a result, the National Leprosy Control Centre (NLCC) was built in Sungai Buloh, Selangor. In 1969, the National Leprosy Control programme was launched with the objective of early case finding and decentralisation of treatment of leprosy. The treatment of leprosy patients is integrated with basic Medical and Health services in Malaysia. With the implementation of multiple drug therapy in 1985, the National prevalence rate of leprosy has reduced from 5.7 per 10,000 in 1983 to 1.7 per 10,000 in 1992. The Research Unit in NLCC was established in 1950, where cultivation of Mycobacterium leprae using mouse foot-pad technique is done. This technique is used for assessment of efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in leprosy. Research activites are also done in collaboration with the Institute for Medical Research in Kuala Lumpur such as isolation of Mycobacterium leprae antigen using T cell clones and phenolic glycolipid antigen.

  6. The Sindhis in Malaysia--Language Maintenance, Language Loss or Language Death?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khemlani-David, Maya

    Language used in the home domain of Sindhis in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was studied. Migration patterns have resulted in the Sindhis becoming a linguistic minority in many parts of the world as well as in India. In this study actual speech patterns of parents toward their children and between spouses was observed, and a questionnaire was…

  7. Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur) and rural (Kuala Terengganu) setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained. Results Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38%) were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001). The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33%) households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3%) households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5%) experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%). The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03) than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24). Conclusions While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination

  8. Measles among U.S.-bound refugees from Malaysia--California, Maryland, North Carolina, and Wisconsin, August-September 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-09-23

    On August 26, 2011, California public health officials notified CDC of a suspected measles case in an unvaccinated male refugee aged 15 years from Burma (the index patient), who had lived in an urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which is experiencing ongoing measles outbreaks. Currently, approximately 92,000 such refugees are living in urban communities in Malaysia. Resettlement programs in the United States and other countries are ongoing. The health and vaccination status of urban refugees are largely unknown. PMID:21937975

  9. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.

  10. The nutritional situation in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, with focus on squatters.

    PubMed

    Lin, K G

    1992-01-01

    Kuala Lumpur is the capital city of Malaysia with an estimated population of 1.55 million. Approximately 12% of the population live in squatter settlements occupying about 7% of the city total area. The squatter settlements generally are provided with basic amenities such as piped water, toilet facilities and electricity. Health indicators for the overall population of Kuala Lumpur are better off than for the rest of the country; however, intra-city differentials prevail along ethnic and socio-economic lines. Malays and Indians have higher rates for stillbirths, and neonatal, infant and toddler mortality than the Chinese. The wide disparity in the socio-economic status between the advantaged and the poor groups in the city is reflected in the dietary practices and nutritional status of young children from these communities. The percentage of preschool children from urban poor households with inadequate intakes of calories and nutrients is two to three times higher than those from the advantaged group. Compared to rural infants, a lower percentage of urban infants are breastfed. A lower percentage of Malays from the urban advantaged group breastfed, compared with the urban poor group. The reversed trend is found for the Chinese community. Growth attainment of young children from the urban poor is worse than the urban advantaged, though better than the rural poor. Health and nutritional practices implications related to both undernutrition and overnutrition are discussed, to illustrate the twin challenges of malnutrition in the city.

  11. The nutritional situation in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, with focus on squatters.

    PubMed

    Lin, K G

    1992-01-01

    Kuala Lumpur is the capital city of Malaysia with an estimated population of 1.55 million. Approximately 12% of the population live in squatter settlements occupying about 7% of the city total area. The squatter settlements generally are provided with basic amenities such as piped water, toilet facilities and electricity. Health indicators for the overall population of Kuala Lumpur are better off than for the rest of the country; however, intra-city differentials prevail along ethnic and socio-economic lines. Malays and Indians have higher rates for stillbirths, and neonatal, infant and toddler mortality than the Chinese. The wide disparity in the socio-economic status between the advantaged and the poor groups in the city is reflected in the dietary practices and nutritional status of young children from these communities. The percentage of preschool children from urban poor households with inadequate intakes of calories and nutrients is two to three times higher than those from the advantaged group. Compared to rural infants, a lower percentage of urban infants are breastfed. A lower percentage of Malays from the urban advantaged group breastfed, compared with the urban poor group. The reversed trend is found for the Chinese community. Growth attainment of young children from the urban poor is worse than the urban advantaged, though better than the rural poor. Health and nutritional practices implications related to both undernutrition and overnutrition are discussed, to illustrate the twin challenges of malnutrition in the city. PMID:1342754

  12. Focus on Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Forman, L T

    1979-01-01

    Prospects for a stable, prospering economy in Malaysia appear threatened by an uneven distribution of wealth among non-Malay, particularly Chinese, residents. Native Malays, Bumiputra, have benefitted from the government's 20 year New Economic Policy, a system of subsidies to correct economic imbalances among the races. Malay corporate ownership has increased from 2.4% in 1970 to 28% in 1979. However, equity must increase by 26% annually to meet NEP targets. Without the GNP expanding 7-8% yearly, the government will be tempted to acquire assets at low prices. 70% of the total Malay ownership was held by public enterprises holding equity in trust. An elite group of Bumiputra will own a fair number of shares reserved by 1970. 1/5 of the population of Kuala Lumpur are squatters. Among these groups, communal tension is high. The Chinese businessmen are most resistant to native management. Since they control private domestic investment, they have political power. The Industrial Coordination Act (ICA), which gives power to civil servants through a licensing system, protects the system. The Asian Foundation supports management training, business development, and university demonstration projects in legal aid, solar energy, and community psychiatry. Malaysian competence in English enables widespread distribution of the Books for Asia program. PMID:12335915

  13. Focus on Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Forman, L T

    1979-01-01

    Prospects for a stable, prospering economy in Malaysia appear threatened by an uneven distribution of wealth among non-Malay, particularly Chinese, residents. Native Malays, Bumiputra, have benefitted from the government's 20 year New Economic Policy, a system of subsidies to correct economic imbalances among the races. Malay corporate ownership has increased from 2.4% in 1970 to 28% in 1979. However, equity must increase by 26% annually to meet NEP targets. Without the GNP expanding 7-8% yearly, the government will be tempted to acquire assets at low prices. 70% of the total Malay ownership was held by public enterprises holding equity in trust. An elite group of Bumiputra will own a fair number of shares reserved by 1970. 1/5 of the population of Kuala Lumpur are squatters. Among these groups, communal tension is high. The Chinese businessmen are most resistant to native management. Since they control private domestic investment, they have political power. The Industrial Coordination Act (ICA), which gives power to civil servants through a licensing system, protects the system. The Asian Foundation supports management training, business development, and university demonstration projects in legal aid, solar energy, and community psychiatry. Malaysian competence in English enables widespread distribution of the Books for Asia program.

  14. A retrospective study on malaria cases admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, 1984-1988.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, P S; Ng, S C

    1991-06-01

    A review of malaria cases over a five year period from 1984-1988 at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia is presented. A total of 64 cases were recorded; 50% of which were due to Plasmodium falciparum, 40.6% were due to Plasmodium vivax, 6.2% due to Plasmodium malariae and 3.1% due to a mixed infection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The breakdown of species type compared similarly with other studies conducted in the region. Of this total, sixteen cases were imported from Pakistan, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Madagascar and Mali. The presenting symptoms and the clinical findings were typical of a malaria infection. The main problem in the future will be the increase in imported cases of malaria.

  15. Audit of imported and domestic malaria cases at Kuala Lumpur Hospital.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Cheong, I

    1995-01-01

    The clinical, haematological and biochemical profiles of all domestic and imported malaria cases admitted to the Hospital Kuala Lumpur were analysed. The most common malaria types were Plasmodium falciparum (39.5%) and Plasmodium vivax (42%). The most common patient type was men aged 29-40 years (reflecting the high mobility of this group, many of whom were illegal immigrants). Misdiagnosis on admission was frequently due to the variable clinical presentation of the disease and the difficulties of obtaining an accurate history. Associated haematological abnormalities were common. Chloroquine resistance was diagnosed in four P. falciparum patients and in one P. falciparum/vivax patient. Overall, imported malaria did not seem more severe than domestic. The three patients with cerebral malaria survived. One patient died of acute liver failure. The large influx of illegal immigrants to Malaysia has resulted in a surge in malaria infection; illegal immigrants remain a source of chloroquine resistance.

  16. Adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: initial experience in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Teh, A; Bosco, J J; Leong, K W; Saw, M H; Menaka, N; Devashanti, P

    1997-03-01

    Prior to 1993, bone marrow transplantation for adult patients was not available in Malaysia. Adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation commenced in Malaysia when the first transplant was conducted at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur on 2 November 1993. Up till July 1995, 10 adult bone marrow transplants had been conducted at the University Hospital. Five patients had acute myeloid leukaemia in first remission, 4 had chronic myeloid leukaemia and 1 had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first partial remission. The age range of patients at the time of transplant is 16-40 years (mean 25.5 years). All patients engrafted successfully and the survival for the first 100 days post-transplant is 90%. One patient demonstrated haematological relapse post-transplant but achieved remission with donor buffy-coat infusion. The mean drug cost incurred was RM28,269 for the first 100 days. Locally available adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is safe, affordable and has comparable results with reputable overseas transplant centres.

  17. Seventh IUVDT Regional Conference on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Kuala Lumpur, 5-7 September 1991.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A J; Waugh, M A

    1992-04-01

    In September 1991, the 7th IUVDT Regional Conference on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) convened in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to exchange information on the importance of controlling STDs and HIV-AIDS in Asia. Speakers from Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan provided the latest HIV-AIDS epidemiological data. In Thailand, heterosexual transmission of HIV is catching up with iv drug use. Most infected women are 15-24 years old. In Malaysia, drug use iv drug use trails heterosexual transmission of HIV. In Japan, hemophiliacs comprise 85% of HIV-positive people. Current problems do not compare to the sizable task Asian countries face in affecting the progression of the HIV-AIDS epidemic. All countries need to implement control measures quickly and at the same time. They should not pretend traditional values and beliefs would shield their people from the epidemic. Asian countries should especially stop promoting themselves as places of sexual adventure. Control programs should also target STDs. Australian presenters discussed the results of the Sydney Sexual Lifestyle Study and a study on the effect of zidovudine therapy on the prognosis of AIDS. Another presentation focused on the possibility of a vaccine for chlamydia infection. Several papers centered on the treatment of chancroid and gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis and evaluation of a detection test for chlamydia infection. 1 participant reviewed the role of human papilloma virus in cervical carcinogenesis. Another participant demonstrated a link between bacterial vaginosis and adnexal tenderness and pelvic infection. The conference concluded with a presenter challenging everyone to meet the HIV-AIDS challenge. Reasons why current control measures do not work include inadequate facilities to manage STDs, tendency not to consider HIV another STD, failure to promote and lack of condoms, and not educating school children about HIV-AIDS.

  18. Rain Attenuation Analysis using Synthetic Storm Technique in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwas, A. K.; Islam, Md R.; Chebil, J.; Habaebi, M. H.; Ismail, A. F.; Zyoud, A.; Dao, H.

    2013-12-01

    Generated rain attenuation time series plays an important role for investigating the rain fade characteristics in the lack of real fade measurements. A suitable conversion technique can be applied to measured rain rate time series to produce rain attenuation data and be utilized to understand the rain fade characteristics. This paper focuses on applicability of synthetic storm technique (SST) to convert measured rain rate data to rain attenuation time series. Its performance is assessed for time series generation over a tropical location Kuala Lumpur, in Malaysia. From preliminary analysis, it is found that SST gives satisfactory results to estimate the rain attenuation time series from the rain rate measurements over this region.

  19. Tropospheric ozone variability during the monsoon season in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamad, Fatimah; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2013-11-01

    Vertical ozone (O3) profiles obtained from ozonesondes launched at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), Malaysia were analyzed. Results of soundings between January to March 2011 and July to September 2011 are presented along with meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity (RH)). The overall O3 concentration range between the soundings made during the northeast monsoon (January - March) and the southwest monsoon (July - September) were not far from each other for altitudes below 8 km. However O3 variability is less pronounced between 2 km and 12 km during the southwest monsoon compared to the northeast monsoon season.

  20. Environmental Air Pollutants as Risk Factors for Asthma Among Children Seen in Pediatric Clinics in UKMMC, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Idris, Idayu Badilla; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Zhie, Khor Hui; Khairuman, Khairul Aliff; Yahya, Siti Kasuma; Abd Zaim, Farah Azureen; Nam, Chok Wai; Abdul Rasid, Hazwan Zuhairi; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August 2015. A total of 223 children who were diagnosed with asthma (105 cases) and who did not have asthma (118 controls) were included in this study. Their parents or caregivers were interviewed using questionnaires modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. There was a higher risk of asthma in those who had carpet at home (OR = 2.15 CI [1.25-3.68]), those who lived within 200 m of heavy traffic (OR = 1.72 CI [1.01-2.93]), and those who were exposed to lorry fumes (OR = 2.61. CI [1.38-4.93]). Environmental air pollutants increased the risk of asthma among children in Malaysia. Exposure to congested roads, lorry fumes, and indoor carpet were associated with asthma among children in this study. Parents or caretakers of children with asthma should be given adequate education on the prevention of asthmatic attack among these children. PMID:27325078

  1. Environmental Air Pollutants as Risk Factors for Asthma Among Children Seen in Pediatric Clinics in UKMMC, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Idris, Idayu Badilla; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Zhie, Khor Hui; Khairuman, Khairul Aliff; Yahya, Siti Kasuma; Abd Zaim, Farah Azureen; Nam, Chok Wai; Abdul Rasid, Hazwan Zuhairi; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August 2015. A total of 223 children who were diagnosed with asthma (105 cases) and who did not have asthma (118 controls) were included in this study. Their parents or caregivers were interviewed using questionnaires modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. There was a higher risk of asthma in those who had carpet at home (OR = 2.15 CI [1.25-3.68]), those who lived within 200 m of heavy traffic (OR = 1.72 CI [1.01-2.93]), and those who were exposed to lorry fumes (OR = 2.61. CI [1.38-4.93]). Environmental air pollutants increased the risk of asthma among children in Malaysia. Exposure to congested roads, lorry fumes, and indoor carpet were associated with asthma among children in this study. Parents or caretakers of children with asthma should be given adequate education on the prevention of asthmatic attack among these children.

  2. Low birth weight in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Tahir, H M; Ismail, N N; Gebbie, D A

    1991-06-01

    Low birth weight babies are defined as those weighing under 2,500 g. They make 13.5% of all births at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur but contribute to 74.8% of all deaths. They are most likely to be Indian babies and least likely to be Chinese. Among all 3 communities, the primigravidae tend to produce smaller babies than multiparae but this is also true for the Indian of parity more than 3. The Malay teenager is more likely to produce small babies than their older counterparts but not so with the Indian and Chinese. There are definite clinical factors associated with or causing the births of small babies and the lighter the baby, the more influential are these factors. Maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage, multiple pregnancy and unexplained intrauterine death are the 4 outstanding associations with both low birth weight and perinatal death. Although the spontaneous (often premature) onset of labour was the commonest preceding factor, it was much less important in the lowest birth weight groups of babies and was a less important contributor to perinatal death.

  3. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with nosocomial infections in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Hanifah, Y A; Hiramatsu, K; Yokota, T

    1992-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a hospital pathogen has presented many clinical problems in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia since 1978. The need for control of spread of these organisms became evident by 1985 when it was noted that the incidence of MRSA among S. aureus isolated from hospital inpatients had increased from 11.5% in 1979 to 18.8% in 1985. The characteristics of 50 MRSA isolates associated with nosocomial infections in the hospital are described here. The predominant strains produced Type IV coagulase and 84% of isolates studied showed moderate to high resistance to methicillin with MIC values of 25 mg l-1 or higher. All the MRSA isolates that could be phagetyped were susceptible to Group III phages, with 76.6% of the isolates being susceptible to phage 85. At least 10 different patterns were distinguishable by plasmid typing, the majority of isolates harbouring up to four small plasmids.

  4. Spotlight: Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1988-03-01

    Focus is on Malaysia -- its population and land area, its total fertility rate and mortality rate, economic development, contraceptive usage, and population policy. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.1 million with births 31/1000 population and deaths 7/1000 population. The rate of natural increase is 2.4%, the total fertility rate 3.9 children/woman, and the infant mortality rate 30/1000 live births. Ethnically, Malaysia is made up of several distinct groups. Indigenous Malays are the most numerous -- about 50% of the population. Their unique characteristics include that they are Moslem, rural, and usually of lower economic status. Chinese make up the 2nd largest group of Malaysians, nearly 1/3 of the population. This group is active in trade, business, and finance and possesses considerable economic power. About 10% of the population is of Indian descent. Malaysia has experienced much economic growth. Traditional exports grew in volume and value during the 1970; the petroleum sector expanded so rapidly it accounts for 1/4 of all exports. One reason for Malaysia's rapid economic growth is the government's promotion of industrialization and foreign investment. According to the 1982 contraceptive prevalence survey, 42% of currently married women 15-44 years were using contraception. The government considers the current rate of national increase to be satisfactory, but in 1984 it adopted a population policy to more than quadruple its population in 2100 to 70 million. It intends to accomplish this by instituting pronatalist incentives to help the fall in the national growth rate. The government's rationale for more population growth is that a larger domestic population could better support industrial growth that otherwise might be stymied by "protectionist policies practiced by developed countries." Incentives to encourage fertility include income-tax deductions and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children. PMID:12341834

  5. Spotlight: Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1988-03-01

    Focus is on Malaysia -- its population and land area, its total fertility rate and mortality rate, economic development, contraceptive usage, and population policy. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.1 million with births 31/1000 population and deaths 7/1000 population. The rate of natural increase is 2.4%, the total fertility rate 3.9 children/woman, and the infant mortality rate 30/1000 live births. Ethnically, Malaysia is made up of several distinct groups. Indigenous Malays are the most numerous -- about 50% of the population. Their unique characteristics include that they are Moslem, rural, and usually of lower economic status. Chinese make up the 2nd largest group of Malaysians, nearly 1/3 of the population. This group is active in trade, business, and finance and possesses considerable economic power. About 10% of the population is of Indian descent. Malaysia has experienced much economic growth. Traditional exports grew in volume and value during the 1970; the petroleum sector expanded so rapidly it accounts for 1/4 of all exports. One reason for Malaysia's rapid economic growth is the government's promotion of industrialization and foreign investment. According to the 1982 contraceptive prevalence survey, 42% of currently married women 15-44 years were using contraception. The government considers the current rate of national increase to be satisfactory, but in 1984 it adopted a population policy to more than quadruple its population in 2100 to 70 million. It intends to accomplish this by instituting pronatalist incentives to help the fall in the national growth rate. The government's rationale for more population growth is that a larger domestic population could better support industrial growth that otherwise might be stymied by "protectionist policies practiced by developed countries." Incentives to encourage fertility include income-tax deductions and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children.

  6. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  7. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns. PMID:12266604

  8. Portfolio optimization for index tracking modelling in Malaysia stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun

    2016-06-01

    Index tracking is an investment strategy in portfolio management which aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate similar mean return with the stock market index mean return without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using the optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the benchmark stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of weekly price of stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2013. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio is able to track FBMKLCI Index at minimum tracking error of 1.0027% with 0.0290% excess mean return over the mean return of FBMKLCI Index. The significance of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the stock market index without purchasing all index components.

  9. Genetic counseling services and development of training programs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juliana Mei-Har; Thong, Meow-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Genetic counseling service is urgently required in developing countries. In Malaysia, the first medical genetic service was introduced in 1994 at one of the main teaching hospitals in Kuala Lumpur. Two decades later, the medical genetic services have improved with the availability of genetic counseling, genetic testing and diagnosis, for both paediatric conditions and adult-onset inherited conditions, at four main centers of medical genetic services in Malaysia. Prenatal diagnosis services and assisted reproductive technologies are available at tertiary centres and private medical facilities. Positive developments include governmental recognition of Clinical Genetics as a subspecialty, increased funding for genetics services, development of medical ethics guidelines, and establishment of support groups. However, the country lacked qualified genetic counselors. Proposals were presented to policy-makers to develop genetic counseling courses. Challenges encountered included limited resources and public awareness, ethical dilemmas such as religious and social issues and inadequate genetic health professionals especially genetic counselors.

  10. Stereoselective synthesis of (all-Z)-hentriaconta-3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-nonaene.

    PubMed

    Filippova, Liudmila; Aarum, Ida; Ringdal, Martine; Dahl, Martin Kirkhus; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Stenstrøm, Yngve

    2015-04-28

    Several microorganisms produce small quantities of polyunsaturated hydrocarbons and such natural products are of interest. Starting from the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid, the total synthesis of the natural product (all-Z)-hentriaconta-3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-nonaene has been achieved in eight steps and 15% overall yield. The synthesis is based on a stereoselective Wittig reaction and confirms the all-Z-configuration of the nine double bonds in this highly unsaturated natural product.

  11. Singapore, Malaysia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Malay Peninsula shows the city state of Singapore, Malaysia (1.5N, 104.0E) with all its urban, industrial and commercial land use areas. Singapore is located at the south tip of the Malay peninsula separated by the Johor Strait. The prosporous island state, once Asia's major trade center, is now highly industrialized despite its small size and its ideal location has made this island a hub of trade, shipping and service industries.

  12. Legionella species isolated from cooling towers in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Ngeow, Y F; Tan, C H; Lim, S Y

    1992-03-01

    Three building complexes in Kuala Lumpur were surveyed for the presence of legionellae in cooling towers. The organisms were grown from 12 out of 46 samples of water collected from 30 towers. L. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 7 were the commonest serogroups isolated. None belonged to the Pontiac subgroup of L. pneumophila serogroup 1.

  13. Evaluating Kuala Lumpur stock exchange oriented bank performance with stochastic frontiers

    SciTech Connect

    Baten, M. A.; Maznah, M. K.; Razamin, R.; Jastini, M. J.

    2014-12-04

    Banks play an essential role in the economic development and banks need to be efficient; otherwise, they may create blockage in the process of development in any country. The efficiency of banks in Malaysia is important and should receive greater attention. This study formulated an appropriate stochastic frontier model to investigate the efficiency of banks which are traded on Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market during the period 2005–2009. All data were analyzed to obtain the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of stochastic production. Unlike the earlier studies which use balance sheet and income statements data, this study used market data as the input and output variables. It was observed that banks listed in KLSE exhibited a commendable overall efficiency level of 96.2% during 2005–2009 hence suggesting minimal input waste of 3.8%. Among the banks, the COMS (Cimb Group Holdings) bank is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.9715 and BIMB (Bimb Holdings) bank is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.9582. The results also show that Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier model with truncated normal distributional assumption is preferable than Translog stochastic frontier model.

  14. Pattern of suicide: a review of autopsies conducted at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    1999-12-01

    Suicide is one of the ten leading causes of death in the world, accounting for more than 400,000 deaths annually. The pattern of suicide and the incidence of suicide vary from country to country. Cultural, religious and social values play some role in suicide. Compared to the West and some of the countries in the Asian region the incidence of suicide is low in Malaysia. A three-year retrospective study of all the autopsies performed at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was analysed and the cases that were definitely determined as suicides were further studied. 48.8% of all suicides were ethnic Indians though Indians formed only 8% of the Malaysian population. 38.1% of suicides were Chinese who formed 26% of the population while only 3.6% were Malays, who formed 59% of the population. The preferred methods of suicide were poisoning and hanging. The majority were in the age group 20-40 yr. The study may have missed some cases that would have been wrongly concluded as accidental deaths and a few others where the police would have released the bodies without postmortem examinations. PMID:11068413

  15. Nutritional evaluation of working Malay women in Kuala Lumpur as studied by total food duplicate method.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, S; Moon, C S; Zhang, Z W; Watanabe, T; Ismail, N H; Ali, R M; Noor, I; Nakatsuka, H; Ikeda, M

    1996-10-01

    Nutrient intake was surveyed by the total food duplicate method in 49 adult ethnically Malay women (at the ages of 18 to 47 years and mostly at 30-39 years) working in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Simultaneously, hematological examinations, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examination were conducted. Nutrient intakes were estimated in reference to the weight of each food item and the standard food composition tables. Lunch was the most substantial meal of the day with rice as a staple food. Compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values, daily intakes of energy (1,917 kcal as an arithmetic mean), protein (62.2 g), vitamin B1 (0.83 mg) and vitamin B2 (1.18 mg) were sufficient, but intakes of minerals [i.e., calcium (347.8 mg) and iron (12.5 mg)] and some vitamins [i.e., vitamin A (equivalent to 627 micrograms retinol) and niacin (7.84 mg)] were less than RDA. When evaluated on an individual basis, the prevalence of those who took less than 80% RDA was highest for iron (92%), followed by niacin (80%), calcium (57%) and vitamin A (57%). The presence of 7 hypohemoglobinemia cases may be related to the insufficient iron intake. Overweight cases (14 women) were also detected, the prevalence of which increased at advanced ages. Lipid intake was rather high (28% of total food on energy basis), for which the major source was plants with limited contribution from fish/shellfish.

  16. Evaluating Kuala Lumpur stock exchange oriented bank performance with stochastic frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baten, M. A.; Maznah, M. K.; Razamin, R.; Jastini, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Banks play an essential role in the economic development and banks need to be efficient; otherwise, they may create blockage in the process of development in any country. The efficiency of banks in Malaysia is important and should receive greater attention. This study formulated an appropriate stochastic frontier model to investigate the efficiency of banks which are traded on Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market during the period 2005-2009. All data were analyzed to obtain the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of stochastic production. Unlike the earlier studies which use balance sheet and income statements data, this study used market data as the input and output variables. It was observed that banks listed in KLSE exhibited a commendable overall efficiency level of 96.2% during 2005-2009 hence suggesting minimal input waste of 3.8%. Among the banks, the COMS (Cimb Group Holdings) bank is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.9715 and BIMB (Bimb Holdings) bank is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.9582. The results also show that Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier model with truncated normal distributional assumption is preferable than Translog stochastic frontier model.

  17. Integration of geospatial multi-mode transportation Systems in Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. A.; Said, M. N.

    2014-06-01

    Public transportation serves people with mobility and accessibility to workplaces, health facilities, community resources, and recreational areas across the country. Development in the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to transportation problems represents one of the most important areas of GIS-technology today. To show the importance of GIS network analysis, this paper highlights the determination of the optimal path between two or more destinations based on multi-mode concepts. The abstract connector is introduced in this research as an approach to integrate urban public transportation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia including facilities such as Light Rapid Transit (LRT), Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) Komuter, Express Rail Link (ERL), KL Monorail, road driving as well as pedestrian modes into a single intelligent data model. To assist such analysis, ArcGIS's Network Analyst functions are used whereby the final output includes the total distance, total travelled time, directional maps produced to find the quickest, shortest paths, and closest facilities based on either time or distance impedance for multi-mode route analysis.

  18. Pattern of suicide: a review of autopsies conducted at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    1999-12-01

    Suicide is one of the ten leading causes of death in the world, accounting for more than 400,000 deaths annually. The pattern of suicide and the incidence of suicide vary from country to country. Cultural, religious and social values play some role in suicide. Compared to the West and some of the countries in the Asian region the incidence of suicide is low in Malaysia. A three-year retrospective study of all the autopsies performed at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was analysed and the cases that were definitely determined as suicides were further studied. 48.8% of all suicides were ethnic Indians though Indians formed only 8% of the Malaysian population. 38.1% of suicides were Chinese who formed 26% of the population while only 3.6% were Malays, who formed 59% of the population. The preferred methods of suicide were poisoning and hanging. The majority were in the age group 20-40 yr. The study may have missed some cases that would have been wrongly concluded as accidental deaths and a few others where the police would have released the bodies without postmortem examinations.

  19. Macroparasite communities in stray cat populations from urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Sahimin, Norhidayu; Pal, Paul; Lewis, John W

    2013-09-23

    The occurrence of macroparasites was studied from 543 stray cats in four urban cities from the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) of Peninsular Malaysia from May 2007 to August 2010. Five ectoparasites species were recovered namely, Ctenocephalides felis, Felicola subrostratus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Heterodoxus spiniger and Lynxacarus radovskyi. Two cats from Georgetown were infested with the dog louse, H. spiniger and this represented the first host record for this species in Malaysia. Up to nine species of helminths were recovered with overall high prevalences of infection of 83% in Kuantan, followed by 75.1% in Kuala Lumpur, 71.6% in Georgetown and 68% in Malacca. The helminth species comprised five nematodes, Toxocara malaysiensis, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliensis, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Physaloptera praeputialis, two cestodes Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and one trematode, Playtnosomum fastosum. The majority of helminths were present in the four study sites except for the absence of P. praeputialis in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence and abundance of infections were analysed taking intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (season) factors into consideration. Levels of infection and infestation were mainly influenced by host age and to a lesser extent sex and season, whereas four nematode species exhibited significant interactions within the intestine of the cat host. The potential for transmission of some macroparasite species from stray cats to the human population in urban areas is discussed.

  20. Pattern of alcoholism in the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Saroja, K I; Kyaw, O

    1993-06-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rate for alcoholism among the inpatients of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, as 11%, but as 25% among the drinking population. It also describes the demographic profile of the alcoholic as compared to the non-alcoholic drinker and the non-drinker and suggests that certain vulnerability factors could contribute to the development of alcoholism. A trend noted is also the changing racial trends in the use of alcohol.

  1. Field Worker Evaluation of Dengue Vector Surveillance Methods: Factors That Determine Perceived Ease, Difficulty, Value, and Time Effectiveness in Australia and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azil, Aishah H; Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study aimed to describe field worker perceptions, evaluations of worth, and time costs of routine dengue vector surveillance methods in Cairns (Australia), Kuala Lumpur and Petaling District (Malaysia). In Cairns, the BG-Sentinel trap is a favored method for field workers because of its user-friendliness, but is not as cost-efficient as the sticky ovitrap. In Kuala Lumpur, the Mosquito Larvae Trapping Device is perceived as a solution for the inaccessibility of premises to larval surveys. Nonetheless, the larval survey method is retained in Malaysia for prompt detection of dengue vectors. For dengue vector surveillance to be successful, there needs to be not only technical, quantitative evaluations of method performance but also an appreciation of how amenable field workers are to using particular methods. Here, we report novel field worker perceptions of dengue vector surveillance methods in addition to time analysis for each method.

  2. Field Worker Evaluation of Dengue Vector Surveillance Methods: Factors That Determine Perceived Ease, Difficulty, Value, and Time Effectiveness in Australia and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azil, Aishah H; Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study aimed to describe field worker perceptions, evaluations of worth, and time costs of routine dengue vector surveillance methods in Cairns (Australia), Kuala Lumpur and Petaling District (Malaysia). In Cairns, the BG-Sentinel trap is a favored method for field workers because of its user-friendliness, but is not as cost-efficient as the sticky ovitrap. In Kuala Lumpur, the Mosquito Larvae Trapping Device is perceived as a solution for the inaccessibility of premises to larval surveys. Nonetheless, the larval survey method is retained in Malaysia for prompt detection of dengue vectors. For dengue vector surveillance to be successful, there needs to be not only technical, quantitative evaluations of method performance but also an appreciation of how amenable field workers are to using particular methods. Here, we report novel field worker perceptions of dengue vector surveillance methods in addition to time analysis for each method. PMID:25186807

  3. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611

  4. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  5. Consumer purchase intention towards environmentally friendly vehicles: an empirical investigation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia; Islam, Md Ashraful; Duasa, Jarita Bt

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines whether attitudes towards electric vehicles (ATEVs), subjective norms (SNs) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) have significant associations with consumer purchase intention (PI) and the purchase behaviour of environmentally friendly vehicles (EFVs). The results from the survey questionnaires are analysed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings of this paper indicate that ATEV, SN and PBC significantly influence PI. This finding also indicates that environmental consequence and individual preferences do not influence the PI of the respondents. We found that Malaysian car owners are largely unaware of the greenhouse effects on the environment or attach to it little importance, which is reflected in their PI towards EFVs. The outcomes of this study could help policymakers design programmes to influence attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and purchase behaviour to prevent further air pollution and reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector. PMID:26070739

  6. Consumer purchase intention towards environmentally friendly vehicles: an empirical investigation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia; Islam, Md Ashraful; Duasa, Jarita Bt

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines whether attitudes towards electric vehicles (ATEVs), subjective norms (SNs) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) have significant associations with consumer purchase intention (PI) and the purchase behaviour of environmentally friendly vehicles (EFVs). The results from the survey questionnaires are analysed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings of this paper indicate that ATEV, SN and PBC significantly influence PI. This finding also indicates that environmental consequence and individual preferences do not influence the PI of the respondents. We found that Malaysian car owners are largely unaware of the greenhouse effects on the environment or attach to it little importance, which is reflected in their PI towards EFVs. The outcomes of this study could help policymakers design programmes to influence attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and purchase behaviour to prevent further air pollution and reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector.

  7. Primary biliary cirrhosis--experience in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R; Goh, K L; Wong, N W

    1996-03-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is an uncommon disease amongst Malaysians. Over a 12-year period, between 1979 and 1991, only seven patients with clinical, biochemical and histologic evidence of primary biliary cirrhosis were identified in University Hospital Kuala Lumpur. All were Chinese females between the ages of 30 to 55 years. The presenting complaint was pruritus in 5 patients. All except one patient was jaundiced when the diagnosis was made. These patients were followed up from 1 to 11 years. Three deaths were reported, one from massive hemetemesis and two from liver failure.

  8. Epidemiology and control of human head louse in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1983-12-01

    A survey of 4.112 primary school children living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, revealed that 12.9% of the children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. Indians (28.3%) and Malays (18.9%) have a higher prevalence than Chinese (4.6%). The higher prevalence among Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socio-economic status in the community; long hair also contributes to the higher rates of pediculosis among them. The prevalence rate was found to be related to socio-economic status, length of hair, family size, age, crowding and personal hygiene. Treatment with 0.2% and 0.5% malathion in coconut oil gave cure rates of 93% and 100%. Treatment with gammexane and actellic at 0.5% concentration gave a cure rate of 100% against adults and nymphs of Pediculus humanus capitis.

  9. User Acceptance of Internet Banking Service in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenyuen, Yee; Yeow, P. H. P.

    The study is the first research in Malaysia that investigates user acceptance of Internet banking service (IBS) based on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis and Davis, 2003). Two hundred and eighty questionnaires were distributed and collected from two major cities, Kuala Lumpur and Melaka. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The results show that Malaysians have intentions of using IBS (mean rating of close to 4.00). Moreover, Malaysians recognize the benefits of IBS by giving a high mean rating (close to 4.00) to performance expectancy. However, they give relative low mean ratings (close to 3.00) on other indicators of Behavioural Intention to Use IBS such as effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and perceived credibility. Recommendations were given to promote a safe, efficient and conducive environment for user adoption of Internet banking.

  10. Prevalence of latex hypersensitivity among health care workers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shahnaz, M; Azizah, M R; Hasma, H; Mok, K L; Yip, E; Ganesapillai, T; Suraiya, H; Nasuruddin, B A

    1999-03-01

    Health care workers have been reported to constitute one of the few high-risk groups related to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity associated with the use of latex products. This paper describes the first ever study of prevalence carried out in Malaysia among these workers. One hundred and thirty health care personnel from Hospital Kuala Lumpur were skin tested. Extracts used were prepared from seven different brands of natural rubber latex gloves with varying levels of extractable protein (EPRRIM). Out of the 130 volunteers, 4 (3.1%) had positive skin test to latex with extracts with high levels of EPRRIM (> 0.7 mg/g). The prevalence among the Malaysian health care workers can be considered to be low in comparison to that of some consumer countries as the USA which reported a prevalence of as high as 16.9%.

  11. Pelvic tuberculosis: an uncommon gynaecological problem in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sivanesaratnam, V; Lim, B H; Sivanesan, S; Menon, A

    1986-08-01

    Tuberculosis of the genital tract was diagnosed in only 12 patients during the 17 year period from March 1968 to February 1985 at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, which serves as a major referral centre in Malaysia. The incidence was 0.31 per 1000 gynaecological admissions and the peak age incidence was in the age group 26 to 35 years. The surgical management was mainly conservative as infertility was the most frequent mode of presentation (50%). Evidence of previous pulmonary tuberculosis was present in only five cases. Adnexal adhesions were the commonest pelvic finding; the fallopian tubes and endometrium were affected with equal frequency. Positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained in only five of the 12 patients. All patients received combination anti-tuberculosis drugs with satisfactory response.

  12. Islam, sexuality, and the marginal positioning of Pengkids and their girlfriends in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuenmei

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the lived experiences of the Pengkids and their girlfriends in the deprived district of the capital city of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, this article examines transgender practices and women's same-sex desires within the local contexts of urbanization and political Islam. This article questions the assumed marginal positions of transgender practices and same-sex desires in society, and provides a nuanced understanding of the politics of identity, gender, sexuality and religion involved in a Muslim country. While the Muslim-Malay sexual minorities are increasingly subjected to the threats of moral policing in Malaysia, Pengkid has become a new identity marker for the marginalized sexual subject framed by the Islamic discourse of this country.

  13. Awareness on ex-gratia compensation scheme among medical department staff in a tertiary government hospital in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Su, T; Hoe, V C W

    2008-10-01

    The Ex-Gratia Compensation Scheme was introduced by the Government of Malaysia in 1994 to provide compensation, which is not covered by any prior legislation, for all its workers suffering from injuries and illnesses due to work. Despite more than ten years of implementation, the submission for claims is still minimal and there is an impression that awareness on the provision of Ex-Gratia benefit among government employees, especially health care staff, is poor. A cross sectional survey was conducted at a medical department of a government hospital in Kuala Lumpur to assess the knowledge and awareness level on Ex-Gratia among a representative group of front line health care workers. The results show that the respondents' knowledge on Ex-Gratia is generally poor as compared to knowledge on the Social Security (SOCSO) Schemes. Majority of the respondents are unsure whether they will be compensated in case of occupational illness and injuries. They also do not know what kind of compensation scheme they are currently eligible. There is an urgent need for the Treasury and health care managers to expand the knowledge and awareness on Ex-Gratia among health care workers. PMID:19385489

  14. Current State of Research on Mathematical Beliefs V. Proceedings of the MAVI-5 Workshop (August 22-25, 1997). Research Report 184.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku, Ed.

    This report includes all of the presentations from the fifth annual workshop on the Current State of Research on Mathematical Beliefs held in Helsinki, Finland, on August 22-25, 1997. The papers, all of which were presented in English, are as follows: "Between Formalism and Creativity: Teachers' Conceptions of a Good Computer Science Student"…

  15. Incidence of Listeria spp. in vegetables in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Tang, M Y; Cheong, Y M; Zainuldin, T

    1994-09-01

    From April 1992 to September 1992, 280 samples of 10 different fresh vegetables, bought from four different market outlets in Kuala Lumpur were examined for the presence of Listeria spp. Most of the market produce were locally grown with the exception of carrots. The isolation procedure was based on the Food & Drug Administration method (modified) used for the detection of Listeria spp. Isolation media used were Listeria Selective medium and LiCl- phenylethanol-Moxalactam agars. The identification of isolates was by means of conventional biochemical tests and API Listeria identification system. Five out of the 280 samples showed Listeria contamination, Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in lettuce, sengkuang (Pachyrrhizus erosus) and selom Oenanthe javanica) and Listeria innocua was isolated from sengkuang (Pachyrrhizus erosus) and pegaga (Hydrocotyle asiatica).

  16. Myelodysplastic syndrome: a review from University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Ng, S C; Kuperan, P; Bosco, J; Menaka, N

    1990-04-01

    Twenty patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) were diagnosed in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 5 year period. They were subclassified using the French American British (FAB) criteria. 90% of the patients were above 40 years old and the sex ratio was about equal. The predominant presenting symptom was anaemia and there was paucity of physical signs at presentation. Patients with 'aggressive' subtypes of MDS i.e. refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB), refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB(-)+) and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) had more frequent thrombocytopenia and neutropenia and their marrow pictures frequently had dysmegakaryopoiesis and dysgranulopoiesis as compared to more the "benign" subtypes i.e. refractory anaemia (RA) and refractory leukaemic anaemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS). Four patients had leukaemic transformation and all of them came from the 'aggressive' subtypes. The current views on treatment of MDS are discussed.

  17. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  18. Literacy in Postcolonial Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandian, Ambigapathy

    1997-01-01

    Discusses literacy in the postcolonial era (since 1957) in Malaysia. Notes that while the literacy rate has risen dramatically, a growing problem that demands urgent attention is "Reading Reluctancy." Discusses survey results regarding major reasons leading to reading reluctancy, and discusses the future of literacy in Malaysia. (SR)

  19. Analysis of rain fade duration models for Earth-to-satellite path based on data measured in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Hassan; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Al-Khateeb, Khalid A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Statistical analysis of rain fade duration is crucial information for system engineer to design and plan a fade mitigation technique (FMT) for the satellite communication system. An investigation is carried out based on data measured of one year period in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from satellite path of MEASAT3. This paper presents statistical analysis of measured fade duration on high elevation angle (77.4°) in Ku-band compared to three prediction models of fade duration. It is found that none of the models could predict measured fade duration distribution accurately.

  20. Smartkadaster: Observing Beyond Traditional Cadastre Capabilities for Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, M. N. Bin; Hua, T. C.; Halim, N. Z. Binti Abdul

    2015-10-01

    The digital age for cadastral surveying started in stages, more than 20 years ago in Malaysia and JUPEM played a vital role in its successful implementation nationwide. One of the key products of cadastral survey is cadastral maps, which provide useful information for any land information system. However, as technology evolved and simplicity is familiarised, better services are anticipated and have affected how cadastral survey information are perceived. A paradigm shift is necessary where enriched cadastral information is required for multiple usage and allow real cadastral information based services to users. On that note, JUPEM is intrigued to develop a system where National Digital Cadastral Database is value added with other geospatial information for a smart and multipurpose environment and clearly be interpreted as a decision making tool with the aids of 3D realistic spatial data, namely SmartKADASTER. The SmartKADASTER is an ongoing project developed by JUPEM with the aim to establish a realistic and SMART cadastral-based spatial analysis platform for an effective planning, decision making, enabling efficiencies and enhancing communication and management to support SMART services towards SMART City enablement in Malaysia. It is developed in phases with the Federal Territory of Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur as the initial project implementation area. This paper provides awareness and insights of the on-going development of the project and how it could benefit potential users and stakeholders.

  1. Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia?

    PubMed

    Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia.

  2. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Objective While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. Design We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we managed and analysed the data, using QSR NVivo 10 software and the directed content analysis method. Setting We interviewed participants at Japan Clubs and their offices. Participants 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, and 8 medical services providers. Results We identified health beliefs, medical symptoms and health insurance as the 3 most important themes, respectively, representing the 3 dimensions within the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model. Additionally, language barriers, voluntary health repatriation to Japan and psychological support were unique themes that influence healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees. Conclusions The healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be partially explained by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, together with some factors that were unique findings to this study. Healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be improved by alleviating negative health beliefs through awareness programmes for Japanese retirees about the healthcare systems and cultural aspects of medical care in Malaysia. PMID:27006344

  3. Chikungunya fever from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kouta; Matumoto, Kentaro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2010-01-01

    An adult Malaysian woman returned to Japan from Kuala Lumpur and had onset of dengue fever-like symptoms including high fever, malaise and arthritis in early January 2009. Serum obtained on the following day was tested at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo, where it was determined to be positive for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA. IgM antibody against CHIKV was negative on January 6 and sero-converted to be positive on January 14, confirming a recent CHIKV infection. Except for arthralgia, all her symptoms resolved uneventfully within 10 days.

  4. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  5. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1–3, 4–6 and 7–12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2–20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3–16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  6. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  7. Night Pass over Malaysia

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video showing night lights over Malaysia was taken by the crew of Expedition 28 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Aug. 21, 2011, from 19:33:05 to 19:3...

  8. Hepatitis delta virus in intravenous drug users in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, G; Zuridah, H; Ariffin, Y; Kek, C S

    1994-09-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an RNA containing virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to supply the envelope proteins. HDV only infect man in the presence of HBV, either as a coinfection or as superinfection in HBV carriers. In the presence of hepatitis B infection, the HDV may cause more severe liver damage than that caused by the hepatitis B virus alone. HDV infection was studied in 44 HBsAg positive serum samples collected from male intravenous drug users sent for screening to the Blood Services Centre (BSC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) between 1990 and 1992. The majority (39) were in the 20 to 39 age group. The youngest was 19 years old and the oldest was 61 years old. There were 25 Malays, 13 Chinese, five Indians and one Albanian. Anti hepatitis delta antibody (Anti-HDV) was detected in 15 out of 44 (34%) of the drug addicts. These results shows an increased in delta infection in HBsAg positive intravenous drug addicts compared to the surveillance results in 1985 when no delta antibodies were detected, and the 1986 and 1989 surveillance which showed 17.8% and 20% delta antibody positivity respectively.

  9. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  10. Parasite fauna of the house rat Rattus rattus diardii in Kuala Lumpur and nearby villages.

    PubMed

    Leong Tak Seng; Lim Boo Liat; Yap, L F; Krishnasamy, M

    1979-03-01

    One hundred and fifty one house rats, Rattus rattus diardii from five different localities, Jinjang, Dato Keramat, Kuala Lumpur, Sungai Besi and Selayang Baru, were examined for parasites. Nineteen species of parasites were recovered. Hymenolepis diminuta and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis are the predominant species. The dominancy of the parasite species in the rats differed in each locality: Hymenolepis diminuta in Dato Keramat and Kuala Lumpur; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in Sungai Besi; Gongylomena neoplasticum in Jinjang and Selayang Baru. The influences of human habitats on the parasite fauna of house rats are discussed.

  11. Room Temperature ppb Level Chlorine Gas Sensor Based on Copper (II) 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octabutoxy-29 H, 31 H-phthalocyanine Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bedi, R. K.; Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman

    2010-12-01

    Spin coating technique has been used to fabricate room temperature chlorine gas sensor based on copper (II) 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octabutoxy-29 H, 31 H-phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu){sub 8}) films. Gas sensor shows a response of 185% to few parts per billion level of Cl{sub 2} gas with response time of 9.5 minutes at room temperature. The interactions between sensor and analytes followed first order kinetics with rate constant 0.01{<=}k{<=}0.02. The chemiresistive sensor showed very good stability at room temperature over a long period of time.

  12. Investigation on the upgrade of existing 10Gbps metro DWDM networks to 40Gbps based on measured PMD data of deployed fiber in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairi, K.; Lambak, Z.; Ahmad, A.; Abdul Kadir, M. Z.; Hamzah, Z.; Tarsono, D.; Abd. Manaf, Z.; Mohamad, R.; Abd. Rahman, M. N.; Samsuri, N.; Fong, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    We present analysis of different modulation formats using actual Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) data of deployed fiber links in the metro area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Simulations have been conducted for comparing the performance of Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ), Return-to-Zero (RZ), Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero (CSRZ), Phase Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT) and Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation formats for possible future upgrade to 40Gbps from an existing 10Gbps DWDM system. The performance in terms of BER is presented to illustrate the limitations attributed to PMD based on current existing network configurations.

  13. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  14. Two new species of Scirtothrips genus-group (Thripidae) of Northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2016-03-07

    The survey of Thysanoptera in peninsular Malaysia has been concentrated largely in areas growing crops and flowers around Kuala Lumpur, and the Cameron Highlands, and there are few records of these insects from native forests particularly in the northern part of the country. The two species described here were collected during a recent visit to Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, in Perak State, part of the second largest forested area on the peninsular, and connected to the Bang Lang National Park, in Yala Province, Thailand. This forest has been well known as home to a number of endangered animals, including Malayan tigers and Asian elephants, as well as remarkable plant species such as Rafflesia with the world's largest flowers (Abdullah et al. 2011). Despite this, forest areas are facing a major challenge from the insatiable demand for timber, palm oil and minerals, with an 80% increase in deforestation rate in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005 (FAO 2010). Forested land in peninsular Malaysia has been estimated at 5.88 million-ha or 44% of total area, but the coverage of reserved virgin forest is about 0.40 % or 23,002-ha (Dahlan 2008).

  15. Two new species of Scirtothrips genus-group (Thripidae) of Northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2016-01-01

    The survey of Thysanoptera in peninsular Malaysia has been concentrated largely in areas growing crops and flowers around Kuala Lumpur, and the Cameron Highlands, and there are few records of these insects from native forests particularly in the northern part of the country. The two species described here were collected during a recent visit to Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, in Perak State, part of the second largest forested area on the peninsular, and connected to the Bang Lang National Park, in Yala Province, Thailand. This forest has been well known as home to a number of endangered animals, including Malayan tigers and Asian elephants, as well as remarkable plant species such as Rafflesia with the world's largest flowers (Abdullah et al. 2011). Despite this, forest areas are facing a major challenge from the insatiable demand for timber, palm oil and minerals, with an 80% increase in deforestation rate in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005 (FAO 2010). Forested land in peninsular Malaysia has been estimated at 5.88 million-ha or 44% of total area, but the coverage of reserved virgin forest is about 0.40 % or 23,002-ha (Dahlan 2008). PMID:27394331

  16. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  17. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  18. Profile of in-patient suicides in two hospitals in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zain, A M

    1991-06-01

    A study of completed in-patient suicides at the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UHKL) and Hospital Bahagia Ulu Kinta (HBUK) between 1st January 1967 to 31st December 1987 were conducted. Records of completed in-patient suicides during the period were exhaustively studied. Only 18 cases were from UHKL and 23 cases were from HBUK. It was found that the suicide patients were mainly young Chinese males from the lower socio economic group. The main reasons for suicide were interpersonal conflicts and physical illness. Alcohol was not an important factor unlike patients in the West.. Suicidal intent was also important. Many of the suicides were committed during the early hours of the morning and they usually occurred at inaccessible places. The method was strongly influenced by availability. To the best knowledge of the author, this is the first study of in-patient suicides in Malaysia. PMID:1839422

  19. Surveillance of Aedes albopictus Skuse breeding preference in selected dengue outbreak localities, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rozilawati, H; Tanaselvi, K; Nazni, W A; Mohd Masri, S; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R; Lee, H L

    2015-03-01

    Entomological surveillance was conducted in order to determine the abundance and to evaluate any changes of biological vectors or ecology, especially in the dengue outbreak areas. The abundance and breeding preference of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were conducted in selected dengue outbreak localities in three states of peninsular Malaysia namely Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, and Penang Island using ovitraps and larval survey method. It was determined that Ae. albopictus was predominant in most of the localities and found to breed more outdoor than indoor. A wide range of breeding foci were recorded in this study. It was also determined that ovitrap method was more effective to detect the presence of Aedes mosquitoes when the larval survey was at low rate of infestation. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in dengue outbreak localities emphasis that the vector control programme should also target this species together with the primary dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:25801254

  20. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.

    PubMed

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD).

  1. An epidemiological cluster pattern of dengue outbreak amongst close contacts in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, K T; Ruhaini, I; Chua, K B

    2006-08-01

    Dengue fever is major public health problem especially among the highly urbanized states of Malaysia, such as, Selangor and Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory. We report an epidemiological cluster pattern of dengue outbreak in the district of Gombak, Selangor that may mimic other acute febrile illnesses in which the transmission mode is via close contact. This dengue outbreak consisted of two waves; an initial cluster of three cases (including the first deceased, JI) which occurred between 20th and 21st of July, followed by a later larger cluster of 11 cases that occurred between 1st and 8th of August 2005. This epidemiological clustering pattern of acute dengue virus infection among close contacts suggests an intense rate of dengue virus transmission within the vicinity of the first deceased's house.

  2. The nutritional status of children in an urban squatter community in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yap, S B; Teoh, S T

    1989-01-01

    An anthropometric assessment was conducted on a sample of 309 children, aged twelve years and below, from an urban squatter community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The community consists mainly of Malays and Indians and is fairly established with a mean length of residence of about fifteen years. There was not much difference between the two ethnic groups with regard to educational status or income. Most of the residents were unskilled or semiskilled workers employed in factories and government agencies. About 40 percent of the infants and toddlers were found to be wasted, while about one-third of the older children were stunted. There appears to be some association between income per capita and nutritional status.

  3. Education in Malaysia: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).

    Malaysia's education system has experienced a variety of situations and circumstances since May 1956, when the Razak Education Committee laid the foundation for a national system of education. Discussed in this publication are the history of educational development; educational organization and administration; the structure of education;…

  4. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  5. English Teaching Profile: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The status of the use and instruction of English in Malaysia, where it is a commonly-used second language, is described. The following topics are discussed: (1) the general status and role of English in Malaysian society in recent years; (2) English within the educational system (preschool, elementary, secondary, higher, adult, military, prison,…

  6. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  7. An ecological study of Paragonimus in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Soon

    1978-06-01

    An ecologic study on Paragonimus in Malaysia was attempted from May to September 1967. Seven streams located in various directions and distances from Kuala Lumpur were surveyed for the study of intermediate hosts, snail and crab. One Malayan village and one aborigine village where infected crabs were found, and two tuberculosis hospitals in K.L. were surveyed for the study of human population. Intradermal tests along with sputum or stool examination to detect human infection by Paragonimus were employed. Wild animals, only a few, were shot in the vicinity of the aborigine village and several domestic cats from the Malayan village were bought. These animals were autopsied and examined for adult Paragonimus. Among five species of crab collected from the study areas, only two species, Potamon jahorenes and Parathelphusa maculata were found to be infected with Paragonimus. P. maculata seemed to be better crab host for the Paragonimus because this species had higher infection rate and metacercarial density than the other in the very same area. Three out of seven streams had infected crabs and the infection rate as well as the infection intensity varied from one stream to another. Only avilable snail in the streams was identified as Brotia costula. The infection rate of the snail was very low, six snails out of 11,898, which is about the same rate reported from other countries. Infected snail, however, had thousands of rediae uncountable containing about twelve microcercocercariae in each redia, sufficient enough to maintain the life cycle of the parasite even with only a few infected snail, the amplifier. This is the first confirmed report on the snail host of Paragonimus from Malaysia where the existence of Paragonimus had been reported in 1923. The first trial to study human population by means of intradermal test, sputum and/or stool examinations in Malaysia showed no evidence of human infection of Paragonimus. The number of animals, wild and domestic, examined for

  8. Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan

    2013-04-01

    The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p < 0.01. Therefore, artificial neural network is sufficient to forecast construction materials price indexes in Malaysia. The estimated price indexes of construction materials will contribute significantly to the value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

  9. Assessing Weather Effects on Dengue Disease in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Yoon Ling; Burkart, Katrin; Leitão, Pedro J.; Lakes, Tobia

    2013-01-01

    The number of dengue cases has been increasing on a global level in recent years, and particularly so in Malaysia, yet little is known about the effects of weather for identifying the short-term risk of dengue for the population. The aim of this paper is to estimate the weather effects on dengue disease accounting for non-linear temporal effects in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia, from 2008 to 2010. We selected the weather parameters with a Poisson generalized additive model, and then assessed the effects of minimum temperature, bi-weekly accumulated rainfall and wind speed on dengue cases using a distributed non-linear lag model while adjusting for trend, day-of-week and week of the year. We found that the relative risk of dengue cases is positively associated with increased minimum temperature at a cumulative percentage change of 11.92% (95% CI: 4.41–32.19), from 25.4 °C to 26.5 °C, with the highest effect delayed by 51 days. Increasing bi-weekly accumulated rainfall had a positively strong effect on dengue cases at a cumulative percentage change of 21.45% (95% CI: 8.96, 51.37), from 215 mm to 302 mm, with the highest effect delayed by 26–28 days. The wind speed is negatively associated with dengue cases. The estimated lagged effects can be adapted in the dengue early warning system to assist in vector control and prevention plan. PMID:24287855

  10. Historical development of the renal histopathology services in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Cheah, Phaik-Leng

    2009-06-01

    Western-style medicine was introduced to Malaya by the Portuguese, Dutch and British between the 1500s and 1800s. Although the earliest pathology laboratories were developed within hospitals towards the end of the 19th Century, histopathology emerged much later than the biochemistry and bacteriology services. The University Departments of Pathology were the pioneers of the renal histopathology diagnostic services. The Department of Pathology, University of Malaya (UM) received its first renal biopsy on 19 May 1968. Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) started their services in 1979 and 1987 respectively. It is notable that the early services in these University centres caterred for both the university hospitals and the Ministry of Health (MOH) until the mid-1990s when MOH began to develop its own services, pivoted on renal pathologists trained through Fellowship programmes. Currently, key centres in the MOH are Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Sultanah Aminah Hospital Johor Bahru and Malacca Hospital. With the inclusion of renal biopsy interpretation in the Master of Pathology programmes, basic renal histopathology services became widely available throughout the country from 2000. This subsequently filtered out to the private sector as more histopathologists embraced private practice. There is now active continuing professional development in renal histopathology through clinicopathological dicussions, seminars and workshops. Renal research on amyloid nephropathy, minimal change disease, IgA nephropathy, fibrillary glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis and microwave technology have provided an insight into the patterns of renal pathology and changing criteria for biopsy. More recently, there has been increasing involvement of renal teams in clinical trials, particularly for lupus nephritis and renal transplant modulation.

  11. A spirited response: Malaysia's AIDS activists woo Muslim clerics.

    PubMed

    Oorjitham, S

    1999-11-01

    Islamic clerics, scholars, activists, and other authorities in Malaysia decided to lay in education for everyone as a solution to the AIDS epidemic in their country. In addition, they called on the community to be caring towards sufferers, which they believe is the way of Islam. This resolution was agreed upon during a meeting wherein religious officials recognized their role in AIDS prevention by equipping people with spiritual values and teaching everyone compassion. The resolution, however, has challenged the orthodoxy in some Islamic circles where AIDS is regarded as a "manifestation of God's punishment" which has consequently scared off many Muslim sufferers from approaching religious bodies. Religious advisers also admits that their call for full information about prevention, from urging abstinence and marital fidelity to promoting the use of condoms, still needs to be supported by individual state authorities. Among the AIDS council's future plans are to set up an information booth at a Kuala Lumpur mosque and to raise awareness in state religious departments through a booklet entitled AIDS Education Through Imams.

  12. Exploring why girls smoke in Malaysia--a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Binns, Colin W

    2008-10-01

    The fast increase in the rate of uptake of smoking amongst adolescent girls in Malaysia is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that influenced the initiation of smoking and the effects of advertisement on consolidating the smoking habit among teenage girls in the urban city of Kuala Lumpur. Qualitative research was conducted using both interviews and focus group discussions with groups of adolescent girls. Data collected was analysed using grounded thematic theory methodology and validated using methodological triangulation. The reasons for initiating smoking elicited from the study can be grouped into 4 general themes; influence by peers, influence of seeing parents smoking, misguided belief that it could alleviate stress and finally that it would impress others. Smoking imageries in media and advertisements were not primary influencing factors in the initiation of smoking but it encouraged them to progress to become regulars. Ways should be sought to empower girls to feel more confident about resisting pressures to initiate smoking. This could be done through activities such as positive peer sports, education on how to alleviate stress and curbing of smoking imageries in the media.

  13. Securing Our Future. Proceedings of the Conference on Children--Our Future (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 19-21, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    These proceedings report the results of 10 years of ongoing research by the Malaysian Child Development Project to develop and implement measures to study the cognitive, language, and socioemotional development of Malaysian preschool children. Part 1 of the report contains opening speeches delivered by conference organizers and dignitaries. Part 2…

  14. The prevalence of post-extraction complications in an outpatient dental clinic in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia--a retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, N; Nor, G M

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to report on the prevalence of post-extraction complications among patients attending the Oral Surgery outpatient clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya over a 12-month period from January to December, 1992. The prevalence of post-extraction complications which required further treatment was only 3.4% (n = 100), out of a total of 2968 patients who had extraction of one or more permanent teeth. Analysis based on complete clinical reports (n = 79) showed that dry socket accounted for nine out of ten cases of post-extraction complications. However the aetiology was largely unknown. No obvious association with medical history could be made. Lower teeth were more likely to have complications. The most common teeth associated with dry socket were the molars (76%) and premolars (19%). The most common molars to be affected are the first, followed by the third and lastly the second molars. A brief review of current aetiological factors of dry socket was discussed.

  15. Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genotypic Diversity in Malaysia Reveals a Predominance of Ancestral East-African-Indian Lineage with a Malaysia-Specific Signature

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Fazli; Couvin, David; Farakhin, Izzah; Abdul Rahman, Zaidah; Rastogi, Nalin; Suraiya, Siti

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) still constitutes a major public health problem in Malaysia. The identification and genotyping based characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates causing the disease is important to determine the effectiveness of the control and surveillance programs. Objectives This study intended a first assessment of spoligotyping-based MTBC genotypic diversity in Malaysia followed by a comparison of strains with those prevailing in neighboring countries by comparison with an international MTBC genotyping database. Methods Spoligotyping was performed on a total of 220 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Kelantan and Kuala Lumpur. The results were compared with the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Results Spoligotyping revealed 77 different patterns: 22 corresponded to orphan patterns while 55 patterns containing 198 isolates were assigned a Spoligo International Type (SIT) designation in the database (the latter included 6 newly created SITs). The eight most common SITs grouped 141 isolates (5 to 56 strains per cluster) as follows: SIT1/Beijing, n = 56, 25.5%; SIT745/EAI1-SOM, n = 33, 15.0%; SIT591/EAI6-BGD1, n = 13, 5.9%; SIT256/EAI5, n = 12, 5.5%; SIT236/EAI5, n = 10, 4.6%; SIT19/EAI2-Manila, n = 9, 4.1%; SIT89/EAI2-Nonthaburi, n = 5, 2.3%; and SIT50/H3, n = 3, 1.4%. The association between city of isolation and lineages was statistically significant; Haarlem and T lineages being higher in Kuala Lumpur (p<0.01). However, no statistically significant differences were noted when comparing drug resistance vs. major lineages, nor between gender and clades. Conclusions The ancestral East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was most predominant followed by the Beijing lineage. A comparison of strains with those prevailing in neighboring countries in South Asia, East Asia and South East Asia underlined the phylogeographical specificity of SIT745 for

  16. Utilization of maternal and child health facilities by the urban poor of Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Gan, C Y; Yusof, K

    1993-06-01

    A survey conducted to assess the extent which the urban poor in rapidly expanding Kuala Lumpur utilize maternal and child health services available to them. The sample consisted of 1,380 households with children below 6 years and yielded 1,233 children below 6 years of age. 74% of the children had been delivered in government hospitals and 86% of the pregnancies had antenatal care in governmental establishments. 89.2% had BCG immunization before they were 1 year old but 13.3% had not received DPT by that age. Immunization was mainly done in government clinics. The overall immunization coverage for the whole of Kuala Lumpur is expected to be higher than these figures limited to the urban poor. Health planners should increase health facilities in the city to accommodate the expanding population. There is a need to continually campaign for immunization to improve coverage among the urban poor.

  17. Hypertension in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Yeoh, Peng Nam; Wai, Victor Nyunt; Win, Ni Ni; Kuan, Lai Pei; Aung, Kyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine trends in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension in Malaysia and to assess the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia. The distribution of hypertension in Malaysia was assessed based on available data in 3 National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) and 1 large scale non-NHMS during the period of 1996 to 2011. Summary statistics was used to characterize the included surveys. Differences in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension between any 2 surveys were expressed as ratios. To assess the independent associations between the predictors and the outcome variables, regression analyses were employed with prevalence of hypertension as an outcome variable. Overall, there was a rising trend in the prevalence of hypertension in adults ≥30 years: 32.9% (30%–35.8%) in 1996, 42.6% (37.5%–43.5%) in 2006, and 43.5% (40.4%–46.6%) in 2011. There were significant increase of 32% from 1996 to 2011 (P < 0.001) and of 29% from 1996 to 2006 (P < 0.05), but only a small change of 1% from 2006 to 2011 (P = 0.6). For population ≥18 years, only a 1% increase in prevalence of hypertension occurred from the 2006 NHMS (32.2%) to the 2011 NHMS (32.7%) (P = 0.25). A relative increase of 13% occurred in those with primary education (P < 0.001) and a 15% increase was seen in those with secondary education (P < 0.001). The rate of increase in the prevalence of hypertension in the population with income level RM 3000–3999 was the highest (18%) during this period. In general, the older age group had higher prevalence of hypertension in the 2006 and 2011 NHMSs. The prevalence peaked at 74.1% among population aged 65 to 69 years in the 2011 NHMS. Both the proportion of awareness and the control of hypertension in Malaysia improved from 1996 to 2006. A change in the control of hypertension was 13% higher in women than in men. The findings suggest that

  18. APACHE II: preliminary report on 100 intensive care unit cases in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Teoh, G S; Mah, K K; abd Majid, S; Streram; Yee, M K

    1991-03-01

    A good overall assessment of the severity of illnesses of patients admitted to a general intensive care unit (ICU) is not without problems. The APACHE (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation) prognostic scoring system enables us to stratify acutely ill patients and compare efficiency of ICU therapy in different hospitals. This preliminary study carried out on 100 consecutive admissions to the ICU in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur showed the spectrum of ICU admissions and the direct relationship between APACHE II score and mortality.

  19. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy--a report of 11 patients at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Manonmani, V; Tan, C T

    1993-10-01

    This is a report on 11 cases of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) from the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, all of whom were diagnosed in the last one and a half years. This genetic syndrome is seen in all the three main racial groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. It accounts for 2% of the epilepsy patients seen at the neurology clinic. Lack of awareness is the main hindrance to diagnosis.

  20. A review of dermatomyositis cases at Hospital Besar Kuala Lumpur 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Tong, M

    1995-03-01

    Eight cases of dermatomyositis were seen in the Skin Department, Hospital Besar Kuala Lumpur between 1989 and 1993. There was one case of juvenile dermatomyositis. There was a majority of Chinese patients (87.5%). There were three patients (37.5%) with underlying malignancies, two of which (66.7%) were nasopharyngeal carcinomas; all were under the age of fifty years. It is important to screen all adult patients for underlying malignancies, even those in the younger age group.

  1. Breakfast Eating Pattern and Ready-to-Eat Cereals Consumption among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    KOO, Hui-Chin; ABDUL JALIL, Siti Nurain; Ruzita, ABD TALIB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 382 schoolchildren, aged 10 and 11 years old, were recruited from seven randomly selected primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. Information on socio-demographics, breakfast eating patterns, and perceptions of RTECs and dietary intake (24-hour dietary recalls) were obtained. Results: Among the respondents, only 22% of them consumed breakfast on a regular basis. The most commonly eaten food by children at breakfast was bread (27.2%), followed by biscuits (22.2%) and RTECs (20.5%). The majority of them (93%) reported that they consumed RTECs sometimes during the week. Chocolate RTECs (34.1%), corn flake RTECs (30.3%), and RTECs coated with honey (25.1%) were the most popular RTECs chosen by children. Respondents who consumed RTECs showed a significantly higher intake in calories, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and fibre (P < 0.05), compared to those who skipped breakfast and those who had breakfast foods other than RTECs. Conclusion: The lower levels of breakfast consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur need serious attention. RTEC is a nutritious food which is well accepted by a majority of the schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. Nutrition intervention should be conducted in the future to include a well-balanced breakfast with the utilisation of RTECs for schoolchildren. PMID:25892948

  2. Global update: Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Malaysia produces more condoms than any other country in the world, yet it has one of the lowest per capita condom usage rates. The official number of HIV-infected persons and of persons with AIDS in Malaysia is 5140 and 72, respectively. People working in AIDS prevention efforts believe the actual number of HIV-infected people is closer to 50,000 and climbing. People working in AIDS prevention efforts believe the actual number of HIV-infected people is closer to 50,000 and climbing. Public health officials report that AIDS is spreading rapidly through Malaysia's relatively large population of IV drug users. The Ministry of Health wants to introduce comprehensive and pragmatic efforts to stem the AIDS epidemic. They include sex education in schools, ways to prevent IV drug users from sharing needles, promotion of condoms among high risk groups, and screening to monitor HIV transmission. Islamic and Catholic groups oppose these program and policy measures, however. The new director of the Ministry's AIDS prevention unit announced during a meeting of health officials that a return to the teaching of Islam and adoption of Islamic values are the means to deal with AIDS. He suggested that boys and girls be separated, television be rigorously censored, and that Muslim scholars not be limited to mosques to do their teaching. The government has greatly increased the 1993 AIDS budget with all of the funds dedicated to blood screening, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and health education. The deputy health minister noted that the NGOs are supposed to address the more sensitive issues. The government does not allow any of the funds to directly go to condom promotion or programs for IV drug users, however. PMID:12159245

  3. Global update: Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Malaysia produces more condoms than any other country in the world, yet it has one of the lowest per capita condom usage rates. The official number of HIV-infected persons and of persons with AIDS in Malaysia is 5140 and 72, respectively. People working in AIDS prevention efforts believe the actual number of HIV-infected people is closer to 50,000 and climbing. People working in AIDS prevention efforts believe the actual number of HIV-infected people is closer to 50,000 and climbing. Public health officials report that AIDS is spreading rapidly through Malaysia's relatively large population of IV drug users. The Ministry of Health wants to introduce comprehensive and pragmatic efforts to stem the AIDS epidemic. They include sex education in schools, ways to prevent IV drug users from sharing needles, promotion of condoms among high risk groups, and screening to monitor HIV transmission. Islamic and Catholic groups oppose these program and policy measures, however. The new director of the Ministry's AIDS prevention unit announced during a meeting of health officials that a return to the teaching of Islam and adoption of Islamic values are the means to deal with AIDS. He suggested that boys and girls be separated, television be rigorously censored, and that Muslim scholars not be limited to mosques to do their teaching. The government has greatly increased the 1993 AIDS budget with all of the funds dedicated to blood screening, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and health education. The deputy health minister noted that the NGOs are supposed to address the more sensitive issues. The government does not allow any of the funds to directly go to condom promotion or programs for IV drug users, however.

  4. Key environments: Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cranbrook, The Earl of.

    1987-01-01

    After a century of scientific investigation, it is now possible to understand Malaysia's complex ecosystem as an essential prerequisite to the successful management for conservation and long term productivity in the area. Contents: The physical setting: Forest types and forest zonation; The dipterocarps; Forest palms; Forest bamboos; Herbaceous flowering plants; Ferns; Higher fungi; Forest tree biology; Forest management; Mammals; Genetic diversity and evolution; Mammals; Distribution and ecology, Earl of Cranbook, Birds; Termites in rain forests; Forest lepidoptera; Freshwaters; Animal conservation strategies; People of the forest.

  5. Geotechnical aspects of development over reclaimed former alluvial mining land and ponds in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, E. B.; Tan, B. K.; Chow, W. S.

    Mining of tin placers in Quaternary alluvium is the main type of mining activity in Peninsular Malaysia over the past hundred years. Worked out mines have left behind a landscape consisting of highly inhomogeneous tailing fill and numerous large and medium size ponds often underlain by thick slurries of fine clay and silt on limestone bedrock. Rapid urbanization around the two main tin mining areas in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, has led to the use of this previously mined land for residential, commercial and industrial purposes. Highly irregular karstic limestone bedrock poses major problems for the construction of high-rise buildings requiring piling to bedrock. Soft slime trapped during tailing deposition or during reclamation has caused numerous and often irreparable damage to houses built on former mining land. Characterization studies were undertaken on two ponds for their chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties with the aim of finding a solution to the reclamation of slime filled mine ponds. Environmental considerations favour the slime material to be used as foundation material or as raw material for ceramic or bricks. Increase of the solid content by dewatering constitutes the best option to increase the strength of the slime material so as to make it acceptable as foundation material after further treatment. Studies indicate that a few reagents can be used to successfully dewater the slime. Development of a reclamation technique along this line is being carried out.

  6. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

    PubMed

    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse in peninsula Malaysia: a survey report.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zulkifil, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalai, S; Aye, K W

    1995-01-01

    Given the magnitude of drug addiction in Malaysia, the government has given top priority to this issue. It is timely that an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse and drug dependents among the general public be carried out. Thus, a nationwide survey was undertaken. A representative sample of 2,591 respondents aged 13 years and above from households were surveyed throughout the 11 states and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur in Peninsula Malaysia. The results revealed that the respondents are moderately knowledgeable on drug abuse, especially information pertaining to treatment, rehabilitation and aftercare services, including education to families against drug abuse. The public possess a negative attitude towards drug dependents. Majority felt that drug addicts do not have the will power to rid themselves of drugs and they also lack a supportive family network system. Many believe that the most vulnerable group are the adolescents. Respondents were aware of the type of drugs commonly abused, although they failed to realise their long-term effects. Respondents do not attribute low education, large family and marginal income to the background of drug dependents. The findings showed gaps and misconceptions in terms of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the public. Accurate knowledge on, and right attitudes and perceptions towards drug related issues would certainly benefit the public in timely prevention of drug abuse. PMID:9037810

  8. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  9. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  10. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    PubMed

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings.

  11. Pattern of homicidal deaths autopsied at Penang Hospital, Malaysia, 2007-2009: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bhupinder, S; Kumara, T K; Syed, A M

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the homicide pattern in Penang Island, Malaysia over a three-year period (2007-2009). 65 homicide autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Penang Hospital over the study period. The homicide rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.09/1000 population, the highest being in the Indian ethnic group. The majority (37%) of victims were in the 20-39 years age group. The male: female ratio was 3:1. The majority of deaths were caused by blunt instruments (46%), followed by stab/slash wounds (25%) and asphyxiation (12%). 63% of homicides occurred in areas served by the police stations at Jalan Patani (23.1%), Sg. Nibong (16.9%), Central (12.3%) and Bayan Lepas (10.9%). 56 (86%) victims were brought in dead to the hospital, while 9 (14%) died after admission. Most (39%) incidences occurred in the morning. The methods of homicide were different from Kuala Lumpur, another highly urbanised area of Malaysia.

  12. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    PubMed

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings. PMID:26718946

  13. Delta hepatitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, M; Dimitrakakis, M; Tan, D S

    1986-06-01

    Sera from one hundred and fifty nine Malaysian individuals were screened for the prevalence of delta markers. These included 15 HBsAg positive homosexuals, 16 acute hepatitis B cases, 9 chronic hepatitis B patients, 13 healthy HBsAg carriers and 106 intravenous (i.v.) drug abusers, of whom 27 were positive for HBsAg only and the rest were anti-HBc IgG positive but HBsAg negative. The prevalence of delta markers in the homosexuals was found to be 6.7%, in the HBsAg positive drug abusers 17.8%, in acute hepatitis B cases 12.5%. No evidence of delta infection was detected in healthy HBsAg carriers, chronic hepatitis B cases and HBsAg negative i.v. drug abusers. With reference to i.v. drug abusers, the prevalence of delta markers was higher in Malays (23%) than in Chinese (7%) although the latter had a higher HBsAg carrier rate. Although the HBsAg carrier rate in the homosexuals was high, their delta prevalence rate was low as compared to drug abusers. In Malaysia, as in other non-endemic regions, hepatitis delta virus transmission appeared to occur mainly via the parenteral and sexual routes. This is the first time in Malaysia that a reservoir of delta infection has been demonstrated in certain groups of the population at high risk for hepatitis B. PMID:3787309

  14. Childhood drowning in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Tan, Pui San; Hashim, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures. PMID:23651461

  15. Secondary lead production in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.S.S.; Lim, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    In the absence of a lead producers' association in Malaysia and the continued presence of illegal operators whose activities are confined to remelting of cable scraps and/or smelting of battery scraps using a shaft furnace, this paper relies heavily on the information obtained from Metal Reclamation Industries, Sdn. Bhd. -the only modern integrated lead smelter in the country. Consequently, the authors can only present a semiquantitative and general paper on secondary lead production in Malaysia covering the following areas: history; secondary lead smelting; raw material; products; quality control; pollution controls; and future of secondary lead production in Malaysia. They conclude that if Malaysia is to become a major secondary lead producer in the Asian region, the industry must: (1) import raw materials in the form of scrapped batteries; (2) develop or acquire new technology; (3) cope with changing pollution regulations, and (4) develop technical skills and efficient quality controls to meet new challenges. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Healthcare financing in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kananatu, K

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Malaysian healthcare system and its method of financing. The development of the healthcare delivery system in Malaysia is commendable. However, the strength and weaknesses of the public healthcare system and the financing problems encountered are also discussed. Cost of healthcare and funding of both the public and private sectors were also revealed. One must optimise the advantages of operating a health financing scheme which is affordable and controllable which contribute towards cost-containment and quality assurance. Thus, there is a need for the establishment of a National Healthcare Financing, a mechanism to sustain the healthcare delivery network and operate it as a viable option. A model of the National Health Financing Scheme (NHFS) was proposed.

  17. Dental health in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Majid, Z A

    1984-12-01

    Three epidemiological surveys have been carried out in Malaysia since 1971. All showed a high level of caries prevalence. Ninety per cent of school children between the ages of 6 and 18 suffered from dental caries, with a DMFT of approximately 3 and a dft of approximately 2. Ninety-five per cent of the adult population had caries experience, with the mean DMFT being 13.2. Approximately 55 per cent of children showed the presence of gingivitis with the mean number of inflamed gingival units per child ranging from 1.9 to 2.8, while 72.4 per cent of adults had some form of periodontal disease with 29 per cent having pockets deeper than 3 mm. The OHI-S score for adults was 2.2 and 81 per cent used toothbrushes to clean their teeth. A further 5.1 per cent used twigs and fingers with powdered charcoal or salt. One-third of the child population needed orthodontic treatment, with 0.3 per cent examined in peninsular Malaysia having cleft lip or palate or both. In the adult population 10.4 per cent of those examined required some form of orthodontic treatment. Twenty per cent of the children in the survey were in need of dentures; 54.7 per cent of the adults were either in need of dentures or were wearing dentures. Of these 25 per cent had complete dentures. The smoking habit was most commonly associated with pre-cancerous/cancerous lesions with alcohol consumption a close competitor; 114 adults, that is 1.3 per cent of those examined, suffer from leukoplakia but only one case of oral cancer was detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Dialysis provision in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, T O; Lee, D G; Zaki, M

    2000-06-01

    We determined the provision for dialysis treatment in Malaysia. There were 181 dialysis centres as at 1st June 1999 (161 Haemodialysis (HD) and 20 Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) centres), providing treatment for 5614 patients. This is equivalent to an estimated prevalence rate of 253 patients per million population (pmp) and new dialysis acceptance rate of 49 patients pmp. Dialysis facilities were widely distributed throughout the country though rather unevenly among states. Penang, Selangor/KL, Malacca led with number of dialysis patients pmp ranging from 417 to 480. Kelantan and Sabah had the lowest provision with 51 and 64 patients pmp respectively. There were more centres and HD capacity in the private sector while the Non-Government Organisation and public sectors had about the same capacity. However the public sector had more patients on account of availability of CAPD and home HD services, as well as low HD capacity to patient ratio. The number ofcentres, HD capacity and patients have increased rapidly especially since 1991; the estimated growth rates were 16.5 centres/year, 658 capacity/year, and 392 patients/year respectively. There was also a trend toward increasing over-capacity in the private and NGO sectors. In conclusion, the level of dialysis provision is increasing, indicating increasing accessibility of dialysis treatment in Malaysia. Over-capacity is a concern in the private and NGO sectors. Thus funding agencies should be encouraged to source provision from those sectors. The public sector still has the crucial role of providing for under-served areas in the country.

  19. Satellite data for Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur city growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    This data article presents satellite data related to city growth of Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur cities. The data were collected from NASA and USGS websites. A method has been developed for city built-up density from city center to outward till 50 km by using satellite data. These data sets consists three decade Landsat images. A detailed description is given to show how to use this data to produce urban growth maps. The urban growth maps have been used to know the changes and growth pattern in the Southeast Asia Cities.

  20. Isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Othman, M Z; Aziz, A H

    2000-06-01

    Four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from Chrysomya megacephala. Klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was predominantly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala and also from Musca domestica and Musca sorbens. A total of 18 bacterial species was isolated from the synanthropic flies trapped. Burkholderia pseudomallei had been reported for the first time.

  1. Deaths following acute diarrhoeal diseases among hospitalised infants in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Lee, W S; Ooi, T L

    1999-09-01

    The risk factors and modes of death following acute diarrhoeal illness in children admitted to University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur between 1982 and 1997 were studied retrospectively. Among 4,689 cases of acute gastroenteritis admitted, ten deaths were noted. The case mortality rate was 2.1/1000 admissions. All deaths were infants below one year, with eight females and two males. Acute renal failure and acute pulmonary oedema were common preceding events. Female sex, infants less than twelve months, the presence of hyper or hyponatraemia and moderate to severe dehydration on admission were risk factors for deaths.

  2. Microscopically diagnosed head and neck cancers in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, P; Pathmanathan, R; Raman, R; Prasad, U

    1989-03-01

    A retrospective study of 1000 cases of microscopically diagnosed head and neck cancers in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was done. Head and neck neoplasms comprise 7.1% of all tumours diagnosed in this Hospital and the commonest sites of involvement are the nasopharynx (29.1%), cervical lymph nodes (22.6%), oral cavity (10.2%), thyroid (8.2%) and skin (6.5%). Histologically, 87% of tumours are epithelial in nature. The results of this study show that nasopharyngeal carcinoma is commonest in Chinese males, while oral and laryngeal malignancies occur more frequently in Indians.

  3. Characteristics of psychiatric admissions and aspects of overcrowding at the general Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Chin, C N; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S

    1993-06-01

    This study examined admissions, final diagnoses and mean duration of stay of patients in the Psychiatric Wards at the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The male ward was severely overcrowded by 125% over the maximum bed capacity. The majority were psychotic, mainly schizophrenic. The female ward had 76% occupancy, also mainly psychotic. Neurotics, alcohol dependents and personality disorders formed less than 5% of the admissions. There was no difference in the mean duration of stay of patients of both UKM and GHKL Units stratified for diagnosis and disposal except for newly diagnosed schizophrenics. There is an urgent need for more male psychiatric beds/wards.

  4. Experience of radioactive needle implants in the Institute of Radiotherapy Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Lim, G C; Azhar, M T

    1997-03-01

    This retrospective study of radioactive needle implants at the Institute of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital serves as an audit of our practice as well as a demonstration of the usefulness of this technique of brachytherapy. A variety of tumour sites were implanted, of which over two-thirds involved the tongue and buccal mucosa. Although most of the implants were carried out with radical intent, one-tenth of these implants were performed for palliation. Radiotherapy techniques employed are described. The crude survival ranged from 1 month to 109 months while the disease free interval ranged from 0 months to 102 months.

  5. Nasal septal abscess--retrospective analysis of 14 cases from University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, M A

    1993-10-01

    Fourteen patients who presented to the University Hospital of Kuala Lumpur between June 1981 and June 1991 were reviewed retrospectively. Nasal septal abscesses are uncommon and therefore there are limited reports in the medical literature. Early diagnosis and immediate therapy is mandatory to avoid cosmetic nasal deformity or intracranial infection. Two out of the fourteen patients developed saddle nose deformity and septal perforation because of delay in treatment, the cases were misdiagnosed by non-otolaryngologist as turbinates swelling. The leading cause of nasal septal abscess was non-surgical trauma which accounted for about 85.7%. The commonest pathogenic organism isolated from the pus of nasal septal abscess was Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. Satellite data for Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur city growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    This data article presents satellite data related to city growth of Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur cities. The data were collected from NASA and USGS websites. A method has been developed for city built-up density from city center to outward till 50 km by using satellite data. These data sets consists three decade Landsat images. A detailed description is given to show how to use this data to produce urban growth maps. The urban growth maps have been used to know the changes and growth pattern in the Southeast Asia Cities. PMID:27222856

  7. Satellite data for Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur city growth analysis

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This data article presents satellite data related to city growth of Singapore, Manila and Kuala Lumpur cities. The data were collected from NASA and USGS websites. A method has been developed for city built-up density from city center to outward till 50 km by using satellite data. These data sets consists three decade Landsat images. A detailed description is given to show how to use this data to produce urban growth maps. The urban growth maps have been used to know the changes and growth pattern in the Southeast Asia Cities. PMID:27222856

  8. Genetic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF74_01B) Identified among Intravenous Drug Users in Malaysia: Recombination History and Phylogenetic Linkage with Previously Defined Recombinant Lineages.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype B' that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region.

  9. Genetic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF74_01B) Identified among Intravenous Drug Users in Malaysia: Recombination History and Phylogenetic Linkage with Previously Defined Recombinant Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype Bʹ that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region. PMID:26196131

  10. Genetic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF74_01B) Identified among Intravenous Drug Users in Malaysia: Recombination History and Phylogenetic Linkage with Previously Defined Recombinant Lineages.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype B' that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region. PMID:26196131

  11. Health care consumers’ perspectives on pharmacist integration into private general practitioner clinics in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Pui San; Nissen, Lisa M; Freeman, Christopher; Wong, Pei Se; Mak, Vivienne

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs) in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists’ involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers’ views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Methods A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. Results A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1) pharmacists’ role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2) readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3) willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4) concerns about GPs’ resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy information on the use and potential side effects of medications and screening for medication misadventure. The potential increase in costs passed on to consumers and GPs’ reluctance were perceived as barriers to integration. Conclusion This study provides insights into consumers’ perspectives on the roles of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Consumers generally supported pharmacist integration into private primary health care clinics. However, for pharmacists to expand their capacity in

  12. A retrospective review of cryoprecipitate transfusion practice in Kuala Lumpur Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iliassa, Intan Iliana; Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Tan, Jun Jie; Ayob, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryoprecipitate is generally used to treat bleeding patients with hypofibrinogenemia, and the transfusion decision is guided based on published guidelines. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the practice appropriateness in accordance to cryoprecipitate transfusion guidelines in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Methodology: This cross-sectional study of 117 cryoprecipitates transfused adult patients was conducted in Kuala Lumpur Hospital from January to June 2012. The compliance of the indication of cryoprecipitate was considered as appropriate if indicated for patients who have hypofibrinogenemia (<1.0 g/L) with bleeding, or otherwise inappropriate if pretransfusion fibrinogen level was more than 1.0 g/L, pretransfusion fibrinogen level was not examined and posttransfusion fibrinogen level more than 1.5 g/L. Results: Most of the cryoprecipitate prescriptions were found to be inappropriate, which read 81.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.740, 0.880). Patients who underwent neurovascular surgery were the major recipient of cryoprecipitate, but majority of the prescription was found not appropriate. The decision to transfuse cryoprecipitate was found mostly appropriate when was guided by fibrinogen (52.2%), but the percentage dropped to 10.6% when pretransfusion fibrinogen test was not performed. Regrettably, only 19.7% of total cryoprecipitate were given based on pretransfusion fibrinogen level.

  13. A retrospective review of cryoprecipitate transfusion practice in Kuala Lumpur Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iliassa, Intan Iliana; Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Tan, Jun Jie; Ayob, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryoprecipitate is generally used to treat bleeding patients with hypofibrinogenemia, and the transfusion decision is guided based on published guidelines. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the practice appropriateness in accordance to cryoprecipitate transfusion guidelines in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Methodology: This cross-sectional study of 117 cryoprecipitates transfused adult patients was conducted in Kuala Lumpur Hospital from January to June 2012. The compliance of the indication of cryoprecipitate was considered as appropriate if indicated for patients who have hypofibrinogenemia (<1.0 g/L) with bleeding, or otherwise inappropriate if pretransfusion fibrinogen level was more than 1.0 g/L, pretransfusion fibrinogen level was not examined and posttransfusion fibrinogen level more than 1.5 g/L. Results: Most of the cryoprecipitate prescriptions were found to be inappropriate, which read 81.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.740, 0.880). Patients who underwent neurovascular surgery were the major recipient of cryoprecipitate, but majority of the prescription was found not appropriate. The decision to transfuse cryoprecipitate was found mostly appropriate when was guided by fibrinogen (52.2%), but the percentage dropped to 10.6% when pretransfusion fibrinogen test was not performed. Regrettably, only 19.7% of total cryoprecipitate were given based on pretransfusion fibrinogen level. PMID:27605853

  14. Proceedings of the Southeast Asian Conference on Mathematical Education (2nd, Kuala Lumpur, April 21-24, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, P. S., Ed.

    This document details the proceedings of the Mathematical Education Conference held at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. The material is divided into the following major sections: Opening Speeches; Invited Lectures; Workshop Papers on "What mathematics should we teach at secondary and post secondary schools?"; short communications and…

  15. Study Behaviour and Achievement in Science of Form Five Pupils in Two Secondary Schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Siowck Lee

    1984-01-01

    This study sought to obtain insight into the pattern of relationships between students' achievement in science and study behavior variables. Surveyed were 17-year-olds in the science stream of two secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur. Sex differences were found. (MNS)

  16. Epidemiology of malaria in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K M

    1982-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Malaysia, particularly in peninsular Malaysia and the state of Sabah. An eradication program started in the states of Sabah and Sarawak in 1961 initially was remarkably successful. A similar but staged program was started in peninsular Malaysia in 1967 and was also quite successful. However, a marked upsurge in incidence in Sabah in 1975-1978 showed that malaria is still a major hazard. The disease leads to great economic losses in terms of the productivity of the labor force and the learning capacity of schoolchildren. The topography, the climate, and the migrations of the people due to increased economic activity are similar in peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. However, the epidemiologic picture differs strikingly from area to area in terms of species of vectors, distribution of parasitic species, and resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine. Likewise, the problems faced by the eradication or control programs in the three regions are dissimilar. Because solutions to only some of these problems are possible, the eradication of malaria in Malaysia is not likely in the near future. However, the situation offers an excellent opportunity for further studies of antimalaria measures. PMID:6755616

  17. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  18. A review of Lower and Middle Palaeozoic biostratigraphy in west peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand in its context within the Sibumasu Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocks, L. R. M.; Fortey, R. A.; Lee, C. P.

    2005-03-01

    Fossils from the Cambrian to Devonian rocks of southern Thailand, the Langkawi Islands, mainland Kedah, Perlis, north Perak and central West Peninsular Malaysia are listed and reviewed, and their stratigraphy and correlation reassessed. The hitherto anomalous record of the trilobite Dalmanitina from Malaysia is reviewed and found to be of latest Ordovician (Hirnantian) age, rather than Lower Silurian age as previously reported, and is considered a probable synonym of the widespread Mucronaspis mucronata. A new stratigraphical nomenclature is erected for part of the Langkawi, mainland Kedah and Perlis area successions, in which the term Setul Limestone (which stretched from the Ordovician to the Devonian) is abandoned and replaced by the Middle Ordovician Kaki Bukit Limestone, the late Ordovician and early Silurian Tanjong Dendang Formation, the Silurian Mempelam Limestone, and the early Devonian Timah Tasoh Formation, all underlying the paraconformity with the late Devonian Langgun Red Beds. There was a single depositional basin in the generally shallow-water and cratonic areas of southern Thailand, Langkawi, and mainland Kedah and Perlis, in contrast to the deeper-water basin of north Perak. Only Silurian rocks are dated with certainty within another basin in central West Malaysia, near Kuala Lumpur, which were also cratonic and shallow-water, although to the east in west Pahang there are basal Devonian deeper-water sediments with graptolites. The area is reviewed in its position within the Sibumasu Terrane, which, in the Palaeozoic, also included central and northern Thailand, Burma (Myanmar) and southwest China (part of Yunnan Province).

  19. The migration transition in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, L L

    1996-01-01

    "Exploring the unique experience of migration transition in Malaysia, this paper identifies the turning points in relation to the level and nature of economic and labor market developments in Malaysia. Examining the development dynamics that mark the passage from exporting labor to depending on foreign labor, the paper concludes that such dynamics are influenced not only by economic but also sociocultural, demographic and policy factors. Several lessons from the Malaysian experience are drawn at the end to be utilized by other countries that still have to reach the turning points of the migration transition." PMID:12320775

  20. Intestinal protozoan infections in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lai, K P

    1992-12-01

    Intestinal protozoa are found in all communities in Malaysia and among all ethnic groups. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa is not affected by ethnicity but by living conditions. Communities with both basic amenities of safe water supply and proper toilets have lower prevalence than those with one or none of the amenity. Cryptosporidium is an important intestinal protozoon in Malaysia and should be included in future field and laboratory studies and also in laboratory diagnosis for pathogens. Much interest will be centered on Blastocystis hominis in future studies in view that it may be a cause of diarrhea. PMID:1298065

  1. Intestinal protozoan infections in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lai, K P

    1992-12-01

    Intestinal protozoa are found in all communities in Malaysia and among all ethnic groups. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa is not affected by ethnicity but by living conditions. Communities with both basic amenities of safe water supply and proper toilets have lower prevalence than those with one or none of the amenity. Cryptosporidium is an important intestinal protozoon in Malaysia and should be included in future field and laboratory studies and also in laboratory diagnosis for pathogens. Much interest will be centered on Blastocystis hominis in future studies in view that it may be a cause of diarrhea.

  2. Assessment Profile of Malaysia: High-Stakes External Examinations Dominate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Saw Lan

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is a federation of 13 states located in South-east Asia. The country consists of two geographical regions; Peninsular Malaysia (also known as West Malaysia) and Malaysian Borneo (also known as East Malaysia) separated by the South China Sea. The educational administration in Malaysia is highly centralised with four hierarchical levels;…

  3. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  4. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process." PMID:12285766

  5. Child Care Services in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Liew Sau

    2007-01-01

    Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multi-racial, and multi-religious country with a population of more than 25 million people who live in the Peninsular and the States of Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo Island. It is a harmonious and peaceful nation comprised of Malays, who are the ethnic majority, followed by Chinese, Indians, Ibans, Kadazandusuns, and…

  6. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  7. Review of sarcocystosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kan, S P; Pathmanathan, R

    1991-12-01

    Sarcocystis is a tissue coccidian with an obligatory two-host life cycle. The sexual generations of gametogony and sporogony occur in the lamina propria of the small intestine of definitive hosts which shed infective sporocysts in their stools and present with intestinal sarcocystosis. Asexual multiplication occurs in the skeletal and cardiac muscles of intermediate hosts which harbor Sarcocystis cysts in their muscles and present with muscular sarcocystosis. In Malaysia, Sarcocystis cysts have been reported from many domestic and wild animals, including domestic and field rats, moonrats, bandicoots, slow loris, buffalo, and monkey, and man. The known definitive hosts for some species of Sarcocystis are the domestic cat, dog and the reticulated python. Human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia is a zoonotic infection acquired by contamination of food or drink with sporocysts shed by definitive hosts. The cysts reported in human muscle resembled those seen in the moonrat, Echinosorex gymnurus, and the long-tailed monkey, Macaca fascicularis. While human intestinal sarcocystosis has not been reported in Malaysia so far, it can be assumed that such cases may not be infrequent in view of the occurrence of Sarcocystis cysts in meat animals, such as buffalo. The overall seroprevalence of 19.8% reported among the main racial groups in Malaysia indicates that sarcocystosis (both the intestinal and muscular forms) may be emerging as a significant food-borne zoonotic infection in the country.

  8. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Wrinkled Hornbill and other birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo.

    PubMed

    Rohela, M; Lim, Y A L; Jamaiah, I; Khadijah, P Y Y; Laang, S T; Nazri, M H Mohd; Nurulhuda, Z

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of a coccidian parasite, Cryptosporidium, among birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo was investigated in this study. A hundred bird fecal samples were taken from various locations of the zoo. Fecal smears prepared using direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Samples positive for Cryptosporidium with Ziehl-Neelsen stain were later confirmed using the immunofluorescence technique and viewed under the epifluorescence microscope. Six species of bird feces were confirmed positive with Cryptosporidium oocysts. They included Wrinkled Hornbill (Aceros corrugatus), Great Argus Pheasant (Argusianus argus), Black Swan (Cygnus atratus), Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides), Marabou Stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus), and Moluccan Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccencis). These birds were located in the aviary and lake, with the Moluccan Cockatoo routinely used as a show bird. Results obtained in this study indicated that animal sanctuaries like zoos and bird parks are important sources of Cryptosporidium infection to humans, especially children and other animals.

  9. First year's experience with an acute pain service--University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, R; Delilkan, A E

    1994-12-01

    An Acute Pain Service (APS) was started in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur by the Department of Anaesthesiology in October 1992 for more effective control of postoperative pain. The main modalities of treatment included patient controlled analgesia (PCA) using morphine or pethidine with PCA devises, epidural opiate analgesia (EOA) using tramadol or fentanyl/bupivacaine mixture and subcutaneous administration of morphine or pethidine. Five hundred and fifty-one patients were managed in the first year, with an overall patient satisfaction score of 83%. The majority (98.5%) of them were after abdominal or major orthopaedic surgery. Eighty per cent of patients scored < 3 on the verbal numeric pain scale, where 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst imaginable pain, on the first postoperative day. Nausea and vomiting was an unpleasant side effect in 20% of patients.

  10. Profile of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm referred to the Vascular Unit, Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Zainal, A A; Yusha, A W

    1998-12-01

    A prospective collection of patients referred with a diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to the Vascular Unit, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) between February 1993 to July 1995 were analysed. There were a total of 124 patients, with a 85 per cent (%) male preponderance. Malays formed the largest ethnic group contributing about 60%. The median age of the patients was 69 years (range 49-84). Emergency referrals and admission accounted for 46.8% of patients. Hypertension and ischaemic heart disease were the two most common co-morbid medical conditions. The number of patients who underwent surgery was only 56 (45.2%). Of this total, 34 were done electively with an operative mortality of 8.8% (3 pts). The operative mortality for emergency surgery was 59.1%. AAA is relatively common in the older age group, especially in men and it should be actively looked for, as elective surgery can be offered with acceptable morbidity and mortality.

  11. Temperature drop in normal term newborn infants born at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Raman, S; Shahla, A

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of temperature drop in 141 normal term newborn infants delivered vaginally at the labour ward, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were studied. The effect of various manoeuvres on the temperature drop were also studied. They were randomized into 3 study groups, 63 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth alone, 37 cases where the babies were put into a plastic bag immediately after birth and lastly 41 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth and then inserted into a plastic bag. There was significant temperature drop in all the 3 groups maximum in the first 15 minutes and the fall continued for 1 hour after delivery (p less than 0.001). This shows that in an air-conditioned labour ward in a tropical country the temperature fall in newborn infants can be significant. This study also showed that plastic is a poor insulator against significant temperature drop.

  12. Retrospective review of serologic rubella activity in University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Chua, K B; Lam, S K; Hooi, P S; Chua, B H; Lim, C T

    2000-09-01

    A retrospective review of rubella serological results carried out in the Virus Diagnostic Unit, University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UHKL) from January 1993 to September 1999 showed the presence of rubella infection annually which appeared to increase periodically every two to three years. There was no statistical significant difference in the rubella positive rate between male and female population aged 14 to 48 years. Congenital rubella infections (CRI) occurred in babies delivered in UHKL yearly from 1993 to 1998 with an average incidence rate of 48 per 100,000 deliveries. Peaks of rubella cases appeared to be followed by an increase in incidence of CRI cases 6 to 9 months later. The study showed that only 50.8% clinically diagnosed rubella was confirmed by laboratory finding. This study also showed an increase of rubella activity for the months of July, August and September 1999 and this may herald an increase of CRI cases in the coming millennium.

  13. The effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory illness in primary school children in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Azizi, B H; Henry, R L

    1991-03-01

    The effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory illness were studied in 15017-12 year old school children in Kuala Lumpur. Exposure to mosquito coil smoke for at least three nights a week was independently associated with asthma and persistent wheeze. Passive smoking, defined as sharing a bedroom with an adult smoker, was independently associated with a chest illness in the past year. No relationships were found between exposure to kerosene stoves, wood stoves, fumigation mat mosquito repellents or aerosol insecticides and respiratory illness. Host factors predictive of at least one respiratory outcome included family history of chest illness, history of allergy, male sex, hospitalization in the neonatal period and low paternal education. With 95% confidence, avoidance of regular exposure to mosquito coil smoke and passive smoking could reduce the prevalences of persistent wheeze, asthma and chest illness by up to 29%. Measurements of lung function confirmed the validity of questions pertaining to wheezing and asthma in the study questionnaire.

  14. Anaesthesia Incident Monitoring Study in Hospital Kuala Lumpur--the second report.

    PubMed

    Choy, Y C; Lee, C Y; Inbasegaran, K

    1999-03-01

    Critical incident reporting is a useful quality improvement technique for reducing morbidity and mortality in anaesthesia. This study analyses 93 cases in Kuala Lumpur Hospital from July 1995 to January 1997. The main incidents during anaesthesia in this study were airway incidents. While human error was identified as the main factor contributing to the occurrence of adverse incidents. Critical incident monitoring plays an important role in identifying potential problems, which may lead to disaster. The findings from this report of the anaesthesia incident monitoring study continued to indicate the occurrence of similar problems seen in an earlier report. The identification of common incidents can be used to identify risk factors and minimise repetition of such incidents.

  15. A review of patients with deep vein thrombosis diagnosed at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Liam, C K; Ng, S C

    1990-11-01

    In this retrospective study, 81 patients were diagnosed to have deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a ten year period from 1977 to 1986. Fifty-six patients had their DVT confirmed by venograms. The left side was affected in 79.5% of venographically proven cases of DVT of the lower limbs above the popliteal vein. The incidence of clinically apparent DVT following surgery was 0.21 per 1,000 operations. The incidence of pregnancy-related DVT was 0.039%. DVT was 3 times more frequent in the puerperium than in the antenatal period. The overall incidence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism was 13.6% of the cases of DVT.

  16. Imported malaria: a retrospective study in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, a ten-year experience.

    PubMed

    Jamaiah, I; Anuar, A K; Najib, N A; Zurainee, M N

    1998-03-01

    Over a period of ten years (1983-1992), 134 malaria cases admitted to University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur (UHKL) were analysed. Malays constituted 27.6%, Chinese 29.8%, Indians 9.7%, Indonesians 16.4% and other foreigners 16.4%. Therefore, of the total number of cases, foreigners constituted 32.8% (44) of all the malaria cases admitted to UHKL. Fifteen of these foreigners had chloroquine-resistant strains of malarial parasites. Three species of malaria were reported of which Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most (46.3%) (80% of these developed resistance to chloroquine). Plasmodium vivax was confirmed in 44.8% (10% of these developed resistance to chloroquine) and there was only one case of Plasmodium malarie infection.

  17. Maternal mortality from septic abortions in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from March 1968 to February 1974.

    PubMed

    Ng, K H; Sinnathuray, T A

    1975-09-01

    4 maternal deaths from abortion that took place during the 6-year period from March 1968 to February 1974 in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur are reviewed with focus on the avoidable causes and preventive aspects. The total maternal deaths from all causes for the 1699 admission was 13. The mortality rate from abortion during this period was 0.241/1000 pregnancies. The number of abortion cases admitted into the hospital during the 6-year period increased steadily. Of the 4 abortion deaths, 3 patients admitted to attempts at inducing abortion. 1 patient denied having induced abortion, although her husband felt that it could have occurred. All 4 cases of abortion deaths occurred in patients with septic abortions and were, theoretically, avoidable deaths. It is most important to prevent sepsis in a case of abortion. Patients with endotoxic shock are often given intravenous steroids in pharmacological doses every 4-6 hours.

  18. Temperature drop in normal term newborn infants born at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Raman, S; Shahla, A

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of temperature drop in 141 normal term newborn infants delivered vaginally at the labour ward, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were studied. The effect of various manoeuvres on the temperature drop were also studied. They were randomized into 3 study groups, 63 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth alone, 37 cases where the babies were put into a plastic bag immediately after birth and lastly 41 cases where the babies were wiped with dry cloth and then inserted into a plastic bag. There was significant temperature drop in all the 3 groups maximum in the first 15 minutes and the fall continued for 1 hour after delivery (p less than 0.001). This shows that in an air-conditioned labour ward in a tropical country the temperature fall in newborn infants can be significant. This study also showed that plastic is a poor insulator against significant temperature drop. PMID:1520194

  19. Space technology developments in Malaysia:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabirin, A.

    The venture of space is, by nature, a costly one. However, exploring space is not just an activity reserved for international superpowers. Smaller and emerging space nations, some with burgeoning space programs of their own, can play a role in space technology development and interplanetary exploration, sometimes simply by just being there. Over the past four decades, the range of services delivered by space technologies in Malaysia has grown enormously. For many business and public services, space based technologies have become the primary means of delivery of such services. Space technology development in Malaysia started with Malaysia's first microsatellite, TiungSAT-1. TiungSAT-1 has been successfully launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on the 26th of September 2000 on a Russian-Ukrainian Dnepr rocket. There have been wide imaging applications and information extraction using data from TiungSAT-1. Various techniques have been applied to the data for different applications in environmental assessment and monitoring as well as resource management. As a step forward, Malaysia has also initiated another space technology programme, RAZAKSAT. RAZAKSAT is a 180kg class satellite designed to provide 2.5meter ground sampling distance resolution imagery on a near equatorial orbit. Its mission objective is to demonstrate the capability of a medium high resolution remote sensing camera using a cost effective small satellite platform and a multi-channel linear push-broom electro-optical instrument. Realizing the immense benefits of space technology and its significant role in promoting sustainable development, Malaysia is committed to the continuous development and advancement of space technology within the scope of peaceful use of outer space and boosting its national economic growth through space related activities.

  20. Discouraging rural to urban migration of the youths in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Bin Abdul-ghani, M

    1979-12-01

    Due to the limitations of statistics pertaining to rural-urban migration among the youth of Malaysia, the trends and implications of this phenomenon are explored more in theoretical them empirical terms. Empirical evidence will have to be based on various micro studies of villages and their socioeconomic conditions as they prevail today. Heavy emphasis will be placed on the needs of the agricultural sector where millions of dollars are being spent on agricultural modernization. Also explored are the various theories of rural-urban migration. The data available at the national level is only the increase of the population data for major urban centers in 1957 and 1970. From this basic data, the total increase in population over a period of 13 years has been calculated from which the average annual increase due to migration is computed. The increase in urban population within the 1957-70 period varied from a deficit (more outmigration than inmigration) in the case of Georgetown, Butterworth, and Kuching to a high of 32.7% in the case of Petaling Jaya, 4.5% in the case of Ipoh, and little above 3% in the case of Johore Bahru, Kuantan, Kuala Trengganu, and Kota Kinabalu. A 3% or 4% annual immigration to the major cities, be it from within or outside the state concerned, means that there is an equivalent annual depletion of the able bodied labor force from the rural areas of Malaysia. Insofar as Kuala Lumpur is concerned, 4 issues directly related to an accelerated pace of migration to the cities are: the existence of some 300,000 squatters; the shortage of low cost housing for low income workers; the emergence of urban slum areas in the cities and the suburbs implying lack of public utilities, services, and so forth; and a high unemployment rate. Looking at migration from its source of origin, there are several other consequences. Many studies indicate that the youth population of villages remain at about 10-15%. Thus, the villages are geing deprived of able bodied

  1. Discouraging rural to urban migration of the youths in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Bin Abdul-ghani, M

    1979-12-01

    Due to the limitations of statistics pertaining to rural-urban migration among the youth of Malaysia, the trends and implications of this phenomenon are explored more in theoretical them empirical terms. Empirical evidence will have to be based on various micro studies of villages and their socioeconomic conditions as they prevail today. Heavy emphasis will be placed on the needs of the agricultural sector where millions of dollars are being spent on agricultural modernization. Also explored are the various theories of rural-urban migration. The data available at the national level is only the increase of the population data for major urban centers in 1957 and 1970. From this basic data, the total increase in population over a period of 13 years has been calculated from which the average annual increase due to migration is computed. The increase in urban population within the 1957-70 period varied from a deficit (more outmigration than inmigration) in the case of Georgetown, Butterworth, and Kuching to a high of 32.7% in the case of Petaling Jaya, 4.5% in the case of Ipoh, and little above 3% in the case of Johore Bahru, Kuantan, Kuala Trengganu, and Kota Kinabalu. A 3% or 4% annual immigration to the major cities, be it from within or outside the state concerned, means that there is an equivalent annual depletion of the able bodied labor force from the rural areas of Malaysia. Insofar as Kuala Lumpur is concerned, 4 issues directly related to an accelerated pace of migration to the cities are: the existence of some 300,000 squatters; the shortage of low cost housing for low income workers; the emergence of urban slum areas in the cities and the suburbs implying lack of public utilities, services, and so forth; and a high unemployment rate. Looking at migration from its source of origin, there are several other consequences. Many studies indicate that the youth population of villages remain at about 10-15%. Thus, the villages are geing deprived of able bodied

  2. Assessment of water quality parameters using multivariate analysis for Klang River basin, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim; Othman, Faridah; Ibrahim, Adriana I N; Alaa-Eldin, M E; Yunus, Rossita M

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses several univariate and multivariate statistical techniques to evaluate and interpret a water quality data set obtained from the Klang River basin located within the state of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The river drains an area of 1,288 km(2), from the steep mountain rainforests of the main Central Range along Peninsular Malaysia to the river mouth in Port Klang, into the Straits of Malacca. Water quality was monitored at 20 stations, nine of which are situated along the main river and 11 along six tributaries. Data was collected from 1997 to 2007 for seven parameters used to evaluate the status of the water quality, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen, pH, and temperature. The data were first investigated using descriptive statistical tools, followed by two practical multivariate analyses that reduced the data dimensions for better interpretation. The analyses employed were factor analysis and principal component analysis, which explain 60 and 81.6% of the total variation in the data, respectively. We found that the resulting latent variables from the factor analysis are interpretable and beneficial for describing the water quality in the Klang River. This study presents the usefulness of several statistical methods in evaluating and interpreting water quality data for the purpose of monitoring the effectiveness of water resource management. The results should provide more straightforward data interpretation as well as valuable insight for managers to conceive optimum action plans for controlling pollution in river water. PMID:25433545

  3. Modelling the effect of temperature change on the extrinsic incubation period and reproductive number of Plasmodium falciparum in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chua, T H

    2012-03-01

    According to the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Malaysia will experience an increase of 3-5°C in the future. As the development of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is sensitive to temperature, we investigated, using computer models, the effect of increase of 3º and 5ºC on the possible changes in the epidemiology of malaria transmission of P. falciparum in Malaysia. Four environmentally different locations were selected: Kuala Lumpur (KL), Cameron Highlands (CH), Kota Kinabalu (KK) and Kinabalu Park (KP). The extrinsic incubation period (EIP) was estimated using hourly temperatures and the mean daily temperatures. The EIP values estimated using the mean daily temperature were lower than those computed from hourly temperatures in warmer areas (KL, KK), but higher in the cooler areas (CH, KP). The computer simulations also indicated that the EIP will be decreased if the temperature was raised by 3º or 5ºC, with the effect more pronounced for the greater temperature increase, and for the cooler places. The vector cohort that is still alive at a time to transmit malaria (s(EIP)) also increased when the temperature was raised, with the increase more pronounced in the cooler areas. This study indicates an increase in temperature will have more significant effect in shortening the EIP in a cooler place (eg CH, KP), resulting in a greater s(EIP), and consequently increasing the transmission intensity and malaria risk. A temperature increase arising from the global climate change will likely affect the epidemiology of malaria in Malaysia, especially in the cooler areas.

  4. Dynamics of short rainfall storms in a small scale urban area in Coly Limper, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, M. N. M.; Niemczynowicz, J.

    Short term storm rainfalls are recorded with a dense network of fine resolution rain gauges well distributed in a small urban catchment in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The period of data collection covers the south-west monsoon (July-September), inter monsoon (October) and partly the north-east monsoon (November-December) seasons. This paper presents some findings with reference to the dynamic properties of short rainfall storms using the method of vector analysis and farther correlation analysis. Good accuracy of data and good synchronisation between the gauges have been achieved thus a meaningful interpretation of the obtained results was made possible. The selected 30 storms have been used to determine the velocities and direction of movement of the storm cells. A correlation study was undertaken to relate the calculated storm velocities and directions with the observed wind velocities and directions from different altitudes. Results show that statistically significant correlation was achieved between the calculated storm velocities and the hourly mean surface wind velocities. In contrast to studies carried out in other climate zones, no significant correlations were obtained between observed storm velocities and directions on ground level versus high altitude measured wind velocities and directions. The average maximum intensities has been found to be correlated with the average storm depths.

  5. Composition of extractable organic matter of air particles from malaysia: Initial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Abas, M. Radzi; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The solvent extractable compounds of airborne particulate samples, which were collected on two occasions in a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a standard high-volume air sampler, were investigated to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker compounds. These preliminary results show that both samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols as the dominant solvent-extractable components, with minor amounts of n-alkanedioic acids, n-alkanones, terpenoids, sterols, and phthalate contaminants, derived from biogenic sources (vascular plant wax) and from anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuel products (lubricating oil, vehicle fuels, etc.). Some compositional differences are observed in the two samples and greater atmospheric concentrations were found for almost all organic components in the sample collected under hazy conditions. This is interpreted to be due to the local build-up of organic contaminants as a result of atmospheric stability during the haze episode, to atmospheric photochemical reactions, and to some unidentified anthropogenic activities which are peculiar to the city. Some of the organic components are also suspected to be brought in from areas outside the region.

  6. Investigation of Antioxidative and Anticancer Potentials of Streptomyces sp. MUM256 Isolated from Malaysia Mangrove Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2015-01-01

    A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3-, 2.0-, and 1.8-folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29, and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic toward colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents. PMID:26635777

  7. Structured student-generated videos for first-year students at a dental school in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hanan; Khan, Saad A; Toh, Chooi G

    2013-05-01

    Student-generated videos provide an authentic learning experience for students, enhance motivation and engagement, improve communication skills, and improve collaborative learning skills. This article describes the development and implementation of a student-generated video activity as part of a knowledge, observation, simulation, and experience (KOSE) program at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It also reports the students' perceptions of an activity that introduced first-year dental students (n=44) to clinical scenarios involving patients and dental team aiming to improve professional behavior and communication skills. The learning activity was divided into three phases: preparatory phase, video production phase, and video-watching. Students were organized into five groups and were instructed to generate videos addressing given clinical scenarios. Following the activity, students' perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire. The results showed that 86 percent and 88 percent, respectively, of the students agreed that preparation of the activity enhanced their understanding of the role of dentists in provision of health care and the role of enhanced teamwork. In addition, 86 percent and 75 percent, respectively, agreed that the activity improved their communication and project management skills. Overall, the dental students perceived that the student-generated video activity was a positive experience and enabled them to play the major role in driving their learning process.

  8. Diabetes and its vascular complications in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jones, J J; Watkins, P J; Owyong, L Y; Loh, P P; Kutty, M K; Jogie, B

    1978-12-01

    One hundred and thirty-two newly diagnosed Asian diabetic patients (39 Malay, 30 Chinese and 63 Indians) have been studied in Kuala Lumpur. The highest proportion of diabetic patients were Indian and the lowest were Chinese. Vascular complications were equally common in Asian diabetic patients as in Europeans; coronary heart disease was relatively more common in Indians and cerebral vascular disease in Chinese. Twenty percent of all Asian diabetic patients requiring admission to hospital also had coronary heart disease, 9% had cerebral vascular disease and 8% had gangrene or ulceration of the feet. In Kuala Lumpur, diabetes is a very important risk factor for coronary heart disease: 17% of all patients admitted to the General Hospital with coronary heart disease were already diabetic. PMID:749278

  9. Anaesthetic contribution to deaths in the operating theatre at the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur--a retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Tan, I; Delilkan, A E

    1993-12-01

    From January 1980 to August 1992, there were 125 deaths occurring in the operating theatre at the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Out of these 125, six were judged to have been mainly 'due to anaesthesia.' In the same time period, there were a total of 155,000 anaesthetics given in the hospital. This gives an anaesthetic death rate (in the operating theatre) of six out of 155,000 or 0.39:10,000.

  10. Obesity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    significantly higher in Chinese and urban subjects. Men were moderately active with the exception of the Dayaks. Chinese women were considerably less active than Chinese men. Chinese and Dayak women were less active than Malay and Indian women. In both men and women, Indians recorded the highest PALs. Hence, current nutrition and health surveys reveal that Malaysians are already affected by western health problems. The escalation of obesity, once thought to be an urban phenomenon, has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. As Malaysia proceeds rapidly towards a developed economy status, the health of its population will probably continue to deteriorate. Therefore, a national strategy needs to be developed to tackle both dietary and activity contributors to the excess weight gain of the Malaysian population. PMID:12164473

  11. Obesity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    significantly higher in Chinese and urban subjects. Men were moderately active with the exception of the Dayaks. Chinese women were considerably less active than Chinese men. Chinese and Dayak women were less active than Malay and Indian women. In both men and women, Indians recorded the highest PALs. Hence, current nutrition and health surveys reveal that Malaysians are already affected by western health problems. The escalation of obesity, once thought to be an urban phenomenon, has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. As Malaysia proceeds rapidly towards a developed economy status, the health of its population will probably continue to deteriorate. Therefore, a national strategy needs to be developed to tackle both dietary and activity contributors to the excess weight gain of the Malaysian population.

  12. Malaysia implements the integrated approach.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Malaysia has implemented an integrated approach in providing family planning services to eligible couples. In 1964 the government of Malaysia adopted a national family planning program, and implementation began in the urban areas and extended into the rural areas. Other agencies are involved in providing family planning services and information including the Federation of Family Planning Associations, the Ministry of Health, the National Family Planning Board, and the Federal Land Development Authority. The number of women practicing contraception has increased from 20,726 in 1967 to 533,646 by 1976. and other methods, 3.9%, respectively. There has been an increase in the percentage of acceptors between ages 15-29 from 56% in 1968 to 71.3% in 1975. The 2nd Malaysian national plan will use a multidisciplinary approach to the problem.

  13. Debris flow study in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrin Jaafar, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon of debris flow occurs in Malaysia occasionally. The topography of Peningsular Malysia is characterized by the central mountain ranges running from south to north. Several parts of hilly areas with steep slopes, combined with high saturation of soil strata that deliberately increase the pore water pressure underneath the hill slope. As a tropical country Malaysia has very high intensity rainfall which is triggered the landslide. In the study area where the debris flow are bound to occur, there are a few factors that contribute to this phenomenon such as high rainfall intensity, very steep slope which an inclination more than 35 degree and sandy clay soil type which is easily change to liquidity soil. This paper will discuss the study of rainfall, mechanism, modeling and design of mitigation measure to avoid repeated failure in future in same area.

  14. Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azrina, M Z; Yap, C K; Rahim Ismail, A; Ismail, A; Tan, S G

    2006-07-01

    A study of the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River (Peninsular Malaysia) was conducted. Four pristine stations from the upstream and 4 stations at the downstream receiving anthropogenic impacts were selected along the river. For 4 consecutive months (March-June 1999), based on the Malaysian DOE (Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2000, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Malaysia. Maskha Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur, 86pp; Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2001, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment Malaysia) water quality index classes, the upstream stations recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher Biological Monitoring Working Party scores and better water quality indices than those of the downstream. The total number of macrobenthic taxa and their overall richness indices and diversity indices were significantly (P<0.05) higher at the upstream stations (54 taxa) than at the downstream stations (5 taxa). The upstream of the Langat River was dominated by Ephemeroptera and chironomid dipterans while other orders found in small quantities included Trichoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Odonata, Ephemeraptera, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda. On the other hand, the downstream of the river was mainly inhabited by the resistant Oligochaeta worms Limnodrilus spp. and Branchiodrilus sp. and Hirudinea in small numbers. The relationships between the physicochemical and the macrobenthic data were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. These statistical analyses showed that the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by the total suspended solids and the conductivity of the river water. This study also highlighted the impacts of anthropogenic land-based activities such as urban runoff on the distribution and species diversity of

  15. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.

  16. Electricity energy outlook in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. S.; Maragatham, K.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Population and income growth are the key drivers behind the growing demand for energy. Demand for electricity in Malaysia is always growing in tandem with its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The growth for electricity in Malaysia forecasted by Economic Planning Unit (EPU) has shown an increase of 3.52% in 2012 compared to 3.48% in 2011. This growth has been driven by strong demand growth from commercial and domestic sectors. The share of electricity consumption to total energy consumption has increased from 17.4% in 2007 to 21.7% in 2012. The total electricity production was reported at 122.12TWh in 2012, where gas is still the major fuel source contributing to 52.7% of the total generation fuel mix of electricity followed by Coal, 38.9%, hydro, 7.3%, oil, 1% and others, 0.2%. This paper aims to discuss the energy outlook particularly the electricity production and ways toward greener environment in electricity production in Malaysia

  17. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life. PMID:12284509

  18. Nutrition and educational achievement of urban primary schoolchildren in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Z M; Bond, J T; Johnson, N E

    2000-12-01

    The relationship between nutrition, health and educational achievement of school-age population in less developed countries has been of interest to many researchers due to the frequent observation that many children did not complete primary school and those who completed, did not do as well as children in the developed countries. Nevertheless, nutritional and health status by itself is not the only variable affecting educational achievement, since biological, psychological, socioeconomic and cultural factors could directly or indirectly affect both nutrition, health status and educational achievement. The mechanism by which health and nutrition influence educational achievement is not well established, but poor health and malnutrition in early childhood may affect cognitive abilities, necessary for learning process and consequently educational achievement. A study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and educational achievement among primary schoolchildren from low income households (n = 399). A high percentage of them were mild-significantly underweight (52%), stunted (47%) and wasted (36%) and increasingly overweight (6%). In general, more boys than girls were found to experience some form of malnutrition. While weight-for-height did not differ significantly according to family, child and school factors, weight-for-age and height-for-age differed significantly by gender. Also, height-for-age was significantly related to household income. This indicates that stunting may be a consequence of prolonged socioeconomic deprivation. Educational achievement was measured based on test scores for Malay language (ML), English language (EL) and mathematics (MT). While a majority of the schoolchildren obtained optimum scores (>75) for ML and MT, the majority of them had insufficient scores (<50) for EL. Children's total score (TS) for the three subjects was significantly associated with household socioeconomic

  19. Rate of seroconversion in repeat blood donors at the national blood centre, kuala lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nafishah, A; Asiah, M Nor; Syimah, A T Nur; Mohd Zahari, T H; Yasmin, A; Normi, M; Anza, E; Shahnaz, M; Narazah, M Y

    2014-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend that all donated blood are to be screened for at least three viral infections [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV)]. The National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur (NBCKL) aims to reduce transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) as it still remains as one of the major risk for blood transfusion. A cross sectional study was conducted at the National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur from 1st January 2009 to 31st June 2010. Data from 581,020 donors were analyzed from year 2004 to 2008. All data were retrieved from NBCKL Blood Bank Information System (BBIS). A total of 201 repeat donors were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria but only 132 repeat donors agreed to participate. Information on sociodemographic, risk factors, knowledge of donors and high risk behavior were extracted from standardize questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14.0. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of the seropositive infectivity among repeat blood donors at the NBCKL. The results showed Syphilis accounts for the highest and increasing seroconversion rate among other infections from 20.83 % in year 2004 to 44.6 % in year in year 2008. HIV and HCV infection also showed increasing seroconversion rate in 5 years' time from 6.41 % in year 2004 to 17.54 % in year 2008 and 4.8 % in year 2004 to 5.94 % in year 2008 respectively. However, HBV infection alone showed a decreasing seroconversion rate from 20.83 % in year 2004 to 10.4 % in year 2008. Level of donors' awareness regarding high risk factors (activities or behaviour) can lead to higher risk of TTI with significant p value in this predictors model(p < 0.05). Repeat blood donors with high risk activities are more likely to have seropositive results for HBV, HIV and Syphilis. This study found that the frequency of HCV seropositivity is higher among lapsed donor. Socio demographic factors such as male and

  20. Malaysia (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia by 1984 achieved a crude death rate of 5.3/1000, an infant mortality rate of 17/1000 live births, and a 1983 life expectancy at birth of 67.6 for males and 72.3 for females due primarily to socioeconomic development, better nutrition, and a health system covering 95% of the rural population. Substantial mortality differentials still exist between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, between urban and rural areas, and among ethnic groups. Differences in the coverage and quality of mortality statistics also exist. 83.2% of Malaysia's total population of 15.5 million is in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3% in Sabah, and 9.5% in Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, 55.1% are Malays, 33.9% Chinese, and 10.3% Indians. About 40% of the population is urban, and 39% is under age 15. The average annual rate of growth declined from 2.6% in the 1960s to 2.3% in the 1970s. The total fertility rate fell from 5.1 children in 1970 to 4.1 in 1980. A rise in age at 1st marriage and reduction in marital fertility have been partly offset by an increase in the proportion of women of childbearing age. The population is projected to grow to about 22 million by the year 2000. Chinese and Indians are expected to approach replacement level fertility by that year, but Malay fertility is expected to remain high for some time. Internal migration, 45% of which is intrarural, increased markedly in the 1970s, probably due to rapid modernization, industrialization, land development, and regional imbalances in economic development. In absolute terms a total of 410,000 persons moved from rural to urban areas during the 1970s. Important progress has been made in regional development programs, but further regional development requires resolution of problems related to internal migration and greater efforts to relocate industries in the less developed areas. The

  1. Malaysia (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia by 1984 achieved a crude death rate of 5.3/1000, an infant mortality rate of 17/1000 live births, and a 1983 life expectancy at birth of 67.6 for males and 72.3 for females due primarily to socioeconomic development, better nutrition, and a health system covering 95% of the rural population. Substantial mortality differentials still exist between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, between urban and rural areas, and among ethnic groups. Differences in the coverage and quality of mortality statistics also exist. 83.2% of Malaysia's total population of 15.5 million is in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3% in Sabah, and 9.5% in Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, 55.1% are Malays, 33.9% Chinese, and 10.3% Indians. About 40% of the population is urban, and 39% is under age 15. The average annual rate of growth declined from 2.6% in the 1960s to 2.3% in the 1970s. The total fertility rate fell from 5.1 children in 1970 to 4.1 in 1980. A rise in age at 1st marriage and reduction in marital fertility have been partly offset by an increase in the proportion of women of childbearing age. The population is projected to grow to about 22 million by the year 2000. Chinese and Indians are expected to approach replacement level fertility by that year, but Malay fertility is expected to remain high for some time. Internal migration, 45% of which is intrarural, increased markedly in the 1970s, probably due to rapid modernization, industrialization, land development, and regional imbalances in economic development. In absolute terms a total of 410,000 persons moved from rural to urban areas during the 1970s. Important progress has been made in regional development programs, but further regional development requires resolution of problems related to internal migration and greater efforts to relocate industries in the less developed areas. The

  2. Malaysia Announces New Higher-Education Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    The government of Malaysia, whose universities are battling a reputation for mediocrity, recently announced plans to revitalize its lagging university system and turn the country into a center of higher education in Southeast Asia. At an August meeting of government ministers and higher-education officials, Malaysia's prime minister, Abdullah…

  3. Malay Special Rights: "Affirmative Action" in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Mah Hui

    This paper provides an overview of Malaysia's affirmative action program, legally constituted as Malay Special Rights. An introduction defines the aim of the program as improving the economic position of Bumiputras, who consist of Malays and other indigenous communities. These, it is said, are Malaysia's most economically disadvantaged groups;…

  4. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  5. Homeschool in Malaysia: A Foresight Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Soon, Ng; Rahman Bin Ahmad, Abd; Bin Sulaiman, Muhammad Ibrahim; Sirisa, Ng Mei Xin

    2015-01-01

    Homeschooling in Malaysia is a form of alternative education that emphasizes quality education based on moral values and beliefs while strengthening family bonds. This alternative form of education is being practiced by a growing number of families in Malaysia. As such, the Ministry of Education has given the green light for intending parents who…

  6. The Evolution of Special Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education in Malaysia across four chronological stages: before and during the early colonial period (before 1900), pre-independence (1900-1957), post-independence (1957-1990) and modern Malaysia (1990 to the present), through document analysis. By placing current issues and trends within a historical…

  7. Workplace Learning in Malaysia: The Learner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…

  8. Physicochemical factors and sources of particulate matter at residential urban environment in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Khan, Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Amil, Norhaniza; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Syedul Hoque, Hossain Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Long-term measurements (2004-2011) of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm) and trace gases (carbon monoxide [CO], ozone [O₃], nitrogen oxide [NO], oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], sulfur dioxide [SO₂], methane [CH₄], nonmethane hydrocarbon [NMHC]) have been conducted to study the effect of physicochemical factors on the PM10 concentration. In addition, this study includes source apportionment of PM10 in Kuala Lumpur urban environment. An advanced principal component analysis (PCA) technique coupled with absolute principal component scores (APCS) and multiple linear regression (MLR) has been applied. The average annual concentration of PM10 for 8 yr is 51.3 ± 25.8 μg m⁻³, which exceeds the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG) and international guideline values. Detail analysis shows the dependency of PM10 on the linear changes of the motor vehicles in use and the amount of biomass burning, particularly from Sumatra, Indonesia, during southwesterly monsoon. The main sources of PM10 identified by PCA-APCS-MLR are traffic combustion (28%), ozone coupled with meteorological factors (20%), and wind-blown particles (1%). However, the apportionment procedure left 28.0 μg m⁻³, that is, 51% of PM10 undetermined.

  9. Respiratory symptoms and asthma in primary school children in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Omar, A H

    1990-04-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7 to 12-year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, the prevalence of chronic cough and/or phlegm, persistent wheeze, and doctor-diagnosed asthma were 8.0%, 8.0% and 8.7%, respectively. The prevalence of asthma (defined as persistent wheeze and/or doctor-diagnosed asthma) was 13.8%. 4.3% experienced at least one episode of chest illness that resulted in inactivity for at least 3 days in the previous year. The mean age of commencement of symptoms in the doctor-diagnosed asthma group was 2.75 years. The prevalence of chronic cough and/or phlegm and persistent wheeze were highest among Indian children (p less than 0.05). More Malays had been diagnosed as having asthma than the other ethnic groups but the differences were not statistically significant. The patients' fathers' low levels of education were associated with chronic cough and/or phlegm (p less than 0.05) but not with other complaints. Asthma was significantly more common among boys than girls. No age differences were noted. Further analysis showed that persistent wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma were associated with increased likelihood of other respiratory illnesses or doctor-diagnosed allergy before the age of 2 years.

  10. Child abuse and neglect as seen in General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur--a two year study.

    PubMed

    Kassim, M S; George, R; Kassim, K; Begum, M; Cherian, M P; Tajudin, A K; Chandran, V; Anan, A; Reddy, R; Singh, J

    1989-06-01

    Eighty-six children diagnosed as child abuse and/or neglect were admitted to the Paediatric wards of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur during 1985 and 1986. Of these cases, 62 were of physical abuse, six of sexual abuse, one case of both physical and sexual abuse and 17 of neglect. There were 25 boys and 61 girls. Thirty-four of these children were Malays, 16 Chinese, 26 Indians, three mixed and seven illegal immigrants. Twenty-one were below the age of one year, 24 from one to four years, 25 from five to nine years and 16 were ten years and above. The abusers were mainly close members of the family. Of these children, 24 were sent back to their parents and 11 to their relatives home. Twenty-seven were taken into care by the Ministry of Social Welfare and the remaining seven children who were illegal immigrants, were deported with their parents. Only one child was successfully fostered. Eleven children were taken away from the hospital by their parents or guardians without the knowledge of the health staff. There were five deaths in the series.

  11. Efficiency of blood usage for elective surgery in the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Lim, E J; Lopez, C G; Veera, S N; Menaka, N; Aminah, A

    1996-12-01

    Provision of quality care, service and blood products to patients while containing costs and the amount of blood used should be the aim of every blood bank. Therefore a prospective audit was carried out over three months to determine how efficiently blood was being used in elective surgery in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Every case with blood crossmatched was monitored to determine the amount transfused and the posttransfusion haemoglobin level. Overcrossmatching of varying degrees was noted in almost all surgical procedures and overtransfusion in 45.5% of patients transfused. The rate of case postponement was 18.1%. These indicate inefficient utilization of blood and other resources. The transfusion index (TI) and range of units transfused were calculated for each procedure. They can be used as indicators of blood requirement and potential severity of hemorrhage. Suggestions to improve efficiency of blood utilization include the introduction and ongoing monitoring of guidelines on crossmatching and transfusion based on the data obtained here, by the hospital blood transfusion committee; the "group, screen and hold" practice for surgical procedures with high crossmatch transfusion ratios, low transfusion indices and a small range of units transfused could also be adopted.

  12. Amoebiasis: a 10 year retrospective study at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Jamaiah, I; Shekhar, K C

    1999-09-01

    A hospital based retrospective study of amoebiasis was carried out for a ten-year period at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Of the 51 cases traced, 30 (59%) had amoebic dysentery, 20 (39%) were amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and one patient had both conditions. Entameoba histolytica trophozoites were identified in 13 (43%) of the amoebic dysenteric stools and 9 (30%) from biopsy. Of the 20 (39%) ALA cases, only one showed parasites in the stool and biopsy. Majority of the patients with dysentery were Malays while Chinese comprised 40% with ALA. Males predominated overall with a male female ratio of 3:1, while for ALA it was 9:1. Most of ALA were single (71.4%) and were localised in the right lobe. The majority of the patients were unemployed. Eighty three percent (83%) of the patients presented with diarrhoea or dysentery followed by abdominal pain while those with ALA had fever, chills, rigors and pain in the right hypochondrium. Eighty percent of the ALA cases showed hepatomegaly. All patients responded to treatment with metronidazole.

  13. Hand replantation and revascularization--six years experience in Hospital Kuala Lumpur 1990-1995.

    PubMed

    Razana, A; Hyzan, M Y; Pathmanathan, V; Gill, R S

    1998-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in 130 patients who underwent replantation or revascularization of 195 amputations in Hand and Microsurgery Unit Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 1990 to 1995. There were 130 patients with 195 amputations in the duration of 6 years study, which were mainly males (111 patients, 85.4%). The commonest age group involved was 19-25 years old (49 cases, 63.7%). There were 146 complete amputations replanted and 49 cases of incomplete amputations were revascularized. The commonest part involved was thumb and index finger (23% of cases each) and majority was caused by industrial accident (60.8%). However in pediatric age group home accident was the leading cause of the amputation (93.8%). The overall survival rate for the amputation was 65.6%. Revascularization had a better survival rate (77.6%) than replantation (61.6%). A clean cut wound and ischaemic time less than 12 hours gave better survival rate. However, there was no significant different chance of survival on distribution of injured parts and ischaemic time (< 12 hours).

  14. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Cheong, I; Lim, A; Lee, C; Ibrahim, Z; Sarvanathan, K

    1997-12-01

    Between 1987 to 1995, a total of 334 patients infected with HIV were treated at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur. There were 159 Malays, 108 Chinese, 64 Indians, and 3 from other ethnic groups. Three hundred and twenty-one (96.1%) of these individuals were males and 262 (65.9%) were between the ages of 26-45 years. Intravenous drug users made up 77% (256) of the attributable risk behaviour from the group although many of them also had added risk behaviours like heterosexual activity with multiple partners (50 patients), tattoos (7 patients), homosexual practice (4 patients) and previous transfusions (3 patients). The others acquired their infection through heterosexual promiscuity (59 patients), homo/bisexual activity (7 patients), previous transfusion (5 patients) and tattoos (1 patient). Sixty-six patients (all males) had since progressed to full blown AIDS and 10 have died. The two commonest AIDS-defining events were tuberculosis infection and Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia occurring in 37 (56%) and 15 (22.7%) of patients respectively. Forty-one patients with AIDS presented for the first time with their AIDS-defining infections. The mean CD4 count of the patients when they progressed to AIDS was 130/mm3. The mean time for progression from "known" seropositivity to AIDS was 2.42 years. These results suggest that Malaysians infected with HIV are not coming forward for treatment until they are in the advanced stage of the disease.

  15. Morbidity and mortality of infants of diabetic mothers born at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Boo, N Y

    1992-03-01

    A prospective study was carried out in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur in 1989 to determine the morbidity and mortality of infants of diabetic mothers. Out of 24,856 neonates born during the study period, 54 neonates (2.2 per 1000 livebirths) were born to mothers who were diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus before the current pregnancy or who had impaired glucose tolerance test during the current pregnancy. Almost a third (29.6 percent) of these infants of diabetic mothers had birthweight of 4000 grams and above, and 37.0 percent of the 54 babies were large-for-gestational age. Hypoglycemia occurred in 9/54 (16.7 percent) of the neonates, respiratory distress syndrome in 5/54 (9.3 percent), shoulder dystocia in 7/54 (13.0 percent), and congenital abnormalities in 4/54 (7.4 percent). Three (5.6 percent) neonates died during the neonatal period. The results of this study suggest a need to intensify control of maternal diabetes mellitus during pregnancy in order to reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality of their infants.

  16. Surgical experience with cardiac tumours at the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Awang, Y; Sallehuddin, A

    1991-03-01

    Fifteen patients underwent surgery for cardiac tumours in General Hospital Kuala Lumpur between October 1984 and June 1989. Twelve of the patients had cardiac myxomas and underwent excision under cardiopulmonary bypass. Two patients had sarcoma, of which one was excised. The other was inoperable. Another patient had a metastalic malignant melanoma which was inoperable. Of the patients 10 were female and five male. Their ages ranged from 16 to 60 years. All were symptomatic and the commonest mode of presentation was exertional dyspnoea and palpitations. Two presented with cerebral embolisation. The three patients with malignant tumours had constitutional symptoms at the time of surgery. All patients had echocardiography pre-operatively to confirm the diagnosis of cardiac tumour. Only one patient underwent preoperative cardiac catheterisation and angiography. The surgical approach in all patients was through a median sternotomy and all except one were operated under cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no intraoperative embolisation. There was one perioperative death. Fourteen patients were followed up for periods ranging from one to 44 months. Three patients with malignant cardiac tumours died. One had recurrence of myxoma 21 months after the initial surgery. We conclude that excision of cardiac myxomas carry a very small risk following which patients have good prognosis. Malignant tumours carry a bad prognosis. From our experience, we conclude that echocardiography is an extremely accurate tool in the diagnosis of cardiac tumours.

  17. Hydatidiform molar pregnancy in Malaysian women: a histopathological study from the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Cheah, P L; Looi, L M; Sivanesaratnam, V

    1993-06-01

    A review of gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from January 1989 to December 1990 using established histological criteria showed 25 complete hydatidiform moles (CHM), 11 partial hydatidiform moles (PHM), 1 invasive mole and 2 choriocarcinoma. The ages of the patients with CHM ranged from 21 to 43 years (mean = 28.5 years) and PHM 20 to 33 years (mean = 27.5 years). The invasive mole occurred in a 42-year-old Malay woman. The two patients with choriocarcinoma were both Chinese and 41 and 46-years old respectively. During the same period, 1,062 non-molar abortions and 13,115 births, inclusive of livebirths and stillbirths were recorded at the University Hospital. The incidence rate of hydatidiform moles was thus estimated to be 1:384 pregnancies. PHM constituted 30% of all molar pregnancies. Hydatidiform moles occurred among the Malays, Chinese and Indians at the rate of 2.43, 2.66 and 3.29 per 1,000 pregnancies respectively. It appears that hydatidiform molar pregnancy has the highest prevalence among the Indians, a finding similar to an earlier Singapore study.

  18. Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Azizi, B H; Henry, R L

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

  19. Perception of bodyweight status among office workers in two gorvernment departments in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Fatimah, A; Mdidris, M; Romzi, M

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the perception of bodyweight status among the office workers in two government departments in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 385 Malay workers aged between 18 to 55 years were randomly selected from the Prime Minister's Department and the Ministry of National Unity and Community Development. The weights and heights of all subjects were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI) determined. In this study, obesity is defined as individuals having 25 kg/m2. A questionnaire was prepared to obtained information on socioeconomic status, health aspects, dietary intakes, activity levels and perception on bodyweight status. The study revealed a high prevalence of obesity (38.1 %) and among the obese subjects, 21.7 % perceived themselves as having normal weight. The normal weight and underweight subjects perceived themselves as obese (33.5 % and 6.3 % respectively). A small percentage (5.7 %) of the obese individuals who perceived themselves as obese did not wish to Lose weight. In contrast, 9.7 % of the normal weight subjects who perceived themselves as having normal weight wanted to lose weight. A third person's perception on the subjects' bodyweight status is significantly associated with the subjects' bodyweight status (P<0.05). Among the obese subjects, more men (32.3 %) perceived themselves as having normal weights as compared to the women (12.3 %). This implies that women are more aware of their bodyweight status as compared to the men.

  20. Healthcare Provider-Patient Communication: A Satisfaction Study in the Outpatient Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    AZIZAM, Nor Azmaniza; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadija

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing interest in research on patient satisfaction with healthcare provider (HCP) communication as a measure of healthcare quality and HCPs’ communication competency. This study aimed to determine the levels of patient satisfaction with healthcare provider-patient communication (HCP-PC) and its associated factors at the outpatient clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample in July 2012 using self-administered questionnaires for the data collection. Both overall and domain-specific satisfaction were measured, with the three domains being exchanging information (EI), socio-emotional behaviour (SB), and communication style (CS). Results: The findings show that 92.8% of the 283 respondents were satisfied with overall HCP-PC, 89.5% with EI, 91.3% with SB, and 72.2% with CS. Satisfaction was statistically higher among Malays for CS and higher among those with low education and poor health for EI, SB and CS. EI and overall communication satisfaction were also higher among patients who reported short wait times, and patients who were in gender concordance with their HCPs showed higher SB satisfaction. Conclusion: Basic and continuous communication skills training and patient activation programs should be established to increase patient satisfaction. Health information technology use should be actively promoted to allow for structured and standardised information exchange between HCPs and patients. PMID:26715897

  1. Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, B.H.; Henry, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

  2. Physicochemical factors and sources of particulate matter at residential urban environment in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Khan, Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Amil, Norhaniza; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Syedul Hoque, Hossain Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Long-term measurements (2004-2011) of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm) and trace gases (carbon monoxide [CO], ozone [O₃], nitrogen oxide [NO], oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], sulfur dioxide [SO₂], methane [CH₄], nonmethane hydrocarbon [NMHC]) have been conducted to study the effect of physicochemical factors on the PM10 concentration. In addition, this study includes source apportionment of PM10 in Kuala Lumpur urban environment. An advanced principal component analysis (PCA) technique coupled with absolute principal component scores (APCS) and multiple linear regression (MLR) has been applied. The average annual concentration of PM10 for 8 yr is 51.3 ± 25.8 μg m⁻³, which exceeds the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG) and international guideline values. Detail analysis shows the dependency of PM10 on the linear changes of the motor vehicles in use and the amount of biomass burning, particularly from Sumatra, Indonesia, during southwesterly monsoon. The main sources of PM10 identified by PCA-APCS-MLR are traffic combustion (28%), ozone coupled with meteorological factors (20%), and wind-blown particles (1%). However, the apportionment procedure left 28.0 μg m⁻³, that is, 51% of PM10 undetermined. PMID:26030827

  3. Pathways to services for children with cerebral palsy in Selangor and the Federal Territory, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Lim, V W L; Staines, A

    2007-12-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) describes a group of chronic conditions affecting body movement and muscle coordination caused by damage to one or more areas of the brain, occurring at any time during foetal development to infancy. This research was carried out to learn how parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) had found and accessed services provided for them in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. It was based in the Spastic Children's Association of Selangor and Federal Territory (SCAS&FT) among 96 of 201 parents of children who use the facilities and services provided by the SCAS&FT through questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. There was a satisfactory level of availability and accessibility of contacting and using the services provided by SCAS&FT in terms of respondent satisfaction. However, parents had varying levels of awareness of the different classes and activities carried out by the school. Efforts to improve knowledge regarding the services available for children with CP in the general population and among parents of these children should be promoted.

  4. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  5. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  6. 1,3,5-Tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazole)-benzene cathode buffer layer thickness dependence in solution-processable organic solar cell based on 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roméo Banoukepa, Gilles; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the insertion effects of a cathode buffer layer on bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) and 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) by using 1,3,5-tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazole)-benzene (TPBi) as a cathode buffer layer material have been carried out. The external quantum efficiency and the short-circuit current markedly increased, resulting in the enhancement of the power conversion efficiency. The solar cell performance has been discussed from the atomic force microscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  7. Medical Tourism in Malaysia: Prospect and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tourism, combined with the phrase medical, seems to be a new form of tourism which has gained huge popularity in recent decades. Though, a number of literatures available with regard to the tourism industry and the competitiveness of the destination, however, the major aspects which determine the satisfaction of medical tourists are hardly focused specifically on Malaysia. There is a lack of empirical evidence in this area of study which needs to be bridged. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia. Methods: As the purpose of the research was to find out various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia, so this study used Structural Equation modeling (SEM) for data analysis. The target population for this study consisted of the medical tourists coming to Malaysia with the primary intension of seeking medical procedures other than sightseeing. A total sample size of 266 was collected through non-probability judgment sampling during the period between December 2012 and February 2013. Results: The result confirms that destination competitiveness and service quality play an important role in the medical tourist’s mind towards medical tourism aspect in Malaysia. Thus, Malaysia need to promote various medical success stories together with the services they offer to attract more foreign patients. Conclusion: This study contributes to the theoretical development in the tourism industry by offering the structured relationship among various aspects contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia. PMID:26056632

  8. A newly emerging HIV-1 recombinant lineage (CRF58_01B) disseminating among people who inject drugs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Syafina, Nur Ezreen; Prakasa, Malarvelli Soorya; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is primarily characterised by the circulation of HIV-1 group M (main) comprising of 11 subtypes and sub-subtypes (A1, A2, B-D, F1, F2, G, H, J, and K) and to date 55 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). In Southeast Asia, active inter-subtype recombination involving three main circulating genotypes--subtype B (including subtype B', the Thai variant of subtype B), CRF01_AE, and CRF33_01B--have contributed to the emergence of novel unique recombinant forms. In the present study, we conducted the molecular epidemiological surveillance of HIV-1 gag-RT genes among 258 people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2009 and 2011 whereby a novel CRF candidate was recently identified. The near full-length genome sequences obtained from six epidemiologically unlinked individuals showed identical mosaic structures consisting of subtype B' and CRF01_AE, with six unique recombination breakpoints in the gag-RT, pol, and env regions. Among the high-risk population of PWIDs in Malaysia, which was predominantly infected by CRF33_01B (>70%), CRF58_01B circulated at a low but significant prevalence (2.3%, 6/258). Interestingly, the CRF58_01B shared two unique recombination breakpoints with other established CRFs in the region: CRF33_01B, CRF48_01B, and CRF53_01B in the gag gene, and CRF15_01B (from Thailand) in the env gene. Extended Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling analysis showed that CRF58_01B and other recently discovered CRFs were most likely to have originated in Malaysia, and that the recent spread of recombinant lineages in the country had little influence from neighbouring countries. The isolation, genetic characterization, and evolutionary features of CRF58_01B among PWIDs in Malaysia signify the increasingly complex HIV-1 diversity in Southeast Asia that may hold an implication on disease treatment, control, and prevention.

  9. Impact of the monetary crisis on statistical properties of the Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur stock exchange indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mart, T.; Aminoto, T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the tools developed for statistical physics, we simultaneously analyze statistical properties of the Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange indices. In spite of the small number of the data used in the analysis, the result still shows the universal behavior of complex systems previously found in the leading stock indices. We also analyze their properties before and after the crash caused by the monetary crisis. To locate the time position when the crash started we use the Omori law. We found that after the crash both stocks do not show a same statistical behavior. The impact of currency controls is observed in the distribution of the index returns.

  10. Trend extraction using empirical mode decomposition and statistical empirical mode decomposition: Case study: Kuala Lumpur stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Abobaker M.

    2014-12-01

    Two nonparametric methods for prediction and modeling of financial time series signals are proposed. The proposed techniques are designed to handle non-stationary and non-linearity behave and to extract meaningful signals for reliable prediction. Due to Fourier Transform (FT), the methods select significant decomposed signals that will be employed for signal prediction. The proposed techniques developed by coupling Holt-winter method with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and it is Extending the scope of empirical mode decomposition by smoothing (SEMD). To show performance of proposed techniques, we analyze daily closed price of Kuala Lumpur stock market index.

  11. A 3 year audit of infected pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug users managed surgically in the Vascular Unit, Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Zainal, A A; Yusha, A W

    1998-12-01

    This is a study of 54 intravenous drug user's (IVDUs) with infected pseudoaneurysms undergoing ligation and debridement at the Vascular Unit, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) from February 1993 to February 1996. The median age was 37 years with a male preponderance (53:1). Chinese form the largest ethnic group with 57.4% of the cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism cultured. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive cases numbered 21 (38.9%). Four of the patients had to have an above-knee amputation after surgery. Simple ligation and debridement of all necrotic tissue is an acceptable mode of therapy in these patients with low amputation rates.

  12. Preparation for Adulthood. Proceedings of the Asian Workshop on Child and Adolescent Development (3rd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 9-14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Leong Yin, Ed.; And Others

    Attended by participants from 19 nations, this conference focused on six topics related to child and adolescent development. Major topics discussed included child development and related issues, curriculum and the adolescent, the adolescent and technological changes, and the preparation of youth for adulthood. Symposia focusing on child…

  13. Molecular analysis of ciprofloxacin resistance among non-typhoidal Salmonella with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin isolated from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Rina; Tay, Sun Tee; Rahim, Fairuz Fadzilah; Lim, Bee Bee; Puthucheary, Savithri D

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) with "reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin" (RS-Cip) (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], 0.12-1.0 μg/mL) as well as their resistance genes in 75 NTS isolates (53 from stool, 21 from blood, and 1 from urine) from patients at a tertiary care Malaysian hospital between January and December 2009. RS-Cip was detected in 24/75 (32.0%) isolates. Using the ciprofloxacin MIC interpretive criteria for Salmonella in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2013 guidelines, 51/75 (68.0%) isolates were found to be sensitive, 22/75 (29.3%) were intermediate, and 2/75 (2.7%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The 24 isolates that were intermediate or resistant to ciprofloxacin were the same isolates categorized as having RS-Cip. Among the 23 tested isolates with RS-Cip, the qnrS gene was detected in 17/23 (73.9%) and single gyrA mutations were detected in 6/23 (26.1%) (Asp87Tyr [n = 3], Asp87Asn [n = 2], and Ser83Phe [n = 1]). A parC (Thr57Ser) mutation was detected in 13/23 (56.5%) isolates, coexisting with either a qnrS gene or a gyrA mutation. The high incidence of the qnrS gene among isolates with RS-Cip needs to be monitored because qnr genes can spread via plasmids and aid in the emergence of increased resistance levels.

  14. Production and Utilization of Educational Broadcasting Programmes. Report of an APEID Technical Working Group Meeting on Educational Broadcasting (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 19-December 1, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Members of the Technical Working Group representing 14 Unesco member states met (1) to review and discuss major problems, issues, and prospects in the region for educational broadcasting; (2) to identify training needs for promotion of educational broadcasting; and (3) to develop guidelines for the production, use, and evaluation of educational…

  15. Workshop on Systems Interconnexions: Standardization, Uniformity and Co-ordination in Population/Family Planning Information Network (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 12-16, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

    The "information explosion" in the field of population has created a need for proper identification, systematization, dissemination, and utilization of population information. To help meet these needs in the Asian and Pacific regions, the Clearinghouse and Information Section of the Population Division of ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for…

  16. Workshop on the Development of the UNESCO Co-Action Learning Centre Programme (1st, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 12-18, 1992). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan, Tokyo.

    This publication summarizes reports from a workshop to share the experience of UNESCO's literacy program and to learn about other effective experiences in literacy available in the region. The opening of the workshop and election of officers is reported. Summaries of the following reports are given: (1) the role of learning centers to achieve…

  17. Characteristics of patients with organic brain syndromes : A cross-sectional 2-year follow-up study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Prem K; Jambunathan, Stephen T; Zainal, Nor Z

    2005-04-15

    BACKGROUND: Organic Brain Syndromes (OBS) are often missed in clinical practice. Determining their varied presentations may help in earlier detection, better management, and, assessing prognosis and outcome. We described the in-patient referrals of patients suffering from the psychiatric effects of organic states and compared the symptomatology and mortality between those with the Acute and Chronic varieties. METHODS: 59 patients referred to our Consultation-Liaison (C-L) Psychiatry services and given a clinical diagnosis of OBS were selected over a 6-month period. Psychiatric and cognitive abnormalities and treatment regimes were recorded and fatality rates determined. Information regarding their condition 24 months after their index hospitalization was recorded. All data were entered into a proforma and analyzed after exclusion. RESULTS: The mean duration of detecting the symptoms by the physician was 3.52 days. The presence of a premorbid psychiatric illness had no influence on the clinical presentation but did on the mortality of patients with OBS (p = 0.029).Patients with the Acute syndrome had significantly more symptom resolution as compared to those with the Chronic syndrome (p = 0.001) but mortalityrates did not differ. Elderly patients and those with symptom resolution upon discharge did not show statistically significant higher mortality rates. The most popular combination of treatment was that of a low-dose neuroleptic and a benzodiazepine (34.7%). The need for maintenance treatment was not significantly different in any group, even in those with a past history of a functional disorder. CONCLUSION: Other than the Acute group having a significantly better outcome in terms of symptom resolution, our findings suggest that there was no significant difference in the clinical presentation between those with Acute or Chronic OBS. Mortality-wise, there was also no difference between the Acute and Chronic syndromes, nor was there any difference between the elderly and the younger group. There was also no significant difference in the need for continued treatment in both groups.

  18. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks. PMID:26448645

  19. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  20. Female sterilization with Hulka clips--initial experience at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Rahman, A A; Sivanesaratnam, V; Nuruddin, A A

    1982-09-01

    The initial experience with the use of Hulka clips for sterilization in 100 patients is reported. In July, 1979, University Hospital physicians in Kuala Lumpur introduced spring-loaded clips, and have found the procedure to be safe and the method acceptable. The 86 patients available for the followup were admitted 1 day prior to the operation for a detailed interview, physical and pelvic examinations, pap smear, and hemoglobin estimation. The laparoscopy was performed under general anesthesia, although others report using local anesthesia, and the patients were discharged the following day. Follow-up was conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. The women were between 25-40 years old and the majority were para 3-5; 10.5% had only 2 live births. The average age of the patients' youngest child at the time of sterilization was 2.8. Indians comprised the largest ethnic group. The problems encountered at laparoscopy generally occurred in the initial stages of the study and included: difficulty at insertion of trochar, inability to visualize fimbria, tubal transection, and the need for additional clips to ensure occlusion. 2 pregnancies were reported, 1 patient had a luteal phase pregnancy and in the other patient, the left tube was only partially occluded. The actual failure rate in the series was 1.16%, which is acceptable and similar to other reports. A distinct advantage of the clip was the low incidence of tubal transection, .6%, which is a more common occurrence with silastic bands. In addition, the clips offer good prospects for reversibility, compared to other sterilization methods.

  1. Nutritional status of primary school children from low income households in kuala lumpur.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Z M; Bond, J; Johson, N

    2000-03-01

    Growth status was examined in relation to gender and age factors in urban primary school children (6-10 years old) from low income households in Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan. The sample consisted of 4212 boys (53%) and 3793 girls (47%). Data on weight and height data were obtained from two sources - investigator's and teachers' measurements of the school children. This study defined mildly and significantly underweight, stunted or wasted as z-score below minus one and below minus two of the NCHS/CDC reference median, respectively. Approximately 52% (n = 4149), 50% (n = 3893) and 30% (n = 2568) of the school children were underweight, stunted and wasted, respectively. However, the majority of these undernourished children were in the mild category. Prevalence of overweight (> 2 SD of NCHS/WHO reference median) was found in 5.8% of the sample. For both, prevalence of undernutrition and overnutrition, more boys than girls were found to be underweight stunted wasted and overweight. Compared to girls, boys had lower mean z-scores for the variables height-for-age (p<0.05) and weight-for-height (p<0.01). Older children had significantly lower mean z-scores for height-for-age (p<0.001) but higher mean z-scores for weight-for-height (P<0.001) than younger children. This finding indicates that with increasing age, stunting is associated with improved weight-for-height or that the children's weights have been adapted to their short statures. In conclusion, results demonstrate a high prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting and an increasing prevalence of overweight among these low-income school children. Efforts recommended to address health and nutrition problems among school children should include health and nutrition monitoring (e.g. growth monitoring using the existing growth data collected by schools) and interventions.

  2. Nutritional anemia in pregnancy: a study at the maternity hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Tee E Siong; Kandiah, M; Ali, J; Kandiah, V; Zahari, M R; Kuladevan, R; Hamzah, Z

    1984-06-01

    The study presents recent data on the prevalence and pattern of nutritional anemia in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 309 pregnant women in their 3rd trimester, of Malay, Chinese and Indian origin from the lower socio-economic strata were randomly selected for the study. Hematological indices (including Hb, PCV, MCHC, and TRBC), serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin, serum folate as well as protein and albumin were determined. Based on Hb and PCV values, 30-40% of the women could be considered anemic; approximately 50% of them presented with unsatisfactory serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin values; 60.9% had low serum folate levels; and about 30% may be considered to be of poor protein nutriture. Anemia in the study population was seen to be related mostly to iron and to a lesser extent, folate deficiency. Hematological, iron, folate and protein status was observed to be the poorest amongst the Indian women, better in the Malay group and generally the best amongst the Chinese women. Birth records of 169 of these women revealed that all of them had live births. Nearly all the infants were delivered by normal vaginal delivery (NVD). The mean gestational age was 38.6 weeks. One of the infants had a birth weight of 2.0 kg; incidence of low birth weight, 2.5 kg, was 8.3%. Although there was a trend of deteriorating hematological, iron and protein status of women from the 0, 1-3 and 4 parity groups, these differences were not statistically significant. PMID:12267519

  3. Obesity and risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps: a case-control study in hospital kuala lumpur.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, A; Kandiah, M; Zarida, H; Yunus Gul, A G; Faizal, J A

    2009-03-01

    Colorectal adenomas are precursor lesions of colorectal cancer. Several studies have proposed that obesity is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma. This case-control study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waistto-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage and colorectal adenomatous polyps (CRA) in patients who have had a colonoscopy at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). Fifty-nine patients (42 males and 17 females) positively identified as having CRA and 59 polypfree subjects were recruited as controls (33 males and 26 females). A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-economic information, while anthropometric measurements were determined directly by established methods. The mean BMI of female case subjects was significantly higher than control females (25.63 + 4.87 kg/m2 vs. 23.86 + 3.70 kg/m2, p<0.05) but the difference in BMI was not significant in men. The mean WHR of male subjects was significantly higher in the case group (0.92 + 0.07 vs. 0.90 + 0.06, p<0.05). After adjusting for confounders, waist circumference was the only indicator that was found to significantly increase the risk for CRA in women (OR = 6.349, 95% CI = 1.063 - 37.919). Higher BMI, WHR and body fat percentage showed a non-significant risk in female subjects. In men, none of the obesity indicators were found to be significant risk factors for CRA. These findings suggest that abdominal obesity may be a contributing factor to CRA risk particularly in women. A prospective study is needed to confirm the role of obesity in the development of CRA in Malaysians. PMID:22691799

  4. Nutritional anemia in pregnancy: a study at the maternity hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Tee E Siong; Kandiah, M; Ali, J; Kandiah, V; Zahari, M R; Kuladevan, R; Hamzah, Z

    1984-06-01

    The study presents recent data on the prevalence and pattern of nutritional anemia in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 309 pregnant women in their 3rd trimester, of Malay, Chinese and Indian origin from the lower socio-economic strata were randomly selected for the study. Hematological indices (including Hb, PCV, MCHC, and TRBC), serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin, serum folate as well as protein and albumin were determined. Based on Hb and PCV values, 30-40% of the women could be considered anemic; approximately 50% of them presented with unsatisfactory serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin values; 60.9% had low serum folate levels; and about 30% may be considered to be of poor protein nutriture. Anemia in the study population was seen to be related mostly to iron and to a lesser extent, folate deficiency. Hematological, iron, folate and protein status was observed to be the poorest amongst the Indian women, better in the Malay group and generally the best amongst the Chinese women. Birth records of 169 of these women revealed that all of them had live births. Nearly all the infants were delivered by normal vaginal delivery (NVD). The mean gestational age was 38.6 weeks. One of the infants had a birth weight of 2.0 kg; incidence of low birth weight, 2.5 kg, was 8.3%. Although there was a trend of deteriorating hematological, iron and protein status of women from the 0, 1-3 and 4 parity groups, these differences were not statistically significant.

  5. Factors affecting dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices among selected urban, semi-urban and rural communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p < 0.05). Practice was associated significantly with age, marital status, and geographic area (p < 0.05) and knowledge on dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country.

  6. Treatment readiness, attitudes toward, and experiences with methadone and buprenorphine maintenance therapy among people who inject drugs in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about attitudes toward and experiences with opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) among people who inject drugs in Malaysia, a country where people who inject drugs comprise 1.3% of the adult population. Methods In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were surveyed to evaluate attitudes toward and experience with OMT and treatment readiness. Attitudes towards OMT with both methadone and buprenorphine were assessed using an opinions scale. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess correlates of treatment readiness, measured with the 19-item Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Few had had previous experience with methadone (9.3%) or buprenorphine (12.6%) maintenance therapy, yet many had used methadone (55.2%) or buprenorphine (51.7%) outside of treatment settings. Fifteen percent had injected buprenorphine in the past month, and of the few that were currently receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy, almost all were injecting it. The majority of subjects exhibited a moderate level of treatment readiness and a preference for methadone over buprenorphine. Those with low treatment readiness scores were more likely to have previous experience with compulsory drug detention centers (p<0.01), needle/syringe exchange programs (p<0.005), or be of Indian ethnicity (p<0.001). Past use of methadone (p<0.01), older age (p<0.001), stress symptom severity (p<0.001), and sharing of needles or syringes (p<0.05) were associated with higher treatment readiness scores. Conclusion There are suboptimal levels of OMT experience among people who inject drugs that may be improved by addressing factors that influence patient attitudes. Those individuals with moderate treatment readiness may be targeted by brief motivational and cognitive interventions in primary care, prisons or OMT clinics

  7. Prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors among the residents of urban community housing projects in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives are to assess the prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the residents of Community Housing Projects in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Method By using simple random sampling, we selected and surveyed 833 households which comprised of 3,722 individuals. Out of the 2,360 adults, 50.5% participated in blood sampling and anthropometric measurement sessions. Uni and bivariate data analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression were applied to identify demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the existence of having at least one CVD risk factor. Results As a Result, while obesity (54.8%), hypercholesterolemia (51.5%), and hypertension (39.3%) were the most common CVD risk factors among the low-income respondents, smoking (16.3%), diabetes mellitus (7.8%) and alcohol consumption (1.4%) were the least prevalent. Finally, the results from the multivariate binary logistic model illustrated that compared to the Malays, the Indians were 41% less likely to have at least one of the CVD risk factors (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.37 - 0.93). Conclusion In Conclusion, the low-income individuals were at higher risk of developing CVDs. Prospective policies addressing preventive actions and increased awareness focusing on low-income communities are highly recommended and to consider age, gender, ethnic backgrounds, and occupation classes. PMID:25436515

  8. Drug Abuse, Relapse, and Prevention Education in Malaysia: Perspective of University Students Through a Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Wong, Chee Piau; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing accounts of illegal substance abuse among university students and professional groups in Malaysia. This study looks at university students’ perceptions about this phenomenon. Students from Malaysian universities were asked for their impressions about drug availability and abuse, as well as factors contributing to drug abuse and relapse. The questionnaire also inquired into their knowledge and views regarding government versus private rehabilitation centers, as well as their exposure to, and views about, school-based drug-prevention education. Participants were 460 university students from five Malaysian states: Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, and Sarawak. Results showed gender differences in perceptions of relapse prevention strategies, as well as factors leading to drug abuse and relapse. Students also believed that drug education would be more effective if initiated between the ages of 11 and 12 years, which is slightly older than the common age of first exposure, and provided suggestions for improving existing programs. Implications of student perceptions for the improvement of current interventions and educational programs are discussed. PMID:25999867

  9. Measuring religiosity and its effects on personal well-being: a case study of Muslim female academicians in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Achour, Meguellati; Grine, Fadila; Mohd Nor, Mohd Roslan; MohdYusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli

    2015-06-01

    This study seeks to measure religiosity in an Islamic context and to assess its effects on the personal well-being of Muslims. The determinants of religiosity included under this research are prayer, beliefs, and worship. This research also attempts to examine the coping strategies Muslims use to deal with life problems and changes such as prayer, supplication, trust and reliance on God, remembrance of death, and concept of life after death. Today, many scales of religiosity are being put into use among Muslims. This study measures religiosity and its effects on the well-being of Muslim academicians. The researchers used 315 Muslim female of academic staff as respondents, working in Research Universities in the Klang Valley such as University of Malaya, National University and Putra University area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Their ages ranged from 30 to 60 years. The results of this study show that there exists a positive yet significant correlation between personal well-being and religiosity. The well-being also shows significant positive correlations with beliefs and worship and prayer.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidative and Cytotoxic Activities of Streptomyces pluripotens MUSC 137 Isolated from Mangrove Soil in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces pluripotens MUSC 137 was isolated from mangrove soil obtained from Tanjung Lumpur, Pahang, Malaysia. We investigated the phylogenetic, genomic, biochemical, and phenotypic characteristics of this strain. Uniquely adapted microorganisms from mangrove habitats have previously yielded compounds of biopharmaceutical interest. In order to examine the bioactivities possessed by the strain, fermentation extract was prepared through solvent extraction method prior to bioactivities screenings. Antioxidant activity was examined via DPPH assay while the cytotoxic effect was assessed by means of examining the activity of the extract against selected human cancer cell lines, namely colon cancer cells (HCT-116, Caco-2, SW480, and HT-29), breast cancer cell (MCF-7), lung cancer cell (A549), prostate cancer cell (DU145), and cervical cancer cell (Ca Ski). The results revealed MUSC 137 possesses significant antioxidant activity and demonstrates cytotoxic effect against several cancer cell lines tested. The results indicated MCF-7 cells were most susceptible to the extract with the lowest IC50 (61.33 ± 17.10 μg/mL), followed by HCT-116 and A549. Additionally, selective index (SI) showed that MUSC 137 extract was less toxic against normal cell lines when compared to MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells. The extract was further subjected to chemical analysis using GC–MS and revealed the presence of deferoxamine and pyrrolizidines related compounds which may account for the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties observed. PMID:26733951

  11. Composition and source apportionment of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols of urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Nurul Bahiyah Abd; Latif, Mohd Talib; Suratman, Suhaimi

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition and source apportionment of surfactant in atmospheric aerosols around urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia based on ionic compositions. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentrations of anionic surfactants as Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as Disulphine Blue Active Substances (DBAS) using a UV spectrophotometer. Ionic compositions were determined using ion chromatography for cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). Principle component analysis (PCA) combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) were used to identify the source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS. Results indicated that the concentrations of surfactants at both sampling sites were dominated by MBAS rather than DBAS especially in fine mode aerosols during the southwest monsoon. Three main sources of surfactants were identified from PCA-MLR analysis for MBAS in fine mode samples particularly in Kuala Lumpur, dominated by motor vehicles, followed by soil/road dust and sea spray. Besides, for MBAS in coarse mode, biomass burning/sea spray were the dominant source followed by motor vehicles/road dust and building material. PMID:23336924

  12. Drug abuse, relapse, and prevention education in malaysia: perspective of university students through a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Wong, Chee Piau; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing accounts of illegal substance abuse among university students and professional groups in Malaysia. This study looks at university students' perceptions about this phenomenon. Students from Malaysian universities were asked for their impressions about drug availability and abuse, as well as factors contributing to drug abuse and relapse. The questionnaire also inquired into their knowledge and views regarding government versus private rehabilitation centers, as well as their exposure to, and views about, school-based drug-prevention education. Participants were 460 university students from five Malaysian states: Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, and Sarawak. Results showed gender differences in perceptions of relapse prevention strategies, as well as factors leading to drug abuse and relapse. Students also believed that drug education would be more effective if initiated between the ages of 11 and 12 years, which is slightly older than the common age of first exposure, and provided suggestions for improving existing programs. Implications of student perceptions for the improvement of current interventions and educational programs are discussed.

  13. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  14. Review of toxoplasmosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, N

    1991-12-01

    Various studies on toxoplasmosis in Malaysia have shown that specific antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii are common among Malaysians. Among the ethnic groups, the Malays have the highest prevalence rate followed by Indians, Orang Aslis (aborigines) and Chinese. Antibody is acquired early in life and increases with age. There is no significant difference in the prevalence rate between males and females. The disease is apparently more prevalent among rural dwellers and those in the lower socioeconomic group. It appears that the prevalence rate is also influenced by environmental conditions, occupation, diet and cultural habits. Studies with animals have shown the presence of antibody to T. gondii, but this does not seem to be the source of infection since Malaysians normally cook their meat well.

  15. Utilization of debate as an educational tool to learn health economics for dental students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saad A; Omar, Hanan; Babar, Muneer Gohar; Toh, Chooi G

    2012-12-01

    Health economics, a special branch of science applying economic principles to the health delivery system, is a relatively young subdiscipline. The literature is scanty about teaching health economics in the medical and dental fields. Delivery methods of this topic vary from one university to another, with lectures, seminars, and independent learning reported as teaching/learning tools used for the topic. Ideally, debates should foster the development of logical reasoning and communication skills. Health economics in dentistry is taught under the community oral health module that constitutes part of an outcome-based dental curriculum in a private dental school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. For this study, the students were divided into two groups: active participants (active debaters) and supporting participants (nonactive debaters). The debate style chosen for this activity was parliamentary style. Active and nonactive debaters' perceptions were evaluated before and after the activity through a structured questionnaire using a five-point rating scale addressing the topic and perceptions about debate as an educational tool. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used as a measure of internal consistency for the questionnaire items. Among a total of eighty-two third-year dental students of two successive cohorts (thirty-eight students and forty-four students), seventy-three completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 89 percent. Students' responses to the questionnaire were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test. Results revealed that the students felt that their interest in debate, knowledge of the topic, and reinforcement of the previous knowledge had improved following participation in the debate. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that debate was a useful tool in teaching health economics to dental students.

  16. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among asthmatic patients in primary care clinics in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo; Muhamad Faiq, Siti Summayyah; Yusuf, Ahmad Asmadi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the knowledge about asthma and the prevalence, disclosure and evaluation of the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among asthmatic patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 95 patients diagnosed with asthma in a primary healthcare centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients with a mean age of 47.06 years (±12.8) participated, the majority were female (66.7%), Malay (72.6%). The prevalence of ever-CAM use was 61.1%. The non-ever-CAM users’ mean age was 51±13.9 years while the ever-CAM users’ mean age was 44.5 ±11.5 years (P = 0.021). Sixty-three females (66.8%) used CAM compared to 14 males (43.8%) (P = 0.014). Thirty-six (62.1%) CAM users had not discussed use of CAM with their doctors. The main reason of non-disclosure was the doctor never asked (55.6%), and the main sources of information about CAM were family and relatives (46.6%). There was no significant difference between use of CAM and knowledge about asthma. The majority of asthmatic patients used rubs (39%), foods (16.9%) and herbs (16.9%). About 76% of asthmatic patients perceived CAM as good for their disease management. On linear multiple regression, Malay race (P = 0.026) and female gender (P = 0.006) were significant predictors of CAM use. CONCLUSION: Use of CAM among asthmatic patients is relatively high, particularly among females. The majority of asthmatic patients valued the use of CAM. Non-disclosure was high in this study. Health education of asthmatic patients about CAM is highly recommended. PMID:21760841

  17. Epidemiological and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Viruses in Malaysia, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Kim Tien; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Pang, Yong Kek; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages remained poorly understood in the tropical Southeast Asia region, despite causing seasonal outbreaks worldwide. From 2012-2014, nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from outpatients experiencing acute upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened for influenza viruses using a multiplex RT-PCR assay. Among 2,010/3,935 (51.1%) patients infected with at least one respiratory virus, 287 (14.3%) and 183 (9.1%) samples were tested positive for influenza A and B viruses, respectively. Influenza-positive cases correlate significantly with meteorological factors-total amount of rainfall, relative humidity, number of rain days, ground temperature and particulate matter (PM10). Phylogenetic reconstruction of haemagglutinin (HA) gene from 168 influenza B viruses grouped them into Yamagata Clade 3 (65, 38.7%), Yamagata Clade 2 (48, 28.6%) and Victoria Clade 1 (55, 32.7%). With neuraminidase (NA) phylogeny, 30 intra-clade (29 within Yamagata Clade 3, 1 within Victoria Clade 1) and 1 inter-clade (Yamagata Clade 2-HA/Yamagata Clade 3-NA) reassortants were identified. Study of virus temporal dynamics revealed a lineage shift from Victoria to Yamagata (2012-2013), and a clade shift from Yamagata Clade 2 to Clade 3 (2013-2014). Yamagata Clade 3 predominating in 2014 consisted of intra-clade reassortants that were closely related to a recent WHO vaccine candidate strain (B/Phuket/3073/2013), with the reassortment event occurred approximately 2 years ago based on Bayesian molecular clock estimation. Malaysian Victoria Clade 1 viruses carried H274Y substitution in the active site of neuraminidase, which confers resistance to oseltamivir. Statistical analyses on clinical and demographic data showed Yamagata-infected patients were older and more likely to experience headache while Victoria-infected patients were more likely to experience nasal congestion and sore

  18. Epidemiological and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Viruses in Malaysia, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Kim Tien; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Pang, Yong Kek; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages remained poorly understood in the tropical Southeast Asia region, despite causing seasonal outbreaks worldwide. From 2012-2014, nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from outpatients experiencing acute upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened for influenza viruses using a multiplex RT-PCR assay. Among 2,010/3,935 (51.1%) patients infected with at least one respiratory virus, 287 (14.3%) and 183 (9.1%) samples were tested positive for influenza A and B viruses, respectively. Influenza-positive cases correlate significantly with meteorological factors-total amount of rainfall, relative humidity, number of rain days, ground temperature and particulate matter (PM10). Phylogenetic reconstruction of haemagglutinin (HA) gene from 168 influenza B viruses grouped them into Yamagata Clade 3 (65, 38.7%), Yamagata Clade 2 (48, 28.6%) and Victoria Clade 1 (55, 32.7%). With neuraminidase (NA) phylogeny, 30 intra-clade (29 within Yamagata Clade 3, 1 within Victoria Clade 1) and 1 inter-clade (Yamagata Clade 2-HA/Yamagata Clade 3-NA) reassortants were identified. Study of virus temporal dynamics revealed a lineage shift from Victoria to Yamagata (2012-2013), and a clade shift from Yamagata Clade 2 to Clade 3 (2013-2014). Yamagata Clade 3 predominating in 2014 consisted of intra-clade reassortants that were closely related to a recent WHO vaccine candidate strain (B/Phuket/3073/2013), with the reassortment event occurred approximately 2 years ago based on Bayesian molecular clock estimation. Malaysian Victoria Clade 1 viruses carried H274Y substitution in the active site of neuraminidase, which confers resistance to oseltamivir. Statistical analyses on clinical and demographic data showed Yamagata-infected patients were older and more likely to experience headache while Victoria-infected patients were more likely to experience nasal congestion and sore

  19. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Malaysia 1995. Participants' Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These reports and lesson plans were developed by teachers and coordinators who traveled to Malaysia during the summer of 1995 as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. Sections of the report include: (1) "Gender and Economics: Malaysia" (Mary C. Furlong); (2) "Malaysia: An Integrated, Interdisciplinary…

  20. Bangsa Malaysia and Recent Malaysian English Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses Malaysia's English language policies, especially since the mid 1990s, in the light of more recent claims for a united Malaysian nation (under the banner of "bangsa Malaysia") and in the context of English language and its potential for Malaysia to forge more of an externalised identity. It examines the impact of…

  1. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  2. Report on von Willebrand Disease in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Karim, Faraizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is an inherited hemostatic disorder that affects the hemostasis pathway. The worldwide prevalence of vWD is estimated to be 1% of the general population but only 0.002% in Malaysia. AIM: Our present paper has been written to disclose the statistical counts on the number of vWD cases reported from 2011 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article is based on sociodemographic data, diagnoses and laboratory findings of vWD in Malaysia. A total of 92 patients were reported to have vWD in Malaysia from 2011 to 2013. RESULTS: Sociodemographic-analysis revealed that 60% were females, 63% were of the Malay ethnicity, 41.3% were in the 19-44 year old age group and 15.2% were from Sabah, with the East region having the highest registered number of vWD cases. In Malaysia, most patients are predominately affected by vWD type 1 (77.2%). Factor 8, von Willebrand factor: Antigen and vWF: Collagen-Binding was the strongest determinants in the laboratory profiles of vWD. CONCLUSION: This report has been done with great interest to provide an immense contribution from Malaysia, by revealing the statistical counts on vWD from 2011-2013. PMID:27275342

  3. National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM).

    PubMed

    Hayati, A N; Kamarul, A K

    2008-09-01

    To create a nationwide system to capture data on completed suicide in Malaysia i.e. the morbidity, geographic and temporal trends and the population at high risk of suicide. Data from this registry can later be used to stimulate and facilitate further research on suicide. This paper describes the rationale and processes involved in developing a national suicide registry in 2007. The diagnosis of suicide is based on the ICD-10 codes for fatal intentional self-harm (X60-X84). A case report form with an accompanying instruction manual had been prepared to ensure systematic and uniform data collection. State Forensic Pathologist's offices are responsible for data collection in their respective states, and in turn will submit the data to a central data management unit. Data collection began in July 2007 and currently in data cleaning process. Training for source data producers is ongoing. In 2008, the NSRM plans to involve university hospitals into its network as currently only Ministry of Health hospitals are involved. The NSRM will be launching its online application for case registration this year while an overview of results will be available via its public domain at www.nsrm.gov.my beginning 20 April 2008. To efficiently capture the data on suicide, a concerted effort between various agencies is needed. A lot of conceptual work and data base development remains to be done in order to position preventive efforts on a more solid foundation. PMID:19227674

  4. Overview of cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gerard Chin Chye

    2002-03-01

    The problem of cancer in Malaysia is a growing one. It is now the fourth leading cause of death among medically certified deaths. Cancer of the lung is the most common killer among malignancies. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is 30 000. The majority of patients are found at a late stage of the disease. The National Cancer Control Program aims to reduce the incidence and mortality of cancer and to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. Policies encompass prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, palliative care and rehabilitation. The program for prevention includes an anti-smoking campaign and immunization of babies against hepatitis B. Papanicolaou's smear and breast self-examination are among efforts for the early detection of cancer. Public education and the promotion of healthy lifestyles have been actively carried out. Facilities for treatment and palliative care are being developed further. Networks between the public and private sectors and non-governmental organizations have been on-going. Apart from the establishment and upgrading of treatment facilities, the need for training of skilled staff in the treatment of cancer is highlighted.

  5. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Ali, Anizah Md.

    2015-12-01

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1st June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that the

  6. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    SciTech Connect

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi Ali, Anizah Md.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-11

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1{sup st} June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that

  7. Radiation exposure during travelling in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Hassan, A; Sulaiman, I

    2006-01-01

    Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h(-1). The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h(-1). The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level.

  8. Modeling of gold production in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muda, Nora; Ainuddeen, Nasihah Rasyiqah; Ismail, Hamizun; Umor, Mohd Rozi

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the main factors that contribute to the gold production and hence determine the factors that affect to the development of the mining industry in Malaysia. An econometric approach was used by performing the cointegration analysis among the factors to determine the existence of long term relationship between the gold prices, the number of gold mines, the number of workers in gold mines and the gold production. The study continued with the Granger analysis to determine the relationship between factors and gold production. Results have found that there are long term relationship between price, gold production and number of employees. Granger causality analysis shows that there is only one way relationship between the number of employees with gold production in Malaysia and the number of gold mines in Malaysia.

  9. A study of sudden natural deaths in medico legal autopsies in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; San, Kang Pei; Idwan, Anuar; Shah, Norazlan; Hajar, Siti; Norkahfi, Mohamad

    2007-04-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the causes and the epidemiological aspects of sudden natural deaths. Data were collected from 545 sudden natural autopsies in UMMC, Kuala Lumpur over a five-year period, from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004. There were 475 males and 70 females. The largest number of sudden natural deaths was in the age group of 41-50 years. 35.8%, 30.5% and 11.7% of the patients were Chinese, Indian and Malay, respectively. A majority of the patients were married (59.8%) and came from the semiskilled-unskilled group (30.6%). The monthly distribution was almost constant. Cardiovascular diseases were the most important cause contributing 64.9% in sudden natural deaths. PMID:16914354

  10. Use of pressurised aerosol inhalers among patients attending the Chest Clinic and Primary Care Department of University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Liam, C K; Lo, Y L; Yap, B H; Low, S H; Ariwalagam, M

    1993-09-01

    Eighty consecutive patients who came to collect their prescriptions for pressurised aerosol inhalers at the Pharmacy of the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, were interviewed regarding their use of the pressurised inhaler. Their inhaler technique was also assessed. A significant proportion inhaled the steroid aerosol before the bronchodilator and 23.5% used the steroid inhaler for relief of acute dyspnoea. Only 28.8% of the 80 patients performed correctly all 6 steps necessary for the proper use of inhalers. The most common mistake was the failure to inhale slowly and deeply. Patients who had used the device for more than 5 years performed better, while correct inhaler technique was not dependent on the patient's sex, age or level of education.

  11. Endo-parasite fauna of rodents caught in five wet markets in Kuala Lumpur and its potential zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Paramasvaran, S; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Hanjeet, K; Krishnasamy, M; John, J; Santhana, R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H

    2009-04-01

    Rodents were collected from five wet markets (Chow Kit, Dato Keramat, Setapak, Jinjang and Kepong) in Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory between March to April 2006. Ninety seven rats were trapped using wire traps measuring 29 x 22 x 50 cm baited with fruits, coconuts, dried fish or sweet potatoes. A total of 17 different species of parasites were identified from three species of rats out of which 11 (65%) were identified to be zoonotic. The helminths identified from the urban rats were nematodes- Capillaria hepatica, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Heterakis spumosa, Heterakis sp., Masterphorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Physolaptera sp., Pterogodermatis sp., Rictularia tani and Syphacia muris; cestodes- Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis sabnema, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and acanthocephalan- Moniliformis moniliformis. The following parasites are of potential medical importance: C. hepatica, G. neoplasticum, R. tani, S. muris, H. diminuta, H. nana, Raillietina sp. and T. taeniaeformis.

  12. A Ten-Year Kuala Lumpur Review on Laser Posterior Cordectomy for Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility

    PubMed Central

    Mawaddah, Azman; Marina, Mat Baki; Halimuddin, Sawali; Mohd Razif, Mohd Yunus; Abdullah, Sani

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) is commonly caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and leads to stridor and dyspnea of varying onsets. A retrospective study was done at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre on laser microsurgical posterior cordectomy for BVFI. The objectives were to identify the average duration of onset of stridor from the time of insult and to evaluate the outcome of laser posterior cordectomy as a surgical option. From 1997 to 2007, a total of 31 patients with BVFI were referred for surgery. Twelve patients had tracheostomy done prior to the procedure, whereas 19 patients were without tracheostomy. Ten patients were successfully decannulated, and only 4 patients had complications related to the procedure. The minimum onset of stridor was 7 months, maximum onset of stridor was 28 years, and the mean onset of stridor was 8.7 years. The commonest complication observed was posterior glottic adhesion following bilateral posterior cordectomy. Laser endolaryngeal posterior cordectomy is an excellent surgical option as it enables successful decannulation or avoidance of tracheostomy in patients with BVFI. The onset of stridor took years after the insult to the recurrent laryngeal nerves. PMID:27660547

  13. A Ten-Year Kuala Lumpur Review on Laser Posterior Cordectomy for Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    PubMed

    Mawaddah, Azman; Marina, Mat Baki; Halimuddin, Sawali; Mohd Razif, Mohd Yunus; Abdullah, Sani

    2016-07-01

    Bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) is commonly caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and leads to stridor and dyspnea of varying onsets. A retrospective study was done at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre on laser microsurgical posterior cordectomy for BVFI. The objectives were to identify the average duration of onset of stridor from the time of insult and to evaluate the outcome of laser posterior cordectomy as a surgical option. From 1997 to 2007, a total of 31 patients with BVFI were referred for surgery. Twelve patients had tracheostomy done prior to the procedure, whereas 19 patients were without tracheostomy. Ten patients were successfully decannulated, and only 4 patients had complications related to the procedure. The minimum onset of stridor was 7 months, maximum onset of stridor was 28 years, and the mean onset of stridor was 8.7 years. The commonest complication observed was posterior glottic adhesion following bilateral posterior cordectomy. Laser endolaryngeal posterior cordectomy is an excellent surgical option as it enables successful decannulation or avoidance of tracheostomy in patients with BVFI. The onset of stridor took years after the insult to the recurrent laryngeal nerves.

  14. A Ten-Year Kuala Lumpur Review on Laser Posterior Cordectomy for Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility

    PubMed Central

    Mawaddah, Azman; Marina, Mat Baki; Halimuddin, Sawali; Mohd Razif, Mohd Yunus; Abdullah, Sani

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) is commonly caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and leads to stridor and dyspnea of varying onsets. A retrospective study was done at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre on laser microsurgical posterior cordectomy for BVFI. The objectives were to identify the average duration of onset of stridor from the time of insult and to evaluate the outcome of laser posterior cordectomy as a surgical option. From 1997 to 2007, a total of 31 patients with BVFI were referred for surgery. Twelve patients had tracheostomy done prior to the procedure, whereas 19 patients were without tracheostomy. Ten patients were successfully decannulated, and only 4 patients had complications related to the procedure. The minimum onset of stridor was 7 months, maximum onset of stridor was 28 years, and the mean onset of stridor was 8.7 years. The commonest complication observed was posterior glottic adhesion following bilateral posterior cordectomy. Laser endolaryngeal posterior cordectomy is an excellent surgical option as it enables successful decannulation or avoidance of tracheostomy in patients with BVFI. The onset of stridor took years after the insult to the recurrent laryngeal nerves.

  15. A Ten-Year Kuala Lumpur Review on Laser Posterior Cordectomy for Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    PubMed

    Mawaddah, Azman; Marina, Mat Baki; Halimuddin, Sawali; Mohd Razif, Mohd Yunus; Abdullah, Sani

    2016-07-01

    Bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) is commonly caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and leads to stridor and dyspnea of varying onsets. A retrospective study was done at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre on laser microsurgical posterior cordectomy for BVFI. The objectives were to identify the average duration of onset of stridor from the time of insult and to evaluate the outcome of laser posterior cordectomy as a surgical option. From 1997 to 2007, a total of 31 patients with BVFI were referred for surgery. Twelve patients had tracheostomy done prior to the procedure, whereas 19 patients were without tracheostomy. Ten patients were successfully decannulated, and only 4 patients had complications related to the procedure. The minimum onset of stridor was 7 months, maximum onset of stridor was 28 years, and the mean onset of stridor was 8.7 years. The commonest complication observed was posterior glottic adhesion following bilateral posterior cordectomy. Laser endolaryngeal posterior cordectomy is an excellent surgical option as it enables successful decannulation or avoidance of tracheostomy in patients with BVFI. The onset of stridor took years after the insult to the recurrent laryngeal nerves. PMID:27660547

  16. Mass Communication in Malaysia: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Lim Huck, Comp; Sarachandran, V.V., Comp.

    This bibliography lists published and unpublished material relating to mass communications in Malaysia, 1945 to 1973. Most of the items listed are written in English and Malay, and a limited number are in Chinese. The bibliography is divided into 21 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory, research methods;…

  17. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of…

  18. Special Education in Malaysia: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee Tee, Chua

    1986-01-01

    Special education in Malaysia now involves 4,220 handicapped children in four categories: visually handicapped, hearing impaired, mentally retarded, and physically handicapped. Needs such as more special education teachers, early diagnosis, modified curricula, special equipment, and parent counseling are discussed. (Author/DB)

  19. Burnout among Female Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Ahour, Touran

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the individual…

  20. Malaysia: population issues remain high on agenda.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    The government of Malaysia takes population issues seriously despite the country's relatively small population of 20.7 million in 1995. Malaysia has signaled its commitment to implementing the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development by initiating changes in policies, programs, and institutional frameworks to reflect a concern for reproductive health, adolescent reproductive health, the family, and women. For 1995-2000, declines in overall fertility will reduce Malaysia's population growth to 2% per year from 2.6% during the 1980s. The population is expected to increase to 22.8 million by 2000, 27.8 million by 2010, and 33.4 million by 2020. During this period, the proportion will drop of those younger than 15 years old. Malaysia's commitment to women is reflected in its low maternal mortality rate (20/100,000 live births/year) and in the fact that life expectancy for women is 74 years compared to 70 years for men. Primary education is nearly universal, and the female literacy rate is 84.6%.

  1. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN MALAYSIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE FEDERATION OF MALAYSIA HAD A 1964 POPULATION OF 9,000,000. SPECIALIZATION IN A FEW EXPORT PRODUCTS, NOTABLY RUBBER AND TIN, HAS BEEN THE BASIS OF THE ECONOMY. EDUCATION IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND EFFORT IS BEING MADE TO ESTABLISH MALAY AS THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION EXTENDS FOR 6 YEARS TO THE LOWER…

  2. Ethnicity, Communal Relations, and Education in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    Communal life in Malaysia is characterized by discords, tensions, and strife, especially between the Malays and Chinese. By and large, Malays are educationally and economically backward in comparison to non-Malays. Malays seek to redress what they consider racial imbalances through use of their political power. Constitutionally, certain privileges…

  3. English Teaching Profile: Sabah--Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Sabah, Malaysia, provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in both the Chinese and government educational systems at all levels. Topics covered are: the characteristics and training of English language…

  4. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled.

  5. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of…

  6. Human Capital and Technology Development in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Halimah

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its relation to the development of human capital in Malaysia as a country undergoing transformation into an ICT-driven and knowledge-based society. Education and training, being the key variable of human capital, is examined in terms of the government…

  7. English Teaching Profile: Sarawak--Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Sarawak, Malaysia, provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (preprimary, elementary, secondary, higher, vocational, adult, and teacher education). Topics covered…

  8. The Law of Student Discipline in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hee, Tie Fatt

    2008-01-01

    Judicial review of decisions on student discipline is limited in Malaysia. This arises because of the general presumption that in the enforcement of school discipline, educators are able to act in the best interest of the student to maintain a safe learning environment. This article examines the range of disciplinary measures in Malaysian schools…

  9. Teacher Preparation in Malaysia: Needed Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Blake, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to present personal views of some changes that are needed to be made within teacher education in Malaysia. It uses one teacher education university as a point of reference to forward concerns. The university remains anonymous as it is not the intent of the article to critique the university but rather to highlight the more…

  10. Moral Education in a Plural Society: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Hena

    1983-01-01

    Designed for non-Muslim pupils, moral education is being phased into the state-approved curriculum in Malaysia. The objective is the development of a morally mature person who will be able to make independent judgments in a moral conflict situation. The moral education program development is described. (Author/RM)

  11. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivalingam, G.

    2007-01-01

    The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase…

  12. Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajasuriar, R; Awang, R; Hashim, S B H; Rahmat, H R B H

    2007-02-01

    We retrospectively reviewed poisoning admissions to all government health facilities from 1999 to 2001, in an effort to expand our current knowledge on poisoning in Malaysia to a level that better reflects a nationwide burden. There were 21 714 admissions reported with 779 deaths. The case-fatality rate was 35.88/1000 admissions. The majority of admissions (89.7%) and deaths (98.9%) occurred in adults. Some 55.1% of all admissions were female, mostly involving pharmaceutical agents. Male poisoning admissions were more often due to chemical substances. The prevalence of poisoning and death was highest among Indians compared to all other races in Malaysia. Overall, the majority of poisoning admissions were due to pharmaceutical agents, with agents classified as non-opioid analgesics, anti-pyretics and anti-rheumatics the most common. Pesticides accounted for the largest number of fatalities. It was also the commonest substance reported in cases of intentional self-harm. Most cases of poisoning admissions occurred due to accidental exposure (47%), followed by cases of intentional self-harm (20.7%). Overall, this study has managed to contribute substantial additional information regarding the epidemiology of poisoning in Malaysia, highlighting important issues, such as the rampant poisonings involving pesticides and analgesics, as well as the high prevalence of poisoning among Indians in Malaysia.

  13. International Reports on Literacy Research: Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Maya K.; Amer, Aly Anwar

    2004-01-01

    Maya K. David reports an interesting view of reading in Malaysia through the eyes of graduate student Mohd Nazri bin Hamid (2003), who conducted an exploratory study about the culture of reading in an academy of Islamic studies. The purposes of Nazri's investigation were (a) to examine undergraduate students' reading habits, (b) to offer a…

  14. Age at First Marriage in Peninsular Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Elm, Barbara; Hirschman, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Examines the socioeconomic determinants of the age at first marriage among women interviewed in a fertility survey of currently married women in Peninsular Malaysia. Substantial differentials in age at first marriage are associated with ethnicity, years of formal schooling, and premarital work experience, and less for social and geographic…

  15. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled. PMID:27405126

  16. The Teachers' Activity Centres of Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Diljit

    This paper describes the development of the Teachers' Activity Centers (TACs) in Malaysia. The TACs evolved from Local Resource Centers and District Resource Centers of the 1970s and 1980s. The 350 TACs in the country were initially supplied with basic tools for the production of teaching-learning resources. With administrative reorganization, the…

  17. The genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhalifah, Hanim Kamis; Syaza, Fatnin Hisham; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2016-07-15

    This article explores the genetic history of the various sub-populations currently living in Peninsular Malaysia. This region has received multiple waves of migrants like the Orang Asli in prehistoric times and the Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs during historic times. There are three highly distinct lineages that make up the Orang Asli; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. The Semang, who have 'Negrito' characteristics, represent the first human settlers in Peninsular Malaysia arriving from about 50,000ya. The Senoi later migrated from Indochina and are a mix between an Asian Neolithic population and the Semang. These Asian genomes probably came in before Austroasiatic languages arrived between 5000 and 4000years ago. Semang and Senoi both now speak Austro-Asiatic languages indicative of cultural diffusion from Senoi to Semang. In contrast, the Proto-Malays who came last to the southern part of this region speak Austronesian language and are Austronesians with some Negrito admixture. It is from this group that the contemporary Malays emerged. Here we provide an overview of the best available genetic evidences (single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, blood groups, human platelet antigen, human leukocyte antigen, human neutrophil antigen and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) supporting the complex genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia. Large scale sampling and high throughput genetic screening programmes such as those using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analyses have provided insights into various ancestral and admixture genetic fractions in this region. Given the now extensive admixture present in the contemporary descendants of ancient sub-populations in Peninsular Malaysia, improved reconstruction of human migration history in this region will require new evidence from ancient DNA in well-preserved skeletons. All other aspects of the highly diverse and complex genetic makeup in Peninsular Malaysia should be

  18. 78 FR 16465 - Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... with potential customers, partners and local representatives. Commercial Setting: Malaysia Overview..., inclusiveness and sustainability. Energy Malaysia is expected to experience a large increase in overall energy... International Trade Administration Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand and...

  19. Prevalence of a koinobiont endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni (Diptera: Phoridae) in colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Foo, Foong-Kuan; Singham, G Veera; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-10-01

    A survey of the infestation rate of colonies of Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) with the koinobiont endoparasitoid Misotermes mindeni Disney & Neoh (Diptera: Phoridae) was conducted in Malaysia from September 2009 to January 2011 in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Johor, Terengganu, and Sarawak. Of the 1,125 M. gilvus mounds surveyed, 12.4% contained termites parasitized by M. mindeni and these mounds occurred only in the states of Penang and Perak. High frequencies of mounds containing parasitized termites were found at sites in Penang: Bayan Lepas (21.1%), Minden Campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia ([USM]; 24.5%), Teluk Bahang (28.0%), and Bukit Mertajam (35.0%); the lowest frequency (4.0%) was recorded from Gelugor. The parasitized colonies at all sites were classified as healthy, with exception of several from the Minden Campus of USM (96.4% healthy) and Ayer Itam (87.5% healthy). Most parasitized colonies (71.2%) had a low level of M. mindeni infestation. Only 16.7 and 12.1% of the infested colonies had moderate or high parasite infestation levels, respectively. The height of infected mounds was significantly higher than that of the healthy mounds, but there was no difference between the mound diameters of infested and uninfested mounds. Parasite infestation level was not significantly correlated with mound height or mound diameter. The ambient light intensity at sites with infested mounds was significantly lower than that of uninfested mounds. There was also a significant negative relationship between light intensity and degree of parasitism.

  20. Insecticide susceptibility status of field-collected Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) at a dengue endemic site in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rong, Loke Seau; Ann, Andy Tan Wei; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-01-01

    Biweekly ovitrap surveillance (OS) was conducted for a year (August 2007 - September 2008) at two different dengue endemic sites in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, 50 km from Kuala Lumpur. Aedes aegypti collected from these 2 locations were raised to the F3 stage and subjected to a WHO standard bioassay method to determine lethal time (LT) against pyrethroids (permethrin 0.75%, cyfluthrin 0.15%), organophosphates (malathion 5.0%, fenitrothion 1.0%), carbamates (propoxur 0.1%, bendiocarb 0.1%) and organochlorine (DDT 4.0%). Insecticide susceptibilities were analyzed for one year. Aedes aegypti were resistant to DDT with a mortality range of 0 - 13.3% throughout the year at both sites. Susceptibilities to pyrethroids and carbamates varied throughout the year. In contrast, susceptibilities to pyrethroids and carbamates varied throughout the year: resistant to propoxur, bendiocarb and permethrin with mortality of < 80% in most months; but, showed incipient resistant to cyfluthrin in most months. Mosquitoes were consistently susceptible to malathion and fenitrothion, with complete mortality during most months. They were especially susceptible to malathion with LT50 values of 21.32 - 36.37 minutes, suggesting effectiveness of malathion for control of dengue. PMID:23082552

  1. Rainfall-runoff response from urban catchments in humid tropical regions: A case study of Kayu Ara catchment in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, A.; Venneker, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Wong, C.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of rainfall-runoff response for urban engineering practices is of pivotal importance, especially for humid tropic areas such as Malaysia where the information is rather limited. In view of this, a rainfall-runoff analysis study was conducted for the 25 km2 urban catchment of Kayu Ara, Kuala Lumpur. Five-minute rainfall and runoff data from 1996 - 2005 were used, from which 146 events were selected for detailed analysis. The relationship between direct runoff and mean areal rainfall provided information on the catchment response. The derived event-based runoff coefficients are useful for catchment comparison, and in particular to understand how different landscapes affect transformation of rainfall into event runoff and to explain the runoff generation mechanism. However, the lack of a standard method for hydrograph separation is a disadvantage, which introduces uncertainty into the analysis and the results and may also complicate comparison with results from other areas. Nevertheless, it is shown that event-based runoff coefficients could improve our understanding of rainfall-runoff response, especially for urban conditions.

  2. Review of the Burden of Esophageal Cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Wan-Nor-Asyikeen, Wan Adnan; Norsa'adah, Bachok

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the top leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. To date, neither the prevalence nor incidence of esophageal cancer nationally have been recorded. Esophageal cancer remains a major and lethal health problem even if it is not common in Malaysia. The late presentation of esophageal cancer makes it a difficult and challenging medical problem. Therefore, more governmental and non-governmental organizations of Malaysia should emphasize primary and secondary prevention strategies. PMID:27644604

  3. Bounded agency in humanitarian settings: a qualitative study of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among refugees situated in Kenya and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Rhodes, Tim; Spiegel, Paul; Schilperoord, Marian; Burton, John Wagacha; Balasundaram, Susheela; Wong, Chunting; Ross, David A

    2014-11-01

    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with

  4. Adapting to a US Medical Curriculum in Malaysia: A Qualitative Study on Cultural Dissonance in International Education

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Ryan Y

    2016-01-01

    Context Minimal research has examined the recent exportation of medical curricula to international settings. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, USA partnered with Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and implemented the same curriculum currently used at Johns Hopkins University to teach medical students at Perdana University. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of first-year medical students at Perdana University, focusing on issues of cultural dissonance during adaptation to a US curriculum. Methods In-depth semi-structured interviews with the inaugural class of first-year students (n=24) were conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Two reviewers independently coded and analyzed the qualitative data for major themes. Results The most prominent themes identified were the transition from a “passive” to an “active” learning environment and the friendliness and openness of the professors. Students noted that “[Perdana University] is a whole new, different culture and now we are adapting to the culture.” Being vocal during classes and taking exams based on conceptual understanding and knowledge application/integration proved to be more challenging for students than having classes taught entirely in English or the amount of material covered. Discussion This study reinforced many cultural education theories as it revealed the major issues of Malaysian graduate students adapting to a US-style medical curriculum. Despite coming from a collectivistic, Confucian-based cultural learning background, the Malaysian students at Perdana University adopted and adapted to, and subsequently supported, the US learning expectations. PMID:27672530

  5. Adapting to a US Medical Curriculum in Malaysia: A Qualitative Study on Cultural Dissonance in International Education

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Ryan Y

    2016-01-01

    Context Minimal research has examined the recent exportation of medical curricula to international settings. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, USA partnered with Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and implemented the same curriculum currently used at Johns Hopkins University to teach medical students at Perdana University. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of first-year medical students at Perdana University, focusing on issues of cultural dissonance during adaptation to a US curriculum. Methods In-depth semi-structured interviews with the inaugural class of first-year students (n=24) were conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Two reviewers independently coded and analyzed the qualitative data for major themes. Results The most prominent themes identified were the transition from a “passive” to an “active” learning environment and the friendliness and openness of the professors. Students noted that “[Perdana University] is a whole new, different culture and now we are adapting to the culture.” Being vocal during classes and taking exams based on conceptual understanding and knowledge application/integration proved to be more challenging for students than having classes taught entirely in English or the amount of material covered. Discussion This study reinforced many cultural education theories as it revealed the major issues of Malaysian graduate students adapting to a US-style medical curriculum. Despite coming from a collectivistic, Confucian-based cultural learning background, the Malaysian students at Perdana University adopted and adapted to, and subsequently supported, the US learning expectations.

  6. Vitamin D status and its associated factors of free living Malay adults in a tropical country, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Moy, Foong Ming

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D status is influenced by sun exposure, geographic latitude, daily outdoor activities, body surface exposed to sunlight and dietary intakes. Malaysia, is sunny all year round. However, the vitamin D status of this population especially among the healthy and free living adults is not known. Therefore a study of vitamin D status and associated factors was initiated among an existing Malay cohort in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 380 subjects were sampled to have their vitamin D status assessed using 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). A short questionnaire enquiring socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to sunlight and clothing style was administered. Their mean age was 48.5±5.2years and the mean 25(OH)D for males and females were 56.2±18.9nmol/L and 36.2±13.4nmol/L respectively. There were significant positive correlation for sun exposure score (r=0.27, p<0.001) and negative correlation for sun protection score (r=-0.41, p<0.001) with 25(OH)D levels. In the logistic regression model, females (OR=2.93; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.31), BMI (1.1; 1.03, 1.20) and sun exposure score (0.998; 0.996, 0.999) were significantly associated with vitamin D status as represented by 25(OH)D levels. Our findings show that obesity, lifestyle behaviours and clothing style are directly associated with our participants especially females' low vitamin D status. PMID:21636288

  7. Bounded agency in humanitarian settings: a qualitative study of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among refugees situated in Kenya and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Rhodes, Tim; Spiegel, Paul; Schilperoord, Marian; Burton, John Wagacha; Balasundaram, Susheela; Wong, Chunting; Ross, David A

    2014-11-01

    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with

  8. Indonesian immigrant settlements in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azizah Kassim

    2000-04-01

    For over 2 decades, until the economic crisis in mid-1997, Malaysia's rapid economic growth attracted an influx of foreign labor, mostly from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. In 1997 the number of registered workers was estimated at 1.2 million and undocumented ones at approximately 800,000. The influx created various problems, of which housing is one of the most serious, especially in the Kelang Valley. This paper examines the ways and means by which Indonesian workers, the largest group among foreigners, overcame their accommodation problem. Two types of settlements are identified, that is, illegal ones in the squatter areas and legal ones, which are largely in Malay Reservation Areas. The settlements, which signify Indonesians' success in finding a foothold in Malaysia, today have become a base for more in-migration. PMID:12349650

  9. Indonesian immigrant settlements in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azizah Kassim

    2000-04-01

    For over 2 decades, until the economic crisis in mid-1997, Malaysia's rapid economic growth attracted an influx of foreign labor, mostly from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. In 1997 the number of registered workers was estimated at 1.2 million and undocumented ones at approximately 800,000. The influx created various problems, of which housing is one of the most serious, especially in the Kelang Valley. This paper examines the ways and means by which Indonesian workers, the largest group among foreigners, overcame their accommodation problem. Two types of settlements are identified, that is, illegal ones in the squatter areas and legal ones, which are largely in Malay Reservation Areas. The settlements, which signify Indonesians' success in finding a foothold in Malaysia, today have become a base for more in-migration.

  10. Cofiring biomass with coal: Opportunities for Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia generated 108,175 GWh of electricity in 2010 where 39.51 % was sourced from coal. Coal power generation is also planned to overtake natural gas as the main fuel for electricity generation within the next two decades. Malaysia also has a vast biomass resource that is currently under-utilised for electricity generation. This paper studies the option of cofiring biomass in existing Malaysian coal power plants to increase the nation's renewable energy mix as well as to reduce its power sector carbon dioxide emission. Benefits of cofiring to the nation were discussed and agricultural residues from palm oil and paddy was identified as a potential source of biomass for cofiring. It was also found that there is a willingness for cofiring by stakeholders but barriers existed in the form of technical issues and lack of clear direction and mechanism.

  11. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

  12. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  13. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  14. Current status of malaria in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, E S

    1992-09-01

    The Malaria Eradication Program was started in 1967 in Peninsular Malaysia. Since then and up to 1980, there was a reduction in the number of reported malaria cases from 160,385 in 1966 to 9,110 cases for Peninsular Malaysia. Although the concept of eradication has changed to one of control in the 1980, the anti-malaria activities have remained the same. However, additional supplementary activities such as the use of impregnated bednets, and the Primary Health Care approach, have been introduced in malarious and malaria-prone areas. Focal spraying activity is instituted in localities with outbreaks in both malaria-prone and non-malarious areas. Passive case detection has been maintained in all operational areas. In 1990, 50,500 cases of malaria were reported of which 69.7% (35,190) were from Sabah, 27.8% (14,066) from Peninsular Malaysia and 2.5% (1,244) from Sarawak. Until June 1991 a total of 18,306 cases were reported for the country. Plasmodium falciparum continues to be the predominant species, contributing to 69.6% of the parasites involved. The case fatality rate for 1990 was 0.09%. There were 43 deaths all of which were attributed to cerebral malaria. The problems faced in the prevention and control of malaria include problems associated with the opening of land for agriculture, mobility of the aborigines of Peninsular Malaysia (Orang Asli) and inaccessibility of malaria problem areas. There is need to ensure prompt investigation and complete treatment of cases especially in malarious areas. The promotion of community participation in control activities should be intensified. Primary Health Care should be continued and intensified in the malarious areas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Demand analysis of tobacco consumption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Al-Sadat, Nabilla A M

    2007-11-01

    We estimated the price and income elasticity of cigarette demand and the impact of cigarette taxes on cigarette demand and cigarette tax revenue in Malaysia. The data on cigarette consumption, cigarette prices, and public policies between 1990 and 2004 were subjected to a time-series regression analysis applying the error-correction model. The preferred cigarette demand model specification resulted in long-run and short-run price elasticities estimates of -0.57 and -0.08, respectively. Income was positively related to cigarette consumption: A 1% increase in real income increased cigarette consumption by 1.46%. The model predicted that an increase in cigarette excise tax from Malaysian ringgit (RM) 1.60 to RM2.00 per pack would reduce cigarette consumption in Malaysia by 3.37%, or by 806,468,873 cigarettes. This reduction would translate to almost 165 fewer tobacco-related lung cancer deaths per year and a 20.8% increase in the government excise tax revenue. We conclude that taxation is an effective method of reducing cigarette consumption and tobacco-related deaths while increasing revenue for the government of Malaysia.

  16. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. PMID:26553738

  17. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.

  18. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    PubMed

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  19. Micronutrient status and intervention programs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin

    2005-06-01

    Approximately 70% of the world's malnourished children live in Asia, giving that region the highest concentration of childhood malnutrition worldwide. Prevalence of stunting and underweight are high especially in south Asia where one in every two preschool children is stunted. Iron-deficiency anemia affects 40%-50% of preschool and primary schoolchildren. Nearly half of all vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in the world occurs in south and southeast Asia. Iodine deficiency disorders have resulted in high goiter rates in India, Pakistan, and parts of Indonesia. Compared with other developing countries in Asia, the nutrition situation in Malaysia is considerably better, owing to rapid economic and socioeconomic development that has occurred since Malaysia gained its independence in 1957. Prevalence of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency is markedly lower in Malaysian children. Nonetheless, undernutrition in the form of underweight, stunting, and anemia can be found in poor communities throughout the country. A prevalence of 25% underweight and 35% stunting is reported among young children from poor rural households. Anemia and subclinical forms of vitamin A deficiency were reported in children under 5 years old. Typical of a country in nutrition transition, Malaysia faces the dual burden of malnutrition in children, with the persistence of under-nutrition problems especially among the poor and the emerging overweight problem especially in urban areas. Since 1996, nutrition programs of the government sector are coordinated under the National Plan of Action for Nutrition. These activities and other nutrition intervention efforts by other agencies are discussed in this paper.

  20. Improving cancer pain management in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Within Malaysia's otherwise highly accessible public healthcare system, palliative medicine is still an underdeveloped discipline. Government surveys have shown that opioid consumption in Malaysia is dramatically lower than the global average, indicating a failure to meet the need for adequate pain control in terminally ill patients. Indeed, based on daily defined doses, only 24% of patients suffering from cancer pain receive regular opioid analgesia. The main barriers to effective pain control in Malaysia relate to physicians' and patients' attitudes towards the use of opioids. In one survey of physicians, 46% felt they lacked knowledge to manage patients with severe cancer pain, and 64% feared effects such as respiratory depression. Fear of addiction is common amongst patients, as is confusion regarding the legality of opioids. Additional barriers include the fact that no training in palliative care is given to medical students, and that smaller clinics often lack facilities to prepare and stock cheap oral morphine. A number of initiatives aim to improve the situation, including the establishment of palliative care departments in hospitals and implementation of post-graduate training programmes. Campaigns to raise public awareness are expected to increase patient demand for adequate cancer pain relief as part of good care.

  1. A review of leptospirosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bahaman, A R; Ibrahim, A L

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on leptospirosis in Malaysia from its first description in 1928 until the present day. Most of the early reports were on investigations of leptospirosis in wildlife and man and up-to-date, thirty-seven leptospiral serovars from thirteen serogroups have been bacteriologically identified. The thirteen serogroups are: Australis, Autumnalis Bataviae, Canicola, Celledoni, Grippotyphosa, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Javanica, Pomona, Pyrogenes, Sejroe and Tarassovi. Rats have been ascribed as the principal maintenance host of leptospires in Malaysia. However, serovars from the Pomona, Pyrogenes and Sejroe serogroups have yet to be isolated from rats. It is considered that the majority of leptospirosis cases in man were due to association of man with an environment where rats were plentiful. Recent investigations on domestic animals disclosed a high prevalence of infection in cattle and pigs and they were suspected as being the maintenance host for serovar hardjo and pomona respectively. There is ample scope for research in leptospirosis, particularly in the epidemiology and control of the disease in domestic animals. The strategy to control the infection in domestic animals and man in Malaysia is bound to be different from that of the temperate countries, basically due to the presence of a large number of leptospiral serovars in wildlife, further confounded by geographical and financial constraints.

  2. The experience with fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of palpable breast lumps in the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Jayaram, G; Alhady, S F

    2000-09-01

    A total of 676 palpable breast lumps seen in the Breast Clinic, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from August 1993 to August 1994 were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Fifty-four were reported as inadequate, 501 benign, 95 malignant and 26 suspicious. One hundred and eighty-seven aspirates had histological correlation, while 34 of the malignant aspirates had clinical correlation. The majority of the other 455 patients were followed up for a period of 60 to 72 months without any malignancies becoming apparent. For analysis, only the 221 cases with histological or clinical correlation were included, (the suspicious category was included into the positive group and the inadequate cases were excluded), giving a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 91.7% and a diagnostic accuracy of 91.7%. Breast cytology was an accurate and rapid method of diagnosis of breast diseases, and in a busy surgical unit with limited operating time, it allowed for the triage of patients with breast complaints in deciding which cases needed early open biopsy. A negative cytology does not exclude the possibility of cancer, as there was a false negative rate of 11%. However by utilising a diagnostic triad of clinical examination, radiological assessment and fine needle aspiration cytology, the risk of missing a malignancy is small.

  3. The pattern of homicidal slash/chop injuries: a 10 year retrospective study in University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Ong, B B

    1999-03-01

    Homicides as a result of slash/chop injuries are not commonly reported in forensic literature. A 10 year retrospective study from 1987 to 1996 was performed on the pattern of homicidal slash/chop injuries in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 37 cases were analysed. The ages ranged from 17 to 85 years. The victims consisted of Indonesian (37.8%), Chinese (27.0%), Indian (24.3%) and Malay (8.1%) ethnic groups; 2.7% of the cases were not identified. Most of the cases were due to intentional violence (n = 27), while the rest consisted of domestic violence (n = 2), robbery (n = 2), psychiatric homicide (n = 1), accident (n = 2) and unclassified (n = 3). In the intentional violence group, the majority of the victims (n = 16) had more than five wounds. In contrast, the victims in other categories had less than five wounds each, with the exception of a single case in the psychiatric-homicide group. In homicide victims with a single wound, the most common site of injury was the neck. In those with multiple wounds, the common sites were the head and neck. Sixteen cases showed defence injuries, all of them belonging to the intentional-violence group. The reasons for the high incidence of homicidal slash/chop wounds are discussed, as well as the difficulties associated with interpretation of such wounds.

  4. Rotavirus electropherotypes from the Kuala Lumpur Hospital: a re-examination after an interval of seven years.

    PubMed

    Yap, K L; Lim, Y H; Tan, S C

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the extent changes have occurred in the epidemiology of human rotavirus electropherotypes from the same location 7 to 8 years after an earlier study. Genomic RNA profiles of rotaviruses from diarrhoeic children admitted to the Kuala Lumpur Hospital from April to December 1996 were determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. A total of 179 group A rotaviruses were detected from 870 children: 175 with legible staining of all RNA segments were classified into 14 distinct electropherotypes (10 and 4 with long and short migration patterns respectively). In addition, the results revealed: high predominance of long pattern electropherotypes (94% of the total electropherotypes); most long electropherotypes with RNA profiles which all 11 RNAs migrated separately (8 of 10 electropherotypes); all short electropherotypes had segments 2 and 3 that co-migrated; presence of a very numerically dominant electropherotype (75% of all electropherotypes); frequent co-circulation of the dominant electropherotype-present throughout the study period--with other electropherotypes present for limited periods; sequential temporal appearances by similar electropherotypes. These observations were similar to that of an earlier study conducted in 1988/89. Nevertheless, the dominant electropherotype in the present study was different and not among the electropherotypes detected in the earlier study.

  5. The incidence of human herpesvirus 6 infection in children with febrile convulsion admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Chua, K B; Lam, S K; AbuBakar, S; Koh, M T; Lee, W S

    1997-12-01

    From October 1996 to March 1997, 31 children with febrile convulsions were admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV 6) was virologically and/or serologically confirmed to be the cause of the febrile episode in 5 of these children (16.1%). Age, sex and other associated clinical features (diarrhoea, cough, running nose and type of seizure) were not useful in differentiating cases of febrile convulsion due to HHV 6 from those of other aetiology. However, uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers were noted in children in whom the cause of the seizure could be attributed to HHV 6 but not in the remaining cases in the study group. HHV 6 DNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all patients with febrile convulsions attributed to HHV6, and in patients shown serologically to have already been exposed to the virus by nested polymerase chain reaction amplification. Only genotype HHV 6B was detected from patients with seizure due to HHV 6 but both genotype 6A and 6B were detected in the remaining cases studied.

  6. Usefulness of the "CAGE" in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Indran, S K

    1995-04-01

    This study examines the usefulness of the "CAGE", (which is an acronym for "cut down", "annoyed", "guilty" and "eye-opener"), a 4-question screening test to identify excessive drinkers among Malaysian inpatients. The CAGE questionnaire after translation and back translation was administered to all inpatients in the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The author interviewed 'blindly' all who score positive on the CAGE score and 10% of all negatives using the DSM III interview schedule for alcohol abuse dependence. The results show that the CAGE performs best at a cut-off point of 2 and above, with a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 62%, positive predictive values of 38% and Kappa (K) of 0.37 with a DSM III R diagnosis for alcohol abuse/dependence. The poor agreement with a DSM III diagnosis indicates that the CAGE is not useful in the Malaysian population. Reasons suggested for this are: cultural factors in the Malaysian population resulting in the overrating of the question of 'guilt' by Muslims and translations into the local languages which are only the closest approximations.

  7. Detection of free living amoebae, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, in swimming pools, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Init, I; Lau, Y L; Arin Fadzlun, A; Foead, A I; Neilson, R S; Nissapatorn, V

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the detection of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species in 14 swimming pools around Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sampling was carried out at 4 sites (the platforms (P), wall (W), 1 meter from the wall (1) and middle (2)) of each swimming pool. These free living amoebae (FLA) were detected under light and inverted microscopes after being cultured on the surface of non-nutrient agar lawned with Escherichia coli. Acanthamoeba species were detected in higher number of culture plates from all sampling sites of all the swimming pools. While Naegleria, were detected in fewer culture plates at 3 sampling sites (absent at site P) of 8 swimming pools. This suggested that the thick double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba were more resistant, thus remaining viable in the dry-hot areas of the platforms and in chlorinated water of the swimming pools whereas Naegleria cysts, that are fragile and susceptible to desiccation, preferred watery or moist areas for growth and proliferation. The prevalence of both FLA was highest at site W (76.2%), followed by site 1 (64.7%), lowest at site 2 (19.4%), and could be detected at all 3 sampling levels (top, middle and bottom) of these 3 sites. The surface of site W might act as a bio-film that accumulated all kinds of microbes providing sufficient requirement for the FLA to develop and undergo many rounds of life cycles as well as moving from top to bottom in order to graze food. Other factors such as human activities, the circulating system which was fixed at all swimming pools, blowing wind which might carry the cysts from surroundings and the swimming flagellate stage of Naegleria could also contribute to the distribution of the FLA at these sampling sites. Both FLA showed highest growth (80.4%) at room temperature (25-28 ºC) and lesser (70.0%) at 37 ºC which might be due to the overgrowth of other microbes (E. coli, fungi, algae, etc). While at 44 ºC, only Acanthamoeba species could survive thus showing that

  8. The distribution of rare earth elements in tropical granitic soil: a case study from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Hamzah; Ghani Rafek, Abdul

    A total of 93 samples of rock, altered soil representing various weathering grades from an ideal granite weathering profile exposed at a road cut along the Kuala Lumpur-Karak highway, Peninsular Malaysia, were studied. The fresh, unaltered parent rock is petrographically distinguished into two types: (1) coarse grained porphyritic biotite-muscovite granite, and (2) medium grained biotite-muscovite granite. The rock has undergone some degree of brittle deformation. A weathering index map based on the procedures suggested by Ibrahim Komoo et al. Warta Geologi17(3), 105-109 (1991) shows the spatial distribution of unaltered to slightly altered rocks (index 2-4), weathered rocks (5-8) and residual soil (9 and 10) for the profile under study. For each sample, 11 major elements were determined using X-ray fluorescence technique (XRF) and nine rare earth elements, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb and Lu, by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). All REEs decrease with increasing weathering grade, suggesting a depletion of the REEs due to weathering. The depletion rate is variable, the fastest being Sm and La. A Masuda-Coryell diagram for the three groups of samples, that is (1) fresh to slightly weathered rocks, (2) moderately to highly weathered rocks, and (3) residual soils, shows three curves with a similar pattern of negative Eu anomalies. The concentration of elements is in the order 1>2>3, suggesting strongly that the REEs diminish gradually in the course of the weathering. A rock-soil interface has been recognised to exist at weathering index 4. It is believed that at this interface, most REEs leave their primary carriers which undergo rapid breakdown, most probably plagioclase, biotite and hornblende and possibly ilmenite and apatite, into weathering solution, together with Fe 2+, Ca 2+, K +, Mn 2+ and Mg 2+. Anomalously low concentration of REEs in index 4 material supports this idea. The leached-out REEs are temporarily incorporated into newly formed

  9. Small-town migration to metropolitan centres: a case in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lee Boon Thong

    1979-12-01

    In Malaysia small towns are an important source of population gowth in metropolitan areas. To provide empirical evidence of the magnitude and roles of small urban centers as complementary sources of population growth in metropolitan areas, a small survey was conducted in 10 small towns in the State of Selangor. Criteria for the selection of these towns include a fair geographical spread over the State, and each area must characteristically possess a dominant urban center. The questionnaires were directed to the heads of 300 households with the intention of investigating the socioeconomic background of the households and the magnitude and characteristics of those members of the households who have migrated elsewhere. The total number of outmigrants from each area varied from 27-57, giving an overall average figure of 1.53 outmigrants/household. About 77% of the outmigrants had moved to the metropolitan centers. As the majority of the metropolitan migrants were more attracted to Kuala Lumpur, Klang, and Petaling Jaya, it may be assumed that the total outmigrants from small towns as derived would have consitituted about 39% of the population in the Klang Valley region. Based on this estimate, the role of small towns in metropolitan population growth is important. In the survey conducted, 2 broad categories of movements were involved: "economic movers," i.e., those who migrated to work or to establish businesses in the metropolitan areas; and "noneconomic movers," i.e., those who moved to continue their studies or to follow their spouses, and so forth. The economic mover stream made up 71% of the total metropolitan migrants. 2 variables--marital status and sex--were significantly related to the economic or noneconomic nature of the metropolitan migrants. The movement of males tended to be associated with economic motives whereas noneconomic reasons for movement tended to be the case among females migrants. The most important occupational group of the economically

  10. Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Hemodialysis Patients in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Md. Yusop, Nor Baizura; Yoke Mun, Chan; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Beng Huat, Choo

    2013-01-01

    Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0–100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m2) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1±19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0±8.6 and 39.6±8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of life

  11. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information

  12. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  13. Teaching Islam: A Look Inside an Islamic Preschool in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borhan, Lihanna

    2004-01-01

    Although required to use the National Preschool Curriculum for the five- to six-year-old age group, preschools in Malaysia can add to this curriculum to suit their individual purposes. Thus, preschools with religious emphasis are common in Malaysia. Parents send their children to the religiously affiliated preschools in the hope of inculcating…

  14. Innovation Management and Performance Framework for Research University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowang, Tan Owee; Long, Choi Sang; Rasli, Amran

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) in Malaysia are recognized as the core of new innovation development. This paper empirically studies one of IHLs in Malaysia with the objectives to gauge the perceived important level of success factors for innovation management, and to examine the relationship between innovation management success factors…

  15. Trade in Higher Education Services in Malaysia: Key Policy Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tham, Siew Yean

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Malaysia has emerged as an unexpected contender in the world market for international students in higher education. Recognizing this sector as a potential new source of growth and export revenue, Malaysia aims to become a regional hub for higher education. In view of this, the objectives of this paper are to profile the pattern of…

  16. Not Plain Sailing: Malaysia's Language Choice in Policy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2009-01-01

    This paper focusses on language and education issues in Malaysia as they have unfolded in the context of nation building, societal multilingualism and globalization from independence to the present day. The paper first examines the origin and nature of language and medium-of-instruction policies in Malaysia and the rationale for them. Secondly, it…

  17. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of…

  18. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  19. An Analysis of Globalization and Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokiasamy, Anantha Raj A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of globalization on private higher education in Malaysia. The impact of globalization and the development of knowledge-based economy have caused much dramatic change to the character and functions of higher education in Malaysia. The major trend is the reforming and restructuring of private higher education in…

  20. Thinking Skill Education and Transformational Progress in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Nooraini; Mohamad, Khairul Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper intends to highlight the issues in thinking skills development and efforts made in addressing these issues in Malaysia. The education system in Malaysia has undergone a huge transformational progress particularly in the field related to the development of thinking skill. Traditionally, thinking skill was not specifically cultivated in…

  1. A Model of Homeschooling Based on Technology in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd. Nazri Abdul; Siraj, Saedah; Ibrahim, Ruslina

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling in Malaysia is a form of alternative education that emphasizes quality education based on moral values and belief in strengthening family ties. The purpose of this study is to produce a model of homeschooling technology-based learning activities in Malaysia as a guideline to improve the quality of education, curriculum and organize…

  2. Satisfaction from Academic Activities among Medical Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data about the levels of satisfaction among medical students in regards to their academic activities in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to fill the gap in the existing knowledge. A cross sectional study was carried out at the International medical school, the Management and Science University of Malaysia,…

  3. A Visual Analysis of Festive Television Commercials in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lean Mei

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia is a multiracial country with a diverse range of religions, leading to a broad range of religious festivals throughout the year. In recent years, corporate giants such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia (TM), Tenaga and Astro have taken to airing television commercials (TVCs) that contain a local touch when greeting their customers. Perhaps…

  4. Beginning Teachers as Policy Workers in Malaysia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vivienne Ruth; Young, Sharon; Blanch, Keely; Smith, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Malaysia government initiated twinned primary teacher education arrangements with five Southern Hemisphere higher education institutions (HEIs). Participating students completed their teacher education in both Malaysia and a partner HEI. In this paper, we consider the preliminary findings of a comparative study tracking the beginning…

  5. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  6. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  7. Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor and Roles of Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Edna

    In Malaysia, the government is supporting the diffusion of the Internet and is spearheading a project to bring Malaysia into the information age, by helping to design a smart city called the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The MSC is being planned as a high-technology center where world-class multimedia companies can develop state-of-the-art…

  8. Cohort study on clustering of lifestyle risk factors and understanding its association with stress on health and wellbeing among school teachers in Malaysia (CLUSTer) – a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study on Clustering of Lifestyle risk factors and Understanding its association with Stress on health and wellbeing among school Teachers in Malaysia (CLUSTer) is a prospective cohort study which aims to extensively study teachers in Malaysia with respect to clustering of lifestyle risk factors and stress, and subsequently, to follow-up the population for important health outcomes. Method/design This study is being conducted in six states within Peninsular Malaysia. From each state, schools from each district are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Once the schools agree to participate, all teachers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria are invited to participate. Data collection includes a questionnaire survey and health assessment. Information collected in the questionnaire includes socio-demographic characteristics, participants’ medical history and family history of chronic diseases, teaching characteristics and burden, questions on smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activities (IPAQ); a food frequency questionnaire, the job content questionnaire (JCQ); depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS21); health related quality of life (SF12-V2); Voice Handicap Index 10 on voice disorder, questions on chronic pain, sleep duration and obstetric history for female participants. Following blood drawn for predefined clinical tests, additional blood and urine specimens are collected and stored for future analysis. Active follow up of exposure and health outcomes will be carried out every two years via telephone or face to face contact. Data collection started in March 2013 and as of the end of March 2014 has been completed for four states: Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Melaka and Penang. Approximately 6580 participants have been recruited. The first round of data collection and blood sampling is expected to be completed by the end of 2014 with an expected 10,000 participants recruited. Discussion Our study will provide a good basis

  9. A Study of Quality Assurance Practices in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Helen Khoo Chooi; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at the quality assurance practices amongst three (3) groups of staff in the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, i.e. lecturers, resident tutors and support staff. 9 dimensions of the Quality Assurance Practices i.e. Staff Development, Planning, Work Process, Team Work, Prioritise Customers, Performance…

  10. West Meets East in Malaysia and Singapore. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1999 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the U.S. and different grade levels and subject areas. The seminar offered a comprehensive overview of how the people of Malaysia and Singapore live, work, and strive towards their…

  11. Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g-32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations.

  12. Assessment of Physical Activity Level among Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Cheras Health Clinic, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nor Shazwani, M N; Suzana, S; Hanis Mastura, Y; Lim, C J; Teh, S C; Mohd Fauzee, M Z; Lim, H C; Dahlia, S; Norliza, M

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical activity levels among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) at Cheras Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 132 subjects (62 men and 70 women) aged 30 years and above participated in this study. Data was collected using an interview based questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and health profile information. Physical activity was assessed using a shortened version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Anthropometric measurements and body fat were also taken. Glycaemic status, that is, HbA1c, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2 hours post-prandial (2-HPP) were obtained from medical records. Results showed that the mean age of the patients was 51.9 + 5.8 years. The majority of patients had poor glycaemic control based on HbA1c (70.7%), FBS (71.9%) and 2HPP (85.4%). Patients who were unmarried and aged(60 years and above had a lower physical activity level (p< 0.05). In the older age group, low physical activity was associated with poor glycaemic control (p< 0.05). Patients in the moderate and high physical activity level were motivated to perform physical activity so as to be healthy (68.1%). Low physical activity level among patients was due to lack of time (54.5%) and lack of energy (21.2%). In conclusion, physical activity levels of the patients were unsatisfactory and associated with poor glycaemic control, especially in the elderly. There is a need to encourage diabetic patients to undertake regular physical activity in order to achieve optimal glycaemic control. PMID:22691857

  13. Anisakiasis Causing Acute Dysentery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Amirah; Ngui, Romano; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Wong, Kum T; Ong, Jaxinthe S K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-08-01

    Human anisakiasis is a zoonosis acquired by eating raw or undercooked infected seafood. Herein, we report a case of acute dysentery caused by anisakiasis in a 64-year-old man in Malaysia. A colonoscopy was performed and a nematode larva was found penetrating the mucosa of the ascending colon. Bleeding was observed at the site of penetration. Y-shaped lateral epidermal cords were seen from the cross section of the worm, which is a prominent feature of Anisakis larva. Molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction of cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) gene confirmed the specimen to be larva of Anisakis simplex. PMID:27325803

  14. Urban squatting and migration in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, M

    1983-01-01

    "This article examines some of the links between the phenomena of urban migration and squatter settlements in the Third World city. This will be done by demonstrating that both are outcomes of fundamental social and political forces that have operated on these societies. Migration and squatting are placed in a context of the historical processes that led to the uneven development of Malaysia. The article offers some explanation for the origin of the inequalities observed in spatial structures--in this case urban housing--by focusing on one of the contributory factors, namely migration."

  15. Nuclear energy in Malaysia - closing the gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Malaysian Nuclear Society (Mns,

    2013-06-01

    This article is prepared by the Malaysian Nuclear Society (MNS) to present the views of the Malaysian scientific community on the need for Malaysia to urgently upgrade its technical know-how and expertise to support the nuclear energy industry for future sustainable economic development of the country. It also present scientific views that nuclear energy will bring economic growth as well as technically sound industry, capable of supporting nuclear energy industry needs in the country, and recommend action items for timely technical upgrading of Malaysian expertise related to nuclear energy industry.

  16. Anisakiasis Causing Acute Dysentery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Amirah; Ngui, Romano; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Wong, Kum T; Ong, Jaxinthe S K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-08-01

    Human anisakiasis is a zoonosis acquired by eating raw or undercooked infected seafood. Herein, we report a case of acute dysentery caused by anisakiasis in a 64-year-old man in Malaysia. A colonoscopy was performed and a nematode larva was found penetrating the mucosa of the ascending colon. Bleeding was observed at the site of penetration. Y-shaped lateral epidermal cords were seen from the cross section of the worm, which is a prominent feature of Anisakis larva. Molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction of cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) gene confirmed the specimen to be larva of Anisakis simplex.

  17. Climate extremes in Malaysia and the equatorial South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahuddin, Ahmed; Curtis, Scott

    2011-08-01

    The southern extent of the South China Sea (SCS) is an important natural resource epicenter for Malaysia which experiences climate extremes. This paper documents the variability of extremes in the equatorial SCS through selected ground-based observations of precipitation in Malaysia and ship-based observations of wind data in the Maritime Continent region, to elucidate the interrelationship between precipitation variability over Malaysia and wind variability over the ocean. The data have been carefully inspected and analyzed, and related to the real-time multivariate Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) time series. The analysis suggests that the northeast or boreal winter monsoon dominates extreme rainfall in eastern Malaysian cities. Further, the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo Malaysia are affected by the MJO differently than the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. From the wind analysis we found that average zonal wind is westerly from May to September and easterly from November to April. When the active (convective) phase of the MJO is centered over the Maritime Continent, the strong westerly wind bursts are more frequent in the South China Sea. While more investigation is needed, these results suggest that the status of the Madden-Julian Oscillation can be used to help forecast climate extremes in areas of Malaysia.

  18. Tectonic Motion of Malaysia: Analysis from Years 2001 TO 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J.; Shariff, N. S.; Omar, K.; Amin, Z. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the tectonic motion of Malaysia using the Malaysian Active GPS Station (MASS) and Malaysia Realtime Kinematic GNSS Network (MyRTKnet) data from years 2001 to 2013. GNSS data were processed using Bernese 5.0, and plotted as a time series; whereby the period before and after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman mega earthquake are plotted separately. From the time series, episodic events and stable inter-seismic deformation period are analysed. The results indicate that the 2001- 2004 and 2008-2011 periods were free from episodic events; hence, chosen to depict the tectonic motion of Malaysia before and after 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, respectively. The motion had a major change in direction and rate, especially for East Malaysia and South Peninsular Malaysia. This indicates there exist a long-term post-seismic deformation due to the 2004 mega earthquake. Nonetheless, the 2008-2011 inter-seismic period is stable, and suitable to represent the current long-term tectonic motion of Malaysia: Peninsular and East Malaysia moves south-east, at an average velocity of 0.89 ±0.01 cm/yr south and 1.70 ±0.02 cm/yr east, and 1.06 ±0.01 cm/yr south and 2.50 ±0.02 cm/yr east, respectively. In addition, the co-seismic motion for the 2005 Nias, 2007 Bengkulu and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake are relatively small, indicating these three earthquakes have no significant contribution to the long-term tectonic motion of Malaysia. Overall, this paper aims to provide a general insight into the tectonic motion of Malaysia which, expectedly, may benefit other scientific fields.

  19. Level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Azman, A; Mohd Shahrul, S; Chan, S X; Noorhazliza, A P; Khairunnisak, M; Nur Azlina, M F; Qodriyah, H M S; Kamisah, Y; Jaarin, K

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of repeatedly heated oil can be detrimental to health. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil. The quality of cooking oil was also investigated. A cross-sectional study involving pretested questionnaire was undertaken in April 2009. The questionnaire was designed as a tool to collect data from the respondents (n=100) by face-to-face interview. The results showed that majority of respondents had only moderate (53.0%) or low (18.0%) level of knowledge regarding this issue. Most respondents (67.0%) agreed that it is not a good practice. The majority (69.0%) agreed that the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil is detrimental to health. Despite that, most respondents (63.0%) admitted that they had used cooking oil repeatedly. Most (62.0%) of the cooking oil samples taken from the night market food outlets were considered fit for human consumption. In conclusion, the level of knowledge of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding this issue needs to be improved in order to ensure the safety of fried food purchased from such establishments.

  20. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  1. Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

  2. Women and the media in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Adnan, M H

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of and portrayal of women in the Malaysian media are summarized here in detail. Women's access to training in journalism and education is on average better than that of men. There are 3 communications departments in institutions of higher learning in Malaysia, and all enroll more women than men, probably because of women's better language skills and desire to enter a "glamourous" profession. Women's participation in journalism, except for women's magazines, is much more limited, especially at higher levels. Women's abilities are not lacking, as shown by the number of awards Malaysian women journalists have won, but it is felt that women are not assertive, cannot work late or night shifts, cannot be transferred, because of family and domestic obligations. Perhaps journalism curricula should offer women extra courses in effective family management, public speaking or human relations, or assign cadet journalists women mentors. In Malaysia women are generally portrayed in print, electronic and advertising media as either decorative, foolish, consumption driven, or sex objects. Exploitative poses predominate in ads for male markets, such as automobiles and liquor. Sexual roles for women and girls are depicted as those of subservient or silly housewife or in other negative or traditional roles.

  3. Women and the media in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Adnan, M H

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of and portrayal of women in the Malaysian media are summarized here in detail. Women's access to training in journalism and education is on average better than that of men. There are 3 communications departments in institutions of higher learning in Malaysia, and all enroll more women than men, probably because of women's better language skills and desire to enter a "glamourous" profession. Women's participation in journalism, except for women's magazines, is much more limited, especially at higher levels. Women's abilities are not lacking, as shown by the number of awards Malaysian women journalists have won, but it is felt that women are not assertive, cannot work late or night shifts, cannot be transferred, because of family and domestic obligations. Perhaps journalism curricula should offer women extra courses in effective family management, public speaking or human relations, or assign cadet journalists women mentors. In Malaysia women are generally portrayed in print, electronic and advertising media as either decorative, foolish, consumption driven, or sex objects. Exploitative poses predominate in ads for male markets, such as automobiles and liquor. Sexual roles for women and girls are depicted as those of subservient or silly housewife or in other negative or traditional roles. PMID:12281076

  4. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul

    2015-04-29

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

  5. Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

    2012-05-01

    The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth. PMID:21490114

  6. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.

  7. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul

    2015-04-01

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

  8. Tsunami risk mapping simulation for Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.; Moh, Y.T.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Andaman mega tsunami killed about a quarter of a million people worldwide. Since then several significant tsunamis have recurred in this region, including the most recent 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami. These tsunamis grimly remind us of the devastating destruction that a tsunami might inflict on the affected coastal communities. There is evidence that tsunamis of similar or higher magnitudes might occur again in the near future in this region. Of particular concern to Malaysia are tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring along the northern part of the Sunda Trench. Further, the Manila Trench in the South China Sea has been identified as another source of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes that might trigger large tsunamis. To protect coastal communities that might be affected by future tsunamis, an effective early warning system must be properly installed and maintained to provide adequate time for residents to be evacuated from risk zones. Affected communities must be prepared and educated in advance regarding tsunami risk zones, evacuation routes as well as an effective evacuation procedure that must be taken during a tsunami occurrence. For these purposes, tsunami risk zones must be identified and classified according to the levels of risk simulated. This paper presents an analysis of tsunami simulations for the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea for the purpose of developing a tsunami risk zone classification map for Malaysia based upon simulated maximum wave heights. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  9. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Malaysia: a review.

    PubMed

    George, R

    1987-09-01

    The historical background, epidemiology and changing pattern of clinical disease as seen in Malaysia is reviewed. The preliminary results of the longitudinal study of epidemiology of dengue in Malaysia is also presented. Studies led by Rudnick et al. over some 18 years have established that the disease is endemically transmitted by both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus causing illnesses ranging from mild febrile episodes through classical dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and the dengue shock syndrome. The first epidemic occurred in 1962 in Penang, and the second major epidemic in 1974 in Selangor. From then on epidemics seem to occur every 4 years, i.e. 1978, and then in 1982. With increasing number of cases being seen from the end of 1985 and in 1986, and with the increasing numbers of positive virus isolates, another epidemic may occur this year. Though in the early years, mainly children were affected, recently more cases are being seen in 16-30 years age group. There is also a changing pattern in the clinical presentation of the cases. The clinician has to be aware of the various modes of presentation of this sinister disease. A high index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis, as management is mainly symptomatic and there is no specific drug as yet to combat the shock and bleeding manifestations.

  10. Informed consent in Malaysia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Che Ngah, Anisah

    2005-01-01

    The right of a person to control his body is a concept that has long been recognized in Malaysia under the law of torts. The purpose of requiring informed consent is to preserve that right in medical decision-making. Informed Consent is a relatively new concept in medical litigation cases. However in the late 1990's, it has become one of the important claims under negligence made against the doctor for failure to disclose relevant information to patients in respect of the treatment proposed. Whether Malaysia has begun to recognize patient's right to decision-making is yet to be seen. Furthermore the social-cultural relationship between doctors and patients had to be considered. In this respect, the researcher had conducted interviews with doctors and patients to gauge their reaction towards a shared process of decision-making, which is the central issue in the doctrine of informed consent. Findings suggest that in society where primary health care is the main thrust to achieve health for all, the possibility of recognition of the rights of patients to receive information before making decisions about treatment appears remote. The findings also underscore the importance of incorporating aspects of informed consent as part of providing quality service to patients. PMID:16637139

  11. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S H

    1990-01-01

    Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:2298755

  12. Macroeconomic Determinants of Skilled Labour Migration: The Case of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuie Hong; Solucis Santhapparaj, A.

    In this study, macroeconomic determinants of immigration are analysed with pooled cross-country and time series data on skilled immigration into Malaysia from 39 countries during 1998-2004. Results demonstrate clearly that both high frequency (such as differences in cyclical economic conditions) and low frequency determinants (such as differences in levels of economic development) have been important for determinants of immigration into Malaysia. Immigration is determined by the income growth of Malaysia, change in Malaysian unemployment rate and population of the source countries. Year-to-year changes in skilled immigration flows are dominated by economic fluctuation.

  13. Sexuality education in Malaysia: perceived issues and barriers by professionals.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Zahra Fazli; Low, Wah Yun; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2014-07-01

    This research explored the perspectives of Malaysian professionals on the issues and barriers affecting the implementation of sexuality education in Malaysia. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 15 key professionals working in the field of sexuality and reproductive health in Malaysia. Thematic analysis was selected to analyze data. Barriers to sexuality education were perceived from 5 aspects: feasibility, acceptability, accountability, strategies, and community unawareness. Respondents believed that implementing national sexuality education is a time-consuming project. They regarded Malaysian multicultural society as a barrier to national sexuality education, and they believed that school-based sexuality education is not easily accomplished in Malaysia; also abstinence-only policy restricts the access of young people to accurate information. Lack of community involvement was perceived as a key concern to sexuality education. Campaigning to promote awareness of families, teachers, community leaders, and policy makers are recommended to help establishing national sexuality education in Malaysia.

  14. Minority Language Education in Malaysia: Four Ethnic Communities' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karla J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)

  15. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  16. Motorcycle safety programmes in Malaysia: how effective are they?

    PubMed

    Radin Umar, R S

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the approach taken by the Malaysian Government to contain motorcycle casualties in Malaysia. It involves the exposure control, crash prevention, behaviour modification and injury control related to humans, vehicles and the environment based on pre-crash, crash and post-crash scenarios of motorcycle accidents. These initiatives emanated mainly from the research and development carried out by the Road Safety Research Centre at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Recent outcomes from these initiatives are presented and their impact is highlighted.

  17. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  18. Molecular typing of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Okubo, Miki; Siew, Han Hock; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological data on the aetiologic agents of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia have not been reported, though human sporotrichosis in Malaysia is reported to be transmitted primarily via cat scratch. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study of the molecular epidemiology of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats with sporotrichosis in Malaysia. In the present work, we characterised 18 clinical isolates from cats in Malaysia based on molecular properties, including sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the rDNA ITS region and selective PCR of mating type (MAT) loci. In this study, isolates from feline sporotrichosis were identified as a S. schenckii sensu stricto by sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of the ITS confirmed assignment to clinical clade D (and not C) of S. schenckii sensu stricto. Therefore, clinical clade D of S. schenckii sensu stricto appeared to be the prevailing source of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia. The ratio of MAT1-1-1:MAT1-2-1 in these Malaysian isolates was found to be 1 : 0. This result suggested that a clonal strain of S. schenckii is the prevailing causative agent of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia.

  19. Motives for intergenerational transfers: evidence from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lillard, L A; Willis, R J

    1997-02-01

    In this paper we discuss a number of hypotheses about motives for intergenerational transfers within the family. We use data on time and money transfers between generations in Malaysia, where there is neither Social Security nor Medicare, to explore these hypotheses empirically. We find evidence supporting the hypotheses that children are an important source of old age security and that old age security is, in part, children's repayment for parental investments in their education. This repayment is partly a function of the children's income and, in the case of females, a function of their spouse's income. We also find evidence supporting the hypotheses that parents and children engage in the exchange of time help for money. PMID:9074835

  20. Alternative, complementary and traditional medicine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Talib, N

    2006-09-01

    This paper sets out the practice of traditional, alternative and/or complementary medicine in Malaysia. It gives an overview of the types of alternative medicine available, and the legal regulation, or lack of it within the current setting. The relevant policies and governmental action in this area are highlighted. Relevant case law decisions in this area are also included. The practice of spiritual healing as one form of traditional medicine, and its role within the spectrum of alternative medicine is dealt with briefly. The significant question of integration of alternative medicine within the existing allopathic system is addressed. The paper concludes that as interest in, and usage of alternative medicine is not likely to decrease, certain measures must be taken by the relevant authorities to ensure among others, the safety and efficacy of these medicines.