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Sample records for lun tauno otto

  1. Coupled quantum Otto cycle.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S

    2011-03-01

    We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins.

  2. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  3. [Characteristics of acupuncture in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases)].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zi-Yu; Chen, Shu-Kai; Guo, Chang-Qing; Liu, Nai-Gang

    2010-07-01

    Through summarization and analysis on etiology, pathology and acupoint selection in chapters about acupuncture in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases), written by ZHANG Zhong-jing, famous physician of the Eastern Han Dynasty, five features of acupuncture in the book are concluded: to cut off the pathway of pathogenic factors to prevent progress of diseases; to adopt both acupuncture and herbal medicine to give full play to their respective advantages in treatment; to distinguish pathogenesis carefully and select the proper acupoints; to observe the progressing tendency of diseases to give treatment accordingly; and to understand that yang channels are appropriate for acupuncture, while yin channels can also be selected in treatment. In this way, the law of acupuncture of ZHANG Zhong-jing is expected to be better understood.

  4. Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

  5. Molecular beams: our legacy from Otto Stern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, N. F.

    1988-06-01

    It is an honor to contribute to this celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Otto Stern, who developed molecular beams to become one of the most nowerful and fruitful physics research methods.

  6. Otto engine beyond its standard quantum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggio, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a noncoherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for nonideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power.

  7. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  8. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NPDA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  9. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NDPA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal DSC using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  10. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  11. Optimal performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We consider a quantum Otto refrigerator cycle of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We investigate the coefficient of performance at maximum figure of merit for adiabatic and nonadiabatic frequency modulations. We obtain analytical expressions for the optimal performance both in the high-temperature (classical) regime and in the low-temperature (quantum) limit. We moreover analyze the breakdown of the cooling cycle for strongly nonadiabatic driving protocols and derive analytical estimates for the minimal driving time allowed for cooling.

  12. [Healthcare in marriage and pregnancy in Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-ying; Qu, Jian-feng; Yang, Jin-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun is a monograph of life-cultivation, written by Wang Gui of the Yuan Dynasty. Wang Gui held that life-cultivation should start from marriage and pregnancy, so paid great attention to them. His thoughts reflected on marriage at an appropriate age, pregnancy at a selected time, emphasizing the health of the foetus, the priority of enriching the mind, timely care of pregnant women, etc. All of these reflect the ancient concepts of eugenics.

  13. Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, E A

    2015-09-01

    Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.

  14. Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.

  15. Modeling the complete Otto cycle - Preliminary version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  16. Geomorphic Processes and Remote Sensing Signatures of Alluvial Fans in the Kun Lun Mountains, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    1996-01-01

    The timing of alluvial deposition in arid and semiarid areas is tied to land-surface instability caused by regional climate changes. The distribution pattern of dated deposits provides maps of regional land-surface response to past climate change. Sensitivity to differences in surface roughness and composition makes remote sensing techniques useful for regional mapping of alluvial deposits. Radar images from the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory and visible wavelength images from the French SPOT satellite were used to determine remote sensing signatures of alluvial fan units for an area in the Kun Lun Mountains of northwestern China. These data were combined with field observations to compare surface processes and their effects on remote sensing signatures in northwestern China and the southwestern United States. Geomorphic processes affecting alluvial fans in the two areas include aeolian deposition, desert varnish, and fluvial dissection. However, salt weathering is a much more important process in the Kun Lun than in the southwestern United States. This slows the formation of desert varnish and prevents desert pavement from forming. Thus the Kun Lun signatures are characteristic of the dominance of salt weathering, while signatures from the southwestern United States are characteristic of the dominance of desert varnish and pavement processes. Remote sensing signatures are consistent enough in these two regions to be used for mapping fan units over large areas.

  17. Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing.

    PubMed

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

  18. Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  20. Dr. Otto "Tiger" Freer: inventor and innovator.

    PubMed

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Connor, David E; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Every neurosurgeon develops his or her own standard approach to common intracranial pathologies in terms of the order in which different stages are performed and which instruments are used to perform individual tasks. The majority of the basic steps in performing a craniotomy are learned through repetition and practice during residency training. Significant amounts of energy are devoted to mastering technical skills and developing an operative rhythm. What often receives little attention is the historical origin of the instruments that make the work possible. The Freer elevator represents a particularly interesting example. To people unfamiliar with the accomplishments of turn-of-the-century laryngologist Otto "Tiger" Freer, it can be assumed that the name of the instrument in one's hand is simply named for what it can do, that is, to "free" the nasal mucosa from the bony and cartilaginous septum during the transsphenoidal approach. The technique this master surgeon spent his life and career perfecting is now repeated almost daily by skull base neurosurgeons approaching pathologies from the inferior frontal lobe to the foramen magnum. In reviewing his life and work, the authors of this paper discovered an interesting creative process that led to the design of the eponymous instrument. Additionally, they discovered important advances toward the development of the transnasal approach and in our understanding of the anterior skull base. They present a historical perspective on the life and accomplishments of Dr. Freer and the ubiquitous surgical instrument that he invented and popularized. PMID:22853830

  1. Dr. Otto "Tiger" Freer: inventor and innovator.

    PubMed

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Connor, David E; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Every neurosurgeon develops his or her own standard approach to common intracranial pathologies in terms of the order in which different stages are performed and which instruments are used to perform individual tasks. The majority of the basic steps in performing a craniotomy are learned through repetition and practice during residency training. Significant amounts of energy are devoted to mastering technical skills and developing an operative rhythm. What often receives little attention is the historical origin of the instruments that make the work possible. The Freer elevator represents a particularly interesting example. To people unfamiliar with the accomplishments of turn-of-the-century laryngologist Otto "Tiger" Freer, it can be assumed that the name of the instrument in one's hand is simply named for what it can do, that is, to "free" the nasal mucosa from the bony and cartilaginous septum during the transsphenoidal approach. The technique this master surgeon spent his life and career perfecting is now repeated almost daily by skull base neurosurgeons approaching pathologies from the inferior frontal lobe to the foramen magnum. In reviewing his life and work, the authors of this paper discovered an interesting creative process that led to the design of the eponymous instrument. Additionally, they discovered important advances toward the development of the transnasal approach and in our understanding of the anterior skull base. They present a historical perspective on the life and accomplishments of Dr. Freer and the ubiquitous surgical instrument that he invented and popularized.

  2. GNSS Software Receiver for the MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Geofisica GeochImica lunAre) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirazzi, G.; De Quattro, N.; Dionisio, C.

    2009-05-01

    In recent years a number of missions have been conceived to acquire and track signals from GPS satellites at altitudes higher than the GPS constellation itself. Many studies have focused on geostationary satellite or HEO (High elevation orbits) missions demonstrating that not only the spill-over from the main lobe but also the contribution from second and the third lobes have sufficient signal to noise ratio to be acquired. The Mission MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Geofisica GeochImica lunAre) was proposed in the framework of the "Bando per Piccole Missioni" of ASI (2007). The mission was selected for a phase A study by the ASI CdA on February 7th 2008 with RHI-Italy as Prime Contractor and INAF as Science Coordinator. The Mission, now under ASI evaluation for potential phase B award, is planned to be launched on 2012.

  3. Dr. Otto heinrich warburg-survivor of ethical storms.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-01-01

    Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970; not to be confused with the Zionist of the same name) was a member of an illustrious Jewish family, known for some five centuries. From humble beginnings, the family became prominent in the world for their contributions to all aspects of society. The son of a German mother and a Jewish (converted) father, Otto H. Warburg became a major contributor to medical science in the field of cancer research. Considered for Nobel Prize more than once, he finally received it in 1931 for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the cellular respiratory enzyme. Warburg's personality was controversial: he was intolerant of opposing scientific views yet tolerant toward Nazi abuses. Accused of collaboration under the Nazi regime, Otto H. Warburg was nevertheless readmitted to the global scientific community after World War II. His contribution to cancer research remains influential to this day and has been superseded by discoveries that have built upon his work.

  4. Otto Rudolph Ortmann, Music Philosophy, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzol, David J.

    2004-01-01

    What is music? What should be taught when music is taught? How should it be taught? In the early twentieth century, these most foundational questions relating to music education were addressed by the highly regarded, though less well known, educator and researcher, Otto Rudolph Ortmann. In 1922, he published an article in which he outlined a…

  5. Conversations with American Composers: Ev Grimes Interviews Otto Luening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ev

    1986-01-01

    Otto Luening, one of the pioneers in the development of tape composition, talks about a variety of topics, including the education of musicians, the relationship between composer and teacher, his class for non-music majors, the musical training a teacher should have, and changes needed in music education. (RM)

  6. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    SciTech Connect

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  7. Dr. Otto Heinrich Warburg—Survivor of Ethical Storms

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970; not to be confused with the Zionist of the same name) was a member of an illustrious Jewish family, known for some five centuries. From humble beginnings, the family became prominent in the world for their contributions to all aspects of society. The son of a German mother and a Jewish (converted) father, Otto H. Warburg became a major contributor to medical science in the field of cancer research. Considered for Nobel Prize more than once, he finally received it in 1931 for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the cellular respiratory enzyme. Warburg’s personality was controversial: he was intolerant of opposing scientific views yet tolerant toward Nazi abuses. Accused of collaboration under the Nazi regime, Otto H. Warburg was nevertheless readmitted to the global scientific community after World War II. His contribution to cancer research remains influential to this day and has been superseded by discoveries that have built upon his work. PMID:25717390

  8. Karl Otto Himmler, manufacturer of the first contact lens.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard M

    2007-03-01

    In 1889 August Müller (1864-1949) reported the correction of his own high myopia with a ground scleral contact lens that had been manufactured in Berlin two years earlier. This paper provides the first conclusive identification, based upon primary sources, of the manufacturer of these lenses. They were made by an optical engineer, Karl Otto Himmler (1841-1903), whose firm enjoyed, until the outbreak of World War II, an international reputation for the manufacture of microscopes and their accessories. PMID:17110156

  9. ECUT energy data reference series: Otto cycle engines in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of the Otto cycle engines in transportation is summarized. The transportation modes discussed in this report include the following: automobiles, light trucks, heavy trucks, marine, recreational vehicles, motorcycles, buses, aircraft, and snowmobiles. These modes account for nearly 100% of the gasoline and LPG consumed in transportation engines. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average energy conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles. Estimates are provided for the years 1980 and 2000.

  10. Otto Fenichel and the left opposition in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Harris, B; Brock, A

    1991-04-01

    David Rapaport's collection of Otto Fenichel's Rundbriefe (1934-1945) is described as a recently rediscovered, 2,500-page primary source for studying the intellectual and organizational history of European-American psychoanalysis. Beginning as the confidential newsletter of the Reich-Fenichel "Left opposition" within the International Psychoanalytic Association, its function became primarily intellectual as Fenichel's group ceased to function as a caucus. It ended when its editor decided to devote himself to the struggle against neo-Freudianism within psychoanalysis, and to practice as a licensed physician.

  11. Modeling the complete Otto cycle: Preliminary version. [computer programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  12. Counterintuitive dispersion effect near surface plasmon resonances in Otto structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Li-Gang; Ye, Lin-Hua; Al-Amri, M.; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the counterintuitive dispersion effect associated with the poles and zeros of reflection and transmission functions in an Otto configuration when a surface plasmon resonance is excited. We show that the zeros and/or poles in the reflection and transmission functions may move into the upper-half complex-frequency plane (CFP), and these locations of the zeros and poles determine the dispersion properties of the whole structures (i.e., the frequency-dependent change of both reflected and transmitted phases). Meanwhile, we demonstrate various dispersion effects (both normal and abnormal) related to the changes of the poles and zeros in both reflection and transmission functions when considering the properties of metal substrates. For a realistic metal substrate in an Otto structure, there are the optimal thickness and incident angle, which correspond to the transitions of the zeros in the reflection function from the upper-half to lower-half CFP. These properties may be helpful to manipulate light propagation in optical devices.

  13. The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2006-03-01

    As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

  14. Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model in a quantum Otto cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakmak, Selçuk; Altintas, Ferdi; E. Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür

    2016-06-01

    The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model of two anisotropically interacting spins in a magnetic field is proposed as a working substance of a quantum Otto engine to explore and exploit the anisotropy effects for the optimization of engine operation. Three different cases for the adiabatic branches of the cycle have been considered. In the first two cases, either the magnetic field or coupling strength are changed while, in the third case, both the magnetic field and the coupling strength are changed by the same ratio. The system parameters for which the engine can operate similar to or dramatically different from the engines of non-interacting spins or of coupled spins with Ising model or isotropic XY model interactions are determined. In particular, the role of anisotropy to enhance cooperative work, and to optimize maximum work with high efficiency, as well as to operate the engine near the Carnot bound are revealed.

  15. [To explore "the relief time" of diseases involving the six meridians in Shang Han Lun in light of the sequence of three yin and three yang].

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Xue; Cui, Jian

    2008-02-01

    The time of six meridians diseases tending to be cured in Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Diseases) is always one of the key points for study, but up till now no satisfied explanations are made. The authors try to study it on the basis of the theory of "three-yin and three-yang" according to the relationship between human body and the environment.

  16. [Psychoanalysis and engagement: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians].

    PubMed

    Fisher, D J

    1988-01-01

    This essay is a critique of Russell Jacoby's The repression of psychoanalysis: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians (New York, Basic Books, 1983), translated into French by P.U.F. Jacoby depicts Fenichel and his circle of colleagues as political Freudians whose early years were decisively colored by radical youth movements, leftwing politics, the early inspiration of the Russian Revolution, a serious immersion in Marxist culture, a commitment to either socialist or communist parties, and a desire to integrate classical psychoanalysis into a a broader framework of Marxist social theorizing. He centers his book around the archival discovery of the Rundbriefe, 119 circular letters written during Fenichel's exile from 1934 to 1945. He discusses the impact of Wilhelm Reich's ideas and career on the Fenichel circle. Fascism and exile from Europe shattered the lives and commitments of the political Freudians. This essay focuses on Jacoby's use and abuse of the concepts of Americanization, medicalization, the competition from the neo-Freudians, and the apparent silence and "self-repression" of this group's past and leftwing identity once in America. It concludes with a critical analysis of Fenichel's psychoanalytic ethic, which, while engagé, was not Marxist. Fenichel was oriented toward contributing to both psychoanalytic practice and theory. His ethic precluded the intrusion of politics into clinical work, supervision, and teaching. PMID:11640268

  17. Combined SPR and SERS: Otto and Kretschmann configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Dominique; Grosges, Thomas; Colas, Florent; Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Combined surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) setup was proposed recently. The experimental setup requires a gold layer deposited on a glass substrate. However, due to the poor ability of sticking gold material on glass, a nanometric adhesion layer is used. In this paper we compare numerically both the SERS gain, and the SPR signal, for metallic and dielectric adhesion layers, for two substrates. We show that even if the dielectric materials can be considered as equivalent for the SPR signal, this is not the case for the SERS gain. In particular the dielectric adhesion layer reduces the sensitivity of the SERS gain to this parameter and therefore their use could be more suitable for the fabrication of the sensor. Moreover the higher the refractive index of substrate with regards to the adhesion layer is, the higher efficiency of setup is obtained, and therefore the Otto configuration seems to be more efficient than the Kretschmann one. Optimization of the thicknesses of the adhesion layer and of the gold layer can lead to a SERS gain greater than 103 without nanostructuring.

  18. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  19. Revision of sternaspis otto, 1821 (polychaeta, sternaspidae).

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2013-01-01

    To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi Caullery

  20. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi

  1. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves

    PubMed Central

    Swengel, Ann B.; Swengel, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988–2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin), divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops) than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire) compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others’ butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s). In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent need to

  2. Variable temperature, variable-gap Otto prism coupler for use in a vacuum environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, G. F.; O'Prey, S. M.; Dawson, P.

    2000-11-01

    The field of surface polariton physics really took off with the prism coupling techniques developed by Kretschmann and Raether, and by Otto. This article reports on the construction and operation of a rotatable, in vacuo, variable temperature, Otto coupler with a coupling gap that can be varied by remote control. The specific design attributes of the system offer additional advantages to those of standard Otto systems of (i) temperature variation (ambient to 85 K), and (ii) the use of a valuable, additional reference point, namely the gap-independent reflectance at the Brewster angle at any given, fixed temperature. The instrument is placed firmly in a historical context of developments in the field. The efficacy of the coupler is demonstrated by sample attenuated total reflectance results on films of platinum, niobium, and yttrium barium copper oxide and on aluminum/gallium arsenide (Al/GaAs) Schottky diode structures.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto... including the systems described in § 86.1310 for petroleum-fueled diesel engines may be used if shown...

  4. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto..., 1988). \\2\\ 53 FR 6197 (March 1, 1988) (Diesel) and 53 FR 7022 (March 4, 1988) (Otto-cycle). \\3\\ 69 FR... 209(b)(1)(C). \\11\\ See, e.g., 74 FR at 32767 (July 8, 2009); see also Motor and Equip. Mfrs. Assoc....

  5. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  6. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  7. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  8. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  9. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  10. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  11. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  12. 75 FR 7649 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Otto Dix”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Otto Dix'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... amended, and Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the objects to be... States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with...

  13. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  14. OTTO Revisited: Management Training and Management Performance. Some Perceptions of Headteachers and Key Subordinates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellawell, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a follow-up study to the 1984 One Term Training Opportunity (OTTO) for headteachers and senior teachers conducted by the City of Birmingham Polytechnic. Discusses the effects of the management training course and attempts to determine whether the performance of managers was significantly affected by management training. (GEA)

  15. Otto Peters on Distance Education: The Industrialization of Teaching and Learning. Routledge Studies in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains new and previously published translations of 11 essays and articles about the industrialization of teaching and learning in distance education that were originally published in German by Otto Peters between 1965 and 1993. A "Preface" (Desmond Keegan) and an introduction placing Peters' writings in their historical context begin…

  16. Damned Lies. And Statistics. Otto Neurath and Soviet Propaganda in the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chizlett, Clive

    1992-01-01

    Examines the philosophical and historical context in which Otto Neurath (1882-1945) worked. Examines critically (in the light of descriptive statistics) the principles of his Isotype Picture Language. Tests Neurath's personal credibility and scientific integrity by looking at his contributions to Soviet propaganda in the early 1930s. (SR)

  17. Grating-coupled Otto configuration for hybridized surface phonon polariton excitation for local refractive index sensitivity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pechprasarn, Suejit; Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Zheng, Gaige; Shen, Hong; Lei, Dang Yuan; Somekh, Michael G

    2016-08-22

    We demonstrate numerically through rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) that replacing the prism in the Otto configuration with gratings enables us to excite and control different modes and field patterns of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) through the incident wavelength and height of the Otto spacing layer. This modified Otto configuration provides us the following multiple modes, namely, SPhP mode, Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity resonance, dielectric waveguide grating resonance (DWGR) and hybridized between different combinations of the above mentioned modes. We show that this modified grating-coupled Otto configuration has a highly confined field pattern within the structure, making it more sensitive to local refractive index changes on the SiC surface. The hybridized surface phonon polariton modes also provide a stronger field enhancement compared to conventional pure mode excitation. PMID:27557229

  18. Optimum outlet temperature of solar collector for maximum work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Eldighidy, S.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximizing the work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is investigated. A mathematical model for the energy balance on the solar collector along with the useful work output and the thermal efficiency of the Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is developed. The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximum work output is determined. The effect of radiative and convective heat losses from the solar collector, on the optimum outlet temperature is presented. The results reveal that the highest solar collector outlet temperature and, therefore, greatest Otto cycle efficiency and work output can be attained with the lowest values of radiative and convective heat losses. Moreover, high cycle work output (as a fraction of absorbed solar energy) and high efficiency of an Otto heat engine with ideal regeneration, driven by a solar collector system, can be attained with low compression ratio.

  19. Grating-coupled Otto configuration for hybridized surface phonon polariton excitation for local refractive index sensitivity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pechprasarn, Suejit; Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Zheng, Gaige; Shen, Hong; Lei, Dang Yuan; Somekh, Michael G

    2016-08-22

    We demonstrate numerically through rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) that replacing the prism in the Otto configuration with gratings enables us to excite and control different modes and field patterns of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) through the incident wavelength and height of the Otto spacing layer. This modified Otto configuration provides us the following multiple modes, namely, SPhP mode, Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity resonance, dielectric waveguide grating resonance (DWGR) and hybridized between different combinations of the above mentioned modes. We show that this modified grating-coupled Otto configuration has a highly confined field pattern within the structure, making it more sensitive to local refractive index changes on the SiC surface. The hybridized surface phonon polariton modes also provide a stronger field enhancement compared to conventional pure mode excitation.

  20. Spin-dependent Otto quantum heat engine based on a molecular substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Lefkidis, Georgios; Dong, Chuanding; Chaudhuri, Debapriya; Chotorlishvili, Levan; Berakdar, Jamal

    2015-03-01

    We explore the potential of single molecules for thermodynamic cycles. To this end we propose two molecular heat engines based on the realistic Ni2 dimer: a quantum Otto engine and a modified quantum Otto engine for which laser-induced optical excitations substitute for one of the heat-exchange points. For reliable predictions and to inspect the role of spin and electronic correlations we perform fully correlated ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and the excited states. We analyze the efficiency and the word output of the derived engines and find an enhancement when the spin degree of freedom is included. We also use the von Neumann entropy to describe correlations and entanglement of the engines during the cycles. Furthermore, we link our results to previous results regarding an isobaric stroke and a magnetic quantum Diesel engine on the same substance.

  1. Spin-dependent Otto quantum heat engine based on a molecular substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, W.; Lefkidis, G.; Dong, C. D.; Chaudhuri, D.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J.

    2014-07-01

    We explore the potential of single molecules for thermodynamic cycles. To this end we propose two molecular heat engines based on the Ni2 dimer in the presence of a static magnetic field: (a) a quantum Otto engine and (b) a modified quantum Otto engine for which optical excitations induced by a laser pulse substitute for one of the heat-exchange points. For reliable predictions and to inspect the role of spin and electronic correlations we perform fully correlated ab initio calculations of the molecular electronic structure including spin-orbital effects. We analyze the efficiency of the engines in dependence of the electronic level scheme and the entanglement and find a significant possible enhancement connected to the quantum nature and the heat capacity of the dimer, as well as to the zero-field triplet states splitting.

  2. Otto Hahn (1879-1968): pioneer in radiochemistry and discoverer of radiotherapeutic mesothorium.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Kyrgias, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Karamanou, Marianna; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Androutsos, George

    2014-01-01

    Otto Hahn was a German innovative chemist. He had discovered various radioactive elements, as well as the nuclear fission. He finally received the Nobel Prize for his participation in the atomic energy project, which Hahn and others considered that could be a factor used for peaceful means like cheap electricity and cheap industrial products. His greatest discovery though in oncology was mesothorium, a radioactive element that had been used to treat all cancer types at the beginning of the 20th century.

  3. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. P.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Friedrich, B.; Lower, J. C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  4. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  5. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  6. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  7. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  8. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  9. Analysis of a quantum irreversible Otto cycle with exergetic sustainable index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalkıran, Alper; Açıkkalp, Emin; Caner, Necmettin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, exergetic sustainability index is applied to quantum irreversible Otto cycle with -1/2 spin system. Exergetic sustainability index in a quantum engine is used first time. This index is the ratio of exergy output (work output for a thermal engine) to total exergetic losses. It gives an opportunity to evaluate for all thermodynamic losses in the system, that is why, it is an important index. In addition, some thermodynamic parameters (work output, exergy destruction, first and second law efficiencies) are considered and their relationships between the exergetic sustainability index are determined.

  10. Sound vibration signal processing for detection and identification detonation (knock) to optimize performance Otto engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujono, A.; Santoso, B.; Juwana, W. E.

    2016-03-01

    Problems of detonation (knock) on Otto engine (petrol engine) is completely unresolved problem until now, especially if want to improve the performance. This research did sound vibration signal processing engine with a microphone sensor, for the detection and identification of detonation. A microphone that can be mounted is not attached to the cylinder block, that's high temperature, so that its performance will be more stable, durable and inexpensive. However, the method of analysis is not very easy, because a lot of noise (interference). Therefore the use of new methods of pattern recognition, through filtration, and the regression function normalized envelope. The result is quite good, can achieve a success rate of about 95%.

  11. Occurrence of discontinuities in the performance of finite-time quantum Otto cycles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Hänggi, Peter; Poletti, Dario

    2016-07-01

    We study a quantum Otto cycle in which the strokes are performed in finite time. The cycle involves energy measurements at the end of each stroke to allow for the respective determination of work. We then optimize for the work and efficiency of the cycle by varying the time spent in the different strokes and find that the optimal value of the ratio of time spent on each stroke goes through sudden changes as the parameters of this cycle vary continuously. The position of these discontinuities depends on the optimized quantity under consideration such as the net work output or the efficiency. PMID:27575106

  12. Occurrence of discontinuities in the performance of finite-time quantum Otto cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Hänggi, Peter; Poletti, Dario

    2016-07-01

    We study a quantum Otto cycle in which the strokes are performed in finite time. The cycle involves energy measurements at the end of each stroke to allow for the respective determination of work. We then optimize for the work and efficiency of the cycle by varying the time spent in the different strokes and find that the optimal value of the ratio of time spent on each stroke goes through sudden changes as the parameters of this cycle vary continuously. The position of these discontinuities depends on the optimized quantity under consideration such as the net work output or the efficiency.

  13. Les Observatoires astronomiques en Italie. An 1863 Report by Otto Wilhelm Struve.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Simone; Galli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 1863 Otto Wilhelm Struve, director of the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory in Russia, visited most of the observatories in Italy. The report that he wrote on this occasion provides an overview on the conditions of astronomical research in Italyjust after the unification of the country. Later Struve sent a French translation of his report to the Italian astronomer Giovan Battista Donati, who used it to promote the construction of the Arcetri Observatory in Florence, which was inaugurated in 1872. We present here a transcription of the French translation of Struve's report and the transcription of a letter written by him in support of Donati's project

  14. [Wuwei Handai yijian (Wuwei Medical Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty) as evidential material for exploring the origin of Shang han Za bing Lun (Treatise on cold pathogenic and miscellaneous disease)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-chang; Sun, Qi-bin; Yang, Fu-de

    2006-04-01

    Since there are only very few Chinese medical literature in the Han and preceding dynasties extant, it is very difficult to investigate the origins of both the herbs and formulas in the book Shanghan Zabing Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Disease) and the status of that of the contemporary period. The Chinese medical bamboo slips of the Han dynasty unearthed from the tombs in Wuwei, Gansu Province in 1972, had been speculated by archeologists to be a medical literature written in the early period of the Eastern Han Dynasty, or, 150 years earlier than the time Zhang Zhongjing's book written at the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Thus, it can provide evidence for the study on the source of herbs and formulas in Shanghan Zabing Lun. PMID:17096981

  15. Surface Plasmon Excitation and Emission Light Property for Otto/Kretschmann Configuration with MEH-PPV Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafuka, Megumi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    Attenuated total reflection (ATR) property utilizing surface plasmon (SP) excitation was investigated for BK-7 prism/MgF2/Ag film/fluorescent organic dye film structure. In the structure, it is expected that SPs are excited at MgF2/Ag and Ag/dye film interfaces by Otto and Kretschmann configurations, respectively. In the experimental ATR curve, reflection dips for the SP excitations at the interfaces could be detected. Furthermore, SP emission lights were observed by irradiation of Ar ion laser beam from the dye film side. The SP emission light curve with two peaks was observed and it was also considered that the peaks corresponded to the SP excitation of Otto and Kretschmann configurations. The SP emission light spectra indicated the excited fluorescent dyes induced the SP emission lights. Intense emission light of Otto configuration was observed in this sample.

  16. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  20. Confusion of wills: Otto Rank's contribution to an understanding of childism.

    PubMed

    Barbre, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's psychological and psychodynamic study of prejudice as a starting point, this paper explores the phenomenon of childism-namely, the prejudice again children-from a Rankian psychodynamic perspective. Young-Bruehl argues that childism is comparable to prejudices such as anti-Semitism, sexism, and racism, and serves such purposes as the elimination of an individual's personhood, sexual exploitation, and the erasure of identity. Adding to Young-Bruehl's analysis of the social and psychological causes and effects of prejudice against children, this paper will examine the nature and dangers of childism explicit and implicit in the writings of Otto Rank. We will examine the development of creative will in child maturation-a development that childist forms of prejudice may obstruct, inhibit, and compromise. We will see that Young-Bruehl's foundational writing on childism echoes many of the observations and writings of Otto Rank in regard to the prejudice against children, and how such prejudice deeply diminishes, undermines, and fractures our unfolding lives and creative will in a shared world. PMID:23175030

  1. Confusion of wills: Otto Rank's contribution to an understanding of childism.

    PubMed

    Barbre, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's psychological and psychodynamic study of prejudice as a starting point, this paper explores the phenomenon of childism-namely, the prejudice again children-from a Rankian psychodynamic perspective. Young-Bruehl argues that childism is comparable to prejudices such as anti-Semitism, sexism, and racism, and serves such purposes as the elimination of an individual's personhood, sexual exploitation, and the erasure of identity. Adding to Young-Bruehl's analysis of the social and psychological causes and effects of prejudice against children, this paper will examine the nature and dangers of childism explicit and implicit in the writings of Otto Rank. We will examine the development of creative will in child maturation-a development that childist forms of prejudice may obstruct, inhibit, and compromise. We will see that Young-Bruehl's foundational writing on childism echoes many of the observations and writings of Otto Rank in regard to the prejudice against children, and how such prejudice deeply diminishes, undermines, and fractures our unfolding lives and creative will in a shared world.

  2. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto cycle within finite-time or irreversible thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.

  3. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto cycle within finite-time or irreversible thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures Th and Tc (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.

  4. Bian Zheng Lun Zhi as a Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Menstrual Cramps in Women with Dysmenorrhea: A Prospective Clinical Observation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pin-Yi; Yeh, Chia-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Background. Limited scientific evidence supports the positive effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating dysmenorrhea. Thus, an observation period of 3 months could verify the ancient indication that TCM treatments effectively alleviate menstrual cramps in women with primary dysmenorrhea or endometriosis. Methods. A prospective, nonrandomized study (primary dysmenorrhea and endometriosis groups) was conducted in women with dysmenorrhea for more than three consecutive menstrual cycles. All patients received TCM prescriptions based on bian zheng lun zhi theory 14 days before menstruation for a period of 12 weeks. Pain intensity was evaluated using a 10-cm visual analogue scale and two validated questionnaires (the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire). Results. Of the initial 70 intent-to-treat participants, the women with dysmenorrhea reported significant alleviation of cramps during menstruation after the 12-week TCM treatment. Mixed model analysis revealed that TCM prescriptions were more effective in alleviating fatigue, hot flashes, dizziness, painful breasts, excitement, and irritability in the primary dysmenorrhea group (N = 36) than in the endometriosis group (N = 34). Conclusion. TCM prescriptions based on syndrome differentiation theory might be a potentially viable choice for treating painful menstruation and premenstrual symptoms after ruling out endometriosis. PMID:25202332

  5. Jung's twin brother. Otto Gross and Carl Gustav Jung. With an hitherto unpublished letter by C. G. Jung.

    PubMed

    Heuer, G

    2001-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary communication of several years of research into the life and work of the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross (1877-1920). Although he played a pivotal role in the birth of modernity, acting as a significant influence upon psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethics, sociology and literature, he has remained virtually unknown to this day. Following a biographical sketch and an overview of his main theoretical contributions, the impact of Gross' life and work on the development of analytical theory and practice is described. His relationship with some of the key figures in psychoanalysis is presented, with particular emphasis on his connections to Jung. The paper concludes with an account of relevant contemporary interest in his work: the founding of the International Otto Gross Society, the first edition of The Collected Works of Otto Gross on the Internet, and the 1st and 2nd International Otto Gross Congresses which took place in Berlin in 1999 and at the Burghölzli Clinic, Zürich, in October 2000. PMID:11675896

  6. Jung's twin brother. Otto Gross and Carl Gustav Jung. With an hitherto unpublished letter by C. G. Jung.

    PubMed

    Heuer, G

    2001-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary communication of several years of research into the life and work of the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross (1877-1920). Although he played a pivotal role in the birth of modernity, acting as a significant influence upon psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethics, sociology and literature, he has remained virtually unknown to this day. Following a biographical sketch and an overview of his main theoretical contributions, the impact of Gross' life and work on the development of analytical theory and practice is described. His relationship with some of the key figures in psychoanalysis is presented, with particular emphasis on his connections to Jung. The paper concludes with an account of relevant contemporary interest in his work: the founding of the International Otto Gross Society, the first edition of The Collected Works of Otto Gross on the Internet, and the 1st and 2nd International Otto Gross Congresses which took place in Berlin in 1999 and at the Burghölzli Clinic, Zürich, in October 2000.

  7. Maternal Employment Experiences Affect Children's Behavior via Mood, Cognitive Difficulties, and Parenting Behavior: A Reply to Otto and Atkinson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEwen, Karyl E.; Barling, Julian

    1994-01-01

    Reacts to commentary by Otto and Atkinson concerning MacEwen and Barling's 1991 article on effects of maternal employment experiences on children's behavior. Argues that analyses reported in original article did appropriately test hypotheses outlined in paper and that conclusions were appropriate and substantively similar to conclusions presented…

  8. Warburg effect(s)-a biographical sketch of Otto Warburg and his impacts on tumor metabolism.

    PubMed

    Otto, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually everyone working in cancer research is familiar with the "Warburg effect", i.e., anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen in tumor cells. However, few people nowadays are aware of what lead Otto Warburg to the discovery of this observation and how his other scientific contributions are seminal to our present knowledge of metabolic and energetic processes in cells. Since science is a human endeavor, and a scientist is imbedded in a network of social and academic contacts, it is worth taking a glimpse into the biography of Otto Warburg to illustrate some of these influences and the historical landmarks in his life. His creative and innovative thinking and his experimental virtuosity set the framework for his scientific achievements, which were pioneering not only for cancer research. Here, I shall allude to the prestigious family background in imperial Germany; his relationships to Einstein, Meyerhof, Krebs, and other Nobel and notable scientists; his innovative technical developments and their applications in the advancement of biomedical sciences, including the manometer, tissue slicing, and cell cultivation. The latter were experimental prerequisites for the first metabolic measurements with tumor cells in the 1920s. In the 1930s-1940s, he improved spectrophotometry for chemical analysis and developed the optical tests for measuring activities of glycolytic enzymes. Warburg's reputation brought him invitations to the USA and contacts with the Rockefeller Foundation; he received the Nobel Prize in 1931. World politics and world wars heavily affected Warburg's scientific survival in Berlin. But, after his second postwar recovery, Warburg's drive for unraveling the energetic processes of life, both in plants and in tumor cells, continued until his death in 1970. The legacy of Otto Warburg is not only the Warburg effect, but also the identification of the "respiratory ferment" and hydrogen-transferring cofactors and the isolation of glycolytic enzymes

  9. Warburg effect(s)-a biographical sketch of Otto Warburg and his impacts on tumor metabolism.

    PubMed

    Otto, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually everyone working in cancer research is familiar with the "Warburg effect", i.e., anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen in tumor cells. However, few people nowadays are aware of what lead Otto Warburg to the discovery of this observation and how his other scientific contributions are seminal to our present knowledge of metabolic and energetic processes in cells. Since science is a human endeavor, and a scientist is imbedded in a network of social and academic contacts, it is worth taking a glimpse into the biography of Otto Warburg to illustrate some of these influences and the historical landmarks in his life. His creative and innovative thinking and his experimental virtuosity set the framework for his scientific achievements, which were pioneering not only for cancer research. Here, I shall allude to the prestigious family background in imperial Germany; his relationships to Einstein, Meyerhof, Krebs, and other Nobel and notable scientists; his innovative technical developments and their applications in the advancement of biomedical sciences, including the manometer, tissue slicing, and cell cultivation. The latter were experimental prerequisites for the first metabolic measurements with tumor cells in the 1920s. In the 1930s-1940s, he improved spectrophotometry for chemical analysis and developed the optical tests for measuring activities of glycolytic enzymes. Warburg's reputation brought him invitations to the USA and contacts with the Rockefeller Foundation; he received the Nobel Prize in 1931. World politics and world wars heavily affected Warburg's scientific survival in Berlin. But, after his second postwar recovery, Warburg's drive for unraveling the energetic processes of life, both in plants and in tumor cells, continued until his death in 1970. The legacy of Otto Warburg is not only the Warburg effect, but also the identification of the "respiratory ferment" and hydrogen-transferring cofactors and the isolation of glycolytic enzymes

  10. Life and Achievement of Otto von Guericke as a Pioneer of Vacuum Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Akira

    Scientific achievement of Otto von Guericke was very remarkable, but it was not introduced in detail in Japan. This was due to his demonstrating experiment with Magdeburug hemisphere using horses was too famous. Therefore, the author wrote in chapter 1, a brief overview of the literature already published in Japan about Guericke and the time he lived in. Chapter 2 will describe his entire life including administrative and political contributions to the city of Magdeburg. Chapter 3 will be used to provide the reader with information on Guericke's activities as physicist, drawing materials from his book. In chapter 4, the author concludes to remark the work to be done in future to obtain clearer description.

  11. Quantum Otto cycle with inner friction: finite-time and disorder effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecce, A.; Galve, F.; Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.; Plastina, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of inner friction, by which a quantum heat engine is unable to follow adiabatically its strokes and thus dissipates useful energy, is illustrated in an exact physical model where the working substance consists of an ensemble of misaligned spins interacting with a magnetic field and performing the Otto cycle. The effect of this static disorder under a finite-time cycle gives a new perspective of the concept of inner friction under realistic settings. We investigate the efficiency and power of this engine and relate its performance to the amount of friction from misalignment and to the temperature difference between heat baths. Finally we propose an alternative experimental implementation of the cycle where the spin is encoded in the degree of polarization of photons.

  12. Much Polyphony but Little Harmony: Otto Sackur's Groping for a Quantum Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badino, Massimiliano; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2013-09-01

    The endeavor of Otto Sackur (1880-1914) was driven, on the one hand, by his interest in Nernst's heat theorem, statistical mechanics, and the problem of chemical equilibrium and, on the other hand, by his goal to shed light on classical mechanics from the quantum vantage point. Inspired by the interplay between classical physics and quantum theory, Sackur chanced to expound his personal take on the role of the quantum in the changing landscape of physics in the turbulent 1910s. We tell the story of this enthusiastic practitioner of the old quantum theory and early contributor to quantum statistical mechanics, whose scientific ontogenesis provides a telling clue about the phylogeny of his contemporaries.

  13. Low-threshold optical bistability with multilayer graphene-covering Otto configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hengliang; Wu, Jipeng; Guo, Jun; Jiang, Leyong; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified Otto configuration to realize tunable and low-threshold optical bistability at terahertz frequencies by attaching multilayer graphene sheets to a nonlinear substrate interface. Our work demonstrates that the threshold of optical bistability can be markedly reduced (three orders of magnitude) by covering the nonlinear substrate with multilayer graphene sheets, due to strong local field enhancement with the excitation of surface plasmons. We present the influences of the Fermi energy of graphene, the incident angle, the thickness of air gap and the relaxation time of graphene on the hysteresis phenomenon and give a way to optimize the surface plasmon resonance, which will enable us to further lower the minimal power requirements for realizing optical bistability due to the strong interaction of light with graphene sheets. These results are promising for realization of terahertz optical switches, optical modulators and logical devices.

  14. [Textual research on decipher of"prescriptions for treating children's head sore"from Zhi re bing yao lun (Essentials on Treatment of Febrile Diseases) in the Western Xia regime].

    PubMed

    Tang, X L; Liu, J Y

    2016-03-01

    There were 3 prescriptions for treating children's head sore, инв6476-28, 29, 30 preserved in Russia, included in the Zhi re bing yao lun (Essentials on Treatment of Febrile Diseases), a medical literature of the Western Xia regime. Based on the correlated relationship between the Tangut language and the Chinese characters, the 3 prescriptions were translated into Chinese, and then compared with Chinese medical documents. It could be seen that medical system in the Western Xia regime had an inseparable relationship with that of the Han nationality, while keeping the features of the northwestern nomadic nationalities at the same time. PMID:27255199

  15. Numerical simulation and analysis of power consumption and Metzner-Otto constant for impeller of 6PBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Deyu; Chen, Qiao; Zhou, Shenjie

    2014-05-01

    Majority of non-Newtonian fluids are pseudoplastic with shear-thinning property, which means that the viscosity will be different in different parts of the stirred tank. In such mixing process, it is difficult to predict accurately the power consumption and mean shear rate for designing novel impeller. Metzner-Otto method is a widely accepted method to solve these questions in mixing non-Newtonian fluids. As a result, Metzner-Otto constant will become a key factor to achieve an optimum way of economical mixing. In this paper, taking glycerine and xanthan gum solutions as research system, the power consumption, stirred by the impeller composed of perturbed six-bent-bladed turbine (6PBT) with differently geometrical characteristics in a cylindrical vessel, is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow is modeled as laminar and a multiple reference frame (MRF) approach is used to solve the discretized equations of motion. In order to determine the capability of CFD to forecast the flow process, the torque test experiment is used to measure the glycerine solution power consumption. The rheological properties of the xanthan gum solutions are determined by a Brookfield rheometer. It is observed that the power consumption predicted by numerical simulation agrees well with those measured using torque experiment method in stirring glycerine solution, which validate the numerical model. Metzner-Otto constant is almost not correlated with the flow behavior index of pseudoplastic fluids. This paper establishes the complete correlations of power constant and Metzner-Otto constant with impeller geometrical characteristics through linear regression analysis, which provides the valuable instructions and references for accurately predicting the power consumption and mean shear rate of pseudoplastic fluids in laminar flow, comparatively.

  16. Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: debates and confrontations about anxiety and birth.

    PubMed

    Pizarro Obaid, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank.

  17. The optimal path of piston motion for Otto cycle with linear phenomenological heat transfer law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaojun; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2009-05-01

    An Otto cycle engine with internal and external irreversibilities of friction and heat leakage, in which the heat transfer between the working fluid and the environment obeys linear phenomenological heat transfer law [ q ∝ Δ( T -1)], is studied in this paper. The optimal piston motion trajectory for maximizing the work output per cycle is derived for the fixed total cycle time and fuel consumed per cycle. Optimal control theory is applied to determine the optimal piston trajectories for the cases of with and without piston acceleration constraint on each stroke and the optimal distribution of the total cycle time among the strokes. The optimal piston motion with acceleration constraint for each stroke consists of three segments, including initial maximum acceleration and final maximum deceleration boundary segments, respectively. Numerical examples for optimal configuration are provided, and the obtained results are compared with those obtained with Newton’s heat transfer law [ q ∝ Δ( T)]. The results also show that optimizing the piston motion can improve power and efficiency of the engine by more than 9%. This is primarily due to the decrease in heat leakage loss on the initial portion of the power stroke.

  18. A point of view on Otto cycle approach specific for an undergraduate thermodynamics course in CMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memet, F.; Preda, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper refers to the description of the way in which can be presented to future marine engineers the analyzis of the performance of an Otto cycle, in a manner which is beyond the classic approach of the course of thermodynamics in Constanta Maritime University. The conventional course of thermodynamics is dealing with the topic of performance analysis of the cycle of the internal combustion engine with isochoric combustion for the situation in which the working medium is treated as such a perfect gas. This type of approach is viable only when are considered relatively small temperature differences. But this is the situation when specific heats are seen as constant. Instead, the practical experience has shown that small temperature differences are not viable, resulting the need for variable specific heat evaluation. The presentation bellow is available for the adiabatic exponent written as a liniar function depending on temperature. In the section of this paper dedicated to methods and materials, the situation in which the specific heat is taken as constant is not neglected, additionaly being given the algorithm for variable specific heat.For the both cases it is given the way in which it is assessed the work output. The calculus is based on the cycle shown in temperature- entropy diagram, in which are also indicated the irreversible adiabatic compression and expansion. The experience achieved after understanding this theory will allow to future professionals to deal successfully with the design practice of internal combustion engines.

  19. The psychology of thinking before the cognitive revolution: Otto Selz on problems, schemas, and creativity.

    PubMed

    ter Hark, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Würzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper, it is argued that Selz's emphasis on the role of problems and schemas in the direction of thought processes and creativity sets him apart from the program of the Würzburg School. On the other hand, by developing a theory of thinking that is exclusively at the intentional level, Selz also differs from psychologists that take physics as a model for psychology, such as the Gestalt psychology of Wolfgang Kihler. Special emphasis is given in this paper to Selz's use of the concept of problem or task and the concept of the schema. It is further argued that the concept of the schema is the result of Selz's adaptation of the theory of relations as developed by the philosopher Meinong. The paper begins with a sketch of Selz's life that ended so tragically.

  20. Angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine based on coherent dipole-dipole coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shan-He; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jin-Can; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule have been widely observed in biological systems and exhibit broad application for molecular structural studies. Quantum delocalization of molecular dipole moments has inspired researchers to explore new avenues to utilize this physical effect for energy harvesting devices. Herein, we propose a simple model of the angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine which seeks to facilitate the conversion of heat to work. Unlike previous studies, the adiabatic processes are accomplished by varying only the directions of the magnetic field. We show that the heat engine continues to generate power when the angle relative to the vector r joining the centres of coupled dipoles departs from the magic angle θm where the static coupling vanishes. A significant improvement in the device performance has to be attributed to the presence of the quantum delocalized levels associated with the coherent dipole-dipole coupling. These results obtained may provide a promising model for the biomimetic design and fabrication of quantum energy generators.

  1. Collective will: a reformulation of Otto Rank's theory of personality individuation.

    PubMed

    Hamm, R

    1997-06-01

    A reevaluation of Otto Rank's theory of personality individuation has been proposed which equates collective and individual will as essential and mutually facilitative aspects of self-development. Rank's viewpoint regarding social and moral development as necessarily normative and, hence, inimical to individuation is therefore challenged and disputed. It is further argued that the nature of will is not a priori moral and that it should be conceptualized empirically as a derivative of the self. The negative will has been defined as the counterposition of two wills against each other. It has been proposed that when the individual and collective will are in fixed opposition to each other their results can be destructive to personality development and to interpersonal and societal relations in general. The relative value given to either individual or collective aspects of will may be partly a function of the historical and sociopolitical environment of both the individuals whose personality development is thereby influenced and the theorist whose interest is devoted to understanding and remedying their problems.

  2. Induction of oxidative metabolism by mitochondrial frataxin inhibits cancer growth: Otto Warburg revisited.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Tim J; Thierbach, René; Voigt, Anja; Drewes, Gunnar; Mietzner, Brun; Steinberg, Pablo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ristow, Michael

    2006-01-13

    More than 80 years ago Otto Warburg suggested that cancer might be caused by a decrease in mitochondrial energy metabolism paralleled by an increase in glycolytic flux. In later years, it was shown that cancer cells exhibit multiple alterations in mitochondrial content, structure, function, and activity. We have stably overexpressed the Friedreich ataxia-associated protein frataxin in several colon cancer cell lines. These cells have increased oxidative metabolism, as shown by concurrent increases in aconitase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular respiration, and ATP content. Consistent with Warburg's hypothesis, we found that frataxin-overexpressing cells also have decreased growth rates and increased population doubling times, show inhibited colony formation capacity in soft agar assays, and exhibit a reduced capacity for tumor formation when injected into nude mice. Furthermore, overexpression of frataxin leads to an increased phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Taken together, these results support the view that an increase in oxidative metabolism induced by mitochondrial frataxin may inhibit cancer growth in mammals. PMID:16263703

  3. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  4. Mid-infrared Otto excitation of transverse electric modes in doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Mendieta, F.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied numerically the excitation of surface modes of transverse electric polarization in doped graphene. Using the prism-based Otto configuration, the electromagnetic resonances were found within ultra-tiny angular windows of width of order of Δ θ i = 10-3 degrees or lower, beyond the critical angle where evanescent fields are already available. We obtained absorption peaks of angular position strongly dependent on the prism-graphene separation d, which is larger than dc, the cutoff prism-graphene separation. We prove numerically that dc depends on the graphene parameters and can be written as d c = α / 2 , where α ( ω ) is the decay length of the electromagnetic field of the modes. With doping levels of Fermi energy 0.2 eV ≤ μ ≤ 0.3 eV, we found resonances within the range of 80-145 THz. The numerical calculations show the mayor role played by the graphene losses that, indeed, can obliterate the mode resonance.

  5. CQUEAN: New CCD Camera System For The Otto Struve Telescope At The McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Soojong; Park, W.; Im, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN), which is being used at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of near infrared bright sources such as high redshift quasar candidates (z > 4.5), Gamma Ray Bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep depletion CCD chip. By employing an auto-guiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view at the classic cassegrain focus, we achieved a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM > 0.6 arcsec over the whole field (4.8 × 4.8 arcmin), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-sigma with one hour integration.

  6. Walther Nernst, Albert Einstein, Otto Stern, and the Specific Heat of Hydrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2007-04-01

    In 1911, the German physical chemist Walther Nernst observed that the new quantum theory might both clarify unresolved problems in the specific heats of gases and shed new light on quantum theory itself. He noted that measurements of the specific heat of hydrogen gas at low temperatures might be particularly informative. Arnold Euken, working in Nernst's laboratory in Berlin, published the first measurements in 1912. They showed a sharp drop, corresponding to the rotational degrees of freedom ``freezing out.'' Nernst also developed a theory in his 1911 paper, in which, remarkably, rotational energies were not quantized. Instead, the specific heat fell off because the gas was in equilibrium with quantized Planck oscillators. Nernst's theory was flawed But Einstein adopted an improved version at the 1911 Solvay Conference, and in 1913, he and Otto Stern published a more detailed treatment, in which they suggested tentatively that Planck's recently introduced zero-point energy might reduce or even eliminate the need to quantize physical systems. This episode points out just how mysterious quantum phenomena seemed early in the 20th century.

  7. Young Otto Struve: The Education and Development of A Research Scientist 1921-1932

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1995-12-01

    Otto Struve arrived at Yerkes Observatory from Turkey in October 1921, the penniless survivor of a defeated army. Then 24 years old, he immediately began his studies and assistantship as the only graduate student at the observatory. Eleven years later he became its "boy director." His education, training, research experience and development are described in the context of Yerkes Observatory, and of American graduate and post-graduate work in astronomy of the time. Under Director Edwin B. Frost, Yerkes Observatory's main program was radial-velocity measurements of O, B, and A stars. Struve worked on it and did his thesis on spectroscopic binaries. A prodigious achiever, he was appointed to the faculty as an instructor as soon as he received his doctorate. On his own he jumped into frontier research on interstellar absorption lines, based in large part on existing spectrograms taken for the radial-velocity program. Reviewing Cecilia Payne's book on stellar atmospheres in 1926 converted Struve to a self-taught observational astrophysicist. Research leaves at Mount Wilson and Harvard, with working visits to Lick and the DAO, plus a Guggenheim year at Cambridge with Arthur S. Eddington, broadened his horizons. Struve always observed diligently, published frequently, attended AAS meetings, presented oral papers, and discussed his research with others. With practically no knowledge of modern physics, he cultivated others who were experts in it, beginning with Pol Swings, a visitor from Belgium. By 1932 Struve was ready to become director of Yerkes Observatory, and to lead it back into its place as a leading astrophysical research center, for which George Ellery Hale had founded it.

  8. Otto Rank, the Rankian circle in Philadelphia, and the origins of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    deCarvalho, R J

    1999-05-01

    Otto Rank's will therapy helped shape the ideas and techniques of relationship therapy developed by the Philadelphia social workers Jessie Taft, Virginia Robinson, and Frederick Allen in the 1930s. Rank's work and these ideas and techniques in turn strongly influenced the formulation of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy. This article compares and contrasts will, relationship, and person-centered approaches to psychotherapy and discusses the social factors--primarily the professional conflicts between a male-dominated psychiatry and female social workers over the independent practice of psychotherapy--that were crucial in the dissemination of Rank's psychological thought and the early popularity of Rogers.

  9. Otto Rank, the Rankian circle in Philadelphia, and the origins of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    deCarvalho, R J

    1999-05-01

    Otto Rank's will therapy helped shape the ideas and techniques of relationship therapy developed by the Philadelphia social workers Jessie Taft, Virginia Robinson, and Frederick Allen in the 1930s. Rank's work and these ideas and techniques in turn strongly influenced the formulation of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy. This article compares and contrasts will, relationship, and person-centered approaches to psychotherapy and discusses the social factors--primarily the professional conflicts between a male-dominated psychiatry and female social workers over the independent practice of psychotherapy--that were crucial in the dissemination of Rank's psychological thought and the early popularity of Rogers. PMID:11623737

  10. Reviving astrometry on the McDonald observatory 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J.; Riddle, A.

    2014-07-01

    The first regular observations of asteroids at McDonald observatory started in 1950 with a 10-inch telescope as part of the Yerkes-McDonald survey, which was followed by a long lull after its completion in 1952. Astrometric observations resumed in the early 70s using the 2.1-m telescope, but were mainly of faint outer solar system satellites to support the emerging planetary space program. Observation of asteroids was later added to the program in order to refine the fundamental reference frame and to aid Hubble Space Telescope astrometry. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been the main emphasis since 1995 using a 0.76 m telescope, which worked very well while the surveys concentrated on objects 1 km or larger. However, NASA's mission to discover and catalogue NEOs has been extended down to objects 140 m in size. Most of these new NEO candidates are outside the reach of the 0.76-m telescope. In 2011, the Otto Struve telescope has received a new instrument, the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse, or CQUEAN (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams, as it provides measurable images of a 19th magnitude source with a single 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.8' by 4.8', with 0.281 arcsec/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the point-spread function for precision astrometry. Although this telescope is 75 years old, we are getting circular stellar images for exposures up to 240 seconds with the CQUEAN auto-guider. We obtained images of M71 at three different air masses during two nights in the Sloan i and r filter bands. The σ of the standard coordinate residuals is a little under 0.07 seconds of arc for both cases. We have also looked at the field of view for systematic errors both in direction and magnitude, and we found it to be satisfactorily uniform. The overall quality of our data is improved due to better angular resolution and dome seeing. Based on

  11. [The clinic Heilanstalt Weidenplan in Halle (Saale), origin of the German urology. Otto Kneise's founding of the first independent urology department in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zacher, W; Stolze, K-J

    2014-07-01

    The routine use of cystoscope initiated the development of the modern urology. Otto Kneise (1875-1953) extended the targets of cystoscopy by including examinations of the male bladder and prostate. He achieved the goal that "cystoscopy is part of general work in urology and not a pure gynecological act". He, thus, founded the specialty gynecological urology in the field urology, which prevented it from becoming an independent field. Under the leadership of Otto Kneise, the first independent urology department in Germany was created in the hospital Heilanstalt Weidenplan.

  12. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND...

  13. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later... work, W, over each test interval according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  14. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  15. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  16. Entransy analysis and optimization of performance of nano-scale irreversible Otto cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar

    2016-08-01

    This paper made attempt to investigate thermodynamically a nano scale irreversible Otto cycle for optimizing its performance. This system employed an ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas as a working fluid. Two different scenarios were proposed in the multi-objective optimization process and the results of each of the scenarios were examined separately. The first scenario made attempt to maximize the dimensionless ecological function and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. Furthermore, the second scenario tried to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. The multi objective evolutionary method integrated with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to optimize the proposed objective functions. To determine the final output of each scenario, three efficient decision makers were employed. Finally, error analysis was employed to determine the deviation of solutions chosen by decision makers.

  17. Dr. Otto Soltmann (1876) on development of the motor cortex and recovery after its removal in infancy.

    PubMed

    Finger, S; Beyer, T; Koehler, P J

    2000-09-15

    In 1870, Fritsch and Hitzig demonstrated that dogs have a motor cortex. In a chapter published 6 years later, Otto Soltmann studied the functional development of the motor cortex, which he believed functioned in willed movement. He was the first to show that the dog's motor cortex becomes electrically excitable at about 10 days of age, with the contralateral forepaw area appearing first. He also studied the effects of ablating the cortical motor regions unilaterally and bilaterally, and encountered a remarkable degree of sparing of function in his animals operated on as newborns, but not in older-operated dogs. Soltmann turned to the theory of functional take-over (vicariation) to account for the absence of deficits in his young animals. He was especially intrigued by the fact that electrical stimulation of a healthy motor cortex could produce bilateral matched movements, but only in dogs that sustained opposite motor cortex lesions very early in life.

  18. Effects of substrate water potential in root growth of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings.

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root of maguey (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck) seedlings reacts during the first 24 h to low substrate water potential (PsiW), by anatomical modifications. Three-4 cm root length seedlings were planted in vermiculite for 24 h at PsiW between -0.03 and -2.35 MPa. Root dimensions, proline content and anatomy were evaluated. Substrate PsiW between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa did not significantly affect longitudinal root growth. However, proline content significantly increased from 1.6 to 2.1 micromoles mg(-1). Significant reductions of transverse root area (41%), thickness of mucilage covering the epidermis (47%), thickness of epidermis (between 15 and 46%), area of the parenchyma (between 35 and 41%) and number of vessels (up to 28%) were observed with PsiW of -2.35 MPa. In contrast, thickness of xylem wall, diameter of xylem vessels and the number of cells of the cortex of the differentiation root region significantly increased (64, 17, and 97%, respectively). The anatomical changes associated with low substrate PsiW indicate a net increase of root apoplatic paths; structures involved in water conduction increased their diameter under low substrate PsiW conditions and anatomical changes occurred during the first 24 h of water stress.

  19. The evolution of the discipline of pharmacology amid an era of global turbulence: the unique contributions of Otto Krayer (1899-1982).

    PubMed

    Rubin, Ronald P

    2014-08-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Otto Krayer, a gifted scientist, teacher and administrator. His unique contributions to the discipline of pharmacology and to the biomedical sciences are chronicled in the wake of the political upheaval that crippled German science during the 1930s. The anti-scientific attitude that pervaded Germany at the time led to the exile of Krayer and many other eminent scientists. Their fate is recounted, as well as the negative impact on science caused by a National Socialist regime that blatantly disregarded basic scientific principles. The threat of intolerance and unethical behaviour still remains a key obstacle to scientific creativity.

  20. "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making": Correction to Otto et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making" by Ashley S. Otto, Joshua J. Clarkson and Frank R. Kardes (, 2016[Jul], Vol 111[1], 1-16). In the article, the main heading for Experiment 3 was missing due to a production error, and the first sentence of the first paragraph of Experiment 3 should begin as follows: Experiment 2 offered support for the hypothesis that those seeking closure engage in decision sidestepping to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We all too often have to make decisions-from the mundane (e.g., what to eat for breakfast) to the complex (e.g., what to buy a loved one)-and yet there exists a multitude of strategies that allows us to make a decision. This work focuses on a subset of decision strategies that allows individuals to make decisions by bypassing the decision-making process-a phenomenon we term decision sidestepping. Critical to the present manuscript, however, we contend that decision sidestepping stems from the motivation to achieve closure. We link this proposition back to the fundamental nature of closure and how those seeking closure are highly bothered by decision making. As such, we argue that the motivation to achieve closure prompts a reliance on sidestepping strategies (e.g., default bias, choice delegation, status quo bias, inaction inertia, option fixation) to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. In support of this framework, five experiments demonstrate that (a) those seeking closure are more likely to engage in decision sidestepping, (b) the effect of closure on sidestepping stems from the bothersome nature of decision making, and (c) the reliance on sidestepping results in downstream consequences for subsequent choice. Taken together, these findings offer unique insight into the cognitive motivations stimulating a reliance on decision sidestepping and

  1. "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making": Correction to Otto et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making" by Ashley S. Otto, Joshua J. Clarkson and Frank R. Kardes (, 2016[Jul], Vol 111[1], 1-16). In the article, the main heading for Experiment 3 was missing due to a production error, and the first sentence of the first paragraph of Experiment 3 should begin as follows: Experiment 2 offered support for the hypothesis that those seeking closure engage in decision sidestepping to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We all too often have to make decisions-from the mundane (e.g., what to eat for breakfast) to the complex (e.g., what to buy a loved one)-and yet there exists a multitude of strategies that allows us to make a decision. This work focuses on a subset of decision strategies that allows individuals to make decisions by bypassing the decision-making process-a phenomenon we term decision sidestepping. Critical to the present manuscript, however, we contend that decision sidestepping stems from the motivation to achieve closure. We link this proposition back to the fundamental nature of closure and how those seeking closure are highly bothered by decision making. As such, we argue that the motivation to achieve closure prompts a reliance on sidestepping strategies (e.g., default bias, choice delegation, status quo bias, inaction inertia, option fixation) to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. In support of this framework, five experiments demonstrate that (a) those seeking closure are more likely to engage in decision sidestepping, (b) the effect of closure on sidestepping stems from the bothersome nature of decision making, and (c) the reliance on sidestepping results in downstream consequences for subsequent choice. Taken together, these findings offer unique insight into the cognitive motivations stimulating a reliance on decision sidestepping and

  2. Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Metabolism and Callose Synthesis in Cultured Pollen Tubes of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto.

    PubMed Central

    Schlupmann, H.; Bacic, A.; Read, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Membrane preparations from cultured pollen tubes of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto contain a Ca2+ -independent (1-3)-[beta]-D-glucan (callose) synthase activity that has a low affinity for UDP-glucose, even when activated by treatment with trypsin (H. Schlupmann, A. Basic, S.M. Read [1993] Planta 191: 470-481). Therefore, we investigated whether UDP-glucose was a likely substrate for callose synthesis in actively growing pollen tubes. Deposition of (1-3)-[beta]-glucan occurred at a constant rate, 1.4 to 1.7 nmol glucose min-1, in tubes from 1 mg of pollen from 3 h after germination; however, the rate of incorporation of radioactivity from exogenous [14C]-sucrose into wall polymers was not constant, but increased until at least 8 h after germination, probably due to decreasing use of internal reserves. UDP-glucose was a prominent ultraviolet-absorbing metabolite in pollen-tube extracts, with 1.6 nmol present in tubes from 1 mg of pollen, giving a calculated cytoplasmic concentration of approximately 3.5 mM. Radioactivity from [14C]-sucrose was rapidly incorporated into sugar monophosphates and UDP-glucose by the growing tubes, consistent with a turnover time for UDP-glucose of less than 1 min; the specific radioactivity of extracted UDP-[14C]glucose was equal to that calculated from the rate of incorporation of [14C]sucrose into wall glucans. Large amounts of less metabolically active neutral sugars were also present. The rate of synthesis of (1-3)-[beta]-glucan by nontrypsin-treated pollen-tube membrane preparations incubated with 3.5 mM UDP-glucose and a [beta]-glucoside activator was slightly greater than the rate of deposition of (1-3)-[beta]-glucan by intact pollen tubes. These data are used to assess the physiological significance of proteolytic activation of pollen-tube callose synthase. PMID:12232233

  3. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1 /2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1 /2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s ), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  4. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  5. The Pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - The medical scientists: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) and Otto Loewi (1873-1961).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lily Bzl; Shaw, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Two famous medical scientists are described whose major advances were made largely from laboratory-based research. Karl Landsteiner, who received the Nobel Prize in 1930, was the discoverer or co-discoverer of the blood groups and the Rhesus factor. He contributed to the understanding of poliomyelitis, syphilis and typhus. He made major contributions to immunology, inter alia by isolating haptens. After World War I, he left Austria and continued his work initially in the Netherlands and then at the Rockefeller Institute in the USA. Otto Loewi, a pharmacologist, received his Nobel Prize (jointly with his life-long friend, Sir Henry Dale) in 1936 for his discovery that acetylcholine was the chemical agent for the stimulation of autonomic nerves to transmit to the organs they govern. He also made numerous other contributions including the demonstration that amino acids could be converted by animals to proteins. He left Austria after the Anschluss and settled in the USA.

  6. Precise Measurement of the Thickness of a Dielectric Layer on a Metal Surface by Use of a Modified Otto Optical Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneoka, Yoshiki; Nishigaki, Kentaro; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a modified method for thickness measurement of a dielectric coating layer on metal based on Otto optical configuration (O-configuration). This method enables us to estimate the coating thickness that typically ranges from several tens of nanometers to more than one micrometer with precision less than a few nanometers. The common method to measure the thickness of dielectric coating layer is to utilize the frustrated total-internal reflection. In order to measure the thickness of several tens of nanometers, one can apply the surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR) phenomenon generated by the p-polarized light. For thickness larger than one hundred nanometers, a metal-clad leaky-waveguide (MCLW) mode generated by the p- or the s-polarized light can be employed without significant changes to the optical setup. The numerical and experimental verifications of the modified O-configuration reveals its effectiveness for precise measurement of moderately-thick dielectric coating layer on the metal.

  7. Critical coupling layer thickness for positive or negative Goos-Hänchen shifts near the excitation of backward surface polaritons in Otto-ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Mariana A.; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the lateral displacement (Goos-Hänchen shift) of spatially limited beams reflected from attenuated total reflection (ATR) devices in the Otto configuration when backward surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the interface between a positive refractive index slab and a semi-infinite metamaterial with a negative refractive index. First, the stationary phase approximation and a phenomenological model based on the properties of the complex poles and zeroes of the reflection coefficient are used to demonstrate that: (i) the excitation of backward surface waves can lead to both negative and positive (and not exclusively negative) Goos-Hänchen shifts, and (ii) the sign of the shift depends on whether the value of the coupling layer thickness is higher or lower than a critical value characteristic of the ATR structure. Then, these findings are verified through rigorous calculations of the spatial structure of the reflected beam. For incident beams with a Gaussian profile, the lateral shift calculated as the first moment of the field distribution of the reflected beam agrees quite well with the predictions of approximate analysis. Near the resonant excitation of the backward surface plasmon polariton, large (negative or positive) Goos-Hänchen shifts are obtained, along with a splitting of the reflected beam.

  8. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants. PMID:24798124

  9. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants.

  10. Struve, Otto (1897-1963)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Kharkov, Ukraine. In an adventurous and varied career, he studied at Kharkov University, joined the White Russian army during the Revolution, and fled to Turkey at the time of their defeat. Emigrated to the USA, became director of the Yerkes Observatory, near Chicago, and founded the McDonald Observatory in Texas. Became director of the Leuschner Observatory and then the National Radio As...

  11. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material. PMID:9522647

  12. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material.

  13. Knocking in the Otto-cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinhart, H

    1939-01-01

    Engine knock is, as is known, preceded by normal burning of the first part of the charge, and only the part burned last (residual charge), knocks. The aim of the present measurements was, first, to reexamine the combustion form in this residual charge, because of the absence of uniform and frequently contradictory results in the very extensive literature on the subject. On top of that, an attempt was to be made to gain a deeper insight into the mechanism accompanying the combustion process, by means of the electrical test equipment perfected in recent years.

  14. [Professor Hans Otto Lüders].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2014-11-01

    Professor Lüders has made significant contributions to Clinical Neurology and particularly to Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology. Some of his most important contributions include the following: 1.He pioneered the use of chronically implanted, large plates of subdural electrodes in the presurgical evaluation of patient who were candidates for epilepsy surgery. These electrodes were used to record epileptic seizures and by electrical stimulation to establish the location of eloquent cortex. Lately he has also advocated the use in the USA of stereotactically implanted depth electrodes for presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients who had deep seated epileptic foci which were impossible to assess with subdural electrodes. These techniques were imported from Europe. 2.Mapping studies with subdural electrodes led to the discovery of a number of cortical eloquent areas that had not been described before: a. The basal temporal language area located in the dominant fusiform gyrus. b. The "negative motor areas" located in the caudal region of the inferior frontal gyrus (bilaterally) and immediately in mesial frontal pre-SMA region (also bilaterally). He concluded that these "negative motor areas" most likely correspond to praxis regions. c. The dominant posterior fusiform gyrus which plays a crucial role in processing reading material. Stimulation of that area produces "alexia without agraphia". 3.He developed a new classification of epileptic seizures based exclusively on semiological ictal characteristics. With the development of the semiological seizure classification he also defined several new seizure types: a. Dialeptic seizures, b. Hypnopompic seizures, c. Hypomotor seizures. 4.Working with general epilepsy principles, he established the existence of 6 zones that characterize the epilepsies: the epileptogenic zone, the irritative zone, the seizure onset zone, the epileptogenic lesion, the symptomatogenic zone and functional deficit zone. 5.He described the ictal DC (direct current) shift seen at the beginning of focal seizures and its value for localization of the seizure onset zone.

  15. [Professor Hans Otto Lüders].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2014-11-01

    Professor Lüders has made significant contributions to Clinical Neurology and particularly to Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology. Some of his most important contributions include the following: 1.He pioneered the use of chronically implanted, large plates of subdural electrodes in the presurgical evaluation of patient who were candidates for epilepsy surgery. These electrodes were used to record epileptic seizures and by electrical stimulation to establish the location of eloquent cortex. Lately he has also advocated the use in the USA of stereotactically implanted depth electrodes for presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients who had deep seated epileptic foci which were impossible to assess with subdural electrodes. These techniques were imported from Europe. 2.Mapping studies with subdural electrodes led to the discovery of a number of cortical eloquent areas that had not been described before: a. The basal temporal language area located in the dominant fusiform gyrus. b. The "negative motor areas" located in the caudal region of the inferior frontal gyrus (bilaterally) and immediately in mesial frontal pre-SMA region (also bilaterally). He concluded that these "negative motor areas" most likely correspond to praxis regions. c. The dominant posterior fusiform gyrus which plays a crucial role in processing reading material. Stimulation of that area produces "alexia without agraphia". 3.He developed a new classification of epileptic seizures based exclusively on semiological ictal characteristics. With the development of the semiological seizure classification he also defined several new seizure types: a. Dialeptic seizures, b. Hypnopompic seizures, c. Hypomotor seizures. 4.Working with general epilepsy principles, he established the existence of 6 zones that characterize the epilepsies: the epileptogenic zone, the irritative zone, the seizure onset zone, the epileptogenic lesion, the symptomatogenic zone and functional deficit zone. 5.He described the ictal DC (direct current) shift seen at the beginning of focal seizures and its value for localization of the seizure onset zone. PMID:25407069

  16. Heckmann, Otto Hermann Leopold (1901-83)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astrometrist and cosmologist, became director of the Hamburg Observatory, and of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. By determining the motions of the stars in the direction of several star clusters (including the Praesepe, or Beehive cluster), he was able to see which stars were moving together in the cluster, and which, although in the same direction, were moving differently. Eliminati...

  17. Otto Stern and the double bank shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, R. N.

    1988-06-01

    In analogy to a double surface scattering study of Estermann, Frisch and Stern for selecting and detecting the velocity of a beam of particles, it is proposed to use double surface scattering to investigate the collision dynamics of a beam of polarized particles with a known surface. In this proposed experiment, the first surface scattering event prepares a polarized (aligned/oriented) beam of particles, and the second surface scattering event permits the measurement of how the polarized beam interacts with the surface under study.

  18. GNSS software receiver for the MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Geofisica GeochImica lunAre) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirazzi, Gabriele; de Quattro, Nicola; Dionisio, Cesare

    2011-10-01

    In recent years a number of missions have been conceived to acquire and track signals from GPS satellites at altitudes higher than the GPS constellation itself. The main purpose of SDR is to reduce the number of hardware components, projected for specific unmodifiable uses, and utilize general purpose units: on board CPU, DSP or FPGA. In this paper he study and design of a GNSS Software Receiver for space application, applied to a Lunar Mission, is presented with particular attention on Space Segment device and on Ground Facilities.

  19. Materials Data on LuN (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Three new acyltyramines from Anisodus luridus Link et Otto (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Das, Lalit Kumar Lal; Verma, Mradul; Sahai, Mahendra

    2016-11-01

    Three new acyltyramines, N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]hentriacontanamide (1), N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]nonacosanamide (2) and N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]heneicosanamide (3) have been isolated from n-hexane extract of leaves of Anisodus luridus (Solanaceae). Successive extraction of defatted leaves of A. luridus with methanol afforded a residue on removal of solvent under reduced pressure. Residue was partitioned by means of chloroform and n-butanol. Chromatographic resolution of n-BuOH extract afforded six known compounds, apigenin (4), luteolin (5), quercetin (6), quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnoside (8) and quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (9). The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned with the help of spectroscopic techniques. This is the first report of isolation of these compounds from this plant.

  1. Fluid Dynamics Prize Otto Laporte Lecture:Turbulence and Aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte-Bellot, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    Some significant advances obtained over the years for two closely related fields, Turbulence and Aeroacoustics, are presented. Particular focus is placed on experimental results and on physical mechanisms. For example, for a 2D channel flow, skewness factors of velocity fluctuations are discussed. The study of isotropic turbulence generated by grids in the «Velvet wind tunnel» of Stanley Corrsin, constitutes a masterpiece. Of particular note are the Eulerian memory times, analysed for all wavenumbers. Concerning hot-wire anemometry, the potential of the new constant voltage technique is presented. Some results obtained with Particule Image Velocimetry are also reported. Two flow control examples are illustrated: lift generation for a circular cylinder, and noise reduction for a high speed jet. Finally, the propagation of acoustic waves through turbulence is considered. Experimental data are here completed by numerical simulations showing the possible occurrence of caustics.

  2. Otto Laporte Award Talk - In light of Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Fluid mechanics, in its inherent non-linear beauty, has been its own laboratory, testing our perseverance and dedication to a branch of science that, despite its perceived maturity, still has many surprises to offer. For many of us, the study of fluid flow has been our path to understanding the complexity of nature. My journey has taken me through many interesting projects including the development of new visualization tools, scrutinizing the rhythms of the human heart, observing flow vortices and studying the dynamics of soap films. But this lecture is mainly devoted to a new example of my research activities where light and flow physics interweave to display another intriguing multi-physics beauty of nature.

  3. Three new polar species of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae).

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2014-01-01

    Two sternaspid species, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 and S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817), have been recorded from many localities including polar or subpolar environments. The study of the collections of five major institutions cannot confirm their presence in high latitudes. On the contrary, the specimens are regarded as different, undescribed species, and are herein described as one from Arctic environments, S. buzhinskajae n. sp., and two others from Antarctic localities: S. monroi n. sp., and S. sendalli n. sp. A key to identify all Sternaspis species is included.  PMID:25283413

  4. James Otto and the Pi Man: A Constructivist Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole

    2003-01-01

    Instead of teaching his fifth-graders a formula, a teacher leads them to discover an important mathematical concept on their own. Learning through discovery is probably the very essence of meaningful understanding and retention. (Author/MLF)

  5. Otto Stern, the Gdh Sum Rule and Various Spin Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel, D.

    2001-02-01

    The history of spin and anomalous magnetic moment is full of puzzles and "crises" from the first observations in the 1920's to the present day. The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule connects the anomalous magnetic moment with the helicity dependent cross section for photoproduction, and as such checks the internal consistency of our understanding of the nucleon spin structure. Various generalizations of the sum rule have been proposed for the case of virtual photons, thus interpolating from the real photon point to deep inelastic scattering. A series of recent and newly proposed experiments with beam and target/recoil polarization will study this transition between the coherent spin-dependent response and the incoherent response of the partons in the scaling region.

  6. [The accident and death of King Stanislas at Lunéville in February 1766. The drugs used for his burns and his embalmment. Reflections on this treatment].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2007-10-01

    Early in the morning of february 5th, 1766, King Stanislas, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, 88 years old, is seriously burned after a fall near the fire-place of his room. The medical treatment carried out by his physicians aims to cure his burns, but also to avoid infection and sustain his general state. But Stanislas dies on february 23th, probably of septicemia and major metabolic abnormalities. After the description of the accident, of the treatment and of the evolution of king's state, the paper studies the composition and effect hoped of the drugs administered with respect to the ideas and knowledges of this moment. Then some words are devoted to Jean-Gaspard Vockel, the apothecary of the king, the probable supplier of the drugs and the proved supplier of the products used for the embalmment. The last part of the paper offers a reflection on the treatment, on the possibility or not to save Stanislas, taking in account the importance of his burns, the current pathophysiological knowledges and the therapeutical measures which come from them that would have been taken today. PMID:18348499

  7. Otto Salomon in Nääs and His First Icelandic Students in Nordic Sloyd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Ólafsson, Brynjar

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogically aimed craft education was established around the same time as the school-based system of formative education, under the term Sloyd. This refers to a pedagogical system of manual training that promotes general child development, through the acquisition of the technical skills employed in woodwork, metalwork, sewing, knitting and the…

  8. Conventional engine technology. Volume 1: Status of OTTO cycle engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    Federally-mandated emissions standards have led to major changes in automotive technology during the last decade. Efforts to satisfy the new standards were directed more toward the use of add-on devices, such as catalytic converters, turbochargers, and improved fuel metering, than toward complete engine redesign. The resulting changes are described and the improvement brought about by them in fuel economy and emissions levels are fully documented. Four specific categories of gasoline-powered internal combustion engines are covered, including subsystem and total engine development. Also included are the results of fuel economy and exhaust emissions tests performed on representative vehicles from each category.

  9. Otto Laporte Lecture: Fluid Dynamics Prize Talk: Simple Models for Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Stephen B.

    2009-11-01

    We focus on the modeling of two turbulent flows: dispersion from a line source in grid turbulence; and, a lifted non-premixed turbulent jet flame. Stochastic Lagrangian models and PDF methods are described, and are shown to model these flows satisfactorily. For the line source, a Lagrangian approach is taken, with the Langevin equation modeling the velocity following a fluid particle, and with a simple relaxation model for the particle temperature. Comparison with experimental data shows that the resulting model describes accurately the dispersion from single and multiple line sources. These simple stochastic Lagrangian models are then applied to the much more challenging case of a lifted non-premixed jet flame. The stochastic Lagrangian models form the basis for a particle/mesh numerical method for solving a modeled transport equation for the Eulerian joint probability density function (PDF) of velocity and composition. The PDF calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, and exhibit the observed extreme sensitivity of the flame to the temperature of the co-flow. The PDF model calculations presented clearly demonstrate that simple models can be very useful, even though aspects of their behavior may be inaccurate or incomplete. The shortcomings of the Langevin equation are examined, and more advanced models (designed to overcome some of these shortcomings) are described. These include models for fluid-particle acceleration, including the effects of intermittency; models accounting for mean shear, which are correct in the rapid- distortion limit; and models designed for use in conjunction with large-eddy simulations (LES).

  10. Reports and contributions of the Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry (Otto Hahn Institute)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrich, Ulrike; Gerwin, Robert

    In isotope cosmology and cosmochemistry, presolar nebulae and meteorites, the Earth-Moon system, Earth, and archeometric items were investigated. In geochemistry the chemical composition of the Earth mantle, physics and mineralogy at high pressures, the early development of the Earth mantle and the continental crust, and computer simulation of fluids were studied. Atmospheric chemistry investigations are summarized. In nuclear physics and medium-energy physics the polarizability of protons, the testing of exact theories using the deuteron, the unexplained polarization of X-ray bremsstrahlung, and a gamma-ray monochromator were investigated.

  11. On Chicano Languages and Chicano Life: An Interview with Otto Santa Ana A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baquedano-Lopez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an interview focusing on important topics relevant to sociolinguistics and language minorities. Points out that one topic, ethnicity, is among many of the urban phenomena central to the study of linguistics as well as ethnic minorities and that a discussion of sociolinguistics and language minorities entails discussion of racism,…

  12. An exploration in the will psychology of Otto Rank: human intentionality and individuality.

    PubMed

    Isono, Masayo

    2012-12-01

    The author explores the meaning and the importance of the will in Rank's relation-based self-creative, self-constructive psychology and argues for the consideration of the concept of the will in psychoanalysis. The paper shows that Rank's concept of the will explains what gives a human being the impetus to choose an action, positive or negative. When validated by the other, this will, the power of intention, enables a person to create his/her unique individuality. The paper reviews Rank's definition of will and traces the evolution of his ideas of intentionality in his writings. Further, the author discusses how Rank attempts to capture the subtle movements of the human mind as suffused with struggles and dynamic interplay between external and internal forces.

  13. Two new species of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) from China seas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuwen; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Xu, Kuidong

    2015-01-01

    Two species of Sternaspidae, Sternaspis chinensis sp. nov. and S. liui sp. nov., are described based on historic material and recently collected specimens in the sea areas of China. Sternaspis chinensis is abundantly distributed from the Bohai Sea southwards to the East China Sea. It has been frequently misidentified as the nominally cosmopolitan species S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817) in China since the 1950s. However, S. chinensis differs from the latter by possessing concentric bands on the shield (vs. absent) and crenulated posterior margin reaching or slightly expanded beyond the posterolateral corners (vs. posterior margin smooth and markedly expanded beyond the posterolateral corners). Sternaspis chinensis most resembles the NE Pacific species S. affinis Stimpson, 1864, but differs distinctly by its markedly concentric bands decorated from margin to center (vs. mainly restricted in the marginal area). Sternaspis liui is characterized within the genus by its slightly soft shield with firmly adhered sediment particles, which gives it a superficial resemblance to species of Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013. However, the shields of the latter are remarkably soft and poorly developed, without ribs and concentric lines, while in Sternaspis liui both the ribs and concentric lines are well defined. Variations of both species with remarks on juvenile shield development are provided. PMID:26701437

  14. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    This text, written in English, was developed by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies to support the university-level Eurocurriculum in analytical chemistry, a major effort of academics and other analytical scientists throughout Europe and an outgrowth of the economic unification of European countries. The goal of a uniform curriculum and text for analytical chemistry across national borders is laudable, and the editors, led by the late Robert Kellner, deserve commendation for their accomplishments. (The U.S., in contrast, has been late in considering the analytical chemistry curriculum and only recently has published a pamphlet, Curricular Developments in the Analytical Sciences, an outgrowth of several NSF-sponsored workshops.) I can't remember another analytical text that begins with mention of the "big bang" and the beginnings of the universe (!), but I don't believe that the authors and publisher are looking to export their curriculum to neighboring planets. However, I am sure that they are interested in the North American market and its strong analytical chemistry community. It is in this context and in comparison with leading analytical texts in the U.S. that I write this review. At first glance, Analytical Chemistry overwhelms. It is a large book of more than 900 pages, a mass of 2.3 kg, and a volume of nearly 3 L. It is not a book that is easy to stuff into a backpack for the trip to class or lab. Students also may resent paying top dollar for a book that might not last the semester, given that the pages of my review copy began to pull away from the binding after only a few days of gentle use. Beneath the snazzy cover there is a dearth of color printing and photographs. This, combined with a smallish font and figures that are inconsistent in size, quality, and font, makes for a book that is not especially easy on the eyes. The large margins provide ample space for the numerous figures, figure captions, and marginal notes. The text is divided into 5 parts (General Topics, Chemical Analysis, Physical Analysis, Computer-Based Analytical Chemistry, and Total Analysis Systems), 16 sections, and many chapters and subsections, all numbered and with headings for easy reference. The book provides comprehensive coverage of analytical science. Many curricula in North America cling to the tired notion of one semester of classical analytical (wet) chemistry followed by a second semester of instrumental analysis, and publishers continue to respond by publishing separate texts for each course. The Europeans, in contrast, have a text that bridges this artificial gap. Included are chapters and subsections on chemical equilibrium, electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, separations, and electrochemistry (found in most first courses in analytical chemistry). The authors also address atomic spectroscopy in all of its forms, luminescence, mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, surface analysis, thermal methods, activation analysis, and automated methods of analysis (found in most instrumental courses). Additional, uncommon chapters on chemical and biochemical sensors, immunoassay, chemometrics, miniaturized systems, and process analytical chemistry point toward the present and future of analytical science. The only glaring omission in comparison to other instrumental texts is in the area of measurement systems and electronics. No mention is made of the analytical laboratory, such as descriptions of glassware calibration and suggested experiments, as is found in most quantitative analysis texts in the U.S. The dangers in any multi-authored book include an uneven treatment of topics and a lack of cohesiveness and logical development of topics. I found some evidence of these problems in Analytical Chemistry. My first reaction to the Table of Contents and the grouping of chapters was "Where is ?" and "What about ?" While the order of topics in an analytical chemistry course always is open to debate (I have done my share of reshuffling over the years), some timi

  15. Heat transfer from an internal combustion (Otto-cycle) engine on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1992-01-01

    The cooling requirements for an average car sized engine (spark-ignition, V-6, four-stroke, naturally aspirated, about 200 kg, about 100 kW) were looked at for Mars. Several modes of cooling were considered, including forced convection, exhaust, radiation and closed loop systems. The primary goal was to determine the effect of the thinner Martian atmosphere on the cooling system. The results show that there was only a 6-percent difference in the cooling requirements. This difference was due mostly to the thinner atmosphere during forced convection and the heat capacity of the exhaust. A method using a single pass counter-flow heat exchanger is suggested to offset this difference in cooling requirements.

  16. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    This text, written in English, was developed by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies to support the university-level Eurocurriculum in analytical chemistry, a major effort of academics and other analytical scientists throughout Europe and an outgrowth of the economic unification of European countries. The goal of a uniform curriculum and text for analytical chemistry across national borders is laudable, and the editors, led by the late Robert Kellner, deserve commendation for their accomplishments. (The U.S., in contrast, has been late in considering the analytical chemistry curriculum and only recently has published a pamphlet, Curricular Developments in the Analytical Sciences, an outgrowth of several NSF-sponsored workshops.) I can't remember another analytical text that begins with mention of the "big bang" and the beginnings of the universe (!), but I don't believe that the authors and publisher are looking to export their curriculum to neighboring planets. However, I am sure that they are interested in the North American market and its strong analytical chemistry community. It is in this context and in comparison with leading analytical texts in the U.S. that I write this review. At first glance, Analytical Chemistry overwhelms. It is a large book of more than 900 pages, a mass of 2.3 kg, and a volume of nearly 3 L. It is not a book that is easy to stuff into a backpack for the trip to class or lab. Students also may resent paying top dollar for a book that might not last the semester, given that the pages of my review copy began to pull away from the binding after only a few days of gentle use. Beneath the snazzy cover there is a dearth of color printing and photographs. This, combined with a smallish font and figures that are inconsistent in size, quality, and font, makes for a book that is not especially easy on the eyes. The large margins provide ample space for the numerous figures, figure captions, and marginal notes. The text is divided into 5 parts (General Topics, Chemical Analysis, Physical Analysis, Computer-Based Analytical Chemistry, and Total Analysis Systems), 16 sections, and many chapters and subsections, all numbered and with headings for easy reference. The book provides comprehensive coverage of analytical science. Many curricula in North America cling to the tired notion of one semester of classical analytical (wet) chemistry followed by a second semester of instrumental analysis, and publishers continue to respond by publishing separate texts for each course. The Europeans, in contrast, have a text that bridges this artificial gap. Included are chapters and subsections on chemical equilibrium, electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, separations, and electrochemistry (found in most first courses in analytical chemistry). The authors also address atomic spectroscopy in all of its forms, luminescence, mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, surface analysis, thermal methods, activation analysis, and automated methods of analysis (found in most instrumental courses). Additional, uncommon chapters on chemical and biochemical sensors, immunoassay, chemometrics, miniaturized systems, and process analytical chemistry point toward the present and future of analytical science. The only glaring omission in comparison to other instrumental texts is in the area of measurement systems and electronics. No mention is made of the analytical laboratory, such as descriptions of glassware calibration and suggested experiments, as is found in most quantitative analysis texts in the U.S. The dangers in any multi-authored book include an uneven treatment of topics and a lack of cohesiveness and logical development of topics. I found some evidence of these problems in Analytical Chemistry. My first reaction to the Table of Contents and the grouping of chapters was "Where is ?" and "What about ?" While the order of topics in an analytical chemistry course always is open to debate (I have done my share of reshuffling over the years), some timing is sacrosanct. For example, I suspect that most first courses in analytical chemistry include basic statistics early on, yet this topic is found under Chemometrics in Part IV. Another example is the separation of the discussions of acid-base equilibria (Chapter 4) and acid-base titrations (Chapter 7), with chromatography and kinetics interspersed. Simple UV-vis spectrometry and Beer's law are discussed after topics such as thermal analysis and biosensors. Information on monochromators is buried in the chapter on atomic emission spectroscopy. The editors have organized the material in a reasonably logical yet unfamiliar order. I would guess that those who adopt this text will need to skip from chapter to chapter or restructure their courses in a major way. Some topics receive more or less attention than I believe is justified. Let me provide a few examples of this uneven treatment. The editors include in Part I a 5-page description of the regulatory aspects of QA & QC, a topic of little interest to undergraduates. In the liquid chromatography section there are 3.5 pages on thin-layer chromatography and 6.5 pages on field flow fractionation, but only 2.5 pages on capillary electrophoresis, a burgeoning area of analysis. While biamperometric and conductometric titrations are discussed, common redox titrations employing an indicator (e.g. iodometric titrations with starch endpoint) are ignored. Likewise, electrochemical stripping analysis, important in trace analysis, is given short shrift (half a page). The editors set a useful chapter template, but it is not followed in all cases. At the top of the first page of each chapter is a grayed box of general learning objectives, sort of a chapter overview, and most chapters begin with a very brief, often interesting historical overview. Worked numerical examples, though scarce, are found in grayed areas throughout the text. Specific and general references for further reading are a welcome sight at the end of the chapters, but in some cases are missing. Review questions and exercises finish up each chapter. Though I write many of my own exercises and problems for student practice, I--and my students--do rely on textbook authors for additional interesting challenges related to the textbook material. The number and type of end-of-chapter problems are quite variable in Analytical Chemistry. For example, the chapters on infrared and Raman spectroscopy and on basic statistics end with a sufficient number of questions (35 and 22, respectively); but, inexplicably, only 4 questions follow the discussion of acid-base equilibria, only 7 follow the chapter on liquid and thin-layer chromatography, and there are none on immunoassay. Other important topics also are slighted. Most of the end-of-chapter questions are rather uninteresting and test simple rote learning, rather than requiring the synthesis and application of the knowledge acquired (higher-level learning). I would have liked to see spreadsheet or other computer work as the focus of some questions and an appendix of answers to at least some of the exercises. Numerous minor errors were evident, especially in the first half of the book. Some were typographical, such as soulbility instead of solubility and equation of the complex instead of aquation of the complex, but others were more egregious, such as ? instead of ? and ?, which is missing the minus sign. The standard electrode potentials listed in the appendix are confusing, because while the proper values for E ° are given, the half-reactions are written as oxidations rather than as reductions. On the whole, though, the principles of the field are described clearly and accurately. I would recommend Analytical Chemistry to prospective and practicing analytical chemists as a valuable reference to many existing and emerging analytical techniques. It certainly deserves a spot on my reference shelf. As a classroom text, however, the book is less interesting. Perhaps with tighter editing and greater focus on pedagogy, the book could compete with the U.S. leaders, such as Harris and Skoog.

  17. Otto Laport Lecture: A Fascination with Fluids: Vortices and Vortex Breakdown.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworthy, Tony

    2011-11-01

    The problem of the dynamics of long slender vortices, e.g., tornadoes, dust devils, waterspouts, fire whirls, internal flow in rotating machinery, leading edge and trailing vortices on lifting surfaces, etc, has been a fascination for me for close to 50 years. A sequence of experimental studies will be presented, together with reasoned physical explanations and related theoretical arguments, that attempt to bring some order to the sometimes-controversial discussion that has swirled about the subject during that time.

  18. The Otto Aufranc Award: Enhanced Biocompatibility of Stainless Steel Implants by Titanium Coating and Microarc Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young Wook; Kwon, Soon Yong; Sun, Doo Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Background Stainless steel is one of the most widely used biomaterials for internal fixation devices, but is not used in cementless arthroplasty implants because a stable oxide layer essential for biocompatibility cannot be formed on the surface. We applied a Ti electron beam coating, to form oxide layer on the stainless steel surface. To form a thicker oxide layer, we used a microarc oxidation process on the surface of Ti coated stainless steel. Modification of the surface using Ti electron beam coating and microarc oxidation could improve the ability of stainless steel implants to osseointegrate. Questions/purposes The ability of cells to adhere to grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated stainless steel in vitro was compared with that of two different types of surface modifications, machined and titanium-coated, and microarc-oxidated. Methods We performed energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations to assess the chemical composition and structure of the stainless steel surfaces and cell morphology. The biologic responses of an osteoblastlike cell line (SaOS-2) were examined by measuring proliferation (cell proliferation assay), differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity), and attraction ability (cell migration assay). Results Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, migration, and adhesion were increased in the grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated group compared to the two other groups. Osteoblastlike cells on the grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated surface were strongly adhered, and proliferated well compared to those on the other surfaces. Conclusions The surface modifications we used (grit blasting, titanium coating, microarc oxidation) enhanced the biocompatibility (proliferation and migration of osteoblastlike cells) of stainless steel. Clinical Relevance This process is not unique to stainless steel; it can be applied to many metals to improve their biocompatibility, thus allowing a broad range of materials to be used for cementless implants. PMID:20936386

  19. Decades of CALL Development: A Retrospective of the Work of James Pusack and Sue Otto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a series of projects that James Pusack and the author engaged in together, a number of them to develop CALL authoring tools. With their shared love of technology and dedication to language teaching and learning, they embarked on a long and immensely enjoyable career in CALL during which each project evolved…

  20. Public Relations in Rapidly Growing Suburban Districts: Insights from Texas Superintendents Bonny Cain and Doug Otto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decman, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout Texas, enrollments in suburban school districts have been rising, and in some instances, the increases have been substantial. Causes of this demographic trend are multifaceted, but in most instances they are an intricate mix of state population growth and urban flight. Rapidly growing suburban districts, like all Texas districts,…

  1. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    PubMed

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis.

  2. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles, cooling of the exhaust gases in the duct connecting the vehicle tailpipe to the CVS shall be... and may be required for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Procedures for.... Hearing the dilution air is also allowed, provided: (i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS... uncharacterized CVS, addition of an unknown inlet restriction on the dilution air, etc.). (2) The gas mixture... allowed. Heating is also allowed, provided: (i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature does...

  4. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... condensation. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 5 °F (3 °C) above the maximum dew point of... methanol and formaldehyde sample lines are heated to prevent condensation. The temperature of the sample... to prevent condensation. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 5 °F (3 °C) above...

  5. Efficiencies of heat engines and fuel cells - The methanol fuel cell as a competitor to Otto and Diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, R. W.

    1982-03-01

    As the real cost of fuel rises the efficiency of energy conversion devices will become of increasing importance. Efficiency is a variable factor depending inter alia on load factor. Whereas heat engines commonly yield optimum efficiencies at near to maximum power, fuel cells yield optimum efficiencies at zero power. Projections based on realistic developments suggest that fuel cells will operate overall with higher efficiencies than heat engines when load factors are below approximately 45%. Road transportation generally operates at load factors much lower than this and represents a suitable market for fuel cells.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., shall exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the HPLC..., shall exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... detection for the HPLC analyzer. Sampling systems for all phases shall be identical. (iii) The methanol and... detection for the HPLC analyzer. Sampling systems for all phases shall be identical. (iii) The methanol...

  8. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) temperature does not exceed 250 °F (121 °C). (ii) Calculation of the CVS flow rate necessary to prevent water... minimized. This may be accomplished by: (i) Using a duct of unrestricted length maintained at a temperature... a minimum of flexible sections, maintained at a temperature above the maximum dew point of...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test period. (2) Engine exhaust to CVS duct. For methanol-fueled engines, reactions of the exhaust...), as applicable are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled engines, the... analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol. The variable mixture flow rate is maintained at choked...

  10. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administrator. (b) Component description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure B94-1, consists of a dilution air filter...), and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The PDP-CVS shall conform to the following... determining CVS flow rates are detailed in “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using...

  11. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge…

  12. The New Alliance between Science and Education: Otto Neurath's Modernity beyond Descartes' "Adamitic" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverio, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a suggestion of Stephen Toulmin and through an interpretation of the criticism to which Neurath, one of the founders of the Vienna Circle, submits Descartes' views on science, the paper attempts to outline a pattern of modernity opposed to the Cartesian one, that has been obtaining over the last four centuries. In particular, it…

  13. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  14. Behavioral research on AIDS--protease inhibitors and the new millennium: comment on Kelly, Otto-Salaj, Sikkema, Pinkerton, and Bloom (1998).

    PubMed

    Ferrando, S

    1998-07-01

    The use of combination antiretroviral therapy in conjunction with the clinical use of viral load measurements have contributed to the "resurrection" of thousands of individuals who were expected to be on a downward spiral with symptomatic HIV/AIDS. In this context, those living with HIV face a host of new challenges, such as adhering to complicated medication regimens, maintaining low levels of HIV risk behaviors, reassessing future goals, and considering return to work. These issues, and others, present behavioral health practitioners and researchers with an exciting agenda for research and intervention. In pursuing this agenda, it is vital that innovations in health psychology maintain pace and integrate seamlessly with rapidly developing medical advances in the field. In so doing, health psychology will maintain its critical role in combating the HIV epidemic in this new era of treatment.

  15. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., continuous HFID (required for petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle and optional for methanol-fueled, natural gas... gas dilution function at the vehicle tailpipe exit. (6) For natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum...—petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. The components...

  16. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., continuous HFID (required for petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle and optional for methanol-fueled, natural gas... gas dilution function at the vehicle tailpipe exit. (6) For natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum...—petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. The components...

  17. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), and particulate sampling capabilities... that a clean particulate filter (including back up filter) can be selected simultaneously with the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system;...

  18. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), and particulate sampling capabilities... that a clean particulate filter (including back up filter) can be selected simultaneously with the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system;...

  19. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles), and particulate sampling capabilities... of the dilution tunnel. (v) Free from sharp bends. (vi) Configured so that a clean particulate filter... particulate filter (including back up filter) can be selected simultaneously with the selection of an...

  20. Fluid Mechanics Prize-Otto Laporte Lecture: The Art of Mixing with an Admixture of Art: Fluids, Solids, and Visual Imagination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottino, Julio Mario

    2008-11-01

    Arguably, fluid dynamics is intimately linked with visual imagination more than any other branch of physical sciences. A particular example is mixing. Fluid mixing, and under more limited circumstances, granular mixing, can be placed in the framework of dynamical systems and a geometric viewpoint. On the fluid mixing side, the physical connection can be traced back to the stretching and folding of fluid elements and possibility of representation motions in terms of transformations. This opens a wealth of possibilities --- the mathematical machinery of dynamical systems on the theory side, and the possibility of inventing devices on the practical side. There are notable differences as well: granular materials un-mix or segregate, often spectacularly so, and some aspects of segregation can also be incorporated in the mathematical framework. A technical review will highlight key points in both areas -- experiments, applications, and the many branches that have taken root since the mid-1980s. However, much of this could have taken place sooner. The basic mechanisms and key experimental results in both areas were identified early: the stretching and folding mechanism of mixing was pointed out by Osborne Reynolds in 1893-1895, and a key segregation mechanism of granular mixtures was noted by Yositisi Oyama in 1939. In what may appear surprising on a first viewing, these leads were not followed. Ideas, in order to be embraced, need to fit with the canonical knowledge of the times.

  1. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the...

  2. A TOMS-Based View of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (OTTO) From Large Fires Associated with the 1997-1998 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Guo, H.; Hudson, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Since the launch of Earth-Probe TOMS in July 1 996, we have been producing tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps (10S - 10N), in gridded format, l x 2 degrees, in near-real time. These images, along with images from the full ADEOS-TOMS record of TTO (Sept. 1996 - May 1997) can be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd,edu/-tropo). The TTO maps, based on the modified-residual method of Hudson and Thompson [1998], have been validated using ozonesondes from Ascension (8S, 15W), Nairobi (2S, 36E) and American Samoa (14S, 171W). The fires associated with El Nino-induced dryness are exhibited regionally as high tropospheric ozone column (> 60 Dobson Units) with high absorbing aerosol (smoke) signal in TOMS [J. R. Herman, personal communication, 1998]. Episodes of high TTO in 1997-98 will be shown. Regional TTO over Indonesia during the 1997-98 period will be highlighted and comparisons will be made with TTO in that region taken from the 1979-92 Nimbus/TOMS TTO record.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto... CO fuel, a moderate temperature test with Cold CO fuel, and a warm temperature test with FTP Otto... moderate temperature test with Cold CO fuel, a moderate temperature test with Otto-cycle test fuel, and...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1401 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty... procedures for gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles, and for gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1404 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1433 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1431 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1439 Certification...

  9. 40 CFR 86.127-00 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC, CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  10. 40 CFR 86.127-12 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... emissions. (4) Fuel spitback (this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The FTP Otto-cycle... particulate mass emissions from gasoline-fueled, methanol-fueled and gaseous-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards for complete... (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled by...

  12. The Inevitability of Sleep: Using Manet's Last Paintings to Envision a Pedagogy of Loss and Mourning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers Manet's last paintings as metaphors for a bygone, psychically healthy conception of loss and mourning, what is called the pre-Freudian, Victorian notion of loss (Otto 2008), which contrasts with the post-Freudian, Modern notion of loss and mourning (Otto 2008). Otto argues this liminal, transitional moment…

  13. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S. heavy-duty vehicle sales of complete heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicles for model year 2008... complete heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicles for model year 2008. (2)(i) Manufacturers certifying vehicles... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  14. 78 FR 14872 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... $550 per port, per month for the following port fees: Order Entry Ports,\\3\\ CTI Ports,\\4\\ OTTO Ports,\\5\\ ITTO Ports,\\6\\ BONO Ports,\\7\\ Order Entry ] DROP Ports,\\8\\ OTTO Drop Ports \\9\\ and SQF Ports.\\10\\ Each... distinguishes electronic and non-electronically delivered orders. \\5\\ OTTO provides a method for subscribers...

  15. LRO/LOLA - Counting Craters

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  16. LRO Exposes the Moon's Complex, Turbulent Youth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  17. [Textual research on the time of completion of XU Shuwei' books on exo-pathogenic cold diseases].

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingxin

    2015-11-01

    Shang han bai zheng ge (Poets of Syndromes of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), Shang han fa wei lun (Discourse on Elucidation of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), Shang han jiu shi lun (90 Discourses on Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease) were the three extant books on exo-pathogenic cold disease written by Xu Shuwei among his other works of its kind. Although there were carved editions of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, these books were gradually paid attention for citations by other physicians till the Qing Dynasty. Through comparison of its texts, it can be found that the title of Shang han bai zheng ge was mentioned in his other medical works. While Shang han fa wei lun and Shang han jiu shi lun contained some overlapping contents, some even carrying concept contradictory to each other. According to historical materials, Xu Shuwei began to write the above-mentioned 3 books in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the several early years of the Southern Song Dynasty after crossing the Yangtze River, he collected the remained manuscripts and continued to write. Among them, Shang han bai zheng ge was completed first, followed by Shang han fa wei lun, with Shang han jiu shi lun came as the last. PMID:26813319

  18. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  1. A zone of very low seismicity in the vicinity of the Chang Thang Platform, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh K.; Froidevaux, Claude; Ansel, Valerie

    1989-11-01

    We note that the area of 'no Sn' transmission and 'no lid' of previous researchers in the central Chang Thang Platform of Tibet has low seismicity. Whereas the Kun Lun and Lhasa blocks, lying north and south of the Chang Thang Platform, are seismically active, an area bounded by the Nujiang Kun Lun Fault and Kokoxili Suture in the north, the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and Kang Ting Fault in the south, and longitudes 87 and 100 ° E, encompassing a large portion of the Chang Thang Platform in central Tibet, has low seismicity. We also note that portions of this area have a signature in topography as well: the elevations are higher by several hundred metres here than over the Lhasa and Kun Lun blocks. These observations and the reported extensive Quaternary volcanism in the Chang Thang Platform suggest upwelling of hot mantle material below this area as the most likely explanation.

  2. 40 CFR 86.101 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... applicable to 1977 and later model year new light-duty vehicles and light duty trucks, and 2001 and later model year new Otto-cycle heavy-duty vehicles and engines certified under the provisions of subpart S...

  3. 40 CFR 86.101 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... applicable to 1977 and later model year new light-duty vehicles and light duty trucks, and 2001 and later model year new Otto-cycle heavy-duty vehicles and engines certified under the provisions of subpart S...

  4. 40 CFR 86.101 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... applicable to 1977 and later model year new light-duty vehicles and light duty trucks, and 2001 and later model year new Otto-cycle heavy-duty vehicles and engines certified under the provisions of subpart S...

  5. 40 CFR 86.101 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... applicable to 1977 and later model year new light-duty vehicles and light duty trucks, and 2001 and later model year new Otto-cycle heavy-duty vehicles and engines certified under the provisions of subpart S...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test... manufacturer may optionally test under conditions outside the ranges specified in this subpart. (c) Testing...

  7. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... samples from either Otto-cycle or diesel engines. Since various configurations can produce accurate... and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence analyzer (CL) for the measurement of oxides of...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1726-99 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lowest state-of-charge at the beginning of the test cycle. At no time throughout mileage accumulation... to this subpart: (1) For Otto-cycle and diesel vehicles and battery assisted combustion engine vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines: (i) Prior to initiation of mileage accumulation in...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  12. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.1834-01(b... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1333 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix I((f) (1...) in these listings. (1) To unnormalize rpm, use the following equations: (i) For diesel engines... Otto-cycle engines: ER28AP14.007 Where: Max Test Speed = the maximum test speed as calculated in 40...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25 (b...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix I... engines: ER13JY05.001 Where: MaxTestSpeed = the maximum test speed as calculated in 40 CFR part 1065....

  19. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.1834-01(b... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix I... engines: ER13JY05.001 Where: MaxTestSpeed = the maximum test speed as calculated in 40 CFR part 1065....

  1. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix I... engines: ER13JY05.001 Where: MaxTestSpeed = the maximum test speed as calculated in 40 CFR part 1065....

  2. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix I... engines: ER13JY05.001 Where: MaxTestSpeed = the maximum test speed as calculated in 40 CFR part 1065....

  3. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.1834-01(b... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25 (b...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.1834-01(b... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25 (b...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1335-90 - Cool-down procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cold cycle exhaust emission test may begin after a cool-down only when the engine oil and water... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1335-90 Cool-down procedure. (a) This cool-down procedure applies to Otto-cycle and diesel...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1537 - Idle test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle...-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1537...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1332-90 - Engine mapping procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... maximum mapping speed per the following methodologies. (Note paragraph (d)(1) below.) (1) Otto-cycle engines. (i) For ungoverned engines using the transient operating cycle set forth in paragraph (f)(1)...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1416 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1416 Calibration; frequency and... calibration of the analyzer must be checked. The analyzer must be adjusted or repaired as necessary. (c)...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1434 - Equipment preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty... the device(s) for removing water from the exhaust sample and the sample filter(s). Remove any water from the water trap(s). Clean and replace the filter(s) as necessary. (c) Set the zero and span...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25 (b... battery system components requiring monitoring are: (i) Battery water level; (ii) Temperature...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required if the CVS system is used, in... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1301 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1301 Scope; applicability. This subpart specifies gaseous emission test procedures for Otto-cycle and diesel heavy-duty engines, and particulate emission test procedures for diesel heavy-duty engines,...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1437 - Test run-manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the tailpipe to a minimum depth of 10 inches. If the vehicle's exhaust system prevents insertion to...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1437 - Test run-manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the tailpipe to a minimum depth of 10 inches. If the vehicle's exhaust system prevents insertion to...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1439 Certification Short..., after the requirements of § 86.1438(e) have been satisfied. (b) CST—Two-speed idle test. This...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1439 Certification Short..., after the requirements of § 86.1438(e) have been satisfied. (b) CST—Two-speed idle test. This...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer as specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is required if the CVS system is used, in... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1406 Equipment required and..., the dynamometer must be adjusted to the power absorption unit and inertia weight settings as...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1406 Equipment required and..., the dynamometer must be adjusted to the power absorption unit and inertia weight settings as...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1406 Equipment required and..., the dynamometer must be adjusted to the power absorption unit and inertia weight settings as...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled,...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1506 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1506 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1506 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1506 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled,...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1540 - Idle exhaust sample analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1406 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1406 Equipment required and... adjusted to the lowest available inertia weight setting and must meet the load speed...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1439 Certification Short..., after the requirements of § 86.1438(e) have been satisfied. (b) CST—Two-speed idle test. This...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sampling and analysis system specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is used, the percent for carbon monoxide on a...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is permitted as applicable. The inclusion of an additional raw carbon dioxide... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  20. Evaluating the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto Elementary School, NC.

    A self-study of the Otto Elementary School in Otto, North Carolina, began in 1960 and was completed in 1963. The study was implemented to provide faculty and staff with an opportunity to evaluate school practices, identify areas needing improvement, and project future plans for improvement. One general goal, providing quality education for all…

  1. 77 FR 76572 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... $500 per port, per month fee on Order Entry Ports,\\3\\ CTI Ports,\\4\\ OTTO Ports,\\5\\ ITTO Ports,\\6\\ BONO Ports,\\7\\ Order Entry DROP Ports \\8\\ and OTTO Drop Ports.\\9\\ The Exchange assesses a $250 per port, per month fee for SQF Ports.\\10\\ The Exchange is proposing to increase the Order Entry Port, CTI Port,...

  2. Teacher Retention and Satisfaction with a Servant Leader as Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jimmy; Newton, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    If the most precious product developed in education is the student, then our most prized commodity should be the classroom teacher. According to numerous studies (Allen, Pianta, Gregory, Mikami, & Lun, 2011; Clotfelter, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2010; Darling-Hammond, 2000), the greatest influence on a student's achievement is the classroom…

  3. Sciences and society

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-10

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  4. A COMPUTER MODEL OF LUNG MORPHOLOGY TO ANALYZE SPECT IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of the three-dimensional (3-D) spatial distribution of aerosol deposition can be performed using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). The advantage of using 3-D techniques over planar gamma imaging is that deposition patterns can be related to real lun...

  5. Secrets of the Presidential Turn-Around Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    2002-01-01

    Profiles five college presidents (Henry Tisdale of Claflin University, David Carter of Eastern Connecticut State University, Jimmy Jenkins of Edward Waters College, Dorothy Yancy of Johnson C. Smith University, and Luns Richardson of Morris College) who have brought success to their once-languishing institutions. (EV)

  6. Wet air oxidation of propellant wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.L.; Copa, W.M.; Deitrich, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Wet Air Oxidation studies have been conducted on a number of propellant wastewaters, to assess destruction levels of specific propellant components. OTTO fuel, used as a torpedo propellant, and hydrazine based rocket fuels were propellants of interest. OTTO fuel wastewaters contain substantial amounts of propylene glycol dinitrate. Hydrazine based rocket fuel wastewaters contain hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. Laboratory Wet Air Oxidation studies on OTTO fuel wastewaters indicated that a 99+ percent destruction of propylene glycol dinitrate can be achieved at an oxidation temperature of 280/sup 0/C.

  7. Astrometric observations of the faint outer satellites of Jupiter during the 1993 opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, Peter J.; Whipple, Arthur L.; Benedict, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    Astrometric positions for the faint outer Jovian satellites VI-XIII during the 1993 opposition have been obtained from the measurement of plates taken with the 2.1 m Otto Struve reflector at McDonald Observatory.

  8. 40 CFR 86.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  9. 40 CFR 86.131-00 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  10. 40 CFR 86.118-00 - Dynamometer calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  11. 40 CFR 86.135-00 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  12. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  13. 40 CFR 86.135-00 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  14. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  15. 40 CFR 86.138-96 - Hot soak test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  16. 40 CFR 86.118-00 - Dynamometer calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  17. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  18. 40 CFR 86.118-00 - Dynamometer calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  19. 40 CFR 86.138-96 - Hot soak test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  20. 40 CFR 86.103 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  1. 40 CFR 86.128-00 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  2. 40 CFR 86.118-00 - Dynamometer calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  3. 40 CFR 86.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  4. 40 CFR 86.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  5. 40 CFR 86.103 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  6. 40 CFR 86.103 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  7. 40 CFR 86.128-00 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete...

  8. 40 CFR 86.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  9. 40 CFR 86.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  10. 40 CFR 86.133-96 - Diurnal emission test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  11. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  12. 40 CFR 86.103 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  13. 40 CFR 86.131-00 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  14. 40 CFR 86.103 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...

  15. 40 CFR 86.131-96 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  16. 40 CFR 86.118-00 - Dynamometer calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  17. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  18. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration....

  20. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  1. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1852-01 - Waivers for good in-use emission performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1852-01 Waivers for good...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1852-01 - Waivers for good in-use emission performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1852-01 Waivers for good...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01 Denial, suspension...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... usage category (e.g., gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle, etc.) previously certified to the...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1852-01 - Waivers for good in-use emission performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1852-01 Waivers for good...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1830-01 Acceptance...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1824-07...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1819 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small-volume manufacturers and small-volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... usage category (e.g., gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle, etc.) previously certified to the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... usage category (e.g., gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle, etc.) previously certified to the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1852-01 - Waivers for good in-use emission performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1852-01 Waivers for good...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1841-01...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration....

  16. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration....

  17. Eighteen-ninety-six and all that

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    This year's commemorative platter includes ether anaesthesia, smallpox vaccination, radioactivity and several mathematical morsels, as well as an accidental death (Otto Lilienthal) and the mother of all births (the Universe).

  18. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... methanol (if applicable) concentrations in ppm carbon, initial and final enclosure ambient...

  19. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... methanol (if applicable) concentrations in ppm carbon, initial and final enclosure ambient...

  20. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... methanol (if applicable) concentrations in ppm carbon, initial and final enclosure ambient...

  1. 6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATION, 1874. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. Staff Development in Reading: What the Experts Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacca, Jo Anne

    1979-01-01

    Presents interviews of six prominent researchers (Ira Aaron, Harold Herber, Wayne Otto, Robert Ruddell, Roselmina Indrisano, and Olive Niles), which focused on the dynamics constituting effective staff development experiences. (HOD)

  3. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 75. Marelli AJ. Congenital heart ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 69. Otto CM, Bownow RO. ...

  4. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... methanol (if applicable) concentrations in ppm carbon, initial and final enclosure ambient...

  5. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... absorption unit for simulation of road load power and flywheels or other means of simulating the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... absorption unit for simulation of road load power and flywheels or other means of simulating the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.108-79 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... absorption unit for simulation of road load power and flywheels or other means of simulating the...

  8. 75 FR 76517 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated 10/26/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides associated with Tropical Storm Otto. Incident Period:...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1854-12 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... regulation of the Administrator), the importation into the United States of any new motor vehicle or...

  10. 40 CFR 86.150-98 - Refueling test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... motor vehicle shall be functioning during all procedures in this subpart except: (1) In cases...

  11. Astrometric observations of the faint outer satellites of Jupiter during the 1993 opposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelus, Peter J.; Whipple, Arthur L.; Benedict, G. F.

    1993-12-01

    Astrometric positions for the faint outer Jovian satellites VI-XIII during the 1993 opposition have been obtained from the measurement of plates taken with the 2.1 m Otto Struve reflector at McDonald Observatory.

  12. 76 FR 72484 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...), 76 FR 53521 (August 26, 2011) (SR-NASDAQ-2011-111). 2. Statutory Basis NASDAQ believes that the... Entry Port Fee $500.00 CTI Port Fee $500.00 OTTO Port Fee $500.00 ITTO Port Fee $500.00 Order Entry DROP Port Fee $500.00 OTTO DROP Port Fee $500.00 SQF Port Fee $0.00 [* As of October 3, 2011, the fees...

  13. Sciences and society

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  14. [Transition of the doctrine from ancient to medieval China for embryo and fetus on each month during pregnancy period].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chiharu

    2004-12-01

    There are written some doctrines about growth image of embryo and fetus, hygiene for woman on each month during pregnancy period etc. in ancient Chinese medical book the Taichan Shu, which compiled over 2200 years ago. Following results were obtained by a study on the transition doctrines from that of Taichan Shu to those of medieval Chinese and Japanese medical books such as the Zhubing Yuanhou Lun, the Qianjin Fang and the Ishin Po. (1) Doctrines about growth and hygiene on embryo and fetus had been developed on each coming book from the contents of the Taichan Shu descent. Doctrines about hygiene were mainly for pregnant woman, and some methods of them were told by using figure image and the five elements theory in the part. (2) There could be found additional doctrines about meridian and internal organs theory in the Zhubing Yuanhou Lun, the Qianjin Fang and the Ishin Po. And those additional doctrines were made under the influence of the Maijing and the Suwen. New doctrines about hygiene for pregnant woman found in the Qianjin Fang and the Ishin Po also have relationships with meridian and internal organs theory. (3) Growing organs of embryo and fetus described in the Zhubing Yuanhou Lun and the Qianjin Fang correspond with the internal organs theory. Purpose of those descriptions is estimated to be equipped much more organs for embryo and fetus than those of the Taichan Chu.

  15. An Inconvenient History: the Nuclear-Fission Display in the Deutsches Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2010-06-01

    One of the longstanding attractions of the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany, has been its display of the apparatus associated with the discovery of nuclear fission. Although the discovery involved three scientists, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann, the fission display was designated for over 30 years as the Arbeitstisch von Otto Hahn (Otto Hahn’s Worktable), with Strassmann mentioned peripherally and Meitner not at all, and it was not until the early 1990s that the display was revised to include all three codiscoverers more equitably. I examine the creation of the fission display in the context of the postwar German culture of silencing the National Socialist past, and trace the eventual transformation of the display into a contemporary exhibit that more accurately represents the scientific history of the fission discovery.

  16. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  17. Politics, Chemistry, and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Emilie; Settle, Frank A., Jr.

    2001-07-01

    The discovery of fission is an interesting scientific saga involving the fundamentals of chemistry and physics. It is played out in the late 1930s on a European stage. Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn head a cast of characters that include scientific notables Fritz Strassmann, Otto Frisch, James Chadwick, Enrico Fermi, Ida Noddack, Irene Curie, and Neils Bohr. The plot includes the scientific method, the interdependence of chemistry and physics, the influence of external politics, and human frailty. The events surrounding this discovery did not allow the scientists involved to receive equal recognition. Fortunately, the passage of time and extensive historical research are restoring equality.

  18. Quantum correlated heat engine with spin squeezing.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Hardal, Ali Ü C; Müstecaplıoglu, Özgür E

    2014-09-01

    We propose a four-level quantum heat engine in an Otto cycle with a working substance of two spins subject to an external magnetic field and coupled to each other by a one-axis twisting spin squeezing nonlinear interaction. We calculate the positive work and the efficiency of the engine for different parameter regimes. In particular, we investigate the effects of quantum correlations at the end of the two isochoric processes of the Otto cycle, as measured by the entanglement of formation and quantum discord, on the work extraction and efficiency. The regimes where the quantum correlations could enhance the efficiency and work extraction are characterized.

  19. Weight propagation and equivalent horsepower for alternate-engined cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klose, G. J.; Kurtz, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate properly the consequences of replacing conventional Otto-cycle engines with alternate power systems, comparisons must be carried out at the vehicle level with functionally equivalent cars. This paper presents the development and application of a procedure for establishing equivalent vehicles. A systematic weight propagation methodology, based on detailed weight breakdowns and influence factors, yields the vehicle weight impacts due to changes in engine weight and power. Performance-matching criteria, utilizing a vehicle simulation program, are then employed to establish Otto-engine-equivalent vehicles, whose characteristics can form the basis for alternative engine evaluations.

  20. Enhancement of magneto-optical effect via the evanescent wave and its figure of merit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishibayashi, Kazuhiro; Yoneda, Hitoki; Kuga, Kiyoshi; Iwasaki, Yamato; Munekata, Hiro

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the enhancement of the magneto-optical (MO) effect via the evanescent wave in MO structures composed of GdFe thin layers and two dielectrics. The MO Kerr rotation and the figure of merit (FOM) among the Kretschmann, Otto and direct-irradiation configurations are compared. The data obtained by experiment and calculation both show that the standing evanescent wave in the metal layer realized in the former two configurations enhances the MO Kerr rotation and FOM. Furthermore, the Kretschmann configuration appears to be superior to the Otto configuration in terms of the efficiency of MO Kerr enhancement.

  1. Afghanistan structure, greater India concept and Eastern Tethys evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulin, Jean

    1981-02-01

    The large and complex area between Central Asia and the Arabia—India block includes, from north to south, the Tien Shan and Hindu Kush—Kun Lun Hercynian belts, the Turkman—Farah Rud and Tanghla Shan Neokimmerian belt, the Zagros—Makran—Baluch—Himalayan Alpine belt and relics of corresponding oceanic spaces. The Angarian or Gondwanian affinities of the different blocks separated by these successive peri-Indian belts are discussed. An interpretation is proposed for the paleogeographic and structural evolution of this area, from Early Paleozoic to Present. This interpretation is based on geologic and paleomagnetic data and on global tectonic considerations. The Hindu Kush—Kun Lun pre-Hercynian ocean probably separated Laurasia from Gondwanaland. It was an Early Paleozoic Tethys (Tethys 1). The Tien Shan ocean may have been a marginal basin for the Hindu Kush—Kun Lun ocean. The Turkman-Farah Rud—Tanghla Shan pre-Neokimmerian ocean resulted from the break-up of the Gondwanaland margin. Its opening seems to have been related to the pre-Hercynian ocean closure resulting in the formation of a new Tethys (Tethys 2). Its subsequent closure may also have been related to the opening of the Zagros—Baluch—Indus—Tsang Po pre-Alpine ocean (Tethys 3). According to this interpretation, Eurasia appears to have increased from Early Paleozoic to Cenozoic by successive accretion of cratonic blocks which came from the south through the Tethys. This evolution can be compared to the similar Mediterranean evolution. This interpretation is in agreement with the Greater India concept. However, the northern border of Greater India differs according to the stage of the Gondwanaland evolution which is considered. Actually, Greatest India extended north to the Caledonian belt and consequently has recorded the whole history of the Eastern Tethys.

  2. Analog/RF performance of AlInN/GaN underlap DG MOS-HEMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardeshi, Hemant

    2015-12-01

    This work uncovers the potential benefit of AlInN/GaN underlap double-gate MOS-HEMT for RF and analog applications. The device channel consists of a lattice-matched wideband Al0.83In0.17N and narrowband GaN layers, along with high-K Al2O3 as the gate dielectric. The 2D Sentaurus TCAD simulation is done using the hydrodynamic model and interface traps are considered. The simulation model was calibrated with the previously reported experimental result. A comprehensive, quantitative investigation of key analog and RF figures-of-merits (FOMs) is done for a wide range of gate length (Lg), underlap length (Lun) and barrier thickness (TB). Scaling of Lg and Lun leads to increase in the drain current (Id), transconductance (gm), cutoff frequency (fT) and max frequency (fmax) but, at the expense of the reduced transconductance generation factor (gm/Id), gain and output resistance (Ro). Large improvement in almost all analog and RF FOMs was observed for scaled Lg and Lun. Devices with thinner barrier thickness exhibited improved gm, TGF, Ro, fT and fmax. Simulations have revealed a very high drain current of 5.26 mA/μm, peak gm of 5.34 mS/μm, and a maximum gain of 47 dB. The peak values of fT and fmax, extracted from two port Y-parameters, were found to be 786 GHz and 832 GHz, respectively for highly scaled device. These results demonstrate the potential of AlInN/GaN underlap MOS-HEMT for high power and high-frequency applications.

  3. Taiwanese employees' justice perceptions of co-workers' punitive events.

    PubMed

    Chi, Shu-Cheng; Lo, Hsin-Hsin

    2003-02-01

    The authors examined justice perceptions of Taiwanese employees in response to co-workers' punitive events (punishment by a superior). They developed a hypothesis based on Chinese indigenous wu-lun principles and the concept of empathy. Results of the study showed that perceived vertical (between superior and subordinate) and horizontal (between subordinates) relationships jointly affected justice perceptions. Respondents who perceived low (negative) leader-member exchange with the superior and high (positive) liking of the punished person showed the lowest justice perceptions. In conclusion, the authors note that comparative analysis of organizational justice is a promising direction for future research.

  4. Taiwanese employees' justice perceptions of co-workers' punitive events.

    PubMed

    Chi, Shu-Cheng; Lo, Hsin-Hsin

    2003-02-01

    The authors examined justice perceptions of Taiwanese employees in response to co-workers' punitive events (punishment by a superior). They developed a hypothesis based on Chinese indigenous wu-lun principles and the concept of empathy. Results of the study showed that perceived vertical (between superior and subordinate) and horizontal (between subordinates) relationships jointly affected justice perceptions. Respondents who perceived low (negative) leader-member exchange with the superior and high (positive) liking of the punished person showed the lowest justice perceptions. In conclusion, the authors note that comparative analysis of organizational justice is a promising direction for future research. PMID:12617345

  5. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  6. 40 CFR 85.524 - Legacy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. Light-duty vehicles must meet the Tier 0 hydrocarbon standard specified in 40 CFR 86.094-8. Light-duty trucks must meet the Tier 0 hydrocarbon standard specified in 40 CFR 86.094-9. Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines must meet the hydrocarbon standard specified in 40 CFR 86.096-10. Diesel...

  7. Astrometric observations of the satellites of Saturn during 1975-1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Absolute astrometric positions of satellites I-IX of Saturn have been obtained from plates taken with the 2.1-m Otto Struve reflector of the McDonald Observatory during 1975 and 1976. The positions are presented both in absolute celestial coordinates and in intersatellitary relative coordinates.

  8. 40 CFR 86.139-90 - Particulate filter handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate filter handling and...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.139-90 Particulate filter...

  9. 40 CFR 86.139-90 - Particulate filter handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate filter handling and...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.139-90 Particulate filter...

  10. Eskimo Medicine Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Otto

    "Eskimo Medicine Man" is a record of primitive Alaskan life in the 1930's. It records the experiences in Alaska's remote areas of Dr. Otto George, the last "traveling physician" for the Department of Interior's Indian Service, when in all the territory (an area one-fifth that of the contiguous United States) there were fewer than sixty thousand…

  11. 40 CFR 86.139-90 - Particulate filter handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.139-90 Particulate filter...

  12. 40 CFR 86.106-00 - Equipment required; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... tests, and the New York City Cycle (NYCC), for use with the UDDS in running loss tests, are specified...

  13. 40 CFR 86.104 - Section numbering; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.104 Section numbering; construction. (a) The model year...

  14. 40 CFR 86.106-00 - Equipment required; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... tests, and the New York City Cycle (NYCC), for use with the UDDS in running loss tests, are specified...

  15. 40 CFR 86.106-00 - Equipment required; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... tests, and the New York City Cycle (NYCC), for use with the UDDS in running loss tests, are specified...

  16. 40 CFR 86.101 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... instead of measuring oxygenates as described in 40 CFR 1066.635, the testing specifications and...

  17. 40 CFR 86.155-98 - Records required; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle..., manufacturer, model year, engine family, evaporative/refueling emission family, refueling emission...

  18. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.129-00 Road...

  19. 40 CFR 86.130-96 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... measurements from different test runs. If any emission measurements are repeated, the new...

  20. 40 CFR 86.139-90 - Particulate filter handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.139-90 Particulate filter...

  1. 40 CFR 86.108-00 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... 2002 model year, any light-duty vehicle or light light-duty truck which uses any regulated fuel....

  2. 40 CFR 86.130-96 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... measurements from different test runs. If any emission measurements are repeated, the new...

  3. 40 CFR 86.104 - Section numbering; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.104 Section numbering; construction. (a) The model year...

  4. 40 CFR 86.104 - Section numbering; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.104 Section numbering; construction. (a) The model year...

  5. 40 CFR 86.104 - Section numbering; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.104 Section numbering; construction. (a) The model year...

  6. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles;...

  7. 40 CFR 86.150-98 - Refueling test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... measured by the enclosure technique. (c) All emission control systems installed on or incorporated in a...

  8. 40 CFR 86.108-00 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... 2002 model year, any light-duty vehicle or light light-duty truck which uses any regulated fuel....

  9. 40 CFR 86.108-00 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... 2002 model year, any light-duty vehicle or light light-duty truck which uses any regulated fuel....

  10. 40 CFR 86.106-00 - Equipment required; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... tests, and the New York City Cycle (NYCC), for use with the UDDS in running loss tests, are specified...

  11. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.129-00 Road...

  12. 40 CFR 86.104 - Section numbering; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.104 Section numbering; construction. (a) The model year...

  13. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles;...

  14. 40 CFR 86.106-96 - Equipment required; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... exhaust emission tests, and the New York City Cycle (NYCC), for use with the UDDS in running loss...

  15. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles;...

  16. 40 CFR 86.130-00 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... combining emission measurements from different test runs. If any emission measurements are repeated, the...

  17. 40 CFR 86.130-00 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... combining emission measurements from different test runs. If any emission measurements are repeated, the...

  18. 40 CFR 86.130-96 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... measurements from different test runs. If any emission measurements are repeated, the new...

  19. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.129-00 Road...

  20. 40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.153-98 Vehicle and...

  1. 40 CFR 86.130-96 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... measurements from different test runs. If any emission measurements are repeated, the new...

  2. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles;...

  3. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.129-00 Road...

  4. 40 CFR 86.108-00 - Dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... 2002 model year, any light-duty vehicle or light light-duty truck which uses any regulated fuel....

  5. 40 CFR 86.130-96 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... measurements from different test runs. If any emission measurements are repeated, the new...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1830-01 Acceptance of... applicable for the type of test conducted. (2) Components affecting emissions which are used to build test... whole-vehicle cycle, all emission-related hardware and software must be installed and operational...

  7. Astrometric observations of the satellites of Saturn during 1975-1976

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1980-08-01

    Absolute astrometric positions of satellites I-IX of Saturn have been obtained from plates taken with the 2.1-m Otto Struve reflector of the McDonald Observatory during 1975 and 1976. The positions are presented both in absolute celestial coordinates and in intersatellitary relative coordinates.

  8. 40 CFR 86.154-98 - Measurement procedure; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... and the spilled fuel mixing blower shall be turned on at this time. (e) The refueling emission measurement portion of the refueling test shall be performed as follows: (1) The line from the fuel tank(s)...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall not be greater than... defined as an Otto-cycle engine designed to run at an air-fuel ratio significantly greater than... flexible-fuel and dual-fuel light-duty vehicles. Flexible-fuel and dual-fuel light-duty vehicles shall...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1842-01 - Addition of a vehicle after certification; and changes to a vehicle covered by certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... certification. (a) Addition of a car line after certification. (1) If a manufacturer proposes to add to...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1842-01 - Addition of a vehicle after certification; and changes to a vehicle covered by certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... certification. (a) Addition of a car line after certification. (1) If a manufacturer proposes to add to...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1842-01 - Addition of a vehicle after certification; and changes to a vehicle covered by certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... certification. (a) Addition of a car line after certification. (1) If a manufacturer proposes to add to...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1842-01 - Addition of a vehicle after certification; and changes to a vehicle covered by certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... certification. (a) Addition of a car line after certification. (1) If a manufacturer proposes to add to...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1805-04 - Useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Useful life. 86.1805-04 Section 86... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1805-04 Useful life. (a) Except as required under paragraph (b) of this section or permitted under paragraphs (d), (e) and (f) of this section, the full useful...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1805-04 - Useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Useful life. 86.1805-04 Section 86... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1805-04 Useful life. (a) Except as required under paragraph (b) of this section or permitted under paragraphs (d), (e) and (f) of this section, the full useful...

  16. The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Blaine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Traces the convoluted alliances and diplomatic blundering that resulted in World War I. Places a large degree of the blame on Kaiser Wilhelm II who almost singlehandedly dismantled or ruptured the alliances and treaties of imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Includes photos, paintings, and diary entries. (MJP)

  17. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... rate is fixed by the venturi design. (7) For diesel engines tested for particulate emissions, carefully install a clean particulate sample filter into each of the filter holders and install the assembled...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... rate is fixed by the venturi design. (7) For diesel engines tested for particulate emissions, carefully install a clean particulate sample filter into each of the filter holders and install the assembled...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1372-2007 - Measuring smoke emissions within the NTE zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... contains the measurement techniques to be used for determining compliance with the filter smoke limit or...) For steady-state testing using a filter-type smokemeter, equipment meeting the requirements of...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1337-2007 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test..., loaded particulate sample filter cartridge into the filter holder assembly. It is recommended that this... period. For particulate measurements, carefully remove the filter holder from the sample flow...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1344-94 - Required information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... exhaust mixture immediately ahead of the particulate filter. (17) Sample concentrations (background...-test weight of each particulate sample and back-up filter or pair of filters. (22) Brake...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1372-2007 - Measuring smoke emissions within the NTE zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... contains the measurement techniques to be used for determining compliance with the filter smoke limit or...) For steady-state testing using a filter-type smokemeter, equipment meeting the requirements of...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...) Vav = Actual volume of double diluted sample which passed through the particulate filter, cubic feet... be applied before Vsf is determined. (4) Pf = Mass of particulate on the sample filter (or sample...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1334-84 - Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... from the secondary dilution tunnel . Particulate sample filters need not be stabilized or weighed, and...) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007)...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1334-84 - Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... from the secondary dilution tunnel . Particulate sample filters need not be stabilized or weighed, and...) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007)...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1327-96 - Engine dynamometer test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate..., methane and/or methanol and/or formaldehyde. In addition, for diesel-cycle engines, particulates are... hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate, methanol and formaldehyde, as applicable....

  8. 40 CFR 86.1344-94 - Required information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... exhaust mixture immediately ahead of the particulate filter. (17) Sample concentrations (background...-test weight of each particulate sample and back-up filter or pair of filters. (22) Brake...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1339-90 - Particulate filter handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate filter handling and... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1339-90 Particulate filter handling and weighing. (a) At least 1 hour...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1337-2007 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test..., loaded particulate sample filter cartridge into the filter holder assembly. It is recommended that this... period. For particulate measurements, carefully remove the filter holder from the sample flow...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1344-94 - Required information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... exhaust mixture immediately ahead of the particulate filter. (17) Sample concentrations (background...-test weight of each particulate sample and back-up filter or pair of filters. (22) Brake...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1334-84 - Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... from the secondary dilution tunnel . Particulate sample filters need not be stabilized or weighed, and...) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007)...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1334-84 - Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... from the secondary dilution tunnel . Particulate sample filters need not be stabilized or weighed, and...) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007)...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1372-2007 - Measuring smoke emissions within the NTE zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... contains the measurement techniques to be used for determining compliance with the filter smoke limit or...) For steady-state testing using a filter-type smokemeter, equipment meeting the requirements of...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1339-90 - Particulate filter handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate filter handling and... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1339-90 Particulate filter handling and weighing. (a) At least 1 hour...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1344-94 - Required information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... exhaust mixture immediately ahead of the particulate filter. (17) Sample concentrations (background...-test weight of each particulate sample and back-up filter or pair of filters. (22) Brake...

  19. A Design Approach to Teaching Persuasion: Theory and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, W. Patrick; And Others

    One course in persuasion reviews six theories of attitude change--five based on Otto Lerbinger's designs for persuasive communication (cognitive design, stimulus response design, motivational design, personality design, and social design), and a sixth (perceptual design) developed by the instructors. Instruction in each includes a variety of…

  20. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from the dynamometer rolls shall be used. A speed vs. time recording, as evidence of dynamometer test... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission...

  1. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from the dynamometer rolls shall be used. A speed vs. time recording, as evidence of dynamometer test... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission...

  2. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from the dynamometer rolls shall be used. A speed vs. time recording, as evidence of dynamometer test... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-00 Exhaust emission...

  3. 78 FR 63459 - Names of Members of the Performance Review Board for the Department of the Air Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... appointment of members to the AF's Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board (PRB). Appointments... the executive. The members of the 2013 Performance Review Board for the U.S. Air Force are: 1. Board... Systems Center 3. Lt Gen Otto, Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 5.0 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.1 grams per mile...) Carbon monoxide: 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.53 grams per mile. (v) Particulate...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1830-01 Acceptance of... selected for emission data testing may not be used as the EDV for that configuration. Vehicles from...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. II Appendix... inoperative, has been replaced, or the indicated mileage is outside the target range. 2. The emission...

  7. The Dispute over Nuclear Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1996-01-01

    Reveals the stormy relationship and ongoing controversy surrounding the scientific collaboration of Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. Discusses the controversial 1944 Nobel Prize award to Hahn (ignoring the equal contribution of Meitner), the reaction of the scientific community, and the post-war years of both Meitner and Hahn. (MJP)

  8. 40 CFR 86.1316-94 - Calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... hydrocarbon analyzer, carbon dioxide analyzer, carbon monoxide analyzer, and oxides of nitrogen analyzer..., and calculate the feedback signals to the cycle verification equipment. (3) Check the oxides...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission standards...) Carbon monoxide. 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.2 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.4 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer may elect to...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3... either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each used operating range with a...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... monoxide: 4.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel-fueled vehicles... hydrocarbons: 0.46 grams per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 6.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen:...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1323-2007 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen analyzer... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1323-2007 Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. This section describes...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1323-84 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen analyzer... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1323-84 Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. The chemiluminescent...

  14. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer... either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each normally used operating range...

  15. 40 CFR 86.132-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... of the following: (i) An initial one hour minimum soak and, one, two, or three driving cycles of the... § 86.085-2 or § 86.1803-01 as applicable, two Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedules, found in 40...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.7 grams per mile except diesel-fueled vehicles which have no standard... mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 6.4 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 0.98 grams per mile....

  17. 40 CFR 86.1316-94 - Calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... hydrocarbon analyzer, carbon dioxide analyzer, carbon monoxide analyzer, and oxides of nitrogen analyzer..., and calculate the feedback signals to the cycle verification equipment. (3) Check the oxides...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1809-10 - Prohibition of defeat devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1809-10 Prohibition of defeat devices. (a... vehicle at a designated location, using driving cycles and conditions that may reasonably be expected to...-methane organic gases, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and formaldehyde measured on the Federal...

  19. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy... and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO and CO2 respectively using nitrogen as the diluent. (2... of the nominal value, using nitrogen as the diluent. (5) Fuel for FIDs and HFIDs and the...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... per mile. (iii) Carbon monoxide: 5.0 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.1 grams per mile...) Carbon monoxide: 7.3 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.53 grams per mile. (v) Particulate...