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Sample records for lun tauno otto

  1. Coupled quantum Otto cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2011-03-01

    We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins.

  2. Coupled quantum Otto cycle.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S

    2011-03-01

    We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins.

  3. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  4. [Syndrome differentiation and treatment of Taiyang disease in Shanghan Lun].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Peng, Wen-Bo; Yue, Xiao-Qiang

    2009-02-01

    To explore the laws in syndrome differentiation of Taiyang disease and the prescriptions and herbs used in its treatment in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases). The occurrence rates of main syndromes of Taiyang disease, and the usage frequency of the prescriptions and herbs in its treatment were calculated, and the laws in syndrome differentiation and herbal medication were analyzed by hierarchical clustering analysis. Fever and aversion to cold were found to be the main symptoms of Taiyang disease and usually accompanied with headache, absent sweating, neck stiff, floating and tight pulse, and body ache. The accompanying or aggravated symptoms could be classified into lung system syndrome with the manifestations of sweating and asthma, spleen-deficiency syndrome with the manifestations of gastric fullness and diarrhea, stomach syndrome with vomit and constipation. Guizhi decoction was the main prescription used in the treatment of Taiyang disease. Mahuang (Herba Ephedrae) matching Xingren (Semen Armeniacae), Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) matching Mangxiao (Natrii Sulfas), Baizhu (Rhizoma Atractylodes Macrocephalae) matching Fuling (Poria), Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis) matching Ganjiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis), Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri) matching Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), Banxia (Rhizoma Pinelliae), and Renshen (Radix Ginseng) as the main compatibilities were used in treating lung diseases, stomach diseases, spleen-deficiency diseases, kidney-deficiency diseases and Shaoyang diseases respectively. Exterior syndrome, as a common syndrome in Taiyang disease, is usually treated with Guizhi decoction. The change in syndromes from upper-energizer to lower-energizer in exterior disease can be found from the change of symptoms and the use of herbs. And the development from defending stage to qi stage in exterior disease can be found in the use of prescriptions in Shanghan Lun.

  5. Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

  6. Molecular beams: our legacy from Otto Stern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, N. F.

    1988-06-01

    It is an honor to contribute to this celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Otto Stern, who developed molecular beams to become one of the most nowerful and fruitful physics research methods.

  7. Otto engine beyond its standard quantum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggio, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a noncoherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for nonideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power.

  8. Otto engine beyond its standard quantum limit.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a noncoherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for nonideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power.

  9. Syntheses and structures of mononuclear lutetium imido complexes with very short Lu-N bonds.

    PubMed

    Panda, Tarun K; Randoll, Sören; Hrib, Cristian G; Jones, Peter G; Bannenberg, Thomas; Tamm, Matthias

    2007-12-21

    The reaction of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-imine (ImDippNH) with trimethylsilylmethyllithium and anhydrous lutetium trichloride affords the imido complex [LuCl2(ImNDipp)(THF)3], which, on further reaction with dipotassium cyclooctatetraenide, K2(C8H8), leads to the half-sandwich cyclooctatetraenyl complex [(eta8-C8H8)Lu(ImNDipp)(THF)2]; both complexes contain very short Lu-N bond lengths, which are shorter than any previously reported Lu-N distances.

  10. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  11. George Wilbur: Otto Rank and Hanns Sachs.

    PubMed

    Roazen, Paul

    2006-01-01

    George Wilbur, a pioneering Cape Cod psychoanalytic psychiatrist, was a long-standing editor of the journal "American Imago," and an excellent source of information about the Viennese analysts Otto Rank and Hanns Sachs. Wilbur was also knowledgeable about the early reception of psychoanalysis in the Boston community.

  12. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  13. [The activity of searching for books of Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Diseases) of the Song edition].

    PubMed

    Qian, Chao-chen

    2010-01-01

    Originally, Shang Han Lun in the Song edition referred to the Shang Han Lun with large and small Chinese characters printed in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, its only edition of Shang Han Lun with small Chinese characters was again block-printed in Zhong Jing Quan Shu (Zhongjing's Complete Works) by Zhao Keimei and then the original one disappeared. So the Shang Han Lun in Zhong Jing Quan Shu was considered as the Song edition. Only 6 sets were in existence in the world, and were read by myself; I have detailed records and photos of 5 of them. The article is the result of textual research on Shang Han Lun of Zhong Jing Quan Shu preserved in Taiwan National Palace Museum.

  14. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NPDA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  15. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NDPA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal DSC using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  16. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NPDA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  17. Optimal performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We consider a quantum Otto refrigerator cycle of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We investigate the coefficient of performance at maximum figure of merit for adiabatic and nonadiabatic frequency modulations. We obtain analytical expressions for the optimal performance both in the high-temperature (classical) regime and in the low-temperature (quantum) limit. We moreover analyze the breakdown of the cooling cycle for strongly nonadiabatic driving protocols and derive analytical estimates for the minimal driving time allowed for cooling.

  18. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  19. Otto Rank: beginnings, endings, and current experience.

    PubMed

    Novey, R

    1983-01-01

    I have traced the theories of Otto Rank as they appeared in his major technical writings. Against this background, I have discussed references to Rank in past and contemporary psychoanalytic literature. This paper describes three important contributions of Rank--his birth trauma theory, leading to his theory of the birth of the self; his emphasis on present experience (forerunner of the current "here-and-now" theory); and his writings about the creative potential of the termination process.

  20. [Zhang Zhongjings lost formulas not included in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Diseases)].

    PubMed

    Mi, Li

    2006-07-01

    In addition to the medical formulas of Zhang Zhongjing mostly existed in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Diseases) and Jinkui Yaolve Fanglun (Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber ) collated by Lin Yi in the Song Dynasty, there are some other lost formulas scattered in Beiji Qianjin Yao Fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth a Thousand Gold), Qianjin Yi Fang (A Supplement to Recipes Worth a Thousand Gold ) , Waitai Miyao (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) , written in the Tang Dynasty, and Taiping Shenghui Fang (Tiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Isimpo (Prescriptions from the Heart of Medicine)and those written in the Song Dynasty. Based on the textual research, collation, differentiation of Zhongjings formulas in different texts and medical works, the lost formulas of Zhongjing were collected besides those in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Diseases) and Jinkui Yaolve Fanglun (Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber), and then the state of the formulas were identified.

  1. [Healthcare in marriage and pregnancy in Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-ying; Qu, Jian-feng; Yang, Jin-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Tai Ding Yang Sheng Zhu Lun is a monograph of life-cultivation, written by Wang Gui of the Yuan Dynasty. Wang Gui held that life-cultivation should start from marriage and pregnancy, so paid great attention to them. His thoughts reflected on marriage at an appropriate age, pregnancy at a selected time, emphasizing the health of the foetus, the priority of enriching the mind, timely care of pregnant women, etc. All of these reflect the ancient concepts of eugenics.

  2. Geomorphic Processes and Remote Sensing Signatures of Alluvial Fans in the Kun Lun Mountains, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    1996-01-01

    The timing of alluvial deposition in arid and semiarid areas is tied to land-surface instability caused by regional climate changes. The distribution pattern of dated deposits provides maps of regional land-surface response to past climate change. Sensitivity to differences in surface roughness and composition makes remote sensing techniques useful for regional mapping of alluvial deposits. Radar images from the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory and visible wavelength images from the French SPOT satellite were used to determine remote sensing signatures of alluvial fan units for an area in the Kun Lun Mountains of northwestern China. These data were combined with field observations to compare surface processes and their effects on remote sensing signatures in northwestern China and the southwestern United States. Geomorphic processes affecting alluvial fans in the two areas include aeolian deposition, desert varnish, and fluvial dissection. However, salt weathering is a much more important process in the Kun Lun than in the southwestern United States. This slows the formation of desert varnish and prevents desert pavement from forming. Thus the Kun Lun signatures are characteristic of the dominance of salt weathering, while signatures from the southwestern United States are characteristic of the dominance of desert varnish and pavement processes. Remote sensing signatures are consistent enough in these two regions to be used for mapping fan units over large areas.

  3. Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, E A

    2015-09-01

    Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.

  4. Otto Rank and man's urge to immortality.

    PubMed

    Goldwert, M

    1985-04-01

    Otto Rank, one of Sigmund Freud's original followers, posited the existence of an "urge to immortality" as man's deepest drive. In his Psychology and the Soul, Rank traced the desire for immortality through four historical eras, with particular emphasis on the creativity of the hero and the artist. By the end of his life, Rank had not only repudiated orthodox psychoanalysis and developed then abandoned a psychology of the will, he had moved "beyond psychology" to a religious view of history and the nature of man.

  5. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun.

  6. Satellite Animation Shows Landfall of Hurricane Otto in Nicaragua

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Nov. 22 to Nov. 25 shows Hurricane Otto moving through the southwestern Caribbean Sea and making landfall in southern Nicaragua on Nov. 24....

  7. NASA Animation Shows Hurricane Otto Over 5 Days

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A 5-day movie of NOAA's GOES-East satellite infrared and visible imagery of Hurricane Otto was created by the NASA/NOAA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Th...

  8. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  9. Dr. Otto "Tiger" Freer: inventor and innovator.

    PubMed

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Connor, David E; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Every neurosurgeon develops his or her own standard approach to common intracranial pathologies in terms of the order in which different stages are performed and which instruments are used to perform individual tasks. The majority of the basic steps in performing a craniotomy are learned through repetition and practice during residency training. Significant amounts of energy are devoted to mastering technical skills and developing an operative rhythm. What often receives little attention is the historical origin of the instruments that make the work possible. The Freer elevator represents a particularly interesting example. To people unfamiliar with the accomplishments of turn-of-the-century laryngologist Otto "Tiger" Freer, it can be assumed that the name of the instrument in one's hand is simply named for what it can do, that is, to "free" the nasal mucosa from the bony and cartilaginous septum during the transsphenoidal approach. The technique this master surgeon spent his life and career perfecting is now repeated almost daily by skull base neurosurgeons approaching pathologies from the inferior frontal lobe to the foramen magnum. In reviewing his life and work, the authors of this paper discovered an interesting creative process that led to the design of the eponymous instrument. Additionally, they discovered important advances toward the development of the transnasal approach and in our understanding of the anterior skull base. They present a historical perspective on the life and accomplishments of Dr. Freer and the ubiquitous surgical instrument that he invented and popularized.

  10. Otto Rudolph Ortmann, Music Philosophy, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzol, David J.

    2004-01-01

    What is music? What should be taught when music is taught? How should it be taught? In the early twentieth century, these most foundational questions relating to music education were addressed by the highly regarded, though less well known, educator and researcher, Otto Rudolph Ortmann. In 1922, he published an article in which he outlined a…

  11. Otto Rudolph Ortmann, Music Philosophy, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzol, David J.

    2004-01-01

    What is music? What should be taught when music is taught? How should it be taught? In the early twentieth century, these most foundational questions relating to music education were addressed by the highly regarded, though less well known, educator and researcher, Otto Rudolph Ortmann. In 1922, he published an article in which he outlined a…

  12. [Otto Ulmgren--a distinguished pioneer in oral surgery].

    PubMed

    Nordenram, Ake

    2006-01-01

    Otto Ulmgren (1844-1932) was graduated in 1874 as medical doctor. During sex months in 1875-76 he studied the diseases of teeth, mouth and neck at "Erste Wiener Zahntechnische Schule" in Wien. Then he auscultated at some prominent dental practitionars in Berlin. After that he practised further as dental surgeon in Stockholm. He was strongly engaged to improve dental education and contributed actively for starting the School of Dentistry in Stockholm in 1898. He appointed director of the school and chief of the Department of oral surgery. Otto Ulmgren's doctor's thesis was "Ofversigt af tandläkarekonstens historia" (Survey of the History of Dentistry) in 1877. He also published about 60 scientific articles especially dealing with dental education and oral surgery. Otto Ulmgren was one of the founders of Odontologiska Sällskapet i Stockholm (Dental Society in Stockholm) in 1901 and was its president during the period 1901-21. He was also one of the founders of Sveriges Tandläkareförbund (Dental Association of Sweden) in 1908. He was honorary member of many dental associations. Otto Ulmgren was regarded as a man of principle, an eminent teacher, a skilful clinician and scientist and a strong pioneer of dentistry, particularly in oral surgery. In leisure hours Otto Ulmgren devoted himself to singing and he was a member of the famous men's choir "Orphei drängar". He was also very interested in hunting and had a kennel with hunting dogs. He was appointed honorary member of the Swedish Kennel Club.

  13. [Particular combination of two crude drugs used in six stages in Shang-Han-Lun].

    PubMed

    Katakai, Masumi; Tani, Tadato

    2003-01-01

    In the "Shang-Han-Lun", a famous old formulary in traditional Chinese medicine, the exogennous diseases are classified into six stages of syndromes according to the progress of the illness in general terms for tai-yang, shao-yang, yang-ming, tai-yin, shao-yin and jeu-yin stages. The frequency of particular combinations of two crude drugs used in the six stages of diseases was examined to obtain the guidance in the preparation of new and appropriate formulations for modern medical treatments. The best pairs frequently mentioned in the tai-yang and yang-ming stages were the pair of Glycyrrhizae Preparata Radix (Sha-kanzo in Japanese) and Cinnamomi Ramulus (Keishi in Japanese), and Rhei Rhizoma and Natrii Sulfas, respectively. The characteristic combinations in the shao-yang stage were the pairs containing Scutellariae Radix and Pinelliae Tuber, which is contained in te formulation Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (Sho-saiko-to in Japanese). The pair of Glycyrrhizae Preparata and Radix Paeoniae Radices is the characteristic in the tai-yin stage, which is used for the treatment of muscular spasms and pain. The pair of Aconiti Preparata and Zingiberis Rhizoma is used for the treatment of diarrhea with cold pain in the shao-yin and jue-jin stages. The present results of these crude drugs of pairings will be useful to create a new formulation of crude drugs for modern medical treatment.

  14. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    SciTech Connect

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  15. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  16. Dr. Otto Heinrich Warburg—Survivor of Ethical Storms

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970; not to be confused with the Zionist of the same name) was a member of an illustrious Jewish family, known for some five centuries. From humble beginnings, the family became prominent in the world for their contributions to all aspects of society. The son of a German mother and a Jewish (converted) father, Otto H. Warburg became a major contributor to medical science in the field of cancer research. Considered for Nobel Prize more than once, he finally received it in 1931 for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the cellular respiratory enzyme. Warburg’s personality was controversial: he was intolerant of opposing scientific views yet tolerant toward Nazi abuses. Accused of collaboration under the Nazi regime, Otto H. Warburg was nevertheless readmitted to the global scientific community after World War II. His contribution to cancer research remains influential to this day and has been superseded by discoveries that have built upon his work. PMID:25717390

  17. [Study on processing adjuvant medicines in Lei Gong's treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruixian

    2010-09-01

    There were 268 kinds of medicines recorded in the book of Lei Gong's Treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun). Among these medicines, 178 medicines were prepared with adjuvant medicines, including general and special compatible adjuvant medicines. These adjuvant medicines used in this book can be explained by the theory of "seven-relation compatibility". The author tried to explain the usage and their compatibility of these adjuvant medicines and put forward that attention should be paid to the changes in functions of medicines and the influences of society should be paid attention.

  18. ECUT energy data reference series: Otto cycle engines in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of the Otto cycle engines in transportation is summarized. The transportation modes discussed in this report include the following: automobiles, light trucks, heavy trucks, marine, recreational vehicles, motorcycles, buses, aircraft, and snowmobiles. These modes account for nearly 100% of the gasoline and LPG consumed in transportation engines. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average energy conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles. Estimates are provided for the years 1980 and 2000.

  19. Modeling the complete Otto cycle: Preliminary version. [computer programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  20. The art of living in Otto Rank's Will Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wadlington, Will

    2012-12-01

    Otto Rank's approach to psychotherapy, developed after his separation from Freud, encourages living life fully in spite of death and limitation. In his emphasis on the here and now, new experience in the therapeutic relationship, and collaboration and creativity in the therapy process, Rank was ahead of his time. As a theorist of personality and of creativity, his work is well known, but his influence on the practices of humanistic, existential, and post-psychoanalytic relational therapists is largely unacknowledged. Rank's creative legacy is an approach to psychotherapy that calls forth artistry and collaboration between therapist and client.

  1. Otto von Guericke and 17th century cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    Otto von Guericke's scientific method was based on reason and experimental science. His cosmology was embedded in theology and can be interpreted as a refutation of Descartes' worldview. He used Nicolaus Cusanus' theory of quantities in order to characterize space. The notion of space has to be distinguished from that of world or heaven. Forces play a crucial role in this respect described by Athanasius Kircher in his "Celestial Journey". Guericke read this work very diligently. In spite of some obvious similarities between Guericke's and Newton's scientific aims and methods there are crucial differences between the scientific convictions and results of these scholars.

  2. Isomeric ratio measurements for the radiative neutron capture 176Lu(n ,γ ) at the LANL DANCE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis-Petit, D.; Roig, O.; Méot, V.; Morillon, B.; Romain, P.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    The isomeric ratios for the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) to the Jπ=5 /2- , 761.7 keV, T1 /2=32.8 ns and the Jπ=15 /2+ , 1356.9 keV, T1 /2=11.1 ns levels of 177Lu have been measured for the first time. The experiment was carried out with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measured isomeric ratios are compared with talys calculations using different models for photon strength functions, level densities, and optical potentials. In order to reproduce the experimental γ -ray spectra, a low-energy resonance must be added in the photon strength function used in our Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  3. Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model in a quantum Otto cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakmak, Selçuk; Altintas, Ferdi; E. Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür

    2016-06-01

    The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model of two anisotropically interacting spins in a magnetic field is proposed as a working substance of a quantum Otto engine to explore and exploit the anisotropy effects for the optimization of engine operation. Three different cases for the adiabatic branches of the cycle have been considered. In the first two cases, either the magnetic field or coupling strength are changed while, in the third case, both the magnetic field and the coupling strength are changed by the same ratio. The system parameters for which the engine can operate similar to or dramatically different from the engines of non-interacting spins or of coupled spins with Ising model or isotropic XY model interactions are determined. In particular, the role of anisotropy to enhance cooperative work, and to optimize maximum work with high efficiency, as well as to operate the engine near the Carnot bound are revealed.

  4. The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2006-03-01

    As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

  5. [To explore "the relief time" of diseases involving the six meridians in Shang Han Lun in light of the sequence of three yin and three yang].

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Xue; Cui, Jian

    2008-02-01

    The time of six meridians diseases tending to be cured in Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Diseases) is always one of the key points for study, but up till now no satisfied explanations are made. The authors try to study it on the basis of the theory of "three-yin and three-yang" according to the relationship between human body and the environment.

  6. Combined SPR and SERS: Otto and Kretschmann configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Dominique; Grosges, Thomas; Colas, Florent; Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Combined surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) setup was proposed recently. The experimental setup requires a gold layer deposited on a glass substrate. However, due to the poor ability of sticking gold material on glass, a nanometric adhesion layer is used. In this paper we compare numerically both the SERS gain, and the SPR signal, for metallic and dielectric adhesion layers, for two substrates. We show that even if the dielectric materials can be considered as equivalent for the SPR signal, this is not the case for the SERS gain. In particular the dielectric adhesion layer reduces the sensitivity of the SERS gain to this parameter and therefore their use could be more suitable for the fabrication of the sensor. Moreover the higher the refractive index of substrate with regards to the adhesion layer is, the higher efficiency of setup is obtained, and therefore the Otto configuration seems to be more efficient than the Kretschmann one. Optimization of the thicknesses of the adhesion layer and of the gold layer can lead to a SERS gain greater than 103 without nanostructuring.

  7. [Psychoanalysis and engagement: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians].

    PubMed

    Fisher, D J

    1988-01-01

    This essay is a critique of Russell Jacoby's The repression of psychoanalysis: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians (New York, Basic Books, 1983), translated into French by P.U.F. Jacoby depicts Fenichel and his circle of colleagues as political Freudians whose early years were decisively colored by radical youth movements, leftwing politics, the early inspiration of the Russian Revolution, a serious immersion in Marxist culture, a commitment to either socialist or communist parties, and a desire to integrate classical psychoanalysis into a a broader framework of Marxist social theorizing. He centers his book around the archival discovery of the Rundbriefe, 119 circular letters written during Fenichel's exile from 1934 to 1945. He discusses the impact of Wilhelm Reich's ideas and career on the Fenichel circle. Fascism and exile from Europe shattered the lives and commitments of the political Freudians. This essay focuses on Jacoby's use and abuse of the concepts of Americanization, medicalization, the competition from the neo-Freudians, and the apparent silence and "self-repression" of this group's past and leftwing identity once in America. It concludes with a critical analysis of Fenichel's psychoanalytic ethic, which, while engagé, was not Marxist. Fenichel was oriented toward contributing to both psychoanalytic practice and theory. His ethic precluded the intrusion of politics into clinical work, supervision, and teaching.

  8. The Otto thermodynamic cycle using the magnetic molecule Ni2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Dong, Chuanding; Lefkidis, Georgios

    2012-02-01

    In order to design realistic molecular heat engines, the study of quantum thermodynamics is essential since classical thermodynamics does not apply in this extreme miniaturization limit [1,2]. Realizing a thermodynamic cycle on an existing magnetic molecule embodies a novel and unique approach to understand and exploit the thermodynamic properties of spin at the molecular level.Here we propose an Otto cycle in the Ni2 dimer based on a fully ab-initio calculation of the electronic states and the perturbative inclusion of spin-orbit coupling. A laser pulse, described by the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation, is used to heat the Ni2 dimer. The pulse not only excites the electrons to higher, many-body electronic states, but also influences the spin of the system due to spin-orbit coupling. Using a low-temperature thermal bath the system is cooled back to the ground state. The adiabatic work exchange between the Ni2 and the environment is described by the quasi-static expansion or compression of the bond length of the dimer. The calculated efficiency of the cycle is up to 34%.[1] T. D. Kieu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 140403 (2004)[2] H. T. Quan, Phys. Rev. E 79 041129 (2009)[3] T. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. A 75 062102 (2007)

  9. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  10. Prediction of B1 to B10 phase transition in LuN under pressure: An ab-initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, B. D.; Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-01

    Ab-initio total energy calculations have been performed in lutetium nitride (LuN) as a function of hydrostatic compression to understand the high pressure behavior of this compound. Our calculations predict a phase transition from ambient rocksalt type structure (B1 phase) to a tetragonal structure (B10 phase) at ~ 240 GPa. The phase transition has been identified as first order in nature with volume discontinuity of ~ 6%. The predicted high pressure phase has been found to be stable up to at least 400 GPa, the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed.Further, to substantiate the results of static lattice calculations analysis of lattice dynamic stability of B1 and B10 phase has been carried out at different pressures. Apart from this, we have analyzed the lattice dynamic stability CsCl type (B2) phase around the 240 GPa, the pressure reported for B1 to B2 transition in previous all-electron calculations by Gupta et al. 2013. We find that the B2 structure is lattice dynamically unstable at this pressure and remains unstable up to ~ 400 GPa, ruling out the possibility of B1 to B2 phase transition at least up to ~ 400 GPa. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of B1 phase at ambient conditions.

  11. Prediction of B1 to B10 phase transition in LuN under pressure: An ab-initio investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, B. D. Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-23

    Ab-initio total energy calculations have been performed in lutetium nitride (LuN) as a function of hydrostatic compression to understand the high pressure behavior of this compound. Our calculations predict a phase transition from ambient rocksalt type structure (B1 phase) to a tetragonal structure (B10 phase) at ~ 240 GPa. The phase transition has been identified as first order in nature with volume discontinuity of ~ 6%. The predicted high pressure phase has been found to be stable up to at least 400 GPa, the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed.Further, to substantiate the results of static lattice calculations analysis of lattice dynamic stability of B1 and B10 phase has been carried out at different pressures. Apart from this, we have analyzed the lattice dynamic stability CsCl type (B2) phase around the 240 GPa, the pressure reported for B1 to B2 transition in previous all-electron calculations by Gupta et al. 2013. We find that the B2 structure is lattice dynamically unstable at this pressure and remains unstable up to ~ 400 GPa, ruling out the possibility of B1 to B2 phase transition at least up to ~ 400 GPa. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of B1 phase at ambient conditions.

  12. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves

    PubMed Central

    Swengel, Ann B.; Swengel, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988–2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin), divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops) than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire) compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others’ butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s). In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent need to

  13. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves.

    PubMed

    Swengel, Ann B; Swengel, Scott R

    2013-11-20

    We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988-2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin), divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops) than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire) compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others' butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s). In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent need to identify

  14. Revision of sternaspis otto, 1821 (polychaeta, sternaspidae).

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2013-01-01

    To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi Caullery

  15. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi

  16. Otto refrigerator based on a superconducting qubit: Classical and quantum performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    We analyze a quantum Otto refrigerator based on a superconducting qubit coupled to two L C resonators, each including a resistor acting as a reservoir. We find various operation regimes: nearly adiabatic (low driving frequency), ideal Otto cycle (intermediate frequency), and nonadiabatic coherent regime (high frequency). In the nearly adiabatic regime, the cooling power is quadratic in frequency, and we find a substantially enhanced coefficient of performance ɛ , as compared to that of an ideal Otto cycle. Quantum coherent effects lead invariably to a decrease in both cooling power and ɛ as compared to purely classical dynamics. In the nonadiabatic regime we observe strong coherent oscillations of the cooling power as a function of frequency. We investigate various driving wave forms: Compared to the standard sinusoidal drive, a truncated trapezoidal drive with optimized rise and dwell times yields higher cooling power and efficiency.

  17. Performance analysis and parametric optimum criteria of an irreversible Bose-Otto engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Sanqiu; He, Jizhou

    2009-04-01

    An irreversible cycle model of a Bose-Otto engine is established, in which finite time thermodynamic processes and the irreversibility result from the nonisentropic compression and expansion processes are taken into account. Based on the model, expressions for the power output and efficiency of the Bose-Otto engine are derived. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of ideal Bose gas, the effects of the irreversibility and the compression ratio of the two isochoric processes on the performance of the Bose-Otto engine are revealed and some important performance parameters are optimized. Furthermore, some optimal operating regions including those for the power output, efficiency, and the temperatures of the cyclic working substance at two important state points are determined and evaluated. Finally, several special cases are discussed in detail.

  18. Tunable nano-pattern generation and photolithography using hybrid Kretschmann and Otto structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuyang; Wang, Chinhua; Hu, Jingpei

    2016-10-01

    We propose a continuous tuning SPPs interference photolithography using hybrid Kretschmann and Otto structures. The patterns are formed by the interference of two kinds of SPPs excited by Kretschmann structure and Otto structure respectively, and the tuning capability is implemented by changing the angle between the two kinds of SPPs beams and varying the amplitude and phase of corresponding incident beams. Numerical results show the flexibility and convenience in tuning of interference patterns and resolutions with high contrast, both one and two dimension periodic patterns can be generated and tuned easily. This proposed method is possible to develop a new tunable SPPs photolithography technique for fabrication of periodic nanostructures.

  19. Otto Schmitt's contributions to basic and applied biomedical engineering and to the profession.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Otto Schmitt was one of the early giants in biomedical engineering. Best known in engineering circles for the Schmitt Trigger, he also made many other significant scientific contributions. Besides his scientific work Otto was involved in early organizational activities, which included the first large professional BME meeting in Minneapolis in 1958. A description of his many contributions will be presented along with a short video of Schmitt giving a tour of his laboratory, including the original Schmitt Trigger and the model he used to develop his vector ECG system.

  20. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  1. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  2. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... described in this section do not apply to Otto-cycle medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) that are...

  3. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  4. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  5. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  6. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  7. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  8. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  9. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  10. Otto Peters on Distance Education: The Industrialization of Teaching and Learning. Routledge Studies in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains new and previously published translations of 11 essays and articles about the industrialization of teaching and learning in distance education that were originally published in German by Otto Peters between 1965 and 1993. A "Preface" (Desmond Keegan) and an introduction placing Peters' writings in their historical…

  11. Enhancing Otto-Mobile Efficiency via Addition of a Quantum Carnot Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opatrný, Tomáš; Scully, Marlan O.

    2003-09-01

    It was shown recently that one can improve the efficiency of the Otto cycle by taking advantage of the internal degrees of freedom of an ideal gas [M. O. Scully, “The Quantum Afterburner”, Phys. Rev. Lett., to be published]. Here we discuss the limiting improvement of the efficiency by considering reversible cycles with both internal and external degrees of freedom.

  12. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  13. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  14. Damned Lies. And Statistics. Otto Neurath and Soviet Propaganda in the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chizlett, Clive

    1992-01-01

    Examines the philosophical and historical context in which Otto Neurath (1882-1945) worked. Examines critically (in the light of descriptive statistics) the principles of his Isotype Picture Language. Tests Neurath's personal credibility and scientific integrity by looking at his contributions to Soviet propaganda in the early 1930s. (SR)

  15. Damned Lies. And Statistics. Otto Neurath and Soviet Propaganda in the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chizlett, Clive

    1992-01-01

    Examines the philosophical and historical context in which Otto Neurath (1882-1945) worked. Examines critically (in the light of descriptive statistics) the principles of his Isotype Picture Language. Tests Neurath's personal credibility and scientific integrity by looking at his contributions to Soviet propaganda in the early 1930s. (SR)

  16. Otto Peters on Distance Education: The Industrialization of Teaching and Learning. Routledge Studies in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains new and previously published translations of 11 essays and articles about the industrialization of teaching and learning in distance education that were originally published in German by Otto Peters between 1965 and 1993. A "Preface" (Desmond Keegan) and an introduction placing Peters' writings in their historical…

  17. Development and application of a new lead-free steel for making distributor parts of Otto engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, A. A.

    2012-07-01

    Results of the development and introduction into commercial production of lead-free fine-machining steel to replace the lead-bearing steel AS45G2 for making distributor spindles and cams of automotive Otto engines are presented.

  18. Spin-dependent Otto quantum heat engine based on a molecular substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, W.; Lefkidis, G.; Dong, C. D.; Chaudhuri, D.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J.

    2014-07-01

    We explore the potential of single molecules for thermodynamic cycles. To this end we propose two molecular heat engines based on the Ni2 dimer in the presence of a static magnetic field: (a) a quantum Otto engine and (b) a modified quantum Otto engine for which optical excitations induced by a laser pulse substitute for one of the heat-exchange points. For reliable predictions and to inspect the role of spin and electronic correlations we perform fully correlated ab initio calculations of the molecular electronic structure including spin-orbital effects. We analyze the efficiency of the engines in dependence of the electronic level scheme and the entanglement and find a significant possible enhancement connected to the quantum nature and the heat capacity of the dimer, as well as to the zero-field triplet states splitting.

  19. Performance analysis and parametric optimum criteria of a regeneration Bose-Otto engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Sanqiu; Du, Jianqiang

    2009-05-01

    A general regenerative model of the Otto engine cycle working with an ideal Bose gas is used to discuss the influence of quantum degeneracy, regeneration and finite rate heat transfer on the performance of the cycle. Based on the model, expressions for some important parameters, such as the power output and efficiency of the Bose-Otto engine cycle, are derived analytically. By means of numerical calculation and illustration, the influence of the compression ratio of the two isochoric processes and the regenerator effectiveness on the performance of the cycle are discussed and evaluated in detail. Moreover, the general optimal performance characteristics of the cycle are revealed. This analysis could provide a general theoretical tool for the optimal design and operation of real power plants.

  20. Spin-dependent Otto quantum heat engine based on a molecular substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Lefkidis, Georgios; Dong, Chuanding; Chaudhuri, Debapriya; Chotorlishvili, Levan; Berakdar, Jamal

    2015-03-01

    We explore the potential of single molecules for thermodynamic cycles. To this end we propose two molecular heat engines based on the realistic Ni2 dimer: a quantum Otto engine and a modified quantum Otto engine for which laser-induced optical excitations substitute for one of the heat-exchange points. For reliable predictions and to inspect the role of spin and electronic correlations we perform fully correlated ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and the excited states. We analyze the efficiency and the word output of the derived engines and find an enhancement when the spin degree of freedom is included. We also use the von Neumann entropy to describe correlations and entanglement of the engines during the cycles. Furthermore, we link our results to previous results regarding an isobaric stroke and a magnetic quantum Diesel engine on the same substance.

  1. Performance Assessment of the OTTO Hurricane with Invisio V60 and Sonic Defenders EP4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    devices were designed for those who want to maintain natural hearing while protecting their ears from impulse and continuous noises like gunfire...noise attenuation, sound localization, and speech intelligibility. The OTTO Hurricane with Invisio V60 and Sonic Defenders EP4 earplugs caused...electronic hearing protection devices have been designed to allow for enhanced communication and situational awareness, while at the same time protecting the

  2. Developmental Toxicity of OTTO Fuel II in the Rat and Rabbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    metabolism in the evaluated by Smith in 1953.’ In this study , 20 male blood, in vitro studies indicate that this metabolism and female rats were...48 torpedoes. - I Owing to the possibility of human exposure during fueling and defueling operations, studies were initiated - to determine if OFII...Additional studies by Clark indicated that ca. 10% of topically applied PGDN is absorbed through the skin of this OTTO Fuel II (OFII) is composed of 76

  3. Efficiency at maximum power for an Otto engine with ideal feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honghui; He, Jizhou; Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi

    2016-10-01

    We propose an Otto heat engine that undergoes processes involving a special class of feedback and analyze theoretically its response. We use stochastic thermodynamics to determine the performance characteristics of the heat engine and indicate the possibility that its maximum efficiency can surpass the Carnot value. The analytical expression for efficiency at maximum power, including the effects resulting from feedback, reduces to that previously derived based on an engine without feedback.

  4. Otto Hahn (1879-1968): pioneer in radiochemistry and discoverer of radiotherapeutic mesothorium.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Kyrgias, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Karamanou, Marianna; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Androutsos, George

    2014-01-01

    Otto Hahn was a German innovative chemist. He had discovered various radioactive elements, as well as the nuclear fission. He finally received the Nobel Prize for his participation in the atomic energy project, which Hahn and others considered that could be a factor used for peaceful means like cheap electricity and cheap industrial products. His greatest discovery though in oncology was mesothorium, a radioactive element that had been used to treat all cancer types at the beginning of the 20th century.

  5. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. P.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Friedrich, B.; Lower, J. C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  6. Obstacle course: users' maneuverability and movement efficiency when using Otto Bock C-Leg, Otto Bock 3R60, and CaTech SNS prosthetic knee joints.

    PubMed

    Meier, Margrit R; Hansen, Andrew H; Gard, Steven A; McFadyen, Angus K

    2012-01-01

    The performance and movement efficiency of prosthesis users while traversing a multisectional obstacle course (OC) were evaluated using a crossover design with random allocation of three prosthetic knee joints: the SNS (CaTech; Dayton, Ohio) the C-Leg (Otto Bock; Duderstadt, Germany), and the 3R60 (Otto Bock). Twelve users completed the OC twice with each joint, once without and once with a mental loading task (MLT). The performance was objectively assessed using time measurement from digital video recordings, and the Total Heart Beat Index was used to estimate movement efficiency. A 1 mo familiarization period was provided for each knee joint before data collection. It took longer to complete the OC with the 3R60 compared with either the SNS or the C-Leg. No significant time differences were found between the C-Leg and the SNS, but differences between the 3R60 and the SNS (slalom and rock sections) and between the 3R60 and the C-Leg (rock section) were observed. Within the simulated sand section, two participants fell with the C-Leg, one with the 3R60, and none with the SNS. Movement efficiency without MLT was similar between all joints, but with an MLT a significant decrease in movement efficiency was observed with the C-Leg. Previous experience using an SNS had no influence on the results.

  7. Negentropy as a source of efficiency: a nonequilibrium quantum Otto cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai; Zou, Jian; Yu, Wen-Li; Li, Lin; Xu, Bao-Ming; Shao, Bin

    2013-07-01

    We consider a single quantum mechanical particle confined to an one-dimensional (1D) infinite square well, and propose a nonequilibrium quantum Otto cycle (NQOC). Compared with the conventional quantum Otto engine (CQOE) investigated by [T.D. Kieu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 140403 (2004); T.D. Kieu, Eur. Phys. J. D 39, 115 (2006)], due to the effects of negentropy produced in the NQOC, many interesting features appear: (1) in general, the NQOC is capable of extracting more work, so it is more efficient; (2) the NQOC can operate even when T 1 = T 2 or T 1 < T 2, where T 1 ( T 2) represents the temperature of hot (cold) bath; (3) in some cases, the NQOC can absorb heat from both baths and completely transforms them into work. These results demonstrate that the negentropy can be understood as an effective source of efficiency in quantum heat engines (QHEs) and meanwhile it is shown that the second law of thermodynamics is not violated. At last, we also show that the efficiency of NQOC reduces to that of classical Otto cycle in the classical limit.

  8. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  9. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  10. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  11. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  12. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  13. Analysis of a quantum irreversible Otto cycle with exergetic sustainable index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalkıran, Alper; Açıkkalp, Emin; Caner, Necmettin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, exergetic sustainability index is applied to quantum irreversible Otto cycle with -1/2 spin system. Exergetic sustainability index in a quantum engine is used first time. This index is the ratio of exergy output (work output for a thermal engine) to total exergetic losses. It gives an opportunity to evaluate for all thermodynamic losses in the system, that is why, it is an important index. In addition, some thermodynamic parameters (work output, exergy destruction, first and second law efficiencies) are considered and their relationships between the exergetic sustainability index are determined.

  14. Sound vibration signal processing for detection and identification detonation (knock) to optimize performance Otto engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujono, A.; Santoso, B.; Juwana, W. E.

    2016-03-01

    Problems of detonation (knock) on Otto engine (petrol engine) is completely unresolved problem until now, especially if want to improve the performance. This research did sound vibration signal processing engine with a microphone sensor, for the detection and identification of detonation. A microphone that can be mounted is not attached to the cylinder block, that's high temperature, so that its performance will be more stable, durable and inexpensive. However, the method of analysis is not very easy, because a lot of noise (interference). Therefore the use of new methods of pattern recognition, through filtration, and the regression function normalized envelope. The result is quite good, can achieve a success rate of about 95%.

  15. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  16. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto cycle within finite-time or irreversible thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.

  17. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto cycle within finite-time or irreversible thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures Th and Tc (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.

  18. Performance Evaluation on Otto Engine Generator Using Gasoline and Biogas from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Husaini, T.; Sitio, A.; Sitorus, TB

    2017-06-01

    Biogas is a flammable gas produced from the fermentation of organic materials by anaerobic bacteria originating from household waste manure and organic waste including palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is mainly discharged from the sterilization unit of palm oil processing into crude palm oil. This study utilized biogas produced from liquid waste palm oil for use as fuel in the Otto engine generator 4 - stroke, type STARKE GFH1900LX with a peak power of 1.3 kW, 1.0 kW average power, bore 55 mm, stroke 40 mm, Vd 95 × 10-6 m3, Vc 10 × 10-6 m3, compression ratio of 10.5 : 1, and the number of cylinders = 1. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of Otto engine generator fueled with biogas that generated from POME, then comparing its performance fueled by gasoline. The performance included power, torque, specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, and the air-fuel ratio. Experiment was conducted by using a variation of the lamp load of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 W. The results revealed that the use of biogas as fuel decreased in power, torque, brake thermal efficiency, and air fuel ratio (AFR), while there is an increasing of value specific fuel consumption (SFC).

  19. Maximum cycle work output optimization for generalized radiative law Otto cycle engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaojun; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-11-01

    An Otto cycle internal combustion engine which includes thermal and friction losses is investigated by finite-time thermodynamics, and the optimization objective is the maximum cycle work output. The thermal energy transfer from the working substance to the cylinder inner wall follows the generalized radiative law (q∝Δ (Tn)). Under the condition that all of the fuel consumption, the compression ratio and the cycle period are given, the optimal piston trajectories for both the examples with unlimited and limited accelerations on every stroke are determined, and the cycle-period distribution among all strokes is also optimized. Numerical calculation results for the case of radiative law are provided and compared with those obtained for the cases of Newtonian law and linear phenomenological law. The results indicate that the optimal piston trajectory on each stroke contains three sections, which consist of an original maximum-acceleration and a terminal maximum-deceleration parts; for the case of radiative law, optimizing the piston motion path can achieve an improvement of more than 20% in both the cycle-work output and the second-law efficiency of the Otto cycle compared with the conventional near-sinusoidal operation, and heat transfer mechanisms have both qualitative and quantitative influences on the optimal paths of piston movements.

  20. Quantum Otto heat engine based on a multiferroic chain working substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi, M.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Vekua, T.; Hübner, W.; Berakdar, J.

    2014-06-01

    We study a quantum Otto engine operating on the basis of a helical spin-1/2 multiferroic chain with strongly coupled magnetic and ferroelectric order parameters. The presence of a finite spin chirality in the working substance enables steering of the cycle by an external electric field that couples to the electric polarization. We observe a direct connection between the chirality, the entanglement and the efficiency of the engine. An electric-field dependent threshold temperature is identified, above which the pair correlations in the system, as quantified by the thermal entanglement, diminish. In contrast to the pair correlations, the collective many-body thermal entanglement is less sensitive to the electric field, and in the high temperature limit converges to a constant value. We also discuss the correlations between the threshold temperature of the pair entanglement, the spin chirality and the minimum of the fidelities in relation to the electric and magnetic fields. The efficiency of the quantum Otto cycle shows a saturation plateau with increasing electric field amplitude.

  1. Confusion of wills: Otto Rank's contribution to an understanding of childism.

    PubMed

    Barbre, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's psychological and psychodynamic study of prejudice as a starting point, this paper explores the phenomenon of childism-namely, the prejudice again children-from a Rankian psychodynamic perspective. Young-Bruehl argues that childism is comparable to prejudices such as anti-Semitism, sexism, and racism, and serves such purposes as the elimination of an individual's personhood, sexual exploitation, and the erasure of identity. Adding to Young-Bruehl's analysis of the social and psychological causes and effects of prejudice against children, this paper will examine the nature and dangers of childism explicit and implicit in the writings of Otto Rank. We will examine the development of creative will in child maturation-a development that childist forms of prejudice may obstruct, inhibit, and compromise. We will see that Young-Bruehl's foundational writing on childism echoes many of the observations and writings of Otto Rank in regard to the prejudice against children, and how such prejudice deeply diminishes, undermines, and fractures our unfolding lives and creative will in a shared world.

  2. Otto von Gericke (1602-1686) and his pioneering vacuum experiments.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor

    2007-11-01

    The German scholar Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) is regarded as one of the most prominent figures of the scientific revolution in the 17th century. A politician, physicist, engineer, and natural philosopher, von Guericke invented the world's first air pump in 1650. By performing and interpreting some pioneering vacuum experiments, he made important contributions to the basic principles of the physics of fluids and gases. He is most recognized for his so-called Magdeburg experiments, in which two copper hemispheres were placed together, the interior evacuated, and two teams of horses were unable to pull the evacuated hemispheres apart until the air was readmitted. In this way in 1654 he first demonstrated the enormous power of the atmosphere. Through this and other experiments, Otto von Guericke significantly contributed to the understanding of high altitude physiology, and was the first to experiment with an artificial vacuum. However, it took more than three centuries before his pioneering book, Experimenta Nova Magdeburgica de Vacua Spatio (1672), was translated into English in 1994, bringing his genius, scientific ideas, and philosophical understanding to a wider audience.

  3. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and may be required for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Procedures for...-fueled vehicles and may be required for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto...

  4. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and may be required for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Procedures for...-fueled vehicles and may be required for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto...

  5. Jung's twin brother. Otto Gross and Carl Gustav Jung. With an hitherto unpublished letter by C. G. Jung.

    PubMed

    Heuer, G

    2001-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary communication of several years of research into the life and work of the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross (1877-1920). Although he played a pivotal role in the birth of modernity, acting as a significant influence upon psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethics, sociology and literature, he has remained virtually unknown to this day. Following a biographical sketch and an overview of his main theoretical contributions, the impact of Gross' life and work on the development of analytical theory and practice is described. His relationship with some of the key figures in psychoanalysis is presented, with particular emphasis on his connections to Jung. The paper concludes with an account of relevant contemporary interest in his work: the founding of the International Otto Gross Society, the first edition of The Collected Works of Otto Gross on the Internet, and the 1st and 2nd International Otto Gross Congresses which took place in Berlin in 1999 and at the Burghölzli Clinic, Zürich, in October 2000.

  6. Warburg effect(s)-a biographical sketch of Otto Warburg and his impacts on tumor metabolism.

    PubMed

    Otto, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually everyone working in cancer research is familiar with the "Warburg effect", i.e., anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen in tumor cells. However, few people nowadays are aware of what lead Otto Warburg to the discovery of this observation and how his other scientific contributions are seminal to our present knowledge of metabolic and energetic processes in cells. Since science is a human endeavor, and a scientist is imbedded in a network of social and academic contacts, it is worth taking a glimpse into the biography of Otto Warburg to illustrate some of these influences and the historical landmarks in his life. His creative and innovative thinking and his experimental virtuosity set the framework for his scientific achievements, which were pioneering not only for cancer research. Here, I shall allude to the prestigious family background in imperial Germany; his relationships to Einstein, Meyerhof, Krebs, and other Nobel and notable scientists; his innovative technical developments and their applications in the advancement of biomedical sciences, including the manometer, tissue slicing, and cell cultivation. The latter were experimental prerequisites for the first metabolic measurements with tumor cells in the 1920s. In the 1930s-1940s, he improved spectrophotometry for chemical analysis and developed the optical tests for measuring activities of glycolytic enzymes. Warburg's reputation brought him invitations to the USA and contacts with the Rockefeller Foundation; he received the Nobel Prize in 1931. World politics and world wars heavily affected Warburg's scientific survival in Berlin. But, after his second postwar recovery, Warburg's drive for unraveling the energetic processes of life, both in plants and in tumor cells, continued until his death in 1970. The legacy of Otto Warburg is not only the Warburg effect, but also the identification of the "respiratory ferment" and hydrogen-transferring cofactors and the isolation of glycolytic enzymes

  7. Cool extremities, a diagnostic sign recorded in Shang Han Lun, still good prognosis index for septic patients in today's medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yen; Lin, Sunny Jui-Shan; Chang, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chien-Jung; Tsai, Chen-Chen; Su, Yi-Chang

    2014-09-24

    To evaluate and compare the predictive value of the physical signs mentioned by ZHANG Zhong-jing in Treatise on Cold Damaged Diseases (Shang Han Lun), together with other clinically determined diagnostic scores and laboratory values in modern medicine on 28-day mortality in septic patients. Three-year prospective observation was conducted in medical intensive care unit in two local community hospitals. In all, 126 patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock were consecutively enrolled. Ten diagnostic signs (lack of fever, lethargy, delirium, clammy skin, mottled skin, edematous limbs, cool extremities, threadlike pulse, tachycardia, and abdominal distension), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, cardiovascular component (CV score) in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) score and blood sampled for cytokine measurement, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18, were collected within 24 h after admission. Main outcome was 28-day mortality; independent predictors were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Significant correlation between lack of fever, cool extremities, abdominal distension, plasma IL-10 level and mortality emerged. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for cool extremities (0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.82, P<0.01) and IL-10 (0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.66-0.83, P<0.01) indicated comparable discrimination between survivors and non-survivors. Assessment of cool extremities in septic patients, which showed comparable discriminant ability as IL-10, proves prognostic value of diagnostic signs recorded in Treatise on Cold Damaged Diseases, and may provide a quicker, easily-observed, and non-invasive predictor of sepsis mortality.

  8. [On iatrochemistry, one of its prominent supporters, Otto Tachen, and his principal work].

    PubMed

    Asholt, O

    1997-01-01

    A survey is given of the transition in the 1600-years from superstition, humoral pathology, astrology, alchemy to spagyric medicine - the Paracelsian revolutionary new medicine: iatrochemistry. A number of persons are mentioned who participated in the proces where the old mingled with the new. The efforts of developping a chemistry necessary for iatrochemistry resulted in a great interest in tectbooks and courses in chemistry as well as spagyric pharmacopoeas. The most important persons in this work are mentioned aming whom a rather unknown-but nevertheless significant physician, Otto Tachen, is particularly described. His work and writings are mentioned and commented-especially his main work: "Antiwuissimae Hippocratiocae medicinae clavis". The provenance of my copy of thes book is related. Tho persons with relation to Denmark are met with: the count Christian Albert of Gottorp and Helwig Bieterich that in a periode the doctor of the crownprince of Denmark (the som of Christian IV).

  9. Much Polyphony but Little Harmony: Otto Sackur's Groping for a Quantum Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badino, Massimiliano; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2013-09-01

    The endeavor of Otto Sackur (1880-1914) was driven, on the one hand, by his interest in Nernst's heat theorem, statistical mechanics, and the problem of chemical equilibrium and, on the other hand, by his goal to shed light on classical mechanics from the quantum vantage point. Inspired by the interplay between classical physics and quantum theory, Sackur chanced to expound his personal take on the role of the quantum in the changing landscape of physics in the turbulent 1910s. We tell the story of this enthusiastic practitioner of the old quantum theory and early contributor to quantum statistical mechanics, whose scientific ontogenesis provides a telling clue about the phylogeny of his contemporaries.

  10. Squeezing as the source of inefficiency in the quantum Otto cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagoskin, A. M.; Savel'ev, S.; Nori, Franco; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2012-07-01

    The availability of controllable macroscopic devices, which maintain quantum coherence over relatively long time intervals, for the first time allows an experimental realization of many effects previously considered only as gedanken experiments, such as the operation of quantum heat engines. The theoretical efficiency η of quantum heat engines is restricted by the same Carnot boundary ηC as for the classical ones: any deviations from quasistatic evolution suppressing η below ηC. Here we investigate an implementation of an analog of the Otto cycle in a tunable quantum coherent circuit and show that the specific source of inefficiency is the quantum squeezing of the thermal state due to the finite speed of compression/expansion of the system.

  11. Quantum Otto engine with exchange coupling in the presence of level degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Venu; Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2017-09-01

    We consider a quasistatic quantum Otto cycle using two effectively two-level systems with degeneracy in the excited state. The systems are coupled through isotropic exchange interaction of strength J >0 , in the presence of an external magnetic field B which is varied during the cycle. We prove the positive work condition and show that level degeneracy can act as a thermodynamic resource, so that a larger amount of work can be extracted than in the nondegenerate case, both with and without coupling. We also derive an upper bound for the efficiency of the cycle. This bound is the same as derived for a system of coupled spin-1/2 particles [G. Thomas and R. S. Johal, Phys. Rev. E 83, 031135 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.031135], i.e., without degeneracy, and depends only on the control parameters of the Hamiltonian, being independent of the level degeneracy and the reservoir temperatures.

  12. Quantum Otto cycle with inner friction: finite-time and disorder effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecce, A.; Galve, F.; Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.; Plastina, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of inner friction, by which a quantum heat engine is unable to follow adiabatically its strokes and thus dissipates useful energy, is illustrated in an exact physical model where the working substance consists of an ensemble of misaligned spins interacting with a magnetic field and performing the Otto cycle. The effect of this static disorder under a finite-time cycle gives a new perspective of the concept of inner friction under realistic settings. We investigate the efficiency and power of this engine and relate its performance to the amount of friction from misalignment and to the temperature difference between heat baths. Finally we propose an alternative experimental implementation of the cycle where the spin is encoded in the degree of polarization of photons.

  13. Single-ion quantum Otto engine with always-on bath interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Suman; Biswas, Asoka

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate how the reciprocating heat cycle of a quantum Otto engine (QOE) can be implemented using a single ion and an always-on thermal environment. The internal degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as the working fluid, while the motional degree of freedom can be used as the cold bath. We show, that by adiabatically changing the local magnetic field, the work efficiency can be asymptotically made unity. We propose a projective measurement of the internal state of the ion that mimics the release of heat from the working fluid during the engine cycle. In our proposal, the coupling to the hot and the cold baths need not be switched off and on in an alternate fashion during the engine cycle, unlike other existing proposals of QOE. This renders the proposal experimentally feasible using the available tapped-ion engineering technology.

  14. Thermal entanglement in two-atom cavity QED and the entangled quantum Otto engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Sanqiu; He, Jizhou

    2009-04-01

    The simple system of two two-level identical atoms couple to single-mode optical cavity in the resonance case is studied for investigating the thermal entanglement. It is interesting to see that the critical temperature is only dependent on the coefficient of atom-atom dipole-dipole interaction. Based on the mode, we construct and investigate a entangled quantum Otto engine (QOE). Expressions for several important performance parameters such as the heat transferred, the work done in a cycle, and the efficiency of the entangled QOE in zero G are derived in terms of thermal concurrence. Some intriguing features and their qualitative explanations are given. Furthermore, the validity of the second law of thermodynamics is confirmed in the entangled QOE. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful to understand deeply the performance of an entangled QOE.

  15. Quantum Otto engine of a two-level atom with single-mode fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi; He, Jizhou

    2012-04-01

    We establish a quantum Otto engine (QOE) of a two-level atom, which is confined in a one-dimensional (1D) harmonic trap and is coupled to single-mode radiation fields. Besides two adiabatic processes, the QOE cycle consists of two isochoric processes, along one of which the two-level atom as the working substance interacts with a single-mode radiation field. Based on the semigroup approach, we derive the time for completing any adiabatic process and then present a performance analysis of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a QOE of a single two-level atom trapped in a 1D power-law potential. Our result shows that the efficiency at maximum power output is dependent on the trap exponent θ but is independent of the energy spectrum index σ.

  16. Quantum Otto engine of a two-level atom with single-mode fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi; He, Jizhou

    2012-04-01

    We establish a quantum Otto engine (QOE) of a two-level atom, which is confined in a one-dimensional (1D) harmonic trap and is coupled to single-mode radiation fields. Besides two adiabatic processes, the QOE cycle consists of two isochoric processes, along one of which the two-level atom as the working substance interacts with a single-mode radiation field. Based on the semigroup approach, we derive the time for completing any adiabatic process and then present a performance analysis of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a QOE of a single two-level atom trapped in a 1D power-law potential. Our result shows that the efficiency at maximum power output is dependent on the trap exponent θ but is independent of the energy spectrum index σ.

  17. Thermal entanglement in two-atom cavity QED and the entangled quantum Otto engine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Sanqiu; He, Jizhou

    2009-04-01

    The simple system of two two-level identical atoms couple to single-mode optical cavity in the resonance case is studied for investigating the thermal entanglement. It is interesting to see that the critical temperature is only dependent on the coefficient of atom-atom dipole-dipole interaction. Based on the mode, we construct and investigate a entangled quantum Otto engine (QOE). Expressions for several important performance parameters such as the heat transferred, the work done in a cycle, and the efficiency of the entangled QOE in zero G are derived in terms of thermal concurrence. Some intriguing features and their qualitative explanations are given. Furthermore, the validity of the second law of thermodynamics is confirmed in the entangled QOE. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful to understand deeply the performance of an entangled QOE.

  18. Person-Environment Mergence and Separation: Otto Rank's Psychology of Emotion, Personality, and Culture.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Between 1924 and 1939 Otto Rank put forward three major elements of a comprehensive theoretical edifice that has yet to be fully articulated. These are conceptually linked by the fundamental importance of person-environment mergence and separation. Rank's theory of emotions highlights anxiety as the affect of separation, and guilt as the feeling that binds the individual to others. His personality theory distinguishes between the partialist, who responds to life fear with identification, and the totalist, who responds to death fear with projection. His cultural psychology contrasts primal collectivism with contemporary individualism, which orients the person toward individual immortality striving. Individualism has produced problematic self-consciousness and neuroticism, in the face of which Rank struggled to find a new psychology.

  19. Life and Achievement of Otto von Guericke as a Pioneer of Vacuum Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Akira

    Scientific achievement of Otto von Guericke was very remarkable, but it was not introduced in detail in Japan. This was due to his demonstrating experiment with Magdeburug hemisphere using horses was too famous. Therefore, the author wrote in chapter 1, a brief overview of the literature already published in Japan about Guericke and the time he lived in. Chapter 2 will describe his entire life including administrative and political contributions to the city of Magdeburg. Chapter 3 will be used to provide the reader with information on Guericke's activities as physicist, drawing materials from his book. In chapter 4, the author concludes to remark the work to be done in future to obtain clearer description.

  20. [Textual research on decipher of"prescriptions for treating children's head sore"from Zhi re bing yao lun (Essentials on Treatment of Febrile Diseases) in the Western Xia regime].

    PubMed

    Tang, X L; Liu, J Y

    2016-03-01

    There were 3 prescriptions for treating children's head sore, инв6476-28, 29, 30 preserved in Russia, included in the Zhi re bing yao lun (Essentials on Treatment of Febrile Diseases), a medical literature of the Western Xia regime. Based on the correlated relationship between the Tangut language and the Chinese characters, the 3 prescriptions were translated into Chinese, and then compared with Chinese medical documents. It could be seen that medical system in the Western Xia regime had an inseparable relationship with that of the Han nationality, while keeping the features of the northwestern nomadic nationalities at the same time.

  1. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in § 86.1230...

  2. Can a quantitative simulation of an Otto engine be accurately rendered by a simple Novikov model with heat leak?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.; Hoffmann, K.-H.

    2004-03-01

    In this case study a complex Otto engine simulation provides data including, but not limited to, effects from losses due to heat conduction, exhaust losses and frictional losses. This data is used as a benchmark to test whether the Novikov engine with heat leak, a simple endoreversible model, can reproduce the complex engine behavior quantitatively by an appropriate choice of model parameters. The reproduction obtained proves to be of high quality.

  3. Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: debates and confrontations about anxiety and birth.

    PubMed

    Pizarro Obaid, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank.

  4. Walther Nernst, Albert Einstein, Otto Stern, and the Specific Heat of Hydrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2007-04-01

    In 1911, the German physical chemist Walther Nernst observed that the new quantum theory might both clarify unresolved problems in the specific heats of gases and shed new light on quantum theory itself. He noted that measurements of the specific heat of hydrogen gas at low temperatures might be particularly informative. Arnold Euken, working in Nernst's laboratory in Berlin, published the first measurements in 1912. They showed a sharp drop, corresponding to the rotational degrees of freedom ``freezing out.'' Nernst also developed a theory in his 1911 paper, in which, remarkably, rotational energies were not quantized. Instead, the specific heat fell off because the gas was in equilibrium with quantized Planck oscillators. Nernst's theory was flawed But Einstein adopted an improved version at the 1911 Solvay Conference, and in 1913, he and Otto Stern published a more detailed treatment, in which they suggested tentatively that Planck's recently introduced zero-point energy might reduce or even eliminate the need to quantize physical systems. This episode points out just how mysterious quantum phenomena seemed early in the 20th century.

  5. Using NetMeeting for remote configuration of the Otto Bock C-Leg: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, E D; Fawcett, J A

    2002-08-01

    Telehealth has the potential to be a valuable tool for technical and clinical support of computer controlled prosthetic devices. This pilot study examined the use of Internet-based, desktop video conferencing for remote configuration of the Otto Bock C-Leg. Laboratory tests involved connecting two computers running Microsoft NetMeeting over a local area network (IP protocol). Over 56 Kbs(-1), DSL/Cable, and 10 Mbs(-1) LAN speeds, a prosthetist remotely configured a user's C-Leg by using Application Sharing, Live Video, and Live Audio. A similar test between sites in Ottawa and Toronto, Canada was limited by the notebook computer's 28 Kbs(-1) modem. At the 28 Kbs(-1) Internet-connection speed, NetMeeting's application sharing feature was not able to update the remote Sliders window fast enough to display peak toe loads and peak knee angles. These results support the use of NetMeeting as an accessible and cost-effective tool for remote C-Leg configuration, provided that sufficient Internet data transfer speed is available.

  6. A point of view on Otto cycle approach specific for an undergraduate thermodynamics course in CMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memet, F.; Preda, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper refers to the description of the way in which can be presented to future marine engineers the analyzis of the performance of an Otto cycle, in a manner which is beyond the classic approach of the course of thermodynamics in Constanta Maritime University. The conventional course of thermodynamics is dealing with the topic of performance analysis of the cycle of the internal combustion engine with isochoric combustion for the situation in which the working medium is treated as such a perfect gas. This type of approach is viable only when are considered relatively small temperature differences. But this is the situation when specific heats are seen as constant. Instead, the practical experience has shown that small temperature differences are not viable, resulting the need for variable specific heat evaluation. The presentation bellow is available for the adiabatic exponent written as a liniar function depending on temperature. In the section of this paper dedicated to methods and materials, the situation in which the specific heat is taken as constant is not neglected, additionaly being given the algorithm for variable specific heat.For the both cases it is given the way in which it is assessed the work output. The calculus is based on the cycle shown in temperature- entropy diagram, in which are also indicated the irreversible adiabatic compression and expansion. The experience achieved after understanding this theory will allow to future professionals to deal successfully with the design practice of internal combustion engines.

  7. The psychology of thinking before the cognitive revolution: Otto Selz on problems, schemas, and creativity.

    PubMed

    ter Hark, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Würzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper, it is argued that Selz's emphasis on the role of problems and schemas in the direction of thought processes and creativity sets him apart from the program of the Würzburg School. On the other hand, by developing a theory of thinking that is exclusively at the intentional level, Selz also differs from psychologists that take physics as a model for psychology, such as the Gestalt psychology of Wolfgang Kihler. Special emphasis is given in this paper to Selz's use of the concept of problem or task and the concept of the schema. It is further argued that the concept of the schema is the result of Selz's adaptation of the theory of relations as developed by the philosopher Meinong. The paper begins with a sketch of Selz's life that ended so tragically.

  8. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  9. CQUEAN: New CCD Camera System For The Otto Struve Telescope At The McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Soojong; Park, W.; Im, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN), which is being used at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of near infrared bright sources such as high redshift quasar candidates (z > 4.5), Gamma Ray Bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep depletion CCD chip. By employing an auto-guiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view at the classic cassegrain focus, we achieved a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM > 0.6 arcsec over the whole field (4.8 × 4.8 arcmin), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-sigma with one hour integration.

  10. Angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine based on coherent dipole-dipole coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shan-He; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jin-Can; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule have been widely observed in biological systems and exhibit broad application for molecular structural studies. Quantum delocalization of molecular dipole moments has inspired researchers to explore new avenues to utilize this physical effect for energy harvesting devices. Herein, we propose a simple model of the angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine which seeks to facilitate the conversion of heat to work. Unlike previous studies, the adiabatic processes are accomplished by varying only the directions of the magnetic field. We show that the heat engine continues to generate power when the angle relative to the vector r joining the centres of coupled dipoles departs from the magic angle θm where the static coupling vanishes. A significant improvement in the device performance has to be attributed to the presence of the quantum delocalized levels associated with the coherent dipole-dipole coupling. These results obtained may provide a promising model for the biomimetic design and fabrication of quantum energy generators.

  11. Collective will: a reformulation of Otto Rank's theory of personality individuation.

    PubMed

    Hamm, R

    1997-06-01

    A reevaluation of Otto Rank's theory of personality individuation has been proposed which equates collective and individual will as essential and mutually facilitative aspects of self-development. Rank's viewpoint regarding social and moral development as necessarily normative and, hence, inimical to individuation is therefore challenged and disputed. It is further argued that the nature of will is not a priori moral and that it should be conceptualized empirically as a derivative of the self. The negative will has been defined as the counterposition of two wills against each other. It has been proposed that when the individual and collective will are in fixed opposition to each other their results can be destructive to personality development and to interpersonal and societal relations in general. The relative value given to either individual or collective aspects of will may be partly a function of the historical and sociopolitical environment of both the individuals whose personality development is thereby influenced and the theorist whose interest is devoted to understanding and remedying their problems.

  12. In AppreciationA Lifetime of Connections: Otto Herbert Schmitt, 1913 - 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Jon M.

    Otto H. Schmitt was born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1913. As a youth, he displayed an affinity for electrical engineering but also pursued a wide range of other interests. He applied his multi-disciplinary talents as an undergraduate and graduate student at Washington University, where he worked in three departments: physics, zoology, and mathematics. For his doctoral research, Schmitt designed and built an electronic device to mimic the propagation of action potentials along nerve fibers. His most famous invention, now called the Schmitt trigger, arose from this early research. Schmitt spent most of his career at the University of Minnesota, where he did pioneering work in biophysics and bioengineering. He also worked at national and international levels to place biophysics and bioengineering on sound institutional footings. His years at Minnesota were interrupted by World War II. During that conflict - and the initial months of the Cold War to follow - Schmitt carried out defense-related research at the Airborne Instruments Laboratory in New York. Toward the end of his career at Minnesota, Schmitt coined the term biomimetics. He died in 1998.

  13. The void comprises everything - natural philosophy and science in Otto von Guericke's proof of existence of empty and infinite space. (German Title: Alles umfasst es, das Nichts - Naturphilosophie und Naturwissenschaft im Existenzbeweis des leeren und unendlichen Weltraums bei Otto von Guericke)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Peter

    Otto von Guericke showed in his book Experimenta nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio that space is an infinite void. This contribution illustrates how Guericke mixed natural philosophy and natural science in his argumentation with each other.

  14. Young Otto Struve: The Education and Development of A Research Scientist 1921-1932

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1995-12-01

    Otto Struve arrived at Yerkes Observatory from Turkey in October 1921, the penniless survivor of a defeated army. Then 24 years old, he immediately began his studies and assistantship as the only graduate student at the observatory. Eleven years later he became its "boy director." His education, training, research experience and development are described in the context of Yerkes Observatory, and of American graduate and post-graduate work in astronomy of the time. Under Director Edwin B. Frost, Yerkes Observatory's main program was radial-velocity measurements of O, B, and A stars. Struve worked on it and did his thesis on spectroscopic binaries. A prodigious achiever, he was appointed to the faculty as an instructor as soon as he received his doctorate. On his own he jumped into frontier research on interstellar absorption lines, based in large part on existing spectrograms taken for the radial-velocity program. Reviewing Cecilia Payne's book on stellar atmospheres in 1926 converted Struve to a self-taught observational astrophysicist. Research leaves at Mount Wilson and Harvard, with working visits to Lick and the DAO, plus a Guggenheim year at Cambridge with Arthur S. Eddington, broadened his horizons. Struve always observed diligently, published frequently, attended AAS meetings, presented oral papers, and discussed his research with others. With practically no knowledge of modern physics, he cultivated others who were experts in it, beginning with Pol Swings, a visitor from Belgium. By 1932 Struve was ready to become director of Yerkes Observatory, and to lead it back into its place as a leading astrophysical research center, for which George Ellery Hale had founded it.

  15. Otto Rank, the Rankian circle in Philadelphia, and the origins of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    deCarvalho, R J

    1999-05-01

    Otto Rank's will therapy helped shape the ideas and techniques of relationship therapy developed by the Philadelphia social workers Jessie Taft, Virginia Robinson, and Frederick Allen in the 1930s. Rank's work and these ideas and techniques in turn strongly influenced the formulation of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy. This article compares and contrasts will, relationship, and person-centered approaches to psychotherapy and discusses the social factors--primarily the professional conflicts between a male-dominated psychiatry and female social workers over the independent practice of psychotherapy--that were crucial in the dissemination of Rank's psychological thought and the early popularity of Rogers.

  16. Entangled quantum Otto heat engines based on two-spin systems with the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Mei; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2017-09-01

    We construct an entangled quantum Otto engine based on spin-1/2 systems undergoing Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) interaction within a varying magnetic field. We investigate the influence of the DM interaction on basic thermodynamic quantities, including heat transfer, work done, and efficiency and find that the DM interaction importantly influences the engine's thermodynamics. We obtain an expression for engine efficiency, finding it to yield the same efficiency for antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic coupling. A new upper bound, nontrivially consistent with the second law of thermodynamics, is derived for engine efficiency in the case of non-zero DM interaction.

  17. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  18. Reviving astrometry on the McDonald observatory 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J.; Riddle, A.

    2014-07-01

    The first regular observations of asteroids at McDonald observatory started in 1950 with a 10-inch telescope as part of the Yerkes-McDonald survey, which was followed by a long lull after its completion in 1952. Astrometric observations resumed in the early 70s using the 2.1-m telescope, but were mainly of faint outer solar system satellites to support the emerging planetary space program. Observation of asteroids was later added to the program in order to refine the fundamental reference frame and to aid Hubble Space Telescope astrometry. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been the main emphasis since 1995 using a 0.76 m telescope, which worked very well while the surveys concentrated on objects 1 km or larger. However, NASA's mission to discover and catalogue NEOs has been extended down to objects 140 m in size. Most of these new NEO candidates are outside the reach of the 0.76-m telescope. In 2011, the Otto Struve telescope has received a new instrument, the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse, or CQUEAN (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams, as it provides measurable images of a 19th magnitude source with a single 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.8' by 4.8', with 0.281 arcsec/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the point-spread function for precision astrometry. Although this telescope is 75 years old, we are getting circular stellar images for exposures up to 240 seconds with the CQUEAN auto-guider. We obtained images of M71 at three different air masses during two nights in the Sloan i and r filter bands. The σ of the standard coordinate residuals is a little under 0.07 seconds of arc for both cases. We have also looked at the field of view for systematic errors both in direction and magnitude, and we found it to be satisfactorily uniform. The overall quality of our data is improved due to better angular resolution and dome seeing. Based on

  19. Nobel Prize nominees hundred years ago: Abraham Jacobi (1830-1919) and Otto Heubner (1843-1926).

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Oommen-Halbach, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt; Fangerau, Heiner

    2017-08-13

    Pediatrics directly and indirectly played an important role in the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. However, the history of the Nobel Prize and pediatrics goes beyond the actual laureates. Based on original files in the archive of the Nobel committee of physiology or medicine at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, this overview aims to shed new light on why the international pioneers of pediatrics Abraham Jacobi (1830-1919) and Otto Heubner (1843-1926) were nominated but never received the prize in 1918. Moreover, Clemens von Pirquet (1874-1929), one of the founders of this journal in 1910 (previously known as Zeitschrift für Kinderheilkunde), also appears in the Nobel records during the first decades of the twentieth century, nominated by Heubner and others. We argue that studies of Nobel nominations give new opportunities to study not only the selection process for Nobel laureates, but also to explore which pioneers were seen as the most outstanding at a particular point in time and why. What is known? • Recent historical research suggests that Nobel Prize nominations can help to reconstruct trends in medicine over time. What is new? • This paper takes a new approach on the history of pediatrics and shows why the internationally famous pediatricians Abraham Jacobi, New York, and Otto Heubner, Berlin, were runners-up for the Nobel Prize hundred years ago.

  20. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... collected for these purposes (Figures B94-2 and B94-3). Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol... dilution tunnel shall be: (i) Sized to permit development of turbulent flow (Reynold's No. >4000)...

  1. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... collected for these purposes (Figures B94-2 and B94-3). Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol... dilution tunnel shall be: (i) Sized to permit development of turbulent flow (Reynold's No. >4000)...

  2. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  3. Entransy analysis and optimization of performance of nano-scale irreversible Otto cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar

    2016-08-01

    This paper made attempt to investigate thermodynamically a nano scale irreversible Otto cycle for optimizing its performance. This system employed an ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas as a working fluid. Two different scenarios were proposed in the multi-objective optimization process and the results of each of the scenarios were examined separately. The first scenario made attempt to maximize the dimensionless ecological function and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. Furthermore, the second scenario tried to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. The multi objective evolutionary method integrated with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to optimize the proposed objective functions. To determine the final output of each scenario, three efficient decision makers were employed. Finally, error analysis was employed to determine the deviation of solutions chosen by decision makers.

  4. Water ascent in trees and lianas: the cohesion-tension theory revisited in the wake of Otto Renner.

    PubMed

    Bentrup, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2017-03-01

    The cohesion-tension theory of water ascent (C-T) has been challenged over the past decades by a large body of experimental evidence obtained by means of several minimum or non-invasive techniques. The evidence strongly suggests that land plants acquire water through interplay of several mechanisms covered by the multi-force theory of (U. Zimmermann et al. New Phytologist 162: 575-615, 2004). The diversity of mechanisms includes, for instance, water acquisition by inverse transpiration and thermodynamically uphill transmembrane water secretion by cation-chloride cotransporters (L.H. Wegner, Progress in Botany 76:109-141, 2014). This whole plant perspective was opened by Otto Renner at the beginning of the last century who supported experimentally the strictly xylem-bound C-T mechanism, yet anticipated that the water ascent involves both the xylem conduit and parenchyma tissues. The survey also illustrates the known paradigm that new techniques generate new insights, as well as a paradigm experienced by Max Planck that a new scientific idea is not welcomed by the community instantly.

  5. Effects of substrate water potential in root growth of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings.

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root of maguey (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck) seedlings reacts during the first 24 h to low substrate water potential (PsiW), by anatomical modifications. Three-4 cm root length seedlings were planted in vermiculite for 24 h at PsiW between -0.03 and -2.35 MPa. Root dimensions, proline content and anatomy were evaluated. Substrate PsiW between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa did not significantly affect longitudinal root growth. However, proline content significantly increased from 1.6 to 2.1 micromoles mg(-1). Significant reductions of transverse root area (41%), thickness of mucilage covering the epidermis (47%), thickness of epidermis (between 15 and 46%), area of the parenchyma (between 35 and 41%) and number of vessels (up to 28%) were observed with PsiW of -2.35 MPa. In contrast, thickness of xylem wall, diameter of xylem vessels and the number of cells of the cortex of the differentiation root region significantly increased (64, 17, and 97%, respectively). The anatomical changes associated with low substrate PsiW indicate a net increase of root apoplatic paths; structures involved in water conduction increased their diameter under low substrate PsiW conditions and anatomical changes occurred during the first 24 h of water stress.

  6. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  7. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1 /2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1 /2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s ), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  8. Registration of 'Otto' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to strawbreaker foot rot (caused by Oculimacula yallundae Crous & W. Gams and O. acuformis Crous & W. Gams) and to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) are important traits for winter wheat cultivars produced in the Pacifi Northwest region of the Uni...

  9. The Pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - The medical scientists: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) and Otto Loewi (1873-1961).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lily Bzl; Shaw, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Two famous medical scientists are described whose major advances were made largely from laboratory-based research. Karl Landsteiner, who received the Nobel Prize in 1930, was the discoverer or co-discoverer of the blood groups and the Rhesus factor. He contributed to the understanding of poliomyelitis, syphilis and typhus. He made major contributions to immunology, inter alia by isolating haptens. After World War I, he left Austria and continued his work initially in the Netherlands and then at the Rockefeller Institute in the USA. Otto Loewi, a pharmacologist, received his Nobel Prize (jointly with his life-long friend, Sir Henry Dale) in 1936 for his discovery that acetylcholine was the chemical agent for the stimulation of autonomic nerves to transmit to the organs they govern. He also made numerous other contributions including the demonstration that amino acids could be converted by animals to proteins. He left Austria after the Anschluss and settled in the USA.

  10. The evolution of the discipline of pharmacology amid an era of global turbulence: the unique contributions of Otto Krayer (1899-1982).

    PubMed

    Rubin, Ronald P

    2014-08-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Otto Krayer, a gifted scientist, teacher and administrator. His unique contributions to the discipline of pharmacology and to the biomedical sciences are chronicled in the wake of the political upheaval that crippled German science during the 1930s. The anti-scientific attitude that pervaded Germany at the time led to the exile of Krayer and many other eminent scientists. Their fate is recounted, as well as the negative impact on science caused by a National Socialist regime that blatantly disregarded basic scientific principles. The threat of intolerance and unethical behaviour still remains a key obstacle to scientific creativity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Thermal entangled quantum Otto engine based on the two qubits Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Guoxing; Chen, Daojiong

    2012-07-01

    Based on the isotropic two spin-1/2 qubits Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in a constant external magnetic field, we have constructed the entangled quantum Otto engine. Expressions for the basic thermodynamic quantities, i.e. the amount of heat exchange, the net work output and the efficiency, are derived. The influence of thermal entanglement on these basic thermodynamic quantities is investigated. Moreover, some intriguing features and their qualitative explanations in zero and finite magnetic field are given. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics is confirmed in the system. The results obtained here have general significance and will be useful in increasing understanding of the performance of an entangled quantum engine.

  12. Effect of exposure route on measurement of blood pressure by tail cuff in F-344 rats exposed to OTTO Fuel II.

    PubMed

    Godin, C S; Kimmel, E C; Drerup, J M; Leahy, H F; Pollard, D L

    1993-02-01

    Male Fischer-344 rats demonstrated a dose-response of blood pressure (BP) to increasing doses of propylene glycol dinitrate (PGDN), the major constituent of OTTO Fuel II (OFII) following administration by subcutaneous injection. Dermal application of the same doses to separate groups of rats resulted in variable responses of BP that were unrelated to dose. A nose-only exposure system was developed but no effect on BP was observed in rats exposed to a nearly saturated atmosphere of PGDN (approx. 750 mg/m3 at 25 degrees C). This study has indicated both the difficulties associated with the use of tail cuff measurement of BP and the need for either a more sensitive or more specific biomarker of effect for exposure to nitrate esters.

  13. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    PubMed

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-08-07

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm(3). RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kWel. The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kWel with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Critical coupling layer thickness for positive or negative Goos-Hänchen shifts near the excitation of backward surface polaritons in Otto-ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Mariana A.; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the lateral displacement (Goos-Hänchen shift) of spatially limited beams reflected from attenuated total reflection (ATR) devices in the Otto configuration when backward surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the interface between a positive refractive index slab and a semi-infinite metamaterial with a negative refractive index. First, the stationary phase approximation and a phenomenological model based on the properties of the complex poles and zeroes of the reflection coefficient are used to demonstrate that: (i) the excitation of backward surface waves can lead to both negative and positive (and not exclusively negative) Goos-Hänchen shifts, and (ii) the sign of the shift depends on whether the value of the coupling layer thickness is higher or lower than a critical value characteristic of the ATR structure. Then, these findings are verified through rigorous calculations of the spatial structure of the reflected beam. For incident beams with a Gaussian profile, the lateral shift calculated as the first moment of the field distribution of the reflected beam agrees quite well with the predictions of approximate analysis. Near the resonant excitation of the backward surface plasmon polariton, large (negative or positive) Goos-Hänchen shifts are obtained, along with a splitting of the reflected beam.

  15. Experimentally demonstrate the surface state and optical topological phase transition of one dimensional hyperbolic metamaterials in Otto and KR configuration (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih Chung; Un, Leng-Wai; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2017-05-01

    One-dimension hyperbolic metamaterials (1DHMMs) possess marvelous and considerable applications: hyperlens, spontaneous emission engineering and nonlinear optics. Conventionally, effective medium theory, which is only valid for long wavelength limit, was used to predict and analyze the optical properties and applications. In our previous works, we considered a binary 1DHMM which consists of alternative metallic and dielectric layers, and rigorously demonstrated the existence of surface states and bulk-interface correspondence with the plasmonic band theory from the coupled surface plasmon point of view. In the plasmonic band structure, we can classify 1DHMMs into two classes: metallic-like and dielectric-like, depending on the formation of the surface states with dielectric and metallic material, respectively. Band crossing exists only when the dielectric layers are thicker than the metallic ones, which is independent from the dielectric constants. Furthermore, the 1DHMMs are all metallic-like without band crossing. On the other hand, the 1DHMMs with band crossing are metal-like before the band crossing point, while they are dielectric-like after the band crossing point. In this work, we measure the surface states formed by dielectric material and 1DHMMs with band crossing in Otto configuration. With white light source and fixed incident angle, we measure the reflectance to investigate the existence of the surface states of 1DHMMs with various thickness ratio of metallic to dielectric layers. Conclusively, our results show that the surface states of 1DHMMs exist only when the thickness ratio is larger than 0.15. The disappearance of the surface states indicates the topological phase transition of 1DHMMs. Our experimental results will benefit new applications for manipulating light on the surface of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  16. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants.

  17. Struve, Otto (1897-1963)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Kharkov, Ukraine. In an adventurous and varied career, he studied at Kharkov University, joined the White Russian army during the Revolution, and fled to Turkey at the time of their defeat. Emigrated to the USA, became director of the Yerkes Observatory, near Chicago, and founded the McDonald Observatory in Texas. Became director of the Leuschner Observatory and then the National Radio As...

  18. [The influence of the C-leg knee-shin system from the Otto Bock Company in the care of above-knee amputees. A clinical-biomechanical study to define indications].

    PubMed

    Wetz, H H; Hafkemeyer, U; Drerup, B

    2005-04-01

    The C-Leg microprocessor-controlled knee-shin system for the above-knee amputees is introduced as a dramatic improvement over all other prosthetic knees. This is due to its combination of on-board microprocessor and the hydraulic controls acting both on the swing and stance phase. A more secure, natural and efficient gait is expected. Following the recommendations of Otto Bock the indications for the prescription of the C-leg are: Amputees with mobility level "able to walk outdoors without limitations" (AK3) and "able to walk outdoors without limitations plus engage in high performance activities" (AK4) if they face at least one extra obstacle as listed in the Otto Bock catalogue of indications. In this article it is aimed to critically review the indications for the C-leg. In particular the question is posed, whether a different or sophisticated indication of mobility levels might be suggested. Therefore this study does not concentrate on the 3C-100 C-Leg((R)) component but on the system patient + C-leg. So the testing is done by comparing the C-Leg against the regular knee, which is assumed to be an adequate choice for this patient and to which he is accustomed. So far 25 patients with activity levels AK 2 (5), AK 3 (13) and AK 4 (7) have participated in the study. 23 patients, i.e. all patients except one AK 2 and one AK 3 exhibit functional improvement at least according to one criterion. On the other side, only three patients (2 AK 4), fulfill all criteria of functional improvement, which have been defined for this test. It is concluded, that multi-handicapped patients of all activity levels generally experience substantial improvement due to this system. AK 2 patients may show significant functional improvement. As a prerequisite, however, they must not exhibit deficiencies regarding stump movement, muscular status or cognitive abilities. Active patients (AK 3 and AK 4) benefit in the majority of cases. However, some highly active patients of AK 4 complain

  19. Heckmann, Otto Hermann Leopold (1901-83)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astrometrist and cosmologist, became director of the Hamburg Observatory, and of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. By determining the motions of the stars in the direction of several star clusters (including the Praesepe, or Beehive cluster), he was able to see which stars were moving together in the cluster, and which, although in the same direction, were moving differently. Eliminati...

  20. Knocking in the Otto-cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinhart, H

    1939-01-01

    Engine knock is, as is known, preceded by normal burning of the first part of the charge, and only the part burned last (residual charge), knocks. The aim of the present measurements was, first, to reexamine the combustion form in this residual charge, because of the absence of uniform and frequently contradictory results in the very extensive literature on the subject. On top of that, an attempt was to be made to gain a deeper insight into the mechanism accompanying the combustion process, by means of the electrical test equipment perfected in recent years.

  1. Otto Stern and the double bank shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, R. N.

    1988-06-01

    In analogy to a double surface scattering study of Estermann, Frisch and Stern for selecting and detecting the velocity of a beam of particles, it is proposed to use double surface scattering to investigate the collision dynamics of a beam of polarized particles with a known surface. In this proposed experiment, the first surface scattering event prepares a polarized (aligned/oriented) beam of particles, and the second surface scattering event permits the measurement of how the polarized beam interacts with the surface under study.

  2. Comparison of the Otto Bock solid ankle cushion heel foot with wooden keel to the low-cost CR-Equipements(™) solid ankle cushion heel foot with polypropylene keel: A randomized prospective double-blind crossover study assessing patient satisfaction and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Lacraz, Alain; Armand, Stéphane; Turcot, Katia; Carmona, Gorki; Stern, Richard; Borens, Olivier; Assal, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The International Committee of the Red Cross supports a worldwide program of prosthetic fitting and rehabilitation. In this context, a prosthetic foot was developed and widely distributed in least developed countries. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study. To compare patient satisfaction and energy expenditure during ambulation between a low-cost prosthetic foot designed with a polypropylene keel (CR-Equipements(™) solid ankle cushion heel, International Committee of the Red Cross) to a well-recognized solid ankle cushion heel foot with a wooden keel (solid ankle cushion heel foot, Otto Bock). A total of 15 participants with unilateral transtibial amputation were evaluated using the two prosthetic feet in a randomized prospective double-blind crossover study. Main outcomes were patient satisfaction questionnaires (Satisfaction with Prosthesis Questionnaire and prosthetic foot satisfaction) and energy expenditure (oxygen consumption-mL/kg/min, oxygen cost-mL/kg/m, and heart rate-bpm). There were no significant differences between the two prosthetic feet for satisfaction and energy expenditure. The low-cost solid ankle cushion heel foot with polypropylene keel provides comparable satisfaction and similar energy expenditure as the solid ankle cushion heel foot with wooden keel. Clinical relevance The results of this study support the application and widespread use of the CR-Equipements(™) solid ankle cushion heel foot. From a cost-effectiveness standpoint, patients are well satisfied and exhibit similar outcomes at a substantially lower cost.

  3. GNSS software receiver for the MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Geofisica GeochImica lunAre) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirazzi, Gabriele; de Quattro, Nicola; Dionisio, Cesare

    2011-10-01

    In recent years a number of missions have been conceived to acquire and track signals from GPS satellites at altitudes higher than the GPS constellation itself. The main purpose of SDR is to reduce the number of hardware components, projected for specific unmodifiable uses, and utilize general purpose units: on board CPU, DSP or FPGA. In this paper he study and design of a GNSS Software Receiver for space application, applied to a Lunar Mission, is presented with particular attention on Space Segment device and on Ground Facilities.

  4. James Otto and the Pi Man: A Constructivist Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole

    2003-01-01

    Instead of teaching his fifth-graders a formula, a teacher leads them to discover an important mathematical concept on their own. Learning through discovery is probably the very essence of meaningful understanding and retention. (Author/MLF)

  5. Coercive Diplomacy: Otto von Bismarck and the Unification of Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-24

    his [William’s] son could ascend the throne as a political figurehead.6 This maneuver also failed. Liberalism had thus taken root, and the people of...miscalculations, war between Prussia and France was becoming more likely. The issue of the candidature of the vacant Spanish throne sounded the guns of...Prussian War arose when a Hohenzollern prince was offered the Spanish throne . Because a Hohenzollern as the King of Spain directly threatened the

  6. Otto Stern, the Gdh Sum Rule and Various Spin Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel, D.

    2001-02-01

    The history of spin and anomalous magnetic moment is full of puzzles and "crises" from the first observations in the 1920's to the present day. The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule connects the anomalous magnetic moment with the helicity dependent cross section for photoproduction, and as such checks the internal consistency of our understanding of the nucleon spin structure. Various generalizations of the sum rule have been proposed for the case of virtual photons, thus interpolating from the real photon point to deep inelastic scattering. A series of recent and newly proposed experiments with beam and target/recoil polarization will study this transition between the coherent spin-dependent response and the incoherent response of the partons in the scaling region.

  7. Otto Laporte Award Talk - In light of Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Fluid mechanics, in its inherent non-linear beauty, has been its own laboratory, testing our perseverance and dedication to a branch of science that, despite its perceived maturity, still has many surprises to offer. For many of us, the study of fluid flow has been our path to understanding the complexity of nature. My journey has taken me through many interesting projects including the development of new visualization tools, scrutinizing the rhythms of the human heart, observing flow vortices and studying the dynamics of soap films. But this lecture is mainly devoted to a new example of my research activities where light and flow physics interweave to display another intriguing multi-physics beauty of nature.

  8. LunHab: Interactive effects of a 10-day sustained exposure to hypoxia and bedrest on aerobic exercise capacity in male lowlanders.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2017-04-09

    The study examined the interactive effects of a 10-day exposure to hypoxia and bedrest on the whole body peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2 peak ) during maximal exercise, and on skeletal-muscle and cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Nine males underwent three 10-day confinements, in a Latin-square order: (i) a normoxic bedrest [NBR; partial pressure of inspired O2 (PI O2 ) = 134.2 ± 0.7 mmHg], (ii) a hypoxic bedrest (HBR; PI O2  = 102.9 ± 0.1 mmHg at day 1, 91.5 ± 1.2 mmHg at days 3-10), and (iii) a hypoxic ambulation (HAMB; PI O2 as in HBR). Before, one (R + 1) and three (R+3) days after each confinement, subjects performed exhaustive, incremental-load and moderate-intensity constant-load (CLTs) cycle-ergometry trials, while breathing either room air, or a hypoxic gas mixture. During the CLTs, changes in the regional oxygenation of the cerebral frontal cortex, and the vastus lateralis and intercostal muscles were monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. At R+1, the confinement-related impairment in V˙O2 peak was greater after HBR than after NBR or HAMB, regardless of whether the trial was performed in room-air or hypoxia (HBR: -16.2%, NBR: -8.3%, HAMB: -4.1%; P = 0.001). During the CLTs, bedrest aggravated the exercise-induced reduction in locomotor- and respiratory-muscle oxygenation (P ≤ 0.05); an effect that was less after HBR than after NBR (P ≤ 0.05). The hypoxia exercise-induced cerebral vasodilatatory response was blunted by HBR, likely due to the marked hyperventilation-dependent hypocapnea, attendant to the sustained hypoxic stimulus. Hence, short-term exposure to hypoxia potentiates the reduction in V˙O2 peak , but it mitigates the impairment in skeletal-muscle oxidative capacity induced by bedrest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. High resolution remote sensing and potential analysis of iron ore prospecting ——Taking Datong Township,West KunLun Area for example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, J. Q.; YI, H.; REN, G. L.; GAO, T.; YANG, M.; Han, H. H.; YANG, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    By the high resolution remote sensing anomaly verification, two magnetite ore belt was fist found in the paleoproterozoic Kulangnagu group complex(Pt1 K) at Datong township area. Which located in the southeast of West KunLu Taxkorgan iron deposit prospect area. The magnetite presents ribbon, lenticular, hosted in quartz schist with marble stratum. Based on the regional stratigraphic paleogeographic environment, primary rock formation, ore controlling environment geological background analysis, think that the Kulangnagu group complex have the potential to find metamorphosed sedimentary iron ore. Based on the analysis of high resolution remote sensing, combined with geochemical and geophysical data, We discussed the ore prospecting area and put forward two magnetite favorable prospecting area, one at the south of Datong township area, another at the southeast of Bulunmusha township, given the direction For the next step of prospecting.

  10. Aufbau und Anpassung der Motorsteuerungs-Software für Otto- und Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhler, Harald; Ricken, Volker; Diener, René

    Die Erfüllung steigender Kundenansprüche und strenger gesetzlicher Vorgaben hinsichtlich der Verringerung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, der Erhöhung von Fahrsicherheit, Fahrleistung und Fahrkomfort ist untrennbar mit dem Einzug elektronischer Systeme in moderne Kraftfahrzeuge verbunden. Die elektronischen Systeme bestimmen zunehmend den Kundennutzen und werden für die Differenzierung der Automobilhersteller untereinander immer wichtiger. Daher sind sie ein wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor moderner Kraftfahrzeuge.

  11. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    This text, written in English, was developed by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies to support the university-level Eurocurriculum in analytical chemistry, a major effort of academics and other analytical scientists throughout Europe and an outgrowth of the economic unification of European countries. The goal of a uniform curriculum and text for analytical chemistry across national borders is laudable, and the editors, led by the late Robert Kellner, deserve commendation for their accomplishments. (The U.S., in contrast, has been late in considering the analytical chemistry curriculum and only recently has published a pamphlet, Curricular Developments in the Analytical Sciences, an outgrowth of several NSF-sponsored workshops.) I can't remember another analytical text that begins with mention of the "big bang" and the beginnings of the universe (!), but I don't believe that the authors and publisher are looking to export their curriculum to neighboring planets. However, I am sure that they are interested in the North American market and its strong analytical chemistry community. It is in this context and in comparison with leading analytical texts in the U.S. that I write this review. At first glance, Analytical Chemistry overwhelms. It is a large book of more than 900 pages, a mass of 2.3 kg, and a volume of nearly 3 L. It is not a book that is easy to stuff into a backpack for the trip to class or lab. Students also may resent paying top dollar for a book that might not last the semester, given that the pages of my review copy began to pull away from the binding after only a few days of gentle use. Beneath the snazzy cover there is a dearth of color printing and photographs. This, combined with a smallish font and figures that are inconsistent in size, quality, and font, makes for a book that is not especially easy on the eyes. The large margins provide ample space for the numerous figures, figure captions, and marginal notes. The text is divided into 5 parts (General Topics, Chemical Analysis, Physical Analysis, Computer-Based Analytical Chemistry, and Total Analysis Systems), 16 sections, and many chapters and subsections, all numbered and with headings for easy reference. The book provides comprehensive coverage of analytical science. Many curricula in North America cling to the tired notion of one semester of classical analytical (wet) chemistry followed by a second semester of instrumental analysis, and publishers continue to respond by publishing separate texts for each course. The Europeans, in contrast, have a text that bridges this artificial gap. Included are chapters and subsections on chemical equilibrium, electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, separations, and electrochemistry (found in most first courses in analytical chemistry). The authors also address atomic spectroscopy in all of its forms, luminescence, mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, surface analysis, thermal methods, activation analysis, and automated methods of analysis (found in most instrumental courses). Additional, uncommon chapters on chemical and biochemical sensors, immunoassay, chemometrics, miniaturized systems, and process analytical chemistry point toward the present and future of analytical science. The only glaring omission in comparison to other instrumental texts is in the area of measurement systems and electronics. No mention is made of the analytical laboratory, such as descriptions of glassware calibration and suggested experiments, as is found in most quantitative analysis texts in the U.S. The dangers in any multi-authored book include an uneven treatment of topics and a lack of cohesiveness and logical development of topics. I found some evidence of these problems in Analytical Chemistry. My first reaction to the Table of Contents and the grouping of chapters was "Where is ?" and "What about ?" While the order of topics in an analytical chemistry course always is open to debate (I have done my share of reshuffling over the years), some timing is sacrosanct. For example, I suspect that most first courses in analytical chemistry include basic statistics early on, yet this topic is found under Chemometrics in Part IV. Another example is the separation of the discussions of acid-base equilibria (Chapter 4) and acid-base titrations (Chapter 7), with chromatography and kinetics interspersed. Simple UV-vis spectrometry and Beer's law are discussed after topics such as thermal analysis and biosensors. Information on monochromators is buried in the chapter on atomic emission spectroscopy. The editors have organized the material in a reasonably logical yet unfamiliar order. I would guess that those who adopt this text will need to skip from chapter to chapter or restructure their courses in a major way. Some topics receive more or less attention than I believe is justified. Let me provide a few examples of this uneven treatment. The editors include in Part I a 5-page description of the regulatory aspects of QA & QC, a topic of little interest to undergraduates. In the liquid chromatography section there are 3.5 pages on thin-layer chromatography and 6.5 pages on field flow fractionation, but only 2.5 pages on capillary electrophoresis, a burgeoning area of analysis. While biamperometric and conductometric titrations are discussed, common redox titrations employing an indicator (e.g. iodometric titrations with starch endpoint) are ignored. Likewise, electrochemical stripping analysis, important in trace analysis, is given short shrift (half a page). The editors set a useful chapter template, but it is not followed in all cases. At the top of the first page of each chapter is a grayed box of general learning objectives, sort of a chapter overview, and most chapters begin with a very brief, often interesting historical overview. Worked numerical examples, though scarce, are found in grayed areas throughout the text. Specific and general references for further reading are a welcome sight at the end of the chapters, but in some cases are missing. Review questions and exercises finish up each chapter. Though I write many of my own exercises and problems for student practice, I--and my students--do rely on textbook authors for additional interesting challenges related to the textbook material. The number and type of end-of-chapter problems are quite variable in Analytical Chemistry. For example, the chapters on infrared and Raman spectroscopy and on basic statistics end with a sufficient number of questions (35 and 22, respectively); but, inexplicably, only 4 questions follow the discussion of acid-base equilibria, only 7 follow the chapter on liquid and thin-layer chromatography, and there are none on immunoassay. Other important topics also are slighted. Most of the end-of-chapter questions are rather uninteresting and test simple rote learning, rather than requiring the synthesis and application of the knowledge acquired (higher-level learning). I would have liked to see spreadsheet or other computer work as the focus of some questions and an appendix of answers to at least some of the exercises. Numerous minor errors were evident, especially in the first half of the book. Some were typographical, such as soulbility instead of solubility and equation of the complex instead of aquation of the complex, but others were more egregious, such as ? instead of ? and ?, which is missing the minus sign. The standard electrode potentials listed in the appendix are confusing, because while the proper values for E ° are given, the half-reactions are written as oxidations rather than as reductions. On the whole, though, the principles of the field are described clearly and accurately. I would recommend Analytical Chemistry to prospective and practicing analytical chemists as a valuable reference to many existing and emerging analytical techniques. It certainly deserves a spot on my reference shelf. As a classroom text, however, the book is less interesting. Perhaps with tighter editing and greater focus on pedagogy, the book could compete with the U.S. leaders, such as Harris and Skoog.

  12. Otto Salomon in Nääs and His First Icelandic Students in Nordic Sloyd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Ólafsson, Brynjar

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogically aimed craft education was established around the same time as the school-based system of formative education, under the term Sloyd. This refers to a pedagogical system of manual training that promotes general child development, through the acquisition of the technical skills employed in woodwork, metalwork, sewing, knitting and the…

  13. Two new species of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) from China seas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuwen; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Xu, Kuidong

    2015-12-03

    Two species of Sternaspidae, Sternaspis chinensis sp. nov. and S. liui sp. nov., are described based on historic material and recently collected specimens in the sea areas of China. Sternaspis chinensis is abundantly distributed from the Bohai Sea southwards to the East China Sea. It has been frequently misidentified as the nominally cosmopolitan species S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817) in China since the 1950s. However, S. chinensis differs from the latter by possessing concentric bands on the shield (vs. absent) and crenulated posterior margin reaching or slightly expanded beyond the posterolateral corners (vs. posterior margin smooth and markedly expanded beyond the posterolateral corners). Sternaspis chinensis most resembles the NE Pacific species S. affinis Stimpson, 1864, but differs distinctly by its markedly concentric bands decorated from margin to center (vs. mainly restricted in the marginal area). Sternaspis liui is characterized within the genus by its slightly soft shield with firmly adhered sediment particles, which gives it a superficial resemblance to species of Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013. However, the shields of the latter are remarkably soft and poorly developed, without ribs and concentric lines, while in Sternaspis liui both the ribs and concentric lines are well defined. Variations of both species with remarks on juvenile shield development are provided.

  14. Public Relations in Rapidly Growing Suburban Districts: Insights from Texas Superintendents Bonny Cain and Doug Otto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decman, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout Texas, enrollments in suburban school districts have been rising, and in some instances, the increases have been substantial. Causes of this demographic trend are multifaceted, but in most instances they are an intricate mix of state population growth and urban flight. Rapidly growing suburban districts, like all Texas districts,…

  15. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    PubMed

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis.

  16. Otto Salomon in Nääs and His First Icelandic Students in Nordic Sloyd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Ólafsson, Brynjar

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogically aimed craft education was established around the same time as the school-based system of formative education, under the term Sloyd. This refers to a pedagogical system of manual training that promotes general child development, through the acquisition of the technical skills employed in woodwork, metalwork, sewing, knitting and the…

  17. Conventional engine technology. Volume 1: Status of OTTO cycle engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    Federally-mandated emissions standards have led to major changes in automotive technology during the last decade. Efforts to satisfy the new standards were directed more toward the use of add-on devices, such as catalytic converters, turbochargers, and improved fuel metering, than toward complete engine redesign. The resulting changes are described and the improvement brought about by them in fuel economy and emissions levels are fully documented. Four specific categories of gasoline-powered internal combustion engines are covered, including subsystem and total engine development. Also included are the results of fuel economy and exhaust emissions tests performed on representative vehicles from each category.

  18. Heat transfer from an internal combustion (Otto-cycle) engine on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1992-01-01

    The cooling requirements for an average car sized engine (spark-ignition, V-6, four-stroke, naturally aspirated, about 200 kg, about 100 kW) were looked at for Mars. Several modes of cooling were considered, including forced convection, exhaust, radiation and closed loop systems. The primary goal was to determine the effect of the thinner Martian atmosphere on the cooling system. The results show that there was only a 6-percent difference in the cooling requirements. This difference was due mostly to the thinner atmosphere during forced convection and the heat capacity of the exhaust. A method using a single pass counter-flow heat exchanger is suggested to offset this difference in cooling requirements.

  19. Otto Laporte Award Lecture: Control of Turbulent Boundary Layers: State of the Art - 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, John

    2001-11-01

    Control of turbulent boundary layers has been a subject of much interest because of its high potential payoffs. The control of turbulent boundary layers requires, however, a thorough understanding of the underlying physics of the turbulent flow and an efficient control algorithm, both of which have been less than satisfactory. Great strides on both fronts have been made through the recent advancement in computational fluid dynamics and control theories. New approaches to controller design are significantly different from existing approaches, which were mostly based on the investigator's physical insight into the flow, in that modern control theories are incorporated into the controller design. Examples include systems control-theoretic approaches such as H_2- and H_∞-control, and adjoint-based optimal/suboptimal controls. Some of these approaches explicitly exploit certain linear mechanisms present in the wall-bounded shear flow, and their success suggests the importance of linear mechanisms in the turbulent (and hence, nonlinear) flow. Although all of these new approaches have been thus far based on numerical experiments (and yet to be verified in laboratory experiments), they have shown great promise and present a new approach to flow control. The success and limitation of various new controllers and their implications will be discussed.

  20. The pioneer in hemodynamics and pulse-wave analysis, Otto Frank.

    PubMed

    Middeke, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Arterial pulse-wave velocity is a noninvasive index of arterial distensibility now generally advocated to assess cardiovascular health above-and-beyond merely measuring blood pressure. A host of recent findings supports its use. This evidence draws attention to the fact that vascular stiffness precedes the increase in blood pressure with age and that even nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions can improve distensibility independent of blood pressure. Where do these ingeniously modern ideas come from, and who defined the principles we embrace today? A worthwhile lesson in physiology and exercise in humility is the effort to revisit the origins of these concepts and the man to whom gratitude should be directed.

  1. Gen Otto P. Weyland: Close Air Support in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Close Air Support in the Korean War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...commander of the Thunderbirds for the 2004–5 demonstration seasons. ix Acknowledgments I would like to thank the faculty and staff at the School of...and later served as the chief of the Allocations and Programs Division.15 In this capacity, Weyland had a sig- nificant role in formulating AAF war

  2. A One-Year Inhalation Toxicity Study of Otto Fuel 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Spectrophotometric measurement of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in blood, Clin. Chem., 25/8, 1388-1395. Stewart, R. D., J. E. Peterson, P. E...appeared to be the most sensitive species tested with measurable reductions in RBC, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels. Mildly increased methemoglobin...Fuel II would result in tumor formation. Exposure levels for this study were based on measured PGDN concentrations. The low level (1.4 mg/m 3

  3. Freud, females, childbirth, and dissidence: Margarete Hilferding, Karen Horney, and Otto Rank.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary

    2013-10-01

    These three early psychoanalysts, who differed in important ways from Freud, each tried to shift his fundamental beliefs about women's bodies in basic developmental theory. This paper illustrates this point by elaborating their materials concerning the centrality of childbirth. One thematic aspect of Freud's disruptive fights with colleagues lay in his loyalty to phallocratic certainties. These problems still affect us, a century later, even in today's clinically pluralistic climate.

  4. The Otto Aufranc Award: Enhanced Biocompatibility of Stainless Steel Implants by Titanium Coating and Microarc Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young Wook; Kwon, Soon Yong; Sun, Doo Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Background Stainless steel is one of the most widely used biomaterials for internal fixation devices, but is not used in cementless arthroplasty implants because a stable oxide layer essential for biocompatibility cannot be formed on the surface. We applied a Ti electron beam coating, to form oxide layer on the stainless steel surface. To form a thicker oxide layer, we used a microarc oxidation process on the surface of Ti coated stainless steel. Modification of the surface using Ti electron beam coating and microarc oxidation could improve the ability of stainless steel implants to osseointegrate. Questions/purposes The ability of cells to adhere to grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated stainless steel in vitro was compared with that of two different types of surface modifications, machined and titanium-coated, and microarc-oxidated. Methods We performed energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations to assess the chemical composition and structure of the stainless steel surfaces and cell morphology. The biologic responses of an osteoblastlike cell line (SaOS-2) were examined by measuring proliferation (cell proliferation assay), differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity), and attraction ability (cell migration assay). Results Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, migration, and adhesion were increased in the grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated group compared to the two other groups. Osteoblastlike cells on the grit-blasted, titanium-coated, microarc-oxidated surface were strongly adhered, and proliferated well compared to those on the other surfaces. Conclusions The surface modifications we used (grit blasting, titanium coating, microarc oxidation) enhanced the biocompatibility (proliferation and migration of osteoblastlike cells) of stainless steel. Clinical Relevance This process is not unique to stainless steel; it can be applied to many metals to improve their biocompatibility, thus allowing a broad range of materials to be used for cementless implants. PMID:20936386

  5. Long-term temperature and precipitation trends at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, North Carolina, USA

    Treesearch

    Stephanie H. Laseter; Chelcy R. Ford; James M. Vose; Lloyd W. Swift

    2012-01-01

    Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, located in western North Carolina, USA, is a 2,185 ha basin wherein forest climate monitoring and watershed experimentation began in the early 1930s. An extensive climate and hydrologic network has facilitated research for over 75 years. Our objectives in this paper were to describe the monitoring network, present long-term air...

  6. Molecular phylogeny, character evolution and historical biogeography of Cryptanthus Otto & A. Dietr. (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Geyner A S; Zizka, Georg; Silvestro, Daniele; Leme, Elton M C; Schulte, Katharina; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Cryptanthus comprises 72 species endemic to eastern Brazil with a center of diversity in the Atlantic Forest. The majority of the species are threatened due to habitat loss. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships in Cryptanthus based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) including 48 species and 109 accessions. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed four major lineages in Cryptanthus and provided further evidence for the paraphyly of subgen. Hoplocryptanthus, while subgenus Cryptanthus was resolved as monophyletic. Monophyly of previously recognized morphological species groups at sectional level could not be confirmed. Based on the phylogenetic reconstruction we inferred the evolution of the sex system in Cryptanthus via maximum likelihood (ML) ancestral character reconstruction. Homoecy, the possession of hermaphrodite flowers only, was reconstructed as the ancestral state in the genus and characterizes three of the four main lineages within Cryptanthus. Andromonoecy, the possession of male and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant, evolved only once and represents a synapomorphy of the fourth main lineage, C. subgen. Cryptanthus. The ancestral biome analysis reconstructed Cerrado (semiarid scrublands and forests) and campos rupestres (rock fields) as the most likely ancestral biomes for the genus. A shift to the Atlantic Forest biome was reconstructed to have occurred twice, in the ancestor of the first diverging lineage within the genus and in the ancestor of the C. subgen. Cryptanthus clade. A shift to the Caatinga (tropical dryland savanna) and one reversal to Cerrado (campos rupestres - rock fields) was reconstructed to have occurred once, in C. bahianus and C. arelii, respectively. The ancestral biome reconstruction indicates a high degree of niche conservatism within Cryptanthus with rare biome shifts throughout the evolution of the genus. Further, our results imply that the current infrageneric taxonomy of Cryptanthus is problematic and requires revision.

  7. Public Relations in Rapidly Growing Suburban Districts: Insights from Texas Superintendents Bonny Cain and Doug Otto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decman, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout Texas, enrollments in suburban school districts have been rising, and in some instances, the increases have been substantial. Causes of this demographic trend are multifaceted, but in most instances they are an intricate mix of state population growth and urban flight. Rapidly growing suburban districts, like all Texas districts,…

  8. An exploration in the will psychology of Otto Rank: human intentionality and individuality.

    PubMed

    Isono, Masayo

    2012-12-01

    The author explores the meaning and the importance of the will in Rank's relation-based self-creative, self-constructive psychology and argues for the consideration of the concept of the will in psychoanalysis. The paper shows that Rank's concept of the will explains what gives a human being the impetus to choose an action, positive or negative. When validated by the other, this will, the power of intention, enables a person to create his/her unique individuality. The paper reviews Rank's definition of will and traces the evolution of his ideas of intentionality in his writings. Further, the author discusses how Rank attempts to capture the subtle movements of the human mind as suffused with struggles and dynamic interplay between external and internal forces.

  9. Reports and contributions of the Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry (Otto Hahn Institute)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrich, Ulrike; Gerwin, Robert

    In isotope cosmology and cosmochemistry, presolar nebulae and meteorites, the Earth-Moon system, Earth, and archeometric items were investigated. In geochemistry the chemical composition of the Earth mantle, physics and mineralogy at high pressures, the early development of the Earth mantle and the continental crust, and computer simulation of fluids were studied. Atmospheric chemistry investigations are summarized. In nuclear physics and medium-energy physics the polarizability of protons, the testing of exact theories using the deuteron, the unexplained polarization of X-ray bremsstrahlung, and a gamma-ray monochromator were investigated.

  10. Decades of CALL Development: A Retrospective of the Work of James Pusack and Sue Otto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a series of projects that James Pusack and the author engaged in together, a number of them to develop CALL authoring tools. With their shared love of technology and dedication to language teaching and learning, they embarked on a long and immensely enjoyable career in CALL during which each project evolved…

  11. Otto von Guericke's "World in empty space" - on Guericke's place in the history of astronomy; (German Title: Otto von Guerickes "Welt im leeren Raum" - über Guerickes) Stellung in der Astronomiegeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Until now, Guericke's book "Experimenta Nova" was hardly taken note of in the history of astronomy, it was only counted as important in the history of physics. Already the large volume in this book that is occupied by astronomy is opposed to this view. lt presents a concise outline of astronomical research of that time, based on the heliocentric world system and the telescopic discoveries. Guericke's own researches on the vacuum are of fundamental importance for cosmology and are an important step on the way to the rise of physical astronomy.

  12. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... beyond NO X standards at 1.0 grams per brake horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr); (2) align the California and federal standards for 0.14 g/bhp-hr for NMHC, 0.20 g/ bhp-hr for NO X , 14.4 g/bhp-hr for CO; and (3) create a new 0.01 g/bhp-hr standard for particulate matter (PM). These changes amend title 13,...

  13. Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Exposure to Otto Fuel II in the U.S. Navy 1966-1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    were used az internal and external control groups, respectively. Exposure to OF II was determined by PNEC as- signment. Torpedoman’s Mates were placed...in the exposed group when PNEC codes, in the enlisted service history records, indicated that a TM was qualified to work with OP II; these PNEC codes...were 0746, 0747, 0748 and 0749. All other TM PNECs comprised the internal control population. All Fire Control Technicians, performing similar

  14. The 2012 Otto Aufranc Award: The interpretation of metal ion levels in unilateral and bilateral hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Van Der Straeten, Catherine; Grammatopoulos, George; Gill, Harinderjit S; Calistri, Alessandro; Campbell, Patricia; De Smet, Koen A

    2013-02-01

    The interpretation of metal ion concentrations and their role in clinical management of patients with metal-on-metal implants is still controversial. We questioned whether patients undergoing hip resurfacing with no clinical problems could be differentiated from those with clinical (pain, loss of function) and/or radiographic (component malpositioning, migration, bone loss), problems based on metal ion levels, and if there was a threshold metal level that predicted the need for clinical intervention. Furthermore, we asked if patient and implant factors differed between these functional groups. We retrospectively identified 453 unilateral and 139 bilateral patients with ion measurements at minimum followup of 12 months (mean, 4.3 years; range, 1-12.9 years). Patients were designated as well functioning or poorly functioning based on strict criteria. The acceptable upper levels within the well-functioning group were determined from the 75th percentile plus 1.5× interquartile range. The sensitivity and specificity of these levels to predict clinical problems were calculated. Well-functioning group ions were lower than the poorly functioning group ion levels. The acceptable upper levels were: chromium (Cr) 4.6 μg/L, cobalt (Co) 4.0 μg/L unilateral and Cr 7.4 μg/L, Co 5.0 μg/L bilateral. The specificity of these levels in predicting poor function was high (95%) and sensitivity was low (25%). There were more males in the well-functioning group and more females and smaller femoral components in the poorly functioning group. Metal levels higher than these proposed safe upper limits can predict problems with metal-on-metal resurfacings and are important parameters in the management of at-risk patients. Level II, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. The New Alliance between Science and Education: Otto Neurath's Modernity beyond Descartes' "Adamitic" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverio, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a suggestion of Stephen Toulmin and through an interpretation of the criticism to which Neurath, one of the founders of the Vienna Circle, submits Descartes' views on science, the paper attempts to outline a pattern of modernity opposed to the Cartesian one, that has been obtaining over the last four centuries. In particular, it…

  16. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge to…

  17. The New Alliance between Science and Education: Otto Neurath's Modernity beyond Descartes' "Adamitic" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverio, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a suggestion of Stephen Toulmin and through an interpretation of the criticism to which Neurath, one of the founders of the Vienna Circle, submits Descartes' views on science, the paper attempts to outline a pattern of modernity opposed to the Cartesian one, that has been obtaining over the last four centuries. In particular, it…

  18. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS... gas- and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines; see “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS... gas- and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines; see “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE... exhaust and dilution air must be measured, and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must be... flow rate of the exhaust plus dilution air and the sample flow rate are measured...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE... exhaust and dilution air must be measured, and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must be... flow rate of the exhaust plus dilution air and the sample flow rate are measured...

  2. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured, and a continuously proportioned... Administrator. (b) Component description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure B94-1, consists of a dilution air...

  3. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured, and a continuously proportioned... Administrator. (b) Component description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure B94-1, consists of a dilution air...

  4. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured, and a continuously proportioned... Administrator. (b) Component description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure B94-1, consists of a dilution air...

  5. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  6. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... heated flame ionization detector (HFID) (375 °±20 °F (191 °±11 °C)) sample for total hydrocarbon (THC... the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel). (ii) Sufficiently distant (radially) from the THC probe so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies produced by the THC probe. (iii) 0.5 inch...

  7. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... heated flame ionization detector (HFID) (375 °±20 °F (191 °±11 °C)) sample for total hydrocarbon (THC... probes (i.e., the particulate probe and the heated THC sample probe). It is recommended that uniform...) Sufficiently distant (radially) from the THC probe (when the THC probe is required) so as to be free from...

  8. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is 0.80 for model years before 2011 for manufacturers choosing to certify to the 1.5 g/bhp-hr NOX... manufacturers choosing to certify to the 1.5 g/bhp-hr NOX+NMHC in 2004, as allowed in § 86.005-10. (iii)(A... engines to a voluntary NOX standard of 0.10 g/bhp-hr (without using credits) in addition to all of...

  9. A TOMS-Based View of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (OTTO) From Large Fires Associated with the 1997-1998 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Guo, H.; Hudson, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Since the launch of Earth-Probe TOMS in July 1 996, we have been producing tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps (10S - 10N), in gridded format, l x 2 degrees, in near-real time. These images, along with images from the full ADEOS-TOMS record of TTO (Sept. 1996 - May 1997) can be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd,edu/-tropo). The TTO maps, based on the modified-residual method of Hudson and Thompson [1998], have been validated using ozonesondes from Ascension (8S, 15W), Nairobi (2S, 36E) and American Samoa (14S, 171W). The fires associated with El Nino-induced dryness are exhibited regionally as high tropospheric ozone column (> 60 Dobson Units) with high absorbing aerosol (smoke) signal in TOMS [J. R. Herman, personal communication, 1998]. Episodes of high TTO in 1997-98 will be shown. Regional TTO over Indonesia during the 1997-98 period will be highlighted and comparisons will be made with TTO in that region taken from the 1979-92 Nimbus/TOMS TTO record.

  10. Developing Evidence-Based Effective Principles for Working with Homeless Youth: A Developmental Evaluation of the Otto Bremer Foundation's Support for Collaboration among Agencies Serving Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Nora F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was trifold. First, it was an attempt to gain an understanding of the experiences of fourteen unaccompanied, homeless youth between the ages of 18 and 24, living in the Twin Cities metro area, who have utilized services at two or more of the six grantee organizations. The second purpose was to understand how the shared…

  11. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., continuous HFID (required for petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle and optional for methanol-fueled, natural gas... gas dilution function at the vehicle tailpipe exit. (6) For natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum...—petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. The components...

  12. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) for engines fueled with either gasoline, natural gas, or liquefied petroleum gas. 0.14 grams per brake horsepower-hour (0.052grams per megajoule). (B) Non-methane Hydrocarbon... certification vehicles only, manufacturers may conduct testing to quantify a level of nonfuel background...

  13. Comments on "Entransy analysis and optimization of performance of nano-scale irreversible Otto cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this discussion is to increase the awareness of the divergent views on the entransy concept among the readers of chemical physics. Comments are presented in particular on the paper by Ahmadi et al. (2016) where the authors used entransy dissipation in their analysis. Based on the view points of independent different groups of researchers world wide, I draw the attention of readers to the reality that entransy has no physical meaning.

  14. Developing Evidence-Based Effective Principles for Working with Homeless Youth: A Developmental Evaluation of the Otto Bremer Foundation's Support for Collaboration among Agencies Serving Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Nora F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was trifold. First, it was an attempt to gain an understanding of the experiences of fourteen unaccompanied, homeless youth between the ages of 18 and 24, living in the Twin Cities metro area, who have utilized services at two or more of the six grantee organizations. The second purpose was to understand how the shared…

  15. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calculation, which weights the emissions from the cold-start and hot-start test intervals: ER30AP10.000 (3)-(4... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... elapse. This is the hot soak. (iii) Repeat the test interval. This is the hot-start test interval....

  16. 40 CFR 86.1401 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty... procedures for gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles, and for gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1423-86.1426 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1417-86.1421 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1414-86.1415 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1407-86.1412 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1403 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1440-86.1441 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1422 - Analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1428-86.1429 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1435-86.1436 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1402 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification...

  7. Optimal Inventory Policy for Two-echelon Remanufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    with remanufacturing and procurement leadtimes. Magdeburg, Germany: Faculty of Economics and Management Otto -von- Guericke -University Magdeburg...of Economics and Management Otto - von- Guericke -University Magdeburg. Johnson, M. R., & Wang, M. H. (1995). Planning product disassembly for

  8. 77 FR 76572 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...\\ BONO Ports,\\7\\ Order Entry DROP Ports \\8\\ and OTTO Drop Ports.\\9\\ The Exchange assesses a $250 per port..., OTTO Port, ITTO Port, BONO Port, Order Entry DROP Port and OTTO Drop Port fees from $500 to $550 per..., Section 1 at subsection (a)(3)(A). \\7\\ BONO\\SM\\ is a data feed that provides the NOM Best Bid and...

  9. The Inevitability of Sleep: Using Manet's Last Paintings to Envision a Pedagogy of Loss and Mourning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers Manet's last paintings as metaphors for a bygone, psychically healthy conception of loss and mourning, what is called the pre-Freudian, Victorian notion of loss (Otto 2008), which contrasts with the post-Freudian, Modern notion of loss and mourning (Otto 2008). Otto argues this liminal, transitional moment…

  10. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards for complete... (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled by...

  11. The Inevitability of Sleep: Using Manet's Last Paintings to Envision a Pedagogy of Loss and Mourning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers Manet's last paintings as metaphors for a bygone, psychically healthy conception of loss and mourning, what is called the pre-Freudian, Victorian notion of loss (Otto 2008), which contrasts with the post-Freudian, Modern notion of loss and mourning (Otto 2008). Otto argues this liminal, transitional moment…

  12. Corporate Information Management and HQDA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    Obliterate," Harvard Business Review , 4 (July-August 1990): 107. 6 A.E. Luke, "Business Process Improvement As A Component of Defense Strategy...Technology and Tomorrow’s Manager." Harvard Business Review , November-December 1988, 128-136. Arthur Young & Company. An Information Management Study for...Davenport, Thomas H., Michael Hammer, and Tauno J. Metsisto. "How Executives Can Shape Their Company’s Information Systems." Harvard Business Review , March

  13. Parametric Variations of a Heat Balanced Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    OTTO Engine Performance...0.5 IHP -0.4 6 - -0.3 10 12 14 16 AIR/FUEL Fig. V11-2 OTTO Engine Performance OTTO Mode co r 7.2 (11.) 10 RPM 15s0 8 Fuel Reg. Spark z 150 BTDC File... OTTO Engine Performance waft..................... I I NAHBE Mode 1, OTTO ISFC r 7.0 7.2 (LBS/IHP-HR) 0 0.42 - g-- 0.080 - 0.6- RPM - 1300 1300

  14. LRO/LOLA - Counting Craters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  15. LRO Exposes the Moon's Complex, Turbulent Youth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Colonoscopy and Sigmoidoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonoscopy (KO-lun- AH -skuh-pee) and sigmoidoscopy (SIG-moid- AH -skuh-pee) are screening tests used ... 50 or earlier. What is sigmoidoscopy? During sigmoidoscopy (SIG-moid- AH -skuh-pee), a doctor looks at ...

  17. [Textual research on the time of completion of XU Shuwei' books on exo-pathogenic cold diseases].

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingxin

    2015-11-01

    Shang han bai zheng ge (Poets of Syndromes of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), Shang han fa wei lun (Discourse on Elucidation of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), Shang han jiu shi lun (90 Discourses on Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease) were the three extant books on exo-pathogenic cold disease written by Xu Shuwei among his other works of its kind. Although there were carved editions of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, these books were gradually paid attention for citations by other physicians till the Qing Dynasty. Through comparison of its texts, it can be found that the title of Shang han bai zheng ge was mentioned in his other medical works. While Shang han fa wei lun and Shang han jiu shi lun contained some overlapping contents, some even carrying concept contradictory to each other. According to historical materials, Xu Shuwei began to write the above-mentioned 3 books in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the several early years of the Southern Song Dynasty after crossing the Yangtze River, he collected the remained manuscripts and continued to write. Among them, Shang han bai zheng ge was completed first, followed by Shang han fa wei lun, with Shang han jiu shi lun came as the last.

  18. German Views of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Vorbeck mastered the art of irregular adaptation and survival. In the Second World War, Otto Skorzeny perfected the strategic commando raid. After serving...theater of World War I, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck mastered the art of irregular adaptation and survival. In the Second World War, Otto Skorzeny perfected ...commander, Otto Skorzeny, perfected a cornerstone operation of irregular warfare—the strategic commando raid. In September of 1943, under direct orders

  19. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards...-duty vehicles (2003 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 1 in § 86.005-1(c)(1), or 2004 model year for manufacturers choosing Otto-cycle HDE option 2 in § 86.005-1(c)(2)) fueled...

  2. Technology Assessment of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Some Classes of Combat Vehicles. Volume 1. Summary and Main Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    relationship; and theeswe e third indicates the impact of improved technology. Power scaling in an Otto engine is determined by the necessity to maintain a...These scaling laws clearly dictate an upper limit on the power level at which an Otto engine is likely to be useful, inasmuch as there is a practical...Unfcortunately, the nature of an Otto engine does not lend itself to a convenient hreakdcwn of this sort. Accordingly, the present investigation is

  3. The Aero-Resonator Power Plant of the V-1 Flying Bomb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-06-30

    shows the design proposal of Lorin, which was described in 1908. This scheme depended on Otto - engine construction, the exhaust gases passing through...of the Otto engine or explosion turbine as shown in Figures 1 and 2. Their technical pedigree lies much closer to that of acoustic machines, which...valve using parts from an Otto engine . The machine was used to give a comparison of flap endurances under various loads

  4. The soybean peptide lunasin promotes apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells via induction of tumor suppressor PTEN: similarities and distinct actions from soy isoflavone genistein.

    PubMed

    Pabona, John Mark P; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Su, Ying; Montales, Maria Theresa E; de Lumen, Ben O; de Mejia, Elvira G; Rahal, Omar M; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Diet and lifestyle are major contributing factors to increased breast cancer risk. While mechanisms underlying dietary protection of mammary tumor formation are increasingly elucidated, there remains a dearth of knowledge on the nature and precise actions of specific bioactive components present in foods with purported health effects. The 43-amino acid peptide lunasin (LUN) is found in soybeans, is bioavailable similar to the isoflavone genistein (GEN), and thus may mediate the beneficial effects of soy food consumption. Here, we evaluated whether LUN displays common and distinct actions from those of GEN in non-malignant (mouse HC11) and malignant (human MCF-7) mammary epithelial cells. In MCF-7 cells, LUN up-regulated tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome ten (PTEN) promoter activity, increased PTEN transcript and protein levels and enhanced nuclear PTEN localization, similar to that shown for GEN in mammary epithelial cells. LUN-induced cellular apoptosis, akin to GEN, was mediated by PTEN, but unlike that for GEN, was p53-independent. LUN promoted E-cadherin and β-catenin non-nuclear localization similar to GEN, but unlike GEN, did not influence the proliferative effects of oncogene Wnt1 on HC11 cells. Further, LUN did not recapitulate GEN inhibitory effects on expansion of the cancer stem-like/progenitor population in MCF-7 cells. Results suggest the concerted actions of GEN and LUN on cellular apoptosis for potential mammary tumor preventive effects and highlight whole food consumption rather than intake of specific dietary supplements with limited biological effects for greater health benefits.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1301 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1301 Scope; applicability. This subpart specifies gaseous emission test procedures for Otto-cycle and... the manufacturer's selected procedures for mapping engines, generating duty cycles, and applying...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1305-2010 - Introduction; structure of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... equipment and procedures for performing exhaust-emission tests on Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle heavy-duty... specified in 40 CFR part 1065. Use the duty cycles and procedures specified in §§ 86.1333-2010,...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1305-2010 - Introduction; structure of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... exhaust-emission tests on Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle heavy-duty engines. Subpart A of this part sets... engines in 40 CFR part 1065 to determine whether engines meet the duty-cycle emission standards in...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1301 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1301 Scope; applicability. This subpart specifies gaseous emission test procedures for Otto-cycle and... the manufacturer's selected procedures for mapping engines, generating duty cycles, and applying...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1301 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1301 Scope; applicability. This subpart specifies gaseous emission test procedures for Otto-cycle and... the manufacturer's selected procedures for mapping engines, generating duty cycles, and applying...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1301 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1301 Scope; applicability. This subpart specifies gaseous emission test procedures for Otto-cycle and... the manufacturer's selected procedures for mapping engines, generating duty cycles, and applying...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1430 - Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1430 Certification Short... 25 to 30 minute vehicle wait time of free idle, with optional engine off/restart cycles, must be...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1430 - Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1430 Certification Short... 25 to 30 minute vehicle wait time of free idle, with optional engine off/restart cycles, must be...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1430 - Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1430 Certification Short... 25 to 30 minute vehicle wait time of free idle, with optional engine off/restart cycles, must be...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1530 - Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1430 - Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1430 Certification Short... 25 to 30 minute vehicle wait time of free idle, with optional engine off/restart cycles, must be...

  20. 40 CFR 86.007-30 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... weight rating, curb weight, or frontal area limitations for heavyduty vehicles described in § 86.082-2... Otto-cycle emission data test engine selected under § 86.094-24(b)(2)(iv) shall represent all engines...) An Otto-cycle emission data test engine selected under § 86.094-24(b)(2)(iii) shall represent all...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.1834-01(b... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.1834-01(b... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.1834-01(b... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  9. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1306-96 - Equipment required and specifications; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde...

  11. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1726-99 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lowest state-of-charge at the beginning of the test cycle. At no time throughout mileage accumulation... to this subpart: (1) For Otto-cycle and diesel vehicles and battery assisted combustion engine vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines: (i) Prior to initiation of mileage accumulation in...

  13. 40 CFR 86.135-90 - Dynamometer procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a “cold” start... monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A parallel sample of the dilution air is...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... samples from either Otto-cycle or diesel engines. Since various configurations can produce accurate... and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence analyzer (CL) for the measurement of oxides of...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle...-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test...

  8. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel-cycle light-duty trucks... manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's gasoline- and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and petroleum...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1519 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1501 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  12. 40 CFR 86.016-1 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy... light-duty vehicles, 2000 and earlier model year new Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle light-duty trucks, and.... Provisions generally applicable to 2001 and later model year new Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle...

  13. 40 CFR 86.016-1 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy... light-duty vehicles, 2000 and earlier model year new Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle light-duty trucks, and.... Provisions generally applicable to 2001 and later model year new Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1305-90 - Introduction; structure of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... and the procedures to follow in order to perform exhaust emission tests on Otto-cycle and diesel...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1416 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calibration; frequency and...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1501 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1519 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1526 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1527 - Idle test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1519 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1519 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled,...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1501 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled,...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1501 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1519 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1431 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1404 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test...

  18. 40 CFR 86.099-8 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions from gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles measured and calculated in accordance with..., diurnal plus hot soak emissions (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 2.5 grams per test. (ii) Running loss...) (d) Refueling emissions from 1999 and later model year gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1433 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test...

  20. The Naval Academy Heat Balanced Engine (NAHBE).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    CFR and glass-walled engines are compared to the OTTO engine . Open throttle and throttled engine results are given. Preliminary results on parametric...variation of engine variables, compression ignition behavior are reported. Improvements in thermal efficiency over the OTTO engine in excess of 45% are

  1. Restoration of Gruber Wagon Works, Blue Marsh Lake, Berks County, Pennsylvania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-11

    Job L.S. $ 21. Painting - - Job L.S. $ 22. Otto Engine Support Systems - - - Job L.S. $ 23. Restoration of Machinery Drive System - - - Job L.5...1.2.2 Corrugated metal pipe arch culvert tailrace section within building. 1.2.3 Underground fuel tank and supply line to Otto Engine . 1.3 Applicable

  2. 40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... samples from either Otto-cycle or diesel engines. Since various configurations can produce accurate... and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence analyzer (CL) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1829-01 - Durability and emission testing requirements; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1829-01 Durability and.... (iii) Data submittal waivers. (A) In lieu of testing a methanol-fueled diesel-cycle light truck for... testing an Otto-cycle light-duty vehicle, light-duty truck, or heavy-duty vehicle for particulate...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1726-99 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to this subpart: (1) For Otto-cycle and diesel vehicles and battery assisted combustion engine vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines: (i) Prior to initiation of mileage accumulation in a... tested in accordance with the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET; 40 CFR part 600, subpart B)....

  5. 40 CFR 86.1726-99 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to this subpart: (1) For Otto-cycle and diesel vehicles and battery assisted combustion engine vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines: (i) Prior to initiation of mileage accumulation in a... tested in accordance with the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET; 40 CFR part 600, subpart B)....

  6. Improving the Numerical Efficiency of Generalized Multipole Technique by Non-Redundant Multipole Choices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-23

    M. Mongiardoà and A.S. Omar    Chair of Microwave and Communication Engineering, FET-IESK, Otto -von- Guericke University, Magdeburg, PF 4120...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Chair of Microwave and Communication Engineering, FET-IESK, Otto -von- Guericke University, Magdeburg, PF 4120

  7. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel engines are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25 (b... battery system components requiring monitoring are: (i) Battery water level; (ii) Temperature...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1537 - Idle test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle...-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1537...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1434 - Equipment preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty... the device(s) for removing water from the exhaust sample and the sample filter(s). Remove any water from the water trap(s). Clean and replace the filter(s) as necessary. (c) Set the zero and span...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1416 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1416 Calibration; frequency and... calibration of the analyzer must be checked. The analyzer must be adjusted or repaired as necessary. (c)...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1516 - Calibration; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks;...

  17. Potential Natural Vegetation of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: St. Francis Basin, Arkansas, Field Atlas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Highland Dr Ar 1 58 Hw y Ar 1 35 Hw y Lun sfo rd H wy Bay Hwy 1st St Joe N Martin Expy Co Rd 628 F130 1 2 3 40.5 Miles Ü Coordinate System: NAD...City Bay £¤63 UV18 UV158 UV135 UV463 UV69 Highland Dr Ar 1 58 Hw y Ar 1 35 Hw y Lun sfo rd H wy Bay Hwy 1st St Joe N Martin Expy F130 1 2 3 40.5 Miles

  18. [The classification method of syndromes in the Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold)].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaowei; Zheng, Wenjie; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-03-01

    Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold) epitomizes the medical achievements of the Tang Dynasty with an extensive coverage. The classification method of syndromes in this book is derived from Nei jing (Inner Canon), Nan jing (Classic of Questioning), Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases), Zhu bing yuan hou lun (General Treatise on Causes and Manifestations of All Diseases), and enlightens the later generation with many unique characteristics, reflecting the mature recognition of the diseases in the contemporary clinical medicine from one side. It is still of great significance for understanding the diseases and exploring its pathogenesis even today.

  19. Teacher Retention and Satisfaction with a Servant Leader as Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jimmy; Newton, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    If the most precious product developed in education is the student, then our most prized commodity should be the classroom teacher. According to numerous studies (Allen, Pianta, Gregory, Mikami, & Lun, 2011; Clotfelter, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2010; Darling-Hammond, 2000), the greatest influence on a student's achievement is the classroom…

  20. Secrets of the Presidential Turn-Around Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    2002-01-01

    Profiles five college presidents (Henry Tisdale of Claflin University, David Carter of Eastern Connecticut State University, Jimmy Jenkins of Edward Waters College, Dorothy Yancy of Johnson C. Smith University, and Luns Richardson of Morris College) who have brought success to their once-languishing institutions. (EV)

  1. A COMPUTER MODEL OF LUNG MORPHOLOGY TO ANALYZE SPECT IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of the three-dimensional (3-D) spatial distribution of aerosol deposition can be performed using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). The advantage of using 3-D techniques over planar gamma imaging is that deposition patterns can be related to real lun...

  2. A COMPUTER MODEL OF LUNG MORPHOLOGY TO ANALYZE SPECT IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of the three-dimensional (3-D) spatial distribution of aerosol deposition can be performed using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). The advantage of using 3-D techniques over planar gamma imaging is that deposition patterns can be related to real lun...

  3. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, BARDAC 203-MP, 03/08 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... IDTE TD PHYSICI .. , Pr.,,'I. "".,1 ~ II, ",I"i"ic,te t., ,se ,~ "st,it I.,., • u"ts ',IilSl ci,,,I,I.,, ,hd. rtSflrlln, '.,nssi'" I" c,",lun "I, h ,,,., ... 1[$1 lUn.dli &Of1° ) •• • ...

  4. Sciences and society

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-10

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  5. Immunological reactions of Rift Valley fever virus strains from East and West Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomori, O

    1979-03-01

    Three strains of Rift Valley fever virus, namely Nigerian (NIG), Smithburn's neurotropic (SNT), and Lunyo variant (LUN) were compared by complement fixation (CF), neutralisation (N), haemagglutination/haemagglutination-inhibition (HA/HI) and agar gel diffusion (AGD) tests. They showed reciprocal cross-reactivity in CF tests. In N tests, using immune sheep sera, there was reciprocal cross-neutralisation between the NIG and SNT strains, but not with the LUN strain, the antiserum of which neutralised both NIG and SNT antigens whereas the reverse was not the case. When hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid was employed in N tests, there was cross-reactivity between the three strains. Both the NIG and SNT strains yielded haemagglutinins, but not the LUN strain. Furthermore, by the antibody absorption and AGD techniques, the NIG and SNT strains were found to be identical and distinct from the LUN variant strain. The techniques found most useful in distinguishing between the three strains were HA and AGD. Laboratory neuro-adaptation of the classical pantropic virus did not appear to affect its haemagglutination activity.

  6. A Turning Device in Helical Coil Roasters for Coffee and the Like,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-15

    AD-A126 819 A TURNING DEVICE IN HELICAL COIL ROASTERS FOR COFFEE 1/ AND THE LIKE(U) FbREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH A OTTO 15 FEB 83...FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION A TURNING DEVICE IN HELICAL COIL ROASTERS FOR COFFEE AND THE LIKE by Alexander Otto 0 Approved for public release; LI- FTD -ID...DOC =0093 PAGE 1 A TURNING DEVICE IN HELICAL COIL ROASTERS FOR COFFEE AND THE LIKE Alexander Otto, Dresden Class 82a Patent; Patent Description Nuimber

  7. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1832-01...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01 Denial...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1861-04 - How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01 Denial...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1850-01 - Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1850-01 Denial, suspension or...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1841-01 Compliance...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1830-01 Acceptance of...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1841-01...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1841-01 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1841-01...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1842-01 - Addition of a vehicle after certification; and changes to a vehicle covered by certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1832-01 Optional...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01 Manufacturer-supplied...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1836-01...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1838-01 - Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1838-01 Small...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1824-07 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1824-07...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1819 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart S of... - Vehicle Procurement Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. I...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1831-01 Mileage...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart S of... - Vehicle Procurement Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. I...

  16. 6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATION, 1874. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  18. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  19. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... performance. (b) Zero the carbon dioxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen....

  1. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... performance. (b) Zero the carbon dioxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen....

  3. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test... measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration....

  5. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... methanol (if applicable) concentrations in ppm carbon, initial and final enclosure ambient...

  6. Staff Development in Reading: What the Experts Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacca, Jo Anne

    1979-01-01

    Presents interviews of six prominent researchers (Ira Aaron, Harold Herber, Wayne Otto, Robert Ruddell, Roselmina Indrisano, and Olive Niles), which focused on the dynamics constituting effective staff development experiences. (HOD)

  7. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraphs § 86.1817-05 (a) through (o) to the extent that they are in conflict. (1) Manufacturers of Otto... the standards specified in § 86.1806-08. The generation and use of NMHC credits are subject to...

  8. Astrometric observations of the faint outer satellites of Jupiter during the 1993 opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, Peter J.; Whipple, Arthur L.; Benedict, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    Astrometric positions for the faint outer Jovian satellites VI-XIII during the 1993 opposition have been obtained from the measurement of plates taken with the 2.1 m Otto Struve reflector at McDonald Observatory.

  9. Idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A W

    1985-01-01

    A case of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in an adolescent Indian girl is reported. The association between idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip and primary protrusio acetabuli (Otto's pelvis) is discussed. Images PMID:3985694

  10. 40 CFR 86.1838-01 - Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1838-01 Small volume...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission standards...

  12. Staff Development in Reading: What the Experts Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacca, Jo Anne

    1979-01-01

    Presents interviews of six prominent researchers (Ira Aaron, Harold Herber, Wayne Otto, Robert Ruddell, Roselmina Indrisano, and Olive Niles), which focused on the dynamics constituting effective staff development experiences. (HOD)

  13. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... purchaser, city, and state. (3) The manufacturer must retain all records required to be maintained...

  14. Libraries in Missouri: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/missouri.html Libraries in Missouri To use the sharing features on ... of Missouri-Columbia J.Otto Lottes Health Sciences Library 1 Hospital Drive Columbia, MO 65212 573-882- ...

  15. Eighteen-ninety-six and all that

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    This year's commemorative platter includes ether anaesthesia, smallpox vaccination, radioactivity and several mathematical morsels, as well as an accidental death (Otto Lilienthal) and the mother of all births (the Universe).

  16. The Warfighter’s Stress Response: Telemetric and Noninvasive Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    memory task is described by Eichenbaum and Otto as a typical declarative memory task. [42] 26 Military Performance measures In this project, the...action of corticotropin- releasing factor. Peptides. 21 (1): 37-44. 19. Broqua P, Wettstein JG, Rocher MN, Gauthier- Martin B, Junien JL (1995...of Psychology, College of Arts and Social Sciences, The University of West Florida. 42. Eichenbaum , H., & Otto, T. (1992). The hippocampus: What does

  17. Ribosome abundance regulates the recovery of skeletal muscle protein mass upon recuperation from postnatal undernutrition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A; Sosa, Horacio A; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Estrada, Irma; Fleischmann, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Nutritionally-induced growth faltering in the perinatal period has been associated with reduced adult skeletal muscle mass; however, the mechanisms responsible for this are unclear. To identify the factors that determine the recuperative capacity of muscle mass, we studied offspring of FVB mouse dams fed a protein-restricted diet during gestation (GLP) or pups suckled from postnatal day 1 (PN1) to PN11 (E-UN), or PN11 to PN22 (L-UN) on protein-restricted or control dams. All pups were refed under control conditions following the episode of undernutrition. Before refeeding, and 2, 7 and 21 days later, muscle protein synthesis was measured in vivo. There were no long-term deficits in protein mass in GLP and E-UN offspring, but in L-UN offspring muscle protein mass remained significantly smaller even after 18 months (P < 0.001). E-UN differed from L-UN offspring by their capacity to upregulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis when refed (P < 0.001), a difference that was attributable to a transient increase in ribosomal abundance, i.e. translational capacity, in E-UN offspring (P < 0.05); translational efficiency was similar across dietary treatments. The postprandial phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases were similar among treatments. However, activation of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 via mTOR (P < 0.02), and total upstream binding factor abundance were significantly greater in E-UN than L-UN offspring (P < 0.02). The results indicate that the capacity of muscles to recover following perinatal undernutrition depends on developmental age as this establishes whether ribosome abundance can be enhanced sufficiently to promote the protein synthesis rates required to accelerate protein deposition for catch-up growth. PMID:25239457

  18. Inhibiting Inosine Hydrolase and Alanine Racemase to Enhance the Germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores: Potential Spore Decontamination Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED PR-15-306 Anthrax Background ~’ . . . ’ ’ . . . ’ . . . . ’ . ’ • Caused by a gram ... positive spore forming rod. • Important veterinary disease as herbivores may be prone to the disease if they feed in ’anthrax zones...By inhibiting Air and lunH separately - By inhibiting the both concommitantly (iunH mutant spores positively affected by the block of Air) • Better

  19. QNAP 1263U Network Attached Storage (NAS)/ Storage Area Network (SAN) Device Users Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    7 Fig. 8 Add a Policy button ...............................................................................8 Fig. 9 Read/ write access...store information and to reformat the NAS using other specifications. At the writing of this, the QNAP 1263U NAS is set up in a redundant array of...initiators are writing files. For this reason, only one computer should ever have write access to a LUN, which is viewed as a local hard drive by the

  20. A lower bound of the Trautman-Bondi energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafel, J.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain an energy inequality on null surfaces u = const in the Bondi-Sachs formalism. We show that for a sufficiently regular event horizon H there is an affine radial coordinate which is constant on H. Then the energy inequality can be prolongated to the horizon giving an estimation which is closely related to the Penrose inequality. We test it for the Kerr solution written in Fletcher-Lun coordinates.

  1. 3CE Methodology for Conducting a Modeling, Simulation, and Instrumentation Tool Capability Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    System Design System Dev DT&E IOT &E Operations 3CE – Core Products Process & Procedures Data Toolbox 3CE Network TRADOC RDECOMATEC 3CE...3Cie ,·;~" ’lit ) n311 3,·: : t ) ? Cll)3t•li 11 ;; ~~n· :· "’lun1110r: ·; C3 ’·€)1? .: ~ : ~~ e,·~ Jabon 01) .1.1-:. :- )Oer;;: ’~g s no ’;tow

  2. Sciences and society

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  3. On Combinations of Random Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    NPS55-80-006 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL NM ’Monterey, California 00 •2• • TD -E E C AN : JUN 16 1980 i ON COMBINATIONS OF RANDOM LOADS by D. P. Gaver...of MKn is close to that of Mn for K large. PROPOSITION (3.3). Let F and G be as in (3.5), and u be such that (un)-c L(un) n as n ÷ (3.6) Then lim HKn

  4. Investigation of high pressure phase transition and electronic properties of Lutetium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, U. P.

    2015-09-01

    In the present manuscript we have investigated the structural, electronic and phase transition properties of the heaviest lanthanide lutetium nitride (LuN) compound using an ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory with Perdrew, Burke and Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) and Engel-Vosko(EV)-GGA as implemented in WIEN2k code. The basic ground state properties viz., lattice constants (a), bulk modulus (B0) and its pressure derivative (B0’) and total energy (E0) are calculated. The calculated values of lattice constant is 4.76 Å which is in good agreement with experimental value a= 4.76 A and other theoretical value. The relative stabilities of LuN at high pressures in the NaCl (B1), CsCl (B2), zinc blende (B3) and body centred tetragonal (BCT) structures are analysed. At compressed volumes, this compound is found to favour the CsCl phase rather the body centred tetragonal phase and zinc blende as observed in other lanthanum pnictides, which has been predicted by the total energy minimization. Under compression LuN undergoes a transition from NaCl to CsCl type structure at around 250.81 GPa with a volume collapse of 3.75%. To see the effect of functional we have also computed the band structure in B1 and B2 structure. Obtained result on band structure shows that LuN are semimetal by GGA while depicts semiconducting behaviour by EV-GGA. It shows metallic nature in B2 phase.

  5. [Transition of the doctrine from ancient to medieval China for embryo and fetus on each month during pregnancy period].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chiharu

    2004-12-01

    There are written some doctrines about growth image of embryo and fetus, hygiene for woman on each month during pregnancy period etc. in ancient Chinese medical book the Taichan Shu, which compiled over 2200 years ago. Following results were obtained by a study on the transition doctrines from that of Taichan Shu to those of medieval Chinese and Japanese medical books such as the Zhubing Yuanhou Lun, the Qianjin Fang and the Ishin Po. (1) Doctrines about growth and hygiene on embryo and fetus had been developed on each coming book from the contents of the Taichan Shu descent. Doctrines about hygiene were mainly for pregnant woman, and some methods of them were told by using figure image and the five elements theory in the part. (2) There could be found additional doctrines about meridian and internal organs theory in the Zhubing Yuanhou Lun, the Qianjin Fang and the Ishin Po. And those additional doctrines were made under the influence of the Maijing and the Suwen. New doctrines about hygiene for pregnant woman found in the Qianjin Fang and the Ishin Po also have relationships with meridian and internal organs theory. (3) Growing organs of embryo and fetus described in the Zhubing Yuanhou Lun and the Qianjin Fang correspond with the internal organs theory. Purpose of those descriptions is estimated to be equipped much more organs for embryo and fetus than those of the Taichan Chu.

  6. [The evolution of principal drugs in prescription compatibility].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bing; Shi, Dong-ping

    2009-01-01

    The principal drugs of principal, adjuvant, auxiliary and conductant compatiblity in prescriptions recorded in the ancient literatures had different meaning and quantities. According to the current literatures, Zhuangzi Xu Wugui took the one can cure diseases as the principal drug; The principal, adjuvant, auxiliary and conductant drugs in Shennong Bencao Jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) can be used to differentiate the good and bad of drugs; Yaoxing Lun (Treatise on medicinal property) of Zheng quan (Tang dynasty) stipulated some drugs as principal drugs; Zazhu Bencao of Jiang Xiaowan (Tang dynasty) took the one can cure yin diseases as the principal drugs; Yixue Qiyuan (the origination of medicine) of Zhang Yuansu (Jin dynasty) took the one of maximum dosage as principal drugs; Piwei Lun (Treatise on Spleen and Stomach) of LI gao (Jin dynasty) took the powerful one as the principal drug; The principal drugs in Yi Lun (medicine treatise) of Wang Kentang (Ming dynasty) changed according to different ages. The quantities of principal drugs can had two and three ingredients even took one prescription as principal drug instead of one ingredient.

  7. An Inconvenient History: the Nuclear-Fission Display in the Deutsches Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2010-06-01

    One of the longstanding attractions of the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany, has been its display of the apparatus associated with the discovery of nuclear fission. Although the discovery involved three scientists, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann, the fission display was designated for over 30 years as the Arbeitstisch von Otto Hahn (Otto Hahn’s Worktable), with Strassmann mentioned peripherally and Meitner not at all, and it was not until the early 1990s that the display was revised to include all three codiscoverers more equitably. I examine the creation of the fission display in the context of the postwar German culture of silencing the National Socialist past, and trace the eventual transformation of the display into a contemporary exhibit that more accurately represents the scientific history of the fission discovery.

  8. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  9. Quantum correlated heat engine with spin squeezing.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Hardal, Ali Ü C; Müstecaplıoglu, Özgür E

    2014-09-01

    We propose a four-level quantum heat engine in an Otto cycle with a working substance of two spins subject to an external magnetic field and coupled to each other by a one-axis twisting spin squeezing nonlinear interaction. We calculate the positive work and the efficiency of the engine for different parameter regimes. In particular, we investigate the effects of quantum correlations at the end of the two isochoric processes of the Otto cycle, as measured by the entanglement of formation and quantum discord, on the work extraction and efficiency. The regimes where the quantum correlations could enhance the efficiency and work extraction are characterized.

  10. Politics, Chemistry, and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Emilie; Settle, Frank A., Jr.

    2001-07-01

    The discovery of fission is an interesting scientific saga involving the fundamentals of chemistry and physics. It is played out in the late 1930s on a European stage. Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn head a cast of characters that include scientific notables Fritz Strassmann, Otto Frisch, James Chadwick, Enrico Fermi, Ida Noddack, Irene Curie, and Neils Bohr. The plot includes the scientific method, the interdependence of chemistry and physics, the influence of external politics, and human frailty. The events surrounding this discovery did not allow the scientists involved to receive equal recognition. Fortunately, the passage of time and extensive historical research are restoring equality.

  11. A further footnote to Freud's "fragment of an analysis of a case of hysteria".

    PubMed

    Rogow, A A

    1978-01-01

    While ther is no evidence that Freud ever had in analysis a leading political figure, he did analyze the sister of one, and made her the basis of an important case study. Dora's brother, Otto Bauer, was an influential Marxist theoretician and leader of the Austrian Socialist Party from 1918 to 1934. Freud's Dora case illuminates the psychodynamics of Otto Bauer's life and career, and a re-examination of the case together with recent research also provides us with new information about Freud's analysis of Dora and the milieu in which they both lived.

  12. Weight propagation and equivalent horsepower for alternate-engined cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klose, G. J.; Kurtz, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate properly the consequences of replacing conventional Otto-cycle engines with alternate power systems, comparisons must be carried out at the vehicle level with functionally equivalent cars. This paper presents the development and application of a procedure for establishing equivalent vehicles. A systematic weight propagation methodology, based on detailed weight breakdowns and influence factors, yields the vehicle weight impacts due to changes in engine weight and power. Performance-matching criteria, utilizing a vehicle simulation program, are then employed to establish Otto-engine-equivalent vehicles, whose characteristics can form the basis for alternative engine evaluations.

  13. Educating Teachers in Democratic Societies: Certification Concerns. A Panel Discussion Moderated by Ronald Swartz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Horizons, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Colloquium discussants Ronald Swartz and Mary Otto (Oakland University), Father Walter Krolikowski and Peggy Fong (Loyola University), and William Schubert and Victoria Chou (University of Illinois at Chicago) address teacher certification program philosophy, state and national standards, and other issues. (SK)

  14. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE: Project 4.2. Direct Air Blast Exposure Effects in Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-12-01

    I. Whitten A. C. Allen, HIMC J. S. Otto, HMC P. E. Thompson, HGC A. L. Parnham, HM1 D. J. Skelley, HM2 T. P. Nordquist, HM3 .:. E. Jar&- ara , 113 The...30 Commanding General, U.S. Army Caribbean, Ft. Amador , NAVY ACTIVITIES C.Z. AlI’S: Cml. Off. 331 Commanding General, USARFANT & MDFR, Ft. Brooke, 72

  15. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1413 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used... octane specification of the fuels does not apply. For all gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty...

  19. 40 CFR 86.127-96 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or all of the following emissions: (1) Gaseous exhaust THC, CO, NOX. CO2 (for petroleum-fueled and... gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC... analyzed for THC using a heated sample line and analyzer; the other gaseous emissions (CH4, CO, CO2,...

  20. 40 CFR 86.127-96 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or all of the following emissions: (1) Gaseous exhaust THC, CO, NOX. CO2 (for petroleum-fueled and... gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC... analyzed for THC using a heated sample line and analyzer; the other gaseous emissions (CH4, CO, CO2,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.127-00 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emissions: (1) Gaseous exhaust THC, CO, NOX. CO2 (for petroleum-fueled and gaseous- fueled vehicles), plus... Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC, CO, CO2, CH4, NOX, and... exhaust emissions related to aggressive driving (US06) is designed to determine gaseous THC, NMHC, CO,...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1815-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... light-duty vehicles and/or light-duty trucks subject to the provisions in this subpart must establish... with § 86.614 for light-duty vehicles or § 86.1014 for light-duty trucks and, if a...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1814-02 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-02 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1814-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1814-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1848-10 - Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1848-10... be covered by the certificate. (4) For incomplete light-duty trucks and incomplete...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1848-01 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... be covered by the certificate. (4) For incomplete light-duty trucks and incomplete heavy-duty... certificate and produced during the model year. (e) A manufacturer of new light-duty vehicles,...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1812-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1812-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto... light-duty vehicles and/or light-duty trucks subject to the provisions in this subpart must establish... with § 86.614 for light-duty vehicles or § 86.1014 for light-duty trucks and, if a...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1811-01 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1811-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1813-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1813-01 Emission standards... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  18. Critical Thinking and the Question of Critique: Some Lessons from Deconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert J. J.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides some philosophical groundwork for contemporary debates about the idea of critical thinking. Discusses three styles of critique: critical dogmatism, transcendental critique (Karl-Otto Apel), and deconstruction (Jacques Derrida). Argues that while transcendental critique is able to solve some of the problems of the dogmatic approach to…

  19. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transmission vehicles shall have the clutch engaged and shall not change gears from the previous mode. For...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy...

  20. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transmission vehicles shall have the clutch engaged and shall not change gears from the previous mode. For...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1305 - Introduction; structure of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Heavy-duty Engines § 86.1305 Introduction; structure of subpart. (a) This subpart specifies the equipment and procedures for performing exhaust-emission tests on Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle heavy-duty... specified in 40 CFR part 1065. Use the duty cycles and procedures specified in §§ 86.1333, 86.1360, and...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1301 - Scope; applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-duty Engines § 86.1301 Scope; applicability. This subpart specifies gaseous emission test procedures for Otto-cycle and diesel heavy-duty engines, and particulate emission test procedures for diesel... will use the manufacturer's selected procedures for mapping engines, generating duty cycles,...

  3. USSR Report, Science and Technology Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Pavlovich Pavlov , Aleksandr Abramovich Drach, Igor Yakovlevich Okhota, Ivan Aleksandrovich Yanovich. "The Development and Extensive Introduction at...Aleksandrovich Zarutskiy, Ivan Semenovich Chernyshenko, Kuzma Ivanovich Shnerenko, Ivan Vlasovich Prokhorenko, Valeriy Nikolayevich Chekhov, Viktor...Academy of Sciences. 7. Ivan Prokhorovich Zapesochnyy, Otto Bartolomeyevich Shpenik, Ilya Sergeyevich Aleksakhin, Lyudvik Lyudvikovich Shimon

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Subpart S... - As-Received Inspection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false As-Received Inspection III Appendix III to Subpart S of Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. III Appendix III to Subpart S...

  5. What Research Has To Say about Reading Instruction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.; Farstrup, Alan E., Ed.

    Maintaining the balance between theory and application of the 1978 edition, this book's second edition keeps up with changes in the reading curriculum by adding chapters on text structure, metacognition, and home background not found in the first edition. Chapter titles are: (1) "The Role of Research in Reading Instruction" (Wayne Otto); (2) "Home…

  6. Academic Library Development Program. Report of the Self-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Ronald P., Comp.; And Others

    This report is the result of a self-study undertaken by the staff of the University of Miami's Otto G. Richter Library as part of the Academic Library Development Program (ALDP), a management self-study program developed by the Association of Research Libraries' Office of University Library Management Studies. The basic responsibility for the…

  7. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... If engine stalling occurs during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 to restart the test. Measurement instruments must meet the specifications described in this subpart. (c) Test cell...

  9. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... vehicle through one Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), a 2-minute idle, two New York City Cycles...

  10. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...

  12. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... If engine stalling occurs during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 to restart the test. Measurement instruments must meet the specifications described in this subpart. (c) Test cell...

  13. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... If engine stalling occurs during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 to restart the test. Measurement instruments must meet the specifications described in this subpart. (c) Test cell...

  14. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...

  15. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...

  16. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... If engine stalling occurs during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 to restart the test. Measurement instruments must meet the specifications described in this subpart. (c) Test cell...

  17. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...

  18. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... If engine stalling occurs during cycle operation, follow the provisions of § 86.136-90 to restart the test. Measurement instruments must meet the specifications described in this subpart. (c) Test cell...

  19. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These...

  20. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... vehicle through one Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), a 2-minute idle, two New York City Cycles...

  1. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...

  2. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...

  3. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions...

  4. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: II. VIBROTACTILE AND VISUAL MEASURES FINAL DOCUMENT TITLE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: II. VIBROTACTILE AND VISUAL MEASURES.

    David Otto, Ph.D., Judy Mumford, Ph.D., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Ken Hudnell, Ph.D.,
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Yanhong Li, M.D., Yajuan ...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer...). (3) For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1846-01 - Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1846-01 Manufacturer...). (3) For purposes of this section, the term vehicle includes light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  7. Lilienthal's fatal glider crash in 1896: evidence regarding the cause of death.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor; Bardrum, Benny; Illig, Petra

    2008-10-01

    Otto Lilienthal's pioneering work on gliders helped form the basis for development of powered aircraft. His death following a glider crash in 1896 was officially ascribed to fracture of the cervical spine. However, the clinical details assembled here make it more likely that he died from head trauma with resulting complications, possibly including intracranial hematoma.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart S of... - Vehicle Procurement Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle Procurement Methodology I Appendix I to Subpart S of Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles Pt. 86, Subpt. S, App. I Appendix I to Subpart S of...

  9. Advanced Data Acquisition and Telemetry System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    The Advanced Data Acquisition and Telemetry System team includes front row from left Mario Soto, Sam Habbal, Tiffany Titas, RIchard Hang, Randy Torres, Thang Quach, Otto Schnarr, Matthew Waldersen, Karen Estes, Andy Olvera, Stanley Wertenberger and Rick Cordes. In the second row from left are John Atherly, Doug Boston, Tom Horn, Brady Rennie, Chris Birkinbine, Jim McNally, Martin Munday and Tony Lorek.

  10. 40 CFR 86.127-96 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or all of the following emissions: (1) Gaseous exhaust THC, CO, NOX. CO2 (for petroleum-fueled and... gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC... analyzed for THC using a heated sample line and analyzer; the other gaseous emissions (CH4, CO, CO2, and...

  11. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for THC, CO, CO2, CH4, and NOX. For petroleum-fueled diesel-cycle vehicles, THC is sampled and analyzed continuously according to the provisions of § 86.110. Parallel bag samples of dilution air are analyzed for THC, CO, CO2...

  12. 40 CFR 86.127-96 - Test procedures; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or all of the following emissions: (1) Gaseous exhaust THC, CO, NOX. CO2 (for petroleum-fueled and... gaseous-fueled vehicles). (b) The Otto-cycle exhaust emission test is designed to determine gaseous THC... analyzed for THC using a heated sample line and analyzer; the other gaseous emissions (CH4, CO, CO2, and...

  13. Flux Pinning Enhancement in YBa2Cu3O7-x Films for Coated Conductor Applications (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Verebelyi , D.T. , Schoop , U. , Nguyen , N. , Thieme , C. , Chen , Z. , Feldman , D.M. , Larbalestier , D.C. , Holesinger , T.G...Fleshler , S. , Rupich , M. , Thieme , C. , Li , X. , Zhang , W. , Otto , A. , Maguire , J. , Folts , D. , Yuan , J. , Kraemer

  14. Myers-Briggs Type Indicators and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory Correlations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Astrologies ," Theology Today, page 292. 2. Ron Zemke, "Second Thoughts About the MBTI," Training, April 1993, page 43. 3. Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Theusen...March 1990): 30-32. Long, Thomas. "Myers-Briggs and Other Modern Astrologies ." Theology Today. 291-294. Reis, Dayr A. and John H. Button. "Bureaucracy and

  15. 40 CFR 86.1815-01 - Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1815-01 Emission standards... monoxide: 5.0 grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.1 grams per mile except diesel fueled vehicles... mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen: 1.53 grams per mile. (v) Particulate matter: 0.12 grams per mile. (b) (c...

  16. The Role of Idiomorphs in Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Psycholinguistics coined the term idiomorph to describe idiosyncratic invented word-like units that toddlers use to refer to familiar objects during their early language development (Haslett & Samter, 1997; Otto, 2008; Reich, 1986; Scovel, 2004; Werner & Kaplan, 1963). Idiomorphs act as "words" because their meanings and phonetic pronunciations…

  17. Isotope Mixes, Corresponding Nuclear Properties and Reactor Design Implications of Naturally Occurring Lead Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    observed when “Lise Meitner and her nephew Otto Frisch, working under Niels Bohr …calculated the energy release from this (uranium) fission as about...his co-workers in Paris, and Leo Szilard working with Fermi in New York.” [11] Shortly after these developments “ Bohr …proposed that fission was much

  18. New Forms of Stolz-Cesaro Lemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortici, Cristinel

    2011-01-01

    The well-known Stolz-Cesaro lemma is due to the mathematicians Ernesto Cesaro (1859-1906) and Otto Stolz (1842-1905). The aim of this article is to give new forms of Stolz-Cesaro lemma involving the limit [image omitted].

  19. Modern Technology in Foreign Language Education: Applications and Projects. The ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wm. Flint, Ed.

    This book, the second of two volumes devoted to instructional media in second language instruction, focuses on specific applications of advanced technology in the classroom. The first part, "Applications," contains seven chapters. They are: "The Language Laboratory in the Computer Age" (S. E. K. Otto); "Television…

  20. The "Encounter" as an "Event of Truth" in Education: An Anthropological-Pedagogical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantazis, Vasileios E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Vasileios Pantazis examines how two philosophers having different orientations acknowledge and study the phenomenon of the "encounter" ("Begegnung") and its fundamental importance to human life and education. On the one hand, Otto Friedrich Bollnow drew on existential philosophy and philosophical anthropology in his analysis of the…

  1. Educating Teachers in Democratic Societies: Certification Concerns. A Panel Discussion Moderated by Ronald Swartz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Horizons, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Colloquium discussants Ronald Swartz and Mary Otto (Oakland University), Father Walter Krolikowski and Peggy Fong (Loyola University), and William Schubert and Victoria Chou (University of Illinois at Chicago) address teacher certification program philosophy, state and national standards, and other issues. (SK)

  2. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: II. VIBROTACTILE AND VISUAL MEASURES FINAL DOCUMENT TITLE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: II. VIBROTACTILE AND VISUAL MEASURES.

    David Otto, Ph.D., Judy Mumford, Ph.D., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Ken Hudnell, Ph.D.,
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Yanhong Li, M.D., Yajuan ...

  3. 40 CFR 86.150-98 - Refueling test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... (b) The refueling emissions test is designed to measure hydrocarbon emissions resulting from the generation or displacement of fuel tank vapor during vehicle refueling. The refueling emissions shall...

  4. 40 CFR 86.150-98 - Refueling test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... (b) The refueling emissions test is designed to measure hydrocarbon emissions resulting from the generation or displacement of fuel tank vapor during vehicle refueling. The refueling emissions shall...

  5. 40 CFR 86.150-98 - Refueling test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... (b) The refueling emissions test is designed to measure hydrocarbon emissions resulting from the generation or displacement of fuel tank vapor during vehicle refueling. The refueling emissions shall...

  6. 40 CFR 86.150-98 - Refueling test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... (b) The refueling emissions test is designed to measure hydrocarbon emissions resulting from the generation or displacement of fuel tank vapor during vehicle refueling. The refueling emissions shall...

  7. 40 CFR 86.150-98 - Refueling test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle.... (b) The refueling emissions test is designed to measure hydrocarbon emissions resulting from the generation or displacement of fuel tank vapor during vehicle refueling. The refueling emissions shall...

  8. The Validity of Three Brief Measures of Intelligence for Disabled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikulski, John J.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and slightly refine and extend the procedures of Houston and Otto, who pointed out the need for studying the relationship between easily administered, individual measures of intelligence with more diagnostic and more highly validated measures. (Author/RK)

  9. 40 CFR 86.1334-84 - Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007) by... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-test engine and...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1380-2004 - Load response test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... heavy-duty diesel engines. The purpose of this test procedure is to measure the brake-specific gaseous and particulate emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine as it is suddenly loaded, with its...

  11. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1380-2004 - Load response test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... heavy-duty diesel engines. The purpose of this test procedure is to measure the brake-specific gaseous and particulate emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine as it is suddenly loaded, with its...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1334-84 - Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007) by... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test engine and...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1334-84 - Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007) by... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-test engine and...

  15. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1334-84 - Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007) by... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-test engine and...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1380-2004 - Load response test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... heavy-duty diesel engines. The purpose of this test procedure is to measure the brake-specific gaseous and particulate emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine as it is suddenly loaded, with its...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1380-2004 - Load response test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures... heavy-duty diesel engines. The purpose of this test procedure is to measure the brake-specific gaseous and particulate emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine as it is suddenly loaded, with its...

  19. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  20. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...