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Sample records for luna tabasco modelacion

  1. Lunae Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 24 June 2002) The Science This image is within a region called Lunae Planum, near 27.3N, 75.3W. This is a region west of the Viking 1 landing site that marks the transition between the Tharsis rise, a giant volcanic complex, and the northern lowland plains. The topographically high regions display numerous graben, signs of significant amounts of crustal deformation. The low areas display signs of resurfacing, including an unusual unit that appears to 'lap' onto the base of the uplands. This scarp follows the transition between the high and low areas throughout much of the image. It is not clear what caused these deposits, but a likely candidate is ice, which is suspected to have played a major role in the surface morphology of the fretted terrains and many features within the northern lowlands. The Story Lunae Planum was named after the Roman moon goddess Luna, who in ancient stories ruled over the night just as her counterpart, the sun god Sol, ruled over the day (a 'sol' is, in fact, the word used for a Martian day). Wearing the symbol of the crescent moon upon her head, Luna was known to ride on chariot pulled by two powerful horses. If the fictional Luna ever rode over the Martian plain named for her, she would find the terrain fairly rough going. You might say that she'd face a large number of 'ruts' on a geologic scale. That's because Lunae Planum marks the transition between the high Tharsis rise , a giant volcanic bulge on Mars, and the northern lowland plains. In this region, there are many signs of significant crustal deformation. Look for the dropped blocks of terrain called 'graben' on the higher surfaces in this image. Graben are created when tectonic forces tear apart the terrain, leaving long, large 'ruts' on the surface. We find graben on Earth too (think of Death Valley, the lowest dry land in the United States, or of the Jordan Dead Sea depression). Much more exciting than these depressions is the thin ridge that seems to lap up against

  2. The halogens in Luna 16 and Luna 20 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1973-01-01

    The halogens, uranium, and lithium contents found in Luna 16, Luna 20, and some Apollo lunar soil samples are discussed. Chlorine and phosphorus pentoxide do not appear to exhibit the same correlation in soils from the Luna 20 and possibly the Luna 16 sites as they do in samples from the Apollo 11-15 sites.

  3. Nuclear Astrophysics with LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonuclear reactions which power the stars and synthesize the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained during the 'solar' phase of LUNA are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and of the Sun is discussed. We then describe the current LUNA program mainly devoted to the study of the nucleosynthesis of the light elements in AGB stars and Classical Novae. Finally, the future of LUNA towards the study of helium and carbon burning with a new 3.5 MV accelerator is outlined.

  4. The Luna experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the cross section of the thermonuclear reactions which power the stars and synthesize the chemical elements in the Universe. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained during the solar phase of LUNA are reviewed before describing the current LUNA program devoted to the study of the nucleosynthesis of the light elements in AGB stars and Classical Novae. Finally, the future of LUNA with the new 3.5 MV accelerator devoted to the study of helium and carbon burning is discussed.

  5. Luna 9 pictures: implications.

    PubMed

    Gold, T; Hapke, B W

    1966-07-15

    Evidence from Luna 9 does not preclude the possibility that the moon may have a surface made up largely of very fine rock particles. The degree to which they attach to each other and the resulting firmness of the ground cannot yet be closely estimated.

  6. 78 FR 49121 - Safety Zone; Luna Pier Fireworks, Luna Pier, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Luna Pier Fireworks, Luna Pier, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard... zone for the Luna Pier Fireworks Show, Luna Pier, MI, from 9:25 p.m. until 10:25 p.m. on August 24... waters of Lake Erie within a 300-yard radius of the fireworks launch site at the Clyde E. Evens...

  7. Sex Attractant Pheromone of the Luna Moth, Actias luna (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Haynes, Kenneth F; Dossey, Aaron T; McElfresh, J Steven; Allison, Jeremy D

    2016-09-01

    Giant silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) typically are not well represented as larvae or adults in community level inventories of Lepidoptera, and as a result, little is known about their population dynamics. Furthermore, in recent years, many species of silk moths appear to have experienced population declines. Volatile sex pheromones are powerful sampling tools that can be used in operational conservation and monitoring programs for insects. Here, we describe the identification of the sex attractant pheromone of a giant silk moth, the luna moth Actias luna. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of extracts from pheromone glands of female luna moths supported the identification of (6E,11Z)-6,11-octadecadienal (E6,Z11-18:Ald), (6E)-6-octadecenal (E6-18:Ald), and (11Z)-11-octadecenal (Z11-18:Ald) as the compounds in extracts that elicited responses from antennae of male moths. These identifications were confirmed by synthesis, followed by testing of blends of the synthetic compounds in field trials in Ontario, Canada, and Kentucky, USA. Male moths were attracted to synthetic E6,Z11-18:Ald as a single component. Attraction appeared to be enhanced by addition of E6-18:Ald but not Z11-18:Ald, suggesting that the luna moth pheromone consists of a blend of E6,Z11-18:Ald and E6-18:Ald.

  8. Science Program of Lunar Landers of "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource" Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Tret'yakov, V. I.; Dolgopolov, V. P.

    2011-03-01

    Program of scientific investigations is presented for two Russian polar landers: Luna Resource and Luna Glob. This program has to address two tasks: studies of composition of lunar polar regolith and studies of lunar exosphere at both poles.

  9. Luna 24 origins - Some trace element constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Jensen, K. J.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Luna 24 basaltic material originated in the particular volume of the lunar crust that produced Apollo 11 and Luna 16 basaltic material; it has the same Clr/P2O5 (r = residual) signature. Ru-Os contents (Barsukov et al., 1977) and a number of radiogenic age measurements place Luna 24 basalt origins stratigraphically in a layer between those from which Apollo 15 and Apollo 11 and 17 basalts were derived.

  10. Chemical composition of crystalline rock fragments from Luna 16 and Luna 20 fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbalnikova, A.; Palivcova, M.; Frana, J.; Mastalka, A.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical composition (bulk, rare earth, and trace elements) of the Luna 16 mare regolith and luna 20 highland regolith is discussed. The rock samples considered are 14 basaltic rock fragments (Luna 16) and 13 rock fragments of the ANT suite (Luna 20). On the basis of bulk composition, two types of basaltic rocks have been differentiated and defined in the Luna 16 regolith: mare basalts (fundamental crystalline rocks of Mare Fecunditatis) and high-alumina basalts. The bulk analyses of rock fragments of the ANT suite also enabled distinction of two rock types: anorthositic norites and troctolites and/or spinal-troctolites (the most abundant crystalline rocks of the highland region, the landing site of luna 20), and anorthosites. The chemical compositions of Luna 16 and Luna 20 regolith samples are compared. Differences in the chemistry of the Luna 16 mare regolith and that of mare basalts are discussed. The chemical affinity between the Luna 20 highland regolith and (a) anorthositic norites and (b) troctolites and/or spinel-troctolites has been ascertained.

  11. Alopecia in bats from Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bello-Gutiérrez, Joaquín; Suzán, Gerardo; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea G; Salas, Gerardo

    2010-07-01

    We report alopecic syndrome (hair loss in areas of the body, including chest, abdomen, and back) in four frugivorous bat species (Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, and Sturnira ludovici) within urban and periurban areas of Villahermosa, Tabasco, México, during 2007 and 2008. The overall prevalence of alopecic syndrome was 5.25% (135/2,567 bats). The highest prevalence was found in A. lituratus (5.6%; 62/1,105), followed by A. jamaicensis (5%; 3/1,462). We found a higher prevalence in the dry season, when more than 90% of the alopecic individuals (n=122) were captured. Higher prevalence of alopecia was recorded in urban areas (80% of captured alopecic bats, n=108) than in periurban areas (20%, n=27). Histopathologic studies revealed no evidence of infectious agents. The syndrome may be related to nutritional or endocrinal deficiencies. Spatial and seasonal aggregation in urban areas suggests that anthropogenic activities may interfere with nutritional processes. Further studies are needed to confirm the etiology of the syndrome as well as its impact on population dynamics. This is the first report of alopecic syndrome in sylvatic bats.

  12. Melt inclusions in Luna 24 soil fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, W.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Optical examinations of 28 slides of Luna 24 soil fragments revealed melt inclusions in grains of olivine, plagioclase, spinel, and ilmenite as well as interstitial inclusions. In contrast with Apollo samples, the Luna 24 samples contain sulfide melt inclusions, which indicates that saturation with respect to an iron sulfide melt took place throughout much of the crystallization history, even while olivine was crystallizing. The Luna 24 silicate-melt inclusions have recorded a more extensive differentiation toward higher iron magmas than have the Apollo inclusions, but they have also recorded some inexplicably low aluminum values.

  13. Team LunaCY Outreach Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Iowa State University's Lunabotics Club, Team LunaCY, has worked hard to generate enthusiasm for robotics, engineering, and lunar activities. Team LunaCY participated in a variety of different outreach events making a strong impression on Iowa youth. These events led the chair of the mechanical engineering department, Dr. Ted Heindel, to refer to the club's outreach program as "the model that all other engineering clubs should follow." Team LunaCY's outreach activities totaled over 200 hours and captivated over 3000 students and adults throughout the course of this acaden1ic year, reaching out to people all over Iowa and to several special guests. These guests included Vice-President Joe Biden, during a visit to Iowa State University in March 2012, and astronaut Clayton Anderson, during a visit to Iowa State's campus in the fall 2011. Team LunaCY's outreach events created hands on learning opportunities for local youth ranging in age from elementary school children to high school students. The team strove to make a positive impression on Iowa youth and to encourage interest and involvement in scientific fields. The full list of events is shown in Table 1. Three of the major outreach events the team participated in were the FIRST LEGO League, Science Bound, and iExplore STEM Festival.

  14. "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resurs": science goals, payload and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Khartov, Viktor; Lukjanchikov, Alexandr; Tret'yakov, Vlad; Zelenyi, Lev

    2014-05-01

    Vicinity of the South pole of the Moon is thought to be the most interesting region for future investigations. The first reason is associated with the studies of composition and content of volatiles in the lunar polar regolith: neutron mapping with high spatial resolution by LRO has shown that there are more local spots with strong signatures of water at south pole in comparison with the north one. Secondly, the center of Galaxy is not visible from the north pole, therefore southern location is more preferable for perspectives of future lunar exploration. The current Russian space program contains successive missions to study physical environment at the vicinity of the lunar south pole. The first one is the "Luna-Glob" mission, which spacecraft is named Luna-25 (next after the last Soviet lander Luna-24 of 1976). This project has to test the upgraded landing technology, to study the samples of lunar regoluth from the upper most layer of the subsurface and to measure the content of dust, neutrals and plasma during the cycle of the lunar local time. This mission is planned for launch in 2016 by Soyuz. The next lander is Luna-27 of the mission "Luna-Resurs" scheduled for launch in 2019 by Soyuz also. It will use the experience of the previous one to perform the comprehensive studies of the lunar polar environment. The landing site of this mission will be selected taking into account the perspective of further usage for future exploration. The lander will study in situ samples of regolith from the depth down to 2 meters. The mission "Luna-Resurs" will also include the lunar polar orbiter Luna-26 (launch in 2018 by Soyuz). These missions will be implemented with contributions of international partners. In particular, the cooperation with ESA is now under discussion for contribution of scientific instruments, high precision landing technology, drilling element, etc.

  15. Geologic mapping of northern Lunae Planun, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    1991-01-01

    Lunae Planum is an elevated region east of the Tharsis rise, and ridged plains containing numerous Sacra Dorsa wrinkle ridges, cross-cutting Sacra Fossae grabens, and lobate scarps compose this Martian Plateau. Geologic mapping of the northern Lunae Planum region was undertaken to better understand to emplacement history of the ridge plains, the structural history of deformation, and the periods of fluvial processes that have modified the region. These investigations are important for several reasons: (1) the history of plains emplacement yields information valuable for understanding the evolution of Tharsis volcanism; (2) interpretation of structural deformation has implications on the lithology of the Martian crust; and (3) determining the history and fate of Martian volatiles is dependent upon knowing the periods of outflow activity. A discussion of the findings is presented.

  16. Seawater batteries for the Luna 27

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    On 20 January 1996, the first installation of seawater batteries (SWBs) on a live subsea well was successfully completed on the Luna 27 well in 591 ft of water in the Ionian Sea. The SWB pack is composed of six cells, each measuring 3.3 ft in diameter by 6.6 ft high, and is designed to provide all the electrical energy required by the autonomous control system for the well. The only operations required in the future will be periodic replacement of the anodes by use of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) every 3 to 5 years. This application of the SWBs is a part of the continuing research by Agip SpA in the area of autonomous control that began with the subsea-wells autonomous-control system (SWACS) project. This project began in 1982 and culminated with the installation of a SWACS prototype in December 1987 on the Luna 27 gas well offshore Crotone and 2.5 miles form the Luna A platform. Notwithstanding the 5-year predicted life, the system was still operating in 1996 without any noticeable problems.

  17. Major element compositions of Luna 20 glass particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1973-01-01

    Major element analyses of nineteen Luna 20 glass particles indicate that most of the Luna 20 glasses have Al2O3 contents greater than 21 wt % and compositions similar to Apollo 16 and Luna 20 rocks and soils. Three of the glass particles have low Al2O3 (less than 13 wt %) and high FeO (greater than 18 wt %) contents and were probably derived from one of the adjacent maria. The low glass content of the Luna 20 soil indicates that it is relatively young or less mature than most mare soils that have been studied.

  18. Landing of the probes Luna 23 and Luna 24 remains an enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaydash, Vadym; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Videen, Gorden

    2013-12-01

    The landing sites of the landers of Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 as well as Luna 16, 20, and 23 spacecraft are all located within specific phase-ratio anomalies caused by the engine jets. The landing site identified as that of the Luna 24 spacecraft, however, was not located within its corresponding anomaly, leading Shkuratov et al. (2013) to suggest that this may be due to the misidentification of the Luna 23 and 24 spacecraft in the LROC images, since the Luna 23 landing was not successful. Dolgopolov et al. (2013) synthesized images of the Luna spacecraft as they might appear in the LROC images, using a model made by the Lavochkin Association. They found similarity of the spacecraft seen in the LROC images with the synthetic images corresponding to successful and unsuccessful missions and concluded that the original identification of the Luna 23 and 24 spacecraft in the images by Robinson et al. (2012) is likely correct. However, Dolgopolov et al. (2013) used only one illumination geometry for each landing site. As distinct from Dolgopolov et al. (2013) we make a similar analysis using a 3D computer spacecraft model using several different illuminations of the spacecraft and show that the orientations used by Dolgopolov are inconsistent with other LROC images, and it is impossible to make a reliable conclusion based on these analyses. We also show that geologic arguments presented by Dolgopolov et al. (2013) are ambiguous. Using Lucey et al.'s (1995) technique and multispectral images acquired with the Kaguya MI camera (resolution ~20 m), we show that small areas around the landing sites of the probes have almost the same contents of FeO and TiO2, as well as fairly close maturity degree of the regolith.

  19. Luna 24 regolith breccias: A possible source of the fine size material of the Luna 24 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rode, O. D.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The regolith breccias from the Luna 24 core were analyzed. The Luna 24 regolith is a mixture of fine and coarse grain materials. The comparable analysis of the grain size distributions, the modal and chemical compositions of the breccias, and the regolith from the same levels show that the friable slightly litificated breccia with a friable fine grain matrix may be a source of fine grain material of the Luna 24 present day regolith.

  20. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) for Luna-Resurs and Luna-Glob missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Ivanov, A.; Mantsevich, S.; Kiselev, A.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.

    2012-09-01

    Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2015) and Luna- Resurs (launch in 2017) Russian surface missions. The experiment is dedicated to the studies of mineralogy of the lunar regolith in the vicinity of the lander. The instrument is mounted on the mechanic arm of landing module in the field of view (45°) of stereo TV camera. LIS will provide measurements of selected surface region in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The electrically commanded acousto-optic filter scans sequentially at a desired sampling, with random access, over the entire spectral range.

  1. The Impact of LUNA Results on Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavino, Carlo

    2011-10-28

    LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) is devoted to measure nuclear cross sections relevant in astroparticle physics. The facility operates underground, at the 'Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso'(LNGS), where the cosmic ray induced background is very low. The LUNA measurements are important in neutrino physics, in the study of the Sun and other celestial bodies, in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

  2. Major element composition of Luna 20 glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ten per cent of the 50 to 150-micron size fraction of Luna 20 soil is glass. A random suite of 270 of these glasses has been analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. The major glass type forms a strong cluster around a mean value corresponding to Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro) with 70% normative feldspar. Minor glass groups have the compositions of mare basalts and of low-K Fra Mauro type basalts. The glass data indicate that Highland basalt is the major rock type in the highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis.

  3. Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.

    El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

  4. LUNA: Present status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caciolli, A.

    2016-05-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonuclear reactions responsible for powering the stellar engine and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. At astrophysical energies the cross section of nuclear processes is extremely reduced by the effect of the Coulomb barrier and often extrapolations are needed. The Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) is placed under the Gran Sasso mountain. Thanks to the environmental background reduction provided by its position many reactions involved in hydrogen burning has been measured directly at astrophysical energies. Based on this progress, currently there are efforts in several countries to construct new underground accelerators. The exciting science that can be probed with these new facilities will be highlighted.

  5. Mossbauer spectroscopy of iron in the Luna 20 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemcik, T.; Raclavsky, K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of the Mossbauer effect measurements on Fe-57 in the average sample of the Luna 20 regolith, and their comparison with similar measurements of the Luna 16 samples are presented. Room temperature measurements of the nonmagnetic as well as magnetic components of the spectra were performed. By careful least-squares analysis, six quadrupole doublets in the inner parts of spectra were resolved. According to their splittings, they were interpreted as four types of iron in silicates (olivine, two inequivalent pyroxene sites, and a glassy fraction) and two types of nonmagnetic iron-titanium oxides (ilmenite and a spinel). Velocity-window measurements, were used to determine the average nickel content of (2.01 plus or minus 0.84) wt. %. These results are discussed in terms of distribution of iron among different phases. In comparison with the Luna 16 sample, the Luna 20 sample contains more olivine and less ilmenite as well as metal with a slightly higher nickel content.

  6. Demonstrating xLuna on ESA EXOMADER Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present xLuna [1] and its successful demonstration on the ESA EXOMArs DEmonstration Rover (EXOMADER) [2]. xLuna is a Linux-specific hypervisor extension for RTEMS, a Real-time Executive already used on ESA missions. On xLuna, RTEMS runs natively and directly on top of the hardware providing all its native services to real- time control applications. On top of the hypervisor runs a Linux kernel para-virtualised specifically for the system that provides all the well known POSIX based services and an endless set of software libraries to payload applications. On the demonstration, the complete navigation software of the rover (with stereo image processing and path processing) that was being tested ran on xLuna's Linux subsystem, while the RTEMS components were running control tasks. Due to impossibilities of integration, the RTEMS tasks running were simulated. The control was performed by existing HW.

  7. 5. Typical plankcovered flume. View looks west near Luna de ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Typical plank-covered flume. View looks west near Luna de Miel Street. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  8. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  9. Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (LunaSOX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natasha; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon offers a unique vantage point from which to investigate the Sun and its interaction via the solar wind magnetic fields, plasma, and energetic particles with the geospace system including the Moon itself. The lunar surface and exosphere provide in part a record of solar coronal plasma material input and resultant space weathering over billions of years. The structure and dynamics of solar wind interactions with the Moon provide an accessible near-Earth laboratory environment for study of general solar wind interactions with the vast multitude of airless asteroidal bodies of the inner solar system. Spacecraft in lunar orbit have the often simultaneous opportunity, except when in the Earth's magnetosphere, to make in-situ compositional measurements of the solar wind plasma and to carry out remote observations from the Moon of the solar corona, potentially enabled by lunar limb occultation of the solar disk. The LunaSOX project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is addressing these heliophysical science objectives from and of the Moon with support from NASA's Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research (LASER) program: (1) specify history of solar wind parameters at and sunward of the Moon through enhanced access (http://lunasox.gsfc.nasa.gov/) to legacy and operational mission data products from the Apollo era to the present, (2) model field and plasma interactions with the lunar surface, exosphere, and wake, as constrained by the available data, through hybrid kinetic code simulations, and (3) advance mission concepts for heliophysics from and of the Moon.

  10. The radiation history of material returned by the Soviet automatic stations Luna 16 and Luna 20, according to track studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashkarov, L. L.; Genayeva, L. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Fission tracks formed by the vH (very heavy) nuclei group of solar and galactic cosmic rays have been studied in silicate minerals of the lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 and Luna 20 unmanned spacecraft. It is shown that the material in the Luna 16 core sample, from a typical mare region of the lunar surface, has undergone stronger irradiation by cosmic rays than material returned a highland region by Luna 20. A low-irradiation component (about 10 percent of the total number of crystals) has been found in the Luna 20 core sample materials, which can possibly be attributed to material added to the main bulk of the regolith in the formation of the crater Apollonius C. From the track density distribution of crystals, as a function of depth in the regolith core sample, it follows that the process of formation of the upper layer of the regolith, both for the lunar mare and for the highland region, includes sequential layering of finely crushed crystalline matter and subsequent mixing of it by micrometeorite bombardment. A portion of the crystals with a very high track density may be a component added to the lunar surface from outer space.

  11. Results of special mechanical analyses of Luna 16 material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, H.; Vollstaedt, H.; Wasch, R.; Bankwitz, P.; Bankwitz, E.; Wagner, F. C.; Schoen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The studies carried out on the Luna 16 regolith have confirmed the data that were already published internationally. By means of activation analysis under irradiation in the reactor, activation analysis with a 14 MeV U-generator, and mass spectroscopy on samples of 10 or 20 mg, six main and 63 trace elements were quantitatively determined and compared with known data.

  12. Rare earths and other trace elements in Luna 16 soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been made of four small samples of material brought to earth by the Luna 16 mission, with the aim to determine rare earths and other trace elements in these samples. The analytical results are tabulated, and the rare earth abundances are compared with the average for chondrites. A comparison is also made with the results of similar analyses of Apollo samples.

  13. Lunar highlands volcanism implications from Luna 20 and Apollo 16

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Wilhelms, D.E.; Howard, K.A.

    1974-01-01

    Highlands materials sampled at the Apollo 16 and Luna 20 sites represent units of distinctive morphology that are widespread on the lunar nearside. Samples from the Apollo 16 site represent hilly and furrowed materials of the Descartes highlands and Cayley Formation. Materials were collected by Luna 20 from terrain resembling the Descartes terrain. Most photogeologic interpretations of these units favored volcanic origins, but the samples fail to support this interpretation. Luna 20 soil fragments are mainly glassy microbreccia with lithic inclusions of fine-grained hornfels; less than 3 percent of the fragments have textures of volcanic rocks, and most of these are likely crystalline products of impact melting. Apollo 16 soils formed on ejecta derived from a plutonic anorthosite-norite-troctolite suite. The similarity of Luna 20 soils indicates that these too formed as regolith on ejecta of anorthosite-norite-troctolitc composition. Interpretation of the samples from the two locations now suggests that hilly and furrowed terrains, previously thought to be of volcanic origin, are impact ejecta; in view of the plutonic nature of the source rocks and their extensive fusion and metamorphism, it is likely that the ejecta were derived from multiring basins. At one point, the Apollo 16 site, the Cayley Formation is composed of basin ejecta.

  14. Investigation of the composition of the Luna 16 lunar sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, L.; Chayka, M.; Cher, L.; Cheke, A.; Dogadkin, N. N.; Elek, A.; Kulchar, K.; Nagy, A.; Nagy, D. L.; Szabo, E.

    1977-01-01

    The concentrations of aluminum, manganese, sodium, chromium, iron, cobalt, and 12 rare earth elements were determined by neutron activation analysis using slow neutrons. Oxygen and silicon were determined using a fast neutron generator. Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate iron compounds in Luna 16 regolith samples from the upper part of the core.

  15. Identity Theft: Gentrification, Latinidad, and American Girl Marisol Luna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Jennifer Domino

    2009-01-01

    Released by Mattel in 2005, American Girl doll Marisol Luna quickly provoked controversy. The doll's accompanying narrative depicts her Chicago neighborhood of Pilsen as "dangerous" and recounts her family's move to the suburbs. Pilsen, located just south and west of downtown Chicago, has a long history as a Mexican (im)migrant port of…

  16. Luna 24 - Mineral chemistry of 90-150 micron clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. O. A.; Hwang, J.-Y.; Mccallister, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The mineralogy, composition and source relations of monomineralic clasts in the size range 0.09 to 0.15 mm have been studied for seven grain mounts from the Luna 24 core, obtained in Mare Crisium. One of the core horizons, which showed the greatest number of mafic mineral clasts, apparently represents a less reworked level or one which received a greater average influx of gabbroic and/or basaltic ejecta. Most of the mafic minerals in the core were probably derived from the comminution of clasts of very low titanium basalts and/or gabbros. A small number of mineral clasts may have originated from a Mg-rich gabbro. A mixture of local mare basalts and ejecta from Fahrenheit crater probably makes up most of the regolith at the Luna 24 site.

  17. U-Th-Pb measurements of Luna 20 soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.

    1973-01-01

    The concentrations of uranium, thorium and lead and the lead isotopic composition of Luna 20 soil were determined. The data indicate that the Luna 20 soil is mainly a mixture of highland anorthosites and low-K basalt, but little KREEP basalt. The U-Th-Pb systematics are discussed in comparison with other lunar soils, especially with Apollo 16 soils which were collected from a 'typical' highland region. The data fit well in the Apollo 16 soil array on a U-Pb evolution diagram, and they exhibit excess lead relative to uranium. This relationship appears to be a characteristic of highland localities. Considering the previous observations of lunar samples, we infer that lead enrichment in the soil relative to uranium occurred between 3.2 and 3.9 b.y. ago and that the soil was disturbed by 'third events' about 2.0 b.y. ago. A lunar evolution model is discussed. ?? 1973.

  18. Luna-25 lander: science of the first lunar day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Litvak, Maxim; Prokhorov, Vasily; Kozyrev, Alexander; Mokrousov, Maxim; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Luna-25 lander is a Roscosmos mission to investigate the southern lunar pole to launch in 2018. The mission aims at testing the landing capability of the spacecraft as well as conducting a number of science experiments. The instrument suite consists of 10 scientific experiments to study both, the landing site and the moon as a whole. These include measurements of soil composition and volatiles in the vicinity of the lander, environmental conditions such as temperature variations, plasma and dust exosphere of Moon, measurements of Moon inner structure through seismic, radio and laser ranging sensors. Luna-25 will also provide a number of images of the lander surroundings and samples collected in its robotic arm. We present the details of the investigations program for the first lunar day for the entire instruments suite.

  19. Remembering Eliahu de Luna Montalto (1567–1616)

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.; Lippi, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    Born in Portugal and the son of Marranos (Christianized Jews from Spain), Eliahu de Luna Montalto lived during a particularly harsh period for the Jewish people. Throughout Europe, the situation for Jews was unfavorable; laws had been passed forbidding them to live in England for the past 300 years, and for the past 200 years in France. Additionally, in France, while Jews were permitted to study at some universities, the practice of medicine was forbidden to them. It is within this context that Eliahu de Luna Montalto, who had returned to his original faith (Judaism), was recruited to the French court. This paper pays tribute to Montalto’s life and medical practice—so exemplary that the Queen of France would ask Montalto to serve at the court and receive Papal permission for Montalto openly to observe his faith as a Jew, this despite the objections of the King of France. PMID:28178444

  20. Microprobe analyses of glasses and minerals from Luna-16 soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Harmon, R. S.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Warner, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for nine elements in 250 glasses and 434 pyroxenes, eight elements in 113 olivines, and six elements in 354 feldspars, 35 spinels, and 159 ilmenites. All grains are from the 125-425 micron fraction of horizon A and horizon D soil from the Luna 16 sample. A norm is presented for each glass analysis and the structural formula is calculated for each mineral analysis.

  1. Boguslawsky Crater, Moon: Studying the Luna-Glob Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M.; Head, J. W.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Pasckert, J. H.; Bauch, K.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Abdrahimov, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of the Russian Luna-Glob lander, which will land on the floor of Boguslawsky crater (~95 km in diameter, centered at 72.9S, 43.26E), is to test landing techniques. However, it will also carry a small scientific payload. Two landing ellipses, 30x15 km each, are under investigation: Ellipse West is at 72.9S, 41.3E, Ellipse East is at 73.3S, 43.9E [1].

  2. Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy of the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo basin

    SciTech Connect

    Truskowski, I.; Galeaalvarez, F.; Sliter, W.V.

    1996-08-01

    Micropaleontological analysis, sedimentological studies, and geochemical data are presented for the Upper Cretaceous {open_quote}black shales{close_quote} of the La Luna Formation of Western Venezuela. The detailed planktonic foraminiferal studies allowed the establishment of the first biozonation, determination of sedimentation rates, and documentation of occurrences of benthic foraminifers for these unusually thick black shales that extend stratigraphically nearly 100 m. Hedbergellids, whiteinellids and Heterohelix characterize the lower part of the La Luna Formation, dated from the late Cenomanian Rotalipora cushmani Zone to middle Turonian Helvetoglobotruncana belvetica Zone. The high productivity of these groups associated with phosphatized fish remains suggest upwelling and a poorly stratified water column. The presence of buliminids and Favreina sp. at some levels, imply disoxic conditions in this anoxic interval. Planktonic foraminifers in the middle and upper parts of the formation range in age from the late Turonian Marginotruncana sigali- Dicarinella primitiva Zone to the early Campanian Globotruncanita elevata Zone. The increase in keeled planktonic foraminifers toward the top of the formation suggest more stratified, oligotrophic surface waters. Benthic foraminifers found at the top are indicative of dysaerobic conditions. This study provides new opportunities for utilizing the petroleum system in the La Luna Formation, arguably the most prolific source rock in northern South America.

  3. Grain size and the evolution of Luna 24 soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, D. S.; Basu, A.; Waits, G.

    1978-01-01

    The grain size distribution of six Luna 24 samples has been determined. These samples are characterized by a bimodal distribution which is indicative of soils formed primarily by mixing rather than by reworking. Although agglutinate content decreases with depth, it is not likely that the Luna 24 soils have undergone appreciable in situ reworking. Particle types and abundances in each of four size fractions have been determined petrographically. Mineral fragments are very abundant in all analyzed size fractions. Pyroxene and plagioclase increase slightly in abundance at finer grain sizes, but olivine decreases significantly. Compared with typical mare soils, the Luna 24 trends are anomalous. They are compatible with the hypothesis than many, if not most, of the mineral grains in the 20-250-micron fractions come from coarse-grain rocks having average mineral grain sizes greater than 250 microns. The mineralogy and chemistry of the coarse-grained rocks has not been well characterized, but there is evidence that at least some of them are higher in MgO than the analyzed finer-grained basalts.

  4. ADRON Instrument for Luna-Resource and Luna-Glob Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, D.; Mitrofanov, I.; Barmakov, Y.; Bogolubov, E.; Litvak, M.; Sanin, A.; Kozyrev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Schatzkij, V.; Smirnov, G.; Ryzhkov, V.; Kurdumov, I.; Shvetsov, V.; Tretyakov, V.; Varenikov, A.; Vostrukhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The interest to Moon investigations was increasing last decade. Many scientific and exploration missions were developed and about ten spacecrafts reached our nearest cosmic neighbor for detailed studying. Russian instrument LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) received new interesting data about global lunar surface and distribution of hydrogen (water) enriched regions near poles in particular using collimation technique. Two of these regions are now landing sites of Russian-Indian project Luna-Resource and Russian lander Luna-Glob with planned launches in 2014 and 2015 respectively. One of scientific instruments onboard landers of both missions is ADRON (Active Detector of gamma Rays and Neutrons). The main tasks of the experiment are: 1) Definition of composition of the soil in the landing site; 2) Hydrogen content and distribution along depth; 3) Radiation background measurement; 4) Registering of Gamma-Ray Bursts. ADRON instrument is based on available heritage of design of DAN (MSL 2011, NASA) and MGNS (BepiColombo 2014, ESA). The concept ADRON is based on is the well-known method of nuclear well neutron logging for geological applications when detectors measure flux of scattered and moderated neutrons emitted by generator. Using scintillator one can detect spectrum of gamma-rays from soil and the lines intensities of this spectrum will indicate amount of a corresponding element in the subsurface up to 1 m depth during experiment on lunar surface. Instrument consists of two separate units: Pulse Neutron Generator (PNG) and Detectors and Electronic Unit (DEU). DEU (weight 3.8 kg, size 260×217×127 mm), besides of electronic for instrument control, contains LaBr3 crystal for measuring spectra of gamma rays and He3 proportional counters to detect thermal and epithermal neutrons. Fast electronics allow to get time profiles of gamma and neutrons flux with time resolution of up to 1 microsecond. PNG unit (weight 2.6 kg, size 331×125×45 mm) is connected to

  5. Cross Section Measurements for the 23Na(p,γ)24Mg Reaction at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeltzig, Axel; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    LUNA, the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics, is an accelerator facility for measurements of nuclear cross sections of astrophysical interest. The greatly reduced cosmic ray background at LUNA's underground location in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) allows direct measurements of weak reactions at low energies. One of the reactions currently under study at LUNA is 23Na(p,γ)24Mg, which links the NeNa and MgAl cycles in stellar burning. The LUNA facility is presented, with a focus on the current experimental efforts to study the reaction 23Na(p,γ)24Mg.

  6. Lunar surface traces of engine jets of Soviet sample return probes: The enigma of the Luna-23 and Luna-24 landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadym; Sysolyatina, Xenija; Razim, Alexandra; Videen, Gorden

    2013-01-01

    We use a photometric method called phase-ratio imaging to study the landing sites of the Soviet Luna-16, Luna-20, Luna-23 and Luna-24 probes using the survey data of the lunar surface, which was carried out with the Narrow-Angle Cameras (NACs) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. The phase-ratio images clearly show diffuse features associated with structure perturbations of the lunar regolith. We suggest that these features are caused by the impact of the gas jets from the rocket engines. The photometric anomalies around the landing sites suggest that the impacts smooth out the surface, destroying the primordial "fairy castle" structure that effectively produces the shadow-hiding effect. The same characteristic features have been found previously for the Apollo spacecraft landings, but over larger spatial scales. The only exception is the landing site of the Luna-24 probe, for which the feature of the possible impact of the gas jets is shifted to the northwest by approximately 150 m. As the Luna-24 descent module worked in the regular mode and could not allow such a shift as the probe was descending vertically, a possible explanation is that the sites of Luna-23 (an unsuccessful sample return mission) and Luna-24 are misidentified. The distance between the sites is about 2 km, which is within the inaccuracy of their coordinate determination. We suggest that because of faulty processing of the radar system for distance/speed control, the incorrectly operated engine and/or thrusters of Luna-23 produced the 150 m lateral drift before final deactivation and hard descent. To better understand the geologic situation, we produce brightness and phase-ratio anaglyphs for the vicinity of the landings.

  7. [Avifauna in silvopastoral systems in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, Tabasco, México].

    PubMed

    González-Valdivia, Noel; Barba-Macías, Everardo; Hernández-Daumás, Salvador; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana

    2014-09-01

    Silvopastoral systems support local ecological and economical features as they enhance conservation of floral and faunal communities. As other animal communities, avifauna may be a good representative of habitat alterations, both as the species and functional levels. In order to attend the initiative of Mesoamerican Biological Corridor initiative (CBM) in the state of Tabasco, we studied the diversity of birds in two silvopastoral systems: scattered trees in pastures (ADP), and trees in boundary-hedgerows (AL). For this, we applied the fixed radius counting point method in three priority sites in Tabasco's CBM during the dry and wet season of 2011, and a total of 56, 60 and 62 points were evaluated in Huimanguillo, Tenosique and Tacotalpa, respectively. We observed 2 084 individuals of 154 species (79-89% of expected diversity) and 36 bird families. We detected 92, 87 and 85 species in Huimanguillo, Tenosique and Tacotalpa, respectively, including 35 protected species, of which 23, 19 and 16 in each locality, respectively. All sites showed high diversity (H' ≥ 3.20), low species dominance (D ≥ 0.08) and high equitability (J ≥ 0.77). Species composition showed differences between sites, being most similar Tacotalpa and Tenosique. Ten species were considered characteristic for sites. Although the silvopastoral system did contain protected species, the low diversity and the early successional character of the arboreal components were not attractive to frugivorous bird species. Diversification with native trees can improve the systems to create a complementary habitat and to increase landscape connectivity. The management of silvopastoral practices on cattle dominated landscapes in Tabasco could improve its ecological quality, and thus achieve the CBM's objectives ofbiodiversity conservation combined with human economic activities.

  8. Papers presented to the Conference on Luna 24. [lunar soil studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered include: the regional geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of Mare Crisium and the Luna 24 landing site; the petrology, mineral chemistry, and cooling histories of lithic fragments, the chemistry, isotopic studies, and geochronology of Luna 24 samples; and regolith studies of soil samples. Subject and topical indexes are provided.

  9. Emerico Luna, an anatomist and a fervid intellectual.

    PubMed

    Gerbino, Aldo

    2004-01-01

    On 11 March 2004, the Section of Human Anatomy of Palermo was dedicated and registered to the anatomist Emerico Luna (Palermo 1882-1963) with a ceremony (moderated by Giovanni Zummo) with the participation of institutional personalities and Italian anatomists. Luna, who was an acute morphologist and a scholar of Riccardo Versari (1865-1943), was the continuator of Francesco Todaro's Anatomical School and occupied the Chair at the University of Palermo that had belonged to Levi since 1919. His wide histo-anatomical culture culminates in the collaboration to the "Trattato di Neurologia", the richly composed treatise by Bertelli (1931). Then his studies and his teaching reached to the Anatomia Clinica Regionale (1951). In charge of Histology and Normal Human Anatomy in 1920-21, he became a full professor and a master till 1952. He had so many students: among them Ignazio Fàzzari (1889-1986) who had the chair in the University of Florence, Alberto Monroy who had the charge of Compared Anatomy in the University of Palermo and Arcangelo Pasqualino from Marineo. Luna was co-founder and leader of the "Italian Society of Anatomy". He developed an intense research above all on the nervous system, the connective tissues, the arteries of the brain, and the experimental embryology, developing the radiological and clinical anatomy. He also dedicated himself to literature writing in 1953, among the scientific and literary works, a booklet titled Alla Fiera Delle Fantasie where he discuss the fantasy in a style that recall the literary evasion of the last period of crepuscolarism.

  10. Nittrouer Receives 2013 Luna B. Leopold Young Scientist Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Jeffrey Nittrouer has earned the 2013 Luna B. Leopold Award based on his research related to the most significant new discovery in fluvial morphology since the turn of the century, that is, for the identification of the lower Mississippi River as a mixed bedrock-alluvial stream, for his thorough quantification and elucidation of the dynamics of sand flow through it, and for his contributions to the use of Mississippi River sand as a tool for restoring lost land in the Mississippi delta wetlands.

  11. Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in human adipose tissue, data from Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Rodríguez Díaz, S S; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Infanzón, R

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT in 150 adipose tissue of inhabitants of Tabasco, Mexico. The following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.034 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.7% at mean 0.116 mg/kg; o,p'-DDT in 78.7% at mean 0.022 mg/kg and β-HCH in 58.0% at mean 0.049 mg/kg. The pooled sample was divided according to sex of donors (75 female and 75 male). Significantly higher levels of all organochlorine pesticides in females were found. The sample was divided into three age's ranges (15-28, 29-45 and 46-84 years). The mean and median levels of β-HCH, p,p'-DDE and Σ-DDT increase significantly (p < 0.05) from the first to the second and third group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in Tabasco inhabitants is still observed, indicating sources of exposure to the pesticides.

  12. [Gnathostoma binucleatum (Spirurida: Gnathostomatidae) from the freshwater fish in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Kifune, Teiji; Lamothe-Argumedo, Rafael; García-Prieto, Luis; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2004-06-01

    Human gnathostomiasis is a food-born parasitic disease of relative importance in many countries in Southeast Asia. It is caused by several species of nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. In Mexico is an emerging public health problem since 1970, when first cases were reported. Until today, larval morphometric characters that have been proposed to differentiate between the three species of Gnathostoma present in this country, are not satisfactory. Recently, the presence of advanced third-stage larvae AdvL3 (infective form for humans) in freshwater fishes from Pantanos de Centla, Tabasco. was recorded but their specific identity was not clarified . Examination of four species of freshwater fishes from the same locality revealed that three of them: Petenia splendida (n=58), Cichlasoma managuense (n=35) and Gobiomorus dormitor (n=9) were infected by 15 AdvL3 of Gnathostoma binucleatum. Specific identity was obtained comparing the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA with sequences reported in Genbank. This is the first record of G. binucleatum in P. splendida and G. dormitor from Tabasco and the first specific determination of the parasite in the locality.

  13. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender. PMID:27258292

  14. Bulk and rare earth abundances in the Luna 16 soil levels A and D.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillum, D. E.; Ehmann, W. D.; Wakita, H.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the abundances of major, minor, and trace elements by means of sequential INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) in two Luna 16 soils, at levels A (about 7 cm depth) and D (about 30 cm depth). Abundances of the bulk elements in Luna 16 soils generally agree with the values reported by Vinogradov (1971). Elemental abundances of both bulk and trace elements are nearly the same for the two A and D soil levels. Overall, the chemical compositions of the two Luna 16 soils are more closely related to Apollo 11 soil 10084 than to Apollo 12 and 14 soils, with the exception of TiO2 abundances.-

  15. Nittrouer Receives 2013 Luna B. Leopold Young Scientist Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.

    2014-09-01

    I am grateful for receiving the Luna B. Leopold Award from the Earth and Planetary Surface Processes (EPSP) focus group at AGU. I am thankful to the mentors and colleagues who played important roles in shaping my science over the past 10 years. Significant credit goes to three people in particular: David Mohrig, Gary Parker, and Mead Allison. These gentlemen patiently developed and honed my skills for observing, modeling, and theorizing about the physical processes that produce fluvial-deltaic morphology and stratigraphy. It was an incredible opportunity to have worked with such a diverse set of thinkers, who regularly pushed me to consider and pursue new ideas, preventing too much comfort with the scientific status quo. Their mentoring fostered an independent and creative focus that produced the science for which this award has been generously given.

  16. Origin and modal petrography of Luna 24 soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Mckay, D. S.; Fruland, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Petrographic modal analyses of polished grain mounts of fractions in the 20 to 250 micron size range from Luna 24 soil samples are presented and used to infer the nature and relative contributions of source rocks. It is found that more than 90% of the identifiable rock fragments are mare basalts, with about 11% of the soil consisting of the crystalline form. Soil breccias, which make up nearly 10% of the soil, are found to be immature. Electron probe analysis of glass particles reveals principle clusters conforming to anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro and mare basalts. More than half of the soil is composed of monomineralic particles, with pyroxene as the most abundant mineral. It is concluded that 85% of the regolith is derived from local mare basalts and gabbros and about 10% is derived from early cumulates of local mare basalt magma. Highland sources are considered to contribute not more than 3% of the regolith.

  17. The geologic setting of the Luna 16 landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, J.F.; Scott, D.H.

    1972-01-01

    The Luna 16 landing site is similar in its geologic setting to Apollos 11 and 12. All three sites are located on basaltic mare fill which occurs mostly within multi-ring basins formed by impact earlier in the moon's history. A regolith developed by impact bombardment is present at each of these sites. The regolith is composed mostly of locally derived volcanic material, but also contains exotic fine fragments that have been ballistically transported into the landing sites by large impact events which formed craters such as Langrenus and Copernicus. These exotic fragments probably consist mostly of earlier reworked multi-ring basin debris and, although not directly traceable to individual sources, they do represent a good statistical sample of the composition of most of the premare terrac regions. ?? 1972.

  18. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  19. TerraLuna: A CosmoQuest Adventure in Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela; Bracey, Georgia; Gugliucci, Nicole

    The content of the session will focus on CosmoQuest’s TerraLuna unit, a comparative geology unit that uses authentic data to study the geology of the Moon and Earth. Inquiry activities will allow teachers to help their students compare crater formation and other surface features on the two bodies, comparing Moon features to similar structures on Earth. Links to the latest data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be introduced and hands- on activities will be featured as the basis for inquiry learning in elementary and middle level classrooms. Teachers will be introduced to citizen science projects that will enable their students to think like real scientists and engage in authentic scientific research, providing a useful service to the scientific community. Participation in the workshop introduces teachers to the CosmoQuest website, which includes a suite of citizen science activities. The site provides teachers with an online community dedicated to science inquiry and educational support.

  20. [Regulation of surrogate gestation and maternity in the state of Tabasco].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Miguel Ángel León

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, one of the most disconcerting issues in bioethics, a field closely related to legal disciplines, is surrogate gestation or surrogacy. Very little is known about the medical nature of these novel therapeutic processes in legal study. Different dilemmas emerge in the fields of ethics, medicine and law. This paper analyses the normative content of the Tabasco civil regime with respect to the concepts, types and effects of surrogacy. It emphasizes the primacy of protecting the physical and emotional integrity of pregnant women and the legal protection of the nasciturus. In addition, this paper shows the exceptional nature of this prerogative for infertile people who cannot get pregnant through any other medical means, by posing surrogacy's ultima ratio regum characteristics.

  1. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G. )

    1991-10-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons.

  2. Luna 16 - Some Li, K, Rb, Sr, Ba, rare-earth, Zr, and Hf concentrations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Schuhmann, S.; Thomas , H. H.; Bottino, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrations of Li, K, Rb, Sr, Na, rare-earths, Zr and Hf have been determined for some Luna 16 core materials by mass-spectrometric isotope-dilution. Two regolith fines samples from different depths in the core, and four rock-chips, including both igneous rocks and breccias, have similar trace-element concentrations. The Luna 16 materials have general lunar trace-element characteristics but differ from other returned lunar samples in a manner that suggests the presence of excess feldspar. Unless the Luna 16 igneous rocks are fused soils, they appear to represent either partial plagioclase cumulates or the least differentiated igneous material yet returned from the moon. The similarity in trace-element concentrations of the igneous rocks and the fines would then suggest largely local derivation of the Luna 16 regolith.

  3. Cartography Support and Assessment of Candidate Landing Sites for the ``Luna-Glob'' Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Gläser, Ph.; Wählisch, M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    For cartography support of future landing mission LUNA-GLOB was development a geodatabase using data obtained by LRO. For characterization of the surface we created some examples of maps: slope, roughness, and hill-shaded relief in various scales.

  4. [Leishmaniasis: a preliminary epidemiological study in a locality of the endemic area in the state of the Tabasco].

    PubMed

    Córdova-Uscanga, C; Albertos-Alpuche, N E; Andrade-Narváez, F J; Canto-Lara, S B

    1993-01-01

    The state of Tabasco is localized in the endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis where both diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis have recently been reported. The objective of the present study was to obtain reliable information of the situation of this disease--which has a great relevance as a worldwide public health problem--through determination of the allergic index in a randomized sample from Ranchería Miguel Hidalgo, Comalcalco Municipality, Tabasco, Mexico. We found an allergic index of 56 per cent. Farmers and housewives had the highest positive responses to the Montenegro skin test. We found no statistical differences between males and females. Moreover, 3 patients with active lesions and people with scars suggestive of prior leishmaniasis were detected during the study. This village should be considered a high endemic focus.

  5. Petrology of some lithic fragments from Luna 20

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies were made of polished thin sections of part of a 30-mg sample of 250-500 ??m lunar soil returned by Luna 20 from a point between Mare Fecunditatis and Mare Crisium. Very fine-grained lithic (crystalline) rock fragments, composing about one fifth of the total sample, have mineralogical compositions equivalent to various types of gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, gabbroic anorthosite and troctolite, with minor basalt. The textures now observed in these fragments are in large part metamorphic. Twentyseven electron microprobe analyses of minerals from these fragments are presented, including olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, spinel, nickel-iron and a Zr-Ti-REE mineral possibly similar to 'phase B' of Lovering and Wark (1971). Analyses of seven melt inclusions and twenty-eight defocused beam analyses of lithic fragments are also given. Some of the fragments contain 'gas' inclusions which, along with the fine grain size, are believed to indicate final crystallization under low pressure near surface conditions. The almost complete absence of granophyric material in this sample raises the question of whether or not there are at least two distinct magmas for the plagioclase-rich terrae rocks from which this soil sample was derived in part. ?? 1973.

  6. The vacuum system of IHI's compact SOR ``LUNA''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, M.; Uesaka, M.; Mandai, S.; Nishidono, T.; Nakashizu, T.; Hoshi, Y.

    1991-08-01

    The construction of the 800 MeV compact synchrotron light sources ``LUNA'' was completed in April 1989 at Tsuchiura Facility of IHI. 20 mA beam have been successfully accelerated up to 800 MeV and accumulated with the lifetime of more than 30 min. Now, the machine study and modifications are being done in order to get more accumulated beam currents and longer lifetime. In most of vacuum sections, the static vacuum pressure of less than 1x10E-7 Pa has been obtained and in the presence of synchrotron radiation, the vacuum pressure is measured as less than 1x10E-6 Pa. The SUS316L vacuum chambers were baked at 200 C For 70 hours in total. The surfaces of the vacuum chambers were treated with buff polishing, acid and freon flashing cleaning. In the 23 meters long vacuum system, ten 400 liter/sec ion pumps and 15 cartridge type nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps are installed and the total vacuum pumping capacity is 6660 liter/sec. Additional, the beam channels for X-ray lithography and other experiments are going to be constructed in 1991.

  7. Onboard Processing of Electromagnetic Measurements for the Luna - Glob Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruska, F.; Kolmasova, I.; Santolik, O.; Skalski, A.; Pronenko, V.; Belyayev, S.; Lan, R.; Uhlir, L.

    2013-12-01

    The LEMRA-L instrument (Long-wavelength Electro-Magnetic Radiation Analyzer) will be implemented on the LUNA-GLOB spacecraft. It will analyze the data of the three-axial flux gate (DC - 10Hz) and searchcoil (1Hz - 10kHz) magnetometers LEMI. It will measure intensity, polarization, and coherence properties of waves in plasmas of the solar wind, in the lunar wake and its boundaries, and study the magnetic anomalies. We will use new modern robust onboard analysis methods to estimate the wave coherence, sense of polarization, ellipticity, and wave-vector direction, and thus substantially compress the transmitted data volumes, while conserving the important scientific information. In the burst mode data set intended for studying nonlinear phenomena, we will conserve the continuous flux-gate magnetometer data and discrete snapshots of three axial waveform measurements. In the survey-mode data set, continuous flux-gate magnetometer data will be transmitted together with onboard analyzed and averaged spectral matrices from the higher-frequency wave measurements or with onboard calculated propagation and polarization parameters.

  8. [Reproductive phenology of tree species in the Tenosique tropical forest, Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Hernández, Isidro Pérez; de Jong, Bernardus H J

    2008-06-01

    Between August 2003 and August 2005 we registered the flowering and fruiting of 75 tree species (341 individual trees) in a tropical rain forest at Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico. Monthly we checked five transects (500 m long; 5 m wide). To test the homogeneity of flowering and fruiting during the year, and between adjacent months, we applied a chi2 test. The flowering was bimodal, with a highest peak in March and April, coinciding with the dry season, and a second lower peak in July when precipitation is relatively low. The highest number of fruiting tree species occur between May and July, with its peak in May. Each of the most common botanical families showed a particular phenological pattern. Monthly rainfall and the number of species flowering or fruiting were not significantly correlated. This means that trees are flowering and fruiting all year long, with seasonal increases of both phenological phenomena in the dryer periods. We conclude that phenological patterns vary between individuals and between years and are not seasonally correlated. The data we generated are relevant to program the best periods of seed collections according to individual or groups of species, as part of forest management and conservation practices.

  9. Assessment of the levels of DDT and DDE in soil and blood samples from Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Martinez-Salinas, Rebeca Isabel; Hernandez-Benavides, Diego; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar; Perez-Maldonado, Ivan Nelinho

    2012-12-01

    In Mexico, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was used until the year 2000, principally in agriculture and anti-paludal program health campaigns. The southeastern region of Mexico was an important area of malaria, and from 1957 DDT was applied indoors every 6 months, with a coverage of 2 g/m(2). The current study was performed in Tabasco, a Mexican state located in the southeastern region of Mexico. DDT and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (DDE) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, low levels were found in household outdoor samples; the levels of DDT ranged from not detectable to 0.048 mg/kg, and of DDE from 0.001 to 0.068 mg/kg. An important finding was that, in all communities where DDT in blood was analyzed, exposure to DDT was found, indicating both past and present exposure. Although the levels found in this study were lower than other studies in Mexico, there is a need to evaluate whether the people living in the study area are at risk.

  10. Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andres, Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Mary E D; Piperno, Dolores R; Pope, Kevin O; Jones, John G

    2007-04-17

    The history of maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most debated topics in New World archaeology. Molecular and genetic studies indicate that maize domestication took place in tropical southwest Mexico. Although archaeological evidence for the evolution of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte has yet to be found in that poorly studied region, other research combining paleoecology and archaeology is documenting the nature and timing of maize domestication and dispersals. Here we report a phytolith analysis of sediments from San Andrés, Tabasco, that confirms the spread of maize cultivation to the tropical Mexican Gulf Coast >7,000 years ago ( approximately 7,300 calendar years before present). We review the different methods used in sampling, identifying, and dating fossil maize remains and compare their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we examine how San Andrés amplifies the present evidence for widespread maize dispersals into Central and South America. Multiple data sets from many sites indicate that maize was brought under cultivation and domesticated and had spread rapidly out of its domestication cradle in tropical southwest Mexico by the eighth millennium before the present.

  11. Rare earths, other trace elements and iron in Luna 20 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Haskin, L.; Haskin, A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of the analysis by neutron activation of six samples from the Luna 20 mission and one sample of less than 1 mm fines from Apollo 16 are reported. The concentrations of the rare-earth elements (REE) in the samples of fines from Luna 20 and Apollo 16 are less than those found for corresponding materials from the mare areas but a negative Eu anomaly is still present. The concentrations of the REE in fines from Luna 20 are only about two-thirds as great as in the sample of Apollo 16 fines, but the concentration of Co, Sc and Cr are greater by factors ranging from 1.5 to 2.3.

  12. Implications from Luna 24 sample 24170 to U-Pb evolution in the lunar mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1978-01-01

    The concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the Pb isotopic composition, have been determined for a Luna 24 sample from the Mare Crisium area. A relatively recent disturbance to the U-Pb system during meteorite impact or burial in hot ejecta is suggested by the findings. According to three-stage U-Pb evolution model calculations, the source cumulates of the Luna 24 basalt evolved in a U-238/Pb-204 environment much lower than that of the Apollo mare basalts. A laterally heterogeneous lunar magma ocean, U-Pb fractionation during cumulate formation, and/or lack of KREEP addition to the Luna 24 basalt are also reflected in the calculations.

  13. Luna 24 - Systematics in spinel mineral chemistry in the context of an intrusive petrogenetic grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spinels in the Luna 24 gabbroic fragments have a restricted bimodal distribution of aluminum chromite and ulvospinel, whereas those in the Luna 24 basalts form a continuous sequence which defines a compositional variation from Al-Mg-chromites to ulvospinels containing 1 wt% Al2O3. A comparison of these spinel mineral chemistries with basaltic spinels from other mare regions and with spinels from other lunar intrusive rocks suggest that the Luna 24 gabbroic spinels lie at the low pressure end of a P-T spinel grid, and that titanium enrichment trends on Mg-Al-Cr rich spinel cores are related to extrusion and formed at the terminal stages of magmatic crystallization.

  14. K-Ar dating of lunar fines - Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Luna 16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.; Bradley, J. G.; Dragon, J. C.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    K-Ar ages were determined on a 6-in. double-focus mass spectrometer in fines of less than 1 mm from Apollo 14 and 16, and Luna 16 lunar soil samples. Age estimates of about 2.8 AE and about 4.0 AE are suggested for the two low-K components whose presence in the samples must be assumed to accommodate the age data. An average value of 0.1849 plus or minus 0.0008 was obtained for the Ar-18/Ar-36 ratio in the solar wind from ordinate intercept correlations for the Apollo 14 and Luna 16 samples. Cosmic ray exposure ages were close to 440 m.y. for both Apollo 14 samples and close to 840 m.y. for both Luna 16 samples.

  15. The analysis of various size, visually selected and density and magnetically separated fractions of Luna 16 and 20 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eglinton, G.; Gowar, A. P.; Jull, A. J. T.; Pillinger, C. T.; Agrell, S. O.; Agrell, J. E.; Long, J. V. P.; Bowie, S. H. U.; Simpson, P. R.; Beckinsale, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of Luna 16 and 20 have been separated according to size, visual appearance, density, and magnetic susceptibility. Selected aliquots were examined in eight British laboratories. The studies included mineralogy and petrology, selenochronology, magnetic characteristics, Mossbauer spectroscopy, oxygen isotope ratio determinations, cosmic ray track and thermoluminescence investigations, and carbon chemistry measurements. Luna 16 and 20 are typically mare and highland soils, comparing well with their Apollo counterparts, Apollo 11 and 16, respectively. Both soils are very mature (high free iron, carbide, and methane and cosmogenic Ar), while Luna 16, but not Luna 20, is characterized by a high content of glassy materials. An aliquot of anorthosite fragments, handpicked from Luna 20, had a gas retention age of about 4.3 plus or minus 0.1 Gy.

  16. Big Bang 6Li nucleosynthesis studied deep underground (LUNA collaboration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trezzi, D.; Anders, M.; Aliotta, M.; Bellini, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülop, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.; Takacs, M.

    2017-03-01

    The correct prediction of the abundances of the light nuclides produced during the epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the main topics of modern cosmology. For many of the nuclear reactions that are relevant for this epoch, direct experimental cross section data are available, ushering the so-called "age of precision". The present work addresses an exception to this current status: the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction that controls 6Li production in the Big Bang. Recent controversial observations of 6Li in metal-poor stars have heightened the interest in understanding primordial 6Li production. If confirmed, these observations would lead to a second cosmological lithium problem, in addition to the well-known 7Li problem. In the present work, the direct experimental cross section data on 2H(α,γ)6Li in the BBN energy range are reported. The measurement has been performed deep underground at the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) 400 kV accelerator in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The cross section has been directly measured at the energies of interest for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis for the first time, at Ecm = 80, 93, 120, and 133 keV. Based on the new data, the 2H(α,γ)6Li thermonuclear reaction rate has been derived. Our rate is even lower than previously reported, thus increasing the discrepancy between predicted Big Bang 6Li abundance and the amount of primordial 6Li inferred from observations.

  17. Investigations of Moon Polar Regions from Luna-Resource and Luna-Glob Landers - Science Instruments and Operational Plan on Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, V.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.

    2012-04-01

    Scientific goals for Landers of Luna-Resource and Luna-Glob missions will be presented. Both project aimed on search for volatiles and water ice in upper layer of regolith, study structure and content of regolith and investigate of moon's surface exosphere in lunar polar regions. Science devices for payload, which were selected in accordance to the main goals of these missions, will be described. Criteria for potential landing sites selection will be considered: from engineering suitability (flatness and roughness of surface, radio visibility, solar irradiation and so on) and from scientific applicability for these missions. The detailed plan of surface operations during fist moon day will be presented and preliminary plans for sunset and for second and others days will be discussed.

  18. Cartographic and geodetic methods to characterize the potential landing sites for the future Russian missions Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Konopikhin, A. A.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Zubarev, A. E.; Patratiy, V. D.; Kozlova, N. A.; Uchaev, D. V.; Uchaev, Dm. V.; Malinnikov, V. A.; Oberst, J.

    2015-04-01

    Characterization of the potential landing sites for the planned Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs Russian missions requires cartographic and geodetic support prepared with special methods and techniques that are briefly overviewed here. The data used in the analysis, including the digital terrain models (DTMs) and the orthoimages acquired in the survey carried out from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Kaguya spacecraft, are described and evaluated. By way of illustration, different regions of the lunar surface, including the subpolar regions of the Moon, are characterized with the suggested methods and the GIS-technologies. The development of the information support for the future lunar missions started in 2011, and it is now carried on in MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab), which is a department of the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK).

  19. Prototype of the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer to investigate volatile species in the lunar soil for the Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, L.; Lasi, D.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.; Cabane, M.; Cosica, D.; Gerasimov, M.; Rodinov, D.

    2013-09-01

    In preparation for the Russian Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs missions we combined our compact time-offlight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with a chemical pre-separation of the species by gas chromatography (GC). Combined measurements with both instruments were successfully performed with the laboratory prototype of the mass spectrometer and a flight-like gas chromatograph. Due to its capability to record mass spectra over the full mass range at once with high sensitivity and a dynamic range of up to 106 within 1s, the TOF-MS system is a valuable extension of the GC analysis. The combined GC-MS complex is able to detect concentrations of volatile species in the sample of about 2·10^-9 by mass.

  20. Luna 24 - Opaque mineral chemistry of gabbroic and basaltic fragments from Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    Spinels and ilmenites are relatively sparse in the Luna 24 gabbro and basalts. Spinel compositions show some affinities to those of spinels in Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Luna 16 basalts; a characteristic feature is high Al2O3, reaching a maximum of 19.8 wt%. A comparison of spinels in the Luna 24 gabbro with those in other deep-seated lunar intrusive rocks shows a characteristic trend for Fe/Mg. This trend is systematic from gabbro to anorthosite to troctolite and is interpreted to be P-T dependent. Compositions of spinels in the gabbro fall within the Cr/Al trend defined by the spinels of the basalts, but form a Fe/Mg trend parallel to that of the basalts; this relationship suggests that both the gabbro and the basalts are derived from a closely similar source region, with the basalts originating at a slightly greater depth than the gabbro. The spinels in both rock types are considered to have formed at high crustal levels, at low pressures. The Luna 24 data suggest that the compositional discontinuities which exist between chromian spinels and titanian spinels in a large proportion of mare basalts are the result of nucleation of chromian spinels at high crustal levels prior to eruption, and of titanian spinels during melt crystallization at the lunar surface.

  1. Luna 20 pyroxenes - Exsolution and phase transformation as indicators of petrologic history.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, S.; Mccallum, I. S.; Tidy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Description of several pyroxene crystals from a small Luna 20 soil sample which show features comparable to those observed in pyroxenes from layered intrusions. The observed characteristics suggest that many of the bronzite and pigeonite crystals found were derived from rocks crystallized from a high level magma chamber in the lunar highland crust.

  2. LSCC Apollo and Luna Soil Analyses: Update of Soil Evolution Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Taylor, L. A.; McKay, D. S.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) has obtained samples of Luna 16, 20 and 24 soils. Although these particular samples encountered contamination during processing, preliminary results are consistent with previous integrated analyses and expand the soil data to three additional sites.

  3. Luna 20 - Mineral chemistry of spinel, pleonaste, chromite, ulvospinel, ilmenite and rutile.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the results of a reflection microscopy and electron microprobe study performed on a part of the Luna 20 soil sample designated as the East Coast Consortium aliquot. The study is restricted to analyses of the oxides of Fe, Ti, Mg, Mn, Cr, and Al in this sample. The spinel mineral group, ilmenite and rutile only are discussed.

  4. The Luna-Glob Candidate Landing Region: Geological Mapping Based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Dickson, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mazarico, E.; Neish, C. D.; Bussey, D. B. J.

    2012-03-01

    The new regional detailed geologic map was made using recent LRO data for the Luna-Glob mission. The most probable unit that could be sampled by the lander is a feldspathic Imbrian highland plains-forming material, resembling the Cayley Formation.

  5. Cartography and Information Systems for the Luna-Glob Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Zubarev, A.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    We provide cartography and information system support to the LUNA-GLOB mission and assess candidate landing sites [1] on the basis of different available remote sensing data sets. The main goal of our work is to identify science opportunities in the sub-polar areas and to detect possible hazards for any landing spacecraft.

  6. [Gonadic cycle of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica (Lamellibranchia: Ostreidae) in Mecoacán, Tabasco, México].

    PubMed

    George-Zamora, Arturo; Sevilla-Hernández, Ma Luisa; Aldana-Aranda, Dalila

    2003-06-01

    The American oyster Crassostrea virginica is exploited along Gulf of Mexico. This resource represents a job source and incomes for fishermen. In Mexico the production is supported by Tabasco state, the first producer. However, the mexican landings of this bivalve had been dropped about 40% last ten years. By 1999, Tabasco presents a unique ban season fishery of oysters. This season was based in evaluation of gonadal development by visual observations of color and texture, larvae and seeds abundance. In 2000, the government set up two ban seasons in terms of evaluation of populations every year, without gonadal analysis. In general, exists different spawning seasons for American oyster, in accordance with the environmental conditions. It is necessary to establish a ban season according to reproductive cycle. This study presents the gonadic cycle for an oyster population of Mecoacin lagoon along a year. It was defined five phases of the gonad development: resting, gametogenesis, mature or ripe, spawn and post spawn. Gametogenesis is present all the year, except December. The spawning activity was detected all year, except July and August. The ripe phase presented maximum values in August and December. It was proposed a modification of the ban seasons from April 15 - May 30, and September 15 - October 30 to March 15 - May 15 and September 1 - October 30, respectively, according to gonadic cycle obtained in this work. This modification would to avoid capture mature organisms (ready to spawn).

  7. Embryonic and larval development of Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) in Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Raúl E; Perera, Martha A; Castillo, Alfonso; Luna, Emiliano; de la Cruz, José A; Gómez, Luis M; Valdez Zenil, José

    2012-03-01

    Most studies on Eugerres mexicanus mainly consider biogeographic and systematic aspects and rarely address reproductive characteristics, which are useful for fishery population management plans. This study aimed at evaluating the ontogeny of E. mexicanus, based on 30 embryos and 30 larvae sampled by induced spawning of breeders, taken in February 2009 from the Usumacinta River in Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico. All descriptions of the embryonic development were based on morphometric and meristic data and followed standard methods. Eggs, recovered at the gastrula stage, had an average diameter of 1.17mm (SD=0.08). The bud stage appeared during the first three hours of development, in which the posterior side was adhered to the vitellus; Kupffer's vesicle was visible. Yolk-sac larvae hatched 18 hours after fertilization, exhibiting a light brown color and an average total length of 2.94mm (SD=0.70); the preflexion stage was reached eight days after hatching, with a total average length of 4.67mm (SD=0.50) and a total notochord length of 4.45mm (SD=0.50). The flexion stage was reached on the 16th day, with an average total length of 6.66mm (SD=1.53), while postflexion was reached on the 24th day, with 10.33mm (SD=1.45). The pre-juvenile stage was reached on the 33rd day, with a total length of 14.30mm (SD=0.93), showing IX spines and 10 rays and III spines and eight rays in the dorsal and anal fins, respectively. The juvenile stage was reached by the 45th day, with an average length of 28.16mm (SD=1.93) and average weight of 4.75g (SD=1.49). Prejuveniles showed an initial pigmentation with dark colored dots in the superior and inferior jaw and dispersed on the head, while juveniles presented the same pigmentation pattern, decreasing towards the margin of the caudal peduncle. In conclusion, the embryonic developmental stages of E. mexicanus were typical for the Gerreidae group. However, their morphometric characters were slightly different since the diameter and size of

  8. Age of Giordano Bruno crater as deduced from the morphology of its secondaries at the Luna 24 landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    We undertook a photogeologic study of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the ejecta of the very young 22-km diameter crater Giordano Bruno (GB) and for the Luna 24 landing site region, where secondary craters from Giordano Bruno are observed. Using the technique of Basilevsky (1976) for estimating the absolute ages of small lunar craters based on their morphologic prominence and size, craters near the Luna 24 site considered to be secondaries of Giordano Bruno crater and craters superposed on ejecta of Giordano Bruno crater are found to have approximately the same age: somewhere between 5 and 10 m.y. This suggests that the craters at the Luna 24 site are indeed secondaries of GB crater and that this age range is an estimate for the time of GB crater formation. Our results generally agree with estimates derived from counts of small craters superposed on GB ejecta: 1-10 m.y. and with the exposure age of one of the samples derived from Zone I of the Luna 24 core. Plescia et al. (2010b) interpreted a large fraction of the craters superposed on GB ejecta and floor not as primary craters, but rather as secondary craters formed from the GB event itself. On this basis, it was postulated that GB may be formed by an historic impact. Our new data and analysis do not support an age as young as historical. The general agreement of our results for age determination for the GB secondaries of the Luna 24 area, and for craters superposed on the GB ejecta, with the age estimate based on crater count and with the mentioned exposition age of one of the Luna 24 samples, also validates the technique of Basilevsky (1976). A special study of the Luna 24 samples should be undertaken designed to find records of the formation age of the crater on whose rim Luna 24 landed, thus better constraining the age of GB crater.

  9. Luna 16 - An opaque mineral study and a systematic examination of compositional variations of spinels from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    The opaque mineralogy of the Luna 16 soil sample is studied, with an emphasis on a detailed survey of the compositional variations of the Fe-Ti-Cr-Al-Mg spinels. Analytical data are also presented for ilmenite. Textural characteristics and shock-metamorphic effects on the opaque minerals are briefly described and comparisons are made throughout between the Luna 16 samples and published and unpublished data on the Apollo samples.

  10. Hematology and serum biochemistry comparison in wild and captive Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Mendoza, Judith; Weber, Manuel; Zenteno-Ruiz, Claudia E; López-Luna, Marco A; Barba-Macías, Everardo

    2009-10-01

    Hematological and serum biochemistry analyses were determined on 51 Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2006. Turtles came from two sites: Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve and a turtle breeding farm, both located in Tabasco State, Mexico. Physical examination and body measures of animals were performed. Incidence and prevalence of hemoparasites were explored. Captive organisms were in poor physical condition while wild turtles were apparently healthy. There were differences in several hematological parameters related with the condition and the season. During the dry season captive turtles exhibited higher levels of uric acid and urea, as well as lower levels of glucose. Haemogregarina sp. was detected in 100% of the wild individuals, but not in captive individuals. Its incidence was greater during the rainy season. This is the first health assessment and hematology study of this critically endangered species.

  11. Shock metamorphic effects in the Luna 16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    Diverse lunar soil fragments returned from the Luna 16 mission were examined for evidence in shock metamorphism in order to evaluate the role of meteorite impact in forming the lunar regolith at a new site relatively distant from the Apollo landing sites. It was found that shock metamorphic effects, characteristic of meteorite impact and virtually identical to those observed in Apollo samples, are common in the Luna 16 fragments. Two types of shock effects are present - i.e., a deformation and partial melting features in rock and mineral fragments, and heterogeneous glasses and glassy breccias produced by shock melting. It is concluded that these shock metamorphic effects indicate that regolith formation by meteorite impact has occurred in Mare Fecunditatis and is a general process over the entire moon.

  12. Determination of rare-earth elements in Luna 16 regolith sample by chemical spectral method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroganova, N. S.; Ryabukhin, V. A.; Laktinova, N. V.; Ageyeva, L. V.; Galkina, I. P.; Gatinskaya, N. G.; Yermakov, A. N.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made of regolith from layer A of the Luna 16 sample for rare earth elements, by a chemical spectral method. Chemical and ion exchange concentrations were used to determine the content of 12 elements and Y at the level 0.001 to 0.0001 percent with 10 to 15 percent reproducibility of the emission determination. Results within the limits of reproducibility agree with data obtained by mass spectra, activation, and X-ray fluorescent methods.

  13. Soil mechanics results of Luna 16 and Lunokhod 1: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. W.; Carrier, W. D., III

    1971-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of the lunar soil, as determined by Luna 16 and Lunokhod 1 experiments, are discussed. Data are included for interactions between vehicle wheels and the lunar soil, compressibility, resistance to penetration, and friction characteristics of the soil. The shear strength of the returned lunar soil for various bulk densities is also examined. Several potential spacecraft materials were tested in contact with lunar soil to determine their friction and wear characteristics.

  14. The LunaRace - a public outreach, involvement, education and support mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzl, H.; Bouquet, F.; Arafune, K.; Contino, M.-C.; Fontaine, T. H.; Freihoefer, J.; Grey, I.; Leindecker, W.; Lintchik, E.; Meierink, G.; Pauly, K.; Shen, Z.; Simi, N.; Summerer, L.; Weinmann, G.; Yoon, J.

    2002-10-01

    Today's level of technology allows for many fantastic missions to space. Funding of these missions is a problem, because government are cutting space budgets and commercial expenditure in space is minimal. The major obstacle to achieving global involvement into large scale, economically viable space enterprises is the lack of public involvement, education and support. At the 1999 Summer Session of the International Space University, the LunaRace (LR) mission has been desgined. With its extensive public outreach program before, during and after the race, this mission could be the first to bridge the gap between space and public. In national and international design contests, the most promising rover designs will be selected. Similar to the Tour de France and Paris-Dakar, the LR will be a staged event from the Apollo 17 to the Luna 21 landing site and back, during one Lunar Day. During the remaining sunlight after the race the surviving rovers will be used for public outreach purposes. This LunaRace will be a stepping stone for future human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Next to the technology pull it implies, it has a high chance of boosting public support and education that brings the institution of commercially viable space enterprises a step closer.

  15. A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.; Muss, J. D.; McDowell, N. G.; Fisher, J. B.; Reich, P. B.; Wilson, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary considerably in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated with plant functional types. In this study, we have developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA) to predict photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions. We adopt an optimality hypothesis to nitrogen allocation among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation and respiration. The LUNA model is able to reasonably capture the measured spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic capacity as it explains ˜ 55 % of the global variation in observed values of Vc, max25 and ˜ 65 % of the variation in the observed values of Jmax25. Model simulations with LUNA under current and future climate conditions demonstrate that modeled values of Vc, max25 are most affected in high-latitude regions under future climates. ESMs that relate the values of Vc, max25 or Jmax25 to plant functional types only are likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.

  16. A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1.0)

    DOE PAGES

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; ...

    2016-02-12

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary considerably in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated with plant functional types. In this study, we have developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA) to predict photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions. We adopt an optimality hypothesis to nitrogen allocation among light capture, electron transport,more » carboxylation and respiration. The LUNA model is able to reasonably capture the measured spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic capacity as it explains  ∼  55 % of the global variation in observed values of Vc, max25 and  ∼  65 % of the variation in the observed values of Jmax25. Model simulations with LUNA under current and future climate conditions demonstrate that modeled values of Vc, max25 are most affected in high-latitude regions under future climates. ESMs that relate the values of Vc, max25 or Jmax25 to plant functional types only are likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.« less

  17. The lunar regolith - Comparative studies of the Apollo and Luna sites. Petrology of soils from Apollo 17, Luna 16, 20, and 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A progress report is presented concerning an investigation involving a comprehensive chemical and petrologic study of surface soils from all nine lunar sampling sites. The soils selected for this study are part of the lunar highlands soils suite and represent the soils at each site that contain abundant highland-derived material. The current report takes into consideration, in addition to the eight soils discussed by Labotka et al. (1980) and by Laul and Papike (1980), three Apollo 17 soils (72501, 76501, and 78221), and three Luna soils (21000, L-16; 22001, L-20; and 24999, L-24). Attention is given to the modal petrology of the 1000-90 micrometer fraction of all 14 soils, and the modes and mineral and glass chemistries of the 90-20 and 20-10 micrometer fractions of the Apollo 17 and Luna soils. In an evaluation of the obtained results, it is found that except for rare, large-scale impacts, lateral mixing is an inefficient process. Comminution and vertical mixing appear to be the dominant process.

  18. The lunar regolith - Comparative studies of the Apollo and Luna sites. Chemistry of soils from Apollo 17, Luna 16, 20, and 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation represents an extension of a comparative regolith study reported by Labotka et al. (1980) to the Apollo 17 site and to the east limb of the moon (Luna 16, 20, and 24 sites). Chemical systematics are considered, taking into account major and minor element characteristics, and large ion-lithophile patterns (K, REE, and Th). Attention is also given to chemical mixing calculations and the significance of the fine fraction. It is found that the chemistries of 1000-90, 90-20, and 20-10 micrometer size fractions are very similar to each other but quite different from the 'less than 10 micrometer' fine fractions. The 'less than 10 micrometer' fine fractions, which comprise about 5 to 20% of the bulk soils, are consistently more feldspathic and enriched in LIL-rich material relative to the coarse fractions in all soils. The KREEP type is different at each site and is largely derived locally.

  19. Geological context of potential landing site of the Luna-Glob mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Dixon, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Chick, L.; Vitten, J.; Zuber, M. T.; Simt, D. E.; Mazarico, E.; Neish, C. D.; Bassey, D. B. J.

    2014-11-01

    The region planned for performing the Luna-Glob mission is located in the southern part of the swell surrounding the largest South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. The photogeological analysis of the surface topography of this region using the LRO-WAC (resolution of 100 Mpxl) photomaps made it possible to define the following groups of morphological units (area types): (1) related to the formation of relatively fresh impact craters; (2) associated with larger (>100 km across) degraded craters including (2a) external and (2b) inner facies; and (3) occupying intercrater spaces. The comparison of the geological map with the map illustrating the distribution of the epithermal neutron flow (Mitrofanov et al., 2012) shows no correlation between them. Consequently, one should not expect development of rock complexes, which would be characterized by elevated concentrations of water in the region chosen for the Luna-Glob mission and, thus, considered among the first-priority targets. The comparison of the neutron flow distribution with the map of circular polarization of the Mini-RF radar beam also shows no correlation. This means that high values of circular polarization reflect elevated concentrations of rock fragments rather than water accumulations. Even though ice fragments are present, their sizes should only slightly be less as compared with the radar wavelength (12.6 cm). The region planned for investigations in the scope of the Luna-Glob mission corresponds to the swell of the largest (and, likely, oldest) preserved basin and offers a potential opportunity to analyze ancient material of this planet and introduce important constraints into the spectrum of models proposed for explaining the Moon's origin.

  20. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  1. Bioinspired micrograting arrays mimicking the reverse color diffraction elements evolved by the butterfly Pierella luna

    PubMed Central

    England, Grant; Kolle, Mathias; Kim, Philseok; Khan, Mughees; Muñoz, Philip; Mazur, Eric; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Recently, diffraction elements that reverse the color sequence normally observed in planar diffraction gratings have been found in the wing scales of the butterfly Pierella luna. Here, we describe the creation of an artificial photonic material mimicking this reverse color-order diffraction effect. The bioinspired system consists of ordered arrays of vertically oriented microdiffraction gratings. We present a detailed analysis and modeling of the coupling of diffraction resulting from individual structural components and demonstrate its strong dependence on the orientation of the individual miniature gratings. This photonic material could provide a basis for novel developments in biosensing, anticounterfeiting, and efficient light management in photovoltaic systems and light-emitting diodes. PMID:25288730

  2. X-ray diffraction identification of minerals in lunar regolith returned by Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makarov, Y. S.; Ivanov, V. I.; Mokeyeva, V. I.; Tobelko, K. I.; Bukin, V. I.; Volkova, A. Y.; Kuznetsova, G. A.; Kuznetsov, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The methods of powder and monocrystal X-ray diffraction served in identifying the mineral composition of gross samples of regolith from different levels of the drill core and about 80 individual regolith particles returned by the Luna 16 station. It was established that the Sea of Fertility regolith includes pyroxenes of the augite-pigeonite series, anorthites, ilmenite, olivines, spinels, alpha cristobalite, iron particles, glass, and several as yet unidentified particles. Crystallographic and roentgenometric data are given for all the lunar minerals found.

  3. Chemistry and surface morphology of soil particles from Luna 20 LRL sample 22003.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Optical and scanning electron microscopy, scanning electron microprobes and energy dispersion techniques were applied in an analysis of six siliceous glass spheres, five siliceous glass-bonded agglutinates and one breccia fragment from Luna 20 sample 22003. It is theorized that local meteor impact processes might have been responsible for the formation of most of the glass spheres and that the impacts of relatively high velocity particles might have been responsible for the craters observed on the surfaces of the spheres. The concentrations of iron spherules on the surfaces of the glass spheres were generally lower than in similar Apollo 11 and 12 glass spheres.

  4. Morphological variation of genetically confirmed Alouatta Pigra × A. palliata hybrids from a natural hybrid zone in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kelaita, Mary A; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana

    2013-02-01

    While hybridization has been reported for a large number of primate taxa, there is a general lack of data on hybrid morphology for wild individuals with known genetic ancestry. A confirmed hybrid zone for the closely related Neotropical primates Alouatta palliata and A. pigra has provided a unique opportunity to study primate hybrid morphological variation. Here we used molecular evidence based on mitochondrial, Y-chromosome, and autosomal data to assess hybrid ancestry. We conducted univariate and multivariate statistical comparisons of morphometric data collected from individuals both outside and within the hybrid zone in Tabasco, Mexico. Our results show that of all the hybrids detected (N = 128), only 12% of them were approximately genetically intermediate, and none of them were first generation hybrids. Univariate pairwise comparisons among parental individuals, multigenerational backcrossed hybrids, and intermediate hybrids showed that overall, multigenerational backcrossed hybrids resemble the parental species with which they share most of their alleles. Conversely, intermediates were highly variable. Similarly, principal component analysis depicts an overlap between the parental species and their backcrosses when considering overall morphological differences. Finally, discriminant function analysis of the morphological variables was overall unreliable for classifying individuals into their assigned genotypic classes. Taken together, our results suggest that primate natural hybridization studies should incorporate molecular methods for determining ancestry, because morphology may not always be a reliable indicator of hybrid status. Hybrid zones could comprise a large number of multigenerational backcrossed hybrids that are indistinguishable from the parental species. The implications for studying hybridization in the primate fossil record are discussed.

  5. [Breast self-examination in users of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social from Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Córdova-Cadena, Samuel; González-Pozos, Patricia Vanessa; Zavala-González, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar la proporción de mujeres de 40 años o más que se realizan correctamente autoexploración mamaria en la Unidad Médica Familiar 18 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en Teapa, Tabasco, México, en el año 2011. Métodos: estudio transversal, de un universo de 1457 mujeres del que se obtuvo una muestra probabilística de 127, seleccionadas sistematizadamente. Se incluyeron variables sociodemográficas, antecedentes heredofamiliares de cáncer de mama y la evaluación de la técnica de autoexploración. La información fue obtenida de expedientes clínicos y listas de cotejo. Se obtuvo estadística descriptiva. Resultados: La edad media fue de 52.7 ± 9.3 con un intervalo de confianza de 40-80 años. La escolaridad predominante fue la primaria con 35.4 %. Hubo antecedente heredofamiliar de tumor maligno de las mamas en 11 %. La madre fue el familiar más frecuente con este antecedente (42.9 %). Hubo una correcta autoexploración mamaria en 0.8 %. Conclusiones: la proporción de mujeres que realizan correctamente la autoexploración mamaria es alarmantemente baja. No se encontraron factores asociados. Se requieren intervenciones educativas para corregir el problema.

  6. Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andrés, Tabasco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Mary E. D.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Pope, Kevin O.; Jones, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The history of maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most debated topics in New World archaeology. Molecular and genetic studies indicate that maize domestication took place in tropical southwest Mexico. Although archaeological evidence for the evolution of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte has yet to be found in that poorly studied region, other research combining paleoecology and archaeology is documenting the nature and timing of maize domestication and dispersals. Here we report a phytolith analysis of sediments from San Andrés, Tabasco, that confirms the spread of maize cultivation to the tropical Mexican Gulf Coast >7,000 years ago (≈7,300 calendar years before present). We review the different methods used in sampling, identifying, and dating fossil maize remains and compare their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we examine how San Andrés amplifies the present evidence for widespread maize dispersals into Central and South America. Multiple data sets from many sites indicate that maize was brought under cultivation and domesticated and had spread rapidly out of its domestication cradle in tropical southwest Mexico by the eighth millennium before the present. PMID:17426147

  7. The age and petrography of two Luna 20 fragments and inferences for widespread lunar metamorphism.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Huneke, J. C.; Gancarz, A. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Ages were determined by the Ar-40/Ar-39 method on two metaclastic rocks returned from the lunar highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis by the Luna 20 probe. Both samples gave very well-defined argon retention ages of 3.90 plus or minus 0.04 AE which are indistinguishable from each other within a resolution of 0.02 AE. Both fragments, 22006 and 22007, are highly recrystallized polymict breccias; there is no evidence of radiogenic Ar-40, and the age almost surely dates the time of recrystallization. The cosmic ray exposure ages of these fragments are similar and high: 900 million years for 22006, 1300 million years for 22007. 22007 also contains substantial trapped argon with a high Ar-40/Ar-36. The Luna 20 results greatly extend the area of the moon's surface exhibiting a well-defined record of metamorphism at 3.9 AE. So far, lunar history in the interval from 4.6 to 3.9 AE is not preserved in the ages of surface rocks. This obliteration suggests lunar-wide metamorphic conditions occurring or terminating at this time as a result of major impacts.

  8. Shock-metamorphic effects in the Luna-16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of intensive studies indicate that shock-metamorphic effects, characteristic of meteorite impact and virtually identical to those observed in Apollo samples, are common in fragments of the Luna-16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis. Two types of shock effects are present: (1) deformation and partial melting features in rock and mineral fragments (1-2 percent of fragments); and (2) heterogeneous glasses and glassy breccias produced by shock melting (70-80 percent of fragments). Shock effects were observed in pyroxene (deformation twin lamellae, multiple planar shock lamellae, extreme mosaicism, partial isotropization); in plagioclase (planar shock lamellae, complete isotropization to form maskelynite); and in basalt fragments (plagioclase isotropization, selective partial melting). The glasses exhibit several characteristics of shock melting, especially: (1) diversity in chemical composition; (2) association with shock mineral fragments and Ni-Fe spherules; and (3) heterogeneous schlieren and incipient fusion of mineral inclusions. Two types of source rocks are present in the Luna-16 sample; basaltic (85-90 percent) and feldspathic (10-15 percent). The basaltic rocks are predominant and generally occur as unshocked fragments, indicating that they form the bedrock underlying Mare Fecunditatis.

  9. Stratigraphies of Apollo and Luna Highland Landing Sites and Provenances of Materials from the Perspective of Basin Impact Ejecta Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Korotev, Randy L.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    2002-01-01

    What are the provenances of the non-mare materials collected at the Apollo and Luna sampling sites? Results from basin ejecta modeling suggest that much of it came from distant basins. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Il volto della Luna da Plutarco a Newton. Storia di una teoria ellenistica della gravità

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    In his dialogue "De Facie quae in Orbe Lunae apparet", Plutarch includes a discussion on a non-Aristotelian theory of gravity. I describe how this theory could be developed during the Hellenistic period and its influence on the cosmological debate along the centuries until the beginning of modern science. (Text in Italian)

  11. Investigation of Luna-20 soil samples, using a mass spectrometer with a spark-discharge ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Ramendik, G. I.; Gronskaia, S. I.; Gubina, I. IA.; Gushchin, V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A method of analyzing soil samples with a mass spectrometer employing a spark-discharge ion source is described, and the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the determination of impurities, in amounts of less than 10 mg, in lunar samples. It is shown that four parts of the Luna-20 lunar highland sample differ in their chemical composition.

  12. Morphology of Wrinkle Ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana, Mars from MOLA Topography: Implications for Their Kinematic Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, A.; Golombek, M. P.; Mueller, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography is used to define the detailed morphology and kinematic development of martian wrinkle ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana. Changes in ridge morphology suggest they form as fault-propagation folds, often with significant backthrusts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Rb-Sr age of a Luna 16 basalt and the model age of lunar soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    An internal isochron was determined on a small basalt fragment (sample B-1) returned from the Luna 16 mission, which yields an age of 3.42 plus or minus 0.8 b.y. and a low initial Sr87/Sr86 value. A comparison is made of the data from four lunar missions to mare sites which shows that the last period of major flooding of the mare basins is confined to a narrow time interval of only 0.55 b.y. The direct evidence of major lunar magmatic activity appears to be confined to the interval from 3.1 to 4.0 b.y. The Sr87/Sr86 values for all mare basalts are extremely primitive and lie in a rather narrow range. A diagram is given for initial Sr87/Sr86 as a function of time for all lunar rocks.

  14. Eosinophilic leukemia in three African pygmy hedgehogs ( Atelerix albiventris) and validation of Luna stain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jiménez, David; Garner, Bridget; Coutermarsh-Ott, Sheryl; Burrell, Caitlin; Clark, Sabrina; Nabity, Mary; Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Rodrigues-Hoffmann, Aline; Zaks, Karen; Proença, Laila; Divers, Stephen; Saba, Corey; Cazzini, Paola

    2017-03-01

    Neoplasia is usually encountered in the African pygmy hedgehog at a mean age of 3.5 y, and malignancy is common. Myelogenous leukemias are rarely reported in hedgehogs. We describe 3 cases of eosinophilic leukemia in adult, middle-aged (mean age: 2.3 y) hedgehogs, for which prognosis appears grave. In 1 case, attempted treatment was unsuccessful, and in all 3 cases, the disease course was rapid and all died soon after diagnosis. Blood smear evaluation, along with complete blood count, was critical in making the diagnosis in all cases. Luna stain was validated and used to better visualize eosinophils in cytologic and histologic sections. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of specific granules in hedgehog eosinophils.

  15. Inert gases in twelve particles and one 'dust' sample from Luna 16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Yaniv, A.

    1972-01-01

    The inert gases were measured mass-spectrometrically in 12 fragments and one dust sample from Luna 16. The fragments were classified petrologically by microscopic inspection. The major petrologic types were breccias and basalts. The He-4/Ne-20 ratio of the breccias (average 49) was systematically smaller than that of the basalts (average 78), probably because of He-Ne fractionation during or after the formation of the breccias. We suggest that the He-4/Ne-20 ratios of bulk fines in general may reflect the proportions of basaltic and breccia (plus cindery glasses) fragments in the fines. Exposure ages of four fragments are several hundred million years. The Ar-40/Ar-36 slopes of breccias and basalts are identical: 0.65.

  16. Compact Low Power DPU for Plasma Instrument LINA on the Russian Luna-Glob Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Riihelä, Pekka; Kallio, Esa

    2013-04-01

    The Swedish Institute for Space Physics in Kiruna is bilding a Lunar Ions and Neutrals Analyzer (LINA) for the Russian Luna-Glob lander mission and its orbiter, to be launched around 2016 [1]. The Finnish Meteorological Institute is responsible for designing and building the central data processing units (DPU) for both instruments. The design details were optimized to serve as demonstrator also for a similar instrument on the Jupiter mission JUICE. To accommodate the originally set short development time and to keep the design between orbiter and Lander as similar as possible, the DPU is built around two re-programmable flash-based FPGAs from Actel. One FPGA contains a public-domain 32-bit processor core identical for both Lander and orbiter. The other FPGA handles all interfaces to the spacecraft system and the detectors, somewhat different for both implementations. Monitoring of analog housekeeping data is implemented as an IP-core from Stellamar inside the interface FPGA, saving mass, volume and especially power while simplifying the radiation protection design. As especially on the Lander the data retention before transfer to the orbiter cannot be guaranteed under all conditions, the DPU includes a Flash-PROM containing several software versions and data storage capability. With the memory management implemented inside the interface FPGA, one of the serial links can also be used as test port to verify the system, load the initial software into the Flash-PROM and to control the detector hardware directly without support by the processor and a ready developed operating system and software. Implementation and performance details will be presented. Reference: [1] http://www.russianspaceweb.com/luna_glob_lander.html.

  17. [Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Córdova-Ballona, Leonides; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl

    2008-01-01

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants.

  18. Birth and death of the Late Cretaceous ``La Luna Sea'', and origin of the Tres Esquinas phosphorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlich, R. N.; Macsotay I., O.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Lorente, M. Antonieta

    2000-05-01

    Deposition of organic carbon-rich intervals of the La Luna and Navay formations of northwestern Venezuela was governed by the development of key paleobathymetric barriers (Santa Marta and Santander massifs, Paraguana Block, and ancestral Mérida Andes). These enhanced the development of anoxia in the "La Luna Sea" by causing poor circulation and limited ventilation. Anoxia was also promoted by high evaporation and low precipitation rates (high salinity bottom water), and high levels of marine algal productivity (high organic matter flux). Nutrient supply was augmented by infrequent fluvial sources. Bottom water oxygen levels increased from the Late Santonian through the end of the Cretaceous. Ventilation of anoxic bottom waters may have been enhanced by more frequent or intense seasonal upwelling (caused by higher wind stress) and catastrophic overturn, as well as the removal of a key paleobathymetric barrier. Common byproducts of overturn events were massive phytoplankton blooms, which produced red tides. Fish and marine reptile bone beds within the Tres Esquinas Member (La Luna Formation) are attributed to massive mortality during these events, and are correlative with similar Campanian units in eastern Colombia. During the Maastrichtian, increasing ventilation, combined with siliciclastic dilution, ultimately produced sediments with lower total organic carbon (TOC) content.

  19. Effects of the Mi-1, N and Tabasco Genes on Infection and Reproduction of Meloidogyne mayaguensis on Tomato and Pepper Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Stanley, J. D.; Kaur, R.; Cetintas, R.; Di Vito, M.; Thies, J. A.; Dickson, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a damaging root-knot nematode able to reproduce on root-knot nematode-resistant tomato and other economically important crops. In a growth chamber experiment conducted at 22 and 33°C, isolate 1 of M. mayaguensis reproduced at both temperatures on the Mi-1-carrying tomato lines BHN 543 and BHN 585, whereas M. incognita race 4 failed to reproduce at 22°C, but reproduced well at 33°C. These results were confirmed in another experiment at 26 ± 1.8°C, where minimal or no reproduction of M. incognita race 4 was observed on the Mi-1-carrying tomato genotypes BHN 543, BHN 585, BHN 586 and ‘Sanibel’, whereas heavy infection and reproduction of M. mayaguensis isolate 1 occurred on these four genotypes. Seven additional Florida M. mayaguensis isolates also reproduced on resistant ‘Sanibel’ tomato at 26 ± 1.8°C. Isolate 3 was the most virulent, with reproduction factor (Rf) equal to 8.4, and isolate 8 was the least virulent (Rf = 2.1). At 24°C, isolate 1 of M. mayaguensis also reproduced well (Rf ≥ 1) and induced numerous small galls and large egg masses on the roots of root-knot nematode-resistant bell pepper ‘Charleston Belle’ carrying the N gene and on three root-knot nematode-resistant sweet pepper lines (9913/2, SAIS 97.9001 and SAIS 97.9008) carrying the Tabasco gene. In contrast, M. incognita race 4 failed to reproduce or reproduced poorly on these resistant pepper genotypes. The ability of M. mayaguensis isolates to overcome the resistance of tomato and pepper genotypes carrying the Mi-1, N and Tabasco genes limits the use of resistant cultivars to manage this nematode species in infested tomato and pepper fields in Florida. PMID:19259507

  20. Chemical and Sr-isotopic characteristics of the Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Mckay, G.; Wiesmann, H.; Bansal, B.; Wooden, J.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical and Sr isotopic characteristics of Luna 24 bulk soil samples are determined and interpreted within the framework of lunar mare basalt evolution. Major and trace element compositions lead to the suggestion of candidate rock types consisting of a basalt/gabbro with very low TiO2 and MgO content (52%), a very low TiO2 basalt with 10% MgO (23%), olivine vitrophyre (20%), low K Fra Mauro basalt (4%) and anorthositic gabbro (1%). The proposed compositions are supported by the agreement of mixing models based on the proposed compositions with observed soil compositions. Sr ratios for plagioclase samples imply a lower Sr-87/Sr-86 value for low Mg soils than for other mare basalts and higher Rb/Sr and a more evolved Sr ratio in high Mg basalts. Rb, Sr and rare earth element compositions for low Mg basalts fit a model of partial remelting of cumulates containing small amounts of plagioclase.

  1. Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1972-01-01

    More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

  2. Geology and geochemistry of the La Luna Formation type sections in the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, N.; Scherer, W.

    1996-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous La Luna Formation is the most important source rock of hydrocarbons in Western Venezuela. Curiously enough it has two type sections, the formation was first defined in 1926 in Perija on the western flank of the Maracaibo basin; 30 years later the La Aguada, Chejende and Timbetes members were defined 260 km toward the east, on the shelf of the basin. The purpose of this study is to compare these sections and to define the vertical and horizontal variability of geological and geochemical characteristics that might have influenced the generation of hydrocarbons. The study consisted of detailed, bed level sampling, macroscopic sedimentary descriptions, petrography of 168 thin sections with 40 variables recorded in a statistical data matrix for determination of lithomicrofacies, as well as geochemical analysis of total organic carbon (TOC), visual kerogen, Rock-Eval pyrolysis and gas chromatography. The western type section is characterized by alternating thinly laminated and massive bedded limestones. Thermally immature, amorphous organic matter of marine origin is abundant in this section; TOC values range from 0.23% to 8.56%, generally increasing toward the top. Hydrogen index values range from 327 to 1078, indicating good to excellent oil generating potential. The eastern type sections have a higher level of thermal maturity; they show increasing amounts of clastic material, less authigenic minerals and abundant Favreina sp crab fecal pellets. The mainly terrestrially derived organic matter concentrations are considerably less, ranging from 0.07 to 3.39, again increasing toward the top of the section.

  3. High-silica glass inclusions in olivine of Luna-24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Optical examination of nine polished grain mounts of Luna-24 drill-core material (0.09-0.50 mm size) revealed melt inclusions in olivine crystals. Two inclusions consist of clear glass with exceptionally high Si, yet contain no visible daughter minerals and have had no reaction effects with the olivine walls. Their compositions (one has SiO2 93.8, Al2O3 1.51, FeO 2.32, MgO 1.61, CaO 0.06, Na2O less than 0.05, K2O 0.11, total 99.41%; the other is similar) are unique and quite unlike the high-Si high-K melt of granitic composition that is found as inclusions in late-stage minerals of these (and the Apollo) samples, from silicate liquid immiscibility. The host olivines are Fo73 and Fo51. The origin of the melt in the inclusions and the lack of reaction effects are perplexing unsolved problems.

  4. Feasibility study of the 13C(α, n)16O reaction at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, I.; Boeltzig, A.; Ciani, G. F.

    2017-03-01

    The 13C(α, n)16O reaction determines the dominant neutron source of the sprocess in thermally pulsing, low-mass, asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars. The temperature during the s-process in the 13C pocket of 90×106 K corresponds to a Gamow window of 140-230 keV. Since this energy is far below the Coulomb barrier, the cross section of this reaction is extremely small and its rate can only be extrapolated from the measurements at higher energies. At present, the cross section at Gamow peak is uncertain by almost one order of magnitude. An experimental campaign aimed at measuring low energy cross section in 13C(α n)16O is scheduled at the underground LUNA-400 accelerator in Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy. The unique underground location of this facility offers significant improvement in sensitivity compared with previous investigations. It will allow to establish the interference pattern of the resonances and the absolute scale of this reaction.

  5. Direct measurement of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction cross section at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Federico; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction takes part in the NeNa cycle of hydrogen burning, influencing the production of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in red giant stars, asymptotic giant stars and classical novae. The 22Ne(p,γ)27Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of tentative resonances in the Gamow window, where only upper limits were quoted in literature. A direct measurement of the 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction cross section has been carried out at LUNA using a windowless differential-pumping gas target with two high- purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A new measurement with a 4π bismuth germanate (BGO) summing detector is ongoing. During the HPGe phase of the experiment the strengths of the resonances at 156.2 keV, 189.5 keV and 259.7 keV have been directly measured for the first time and their contribution to the reaction rate has been calculated. The decay scheme of the newly discovered resonances has been established as well and some improved upper limits on the unobserved resonances have been put. The BGO detector with its 70% γ-detection efficiency allows to measure the cross section at lower energy. In order to further investigate the resonances at 71 keV and 105 keV and the direct-capture component, the data taking is ongoing.

  6. Preliminary Geophysical Survey for Assessing the Geotechnical Conditions and Geohazards at Huaca de La Luna, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, G. J.; Lopez, S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Pando, M. A.; Lambert, C.; Morales, R.; Uceda, S.; Perucchio, R.; Castaneda, B.; Aguilar, R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of near surface geophysical tests to help assess the geotechnical conditions of the archaeological complex of Huaca de la Luna located near the coastal city of Trujillo, Peru. This area of Peru has experienced damaging earthquakes and tsunamis in historic time. The huaca complex is a massive adobe temple progressively built by the Moche civilization from 100 AD to 650 AD. The geophysical tests carried out included Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), magnetic gradiometer, and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to help assess geotechnical conditions such as buried cavities and hallways, thickness and elastic properties of sand sediments, and the depth to the underlying granitic bedrock. The tests were performed to help with the investigation of structural damage observed along a massive adobe wall (north façade) which has shown signs of distress including fissures, settlements, and other damage. The geophysical results together with detailed Lidar surveying are being used as part of this investigation and highlight the usefulness of these non-destructive techniques for archaeological and historical sites.

  7. Eclipse parcial de Luna - 23-24 de Marzo de 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arquiola, A. P.; Arquiola, F. E.

    Luego de varios años en que las condiciones climáticas no nos permitían registrar el fenómeno, pudimos observar y realizar secuencias fotográficas del eclipse parcial Luna. Siendo de una magnitud de 0.92 (muy cercano a la totalidad) se obtuvo una serie de fotografías muy claras y preferentemente con gran contraste a fin de destacar las tonalidades de las sombras, en especial la penumbra, que desde ya el clima nos favoreció. Los métodos fotográficos fueron, en primer lugar, con telezoom de 210mm a f/4.5 con película color de 1600 ASA; y el ya clásico método a foco primario en el Telescopio Schmidt - Cassegrain de 200mm a f/10. Paralelamente a la observación del eclipse, estábamos al instante comunicados por correo electrónico con otros observadores desde diferentes lugares del mundo intercambiando reportes, y también usuarios en general de la red, de esta forma se hizo muy especial el fenómeno. Instrumentos utilizados : Telescopio Schmidt-Cassegrain 200mm f/10, Cámara fotográfica Minolta con Telezoom 210mm f/4.5, Película 1600 ASA color, Telescopio Refractor 80mm a f/15

  8. Landing site selection for Luna-Glob mission in crater Boguslawsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Pasckert, J.-H.; Bauch, K.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Gläser, P.; Kohanov, A.

    2015-11-01

    Boguslawsky crater (72.9°S, 43.3°E, ~100 km in diameter) is a primary target for the Luna-Glob mission. The crater has a morphologically smooth (at the resolution of WAC images), flat, and horizontal floor, which is about 55-60 km in diameter. Two ellipses were selected as specific candidate landing areas on the floor: the western ellipse is centered at 72.9°S, 41.3°E and the eastern ellipse is centered at 73.9°S, 43.9°E. Both ellipses represent areas from which Earth is visible during the entire year of 2016 and lack permanently shadowed areas. Boguslawsky crater is located on or near the rim of the South Pole-Aitken basin, which provides the unique possibility to sample some of the most ancient rocks on the Moon that probably pre-date the SPA impact event. The low depth/diameter ratio of Boguslawsky suggests that the crater has been partly filled after its formation. Although volcanic flooding of the crater cannot be ruled out, the more likely process of filling of Boguslawsky is the emplacement of ejecta from nearby and remote large craters/basins. Three morphologically distinctive units are the most abundant within the selected landing ellipses: rolling plains (rpc), flat plains (fp), and ejecta from crater Boguslawsky-D (ejf), which occurs on the eastern wall of Boguslawsky. The possible contribution of materials from unknown sources makes the flat and rolling plains less desirable targets for landing. In contrast, ejecta from Boguslawsky-D represents local materials re-distributed by the Boguslawsky-D impact from the wall onto the floor of Boguslawsky. Thus, this unit, which constitutes about 50% of the eastern landing ellipse, represents a target of clearer provenance and a higher scientific priority.

  9. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  10. Comparison of the magnetic properties of glass from Luna 20 with similar properties of glass from the Apollo missions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.; Alexander, C.C.; Briggs, C.L.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on four glass spherules and fragments from the Luna 20 fines; two at 300??K and two from 300??K to 4??K. From these data the magnetic susceptibility extrapolated to infinite field, the magnetization at low fields and also the saturation magnetization at high fields, the Curie constant, the Weiss temperature, and the temperature-independent susceptibility were determined. Using a model previously proposed for the Apollo specimens, the Curie constant of the antiferromagnetic inclusions and a zero field splitting parameter were calculated for the same specimens. The data show the relatively low concentration of iron in all forms in these specimens. In addition, the Weiss temperature is lower than that measured for the Apollo specimens, and can be attributed almost entirely to the ligand field distortion about the Fe2+ ions in the glassy phase. The data further suggest that the Luna 20 specimens cooled more slowly than those of the Apollo missions, and that some of the antiferromagnetic inclusions in the glass may have crystallized from the glass during cooling. ?? 1973.

  11. A lunar differentiation model in light of new chemical data on Luna 20 and Apollo 16 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, D. F.; Philpotts, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Fines from a Luna 20 soil sample and from three Apollo 16 deep drill core samples have been analyzed for major-minor element abundances by a combined, semi-micro atomic absorption spectrophotometric and colorimetric method. Both the major element and large ion lithophile trace element abundances in these soils, the first from interior highland sites, are greatly influenced by the very high normative plagioclase content, being distinctly richer in Al and Ca, and poorer in K, P, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ti, than most bulk soil samples from previous lunar missions. The relatively large compositional variations in the Apollo 16 core can be ascribed almost entirely to decreasing plagioclase with increasing depth. The chemical composition of the Luna 20 soil indicates less plagioclase and less KREEP than in the Apollo 16 soils. A lunar differentiation model is presented in which is made the suggestion that KREEP is the result of a second fusion event in a lunar crust consisting of early feldspathic cumulates and primary aluminous 'liquid.'

  12. Oriented chromite-diopside symplectic inclusions in olivine from lunar regolith delivered by "Luna-24" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khisina, N. R.; Wirth, R.; Abart, R.; Rhede, D.; Heinrich, W.

    2013-03-01

    Calcium-chromium rich lamellae in olivine grain No. 1611 from the Luna-24 regolith were studied with FEG-EMPA and TEM. The lamellae consist of a worm-like intergrowth of FeCr2O4 chromite (Chr) and CaMgSi2O6 diopside (Di), with a Chr:Di modal proportion of 1:3. The linear extension of the lamellae and crystallographic orientation relationships among the symplectite phases and the olivine suggest that the lamellae nucleated at deformation defects in the olivine host. Calcium depletion haloes surrounding the lamellae amount to about 75 μm and indicate that the chromite + diopside lamellae were formed by segregation of calcium and chromium from the host olivine into the lamellae without addition of calcium and/or chromium from outside the olivine. The segregation of calcium and chromium and, consequently, the growth of the symplectic lamellae were diffusion-controlled. The segregation of a calcium-chromium component from the host olivine was associated with oxidation of divalent to trivalent chromium. Oxidation was facilitated by dehydrogenation, which was driven by decompression and/or a change in redox potential. Hydrogen point defects in the original olivine with H+ substituting for divalent cations on the M-sites provided the necessary electron acceptors for the oxidation of chromium and after electron transfer left olivine as molecular H2. The internal microstructure of the lamellae suggests that exsolution of the calcium-chromium rich lamellae from the host olivine and formation of the chromite-diopside symplectic intergrowth occurred simultaneously. The time scale derived from diffusion modeling of the calcium depletion haloes around the lamellae indicates a thermal event on the order of several months to several hundred years at most. Symplectic inclusions found in olivine from lunar, martian and terrestrial rocks are similar with respect to their shape, crystallographic orientation relationships, and internal microstructure of the spinel

  13. Wrinkle ridges, reverse faulting, and the depth penetration of lithospheric stress in lunae planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Tectonic features on a planetary surface are commonly used as constraints on models to determine the state of stress at the time the features formed. Quantitative global stress models applied to understand the formation of the Tharsis province on Mars constrained by observed tectonics have calculated stresses at the surface of a thin elastic shell and have neglected the role of vertical structure in influencing the predicted pattern of surface deformation. Wrinkle ridges in the Lunae Planum region of Mars form a conentric pattern of regularly spaced features in the eastern and southeastern part of Tharsis; they are formed due to compressional stresses related to the response of the Martian lithosphere to the Tharsis bulge. As observed in the exposures of valley walls in areas such as the Kasei Valles, the surface plains unit is underlain by an unconsolidated impact-generated megaregolith that grades with depth into structurally competent lithospheric basement. The ridges have alternatively been hypothesized to reflect deformation restricted to the surface plains unit ('thin skinned deformation') and deformation that includes the surface unit, megaregolith and basement lithosphere ('thick skinned deformation'). We have adopted a finite element approach to quantify the nature of deformation associated with the development of wrinkle ridges in a vertically stratified elastic lithosphere. We used the program TECTON, which contains a slippery node capability that allowed us to explicitly take into account the presence of reverse faults believed to be associated with the ridges. In this study we focused on the strain field in the vicinity of a single ridge when slip occurs along the fault. We considered two initial model geometries. In the first, the reverse fault was assumed to be in the surface plains unit, and in the second the initial fault was located in lithospheric basement, immediately beneath the weak megaregolith. We are interested in the conditions underwhich

  14. Chemistry and petrology of Luna 24 lithic fragments and less than 250-micron soils - Constraints on the origin of VLT mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Lange, D. E.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported on a combined INAA-petrologic study of 17 small (0.2-1.5 mg) Luna 24 lithic and mineral fragments and INAA study of 5 bulk soils and mineral separates from gabbro 24170. Lithic and mineral fragments are classified into VLT mare basalts (ferrobasalt and metabasalts), low-Ti, variolitic mare basalt, gabbros, melt rock and soil breccia. Data indicate 5 possible magma types, represented by: (1) VLT ferrobasalt and gabbro fragments, with low-TiO2 (about 1%), slightly bow-shaped REE pattern, and low REE concentrations (5-10X chondritic); (2) a ferrobasalt (Laul et al., 1978) and metabasalt fragments with major and trace element contents similar to (1), but positive Eu anomalies; (3) one gabbro fragment with distinctive pyroxene compositional trend (increasing Ti with nearly constant Fe/Fe + Mg) and highest REE contents of any Luna 24 mare basaltic sample, (4) a gabbro fragment with considerably less V and Cr2O3 than ferrobasalt and metabasalt fragments; and (5) variolitic basalt fragment with higher Ti2(2.3%) than other Luna 24 basalts and pyroxene that has increasing then decreasing Ti with increasing Fe/Fe + Mg. Trace element data place constraints on the nature of the source region and possible parent magmas for the Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt.

  15. Bimodal TiO2 Contents of Mare Basalts at Apollo and Luna Sites and Implications for TiO2 Derived from Clementine Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    A revised algorithm to estimate Ti contents of mare regions centered on Apollo and Luna sites shows a bimodal distribution, consistent with mare-basalt sample data. A global TiO2 map shows abundant intermediate TiO2 basalts in western Procellarum. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Boguslawsky crater, Moon: Geology of the Luna-Glob Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Ivanov, Mikhail; Hendrik Paskert, Jan; Bauch, Karin; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    The floor of crater Boguslawsky (~95 km in diameter, centered at 72.9S, 43.26E) was selected as the primary landing site for the Russian Luna-Glob mission. Two landing ellipses, 30x15 km each, were chosen on the floor of the crater: Ellipse West is at 72.9S, 41.3E; Ellipse East is at 73.3S, 43.9E. Using high-resolution LROC images, we identified six geologic units within Boguslawsky crater, including smooth plains sp, rolling plains rp, secondary craters sc, a hilly unit hu, the crater wall cw, and the ejecta blanket eb of the 24-km sized crater Boguslawsky D. Units sp, rp, sc, hu, and possibly cw are accessible within the western landing ellipse. The eastern landing ellipse contains units sp, rp, eb, and sc. Based on our crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements and using the lunar production function and chronology of [1], we find Boguslawsky crater formed approximately 4 Ga ago. Because this age was derived from a count area on the western crater wall, which might have been modified by mass wasting, it represents a minimum age, i.e., the crater might be older. Applying the stratigraphy of [2], Bouguslawsky is pre-Nectarian in age, consistent with the age assignment of the geologic map [3]. Our CSFD results indicate that the rolling plains have an absolute model age of about 3.96 Ga old, thus being indistinguishable within the error bars from the CSFD of the Boguslawsky wall. The smooth plains and the ejecta blanket of Boguslawsky D exhibit very similar absolute model ages of 3.77 and 3.74 Ga, respectively. Thus, our ages for the crater floor are somewhat younger than the ages in the geologic map of [3] while Boguslawsky D appears to be older, i.e., it is Imbrian in age and not Eratosthenian as shown in [3]. To assess the safety of the landing ellipses, we studied the distribution of slopes and boulders. Within the two proposed landing sites, we find that the slopes at ~30m base-length are generally less than 5-10 degrees. However, local slopes

  17. Exploring the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction at LUNA and at HZDR

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanna, Francesca; Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-09

    The {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction is involved in the hydrogen burning NeNa cycle. This determines the nucleosynthesis of the Ne and Na isotopes in the Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch phases of stellar evolution. In the energy range relevant for astrophysics (20 keV < E < 600 keV), the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction rate is highly uncertain because of the contribution of a large number of resonances never measured directly. A related study is under preparation at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA), in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, and it will cover the energy range 100 keV < E < 400 keV. Meanwhile, a measurement at higher energies (i.e. 436 keV) has been carried out at the Tandetron accelerator of the HZDR (Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf) in Germany. Some preliminary results will be presented.

  18. Heat-physical properties of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avduyevskiy, V. S.; Anfimov, N. A.; Marov, M. Y.; Treskin, Y. A.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ekonomov, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Density, specific heat capacity, and coefficient of thermal conductivity were studied on a sample of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. The study was carried out in a helium-filled chamber. The density of the surface material when freely heaped was 1.2 g/cu cm, and when shaken down -- 1.7 g/cu cm. The specific heat capacity was 0.177 + or - 0.010 cal x g/1 x deg/1. The coefficient of thermal conductivity in the material was 4.8 x 10/6 + or - 1.2 x 10/6 cal x cm/1 x sec/1 x deg/1.

  19. Reverse color sequence in the diffraction of white light by the wing of the male butterfly Pierella luna (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla; Aiello, Annette; Bay, Annick; Windsor, Donald M; Colomer, Jean-François; Rassart, Marie

    2010-08-01

    The butterfly Pierella luna (Nymphalidae) shows an intriguing rainbow iridescence effect: the forewings of the male, when illuminated along the axis from the body to the wing tip, decompose a white light beam as a diffraction grating would do. Violet light, however, emerges along a grazing angle, near the wing surface, while the other colors, from blue to red, exit respectively at angles progressively closer to the direction perpendicular to the wing plane. This sequence is the reverse of the usual decomposition of light by a grating with a periodicity parallel to the wing surface. It is shown that this effect is produced by a macroscopic deformation of the entire scale, which curls in such a way that it forms a "vertical" grating, perpendicular to the wing surface, and functions in transmission instead of reflection.

  20. Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of individual mineral phases in Luna 20 material by ion microprobe mass analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of returned lunar material have helped to demonstrate that U, Th, and radiogenic Pb are concentrated in small accessory mineral phases. It is possible to measure the isotopic composition of this Pb and obtain a radiometric Pb-207/Pb-206 age for the mineral. The ages so derived compare favorably with crystallization ages determined by conventional methods. A grain mount (22003,2/6) of Luna 20 material was searched for such accessory mineral phases, and two were found. One of these phases give an age of 4.12 plus or minus 0.04 b.y. and the other an age of 4.42 plus or minus 0.11 b.y. Ages of minerals dated by the ion probe in Apollo samples 14310 and 15555 are given for comparison. Data on the upper limit for Pb concentration in the outermost surface layers of free lunar soil particles are also given.

  1. X-LUNA: Extending Free/Open Source Real Time Executive for On-Board Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, P.; Henriques, L.; Zulianello, M.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we present xLuna, a system based on the RTEMS [1] Real-Time Operating System that is able to run on demand a GNU/Linux Operating System [2] as RTEMS' lowest priority task. Linux runs in user-mode and in a different memory partition. This allows running Hard Real-Time tasks and Linux applications on the same system sharing the Hardware resources while keeping a safe isolation and the Real-Time characteristics of RTEMS. Communication between both Systems is possible through a loose coupled mechanism based on message queues. Currently only SPARC LEON2 processor with Memory Management Unit (MMU) is supported. The advantage in having two isolated systems is that non critical components are quickly developed or simply ported reducing time-to-market and budget.

  2. Legal aspects and technical alternatives for the treatment of reservoir brines at the Activo Luna oilfield, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Birkle, Peter; Cid Vázquez, Adolfo L; Fong Aguilar, J L

    2005-01-01

    Deep formation water, extracted as an undesired byproduct from on-shore production wells at the Activo Luna oilfield and processed in adjacent oil fields, are highly enriched in salt minerals, especially in sodium chloride (NaCl) (262 000 mg/L), but also in metals and nonmetals, such as strontium (Sr) (2068 mg/L), bromine (Br) (2034 mg/L), boron (B) (396 mg/ L), iodine (I) (43.4 mg/L), selenium (Se) (3.74 mg/L), and arsenic (As) (0.55 mg/L). Direct reinjection of the brine underground is not possible because of elevated pressure conditions within the petroleum reservoir. The disposal into near shore areas of the Gulf of Mexico without treatment must be rejected because of a) elevated concentrations of some toxic elements, such as B, silver (Ag), thallium (Tl), Se and cadmium (Cd), which exceed permissible limits of environmental legislation for surface discharge (Official Mexican norms NOM-001-ECOL-1998 and CE-CCA-001/89), and b) differences in density that could cause the descent of hypersaline fluid to the ocean floor, potentially affecting the diversity and survival of the benthic ecosystem. Conventional treatment techniques, such as microfiltration or reverse osmosis, are not suitable for the Activo Luna brines because of their extreme mineralization, which will cause pressure conditions exceeding 200 bars across the membrane. As an alternative process, the evaporation of the entire brine volume of approximately 200 m3/day by solar ponds or industrial crystallization plants is suggested. The residual precipitated residuals are composed mainly of chlorine (Cl) (9460 tons/year), sodium (Na) (4230 tons/ year), calcium (Ca) (1028 tons/year), potassium (K) (207 tons/year), and magnesium (Mg) (65.8 tons/year). As an alternative to its disposal on a dumpsite, some special minerals (especially NaCl, Mg, Sr, and Br) could be recovered for its economic value.

  3. Ground-penetrating radar for sedimentology: methodological advances and examples from the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta plain, Tabasco, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Remke; Nooren, Kees; Dogan, Mine; Hoek, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is widely used as a tool for imaging sedimentary structures and reconstructing depositional history in a range of settings. Most GPR systems use a pair of dipole antennas to transmit and receive electromagnetic energy, typically in the frequency range of 0.025-1 GHz. Radar reflections result from contrasts in dielectric properties, which can be induced by small textural variations between layers. To generate cross sections of the subsurface, the common-offset antenna pair is moved along surface transects. The GPR method benefits from its relative ease of use and relatively limited basic processing that is required for interpretation of field data. Drawbacks include the high signal attenuation in electrically conductive material such as clay and the trade-off between penetration depth and resolution for different antenna frequencies. In recent years, various equipment advances and novel field practices and processing strategies have improved the ability of GPR to provide high-resolution data in a wider range of settings and scenarios. Advances include multi-channel systems for more efficient data collection, multi-offset data collection and processing for improved signal-to-noise ratios, full-resolution and multi-component imaging, and full-waveform inversion. In this presentation, we will discuss some of these methodological advances and present full-resolution field data from a highly heterogeneous fluvial site in Mississippi, USA. We will also present GPR data from a project focused on reconstructing depositional history of the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta in Tabasco, México, which is the world's largest beach ridge plain. Here we used common-offset GPR antenna pairs at two frequencies to assess the varying thickness of the eolian cover of individual beach ridges. We also characterized systematic changes in the dip of beach face and foreshore deposits to study its possible relation with temporal changes in coastal processes.

  4. Response to the Fernández-Niño Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, México between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-07-01

    We thank the comments of Fernández-Niño [1] addressing our article [2] "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012", which pointed out that the use of the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly applied in the present manuscript.

  5. Current status of the habitat and population of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Balancán, Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Montuy, Gilberto; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Bonilla-Sánchez, Yadira M; Bynum, Nora; Landgrave, Rosario

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the habitat and populations of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in the municipality of Balancán, Tabasco, southeastern Mexico, using a combination of field surveys and remotely sensed data. We identified 21,937 ha of remnant vegetation composed of 1,348 fragments. Fragments separated by up to 200 m were grouped into "clusters" of fragments in accordance with the maximum observed open distance crossed by A. pigra. A total of 11% or 84 of the 772 clusters identified through remote sensing were selected at random, and for these we determined the vegetation type, canopy height, area, and distance to the closest human settlement. In these same 84 clusters, which included a total area of 9,817 ha, from October to June of 2006 we located a total of 1,064 black howler monkeys, including 228 troops and 49 solitary monkeys. A. pigra was found in 62 (74.7%) of all clusters visited, with a cumulative area of 6,032 ha. Troops varied in size from 2 to 15 individuals (average 6.0+/-2.9 ind/troop). Adults were 67% (n=716) of detected individuals, whereas juveniles were 20.5% (n=218) and infants were 12.5% (n=133). We found black howlers to occur at an ecological density of 10.8 ind/km(2), which is low in comparison with A. pigra in other fragmented and conserved sites. We found a statistically significant relationship between the area of clusters and the abundance of howler monkeys (r(2)=0.2, F=10.47, gl=3, P=0.002). In addition, the probability of finding A. pigra was greater in secondary vegetation, riparian vegetation, tropical dry forest, undisturbed tropical oak forest, and palm forest (F=12, gl=3, P<0.0001), as compared with disturbed tropical oak forest. Our results provide data on the distribution, abundance, and population structure of black howler monkeys in a fragmented landscape in the southeast of Mexico. These data are a necessary prerequisite for conservation planning for this species.

  6. Preliminary results of determinations of the physical properties of microfragments of lunar rocks in soil samples from Luna-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchaninov, I. A.; Medvedev, R. V.; Chashnikov, V. V.

    1980-05-01

    Results of a preliminary investigation of the densities and physical and mechanical properties of individual lunar regolith particles of sizes 0.37-0.9 mm brought back in Luna 24 samples are presented. Densities, determined by the constant-temperature immersion method, are found to range between 3.17-3.26 g/cu cm for the basalt particles, 2.93-3.26 g/cu cm for the gabbros and 2.97-3.06 g/cu cm for the breccias. Particle moduli of longitudinal elasticity, determined on the basis of solid collisions, are observed to vary from 4.0 x 10 to the 10th to 9.2 x 10 to the 10th Pa. Calculations based on correlation dependences indicate heat capacities from 0.74 to 1.04 kJ/kg K and strength limitations from 1200 to 1800 x 10 to the 5th Pa. The results obtained for the microsamples are noted to be comparable to those obtained for lunar rocks and clearly different from those of their terrestrial analogs.

  7. 22Ne and 23Na ejecta from intermediate-mass stars: the impact of the new LUNA rate for 22Ne(p, γ)23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemer, A.; Marigo, P.; Piatti, D.; Aliotta, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Boeltzig, A.; Bressan, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Ciani, G. F.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, G.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Prati, P.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Trezzi, D.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the impact of the new LUNA rate for the nuclear reaction 22Ne(p, γ)23Na on the chemical ejecta of intermediate-mass stars, with particular focus on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars that experience hot-bottom burning. To this aim, we use the PARSEC and COLIBRI codes to compute the complete evolution, from the pre-main sequence up to the termination of the TP-AGB phase, of a set of stellar models with initial masses in the range 3.0-6.0 M⊙ and metallicities Zi = 0.0005, 0.006 and 0.014. We find that the new LUNA measures have much reduced the nuclear uncertainties of the 22Ne and 23Na AGB ejecta that drop from factors of ≃10 to only a factor of few for the lowest metallicity models. Relying on the most recent estimations for the destruction rate of 23Na, the uncertainties that still affect the 22Ne and 23Na AGB ejecta are mainly dominated by the evolutionary aspects (efficiency of mass-loss, third dredge-up, convection). Finally, we discuss how the LUNA results impact on the hypothesis that invokes massive AGB stars as the main agents of the observed O-Na anticorrelation in Galactic globular clusters. We derive quantitative indications on the efficiencies of key physical processes (mass-loss, third dredge-up, sodium destruction) in order to simultaneously reproduce both the Na-rich, O-poor extreme of the anticorrelation and the observational constraints on the CNO abundance. Results for the corresponding chemical ejecta are made publicly available.

  8. Isotope studies of carbonate rocks of La Luna Formation (Venezuela) to constrain the oceanic anoxic event 3 (OAE3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. C.; Chemale, F., Jr.; Kawashita, K.; Rey, O.; Moura, C. A. V.

    2016-12-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratios, δ13C, and δ18O determinations performed on 30 bulk carbonate rocks are presented to constrain the isotope characteristics regarding Oceanic Anoxic Event 3 in the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin. The samples were collected along a 22 m profile in San Miguel region (Merida State, Venezuela). The exhibited 87Sr/86Sr ratios are between 0.707659, at the base, and 0.707733 at the top of studied section, corresponding estimated younger numerical ages than the inferred ages dated as Santonian (85.8-83.5 Ma) based on occurrence of Dicarinella asymetrica. The obtained 87Sr/86Sr ratios are certainly higher than expected for Santonian sea Sr and they are attributed to regular riverine strontium fluxes in the restricted (gulf-like) Maracaibo Basin. The values of δ18O data between -3.76‰ and -11.76‰ are distributed in two distinct clusters in a same way and coherent as for δ13C data which are in a range between -1.75‰ and -13.87‰. One of the clusters δ13C = -2.5 ± 1.0‰ and δ18O = -10.0 ± 1.5‰), illustrate the homogeneous marine deposition under tropical conditions, while the other, more variable, probably could reflect the cyclicity of temporally changes in Pacific versus Atlantic Ocean circulation with cooling water or cooling trend climate. These δ13C values around -2.5 ± 1.0‰ do not fit with the significant carbon isotope excursion as expected for the oceanic anoxic event (OAE) and support the work hypothesis that Coniacian-Santonian anoxic event (denominate as OAE3) is not a global one.

  9. LUNA and the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, Carlo; LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonu-clear reactions responsible for the stellar luminosity and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained in the past 20 years are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and the Sun is discussed.

  10. LUNA and the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Broggini, Carlo; Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-09

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonu-clear reactions responsible for the stellar luminosity and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained in the past 20 years are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and the Sun is discussed.

  11. Cartography of the Luna-21 landing site and Lunokhod-2 traverse area based on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images and surface archive TV-panoramas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kozlova, N. A.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Zubarev, A. E.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Patratiy, V. D.; Konopikhin, A. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Oberst, J.; Haase, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Plescia, J. B.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-02-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) system consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). NAC images (∼0.5 to 1.7 m/pixel) reveal details of the Luna-21 landing site and Lunokhod-2 traverse area. We derived a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and an orthomosaic for the study region using photogrammetric stereo processing techniques with NAC images. The DEM and mosaic allowed us to analyze the topography and morphology of the landing site area and to map the Lunokhod-2 rover route. The total range of topographic elevation along the traverse was found to be less than 144 m; and the rover encountered slopes of up to 20°. With the orthomosaic tied to the lunar reference frame, we derived coordinates of the Lunokhod-2 landing module and overnight stop points. We identified the exact rover route by following its tracks and determined its total length as 39.16 km, more than was estimated during the mission (37 km), which until recently was a distance record for planetary robotic rovers held for more than 40 years.

  12. Content of lithium, beryllium, boron, and titanium, and the isotopic composition of lithium, boron, and magnesium in Luna 16 regolith sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.

    1974-01-01

    The abundance of the following elements in the L 16-19 No. 118 regolith sample, zone V was determined by isotopic dilution using a mass spectrometer equipped with a scattering ion source: Li -- 9.8, Be -- 1.2, Be -- 2.6, and Ti -- 1.92 percent. For comparison, these same elements were measured in samples of surface material returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, and in the terrestrial reference standard diabase W-1. The content of Li, Be, and B in the Luna 16 sample is nearly the same as in the Apollo 11 surface material. The surface material returned by Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 contains two to four times more of these elements. However, the abundance ratios of Li, Be, and B are remarkably similar in the surface materials from the four different lunar regions. With respect to basaltic achondrites and especially with respect to chondrites, the lunar basalts are enriched in Li, Be, and B up to 100 times.

  13. Prototype of the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer to investigate volatile species in the lunar soil for the Luna-Resurs mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, L.; Wurz, P.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Coscia, D.; Gerasimov, M.; Lasi, D.; Sapgir, A.; Szopa, C.; Tulej, M.

    2015-06-01

    In preparation for the Russian Luna-Resurs mission we combined our compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with a chemical pre-separation of the species by gas chromatography (GC). Coupled measurements with both instruments were successfully performed with the prototype of the mass spectrometer and a flight-like gas chromatograph. The system was tested with two test gas mixtures, a mixture of hydrocarbons and a mixture of noble gases. Due to its capability to record mass spectra over the full mass range at once with high sensitivity and a dynamic range of up to 106 within 1 s, the TOF-MS system is a valuable extension of the GC analytical system. Based on the measurements with calibration gases performed with the combined GC-MS prototype and under assumption of mean characteristics for the Moon's regolith, the detection limit for volatile species in a soil sample is estimated to 2·10-10 by mass for hydrocarbons and 2·10-9 by mass for noble gases.

  14. Improved Direct Measurement of the 64.5 keV Resonance Strength in the 17O (p ,α )14N Reaction at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, C. G.; Scott, D. A.; Aliotta, M.; Formicola, A.; Best, A.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Ciani, G. F.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Piatti, D.; Prati, P.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Trezzi, D.; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The 17O (p ,α ) 14N reaction plays a key role in various astrophysical scenarios, from asymptotic giant branch stars to classical novae. It affects the synthesis of rare isotopes such as 17O and 18F, which can provide constraints on astrophysical models. A new direct determination of the ER=64.5 keV resonance strength performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) accelerator has led to the most accurate value to date ω γ =10.0 ±1. 4stat±0. 7syst neV , thanks to a significant background reduction underground and generally improved experimental conditions. The (bare) proton partial width of the corresponding state at Ex=5672 keV in 18F is Γp=35 ±5stat±3syst neV . This width is about a factor of 2 higher than previously estimated, thus leading to a factor of 2 increase in the 17O (p , α ) 14N reaction rate at astrophysical temperatures relevant to shell hydrogen burning in red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars. The new rate implies lower 17O/16O ratios, with important implications on the interpretation of astrophysical observables from these stars.

  15. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively.

  16. Neutron-induced background by an α-beam incident on a deuterium gas target and its implications for the study of the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M.; Trezzi, D.; Bellini, A.; Aliotta, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Costantini, H.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.

    2013-02-01

    The production of the stable isotope 6Li in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis has recently attracted much interest. Recent observations in metal-poor stars suggest that a cosmological 6Li plateau may exist. If true, this plateau would come in addition to the well-known Spite plateau of 7Li abundances and would point to a predominantly primordial origin of 6Li , contrary to the results of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Therefore, the nuclear physics underlying Big Bang 6Li production must be revisited. The main production channel for 6Li in the Big Bang is the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction. The present work reports on neutron-induced effects in a high-purity germanium detector that were encountered in a new study of this reaction. In the experiment, an α-beam from the underground accelerator LUNA in Gran Sasso, Italy, and a windowless deuterium gas target are used. A low neutron flux is induced by energetic deuterons from elastic scattering and, subsequently, the 2H(d,n)3He reaction. Due to the ultra-low laboratory neutron background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3MeV neutrons on well-shielded high-purity germanium detectors has been studied in detail. Data have been taken at 280 and 400keV α-beam energy and for comparison also using an americium-beryllium neutron source.

  17. Geochemical signatures of bedded cherts of the upper La Luna Formation in Táchira State, western Venezuela: Assessing material provenance and paleodepositional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbán, G.; Martínez, M.; Márquez, G.; Rey, O.; Escobar, M.; Esquinas, N.

    2017-01-01

    Here we undertook an inorganic geochemical study of Cenomanian-Campanian bedded cherts (the Táchira Ftanita Member of the La Luna Formation) in the western region of the Táchira State, Venezuela. The aim of this study was to determine the paleo-oceanographic and paleo-environmental conditions that governed the deposition of chert beds and put forward a sedimentation model for the Táchira Ftanita Member in the study area. Seventy-two chert samples were collected and trace/rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Rb, Cs, Th, U, Y, Co, and Sc) and major/trace elements (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Mn, Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, and V) were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES, respectively. On the basis of the stratigraphic abundance and distribution of relatively immobile elements, as well as the distribution of rare earth elements, we established that the detrital sediments associated with the sequences studied have matching characteristics with distinct continental materials, with an intermediate composition, thus pointing to the Guayana Massif as the main source of sediments. In addition, we also determined the influence of hydrothermal input on the chemical composition of some cherts from La Molina Mine. On the basis of geochemistry, we found a biological influence regarding the uptake of dissolved silica for forming chert beds. The application of parameters for relatively immobile elements allowed us to establish a still proximal continental-margin (hemipelagic) for most samples from the Zorca River and a continental-margin for almost all the cherts from the Delicias-Villa Páez section and the remaining samples from La Molina Mine. Finally, we propose that the rhythmicity that accompanies the sequence of bedded cherts is related to changes in the intensity of upwelling patterns of water and/or to variability in the supply of silica dissolved in the Táchira sub-basin.

  18. Towards the study of 2H(p, γ)3He reaction in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis energy range in LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, Izabela

    2016-04-01

    The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis began a few minutes after the Big Bang, when the Universe was sufficiently cold to allow deuterium nuclei to survive photo-disintegration. The total amount of deuterium produced in the Universe during the first minutes depends on the cosmological parameters (like the energy density in baryons, Ω bh 2, and the effective neutrino number, Neff ) and on the nuclear cross sections of the relevant reactions. The main source of uncertainty in the deuterium estimation comes from the 2H(p, γ)3He cross section. Measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies obtained by the Planck satellite are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the minimal ΛCDM cosmological model, significantly reducing the uncertainty on its parameters. The Planck data allows to indirectly deduce with very high precision the abundances of primodial nuclides, such as the primodial deuterium fraction 2H/H = (2.65 ± 0.07) .10-5 (68% C.L.). The astrophysical observations in damped Lyman-a systems at high redshifts provide a second high accuracy measurement of the primodial abundance of deuterium 2H/H = (2.53 ± 0.04) · 10-5 (68% C.L.). The present experimental status on the astrophysical S-factor of the 2H(p, γ)3He reaction in the BBN energy range, gives a systematic uncertainties of 9%. Also the difference between ab-initio calculations and experimental values of S12 is at the level of 10%. In order to clarify the actual scenario, a measurement of 2H(p, γ)3He cross section with a precision of a few percent in the 70-400 keV energy range is planned at LUNA in 2016. A feasibility test of the measurement has been performed in October 2014, giving the preliminary results on the cross section. The experimental setup for the test and final measurement campaign will be presented.

  19. Spatial and size-frequency distributions of boulders on the floor of crater Boguslawsky, the primary target of the Luna-Glob mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Head, James; Hiesinger, Harald; Bazilevskiy, Alexander; Hendrik Pasckert, Jan; Bauch, Karin

    Crater Boguslawsky (73S, 44E) is the primary target for the lander-oriented Russian mission Luna-Glob. The rocky surfaces represent serious threats to landers. We have conducted a survey of the NAC images seeking for the rocky sites on the floor and assessing quantitative parameters of the size-frequency distributions (SFD) of boulders. Two craters on the Boguslawsky floor show abundant boulders in their surroundings. In the vicinity of Crater 1 (73.0S, 42.0E, 405 m), we have counted 9,000 rock fragments (1-13 m) at a radial distance <670 m outside the crater rim. The mean density of boulders in this zone is 76 rocks/10,000 m2. Boulders are arranged in elongated ray-like clusters. Shallow grooves (tracks) are associated with some larger boulders; the visible depth of the tracks is 0.3-0.5 m. There are 3,200 boulders (1-8 m) around Crater 4 (72.6S 44.9E, 340 m) at a radial distance <500 m outside the crater rim; the mean density is 52 rocks/10,000 m2. The spatial distribution of boulders around Crater 4 is similar to that at Crater 1, but no tracks are associated with boulders at Crater 4. The mean density of boulders around Crater 4 is 30% less than that at Crater 1, which suggests that Crater 4 is 30-50 Ma older than Crater 1 [Basilevsky et al., 2013]. The lack of boulder tracks in the vicinity of Crater 4 implies that a layer of regolith 0.3-0.5 m thick has been reworked during this time interval. A slope of -4.37 characterizes the SFD of boulders around Crater 1, whereas the SFD of boulders around Crater 4 has a slope of -5.54. These differences in slope indicate the preferential destruction of the larger rock fragments and suggest that up to 90% of boulders in the diameter range 8-12 m are fragmented into smaller pieces during the 30-50 Ma time span.

  20. 174 Reduction in Allergic Rhinitis Index by Decreasing Aero-Allergens and Malodor Causing Volatile Organic Compounds by Luna Air Purifiers Using Photo-Catalytic Oxidation (PCO) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Aguaiza, Cristina; Guzman, Alicia; Chudasama, Jay; Bennert, Jeff; Das, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of the environment within buildings is a topic of major importance for public health. Breathing pure and clean air allows us to think more clearly, sleep more soundly, and stay healthier. Studies show that we receive 56% of our energy from the air we breathe, more than from water and food combined. On average we breathe 37 pounds of air a day. It has been established that the use of negative ions in a purification system is an effective means of eradicating aeroallergens in room air. Methods The wall-mount, Inducts and Mobile Sanifier air purification units of Luna are designed to sanitize air, to kill surface mold, bacteria, and viruses in areas up to 26,000 cubic feet. Samples were collected from the clinic rooms to analyze the VOC concentrations using the Luna air purifiers to detect the efficiency in reducing the VOCs in the indoor air. We analyzed the aroallergens and VOCs prevalent in the indoor air in the clinics at the Coulter Animal Hospital, Amarillo, Texas. The data were correlated to the inhalant allergy index before and after running air purifiers that use PCO technology. Results Samples from the clinic rooms to analyze the VOC concentrations using the Luna air purifiers to detect the efficiency in reducing the VOCs in the indoor air. The SKC Pocket Pump and thermal desorption tubes were used to obtain the samples from the indoor air. Pumps were set on 200 mL/min as air flow to estimate the concentration of Acetic acid, Isobutyric acid, Butyric acid, Isovaleric acid, Valeric acid, Hexanoic acid, Phenol, p-cresol, 4-ethyl, 2-amino, Indole, and Skatole. All desorption tube samples were analyzed using a Markes UNITY and Markes Ultra automated thermal desorber (ATD) and a Varian 3800/Saturn 2000 GC with a MS. Slides with double sticky tape were exposed to room air stained with 2% safranin and were observed using a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 and Image Pro Plus software. Conclusions The data were correlated with the

  1. A multidisciplinary approach to reveal floodplain palaeohydrography in the surrounding of ancient Luna archaeological site (lower Magra River valley, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Monica; Bisson, Marina; Chelli, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Marta

    2010-05-01

    The Magra floodplain (NW Italy) is a coastal plain that was created during the last 2.5 millennia by the River Magra itself and by minor streams draining the southern slope of the Apuan Alps. The coastline progressively migrated from the mountain foothills to its present position, 2.5 km seaward. Available stratigraphical data suggest that the marine gulf that occupied the area before Bronze age gradually changed into a lagoon; this was finally separated from the open sea and became a complex of marshes that were finally silted up. All these environments provided opportunities for settlement and land use: early settlement is accounted for in the Iron Age by Ligurian people that were finally defeated by the Romans. In the 2nd century bC the roman colony of Luna (today Luni) was founded in the area. After the Imperial Age Luni gradually decayed and was finally abandoned in 1204. Post-Roman alluviation is thought to be partly responsible for the city decline and the survival of only scattered farmsteads in its surroundings. Settlement and land use history from Iron Age onward are thus tightly dependant from drainage network evolution in the area. Although historical maps provide some chronological constraints about the advance of the Magra floodplain it is still unknown how and when precisely the transformation of a lagoon environment into a dry land occurred. In particular no data are available about the position of the mouths of the Magra River and of the minor streams at Roman Times and little is known about channel migration since the Early Middle Ages and information about land reclamation are difficult to find because dispersed. In order to identify abandoned fluvial channels, a series of digital elaborations were applied to different types of Remotely-Sensed Images. In detail, the used data consist of satellite images (Landsat 7 - ETM) and airborne orthophotos (AIMA) covering a temporal interval of five years (from 1998 to 2002) and characterized by a spatial

  2. The Moon Phases in a Paper Box. (Spanish Title: Las Fases de la Luna en Una Caja de Cartón.) As Fases da Lua Numa Caixa de Papelão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima O. Saraiva, Maria; Amador, Cláudio B.; Kemper, Érico; Goulart, Paulo; Muller, Angela

    2007-12-01

    We present a very simple concrete model to demonstrate the concept of phases of an illuminated body. The main objective of our model is to help the understanding of the Moon phases as viewed from the perspective of an observer on Earth. The material allows the visualization of two important effects: (1st) even though all the time half Moon is illuminated by the Sun, we see different fractions of the illuminated Moon surface, depending on our angle of sight; (2nd) the orientation of the convex part of the Moon in the crescent and waning phases on the sky also depends on our perspective from Earth. The use of a closed box allows one to see the contrast among the different phases with no need of a dark room. We also present a text on the Moon phases, emphasizing the dependence of the aspect of the bright part on the angle of sight. En este trabajo proponemos la construcción de material didáctico de bajo costo para demostración del concepto de fases de un cuerpo iluminado. El principal objetivo de nuestro material es facilitar la comprensión de las fases de la Luna desde la perspectiva de un observador en la Tierra. El material ayuda la visualización de dos efectos importantes: (1º) a pesar de tener siempre la mitad de la Luna (representada por una bolita de espuma plástica o de ping-pong), iluminada por el Sol ( representado por una fuente de luz natural o artificial), vemos diferentes fracciones de su superficie iluminada, dependiendo del ángulo por el cual la vemos; (2º) la orientación del borde convexo de la Luna en las fases Creciente y Menguante también depende de la perspectiva por la cual la miramos desde la Tierra. El uso de una caja cerrada permite observar el contraste entre las diferentes fases sin necesidad de estar en un recinto oscuro. Presentamos también un texto explicativo sobre las fases de la Luna, enfatizando la dependencia de la apariencia de la parte iluminada con el ángulo de visión. Neste trabalho propomos a construção de

  3. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  4. Is the Dark Side of the Moon Ever Illuminated by the Sun? (Breton Title: O Lado Escuro da Lua Nunca Apanha Sol?) El Lado Oscuro de la Luna Nunca Toma Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Odilon; Pellenz, Daiana; Catelli, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the elaboration of an answer to the question "Is the dark side of the moon ever illuminated by the sun?", in which issues related to the students' conceptions, how they arise, and the core elements that constitute a "good answer" are considered. These issues are initially elaborated from a literature review of the research in the field; then, and also based on this review, a didactic model that involves the relative motions of the Earth - Moon - Sun system is proposed. A description of the application of this model in a learning environment within middle school students is described. This work confirms the students' initial concepts described in the literature; on the other hand, the questions asked by students during the activity provide evidence that meaningful learning, at least to some degree, has occurred. Este trabalho apresenta a elaboração de uma resposta à pergunta "O lado escuro da Lua nunca apanha sol?" na qual são consideradas questões relacionadas às concepções iniciais dos alunos, de onde elas surgem e os elementos centrais que constituem uma "boa resposta". Essas questões são tratadas, inicialmente, a partir de uma revisão da literatura sobre pesquisas na área e, em seguida, também com base nessa revisão, um objeto modelo didático que envolve os movimentos relativos do sistema Terra - Lua - Sol é proposto. Uma descrição detalhada da aplicação deste modelo em um ambiente de aprendizagem com alunos do ensino fundamental é relatada. As concepções iniciais apresentadas na literatura se confirmam e os questionamentos feitos pelos estudantes por ocasião da aplicação do modelo fornecem indícios de que uma aprendizagem significativa, pelo menos em algum grau, ocorreu. El artículo se presenta el desarrollo de una respuesta a la pregunta "¿El lado oscuro de la luna nunca toma sol?", en la que se consideran algunas cuestiones vinculadas que se refieren a las concepciones iniciales de los estudiantes, dónde surgen

  5. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    ínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  6. For the relief of Vicente Beltran Luna.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Gonzalez, Charles A. [D-TX-20

    2009-03-05

    04/20/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Osservazioni dell'eclissi penombrale di Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The penumbral lunar eclipses equilibrate the probability of occurrence of solar and lunar eclipses over several years, but they are often neglected in the media and in the observations because of the difficulty of their identification due to the high luminosity of the full Moon. Three methods are presented to reduce this luminosity and to detect the penumbral phase of the lunar eclipse: the reflection on glass and water, the double polarizer and the short exposure photographs with 400 and 800 ISO and 1/500s of pose.

  8. Proving the Orbits of the Galilean Moons Through Astrophotography. (Spanish Title: Comprobando Las Órbitas de Las Lunas Galileanas a Través de la Astrofotografía.) Evidenciando as Órbitas das Luas Galileanas Atravéd da Astrofotografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    An activity related to the observation of the Galilean moons and to amateur astrophotography is presented in this work. Through the reading of excerpts of the book Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger), by Galileo, it is possible to trace a methodology to observe the planet and its natural satellites and, with the aid of the astrophotography, to analyze the field recordings. Moreover, it is possible to compare the images obtained after plotting the relative positions of these moons to prove their orbits. This activity can be conducted by teachers, students and amateur astronomers, in order to develop their capabilities of observation of astronomical phenomena. Se presenta en este trabajo una actividad relacionada a la observación de las lunas Galileanas y a la astrofotografía amateur. A través de la lectura de tramos de la obra Sidereus Nuncius (El Mensajero Sideral) de Galileo, es posible trazar una metodología para la observación del planeta y de sus satélites naturales y, con el auxilio de la astrofotografía, analizar las anotaciones de campo. Además, es posible comparar las imágenes obtenidas con el gráfico de las posiciones relativas de estas lunas para comprobar sus órbitas. Esa actividad puede ser realizada por maestros, estudiantes y astrónomos amateurs, de forma a desarrollar sus capacidades de observación de los fenómenos astronómicos. Uma atividade relacionada à observação das luas Galileanas e à astrofotografia amadora é apresentada neste trabalho. Através da leitura de trechos da obra Sidereus Nuncius (Mensageiro Sideral), de Galileu, é possível traçar uma metodologia para a observação do planeta e de seus satélites naturais e, com o auxílio da astrofotografia, analisar as anotações de campo. Além disso, é possível comparar as imagens obtidas com o gráfico das posições relativas destas luas para evidenciar suas órbitas. Essa atividade pode ser realizada por professores, estudantes e astrônomos amadores, de forma a

  9. Astronomy at School: Measurements of the Earth-Moon Distance. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela: Medición de la Distancia Tierra-Luna.) Astronomia na Escola: Medida da Distância Terra-Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, Santiago; Pintado, Olga I.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this project is to approach High School students to Science. We propose to measure the Earth-Moon distance using the parallax. The observation and measurements techniques and all the calculations needed are described in this paper. The results obtained in a test experience realized during 2003 are presented. This test shows that this is a feasible project and also shows which things needed to be improved. Se plantea la propuesta de un proyecto educativo dirigido al Nivel Medio de enseñanza, consistente en la determinación de la distancia Tierra - Luna por paralaje. Se describen las técnicas de observación, mediciones y cálculos. Se proporcionan a continuación los resultados obtenidos en la experiencia piloto realizada en el 2003, la que permitió comprobar la factibilidad de llevar a cabo la propuesta, así como perfeccionar los diferentes aspectos involucrados en la misma. Propomos neste trabalho um projeto educativo dirigido ao Ensino Médio que consiste na determinação da distância Terra-Lua pelo efeito da paralaxe. As técnicas de observação, medidas e cálculos auxiliares são descritos, e os resultados obtidos numa experiência-teste realizada no ano de 2003 apresentados. Este último teste permitiu comprovar a viabilidade de execução da proposta e aperfeiçoar diversos aspectos da mesma.

  10. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  11. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  12. Luna: What Did We Learn and What Should We Expect?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation presents a look at the space program's background prior to lunar exploration and highlights the Apollo program and lessons learned from lunar exploration. The possibilities of exposures and difficulties attributed to lunar dust are described, including obscured vision, clogged equipment, coated surfaces, and inhalation, among others. A lunar dust simulant is proposed to support preliminary studies. Lunar dust is constantly activated by meteorite lunar dust, UV radiation and elements of solar wind - this active dust could produce reactive species. Methods of deactivation must be determined before new lunar missions, but first we must understand how to reactivate dust on Earth. Activation methods tested and described here include crushing/grinding or UV activation. Grinding time has a direct effect on amount of hydroxyl radicals produced upon addition of ground quartz to a solution. An increase in hydroxyl production was also seen for a lunar simulant with increased grinding.

  13. Algoritmi per il calcolo dell'epatta della Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    On the sides of the chair of St. Hyppolitus in the Vatican Libray there is a series of 112 epacts, used for calculating the date of Christian Easter valid for 112 years from 222 AD. The algorithm of octaëteris or 8 civil (julian) years=99 lunar months and a correction of three days each 16 years or one day each 5, 5, 6 years are discussed. Four complete solar cycles (28 years), after which the sequence of the day of the week are repeating, are included in 112 years as well as 7 groups of 16 years; 112 is the minimum common multiple between the double octaëteris (16 years) and the solar cycle (28).

  14. Cathodoluminescence of regolith returned by Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivak, G. V.; Antoshin, M. K.; Ilin, N. P.; Saparin, G. V.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of local variations in the intensity and spectral composition of the cathodoluminescence of lunar regolith are described. These variations are caused by structural features, by the kind and quantity of the material, and by the admixtures. In addition, cathodoluminescent emission is also associated with a change in the temperature of the lunar surface. Periodic diurnal illumination and darkening of the moon is responsible for a temperature gradient normal to the lines of longitude. These observations made of regolith, using a scanning electron microscope with an attachment for temperature variation, simulate the indicated thermal changes of the cathodoluminescent properties of lunar material.

  15. Metal and phosphide phases in Luna 24 soil fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axon, H. J.; Nasir, M. J.; Knowles, F.

    1980-06-01

    Soil fragments in the 106-150 and 150-250 micron size ranges were selected for metallographic and microprobe examination on the basis of their magnetic properties. Serial sections of the mounted fragments were examined. One fragment proved to be a compositionally zoned crystal of phosphide with no metal phase but partly embedded in glass. Another was a coarse-grained association of silica with ilmenite and fayalite with a 5-micron particle of metallic iron in troilite. One splinter of oxide contained a central spine of metallic iron. The remaining six fragments contained 10-micron particles of iron-nickel-cobalt alloy with compositions in either the 'meteoritic' or the low Ni-low Co sub-meteoritic composition ranges of Ni, Co content. In some fragments separate particles of alloy had different Ni, Co contents. No particles of high Co metal were encountered.

  16. Ex Luna Scientia: The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX) is a next-generation mission concept that provides new capabilities for time-domain astrophysics and established the Moon as a platform for nuclear astrophysics. Performance requirements are driven by Type-Ia supernova (SNeIa) science goals that seek to revel details of these profoundly radioactive objects, including their diversity. Primary science objectives include, but are not limited to, probing the fundamental thermonuclear physics processes, performing a census of progenitors and their explosion mechanisms, and evaluating the environmental conditions and intrinsic systematics of these enigmatic objects. LOX provides new capabilities for all-sky, continuous monitoring in the MeV regime (0.1-10 MeV) by leveraging the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT). Key benefits of the LOX/LOT approach include maximizing the ratio of sensitive-to-total deployed mass, low implementation risk, and demonstrated operational simplicity that leverages extensive experience with planetary orbital geochemistry investigations; LOX also enables long-term monitoring of MeV gamma-ray sources, a critical capability for SNeIa science. Proof-of-principle efforts validated all aspects of the mission using previously deployed lunar science assets, and led to the first high-energy gamma-ray source detected at the Moon. LOX mission performance, development progress, and expectations for science investigations will be presented.

  17. Lunar Phases and Earthly Events: Beliefs from Different Education Levels. (Spanish Title: Fases de la Luna y Acontecimientos Terrestres: Creencia de Distintos Niveles de Instrucción.) As Fases da Lua e os Acontecimentos Terrestres: a Crença de Diferentes Níveis de Instrução

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Teresinha Werner; Alves Vizzotto, Patrick; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the result of a research carried out in the first semester of 2013 with a group of 80 subjects from different education levels. In this research, we sought to investigate the earthly events that this group of people attributes to the phenomenon of lunar phases. For data collection we used semi-structured interviews guided by questions that aimed to keep the focus on subjects of the investigation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the results were compared to scientific studies in the area after being quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Research data showed that the Moon and the phenomenon of lunar phases still fascinate and raise the interest of people. However, the lack of knowledge to find correct explanations to the phenomena involving the moon ends up originating a series of beliefs about its influence on earthly events. En este artículo se presenta el resultado de una investigación realizada en el primer semestre de 2013 con a un grupo de 80 individuos de distintos niveles de instrucción. En esta investigación, tratamos de averiguar cuáles son los acontecimientos terrestres que este grupo de personas atribuye al fenómeno las fases lunares. Como instrumento de colecta de datos, se emplearon entrevistas semiestructuradas guiadas por preguntas que trataban de mantener la atención de los entrevistados en el objeto investigado. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcriptas, y los resultados, después de ser analizados cuantitatativa y cualitativamente, fueron confrontados con estudios científicos del área. Los datos de la investigación demuestran que la Luna y de sus fases continúan fascinando y despertando el interés de la población. Sin embargo, la falta de conocimientos para encontrar explicaciones correctas relacionadas a los fenómenos que ocurren con el astro acaba originando una serie de creencias en la población sobre su influencia en los sucesos terrestres. Apresenta-se neste artigo o resultado de uma

  18. Scholarship in Student Affairs: Thinking Outside the Triangle, or Tabasco on Cantaloupe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlo, Ronni

    2002-01-01

    This article expresses a concern about whether student affairs professionals examine the language they use, as well as ponders how they learned what they know about marginalization of populations on campuses. Briefly explores eight areas within student affairs, specifically for sexual orientation and gender identity content. (Contains 12…

  19. [Ichthyofauna from wetlands of San Pedro, Balancán, Tabasco, México].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Domínguez, Alfonso; Barba Macías, Everardo; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Rodiles-Hernández, Rocío; Jiménez Badillo, María de Lourdes

    2011-06-01

    San Pedro River's wetlands sustain trophic nets in the fluvial system, due to the high habitat availability, and space and temporal variations. In order to describe the relationship between environmental parameters and ichthyofauna, this study evaluated fish assemblages composition, distribution, abundance, density, biomass, richness species, diversity and equitability in the wetlands. Sampling considered three different sites and climatic seasons (dry, rainy and cold fronts). The physical and chemical parameters considered were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, water transparency and the depth. Fishes were caught with a shrimp net, after six minutes towings and were identified afterwards. A total of 1 049 organisms of 25 fish species were caught, two of which were exotic species: Oreochromis niloticus and Parachromis managuense. A total of 23 species were found at site I (with the highest density 0.23 ind./m2), 17 at site II (0.23 ind./m2) and 14 at site III (0.12 ind./m2). The dry season had the highest species number with 21 species, followed by the rainy season with 17 species, and the cold season with five species. Similarly, the highest biomass (8.30 g/m2) was found in dry season, followed by the rainy (2.16 g/m2) and the cold seasons (0.03 g/m2). Considering seasons, highest density was found during the dry (0.436 ind./m2), followed by the rainy (0.213 ind./m2) and the cold (0.023 ind./m2) seasons. The dominant density species during the study period, according to the quadrants graphic of Olmstead-Tukey were: Petenia splendida, Vieja heterospila, Vieja synspila, Dorosoma petenense and Astyanax aeneus. There were significant differences in the species richness among sites. Temperature, depth and transparency showed differences among the seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis indicated that fish distribution was governed by environmental parameters during all seasons. In terms of fish abundance and composition, environmental parameters play an important role showing spatial and temporal differences in the ecosystem, this could be explained with the fact that most of young fishes have a movement behavior to the wetlands, searching refuge and feed during the dry season. Considering the diversity indexes variation, it may be concluded that San Pedro River's wetlands correspond to a system where the ichthyofauna composition fluctuates spatial and seasonally.

  20. Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

    2004-12-01

    Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate that the latter fluids were in equilibrium with the host dolostones at certain temperature. Saramako brine composition indicates a near-pristine seawater origin. Agave brines chemical composition suggests an origin related with a bittern formed after evaporation of seawater past the point of halite precipitation, subsequently mixed with seawater. Oxygen isotopic compositions reflect both different host rock and water to rock interaction phenomena, whereas hydrogen isotopic composition can be modified by diagenetic reactions.

  1. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  2. Seasonal prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in Antillean manatees from a landlocked lake in Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Martínez, Arianna; Olivera-Gómez, León D; Jiménez-Domínguez, Darwin

    2014-07-01

    Factors that alter the dynamics of ecologic systems can influence transmission of infectious diseases and may lead to decreases in natural populations. Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan disease of zoonotic importance that affects most mammals. At the southern Gulf of Mexico, Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) inhabit highly variable environments, with extended floods during the rainy season and drought conditions during the dry season that affect food availability and the thermal environment for manatees. We tested for changes in prevalence and titers of antibodies to 12 serovars of Leptospira interrogans in manatees between dry and rainy seasons. We determined titers for L. interrogans through microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) from 10 manatees, six during the dry season (DS), and six during the rainy season (RS) in Laguna de las Ilusiones, a landlocked lake hosting a population of about 20 manatees. All individuals were antibody positive (titers ≥ 100) to at least one serovar. The serovars bataviae, bratislava, canicola, and icterohaemorrhagiae had overall prevalences ≥ 50%; bataviae, bratislava, and canicola had prevalences ≥ 50% during both seasons. Serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes had prevalences ≥ 50% during DS and pomona, tarassovi, wolfii, and autumnalis during RS. Significant differences in prevalence between seasons were found for pomona, tarassovi, and autumnalis. Titers of tarassovi, wolfii, autumnalis, and bataviae were significantly higher during RS. There was a high prevalence of L. interrogans during the RS independent of high availability of plant foods, coinciding with the epizootiology of the bacteria that are endemic to tropical regions. Another factor possibly influencing prevalence is high anthropogenic pressure at the lake, causing an increase in potential sources of infection. Because of possible cross-reaction in MAT, further research is needed on the molecular discrimination of serovars in animals in the lake.

  3. Ex luna, scientia: lunar occultation as a paradigm for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard S.; Lawrence, David J.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Goldsten, John O.; Ozimek, Martin T.; Scott, Christopher J.; Leary, James C.; Grant, Dave; Young, C. Alex

    2016-07-01

    Next-generation nuclear astrophysics investigations must address a demanding set of requirements to probe the matter and energy life-cycle in our Galaxy and throughout the Cosmos. Enhanced flux sensitivity and (near) all-sky monitoring are just two of these requirements; cost effectiveness and other programmatic restrictions pose additional challenges. These competing goals can be addressed with a paradigm change, i.e. performing investigations from lunar orbit and utilizing a new detection and imaging technique. We report on our development of the Moon as a platform for nuclear astrophysics utilizing the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT). Here source fluxes are temporally modulated as they are repeatedly occulted by the Moon; the modulation, as observed by a suitably configured instrument in lunar orbit, enables the detection, imaging, and characterization of both point- and extended-sources, narrow-line and broadband sources. Key benefits include maximizing the ratio of sensitive-to-total deployed mass and the operational simplicity relative to other detection schemes. A mission based on the LOT, the Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX), will be the first to employ occultation as the principle method to characterize the intensity, variability, and spectra of detected sources.

  4. Ex Luna Scientia! A New Paradigm for Nuclear Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard Scott; Bonamente, M.; Ebbets, D.; Freelove, R.; Harwit, A.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.

    2010-03-01

    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new gamma-ray astrophysics mission concept being developed to probe the nuclear regime (( 0.1-10 MeV). LOCO will perform an all-sky survey of the Cosmos at nuclear energies, and will the have capability to address multiple high-priority science goals. Placed into lunar orbit, LOCO will utilize the Moon's unique environment to maximize performance relative to terrestrial-orbit endeavors with similar science goals. Specifically, LOCO will use the Moon to occult astrophysical sources as they rise and set along the lunar limb. The encoded temporal modulation will then be used to image the sky thereby enabling spectroscopic, time-variability, point- & extended-source analyses. This Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT) enables the excellent flux sensitivity, position, and energy resolution required of the next-generation nuclear astrophysics mission. In addition, occultation imaging eliminates the need for complex, position sensitive detectors. The LOCO concept is cost-effective, competitive, and has a straightforward and scaleable implementation. I will review the top-level mission concept, simulations and performance estimates, detector development efforts, mission implementation strategies and tradeoffs, as well as the astrophysics and secondary lunar science goals. This work was supported in part by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grants NNG06GF74G and National Science Foundation grant ATM-0421267. One author (RSM) also acknowledges support of the National Space Science & Technology Center through cooperative agreement grants NCC8-200 and NNM05AA22A.

  5. Singing in "La Voce Della Luna" Italian Women's Choir in Melbourne, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of ongoing migration that embraces diversity, creative expression and cultural activity. Membership of community music groups by older people can enhance life quality, and may provide a space through which cultural and linguistic identity may be shared and celebrated. This qualitative phenomenological case study explores…

  6. Percepción del tamaño de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, M.

    When Lunar astronomical phenomena are communicated to the general public, changes in the Lunar disc size are usually bring out. However, the perception of such change is different to the change itself. In this work a quantification of the sensation of change in the area is proposed, based on results from cognitive sciences. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. Project Luna Succendo: The Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bess, John Darrell

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched within lunar shipments from the Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides 5 kWe using a free-piston Stirling space converter. The overall envelope for a single unit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. The subunits can be placed with centerline distances of approximately 0.6 m in a hexagonal-lattice pattern to provide sufficient neutronic coupling while allowing room for heat rejection and interstitial control. A lattice of six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network Future improvements include advances in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, determination of shielding requirements, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques to generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for use on other extraterrestrial surfaces such as Mars, other moons, and asteroids.

  8. Discontinuities in the shallow Martian crust at Lunae, Syria, and Sinai Plana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A. ); Golombek, M.P. )

    1990-08-30

    Detailed photoclinometric profiles across 125 erosional features and 141 grabens in the western equatorial region of Mars indicate the presence of three discontinuities within the shallow crust. Pits, troughs, and wall valleys (tributary canyons) within Noctis Layrinthus and Valles Marineris and escarpments within the fretted terrain of Sacra Fossae and Kasei Valles show distinct erosional base levels at depths of 0.3-0.6 km, 1 km, and 2-3 km. The shallowest discontinuity corresponds to thickness estimates for the ridged plains unit in this region, and thus the discontinuity probably is the contact between a sequence of layered rock making up this unit and the underlying megaregolith. The 1-km discontinuity is reflected in the base levels of erosion of all the features studied, and it may correspond to the base of the proposed layer of ground ice. Model calculations using photoclinometric profiles of simple grabens and the 60{degree} dip of bounding faults show that graben-bounding faults consistently intersect at the mechanical discontinuity at about 1 km depth. This discontinuity may represent an interface between ice-laden and dry regolith, ice-laden and water-laden regolith, or pristine and cemented regolith. A correlation between wall valley head depth and local thickness of the faulted layer suggests that the 1-km discontinuity also controlled the depth of the heads of sapping canyons. The third discontinuity, at a depth of 2-3 km, corresponds to the proposed base of the Martian megaregolith and is probably the interface between overlying, ejected breccia and in situ, fractured basement rocks.

  9. Electron Microprobe Analyses of Lithic Fragments and Their Minerals from Luna 20 Fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, G. H.; Hlava, P. F.; Green, J. A.; Moore, R. B.; Moreland, G.; Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Nehru, C. E.; Bunch, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    The bulk analyses (determined with the broad beam electron microprobe technique) of lithic fragments are given in weight percentages and are arranged according to the rock classification. Within each rock group the analyses are arranged in order of increasing FeO content. Thin section and lithic fragment numbers are given at the top of each column of analysis and correspond to the numbers recorded on photo mosaics on file in the Institute of Meteoritics. CIPW molecular norms are given for each analysis. Electron microprobe mineral analyses (given in oxide weight percentages), structural formulae and molecular end member values are presented for plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene and K-feldspar. The minerals are selected mostly from lithic fragments that were also analyzed for bulk composition. Within each mineral group the analyses are presented according to the section number and lithic fragment number. Within each lithic fragment the mineral analyses are arranged as follows: Plagioclase in order of increasing CaO; olivine and pyroexene in order of increasing FeO; and K-feldspar in order of increasing K2O. The mineral grains are identified at the top of each column of analysis by grain number and lithic fragment number.

  10. 77 FR 4829 - Emilio Luna, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Registrant's DEA Certificate of Registration as a practitioner, on the grounds that he does not possess... his continued registration is inconsistent with the public interest. Show Cause Order at 1 (citing 21... cause why registration should not be * * * revoked or suspended.'' 21 U.S.C. 824(c). In contrast to...

  11. Luna B. Leopold--pioneer setting the stage for modern hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Meine, Curt

    2012-01-01

    In 1986, during the first year of graduate school, the lead author was sampling the water from a pitcher pump in front of “The Shack,” the setting of the opening essays in Aldo Leopold's renowned book A Sand County Almanac. The sampling was part of my Master's work that included quarterly monitoring of water quality on the Leopold Memorial Reserve (LMR) near Baraboo, Wisconsin. The Shack was already a well-known landmark, and it was common to come upon visitors and hikers there. As such, I took no special note of the man who approached me as I was filling sample bottles and asked, as was typical, “What are you doing?”

  12. Bulk, rare earth, and other trace elements in Apollo 14 and 15 and Luna 16 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Wakita, H.; Showalter, D. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of 24 and 34 bulk, minor, and trace elements in lunar specimens by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis shows greater Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O abundances and higher TiO2, FeO, MnO and Cr2O3 depletions in Apollo 14 soil samples as compared to Apollo 11 samples and to most of Apollo 12 samples. The uniform abundances in 14230 core tube soils and three other Apollo 14 soils indicate that the regolith is uniform to at least 22 cm depth and within about 200 m from the lunar module.

  13. Discontinuities in the shallow Martian crust at Lunae, Syria, and Sinai Plana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Golombek, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed photoclinometric profiles across 125 erosional features and 141 grabens in the western equatorial region of Mars indicate the presence of three discontinuities within the shallow crust, at depths of 0.3, 0.6 km, 1 km, and 2-3 km. The shallowest discontinuity corresponds to thickness estimates for the ridged plains unit in this region, and thus the discontinuity probably is the contact between a sequence of layered rock making up this unit and the underlying megaregolith. The 1-km discontinuity is reflected in the base levels of erosion of all the features studied, and it may correspond to the base of the proposed layer of ground ice. Model calculations show that graben-bounding faults consistently intersect at the mechanical discontinuity at about 1 km depth. This discontinuity may represent an interface between ice-laden and dry regolith, ice-laden and water-laden regolith, or pristine and cemented regolith. A correlation between wall valley head depth and local thickness of the faulted layer suggests that the 1-km discontinuity also controlled the depth of the heads of sapping canyons. The third discontinuity, at a depth of 2-3 km, corresponds to the proposed base of the Martian megaregolith and is probably the interface between overlying, ejected breccia and in situ, fractured basement rocks. -from Authors

  14. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  15. 75 FR 9645 - Additional Designations of Individuals and Entities Pursuant to Section 804(b) of the Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; Zaragoza 1050, Reynosa, Tabasco, Mexico; Km. 7 Carretera Antigua, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Zaragoza 1050, Reynosa, Tabasco, Mexico; R.F.C. TPU991105FB4 (Mexico) Dated: February 25, 2010. Adam...

  16. Condiciones de fase y continuación analítica de órbitas periódicas de transferencia rápida de RTBP Tierra-Luna al problema cuasi-circular Sol-Tierra-Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. M.

    We present a first order necessary condition for the value of the initial Solar phase, allowing the analytic continuation of periodic orbits from the Earth-Moon Restricted Three Body Problem (RTBP) to the Sun-Earth-Moon Quasi-Bicircular Problem (QBCP). We apply this condition to several fast Earth-Moon transfer orbits, detailing the final orbits obtained for the QBCP.

  17. L'Astronomia del Venerdí Santo, l'eclissi di Luna e l'ora della Sindone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Dating the crucifixion on friday 3 April 33, when, at sunset a partially eclipsed Moon rised allows to interprete the speech of Saint Peter (Acts 2:20=Joel 3:4) on the day of Pentecost as including an account of this eclipse, as fulfillment of the Scriptures. Few minutes later the apparition of a third star of medium magnitude stated the beginning of the sabbatical rest: before that time Jesus has been buried, wrapped into the shroud. The observations of the equinoctial moonrise from the Mount of Olives on September 2013 are strongly in favour of the hypotehsis of possible observation of the lunar eclipse of 33 AD by Jewish people, as well as the sunrises observed from the Temple Institute terrace in Southern-East Jerusalem demonstrated that this eclipse could have been seen from Jerusalem. The depression of the horizon and the refraction allow to see Sun and Moon more than 1 degree below the geometrical horizon in the azimuthal direction ranging from 90 to 116, prologing to 16 minutes the duration of the partial lunar eclipse observed in 33AD. Texts of Matthew, Mark and Cyrillus of Jerusalem are also commented.

  18. Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, R.

    La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

  19. Measurement of density and porosity of lunar rocks based on samples of Luna 16 automatic lunar station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volynets, V. F.; Florenskiy, K. P.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Three fragments of holocrystalline igneous rocks of the gabbro type, weighing 30 to 50 mg each, were investigated. The density of the fragments was established with a mercury pycnometer and was found to be 3.05 to 3.12 g/cu cm, with a relative error not more than 2 percent. The porosity was found for the difference between the volumes determined with the mercury and with the gas techniques; for all three samples together it was 13 percent, and the error of determination was 70 percent owing to the small volumes. It can be anticipated that the porosity of the rock in bulk will be higher than the value obtained based on small fragments. The porosity of lunar rocks can markedly affect the isostatic distribution of rocks and must be taken into account when developing models of lunar structure.

  20. Review of Ilatha Fischer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae), including descriptions of six new species and a key to species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following new species from the Neotropical Region are described: Ilatha buffingtoni Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; Ilatha cloptoni Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; Ilatha dasygaster Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; Ilatha henospilota Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; Ilatha plaumanni Kula, Dix-Luna, and Shaw; and Ilatha s...

  1. Influence of Salicylic Acid on In Vitro Micropropagation and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species, H. acetosella and H. moscheutos (cv ‘Luna Red’)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. It has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1 mM) on i...

  2. UAI Lunar Section: results in the last year. (Italian Title: SdR Luna: risultati conseguiti dal Congresso UAI di Senigallia ad oggi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercatali, A.

    2013-02-01

    Results obtained by the UAI Lunar Section in the last 12 months are presented and discussed (Plato crater observations, Lunar Transient Phenomena research program, collaborations with BAA and ALPO, Lunar Italian Atlas project).

  3. Effect of lunar surface material on radiation damage in mice (investigation of biological action of lunar surface material returned to earth by Luna 16 automatic station)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipov, V. V.; Davydov, B. I.; Gaydamakin, N. A.; Lvova, T. S.; Petrukhin, V. G.; Komarova, S. N.; Skvortsova, Y. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effect was studied of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility on the radiation reaction (damage) in mice caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. The material was administered to the organism in three ways -- aerogenically, through the esophagus, or peritoneally. It was shown that administering the lunar surface material did not appreciably affect the death of the animals and the reaction of the peripheral blood caused by the action of radiation. In mice which prior to irradiation had been administered inhalationally or peritoneally the lunar surface material, a lag in the increment of bodyweight was observed.

  4. Mapas dinamicos de trayectorias rapidas para un valor dado de la constante de Jacobi en el problema de tres cuerpos restringido Tierra-Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. M.

    Starting from the numerical integration of 1736649 trajectories we study the behaviour of 783209 trajectories in the Earth-Moon Circular Restricted Three Body Problem, for a value h=-1.5887 of the Jacobi constant. Many of these trajectories are of great interest because they take place between the primary masses for times shorter than 217 days and show close approaches to the Moon. On a surface of section we show dynamical maps which provide a global description of the main features of these trajectories, and show the optimal regions to search for periodic orbits and for orbits colliding with the Moon. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. Dedos de Luna. Children's Literature in Spanish: Bilingual Edition. Guia para maestros en espanol e ingles. Elementary Literature Series, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dana; Huerta, Mario

    This curriculum unit is designed to give primary school students foreign language experiences and also to support the cultural literacy strand of the California State History-Social Science Framework. The unit is part of an elementary literature series which utilizes quality primary source literature from various world regions and countries and…

  6. Geologic characteristics of the Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 and Chang'E-3/Yutu landing sites, Northwest Mare Imbrium of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Wu, Yunzhao; Xiao, Long

    2015-11-01

    We compared and assessed the results of measurements and observations by the Lunokhod 1 and Yutu rovers, both of which explored the northwestern part of Mare Imbrium. Both sites are within the distinctive Eratosthenian-aged lava flow geologic unit and our comparisons showed that the geologies of these exploration sites are very similar. As in the majority of other areas of the Moon, the dominant landforms in these sites are small impact craters, having various degrees of morphologic prominence and states of preservation, and rock fragments, mostly associated with the rims and interiors of fresh craters. The shape and the degree of preservation of the observed rock fragments in these two sites are similar. In both sites sporadic rock fragments were observed whose morphologies suggest that their source rocks had columnar jointing. Localization of these specific rocks on the rims of 450-470 m in diameter craters implies that the source rocks are at depths of 40-50 m. Regolith in the study areas is typically a few meters thick, but locally can be much thicker. The ground penetrating radar of the Yutu rover revealed the multilayer regolith structure, which is determined by superposition of crater ejecta; with some local variations, this type of the regolith stratigraphy should be typical of the majority of lunar mare sites. The physico-mechanical properties of the regolith in these two sites appear to be rather similar: the bearing capacity ranges from 0.04 to 1.44 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.45 kg/cm2, and the shear strength ranges from 0.02 to 0.1 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.05 kg/cm2. Both these factors decrease by a factor of 3-4 with an increase of surface slope from ∼2 to 12°. The chemical composition of surface materials determined by the rover instruments at these two sites differ from those derived from the remote sensing data for the Eratosthenian-aged basalts on which the two sites are located. This could be partly due to low measurement accuracies, especially in the case of Lunokhod 1, but may also represent real variations in the composition of the surface materials compared to returned lunar samples. Difference in the spatial resolution of the in-situ and remote-sensing analyses should also be taken into account. Recommendations for future lunar rover missions are as follows: (1) to use ground penetrating radar and a robotic arm, and (2) to employ radial study tactics for impact crater documentation and analysis.

  7. Exploiting Weaknesses: An Approach to Counter Cartel Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    up, although the initial vision and goals derive from the top. 12 Figure 1. Los Zetas Organizational Structure -m .__ lione...85 In addition to Tamaulipas, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon, Los Zetas has also taken over the piracy business in Chiapas, Tabasco, Veracruz and Puebla ...Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Chiapas, Puebla , Tlaxcala, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Zacatecas, Durango, Guerrero, Oaxaca

  8. 78 FR 343 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Southwestern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... middle Rio Grande and upper Gila River in New Mexico, and Roosevelt Lake and the San Pedro and Gila River...) segment of the San Francisco River at Luna Lake, Arizona, which we proposed for designation, does not... have the ability to develop into flycatcher nesting habitat. The habitat surrounding Luna Lake...

  9. Resolving the agriculture-petroleum conflict: the experience of cacao smallholders in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Scherr, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972, PEMEX, the Mexican national oil company, discovered huge reserves of oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, and began intensive exploitation in Tabasco and northern Chiapas states. Severe conflict between PEMEX and the agricultural economy of Tabasco seemed certain. But despite problems of labor scarcity, inflation, migration, pollution, agricultural production 1974 to 1979 increased for the state's major products - cacao, coconut, beef, and bananas. This study analyzes how agriculture-petroleum conflicts have been resolved in Tabasco, and how relevant its experience is to other agricultural areas undergoing rapid large-scale industrial development. Cacao farming was chosen as a case study. Detailed farm budget, family employment, and technical production data were used to document farm production strategies. Research results suggest that resolution of agriculture-petroleum conflicts depends on: demographic conditions, employment conditions, agricultural prices, petroleum company flexibility, government development policy, and farmer political strength. Support for the campesino sector is critical.

  10. Mineralogic and petrologic studies of meteorites and lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    During a 13 year period beginning in 1971, the Extraterrestrial Petrology Group examined lunar soils from all 6 Apollo missions and those returned by the Soviet Luna 16, Luna 20, and Luna 24 missions. In addition, the properties and apparent origin of the carbonaceous chondrites were examined. Chondrules, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) and the fine grained matrix materials that accompany chondrules and CAI's in primitive meteorites were investigated. The effects of planetary hydrothermal alteration of matrix materials in the C1 chondrite was also investigated. Full length papers and extended abstracts published during the grant are listed chronologically.

  11. 40 CFR 180.411 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Banana 0.01 Beans, dry, seed 50 Beet, sugar, dried pulp 1.0 Beet, sugar, molasses 3.5 Beet, sugar, roots... commodity. Commodity Parts per million Asparagus 3.0 Coffee, bean 0.1 Pepper, tabasco 1.0 Rhubarb 0.5...

  12. 40 CFR 180.411 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Banana 0.01 Beans, dry, seed 50 Beet, sugar, dried pulp 1.0 Beet, sugar, molasses 3.5 Beet, sugar, roots... Parts per million Asparagus 3.0 Coffee, bean 0.1 Pepper, tabasco 1.0 Rhubarb 0.5 (d) Indirect...

  13. 40 CFR 180.411 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Banana 0.01 Beans, dry, seed 50 Beet, sugar, dried pulp 1.0 Beet, sugar, molasses 3.5 Beet, sugar, roots... commodity. Commodity Parts per million Asparagus 3.0 Coffee, bean 0.1 Pepper, tabasco 1.0 Rhubarb 0.5...

  14. Decreasing Mattress Ripping Using Forced Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Michael A.

    A deaf, profoundly retarded institutionalized 20-year-old, who engaged in mattress ripping, was required to participate in forced practice behavioral training. Repeatedly physically guided through ripping mattresses, he was given the aversive consequence of a squirt of tabasco sauce solution. After 5 weeks of intensive behavioral training and a 3…

  15. The Identity of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus Dyar and Knab and Related Species with Notes on the Synonymy and Description of a New Species (Diptera, Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Widespread from Tabasco in Mexico southwards to Corrientes in Argentina. 466 specimens examined: 251 d’, 160 9, 44 L, 11 P; 22 individual rearings (10...pupal, 12 larval). MEXI co. Il’abasco: Cardenas, "Colegio Superior de Agricultura Tropical", 20 mm, 15 Jul 70, D. & K. Schroeder (MEX 564), 2 9 (USNM

  16. GLOBAL WARMING AND POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON FUTURE THE BRAZILIAN GRAIN PRODUCTION Hilton S. Pinto.State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). CNPq. Eduardo D. Assad. Embrapa Agriculture Informatics (CNPTIA). CNPq. Eduardo Pavao. Embrapa Agriculture Informatics (CNPTIA). Ricardo Luna. Embrapa Agriculture Informatics (CNPTIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Pavao, E.; Luna, R.

    2012-12-01

    According to the Brazilian Government (CONAB, July 2012) the actual area of grain production in the country is close to 50.8 million ha and the perspective of production is 162.6 million of tons. Maize and Soybean are responsible for more than 83% of the total harvest. The area available for agriculture in Brazil is 282.2 million ha or close to 33% of the total land of the country. From 1991 until 2010 the agricultural technology was responsible for an increase of production close to 154% while the planted area raised only 25%. Considering this rate of production in the last 20 years the Ministry of Agriculture made an extrapolation for 2020, when the country can produce close to 176 million of grains being 65 million tons of maize, 86 million tons of soybean and 70 million bags of coffee. In this case, it was not considered any variation in the climate conditions. In 2002, in partnership with the British Embassy in Brazil, Unicamp and Embrapa published the study "Global Warming and the New Geography of Agricultural Production in Brazil" (Pinto and Assad, 2002) based on a Regional Climate Model PRECIS from Hadley Centre, where the grain production was estimated to decrease due to temperature rise. Without considering any mitigation or adaptation action, in the worst scenario (A2-IPCC) the principal crops to be affected will be coffee with 6.7% estimated production decrease until 2020, soybean 22% and corn 12%. On the other hand, sugar cane, as a C4 plant, will have an increase of production in the order of 170%. As suggested by the Word Bank, a new project was developed for a more detailed analysis of the influence of the global warming in the Brazilian agriculture, affecting temperature and water deficit in the years 2020 and 2030. It was considered initially 23 Global Climatic Models (GCM) defined by IPCC, that were separated in blocks of similar comportment using cluster multivariate analysis. Other 3 Regional Climatic Models (RCM) were also used to give more detailed information of the future scenarios: PRECIS, BRAMS and ETA. The 4 GCMs that showed more similarity among themselves and the 3 RCM were used as simulation models with similar behavior for establishing the new scenarios for 2020 and 2030. The better and the worst forecast of the curves were used as simulation points for the future agriculture scenarios. In Brazil, most part of the agricultural plantation as well as the insurance are financed by the Ministry of Agriculture that has a basic directive of following the Public Policy Program of Climatic Risk Zoning for authorizing what, when and where to plant according to climate predominance. Based in this program and in the new climatic scenarios provided by the 7 models, a new geography for Brazilian agriculture was suggested for the years 2020 and for 2030 showing the same pessimistic tendency of decrease in production close to 24% for soybean and 19% for maize summer season as compared to 2012. The results obtained with this study were used as input for the economics complimentary analysis of Brazilian possible modification of the agribusiness until the years 2020 and 2030.

  17. Thicknesses of and Primary Ejecta Fractions in Basin Ejecta Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; McKinnon, William B.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a model for production of ba-sin ejecta deposits to address provenances of materials collected at the Apollo and Luna landing sites and for consideration in interpreting remote sensing data.

  18. Thicknesses of and Primary Ejecta Fractions in Basin Ejecta Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; McKinnon, William B.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a model for production of basin ejecta deposits to address provenances of materials collected at the Apollo and Luna landing sites and for consideration in interpreting remote sensing data.

  19. System Engineering Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.; Bauer, Jonathan; Beougher, Nathan G.; Boe, Caleb; Canahui, Ricardo; Charles, John P.; Cooper, Zachary Davis Job; DeShaw, Mark A.; Fontanella, Luan Gasparetto; Friel, Mark; Goebel, Katie; Grant, Alex Martinsdacosta; Graves, Matt; Harms, Ryan Andrew; Hill, Aren; Lsely, Kevin Lee; Jose, Sonia; Klein, Andrew; Kolstad, Lauren Wickham; Lamp, Daniel A.; Lindquist, Mariangela Martin; Lopes, Daniel da Paula; Lourens, Rob; Matthews, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa State University team, Team LunaCY, is composed of the following sub-teams: the main student organization, the Lunabotics Club; a senior mechanical engineering design course, ME 415; a senior multidisciplinary design course, ENGR 466; and a senior design course from Wartburg College in Waverly, Iowa. Team LunaCY designed and fabricated ART-E III, Astra Robotic Tractor- Excavator the Third, for the team's third appearance in the NASA Lunabotic Mining competition. While designing ART-E III, the team had four main goals for this year's competition:to reduce the total weight of the robot, to increase the amount of regolith simulant mined, to reduce dust, and to make ART-E III autonomous. After many designs and research, a final robot design was chosen that obtained all four goals of Team LunaCY. A few changes Team LunaCY made this year was to go to the electrical, computer, and software engineering club fest at Iowa State University to recruit engineering students to accomplish the task of making ART-E III autonomous. Team LunaCY chose to use LabView to program the robot and various sensors were installed to measure the distance between the robot and the surroundings to allow ART-E III to maneuver autonomously. Team LunaCY also built a testing arena to test prototypes and ART-E III in. To best replicate the competition arena at the Kennedy Space Center, a regolith simulant was made from sand, QuickCrete, and fly ash to cover the floor of the arena. Team LunaCY also installed fans to allow ventilation in the arena and used proper safety attire when working in the arena . With the additional practice in the testing arena and innovative robot design, Team LunaCY expects to make a strong appearance at the 2012 NASA Lunabotic Mining Competition. .

  20. MC-10 Lanae Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-10 quadrangle, Lanae Palus region of Mars. The western part is dominated by lava flows of the Tharsis region. The central part includes ridged terrain of Lunae Planum. The west and north borders of Lunae Planum are dissected by the large, relatively young outflow channel, Kasei Vallis, which terminates in Chryse Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  1. Development of a mast or robotic arm-mounted infrared AOTF spectrometer for surface Moon and Mars probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Andrey; Fedorova, Anna; Kalinnikov, Yurii K.; Shapkin, Alexei; Mantsevich, Sergey; Viazovetsky, Nikita; Evdokimova, Nadezhda; Kiselev, Alexander V.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a pencil-beam infrared AOTF spectrometer for context assessment of the surface mineralogy in the vicinity of a planetary probe or a rover analyzing the reflected solar radiation in the near infrared range. One application is the ISEM (Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars) instrument to be deployed on the mast of ExoMars Rover planned for launch in 2018. A very similar instrument LIS (Lunar Infrared Spectrometer) is planned to be flown on Russian Luna-25 (Luna Globe Lander) and Luna-27 (Luna Resource Lander) missions in 2018 and 2021 respectively. On the lunar landers the instrument will be mounted at a robotic arm (Luna-25) or at a dedicated mast (Luna-27). The instrument covers the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm with the spectral resolution of ~25 cm-1 and is intended to study mineralogical and petrographic composition of the uppermost layer of the regolith. Both the Mars and the Moon instruments target waterbearing minerals, phyllosilicates, sulfates, carbonates in the vicinity of the Mars rover, and H2O ice and hydroxyl in the vicinity of lunar lander. The optical scheme includes entry optics, the TeO2 AOTF, and a Peltier-cooled InAs detector. To cover the extended spectral range the AOTF is equipped with two piezotransducers. At present the qualification prototype of the instrument is being characterized. The requirements, instrument optics, and different aspects of its characterization, including low-temperature survival validation is described.

  2. Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Mexico, 1999-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    This capability has set off a technological arms race. As the Border Patrol pours more resources into night- vision scopes, weight sensors, and giant...Mexico City). The areas of operation are believed to be México, Puebla , Morelos, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Tabasco.109 According to the 1999...in the highlands of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero, state, but is also suspected of having cells in the states of Oaxaca, Puebla , and Morelos

  3. [Individual psychotherapy. Institutional psychotherapy: theoretical-practical aspect].

    PubMed

    Cruz Arceo, B

    1977-01-01

    The author describes his experience in institutional psychotherapy, at the Clínica Hospital of Villahermosa, Tabasco. He mentions factors in the patient, in the psychiatrist, in the institution and in the culture, as fostering the success or the failure of institutional psychotherapy. He shows the effectiveness of this type of treatment in this enviroment and describes ways of improving this kind of work.

  4. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of basic education teachers in the survey domain is a controversial issue and fully debated in the academy. The opportunity for a collective work that incorporated school teachers from a public school to a university's group of physics teaching at university allowed us to glimpse the redefinition of the function of a science teacher (a coauthor of this paper) by himself, such that now he includes research on the knowledge construction by students in his teacher practice. The formation of inter-institutional groups for action planning and research in these areas has proved productive for the task of knowledge construction to support educational processes in school, while the university enriches its collection of experiences critically validated, and can consider the results in teachers initial and continued education. The active participation of the teacher in a research group at the university led him to reflect on the possible didactical ways to be described, analyzed and communicated to other teachers. The construction of a pedagogy that took into account the mental models of students on the basic topics of astronomy, and the changes developed resulting from the lessons taught, led to far-reaching consequences on the pedagogy adopted by the teacher, who incorporates now a new vision of science and alternative forms to dialogue with students, essential components for a researcher in Science Education. La inclusión de los maestros de la escuela básica en el universo de la investigación es polémica y está en amplio debate en el mundo académico. La oportunidad de trabajo colectivo de los maestros de una escuela pública en Río de Janeiro con un grupo universitario de enseñanza de la física nos ha permitido vislumbrar la redefinición de la función de un maestro de ciencias (uno de los coautores de este documento) por él mismo, ahora para incluir la investigación sobre la construcción del conocimiento por los alumnos en su práctica como docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e continuada de professores. A participação ativa do professor num grupo de pesquisa na universidade o levou à reflexão sobre caminhos didáticos possíveis de serem descritos, analisados e comunicados a outros professores. A construção de uma pedagogia própria, levando em conta os modelos mentais dos alunos sobre temas básicos de Astronomia, e as mudanças promovidas a partir das aulas dadas, trouxeram amplas conseqüências sobre a pedagogia adotada pelo professor. Hoje a prática desse professor incorpora uma nova visão de ciência e formas alternativas de dialogar com os alunos, elementos indispensáveis a um pesquisador em Educação em Ciências.

  5. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected.

  6. Infrared transmission spectra of Sea of Fertility regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhmanova, M. V.; Karyakin, A. V.; Tartasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Transmission spectra in the 2-25 micrometer region were obtained for samples of lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. A comparison of the Luna 16, Apollo 11, and Apollo 12 samples showed that the infrared transmission spectra of regolith samples from the mare regions are similar and characteristic of basic basaltic rocks. The absorption bands show up in the vibration region of the SiO4 groups. No water and OH groups were found in the samples based on the spectrum. Spectra of regolith samples calcined at 1000C showed changes that can be interpreted as changes in the spectra of irradiated crystals (especially distinctly for the Luna 16 samples).

  7. Rb-Sr age and content of potassium, rubidium strontium, barium, and rare earths in surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allegre, C. J.; Birck, J. L.; Loubet, M.; Provost, A.

    1974-01-01

    The Luna 16 automatic station returned from the Sea of Fertility a 35 cm long column of lunar surface material. 1 g of the Luna 16 lunar surface material, taken at a depth of 22 cm, consists of fine material: surface material and fine fragments of rocks from 1 to 4 mm in diameter. Analyses made on 17 mg of the fine lunar surface material are presented. The results obtained for the Luna 16 surface material are plotted on the diagram of the isotopic evolution of strontium and show that this surface material is most depleted of radiogenic Sr-87 of all the known lunar surface materials and that the point characterizing Lunar 16 lies somewhat to the right of the line corresponding to an age of 4.6 billion years.

  8. Microcrater and solar-flare track maturation of the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poupeau, G.; Michel-Levy, M. C.; Mandeville, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Romary, P.

    1978-01-01

    The microcrater, pancake and cosmic ray track record in the 100-200 microns feldspar fraction of a variety of surface soils and Apollo and Luna 16-24 cores have been studied. In Luna 24, a study of the glassy agglutinates plus breccias in 9 levels revealed this core was deposited as discrete layers, most of which are immature. Luna 16 and 20 cores were found respectively mature and immature. Glassy agglutinates and impact microcraters, absent to rare in immature soils such as 12033 and 14141, are present in similar abundances on crystals from submature to mature soils. In submature and mature soils, pancakes are present on 60 to 100 percent of crystals and craters on 50 to 70 percent. Microcrater, track and solar wind gas data suggest feldspar crystals in the size range considered reach an equilibrium maturity grade faster than bulk soils. This is interpreted as due to the limited lifetime of these crystals in the lunar regolith.

  9. Dating samples of lunar soil from the Mare Crisium by the Ar/39/-Ar/40/ technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanin, L. L.; Arakeliants, M. M.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Ivanenko, V. V.; Pupyrev, Iu. G.; Tarasov, L. S.; Frikh-Khar, D. I.

    1981-07-01

    Two samples (dolerite and gabbro fragments) from a depth of 184 cm in the Luna 24 core are dated using the Ar(39)-Ar(40) technique. The values obtained are found to be lower than all published isotopic ages for the Luna 24 samples. An analysis of possible dating errors of the lunar samples, together with the good agreement of the results from the Ar(39)-Ar(40) technique of geochronologic standards and anorthosite from the Korosten pluton with the results from Rb-Sr, U-Pb, and Sm-Nd methods, attests the reliability of the values.

  10. Radiation Evaluation of an Advanced 64Mb 3.3V DRAM and Insights into the Effects of Scaling on Radiation Hardness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Swift, G. M.; Johnston, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, total ionizing dose radiation evaluations of the Micron 64 Mb 3.3 V, fast page mode DRAM and the IBM LUNA-ES 16 Mb DRAM are presented. The effects of scaling on total ionizing dose radiation hardness are studied utilizing test structures and a series of 16 Mb DRAMs with different feature sizes from the same manufacturing line. General agreement was found between the threshold voltage shifts of 16 Mb DRAM test structures and the threshold voltage measured on complete circuits using retention time measurements. Retention time measurement data from early radiation doses are shown that allow internal failure modes to be distinguished.

  11. 78 FR 28701 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Nicolas), c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/ o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA... (Colombia) (individual) . 6. FERNANDEZ LUNA, Tiberio, c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota... DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o COINTERCOS S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o FIDUSER LTDA.,...

  12. Evidence for a high-magnesium subsurface basalt in Mare Crisium from orbital X-ray fluorescence data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, C. G.; Adler, I.; Wolfe, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Orbital X-ray fluorescence data taken by the Apollo 15 mission over Mare Crisium are analyzed in order to detect surface occurrences of the magnesium-rich materials found in the Luna 24 core sample. Apollo 15 data of the surface soils of the Luna 24 landing site, expressed as Al/Si and Mg/Si ratios, are found to be well correlated with the composition of the less than 74 micron fraction of the core sample. Orbital data indicate that most surface areas of the southern part of Mare Crisium have magnesium contents lower than or equal to that of the landing site, with the exception of areas in the vicinities of the post-mare craters Picard and Pierce and an area northeast of the Luna 24 site. The crater material is interpreted to be a magnesium-rich subsurface basalt excavated by crater formation, which may represent the material from which magnesium-rich Luna 24 samples, including olivine gabbro and olivine vitrophyre, were derived.

  13. 7 CFR 613.5 - PMCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false PMCs. 613.5 Section 613.5 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS PLANT MATERIALS CENTERS § 613.5 PMCs. (a) The Norman A. Berg National PMC..., Elsberry, MO, Bridger, MT, Fallon, NV, Cape May Courthouse, NJ, Los Lunas, NM, Big Flats, NY, Bismarck,...

  14. A Receiver-Initiated Collision-Avoidance Protocol for Multi-Channel Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    cess) was first proposed by Kleinrock and Tobagi [17], includ- ing MACA [14], MACAW [2], IEEE 802.11 [1], and FAMA [4]. Fullmer and Garcia-Luna-Aceves [4...and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications. IEEE, July 1996. [2] V. Bharghavan, A. Demers, S. Shenker, and L. Zhang. MACAW : A Media Access Protocol for

  15. View of crater Tsiolkovsky taken from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This is a view of the large crater Tsiolkovsky as photographed by the astronauts during the Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission, looking east toward the lunar horizon. Tsiolkovsky is approximately 150 statute miles in diameter. It was first identified and named by the Russians from photographs taken by their unmanned Luna III spacecraft.

  16. Investigation of the volatile species in the lunar soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurz, Peter; Hofer, Lukas; Tulej, Marek; Lasi, Davide; Cabane, Michel; Cosica, David; Gerasimov, Mikhail; Rodinov, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Two spacecraft, Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource of Roskosmos (Russia), will be landing on the lunar south pole in 2016 and 2018, respectively. These spacecraft will carry a complex scientific payload. Part of the scientific instrumentation is the gas-chromatographic mass-spectrometric complex, which combines a Thermal Differential Analyser (TDA), a Gas Chromatograph (GC), and a mass spectrometer (MS). This instrument is dedicated to the investigation of the volatiles in the lunar soil, its chemical composition, the fraction of water and organic species, and the identification of noble gases. Measurement of isotopic composition will be performed of CHON elements (13C/12C, D/H, 17O/16O, 18O/16O, 15N/14N) and noble gases. We developed a prototype GC-MS instrument for these missions where the GC part is heritage from the Phobos Grunt mission of Roskosmos and the MS part is a complete new development for the Luna missions. We have carried out several GC-MS measurements on calibration gas mixtures that demonstrate that this instrument fulfills the scientific requirements for the Luna missions.

  17. Biomarkers of Fatigue: Metabolomics Profiles Predictive of Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    28 Figure 13. Pathways for synthesis of dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline , and...synthesis of dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline , and serotonin. 5-HTP, 5-Hydroxytryptophan; PNMT, phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase; MAO...Lucero, K. and Hicks, RA. (1990). Relationship between habitual sleep duration and diet. Percept Mot Skills, 71, 1377-13788. Luna, T . Fatigue in

  18. U-Th-Pb analyses of soil from the Sea of Fertility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tera, F.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses have been made of lead, uranium, and thorium in two soil samples from the Luna 16 mission. Lead was found to be distinctly radiogenic, but significantly less radiogenic than other lunar soils. The Th/U ratio was found to be 3.8, and the uranium concentration was the lowest so far found for lunar soils.

  19. Study of sample of Sea of Fertility lunar surface material by the track method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poupeau, G.; Chatrit, G. C.; Pellas, P.

    1974-01-01

    Tracks in crystals of feldspars, olivines, pyroxenes, and in several fragments of basalts from a sample of Luna 16 lunar surface material were studied. A high track density, exceeding 10 to the 8th power cm/2 was found. The tracks were produced mainly by iron group nuclei of cosmic galactic and solar rays.

  20. Apollo 13 emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is the insignia of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Represented in the Apollo 13 emblem is Apollo, the sun god of Greek mythology, symbolizing how the Apollo flights have extended the light of knowledge to all mankind. The Latin phrase Ex Luna, Scientia means 'From the Moon, Knowledge'.

  1. Neutron activation study of the composition of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Kirnozov, F. F.; Ivanov, I. N.; Kilesov, G. M.; Ryvkin, B. N.; Shpanov, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    The elemental composition of samples of lunar regolith returned by Luna 16 from the Sea of Fertility was determined by a radio activation method using generator and reactor neutrons, and also by gamma spectrometry with scintillation and Ge(Li) detectors.

  2. Reception and study of lunar surface material in inert gas medium. [considering laboratory vacuum receiving chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkov, Y. A.; Rudnitskiy, Y. M.; Glotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The reception and study of lunar material returned by the Luna 16 space station is described. The layout of a vacuum receiving chamber for working with material in a helium atmosphere is examined along with the main operations involved in extracting the material from the ampule and drill.

  3. Corporate Philanthropy, College Students, and The LUNAFEST[R] Film Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Clif Bar & Company, makers of LUNA: The Whole Nutrition Bar for Women, debuted LUNAFEST[R], an international touring film festival that showcases short narrative and documentary work of female filmmakers and raises money for the Breast Cancer Fund and other nonprofit women's organizations. A pre-packaged film festival with clear and easy…

  4. Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are reported of Apollo and Luna explorations which have brought about the understanding of the moon and its structure. It is shown that with this knowledge of the moon, a better understanding is presented of the earth's origin, structure and composition.

  5. Soaring through the Universe. Astronomy through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwinch, Joanne C.

    This publication is a guide to teaching astronomy through the use of mythology and its literature in grades 3-6. The book is divided into the following seven sections: "Introduction"; Chapter 1: "Luna: the Moon"; Chapter 2: "Del Sol: the Sun"; Chapter 3: "The Planets"; Chapter 4: "Star Bright, Star Light"; Chapter 5: "Traveling through Space"; and…

  6. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  7. Il Calcolo della Pasqua: Vittorio d'Aquitania Dionigi il Piccolo e Abbone di Fleury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The Easter calculus is a story of ephemerides approximations, with appropriate algorithms, as well as the reformations of the calendar dealed with tropical year's approximations. The calculus made by Victorius of Aquitania, Dyonisius Exiguus and Abbo of Fleury, based on 532 years Easter period in Julian calendar are discussed, including the corrections ad hoc of the algorithms, like the saltus lunae.

  8. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  9. 77 FR 11617 - Jetronic Industries, Inc. (n/k/a New Bastion Development, Inc.), JMAR Technologies, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Jetronic Industries, Inc. (n/k/a New Bastion Development, Inc.), JMAR Technologies, Inc., Kolorfusion International, Inc. Legalopinion.com (n/k/a Drayton Richdale Corp.), Lifestream Technologies, Inc., Lions Petroleum, Inc., (n/k/a China Hongxing Agritech, Inc.), Luna Technologies International,...

  10. Disrupting Illicit Trafficking Networks: Defining the DoD’s Role as Part of a Strategic Network Focused Strategy to Disrupt Illicit Trafficking Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Luna, Narco-Trafficking. 26 Ibid. 27 Center for Strategic and International Studies, PONI 2010 Spring Conferense; Llorente and Arnson...ONDCP). 2008. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ondcp/221371.pdf (accessed 20 July 2010). Center for Strategic and International Studies. PONI 2010

  11. Study of friction properties of lunar surface material and its analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukhovskoy, Y. A.; Motovilov, E. A.; Silin, A. A.; Smorodinov, M. I.; Shvarev, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of instruments for determining the friction properties of the surficial layer of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic lunar station, as well as the friction properties of its analogs: andesite-basaltic sand and basalts. The experimental method and results are presented.

  12. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  13. Teaching a Cognitive Behavioral Strategy to Manage Emotions Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in an Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tachelle; Zionts, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The academic and social challenges facing public schools are enormous. For example, the pressure to meet the demands of the current high-stakes testing environment and reach adequate yearly progress (AYP) goals has arguably never been greater (Luna & Turner, 2001; Sanders, 2003). The energy devoted to academics has supplanted the little time spent…

  14. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1972. (13) Los Griegos, N. Mex. (1960), revised 1967 and 1972. (14) Los Lunas, N. Mex. (1952), revised... until it reaches the power transmission line towers at Sec. 3/4, T10N, R2E of the Los Griegos, N. Mex....

  15. Future lunar missions and investigation of dusty plasma processes on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey I.; Zelenyi, Lev M.; Zelenyi

    2013-08-01

    From the Apollo era of exploration, it was discovered that sunlight was scattered at the terminators giving rise to ``horizon glow'' and ``streamers'' above the lunar surface. Subsequent investigations have shown that the sunlight was most likely scattered by electrostatically charged dust grains originating from the surface. A renaissance is being observed currently in investigations of the Moon. The Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource missions (the latter jointly with India) are being prepared in Russia. Some of these missions will include investigations of lunar dust. Here we discuss the future experimental investigations of lunar dust within the missions of Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. We consider the dusty plasma system over the lunar surface and determine the maximum height of dust rise. We describe mechanisms of formation of the dusty plasma system over the Moon and its main properties, determine distributions of electrons and dust over the lunar surface, and show a possibility of rising dust particles over the surface of the illuminated part of the Moon in the entire range of lunar latitudes. Finally, we discuss the effect of condensation of micrometeoriod substance during the expansion of the impact plume and show that this effect is important from the viewpoint of explanation of dust particle rise to high altitudes in addition to the dusty plasma effects.

  16. Record of source-generated overpressures, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B. )

    1996-01-01

    Fluid pressures affect migration of oil, gas, and water in continental margins. Burial and thermal history models describe the degree to which indercompaction or thermal expansion of fluids contribute to fluid pressure histories, but it is more difficult to evaluate how source-terms, such as oil yield or mineral dehydration reactions, impact paleo-fluid pressures. In this study, we document how a thick, maturing source rock helped create near-lithostatic fluid pressures that generated overpressures in reservoir rocks. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Fm. source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir in the W. Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Homogenization temperatures (Th) of oil-filled inclusions range from 25-42[degrees]C in the La Luna Fm. and from 25-105[degrees]C in the Cogollo Gp., and associated gravities (determined from fluorescence properties) range from 28-43[degrees]API and 17-45[degrees]API, respectively. Integration of Th with the burial and thermal history of the sampled horizons leads to the conclusion that fractures in the La Luna Fm. formed under near-lithostatic fluid pressure conditions in the presence of a gas-charged oil. The values from fractures in the Cogollo Gp. are higher than in the La Luna Fm and become more variable with increasing depth below La Luna. We interpret those fractures to have formed under lower fluid pressure conditions and/or with a less gas-charged oil than for La Luna. This interpretation of the distribution of paleo-fluid pressures is supported by the observation of modern inverted fluid pressure gradients between upper and lower Cogollo Gp. reservoirs. Thus late expulsion of a gas-charged oil created near-lithostatic fluid pressures in the La Luna Fm. source rock, and those fluid pressures bled downward through fractures into the adjoining reservoir rocks, contributing to the overpressures we observe today.

  17. Russian plans for lunar investiagtions. Stage 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Mitrofanov, I.; Petrukovich, A.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.

    2014-04-01

    Lunar Race of 60-ies and 70-ies between US and Soviet Union produced outstanding results for lunar science. For many technical reasons mostly near equatorial and mid-latitude Lunar regions were investigated at this glorious time. New epoch of Lunar investigations began at the late 90-ies. It gradually shaped the image of a new wet moon at least at the vicinity of its polar regions. Strong interest to the mechanisms of the formation of a near polar volatiles deposits, their migration and their composition (including the bisotope one) became the central theme of the Russian program of lunar investigations for next 10 years. Certainly the number of other outstanding scientific topics like the properties of Lunar dust, peculiarities of regolith interaction with the supersonic solar wind flow, characteristics of the Lunar magnetic and gravitational anomalies, etc., are planned to be studied both from the orbit and from the surface. First stage of the Russian Lunar Program consists of a four missions: Lunas 25, 26, 27, 28. (The numeration follows Lunar missions of a Soviet Epoch - last successful regolith sample delivery have been accomplished by Luna 24 in 1976). Luna 25 will land to the southern polar site, which would be the most suitable for engineering reasons and also interesting for the science. Second lander Luna 27 will have more sophisticated payload with the additional instruments in comparison with Luna 25. Luna 27 should be landed to the selected landing site at the vicinity of the South Pole, which could be the most promising for installation of the future Lunar Base. It is very important that Luna 27 will be equipped by the subsurface drill to get samples from the permafrost shallow subsurface (one attractive option now is that this drill will be provided by our ESA colleagues having the experience of designing and manufacturing of a similar drill for the Exomars project). The principal difference of the drilling at Luna 27 in comparison with the early

  18. Characteristics of the oil transport network in the South of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez, R.; Fernández, I. Y.; Guzmán, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of some organizational properties of the oil transport network of the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) in a region of the State of Tabasco. Particularly, the generalized centrality and the distribution of connectivities are calculated in order to evaluate some aspects of the structure of the network. We find that the connectivities (k) are characterized by a degree distribution which follows a power-law function of the form, P(k)~k ‑λ, with λ = 2.6. Moreover, our procedure permits to evalute the importance of lines (ducts) and nodes, which can be wells, production headers, separation batteries and petrochemical complexes.

  19. Olmec origins of Mesoamerican writing.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Mary E D; Pope, Kevin O; von Nagy, Christopher

    2002-12-06

    A cylinder seal and carved greenstone plaque bearing glyphs dating to approximately 650 B.C. have been uncovered near the Olmec center of La Venta in Tabasco, Mexico. These artifacts, which predate others containing writing, reveal that the key aspects of the Mesoamerican scripts were present in Olmec writing: the combination of pictographic and glyphic elements to represent speech; the use of the sacred 260-day calendar; and the connection between writing, the calendar, and kingship. They imply that Mesoamerican writing originated in the La Venta polity.

  20. Distribution of the Val108/158Met polymorphism of the COMT gene in healthy Mexican population.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; Pool García, Sherezada; Genis, Alma; Nicolini, Humberto; López Narváez, Lilia

    2013-09-10

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates the catecholamines adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. On the other hand, some studies have reported that the enzymatic activity of COMT is partly genetically determined. With regard to the COMT gene, the most studied polymorphism is the functional variant Val108/158Met (rs4680), which results in substantial three- to four-fold variations in enzyme activity. To date, the rs4680 polymorphism of COMT has been associated with a number of disorders. In addition, this polymorphism has been found to have important differences in frequency according to the studied population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Val108/158Met of the COMT gene in the Mexican population. Accordingly, we recruited 431 healthy volunteers. Our sample consisted of 111 healthy individuals from Mexico City and 320 individuals from the state of Tabasco, Mexico. We observed that Met was the most common allele, ranging from 57% (Tabasco) to 85% (Mexico City). In addition, we analyzed the frequency of Val108/158Met polymorphism of Caucasian (54% Met allele), Asian (29% Met allele) and African (34% Met allele) populations separately and also in comparison with Mexican (63% Met allele) population. In conclusion, the distribution of the Val108/158Met polymorphism distinguishes the Mexican population studied from other populations, but it is necessary to increase the size of the sample to get more conclusive results.

  1. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. New species and records of the earthworm genus Ramiellona (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae) from southern Mexico and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Carlos; Rojas, Patricia

    2014-01-10

    Three new species from the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas are added to the acanthodrilid earthworm genus Ramiellona, R. microscolecina sp. nov., R. tojolabala sp. nov. and R. teapaensis sp. nov. They belong to a group of species with penial setae and last pair of hearts in segment 12. All are holandric and the spermathecae have either a flat circular diverticle in a segment anterior to that of the ampulla (R. microscolecina sp. nov. and R. tojolabala sp. nov.) or two ovoidal and sessile diverticles on opposite sides in the same segment of the ampulla (R. teapaensis sp. nov.). Ramiellona americana (Gates) is re-described from a single specimen from central Guatemala, and the diagnosis of Ramiellona lasiura (Graff) from El Salvador is emended after reinvestigating a paratype specimen from the Senckenberg Naturmuseum Frankfurt. On the basis of several individuals from different populations of the Mexican states of Chiapas and Tabasco, the morphological variation of Ramiellona strigosa setosa Righi is described and its relationship with the Guatemalan Ramiellona strigosa strigosa Gates and Ramiellona eiseni (Michaelsen) is discussed. Finally, the position of Ramiellona within Acanthodrilidae and its relation to genera of the doubtful Octochaetidae is discussed.

  3. Molecular surveillance and phylogenetic analysis of Old World arenaviruses in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2012-10-01

    In order to survey arenaviruses in the Republic of Zambia, we captured 335 rodents from three cities between 2010 and 2011. Eighteen Luna virus (LUNV) and one lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-related virus RNAs were detected by one-step RT-PCR from Mastomys natalensis and Mus minutoides, respectively. Four LUNV strains and one LCMV-related virus were isolated, and the whole genome nucleotide sequence was determined by pyrosequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the LUNV clade consists of two branches that are distinguished by geographical location and that the LCMV-related virus belongs to the LCMV clade, but diverges from the typical LCMVs. Comparison of nucleoprotein amino acid sequences indicated that the LCMV-related virus could be designated a novel arenavirus, which was tentatively named as the Lunk virus. Amino acid sequences of the GP, NP, Z and L proteins showed poor similarity among the three Zambian arenavirus strains, i.e. Luna, Lunk and Lujo virus.

  4. The nature of rays and sources of highland material in Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, T. A.; El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Although highland fragments are rare in the Luna 24 core, they should provide an important source of information on the sequence of formation and lithology of lunar east-limb basins. The numerous rays that cross the Crisium basin suggest several sources of highland materials. Both deposition of primary ejecta and reworking of local material were most likely responsible for the formation of ray systems in Mare Crisium. In addition to the fact that Luna 24 landed near the uprange end of a Giordano Bruno ray, incomplete sampling of the uppermost layer and formation of the ray by reworking of in situ regolith suggest that its materials may be scarce or not present in the core. Highland fragments present are most likely to be representative of several highland sources.

  5. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Kiselev, A.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Bazilevsky, A. T.; Bondarenko, A.; Moiseev, P.

    2013-09-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2015) and Luna-Resurs (launch in 2017) Russian surface missions. The LIS is mounted on the mechanic arm of landing module in the field of view (45°) of stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast together with High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface area in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The electrically commanded acousto-optic filter scans sequentially at a desired sampling, with random access, over the entire spectral range.

  6. Lunar dusty plasma: A result of interaction of the solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisin, E. A.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Popel, S. I.; Petrov, O. F.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments “Luna-Glob” and “Luna-Resource” particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered.

  7. Systematics of the seed beetle genus Decellebruchus Borowiec, 1987 (Coleoptera, Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Nápoles, Jesús Romero

    2016-01-01

    Keys to species, descriptions, synonymy, host plants, and geographical distributions are presented for the three species in the genus Decellebruchus (Borowiec 1987); of those, Decellebruchus walker (Pic 1912) was the only species included at the time of the genus denomination, Decellebruchus atrolineatus (Pic 1921) is transferred to this genus, and Decellebruchus lunae is described as a new species. The shortest and most parsimonious phylogenetic tree for genera with pectinate antennae had a length of 33, consistency index 87, and retention index 81.

  8. Military Civic Action in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    llanos region to counter the growing Liberal forces. Also during this period the government formed and trained the police Battalion " Vargas " specifically...Guzmin Campos , Orlando Fals Borda, and Eduardo Umaia Luna, La violencia en Colombia: Estudio de un proceso social, 2d ed. (BogotA: Ediciones Tercer Mundo...military aid and training beginning in the late nineteenth century. Colombia received its first United States military advisor, Lieutenant Henry H

  9. Sedimentologic Expression of the Cretaceous OAEs in a Tropical Epicontinental Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The acidification and deoxygention of modern oceans are major environmental concerns to the international community. The effects of ocean acidification and deoxigention in the biogeochemical cycles of modern tropical oceans are poorly constrained mainly due to the lack of empirical and quantitative data. The Cretaceous World witnessed several period of potential ocean acidification and deoxygenation, which resulted from the rapid additions of volcanic derived CO2 to the atmosphere. The effects of ocean acidification and deoxygenation on the Cretaceous biogeochemical cycles are evidenced mainly by major global C-isotope anomalies. These anomalies parallel the occurrence of organic rich black shales as well as major decreases in the deposition of shallow marine carbonates worldwide. Here we use detailed C- and Sr- chemostratigraphy as well as published bioestratigraphic information and volcanic zircon U-Pb ages to precisely constrain the geochemical and sedimentologic expression of the Cretaceous OAES along a tropical epicontinental sea, the La Luna Sea. Our multi-pronged approach allows identifying the occurrence of several of the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) in carbonate units paleogeographically located along the northern most part of the La Luna Sea, i.e. Weissert-OAE-(Palanz and Rosablanca Formations), Faraoni-(Rosablanca Formation), AOE1a-(Paja and Fomeque Formations, Cogollo Group), OAE1c-(Cogollo Group), OAE2-(Cogollo Group), OAE3-(La Luna Formation). These events are preserved in highly euxinic - organic rich "black shales" successions deposited along the deepest part of the seaway at the Middle Magdalena Valley and Cundinamarca Basin; Weiser-OAE-(Lutitas de Macanal Formation), OAE1a-(Paja Formation, Fomeque Formation), OAE1C-(San Gil Formation). Regional changes in depositional settings and sedimentary facies preserving the different Cretaceous OAEs were likely the result of the combined action of regional changes in paleogeography and tectonic

  10. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the Russian led science payload, focusing on developing an characterising the resource opportunities offered at the lunar surface. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. In the frame of a broader future international programme under discussion through the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) future missions are under investigation that would provide access to the lunar surface through international cooperation and human-robotic partnerships.

  11. Enigineering in a Mountain Resort Town: A Record of a Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    experienced throughout an entire year. In addition to a memory jog , it provides support to the record of study’s observations and recommendations by...concerns may cost the contractor a fine, but could result in saving a worker from injury or death. Contributions to Any Area Outside The Direct...to happen , a person may start avoiding initiating discussions on future problems. As the manager, Mr. Luna needs to take the lead on this subject

  12. AFRRI Reports, Second Quarter 1992.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    isolated in 5 of 10 (50(,() water-treated mice and in none of colate (16). glucan ( 7), and colony-stimulating factor (18) those treated with ofloxacin...W. Blakey., and T_ J. T1he significance of positise blood cultures: A comprehensive analysis MacVittie. Glucan : Mechanisms involved in its...Luna. and G. P. Bodey ’. Aleh- Therapeutic administration of recombinant human granulocy te col- %Wlla bacteremia in cancer patients. Int .1 tIed

  13. Hydrocarbon generation potential of the Cretaceous section from Well ALP-6, Perija Region, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L. ); Mompart, L.; Murat, B. )

    1993-02-01

    Geochemistry and sedimentology have been integrated in order to provide a better understanding of the source rock potential and depositional environments of the La Luna Formation and Machiques Member in Well ALP-6 (Perija region). These two units, the dominant source rocks in the Maracaibo Basin, are mainly shales with high to very high organic content, while thin interbeds of limestones are poor in organic matter. A detailed sedimentological study and sequence analysis indicates that both shaly units represent a period of platform infilling subsequent to drowning. Periods of progressive back stepping culminating in the deposition of organic-rich condensed intervals are recognized, based on sedimentology of cores and wireline log analysis. A succession of fining-upward sequences, 1' to 5' thick, with distinct sedimentological and geochemical signatures have been identified in the La Luna Formation. Phenomena of early diagenesis (intrashale calcite growth due to organic matter degradation; sulfur precipitated in local paleolows) to late diagenesis (pressure-solution effects with development of laterally correlatable cone-in-cone layers) are all indicators that the hydrocarbon generation potential of La Luna is not uniform and can only be assessed by detailed geological, sedimentological and geochemical investigations. Two geochemically distinct facies can be identified in both La Luna and Machiques. A sulfur-rich facies is characterized by Corg/AVSul ratios averaging 1.9 and by exceptionally high concentrations of sulfur-bearing aromatic compounds. A sulfur-poor facies is characterized by Corg/AVSul ratios averaging 9.2 and by trace concentrations or absence of sulfur-bearing aromatic compounds.

  14. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  15. In Search of Circasemidian Rhythms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Commission 1975). Most took in many fewer calories. The day’s diet was somewhat boring, consisting primarily of a nutritional drink (Ensure Plus, Abbott...Laboratories), nutritional bars (Luna, Clif Bar Inc.) and water ad lib. For habitual caffeine users, up to about 200 mg was allowed between 07:00 and 08...circulating melatonin in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation. Neuroendierinology Letters 20:55-68, 1999. Martineaud JP, Cisse F, Samb

  16. Gesture-Directed Sensor-Information Fusion (GDSIF) for Protection and Communication in Hazardous Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-20

    G. Rogers, R. Luna, and J. Ellen, “Wireless Communication Glove Apparatus for Motion Tracking, Gesture Recognition , Data Transmission, and Reception...and easier to deploy in a variety of ways. (See, for example, [1] and [3].) The current eGloves have magnetic and motion sensors for gesture ... recognition [5], [6]. An important future step to enhance the effectiveness of the war fighter is to integrate CBRN and other sensors into the eGloves

  17. Petrology of basalt and single-mineral fragments in the soil of the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. E.; Holzwarth, W.; Papike, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Basalt and single-mineral particles, ranging from 150 to 425 microns, from the Luna-16 sample are studied by electron microanalysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and petrographic techniques. Three basalt species of different structure are identified. The structure and composition of the individual minerals (in particular of pyroxenes) indicate that the basalts have crystallized under conditions similar to those established for Apollo-11 samples.

  18. Military Observer Mission Ecuador-Peru (MOMEP) Doing a Lot with a Little.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    effective, making it particularly attractive in times of fiscal and manpower constraints. The author argues that regional peacekeeping forces have...34 and that Bucaram’s "Dignity Plan," is a hoax. In "Ecuadoran Envoy Denies Bucaram reports of Arms Buildup," Mexico City NOTIMEX, in FBIS Latin America...Francisco; ed. Gasto Militar en America Latina- Santiago, Chile: CINDE, 1994. Tobar Donoso, Julio; and Alfredo Luna Tobar. Derecho Territorial

  19. Petrological Mapping of the Crater Boguslawsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, C.; Evdokimova, N. A.; Feoktistova, E. A.; Grumpe, A.; Kapoor, K.; Berezhnoy, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    An analysis of orbital spectral data of the crater Boguslawsky, the intended target region of the Russian Luna-Glob mission, is performed. We have constructed a high- resolution DEM of the crater Boguslawsky, based on which the temperature regime on the surface is investigated. The depth of the OH absorption feature is analysed.The content of the main elements is estimated, and a petrologic map is constructed accordingly.

  20. Ultrathin amorphous coatings on lunar dust grains.

    PubMed

    Bibring, J P; Duraud, J P; Durrieu, L; Jouret, C; Maurette, M; Meunier, R

    1972-02-18

    UItrathin amorphous coatings have been observed by high-voltage electron microscopy on micrometer-sized dust grains from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Luna 16 missions. Calibration experiments show that these coatings result from an "ancient" implantation of solar wind ions in the grains. This phenomenon has interdisciplinary applications concerning the past activity of the sun, the lunar albedo, the ancient lunar atmosphere and magnetic field, the carbon content of lunar soils, and lunar dynamic processes.

  1. Access Issues Associated with U.S. Military Presence in Thailand and the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    on democracy issues arose from the American support of the military regimes in Thailand and President Marcos ’ authoritarian regime in the Philippines...Forces Movement (RAM) and the Marcos -loyalists’ 34 The history of the United States relationship with Thailand and the Philippines had shaped the...from the Filipinos. A revolutionary Filipino general Antonio Luna quipped, ""people are not to be bought and sold like horses and houses. If the aim

  2. Fabrication of Metal Nanostructures in Mesoporous Silicas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Margolese, U. Ciesla, P. Feng, T. E. Gier, P. Sieger, R. Leon , P. M. Petroff, E Schlith, G. D. Stucky, Nature 368, 317 (1994). 8. D. Zhao, J. Feng, Q. Huo...Fryxell. G. J. Exarhos. Angew. Chemi. Int. Ed. 39, 2702 (2000). 10. H. Fan, Y. Lu, A. Stump, S. T. Reed, I. Baer, R. Schunk, V. Perez- Luna , G P. L6pez, C

  3. I Will Never Forget: An Analysis of the POW/MIA (Prisoners of War/Missing in Action) Episode in the War in Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Purcell, Benjamin H., Col Ett: ueiler, Harry L., SSgL Rander, Donald J., SFC . Flora, Carroll E. Jr., SFC Ray, Johnnie L., Capt Frank, ::artin 3.. SS...Jr., Lt Col Elander, William J., Jr., Maj Brenneman, Richard C., Capt Ellis, Jeffrey T., Capt Bridger, Barry B., Capt Ellis, Leon F., Capt Brodak...j * Guy, Theodore W.., Col Logn, c.., t Hall, George R., It Col Lollar. . Hall, Keith I., 1.:aj Luna , jose I., Capz *: Hanson, Gregg 0., 2t

  4. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the exploration missions of the future.

  5. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Foing, Bernard H.; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernado; Schiemann, Jens

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the abundance, composition and isotopes of lunar volatiles in polar regions, and their associated chemistry. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterise and utilise polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the

  6. Lunar soils grain size catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This catalog compiles every available grain size distribution for Apollo surface soils, trench samples, cores, and Luna 24 soils. Original laboratory data are tabled, and cumulative weight distribution curves and histograms are plotted. Standard statistical parameters are calculated using the method of moments. Photos and location comments describe the sample environment and geological setting. This catalog can help researchers describe the geotechnical conditions and site variability of the lunar surface essential to the design of a lunar base.

  7. Vulnerability in research ethics: a way forward.

    PubMed

    Lange, Margaret Meek; Rogers, Wendy; Dodds, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Several foundational documents of bioethics mention the special obligation researchers have to vulnerable research participants. However, the treatment of vulnerability offered by these documents often relies on enumeration of vulnerable groups rather than an analysis of the features that make such groups vulnerable. Recent attempts in the scholarly literature to lend philosophical weight to the concept of vulnerability are offered by Luna and Hurst. Luna suggests that vulnerability is irreducibly contextual and that Institutional Review Boards (Research Ethics Committees) can only identify vulnerable participants by carefully examining the details of the proposed research. Hurst, in contrast, defines the vulnerable as those especially at risk of incurring the wrongs to which all research ethics participants are exposed. We offer a more substantive conception of vulnerability than Luna but one that gives rise to a different rubric of responsibilities from Hurst's. While we understand vulnerability to be an ontological condition of human existence, in the context of research ethics, we take the vulnerable to be research subjects who are especially prone to harm or exploitation. Our analysis rests on developing a typology of sources of vulnerability and showing how distinct sources generate distinct obligations on the part of the researcher. Our account emphasizes that the researcher's first obligation is not to make the research participant even more vulnerable than they already are. To illustrate our framework, we consider two cases: that of a vulnerable population involved in international research and that of a domestic population of people with diminished capacity.

  8. Involvement of Cell Surface Structures in Size-Independent Grazing Resistance of Freshwater Actinobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tarao, Mitsunori; Jezbera, Jan; Hahn, Martin W.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the influences of grazing by the bacterivorous nanoflagellate Poterioochromonas sp. strain DS on ultramicrobacterial Actinobacteria affiliated with the Luna-2 cluster and ultramicrobacterial Betaproteobacteria of the species Polynucleobacter cosmopolitanus. These bacteria were almost identical in size (<0.1 μm3) and shape. Predation on a Polynucleobacter strain resulted in a reduction of >86% relative to the initial bacterial cell numbers within 20 days, while in comparable predation experiments with nine actinobacterial strains, no significant decrease of cell numbers by predation was observed over the period of ≥39 days. The differences in predation mortality between the actinobacterial strains and the Polynucleobacter strain clearly demonstrated size-independent grazing resistance for the investigated Actinobacteria. Importantly, this size-independent grazing resistance is shared by all nine investigated Luna-2 strains and thus represents a group-specific trait. We investigated if an S-layer, previously observed in an ultrastructure study, was responsible for the grazing resistance of these strains. Experiments aiming for removal of the S-layer or modification of cell surface proteins of one of the grazing-resistant strains by treatment with lithium chloride, EDTA, or formaldehyde resulted in 4.2- to 5.2-fold higher grazing rates in comparison to the levels for untreated cells. These results indicate the protective role of a proteinaceous cell surface structure in the size-independent grazing resistance of the actinobacterial Luna-2 strains, which can be regarded as a group-specific trait. PMID:19502450

  9. Wounding tomato fruit elicits ripening-stage specific changes in gene expression and production of volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Valentina; Cabassi, Giovanni; Spadafora, Natasha D; Aprile, Alessio; Müller, Carsten T; Rogers, Hilary J; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Fleshy fruits develop from an unripe organ that needs to be protected from damage to a ripe organ that attracts frugivores for seed dispersal through production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, different responses to wounding damage are predicted. The aim of this study was to discover whether wound-induced changes in the transcriptome and VOC production alter as tomato transitions from unripe to ripe. Transcript changes were analysed 3h post-wounding using microarray analysis in two commercial salad-tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars: Luna Rossa and AVG, chosen for their high aroma production. This was followed by quantitative PCR on Luna Rossa genes involved in VOC biosynthesis and defence responses. VOCs elicited by wounding at different ripening stages were analysed by solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 differentially expressed genes were identified in the cultivar AVG and 2500 in Luna Rossa. In both cultivars the majority of genes were up-regulated and the most affected pathways were metabolism of terpenes, carotenoids, and lipids. Defence-related genes were mostly up-regulated in immature stages of development, whereas expression of genes related to VOCs changed at riper stages. More than 40 VOCs were detected and profiles changed with ripening stage. Thus, both transcriptome and VOC profiles elicited by wounding depend on stage of ripening, indicating a shift from defence to attraction.

  10. A Cubesat to Image Comet Wirtanen at its 2018 Close Approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; Stakkestad, Kjell; Hardgrove, Craig; Vedder, Peter W.; Gaylor, David; Kidd, John; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2016-10-01

    In Dec. 2018, Comet Wirtanen will pass 0.077 AU from Earth, the best opportunity for a fly by of an active comet on a low-energy orbit in the next 40 years. In 2013, the late Robert Farquhar presented a paper, "A Unique Multi-Comet Mission Opportunity for China in 2018" [1]. He used a 1.4-year-Earth-return orbit with launch C3 <3 km^2/s^2 that, after flying by Wirtanen, would use an Earth swingby to fly by SW3C in 2022. While at the 2013 conference, Dr. Farquhar visited the China National Space Administration, which said that all of their funds were committed to their lunar program, precluding a new mission. Other agencies Farquhar approached had similar views.NASA announced its SIMPLEx opportunity in 2014 for cubesats deployed from the second stage of the 1st SLS mission (EM-1) to the Moon. We are on the Arizona State Univ. team that is developing the Lunar Polar Hydrogen Mapper (LunaH-Map) cubesat selected for EM-1. LunaH-Map will use an iodine solar electric propulsion system by Busek (Natick, MA) to enter an elliptical lunar orbit with periselene over the lunar south pole. The 1st launch date for EM-1 was in Dec. 2017, but in May 2016, NASA changed it to October 7, 2018. That's 2 months before Wirtanen's closest approach, so we looked into sending a cubesat with LunaH-Map's propulsion system to Wirtanen. The lunar swingby that might send a cubesat to Wirtanen would occur on Oct. 12 when the Earth C3 to reach Wirtanen is 2.25 km^2/s^2. We tried realistic simulations, finding that a LunaH-Map-like cubesat could not reach Wirtanen, but a spacecraft with 4 times the thrust could. Another cubesat with a more capable propulsion system might reach Wirtanen from EM-1. EM-1 can deploy 13 cubesats, all taken except for 3 for foreign partners. If EM-1 launches a month earlier, then a LunaH-Map-like cubesat could reach Wirtanen; the lowest C3 is 0.95 km^2/s^2 with an Earth departure on Sept. 5. If there is another launch with the possibility of carrying a cubesat then, the

  11. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  12. Specific Diversity of Metarhizium Isolates Infecting Aeneolamia spp. (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Sugarcane Plantations.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Domínguez, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Carrillo-Benítez, M G; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Rodríguez-Leyva, E; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A

    2016-02-01

    Spittlebugs from the genus Aeneolamia are important pests of sugarcane. Although the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae s.l. for control of this pest is becoming more common in Mexico, fundamental information regarding M. anisopliae in sugarcane plantations is practically non-existent. Using phylogenetic analysis, we determined the specific diversity of Metarhizium spp. infecting adult spittlebugs in sugarcane plantations from four Mexican states. We obtained 29 isolates of M. anisopliae s.str. Haplotype network analysis revealed the existence of eight haplotypes. Eight selected isolates, representing the four Mexican states, were grown at different temperatures in vitro; isolates from Oaxaca achieved the greatest growth followed by isolates from Veracruz, San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. No relationship was found between in vitro growth and haplotype diversity. Our results represent a significant contribution to the better understanding of the ecology of Metarhizum spp. in the sugarcane agroecosystem.

  13. [Two new species of the genus Squatina (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae) from the Gulf of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Castro-Aguirre, José Luis; Espinosa Pérez, Héctor; Huidobro Campos, Leticia

    2006-09-01

    Two undescribed species of the genus Squatina, caught by bottom-trawl during the OGMEX VIII, IX and PROBEMEX II oceanographic cruises were compared with S. dumeril Lesueur, 1818, the only well known species from the northern Gulf of Mexico. The collections were made off Tamaulipas, Veracruz and Tabasco. The descriptions of the new species refer to morphology, coloration pattern and dorsal fin shape and size. An English description of each species is included. Some specimens erroneously assigned to S. dumeril are deposited in Mexican collections. With these two new species, besides S. californica Ayres, 1859 and S. dumeril, the number of documented species of this genus in Mexico ascends to four, and a total of five are known from the western Atlantic. A key is provided for their identification.

  14. [Citogenetic characterization of the tropical freshwater fish Parachromis managuensis (Pisces: Cichlidae)].

    PubMed

    Arias-Rodríguez, Lenin; Páramo-Delgadillo, Salomón; Durán-González, Alicia de la Luz

    2006-03-01

    To describe the cytogenetics of the jaguar cichlid fish Parachromis managuensis, we collected eight males and 13 females in Villahermosa, Tabasco, México. The specimens were processed with standard cytogenetic techniques (slightly modified), and high quality fields of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis were obtained; 14 of these fields were analyzed by meristics and statistics methods. The specimens presented a diploid modal number of 2n = 48 chromosomes, which is similar to the number reported for others Central American cichlids; five pairs were submetacentric-metacentrics (biarmed) and 19 were subtelocentric-telocentric (uni-armed), giving a fundamental number (NF) of 58. The haploid number was confirmed by counting meiotic fields in metaphase I. There was not evidence of heteromorphism: sexual chromosomes were not identifiable.

  15. Origin and environmental setting of ancient agriculture in the lowlands of Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Pope, K O; Pohl, M E; Jones, J G; Lentz, D L; von Nagy, C; Vega, F J; Quitmyer, I R

    2001-05-18

    Archaeological research in the Gulf Coast of Tabasco reveals the earliest record of maize cultivation in Mexico. The first farmers settled along beach ridges and lagoons of the Grijalva River delta. Pollen from cultivated Zea appears with evidence of forest clearing about 5100 calendar years B.C. (yr B.C.) [6200 (14)C years before the present (yr B.P.)]. Large Zea sp. pollen, typical of domesticated maize (Zea mays), appears about 5000 calendar yr B.C. (6000 yr B.P.). A Manihot sp. pollen grain dated to 4600 calendar yr B.C. (5800 yr B.P.) may be from domesticated manioc. About 2500 calendar yr B.C. (4000 yr B.P.), domesticated sunflower seeds and cotton pollen appear as farming expanded.

  16. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C; Kramer, Laura D; Komar, Nicholas; Estrada-Franco, José Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006-2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  17. Metals in Bone Tissue of Antillean Manatees from the Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Romero-Calderón, Ana G; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Rosíles-Martínez, René; Olivera-Gómez, León D; Delgado-Estrella, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of seven metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were analyzed in 33 bone tissue samples of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) found dead in lagoons and rivers of Tabasco and Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay in the Caribbean region. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were significantly different between regions, with greater levels found in the Gulf of Mexico group than in the Mexican Caribbean group (p < 0.05). Pb concentrations differed significantly between adults and calves. No differences were observed between sexes. Metal concentrations detected in the manatee bones were higher than most of those reported for bones in other marine mammals around the world. Future studies are necessary to establish whether the metal concentrations represent a risk to the health of the species.

  18. Euryphorus suarezi n. sp. (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on an elasmobranch from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Rodríguez-Santiago, María Amparo; Gómez, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the caligid genus Euryphorus Milne Edwards, 1840 contains two valid species. A new species, Euryphorus suarezi, is described based on adult females and males collected from the spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen) (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae), captured off Campeche and Tabasco, Mexico (southern coast of the Gulf of Mexico). The new species is mainly distinguished from its congeners by the absence of dorsal plates, the presence of postantennal process, bifurcated maxillule, maxilliped with slender corpus, and leg 4 with 3-segmented endopod. Leg 6 is conspicuous in the male. Additional differences are described. This is the first record of a species of Euryphorus from an elasmobranch host, which may provide insight into the evolutionary relationships within the Caligidae.

  19. Determination of 137Cs and 60Co pollution in the area of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salas Mar, Bernardo

    2015-11-01

    The project 'Radiological Analysis of Environmental Samples in the Gulf of Mexico and the coast of Quintana Roo', had the aim of identifying and quantifying anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental samples consisting of silt, sand and sea water. This paper presents the results of the radiological analysis of these samples, which was made in the multichannel system for gamma spectrometry with hyperpure germanium detector in the Laboratory of Radiological Analysis of Environmental Samples, located at the Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM). The sampled points are along the coast of the contiguous states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan and Quintana Roo. This paper presents the qualitative and quantitative concentrations of the main identified anthropogenic radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs.

  20. Mexican unpasteurised fresh cheeses are contaminated with Salmonella spp., non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli and potential uropathogenic E. coli strains: A public health risk.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Hernandez, Rosa; Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Hernandez-Velez, Rosa; Perez-Martinez, Iza; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2016-11-21

    Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items.

  1. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

  2. [Tropical turtles chromosomes: Kinosternon leucostomum, Trachemys scripta and Staurotypus triporcatus (Testudines: Kinosternidae/Emydidae)].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Yasui, George Shigueki; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin

    2014-06-01

    Mexico is a biodiverse country in several taxa as reptiles, that include several species of freshwater and marine turtles. Eventhough most of this group species are under protection, Tabasco State has nine native freshwater turtles, like Kinosternon leucostomum, Trachemys scripta and Staurotypus triporcatus that are very important in traditional dishes. This has resulted in a critical level of their populations, together with little biological knowledge for their conservation. Therefore, this study was dedicated to turtle cytogenetics. The study was conducted using the conventional methods for cytogenetics. The results showed the modal diploid and haploid number for K. leucostomum of 2n = 56 (2n = 56+3 microchromosomes "B") and 1n = 28 chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis, respectively. In T. scripta 2n = 50 chromosomes (2n = 50+2 microchromosomes "B") and 1n = 25 chromosomes were also characterized. Whereas in S. triporcatus we only report the 2 = 54 chromosomes (2n = 54+2 microchromosomes "B"). The karyological formula for K. leucostomum was integrated by 12 metacentric-submetacentric chromosomes "msm"/"A"+22 subtelocentric-telocentric chromosomes "stt"/"B"+22 telocentric chromosomes "T"/"C" with fundamental number (FN) of 90 chromosome arms. While T. scripta karyotype was integrated by 32 "msm/"A"+10 "stt"/"B"+8"T/"C" chromosomes, with FN of 92 arms. S. triporcatus karyotype formula was built up by 20 chromosomes "msm"/"A"+34 chromosomes "T"/"C" with FN of 74. The variation in chromosome classification, the fundamental number and the presence of supernumerary microchromosomes "B" in the studied species, were evidence of a particular chromosome cytotypes in Tabasco. We considered that the presence of microchromosomes "B" probably has different origins, and they may be very important as a pattern for the formation or separation of new species. This study also showed the absence of heterologous chromosomes between the females and males karyotypes from the studied

  3. Geoanalyses of Lunokhods' regions for future Lunar missions and data access via Geoportal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Irina; Baskakova, Marina; Gusakova, Eugenia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Kozlova, Natalia; Matveev, Eugeny; Nadezhdina, Irina; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Oberst, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    Introduction: The Soviet rover missions Lunokhod-1 and -2 were launched at the beginning of 70th (Luna-17 in October 1971 and Luna-21 in January 1973 respectively). The main goals of the both missions were to study Moon surface in situ. The history of the Lunokhods' missions came back into focus recently, when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter obtained high resolutions images. Sources. For our work we used various data: LROC Narrow Angle Camera (LRO NAC) images, 0.3-1 m/pixel [7, 11]; DEMs with different resolution: LRO NAC DEM, 1-5 m/pixel [9]; Kaguya DEM, 7.5 m/pixel [10]; Lunokhods' stereo panoramas and early cartography information [1, 8]. Methodolody: We collected all data as spatial database (Geodatabase) which includes various derived products. Based on methods developed earlier [4, 6], rovers wheel tracks and craters entire study regions were mapped. High resolution DEMs allow calculate of various morphometric parameters of the Lunokhods' regions which provide better understanding processes on lunar surface [2, 5]. Method of detailed morphology analyses developed for study area now used for investigation of the Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource landing missions which are planned to the south pole of the Moon. Data access: We are developing easy access to the planetary data based on web and spatial technology (Geoportal). Geoportal provides the ability to view spatial data in the web-browser, displays different layers in the same area at different scales turns the web. Lunokhods' data point features were created for each station of rover routes where panoramas were been recorded. So GIS project provide an easy access to non-spatial image database and can involve these information in their spatial context. Conclusions: During Lunokhods' missions early topography data of the traverses were accurate for most areas. Modern estimating these results based on the new LRO data provide comparative studies in lunar geology and morphology. We show that these data can be used

  4. Monitoring water supplies for weaponized bacteria and bacterial toxins using rapid fluorescence-based viability and affinity assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tassell, Roger L.; Evans, Mishell

    2004-03-01

    The rapid detection of weaponized bacteria and toxins is a major problem during a biological attack. Although sensitive detection formats exist for many biowarfare agents, they often require advanced training and complex procedures. Luna has developed simple, rapid means for determining the presence of pathogens and bacterial toxins in water supplies using fluorescence-based assays that can be adapted for field use. The batteries of rapid assays are designed for i) determining cell viability and bacterial loads by exploiting metabolic markers (e.g., acid-production, redox potentials, etc) and ii) detecting bacterial toxins using fluorescent, polymerized affinity liposomes (fluorosomes). The viability assays were characterized using E. coli, S. aureus and the anthrax simulant, B. globigii. The viability assays detected bacterial loads of ~ 104 CFU/ml and with simple filtration ~ 100CFU/ml could be detected. The affinity fluorosomes were characterized using cholera toxin (CT). Affinity liposomes displaying GM1 and anti-CT antibodies could detect CT at <μg/ml levels. Stability studies showed that affinity vesicles could be stored for weeks at 4°C or freeze-dried with no significant loss of binding capacity. Using an in-house fiber optic fluorescence system, Luna characterized the binding of affinity fluorosomes to respective targets and determined the responses of bacterial loads in the fluorescent viability assays. Using this two-tiered approach, Luna demonstrated that water susceptible to sabotage could be easily monitored and confirmed for specific agents using simple, general and specific fluorescence-based detection schemes based on metabolism and ligand-target interactions.

  5. Selection and characterization of landing sites for the upcoming Russian robotic missions to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Head, James; Bazilevskiy, Alexander; Dolgopolov, Vladimir

    Russian missions Luna-Glob, Luna-Resource and Luna-Grunt are considered to be a sequence of landers aimed, in particular, to study physical conditions at the lunar poles, lunar volatiles both in situ and delivered to Earth laboratories, opportunities for utilization of lunar resources and to perform technological experiments for future lunar exploration [Zelenyi et al.,2013, 2014]. The first of these missions, tentatively planned for 2016, along with partial accomplishment of these tasks, is also devoted to test new-generation technologies for soft landing. The second one (~2018) addresses most of the mentioned tasks. The major task of the third mission is cryogenic sample return from the polar area. The potential landing sites had to accommodate the 15x30 km landing ellipses and be within 70-85N, 30W-60E and 70-85S, 0-60E [Basilevsky et al., 2013]. In these regions a search based on analysis of LOLA altimetry, LROC NAC and WAC images and Mini-RF data led to finding several spots with rather smooth surfaces which then were tested by the LEND team [Mitrofanov 2011, 2012] to see if they show signatures of enrichment in H/H2O. At the next stage of the studies a floor of the 95-km crater Boguslavsky was studied. The H2O content here is not high, but this place is convenient for the test of the new soft landing technologies. These morphometric studies rely mostly on the data acquired by instruments of the U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and their availability and usage were significantly facilitated through the Brown-Vernadsky/SSERVI interaction.

  6. Integrated computer simulation on FIR FEL dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, H.; Kuruma, S.; Imasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated computer simulation code has been developed to analyze the RF-Linac FEL dynamics. First, the simulation code on the electron beam acceleration and transport processes in RF-Linac: (LUNA) has been developed to analyze the characteristics of the electron beam in RF-Linac and to optimize the parameters of RF-Linac. Second, a space-time dependent 3D FEL simulation code (Shipout) has been developed. The RF-Linac FEL total simulations have been performed by using the electron beam data from LUNA in Shipout. The number of particles using in a RF-Linac FEL total simulation is approximately 1000. The CPU time for the simulation of 1 round trip is about 1.5 minutes. At ILT/ILE, Osaka, a 8.5MeV RF-Linac with a photo-cathode RF-gun is used for FEL oscillation experiments. By using 2 cm wiggler, the FEL oscillation in the wavelength approximately 46 {mu}m are investigated. By the simulations using LUNA with the parameters of an ILT/ILE experiment, the pulse shape and the energy spectra of the electron beam at the end of the linac are estimated. The pulse shape of the electron beam at the end of the linac has sharp rise-up and it slowly decays as a function of time. By the RF-linac FEL total simulations with the parameters of an ILT/ILE experiment, the dependencies of the start up of the FEL oscillations on the pulse shape of the electron beam at the end of the linac are estimated. The coherent spontaneous emission effects and the quick start up of FEL oscillations have been observed by the RF-Linac FEL total simulations.

  7. The Joule-Thomson coefficient as a criterion for efficient operating conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poe, Donald P; Helmueller, Shawn; Kobany, Stephanie; Feldhacker, Hannah; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof

    2017-01-27

    When an SFC column is operated in a traditional oven with forced air at low pressures near the critical temperature, severe efficiency losses can occur. The mobile phase cools as it expands along the column, forming axial and radial temperature gradients. In this study we present a simple model based on a virtual fluid to predict the conditions which lead to the onset of efficiency loss. The model shows that the Joule-Thomson coefficient is an important factor leading to efficiency loss in packed columns under forced air conditions. The model was tested experimentally for elution of n-alkylbenzenes on 250×4.6-mm ID columns packed with 5-μm Luna-C18 (fully porous) and Kinetex-C18 (superficially porous) particles at optimum flow rates in a forced air oven at 20-80°C and outlet pressures from 90 to 250bar, with CO2 mobile phase containing 5, 10 and 20% methanol (v/v). For simplicity, we used a formal J-T coefficient corresponding to the inlet temperature and the outlet pressure to characterize the chromatographic conditions. For 5% methanol, there was no significant loss of efficiency for elution of n-octadecylbenzene as long as the formal J-T coefficient was less than 0.11K/bar for Luna or 0.15K/bar for Kinetex, with minimum reduced plate heights equal to 1.82 and 1.55, respectively, at an average apparent retention factor of approximately 4.0 for both columns. The Kinetex column provided superior efficiency in general, and at 10-20bar lower outlet pressures relative to the Luna column due to the higher thermal conductivity of the packing. Results for 10 and 20% methanol showed similar trends but were less predictable.

  8. Early active sun - Radiation history of distinct components in fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Taylor, G. J.; Walker, R. M.; Seitz, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    Plagioclase feldspars were separated from lunar soil samples and their compositions were determined by electron-microprobe analysis followed by etching and track counting in an effort to find effects of early solar activity. The feldspars were assigned on this basis to three major lithologies: mare basalts, anorthositic rocks, and KREEP rock. The results are in sharp contrast to Poupeau et al.'s (1973) observations on track densities in plagioclase crystals in the Luna 16 soil: no evidence is found for an early active sun, although the evidence does not preclude this possibility, either.

  9. Investigation of temperature dependence of neutron yield and electron screening potential for the d(d, n){sup 3}He reaction proceeding in deuterides ZrD{sub 2} and TiD{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Bystritskii, Vit. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Filipowicz, M.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Kobzev, A. P.; Mesyats, G. A.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Parzhitskii, S. S.; Pen'kov, F. M.; Philippov, A. V.; Kaminskii, V. L.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Wozniak, J.

    2012-08-15

    The temperature dependence of the enhancement factor for the dd reaction proceeding in TiD{sub 2} and ZrD{sub 2} is investigated. The experiments were carried out at the Hall pulsed ion accelerator (INP, Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia) in the deuteron energy interval 7.0-12.0 keV and at temperatures ranging from 20 to 200 Degree-Sign C. The values obtained for the electron screening potentials indicate that the dd reaction enhancement factor does not depend on the target temperature in the range 20-200 Degree-Sign C. This result contradicts the conclusions drawn by the LUNA Collaboration from their work.

  10. Determination of the content of desmopressin in pharmaceutical preparations by HPLC and validation of the method.

    PubMed

    Dudkiewicz-Wilczyńska, Jadwiga; Snycerski, Andrzej; Tautt, Jadwiga

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply high performance liquid chromatography to the determination of content of desmopressin in pharmaceutical preparations and validation of the method. The satisfactory results have been obtained using a column Luna C 8.5 microm, 100 x 4.6 mm and a mobile phase containing 0.067 M phosphate buffer of pH = 7 and acetonitrile in the proportion 83:17. It has been shown that the elaborated method shows good precision and accuracy and can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical preparations containing desmopressin.

  11. Advanced Fiber-optic Monitoring System for Space-flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, M. S.; VanTassell, R. L.; Pennington, C. D.; Roman, M.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at Luna Innovations Inc. and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA MSFC) have developed an integrated fiber-optic sensor system for real-time monitoring of chemical contaminants and whole-cell bacterial pathogens in water. The system integrates interferometric and evanescent-wave optical fiber-based sensing methodologies with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and long-period grating (LPG) technology to provide versatile measurement capability for both micro- and nano-scale analytes. Sensors can be multiplexed in an array format and embedded in a totally self-contained laboratory card for use with an automated microfluidics platform.

  12. Apollo 15 Geochemical X-ray Fluorescence Experiment: Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Adler, I; Trombka, J; Gerard, J; Lowman, P; Schmadebeck, R; Blodget, H; Eller, E; Yin, L; Lamothe, R; Gorenstein, P; Bjorkholm, P

    1972-01-28

    Although only part of the information from the x-ray fluorescence geochemical experiment has been analyzed, it is clear that the experiment was highly successful. Significant compositional differences among and possibly within the maria and highlands have been detected. When viewed in the light of analyzed lunar rocks and soil samples, and the data from other lunar orbital experiments (in particular, the Apollo 15 gamma-ray spectroscopy experiment), the results indicate the existence of a differential lunar highland crust, probably feldspathic. This crust appears to be related to the plagioclase-rich materials previously found in the samples from Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, and Luna 16.

  13. Systematics of the seed beetle genus Decellebruchus Borowiec, 1987 (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nápoles, Jesús Romero

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Keys to species, descriptions, synonymy, host plants, and geographical distributions are presented for the three species in the genus Decellebruchus (Borowiec 1987); of those, Decellebruchus walker (Pic 1912) was the only species included at the time of the genus denomination, Decellebruchus atrolineatus (Pic 1921) is transferred to this genus, and Decellebruchus lunae is described as a new species. The shortest and most parsimonious phylogenetic tree for genera with pectinate antennae had a length of 33, consistency index 87, and retention index 81. PMID:27110201

  14. Smallpox Vaccine and Adverse Reproductive Health Outcomes in Military Service Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    disease to bioterrorist threat. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100(1):87-93 4. Levine MM. Live-virus vaccines in pregnancy: risks and recommendations. Lancet 1974;2...vaccination and outcome of pregnancy. AJPH Nations Health 1968;58(10)1910-21. 12. Luisi M. Smallpox vaccination and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1977;128...Valero J, Luna S, Dominguez-Rojas V. Risk factors in miscarriage: a review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002;102(2):111-9 14. Ellish NJ, Saboda K

  15. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Lapidot oligonucleotides with the Stat3 siRNA identified in Z, Leeder JS, Freedman M, Cohen A, Gazit A, Levitzki A, this study in prostate cancer...3. Catlett-Falcone R, Landowski TH, Oshiro MM, Turkson J, stranded RNA directs the ATP-dependent cleavage of mRNA at Levitzki A, Savino R, Ciliberto G...Lee SO, Xiao X, Pflug B, Nelson JB, Gao AC. Levitzki A, Savino R, Ciliberto G, Moscinski L, Fernandez-Luna Stat3 enhances the growth of LNCaP human

  16. Possible changes in ground-water flow to the Pecos River caused by Santa Rosa Lake, Guadalupe County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1980 Santa Rosa Dam began impounding water on the Pecos River about 7 miles north of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, to provide flood control, sediment control, and storage for irrigation. Santa Rosa Lake has caused changes in the groundwater flow system, which may cause changes in the streamflow of the Pecos River that cannot be detected at the present streamflow gaging stations. Data collected at these stations are used to measure the amount of water available for downstream users. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model for a 950 sq mi area between Anton Chico and Puerto de Luna was used to simulate the effects of Santa Rosa Lake on groundwater flow to a gaining reach of the Pecos River for lake levels of 4,675, 4,715, 4,725, 4,750, 4,776, and 4,797 feet above sea level and durations of impoundment of 30, 90, 182, and 365 days for all levels except 4 ,797 feet. These simulations indicated that streamflow in the Pecos River could increase by as much as 2 cu ft/sec between the dam and Puerto de Luna if the lake level were maintained at 4 ,797 feet for 90 days or 4,776 feet for 1 year. About 90% of this increased streamflow would occur < 0.5 mi downstream from the dam, some of which would be measured at the streamflow gaging station located 0.2 mile downstream from the dam. Simulations also indicated that the lake will affect groundwater flow such that inflow to the study area may be decreased by as much as 1.9 cu ft/sec. This water may leave the Pecos River drainage basin or be diverted back to the Pecos River downstream from the gaging station near Puerto de Luna. In either case, this quantity represents a net loss of water upstream from Puerto de Luna. Most simulations indicated that the decrease in groundwater flow into the study area would be of about the same quantity as the simulated increase in streamflow downstream from the dam. Therefore, the net effect of the lake on the flow of the Pecos River in the study area appears to be negligible. Model simulations

  17. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Lunar meteorite LAP 02205 is a 1.23 kg basalt collected during the 2002 field season in the La- Paz ice field, Antarctica [1]. We present a petrographic description including mineral modes and compositions, and the major-element composition of the bulk meteorite. LAP 02205 is an Fe-rich, moderately low-Ti mare basalt that is similar in composition, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry to the NWA 032 basaltic lunar meteorite. LAP 02205 is yet another of the moderately low- Ti basaltic meteorites that are underrepresented among Apollo and Luna samples but that appear from remote sensing to be the most common basalt type on the Moon.

  18. Temperature emission spectrum of exoelectrons of lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Alimov, V. I.; Melekhin, V. P.; Milman, I. I.; Kryuk, V. I.; Petukhova, T. M.; Kunin, L. L.; Tarasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Thermostimulated exoelectronic emission of eight fragments of regolith returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station was studied. The nature of the exoemission glove-curves was determined by particle type. Fragments of breccia, sinter, slag, anorthosite, glass plate, and leucocratic gabbro after the first heating disclosed a single exoemission maximum, whose temperature position is in the range 115 to 200 C. The data obtained indicate the complex and inhomogeneous energy structure of some regolith fragments. The presence of surface states capable of forming sorptive bonds can be assumed for most particles. The exoemission of anorthosite, olivine, and the glass spherule is due to the presence of formation defects at their surfaces.

  19. Metallographic study of metallic fragment of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Petukhova, T. M.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    A high precision investigation of a metallic fragment from the lunar material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station revealed three characteristic temperature intervals with different kinetics of solid solution decomposition. The following were found in the structure of the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy: (1) delta-phase and alpha-ferrite of diffusional, displacement origin in the grain boundary and acicular forms; and (2) martensite of isothermal and athermal nature, acicular, lamellar, massive, and dendritic. The diversity of the shapes of structural constituents is associated with the effect on their formation of elastic distortions and various mechanisms of deformation relaxation processes.

  20. Morphology and types of particles of regolith sample from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florenskiy, K. P.; Ivanov, A. V.; Tarasov, L. S.; Stakheyev, Y. I.; Rode, O. D.

    1974-01-01

    A brief description of the morphology of lunar surface material returned by Luna 16 automatic lunar station is given. Adhesiveness of the surface material and its ability to be electrified is noted. Two main genetic groups of regolith particles are differentiated: primary, represented mainly by fragments of magmatic rocks of the basalt and gabbro types, as well as mineralized grains of their constituent minerals, and secondary, particles subjected to appreciable exogenic transformation on the surface of the Moon. The second group, representing more than 70 percent of the material in coarse fractions, includes particles of breccias, sintered aggregates of complex dendritic form, and glass and vitrified particles of varied composition.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mass models for the Milky Way (McGaugh, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaugh, S. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have applied the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR) calibrated by external galaxies (McGaugh 2004ApJ...609..652M, 2014Galax...2..601M) to the terminal velocity curves observed in the first (Clemens 1985ApJ...295..422C) and fourth (Luna et al. 2006ApJ...641..938L; McClure-Griffiths & Dickey 2007ApJ...671..427M) quadrants to construct mass models for the Milky Way. (1 data file).

  2. What Can You Do with a Returned Sample of Martian Dust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2007-01-01

    A major issue that we managed to successfully address for the Stardust Mission was the magnitude and manner of preliminary examination (PET) of the returned samples, which totaled much less than 1 mg. Not since Apollo and Luna days had anyone faced this issue, and the lessons of Apollo PET were not extremely useful because of the very different sample masses in this case, and the incredible advances in analytical capabilities since the 1960s. This paper reviews some of the techniques for examination of small very rare samples that would be returned from Mars missions.

  3. HPLC Characterization of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resole Resin Used in Fabrication of Shuttle Booster Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method was developed to rapidly fingerprint a phenol-formaldehyde resole resin similar to Durite(R) SC-1008. This resin is used in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composite materials from which Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster nozzles are manufactured. A knowledge of resin chemistry is essential to successful composite processing and performance. The results indicate that a high quality separation of over 35 peaks in 25 minutes were obtained using a 15 cm Phenomenex LUNA C8 bonded reverse phase column, a three-way water-acetonitrile-methanol nonlinear gradient, and LTV detection at 280 nm.

  4. Isotopic composition of lithium, potassium, rubidium, and strontium in lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaslavskiy, V. G.; Levskiy, L. K.; Murin, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    The isotopic composition of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the Luna 16 regolith was investigated by the method of thermionic emission, without chemical separation. The isotopic composition of the lithium in two regolith samples did not differ (within the limits 0.5 percent) from the mean of the terrestrial reference standard. At the same time, the observed difference (1 percent) in the isotopic composition of lithium between the samples requires further investigation and confirmation. The isotopic compositions of K and Rb did not differ within the limits of experimental error from the isotopic composition of the reference standard.

  5. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formicola, Alba; Corvisiero, Pietro; Gervino, Gianpiero

    2016-04-01

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed.

  6. [Morphology of experimental pneumoconiosis developing after exposure to lunar soil].

    PubMed

    Batsura, Iu D; Kruglikov, G G; Arutiunov, V D

    1981-09-01

    Intratracheal administration to rats of a thin fraction of lunar material delivered by the Luna-16 automatic station from the Sea of Abundance gives rise to pneumoconiosis. The disease is characterized by the formation of granulation tissue consisting of lymphoid cells, macrophages, fibroblasts and cell cooperations (rosettes), by thickening of the basal layer of the aerohematic barrier, by the development of the immune process, blockade of the terminal parts of the lymphatic network, and by the development of the fibrous process. As regards the intensity of fibrous tissue formation, the lunar material might be attributed to the group of weak-fibrogenous dust as compared, for instance, with quartz.

  7. Light Propagation through Anisotropic Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113–123 (1997). 5. B. E . Stribling, B. M . Welsh, and M . C. Roggemann...746407 (2009). 10. M . Chang, C. O. Font, F. Santiago, Y. Luna, E . Roura, and S. Restaino, “Marine environment optical propagation measure- ments,” Proc...Anisotropic factor as a function of alpha for several zeta values. Toselli et al. Vol. 28, No. 3 / March 2011 / J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 487 14. M . S

  8. A Brighter Choice for Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Emergency exit signs can be lifesavers, but only if they remain visible when people need them. All too often, power losses or poor visibility can render the signs ineffective. Luna Technologies International, Inc., of Kent, Washington, is shining new light on this safety issue. The company s LUNAplast(trademark) product line illuminates without the need for electricity, maintenance, or a power connection. LUNAplast, which benefited from tests conducted at Johnson Space Center, is so successful that NASA engineers selected it for the emergency exit pathway indicators on the International Space Station (ISS).

  9. Founder of modern cosmonautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, A. I.

    2006-12-01

    The basic milestones of the life journey of S.P. Korolev (12.01.1907 14.01.1966), the Designer General of rocket and space systems, are presented. Information on various missiles of the first generation R-1. R-2, R-5, R-7, and R-9, launch vehicles Sputnik, Luna, Molniya, Vostok, Soyuz, and N-1, and also spacecraft designed for various purposes, which were developed under Korolev’s supervision, is given. Korolev’s contribution to the development of rocket engineering and cosmonautics is considered: the reasons for USSR failure in the “Moon race” with the USA are mentioned.

  10. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  11. Pyroxene-spinel intergrowths in lunar and terrestrial pyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamura, F. P.; Mccallum, I. S.; Stroh, J. M.; Ghose, S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the oriented intergrowth of spinel and pyroxene in a pigeonite from Luna 20, an augite from Apollo 16 anorthosite 67075, and an orthopyroxene from a spinel lherzolite nodule from the San Quintin volcanic field, Mexico. Using Mo K alpha radiation, photographs were taken of small, hand-picked single-crystals. A mechanism of exsolution is suggested in which the oxygen framework remains intact and spinel nuclei are formed by the migration of cations from interstitial sites and tetrahedral sites in the original non-stoichiometric pyroxene.

  12. The shallow structure of the Martian lithosphere in the vicinity of the ridged plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Aist, L. L.

    1990-01-01

    On Mars, the most prominent assemblage of regularly spaced plain ridges occurs in the plains of the Coprates and Lunae Planum regions. In this paper, a number of tectonic models is developed and quantitatively evaluated, that relate the regular spacing of these ridges to the shallow internal structure of Mars. It is shown that models with both rigid and deformable megaregolith-basement interface conditions can provide solutions which can explain the ridge spacing within the constraint provided by the estimated thickness of the smooth plains materials. Implications of the models for the structure and state of stress in the Tharsis region at the time of ridge formation are discussed.

  13. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

  14. METEOSPACE, solar monitoring and space weather at Calern observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbard, T.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Crussaire, D.; Morand, F.; Ruty, F.; Biree, L.; Aboudarham, J.; Fuller, N.; Renaud, C.; Meftah, M.

    2016-12-01

    METEOSPACE is a new partnership project between the Paris Observatory (OP), the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), the French Air Force and a service company (LUNA technology) for the development and operation of a set of small telescopes Hα / Ca II K / Ca II H / G band to be installed at on the Calern plateau (OCA). The objective is to monitor solar activity for both research and its applications in space weather through continuous optical observations of the dynamic phenomena that are visible in the chromosphere: eruptions, destabilization of the filaments triggering coronal mass ejections and associated Moreton waves.

  15. Simplified model evaluation of cooling rates for glass-containing lunar compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhlmann, D. R.; Yinnon, H.; Fang, C.-Y.

    1982-01-01

    The simplified model of glass formation and the development of partial crystallinity in cooled bodies has been applied to lunar compositions 10060, 15028, 15086, 15101, 15286, 15301, 15498, 15499, 60255, 65016, 77017, Apollo 15 green glass and LUNA 24 highland basalt. The critical cooling rates for glass formation predicted by the simplified model are found to be in good agreement (to within an order of magnitude) with those predicted by the exact treatment of crystallization statistics. These predicted critical cooling rates are in even better agreement (a factor of 2) with measured values of the rates required to form glasses of the materials.

  16. Lunar Exploration and Science Opportunities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Schiemann, J.; Patti, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavour. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  17. Lunar space missions for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, G. A.; Chechin, V. A.; Ryabov, V. A.

    2013-05-01

    Two stages of exploring the lunar surface as a target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are discussed. The first step is connected with the Lunar Orbital Radio Detector (LORD) experiment in the space mission Luna-Glob, scheduled for the near future. The current status of the LORD instrument development is represented. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based detector arrays. Successful completion of the LORD experiment will permit to consider the second step of the program namely multi-satellite lunar systems to increase the statistics and the accuracy of the experiment.

  18. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Patti, B.; Schiemann, J.; Hufenbach, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  19. Collaboration in teacher workshops and citizen science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, M. G.; Buxner, S.; Gay, P.; Crown, D. A.; Bracey, G.; Gugliucci, N.; Costello, K.; Reilly, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Moon and Earth system is an important topic for elementary and middle school science classrooms. Elementary and middle school teachers are challenged to keep current in science. The Planetary Science Institute created a program titled Workshops in Science Education and Resources (WISER): Planetary Perspectives to assist in-service K-12 teachers with their knowledge in earth and space science, using up-to-date science and inquiry activities to assist them in engaging their students. To augment the science and add a new aspect for teacher professional development, PSI is working in a new partnership collaborating with the Cosmoquest project in engaging teachers in authentic inquiry of the Moon. Teachers now learn about the Moon from PSI scientists and education staff and then engage in inquiry of the Moon using CosmoQuest's online citizen science project MoonMappers and its accompanying classroom curriculum TerraLuna. Through MoonMappers, teachers and students explore the lunar surface by viewing high-resolution pictures from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and marking craters and other interesting features. In addition, TerraLuna provides a unit of inquiry-based activities that bring MoonMappers and its science content into the classroom. This program addresses standards teachers need to teach and helps them not only teach about the Moon but also engage their students in authentic inquiry of the lunar surface.

  20. Evaluation of single liquid primers with organic sulfur compound for bonding between indirect composite material and silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Shimoe, Saiji; Tanoue, Naomi; Satoda, Takahiro; Murayama, Takeshi; Nikawa, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of primers on bonding between a silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy and an indirect composite material. Cast disks were air-abraded with alumina, conditioned with one of five primers (Alloy Primer, Luna-Wing Primer, Metal Primer II, Metaltite, M.L. Primer), and bonded with a light-activated indirect composite. Shear bond strengths were determined after 20,000 times of thermocycling. The results showed that four of the primers, except the Luna-Wing Primer, were effective in enhancing the bond strength as compared with the unprimed control group. Of these four primers, Alloy Primer, Metal Primer II, and M.L. Primer exhibited significantly greater bond strengths. It can be concluded that the effectiveness of primers varies considerably according to the organic sulfur compounds added to the solvent, and that care must be taken in selecting priming agents for bonding the composite material and the silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy.

  1. Geochemistry of Lunar Highland Meteorites Mil, 090034, 090036 AND 090070

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirai, N.aoki; Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nyquist, L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo and Luna samples were collected from a restricted area on the near side of the Moon, while the source craters of the lunar meteorites are randomly distributed. For example, Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] found a variety of lithic clasts in Dho 489 and Y 86032 which were not represented by Apollo samples, and some of these clasts have lower rare earth elements (REE) and FeO abundances than Apollo anorthosites, respectively. Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] concluded that Dho 489 and Y 86032 originated from the lunar farside. Therefore, lunar meteorites provide an opportunity to study lunar surface rocks from areas not sampled by Apollo and Luna missions. Three lunar anorthitic breccias (MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070) were found on the Miller Range Ice Field in Antarctica during the 2009-2010 ANSMET season [3]. In this study, we determined elemental abudnances for MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070 by using INAA and aimed to characterize these meteorites in chemical compositions in comparison with those for other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples.

  2. Can the elongated hindwing tails of fluttering moths serve as false sonar targets to divert bat attacks?

    PubMed

    Lee, Wu-Jung; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-05-01

    It has long been postulated that the elongated hindwing tails of many saturniid moths have evolved to create false sonar targets to divert the attack of echolocation-guided bat predators. However, rigorous echo-acoustic evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. In this study, fluttering luna moths (Actias luna), a species with elongated hindwing tails, were ensonified with frequency modulated chirp signals from all angles of orientation and across the wingbeat cycle. High-speed stereo videography was combined with pulse compression sonar processing to characterize the echo information available to foraging bats. Contrary to previous suggestions, the results show that the tail echoes are weak and do not dominate the sonar returns, compared to the large, planar wings and the moth body. However, the distinctive twisted morphology of the tails create persistent echoes across all angles of orientation, which may induce erroneous sonar target localization and disrupt accurate tracking by echolocating bats. These findings thus suggest a refinement of the false target hypothesis to emphasize sonar localization errors induced by the twisted tails, and highlight the importance of physics-based approaches to study the sensory information involved in the evolutionary arms race between moths and their bat predators.

  3. Calculation of fast neutron removal cross sections for different lunar soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellili, B.; Elmahroug, Y.; Souga, C.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) with the lunar surface produces secondary radiations as neutrons. The study of the production and attenuation of these neutrons in the lunar soil is very important to estimate the annual ambient dose equivalent on the lunar surface and for lunar nuclear spectroscopy. Also, understanding the attenuation of fast neutrons in lunar soils can help in measuring of the lunar neutron density profile and to measure the neutron flux on the lunar surface. In this paper, the attenuation of fast neutrons in different lunar soils is investigated. The macroscopic effective removal cross section (ΣR) of fast neutrons was theoretically calculated from the mass removal cross-section values (ΣR/ρ) for various elements in soils. The obtained values of (ΣR) were discussed according to the density. The results show that the attenuation of fast neutrons is more important in the landing sites of Apollo 12 and Luna 16 than the other landing sites of Apollo and Luna missions.

  4. Oil geochemistry study; Blocks III and IV Bachaquedro Field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.A.; Villarroel, H.G. de; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Blocks III and IV Bachaquero, Field, located on the east side of Lake Maracaibo, comprise an area of 40 square kilometers. In 1956 the discovery well penetrated oil saturated sands in a south dipping homoclinal structure. In 1958 production reached a maximum of 245,000 barrels per day of moderate gravity oil from three Miocene age Lagunillas Formation sands, designated as L, M, and N. The Bachaquero Field has experienced production problems including high gas-oil ratios from M and N sands to the north, high water cuts in all three sands to the south, and low production rates in the southeast. In addition, the vertical and lateral continuity of the oil pools are unknown. High resolution gas chromatography and analysis of biological markers was employed in order to resolve the continuity of the oil pools, determine genetic origin of the oils, and shed light on erratic production. Oil in the L sands are vertically discontinuous from oil in the M+N sands. The two oil pools appear laterally continuous within the study area, indicating absence of fault barriers. Well VLD 311, open to both L and M sands, produces a mix of oils, but with a strong contribution from the M sand. Bachaquero Field reservoirs were charged with oil from two different facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna or perhaps from La Luna and Colon source rocks as the stratigraphically younger L sands contain less mature oil with a stronger terrigenous imprint than oil the M and N sands.

  5. Chemostratigraphy: Applications in the Tachira depression, Tachira State, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, H.; Ostos, M.; Yoris, F.

    1996-08-01

    Rock analyses (40 chemical parameters) from densely sampled Cretaceous sections from La Luna, Navay, Aguardiente and Escandalosa formations in southwestern Venezuela, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, allowed statistical characterization of formations, environmentally meaningful clustering of correlated geochemical variables, as well as calculation of chemical accumulation rates. Chemofacies, defined from accumulation rates, were used for correlation and depositional environment definition. Organic matter maturity does not affect NiN ratios, but causes homogenization in Ca/Sr ratios. Th/V ratios clearly separate shelf vs. oceanic fades, closely matching those from biofacies analysis. Cycles in Th/V repeat every 60 in (Navay) to 20 in (La Luna), corresponding to Milankovitch climatic cycles. Shales (high Th/V) represent cooler-shallower sedimentation periods, and lodestones (low Th/V) represent warmer-deeper ones. Differences in accumulation rates were used for establishing changes in: source rock (La-Ce), either due to tectonism or variations in marine current pattern; redox conditions (Ni-V); clay mineralogy (Al-K); energy level (Al-Si); and salinity (Mg-Na). Finally, chemostratigraphy, combined with reliable structural and stratigraphical field data, has proven to be a powerful tool for unravelling tectono-stratigraphical histories.

  6. Structural style on southern flank of Merida Andes, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbina, C.; Cornelio, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Merida Andes exhibit the most complex tectonics in western Venezuela. By studying the different ages and regional distribution of rocks, we can describe some tectonic features which are of interest to oil exploration in this area. Vertical basement movements accompanied extensional tectonics from pre-Cambrian until Eocene times. For this time interval, we reconstructed diverse normal fault systems and associated subsidence. From Eocene time onwards, compressional tectonics gave origin to anticlines and reverse, thrust and back-thrust faults. Neo-tectonic movements have modified existing structures by dislocation along transcurrent fault systems. Geochemical analyses have determined the presence of hydrocarbon source rocks equivalent to the a Luna Formation of the Maracaibo Basin; seismic, surface and subsurface data prove the existence of excellent seals in the Eocene Paguey Shale. The principal problem is to determine the timing of hydrocarbon migration with respect to the timing of trap formation. It is highly probable that the sapropelic strata of the Navay Formation, equivalent to the La Luna Formation, is presently expelling hydrocarbons to traps in the Barinas Basin, under presently existing temperature-pressure conditions.

  7. The main peculiarities of the processes of the deformation and destruction of lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonovich, A. K.; Gromov, V. V.; Dmitriyev, A. D.; Penetrigov, V. N.; Senevov, P. S.; Shvarev, V. V.

    1977-01-01

    The main results of study of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil, obtained by laboratory study of samples returned from the moon by Luna 16 and Luna 20, as well as by operation of the self-propelled Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 on the surface of the moon, are analyzed in the report. All studies were carried out by single methods and by means of unified instruments, allowing a confident comparison of the results obtained. The investigations conducted allowed the following values of the main physical-mechanical properties of lunar soil to be determined: in the natural condition the solid density corresponds to the porosity of 0.8; the modal value of the carrying capacity is 0.4 kg/square cm; adhesion is 0.04 to 0.06 kg/square cm; and the internal angle of friction is 20 to 25 degree. The main mechanisms of deformation and destruction of the soil are analyzed in the report, and the relationships between the mechanical properties and physical parameters of the soil are presented.

  8. Comparison of histochemical methods for murine eosinophil detection in a RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model

    PubMed Central

    Meyerholz, David K.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Castilow, Elaine M.; Varga, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of histochemical detection of eosinophils in fixed murine tissue is lacking. Five histochemical methods previously reported for eosinophil detection were quantitatively and qualitatively compared in an established murine RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model. Nonspecific neutrophil staining was evaluated in tissue sections of neutrophilic soft tissue lesions and bone marrow from respective animals. Eosinophils had granular red to orange-red cytoplasmic staining, depending on the method, whereas neutrophils had, when stained, a more homogenous cytoplasmic pattern. Nonspecific background staining of similar coloration was variably seen in arterial walls and erythrocytes. Astra Blue/Vital New Red, Congo Red, Luna, Modified Hematoxylin & Eosin, and Sirius Red techniques were all effective in detecting increased eosinophil recruitment compared to controls; however, differences in eosinophil quantification significantly varied between techniques. Astra Blue/Vital New Red had the best specificity for differentiating eosinophils and neutrophils, but had a reduced ability to enumerate eosinophils and was the most time intensive. The Luna stain had excessive non specific staining of tissues and a reduced enumeration of infiltrating eosinophils making it suboptimal. For multiple parameters such as eosinophil detection, specificity, and contrast with background tissues, the Sirius Red followed by Congo Red and Modified Hematoxylin & Eosin methods were useful, each with their own staining qualities. PMID:19181630

  9. Upper Ovetian trilobites from Spain and their implications for the palaeobiogeography and correlation of the Cambrian Stage 3 in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liñán, Eladio; Gámez Vintaned, José Antonio; Pillola, Gian Luigi; Gozalo, Rodolfo

    2016-06-01

    The upper part of the La Herrería Formation in Los Barrios de Luna (León Province, N Spain) has been revised from a palaeontological and biostratigraphical point of view. Two stratigraphic sections have been studied including their trilobite and ichnofossils contents. The ichnofossil assemblages have a high diversity of species characterising the Cruziana ichnofacies, suggesting a shallow sublittoral environment for the upper part of the La Herrería Formation. The trilobites species recognised are Lunagraulos antiquus, Dolerolenus formosus, Dolerolenus longioculatus, Lunolenus lunae, Metadoxides richterorum, Metadoxides armatus and Sardaspis? sp. from the upper Ovetian (lower Cambrian Stage 3 under discussion by the ISCS). The new trilobite assemblages make possible a good correlation between the lower Cambrian formations of North Spain, Sardinia, South China and Siberia. Analysis of the palaeobiogeographical meaning of all trilobite genera that have been identified in the upper Ovetian of Spain shows a strong connection between the northern peri-Gondwana margin and west Gondwana, with a low latitude distribution for the Spanish trilobites at this time.

  10. Ultra-sensitive γ-ray spectroscopy set-up for investigating primordial lithium problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Gustavino, C.; Trezzi, D.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; DiLeva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.

    2016-07-01

    To precisely determine BBN 6Li production, the cross-section of the nuclear reaction 2H(α, γ)6Li must be directly measured within the astrophysical energy range of 30-400 keV. This measure requires an ultra-low γ-ray background in the experimental set-up. We have realized the conditions matching these very strict requirements at LUNA, the deep underground accelerator laboratory active in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy: the γ-ray spectrometer background has been reduced down to reach unmatched low levels, comparable to the good ones experienced in dedicated off-line underground ultra low γ counting rate. We present and discuss the γ-ray background reduction reached in the HpGe spectrometer, where most of the remaining γ-ray background seen in the spectra are coming from the energetic deuterons scattered in the gas target by the α beam. Thanks to the low neutron environmental background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3 MeV neutrons on HpGe detectors has been studied in details and the results are presented and discussed.

  11. A global scale mechanistic model of the photosynthetic capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; McDowell, N. G.; Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.; Muss, J. D.; Fisher, J. B.; Reich, P. B.; Wilson, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. In this study, we developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA V1.0) to predict the photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions, based on the optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The LUNA model was able to reasonably well capture the observed patterns of photosynthetic capacity in view that it explained approximately 55 % of the variation in observed Vc, max25 and 65 % of the variation in observed Jmax25 across the globe. Our model simulations under current and future climate conditions indicated that Vc, max25 could be most affected in high-latitude regions under a warming climate and that ESMs using a fixed Vc, max25 or Jmax25 by plant functional types were likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.

  12. A global scale mechanistic model of the photosynthetic capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ali, A. A.; Fisher, R.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Rogers, A.; McDowell, N. G.; Wilson, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc,max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25oC) is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. In this study, we developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA V1.0) to predict the photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions, based on the optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The LUNA model was able to reasonably well capture the observed patterns of photosynthetic capacity in view that it explained approximately 55% of the variation in observed Vc,max25 and 65% of the variation in observed Jmax25 across the globe. Our model simulations under current and future climate conditions indicated that Vc,max25 could be most affected in high-latitude regions under a warming climate and that ESMs using a fixed Vc,max25 or Jmax25 by plant functional types were likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.

  13. Refinement of lunar TiO2 analysis with multispectral features of Chang'E-1 IIM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Zhu, Peimin

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method based on the samples from Apollo and Luna landing sites to determine lunar TiO2 content with Chang'E-1 interference imaging spectrometer (IIM) imagery. By analyzing the nonlinear relationship between the optical and compositional parameters of lunar soil samples, the method employs two Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to estimate the titanium abundance of the lunar surface. Developed with the soil compositions of the Apollo and Luna sample-return stations, the RMS (root mean square) error of our method is 0.24 wt% TiO2, and the correlation coefficient of the TiO2 values and our predicted ones is 99.72 %. Compared with the other 3 models, the method proposed in this paper exhibits a good performance for determining the chemical composition of the lunar surface. TiO2 maps of Sinus Iridum, part of the Marius Hills plateau, and part of Mare Smythii are produced using our method, which could be useful for future lunar missions.

  14. Constraining the source regions of lunar meteorites using orbital geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzada-Diaz, A.; Joy, K. H.; Crawford, I. A.; Nordheim, T. A.

    2015-02-01

    Lunar meteorites provide important new samples of the Moon remote from regions visited by the Apollo and Luna sample return missions. Petrologic and geochemical analysis of these meteorites, combined with orbital remote sensing measurements, have enabled additional discoveries about the composition and age of the lunar surface on a global scale. However, the interpretation of these samples is limited by the fact that we do not know the source region of any individual lunar meteorite. Here, we investigate the link between meteorite and source region on the Moon using the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer remote sensing data set for the elements Fe, Ti, and Th. The approach has been validated using Apollo and Luna bulk regolith samples, and we have applied it to 48 meteorites excluding paired stones. Our approach is able broadly to differentiate the best compositional matches as potential regions of origin for the various classes of lunar meteorites. Basaltic and intermediate Fe regolith breccia meteorites are found to have the best constrained potential launch sites, with some impact breccias and pristine mare basalts also having reasonably well-defined potential source regions. Launch areas for highland feldspathic meteorites are much less well constrained and the addition of another element, such as Mg, will probably be required to identify potential source regions for these.

  15. The method of landing sites selection for Russian lunar lander missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Djachkova, Maya; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Russian space agency is planning to launch two lunar landers in the upcoming years - Luna-Glob (2018) and Luna-Resurs (2021). Instruments installed on board the landers are designed to study volatiles and water ice, lunar exosphere, dust particles and regolith composition. As primary scientific interest is concentrated in the south polar region, the landing sites for both landers will be selected there. Since rugged terrain, conditions of solar illumination at high altitudes and necessity of direct radio communication with the Earth, it is essential to select an optimal landing site for each lander. We present the method of landing sites selection, which is based on geographical information systems (GIS) technologies to perform analysis, based on the criteria of surface suitability for landing, such as slopes, illumination conditions and Earth visibility. In addition, the estimations of hydrogen concentration in regolith based on LEND/LRO data were used to evaluate landing site candidates on possible water ice presence. The method gave us 6 canditates to land. Four of them are located in the impact craters: Simpelius D, Simpelius E, Boguslawsky C, Boussingault, and the other two are located to the north of Schomberger crater and to the north-west of Boguslawsky C crater and associated with probable basin-related materials. The main parameters of these sites will be presented with possible prioritization based on both technical requirements and scientific interest.

  16. Underground Study of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the Precision Era of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavino, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Big Bang Nucleosinthesis (BBN) theory provides definite predictions for the abundance of light elements produced in the early universe, as far as the knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes of the BBN chain is accurate. At BBN energies (30 ≲ Ecm ≲ 300 MeV) the cross section of many BBN processes is very low because of the Coulomb repulsion between the interacting nuclei. For this reason it is convenient to perform the measurements deep underground. Presently the world's only facility operating underground is LUNA (Laboratory for Undergound Nuclear astrophysics) at LNGS ("Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso", Italy). In this presentation the BBN measurements of LUNA are briefly reviewed and discussed. It will be shown that the ongoing study of the D(p, γ)3He reaction is of primary importance to derive the baryon density of universe Ωb with high accuracy. Moreover, this study allows to constrain the existence of the so called "dark radiation", composed by undiscovered relativistic species permeating the universe, such as sterile neutrinos.

  17. Miniature optical fiber pressure microsensors for in vivo measurement of intramuscular pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottler, P. S.; Blevins, D.; Averett, J.; Wavering, T. A.; Morrow, D. A.; Shin, A. Y.; Kaufman, K. R.

    2007-02-01

    An innovative fiber optic pressure microsensor has been developed that is based upon on Luna Innovations' patented extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) technique. The basic physics governing the operation of these sensors makes them relatively tolerant or immune to the effects of high-temperature, high-EMI, and highly-corrosive environments. Luna's pressure microsensor is extremely small, with an outer diameter of only 200 microns and a length of less than 1mm. The pressure microsensor has a high sensitivity that allows for sub-mmHg resolution over a dynamic range of 0-300 mmHg. The combination of these features makes this pressure microsensor ideal for medical applications where small size, high sensitivity and accuracy, EMI immunity, biocompatibility, and survivability (e.g. sterilizable - steam, ethylene oxide) are important. One example medical application of the pressure microsensor has been to adapt the microsensor for measurement of intramuscular pressure in vivo during active and passive muscle activation. Clinically it is difficult to study the in vivo mechanical properties of individual skeletal muscles for a variety of reasons. Initial experiments have demonstrated a correlation between intramuscular pressure and force. Such measurements can be a useful diagnostic tool for clinicians assessing muscular deficits in patients.

  18. Will the lunar renaissance come forth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L. M.; Zakharov, A. V.; Zakutnyaya, O. V.

    2011-12-01

    The article gives a brief review of the scientific program of the unmanned studies of the Moon performed in the USSR in 1960s-1970s, most notably by the "Luna" Spacecraft. The main results obtained during this period are considered, in particular photographing of the far side of the Moon, mapping of the far side of the Moon, soft landing, remote (from the orbit of an artificial lunar satellite) and in situ (on the surface) studies of the lunar surface composition and circumlunar space, automated soil sampling, and delivery of surface samples to the Earth. Various institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences played important role in the studies, including the Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry and the Space Research Institute, established in 1965, where the Moon and Planets Department was established under the leadership of K.P. Florenskii. In the conclusion, the article considers some further issues of lunar studies and possibilities for lunar exploration. The challenging Moon exploration mission "Luna-Glob", currently under development in Russia, is a potentially important step in the beginning of the process.

  19. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Korablev, O.; Mantsevich, S.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R.; Kiselev, A.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bondarenko, A.; Dokuchaev, I.; Moiseev, P.; Victorov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Skorov, Y.; Bisikalo, D.; Velikodsky, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2017) and Luna- Resurs (launch in 2019) Russian surface missions. It's a pencil-beam spectrometer to be pointed by a robotic arm of the landing module. The instrument's field of view (FOV) of 1° is co-aligned with the FOV(45°) of a stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. It's spectrometer based on LIS with required redesign for ExoMars mission. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast coaligned with the FOV (5°) of High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers and are intended for study of the surface composition in the vicinity of the lander and rover. The spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface areas in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The spectral selection is provided by acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF), which scans the spectral range sequentially. Electrical command of the AOTF allows selecting the spectral sampling, and permits a random access if needed.

  20. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  1. Genetic Affiliation of Pre-Hispanic and Contemporary Mayas Through Maternal Linage.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna Isabel; Muñoz, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Ramírez, Gerardo; Beaty, Kristine G; López-Armenta, Mauro; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Moreno-Galeana, Miguel; Meza, Adrián Martínez; Ramos, Eduardo; Crawford, Michael H; Romano-Pacheco, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE. Genetic variation in the pre-Hispanic Mayas from archaeological sites in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, and Tabasco and their relationship with the contemporary communities in these regions have not been previously studied. Consequently, the principal aim of this study was to determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the pre-Hispanic Maya population and to assess the relationship of these individuals with contemporary Mesoamerican Maya and populations from Asia, Beringia, and North, Central, and South America. Our results revealed interactions and gene flow between populations in the different archaeological sites assessed in this study. The mtDNA haplogroup frequency in the pre-Hispanic Maya population (60.53%, 34.21%, and 5.26% for haplogroups A, C, and D, respectively) was similar to that of most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, with haplogroup A exhibiting the highest frequency. Haplogroup B most likely arrived independently and mixed with populations carrying haplogroups A and C based on its absence in the pre-Hispanic Mexican Maya populations and low frequencies in most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, although this also may be due to drift. Maya and Ciboneys sharing haplotype H10 belonged to haplogroup C1 and haplotype H4 of haplogroup D, suggesting shared regional haplotypes. This may indicate a shared genetic ancestry, suggesting more regional interaction

  2. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (<50 m) coincide with the highest mean particulate organic carbon values indicating a clear relationship with a reduction of light penetration in the water column. Inspection of the standard deviation maps shows greatest variability of particulate organic carbon from December to February in the Gulf of California, the coast of Colima and the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California greater variability of particulate organic carbon occurs from June to December. In the oceanic domain beyond the continental shelf, particulate organic carbon values are very

  3. The seduction of models. Chinampa agriculture in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chapin, M

    1988-01-01

    Considerable excitement accompanied Mexico's plan in the mid-1970s to build "Chinampas," in the swampy region of Veracruz and Tabasco, that is, agriculture involving the construction of raised farming beds in shallow lakes or marshes. The plan was devised by Mexico's Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Bioticos (INIREB). Perfected by the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico before the Spanish Conquest, chinampas had nearly vanished except in a few isolated and shrinking areas around Mexico City. The chinampas have been steadily constricted in recent years as Mexico City has extended out and swallowed the best known of them, Xochimilco. The introduction of chinampa technology in Tucta, a Chontal village of approximately 300 families in 1978, began on a grand scale. The INI's objectives for the project were: to provide the landless Chontale Indians with permanent employment; to bring about self-sufficient food production in the area; to ensure a constant production of vegetables for the internal market of Villahermosa; to strengthen indigenous cultural identity; and to develop a real alternative for the incorporation of swampland into productive activities. In 1979, INIREB became involved in a 2nd chinampa project in the "ejido" of El Castillo, Veracruz. El Castillo was selected as an experimental project site because of the lake as well as the village's proximity to INIREB's central office in Xalapa, rather than community interest in chinampas. The examples of chinampa technology transfer presented had different outcomes, but they shared several crucial defects. In both cases, the stated and unstated objectives of project managers had little fit with the interests and needs of the farmers. The 2 projects were designed and implemented by outside technicians without significant local participation, and both rapidly fell apart when "beneficiaries" failed to cooperate. The Chontal case is notable because, after a series of failures, it finally worked

  4. [Intra-domiciliary low volume spraying of malathion and deltamethrin for controlling Anopheles sp].

    PubMed

    Vaca-Marín, M A; Rodríguez-López, M H; Bown, D N; Ríos, R

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of low volume (LV) house-spraying of deltamethrin 0.027 per cent and malathion 20 per cent in the control of Anopheles sp was evaluated in two villages of Tabasco, México during the last semester of 1987. Two spray rounds were carried out at three-month intervals, using Fontan R-12 back-pack-space sprayers. Residual effect and cost-benefit were evaluated and compared to the standard DDT spraying technique using the Hudson X-pert sprayer. The entomological evaluation focused on mortality rates and density levels observed from intra and peridomicilliary man biting collections, indoor mosquito resting densities, curtain trap and the standard WHO wall bioassay. It was determined that when using the LV method these insecticides were highly effective. Malathion showed a residual effect of eight weeks whereas deltamethrin was found to have a residual activity of up to 12 weeks. Deltamethrin was more effective in reducing intra and peridomiciliary biting rates, and indoor resting mosquitoes. The cost-benefit ratio of deltamethrin and malathion LV house-spraying was 2.56 and 0.89, respectively, as compared to the standard DDT house-spraying. Considering its effectiveness in anopheline control and its cost-benefit, in addition to being a functional technique, intradomicile LV insecticide spraying should be considered as a practical alternative in malaria control programs.

  5. Overview of the Chicxulub impactite and proximal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, Ph

    2003-04-01

    Several types of impactites have now been recovered from the various wells drilled in the Chicxulub crater in Yucatan. The old Pemex wells (Yucatan 6 and Chicxulub 1) contain a highly heterogeneous and stratified suevite, which upper unit is unusually rich in carbonates, impact breccia and a possibly an impact melt at the very bottom of C1. They are located towards the crater center (C1), on the flank of the peak ring (Y6). The thickness of impactite in this zone exceeds 250 m. The UNAM wells just outside the crater rim reveal sedimentary breccia and a fall-out suevite richer in silicate melt and basement fragments, than its crater equivalent. There, the thickness of the impactite was probably several hundred meters, considering that its top might have been eroded. It can also be speculated that a cover of fall-back suevite extended over the ejecta blanket in Yucatan, all the way to Belize and perhaps even to the region of Tabasco, in Southern Mexico. The recently drilled Yaxcopoil contains about 100 m of impactites, which is currently under study. Preliminary data seem to show less variability than the material recovered from Y6. As in the UNAM well, the impactite is dominated by basement material, and shows alternating severely altered and better preserved horizons.

  6. [Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae)].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber

    2011-03-01

    The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the species (one female and one male). The metaphase analysis allowed the establishment of the modal haploid number of 1n = 12 bivalent chromosomes. The chromosomic formulae from the haploid bivalent karyotype was integrated by 12 biarmed chromosomes characterized by twelve pairs of metacentric-submetacentric (msm) chromosomes. The meiotic counting gives the idea that diploid chromosome number is integrated by a complement of 2n = 24 biarmed chromosomes. The presence of sex chromosomes from female and male meiotic spreads was not observed. Current results suggest that S. baudinii chromosome structure is well shared among Hylidae family and "B" chromosomes are particular structures that have very important evolutionary consequences in species diversification.

  7. A 6000 yr record of climatic variability for the Usumucinta-Grijalva delta, Mexico, based on a palaeoecological transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, K.; Torrescano-Valle, N.; Islebe, G. A.; Hoek, W.

    2013-05-01

    Within the floodbasin of the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta in Tabasco, southern Mexico a continuous accumulation of organic deposits occurred since 6000 years ago. Suitable locations allow a detailed reconstruction of environmental changes modulated by human impact, sea-level, and climate change since the dawn of Olmec and Maya cultures. Five sediment cores along a 10 km transect were studied on pollen and macro-remains. The transect runs from drowned ancient beach ridges with evidence of human occupation towards a relatively undisturbed partly infilled lagoon. Multiple tephra layers within the organic sediments were used for correlation between cores, supported by 25 AMS radiocarbon dates on terrestrial macro-remains yielding a solid stratigraphic framework for the reconstructed environmental changes. The study of multiple cores along a transect allowed for the exclusion of local influences on the pollen signal and enabled us to unravel the impact of sea-level rise, human land use and climate change. Vegetation changes reveal the transition from an optimal climatic period towards a strong climatic variability during the Late Holocene. The advance and retreat of coastal ecosystems appears to be strongly determined by the duration of the hydroperiod which we relate to changes in river discharges and rainfall in the drainage basin. Our results can be compared to other late Holocene climatic proxy records from southern Mexico.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in chronically petroleum-contaminated soils in Mexico and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on spore germination.

    PubMed

    Franco-Ramírez, Alicia; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Varela-Fregoso, Lucía; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2007-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been hypothesized to enhance plant adaptation and growth in petroleum-contaminated soils. Nevertheless, neither AMF-biodiversity under chronically petroleum-contaminated soils nor spore germination response to petroleum hydrocarbons has been well studied. Chronically petroleum-contaminated rhizosphere soil and roots from Echinochloa polystachya, Citrus aurantifolia and C. aurantium were collected from Activo Cinco Presidentes, Tabasco, Mexico. Root colonization and spore abundance were evaluated. Additionally, rhizosphere soil samples were propagated using Sorghum vulgare L. as a plant trap under greenhouse conditions; subsequently, AMF-spores were identified. AMF-colonization ranged from 63 to 77% while spore number ranged from 715 to 912 in 100 g soil, suggesting that AMF tolerate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere. From grass species, four AMF-morphospecies were identified: Glomus ambisporum, G. sinuosum (previously described as Sclerocystis sinuosum), Acaulospora laevis, and Ambispora gerdermanni. From citrus trees, four AMF-species were also identified: Scutellospora heterogama, G. ambisporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, and G. citricola. In a second study, it was observed that spore germination and hyphal length of G. mosseae, G. ambisporum, and S. heterogama were significantly reduced by either volatile compounds of crude oil or increased concentrations of benzo[a ]pyrene or phenanthrene in water-agar.

  9. Molecular demonstration of SLC4A1 gene deletion in two Mexican patients with Southeast Asian ovalocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Carrillo Farga, Joaquín; Zúñiga, Joaquín; Amador Guerrero, María Teresa; Granados, Julio; Estrada, Francisco J

    2005-06-01

    We describe the finding of two Mexican patients with a specific 27-bp deletion in the solute carrier family 4 gene (SLC4A1delta27) (also known as the band 3 gene found on chromosome 17q21-q22), characteristic of Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO). The patients were asymptomatic, and the initial diagnosis was made by microscopic observation of the presence of typical stomatocytic ovalocytes. The gene deletion was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Both patients were heterozygous for the deletion. One patient is from Tabasco state, in southeastern Mexico, a malaria-endemic zone. The other patient is from Mexico City, which is not a malaria-endemic area. Their families have no non-Mexican ancestors and their previous generations were born in Mexico. Both patients carry the HLA-B*3501 subtype, characteristic of Amerindians and Asian populations. Familial and HLA data led us to conclude that these two patients are the first report of SLC4A1delta27 in Amerindians. The nucleotide analysis showing a perfect match sequence between Southeast Asian and Mexican patients suggests, but does not prove, that the Mexican gene is not a de novo mutation. Instead, this gene might be the result of migration of individuals with Asian ancestry into the Mexican gene pool. We are looking for other families with the mutation to detect, by HLA analysis, the ancient ethnic origin of these patients.

  10. Using cornstarch in microparticulate diets for larvicultured tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus).

    PubMed

    Frías-Quintana, C A; Domínguez-Lorenzo, J; Álvarez-González, C A; Tovar-Ramírez, D; Martínez-García, R

    2016-04-01

    Aquaculture in Mexico has been developed by the cultivation of commercial species. In Tabasco, the cultivation of native species is mainly limited by the lack of nutrition studies to support its crop profitability. Among these species is the tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus), which has great potential for cultivation. However, the nutritional value of carbohydrates in diets for this species which contribute to improved growth and survival, have not been evalulated,. Thus, in the present investigation, isoprotein and isolipid diets have been designed based on the substitution of cellulose by corn starch (D1: 0% starch-15% cellulose, D2: 7.5% starch-7.5% cellulose and D3: 15% starch-0% cellulose) and compared with a commercial trout diet (45% protein and 16% lipids). A total of 1800 larvae (0.008 ± 0.002 g and 10.5 ± LT 0.126 mm) were used, distributed in a recirculation system in order to evaluate growth and survival for 30 days. The results show higher growth and survival of 97% of larvae fed the D3 diet, while cannibalism in the species was mitigated. Major digestive enzyme activities occurred (acid protease, alkaline protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A, lipase, α-glucosidase and amylase) for larvae fed D3. It is concluded that the contribution of corn starch (15%) replacing cellulose in the diet improves growth and survival of this species.

  11. Microhabitat use, population densities, and size distributions of sulfur cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Riesch, Rüdiger; Schießl, Angela; Wigh, Adriana; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Klaus, Sebastian; Zimmer, Claudia; Plath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Cueva del Azufre in Tabasco, Mexico, is a nutrient-rich cave and its inhabitants need to cope with high levels of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and extreme hypoxia. One of the successful colonizers of this cave is the poeciliid fish Poecilia mexicana, which has received considerable attention as a model organism to examine evolutionary adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Nonetheless, basic ecological data on the endemic cave molly population are still missing; here we aim to provide data on population densities, size class compositions and use of different microhabitats. We found high overall densities in the cave and highest densities at the middle part of the cave with more than 200 individuals per square meter. These sites have lower H2S concentrations compared to the inner parts where most large sulfide sources are located, but they are annually exposed to a religious harvesting ceremony of local Zoque people called La Pesca. We found a marked shift in size/age compositions towards an overabundance of smaller, juvenile fish at those sites. We discuss these findings in relation to several environmental gradients within the cave (i.e., differences in toxicity and lighting conditions), but we also tentatively argue that the annual fish harvest during a religious ceremony (La Pesca) locally diminishes competition (and possibly, cannibalism by large adults), which is followed by a phase of overcompensation of fish densities. PMID:25083351

  12. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Guzman, Francisco

    1996-11-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One important issue is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These sites areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltens, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost- effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico.

  13. [Myxoid liposarcoma of the anterior mediastinum. A case report and bibliography review].

    PubMed

    Luna-Martínez, Javier; Molina-Ramírez, Daniel; Mata-Quintero, Carlos Javier; García-Arrona, Luis Roberto; Peña-Rosas, Diana Pérez; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la incidencia de sarcomas de tejidos blandos es de 1.8 a 5 casos por año; 50% aparecen en las extremidades, 40% en el tronco y retroperitoneo. Los liposarcomas primarios de mediastino representan menos de 1% de los tumores mediastinales. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 53 años de edad, originaria y residente de Tabasco, con antecedente de liposarcoma pleomórfico de mediastino anterior (durante su tercer embarazo) 16 años antes de su ingreso actual; fue tratada en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología con resección y radioterapia. Acudió a su unidad de adscripción por dolor torácico, tos y expectoración hialina, la trataron como neumonía. Después se agregó disnea de medianos esfuerzos, y edema de miembros pélvicos; con la tomografía computada de tórax se diagnosticó un tumor mediastinal delimitado de 9 × 9 cm; la enviaron a nuestra unidad para su resección. Conclusiones: los liposarcomas representan menos de 1% de los tumores del mediastino, y requieren seguimiento a largo plazo por su alta recidiva después de un largo periodo libre de enfermedad.

  14. Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 and Rotylenchulus reniformis in Wild Accessions of Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A. F.; Percival, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-six accessions of G. hirsutum and two of G. barbadense were examined for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Rotylenchulus reniformis in environmental growth chamber experiments, with the objective of finding new sources of resistance. Only the G. barbadense accessions, TX-1347 and TX-1348, supported significantly less reproduction by R. reniformis than the susceptible control, Deltapine 16 (USDA accession SA-1186). However, they were highly susceptible to M. incognita race 3. The G. hirsutum accessions TX-1174, TX-1440, TX-2076, TX-2079, and TX-2107 had levels of resistance to M. incognita race 3 as great as or greater than those of Clevewilt 6 and Wild Mexican Jack Jones, which are the primary sources of resistance to M. incognita race 3 in the most resistant breeding lines. No accession was as resistant as the highly resistant line Auburn 623 RNR (SA-1492). Resistant accessions were from the Mexican coastal states of Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz, and Yucatan. Populations of R. reniformis from Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, and of M. incognita race 3 from Mississippi, Texas, and California, had similar reproductive rates on resistant genotypes. Thus, new sources of resistance to M. incognita race 3 but not to R. reniformis were identified in wild accessions of G. hirsutum from southern Mexico. PMID:19274280

  15. The first educational interferometer in Mexico (FEYMANS): A novel project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Guesten, Rolf; Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Carreto, Francisco; Valdes Estrada, Erik; Wendolyn Blanco Cardenas, Monica; Rodríguez Garza, Carolina B.; Pech Castillo, Gerardo A.; Ángel Vaquerizo, Juan

    2016-07-01

    An interferometer is composed of several radio telescopes (dishes) separated by a defined distance and used in synchrony. This kind of array produces a superior angular resolution, better than the resolution achieved by a single dish of the same combined area. In this work we propose the First Educational Youth Mexican Array North South, FEYMANS. It consists of an educational interferometer with initially four dishes. This array harvests Mexico's geography by locating each dish at the periphery of the country; creating new scientific links of provincial populations with the capital. The FEYMANS project focus in high school students and their projects on physics, chemistry and astronomy as a final project. Also, it can be used for bachelor theses. The initial and central dish-node is planed to be in Mexico City. After its construction, the efforts will focus to build subsequent nodes, on the Northwest region, Northeast, or Southeast. Region Northwest will give service to Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua states. Region Northeast will cover Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. Finally, region Southeast will give access to Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas. This project has been conceived by young professional astronomers and Mexican experts that will operate each node. Also, we have the technical support of the "Max Planck Institute fuer Radioastronomy in Bonn Germany" and the educational model of the "PARTNeR" project in Spain. This interferometer will be financed by Mexico's Federal Congress and by Mexico City's Legislative Assembly (ALDF).

  16. Molecular identification and first description of the male of Neoechinorhynchus schmidti (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae), a parasite of Trachemys scripta (Testudines) in México.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; García-Prieto, Luís; Rodríguez, Rodolfo Pérez

    2011-12-01

    The morphology of the males of Neoechinorhynchus schmidti (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is unknown, because this species was described based exclusively on females. However, recently we collected 2 common slider turtles Trachemys scripta in Centla swamps, Tabasco, Mexico, parasitized by 27 specimens of an acanthocephalan whose females were morphologically identical to N. schmidti. The domains D2 and D3 of the large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU) of 3 males and 2 females of this material were sequenced. The sequences of both sexes were identical, and based on this result, we described for the first time the morphology of the males of N. schmidti. In addition, 6 sequences of a congeneric species, also parasite of turtles (Neoechinorhynchus emyditoides) were generated in the current research. The 11 sequences of these 2 species were aligned with 13 sequences of another 4 species of the same genus, producing a data set of 24 taxa with 674 nucleotides. The genetic divergence between N. schmidti and N. emyditoides was 4% and intraspecific differences ranged from 0.01 to 0.02%. Pairwise differences between either of these species and 4 other congeners parasitic in fresh and brackish water fishes (Neoechinorhynchus golvani, Neoechinorhynchus roseum, Neoechinorhynchus saginatus, and Neoechinorhynchus sp.) varied from 9.5 to 33%. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses show that N. schmidti and N. emyditoides are sister taxa. Bootstrap analysis also indicates that the sister relationship is reliably supported.

  17. [The city of Puebla in the regional context. I:ndustrialization and marginality].

    PubMed

    Velez Pliego, F M

    1994-01-01

    The city of Puebla concentrates 25.6% of the total population of the state of Puebla, 30% of its employed population, 42% of its secondary sector workers, and 52% of its tertiary sector workers. Puebla has historically been an intermediate point between Mexico City and the states of Veracruz, Chiapas, Tabasco, and Oaxaca. Its geographic location and importance as a pioneer in the country's textile industry and later its industrial diversification have allowed Puebla to be functionally complementary to Mexico City. Puebla's regional influence and territorial integration of neighboring areas are increasing. State governments of Puebla over the past 30 years have promoted these tendencies as a means of fortifying Puebla's economic and political position. Puebla's municipal boundaries have been expanding since 1960 to accommodate industrial parks and an industrial corridor along the Mexico City-Puebla highway. The boundaries have moved outward to incorporate urbanized neighboring settlements. Intraregional development has benefited the municipio of Puebla more than its neighbors. Puebla is the only municipio in the region considered to exhibit a very low degree of marginality. In the past 20 years, the 14 municipios in the region have nearly doubled their population, from 728,974 to 1,445,447 inhabitants. The municipio of Puebla has maintained a relative weight of about 73% of the regional total. Current trends suggest that Puebla's relative demographic importance will decline within the region. The ongoing diversification of economic activities should tend to reduce intraregional disparities.

  18. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part III. Chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    The spice capsicum, the fruits of the genus Capsicum (Family Solanaceae), is a very popular food additive in many parts of the world, valued for the important sensory attributes of color, pungency, and aroma. A large number of varieties are widely cultivated and traded. The characteristic carotenoids of the bright red paprika and cayenne-type chillies, the high character impact aroma stimuli, the methoxy pyrazine of green bell capsicum, the esters of ripe tabasco and the highly potent pungency stimuli, and the capsaicinoids of African and other Asian varieties of chillies, have been of great interest to chemists and biochemists. Research workers in other disciplines such as genetics and breeding, agriculture, and technology have been interested in this spice to develop new varieties with combinations of different optimal levels of the stimuli for the sensory attributes and to maximize production of storable products for specific end uses. Physiologists have been intensely studying the action of the highly potent pungency stimuli and social psychologists the curious aspect of growing acceptance and preference for the initially unacceptable pungency sensation. In the sequential review of all these aspects of the fruit spice Capsicum, the earlier two parts covered history, botany, cultivation and primary processing, and processed products, standards, world production, and trade. In Part III, the chemistry, the compositional variations, synthesis and biosynthesis of the functional components, the carotenoids, the volatiles, and the capsaicinoids are comprehensively reviewed.

  19. Gladden Pull-Apart Basin, offshore Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Morrice, S. )

    1993-02-01

    The junction of the American and Caribbean plates in Belize has created a complex structural setting for oil and gas exploration. Recent seismic offshore Belize has been used to identify three structural provinces, from west to east: a shallow thrust zone, a narrow upthrown wrench faulted zone and a deeper extensional basin, named the Gladden Pull-Apart Basin. Hydrocarbon leakage from recent fault movement appears to have depleted the shallow structures to the west, but the pull-apart basin has a thick sequence of low-frequency clay-dominated sealing rocks with the potential to preserve hydrocarbon accumulations in Cretaceous carbonate banks. These buried carbonate are of the same age and depositional environment of Mexico's Golden Lane/Tabasco Reforma carbonate banks which are world class giant fields. The Belize and Mexican carbonate banks are within the same Cretaceous depositional basin, the Peten Basin. Seismic interpretations in offshore Belize have been integrated with gravity and magnetic surveys. This provides additional support for the deep extensional basin. The location of the thick Cretaceous carbonate banks is better interpreted with the integration of these three geophysical tools. Airborne geochemical surveys were used to detect the presence of oil seeps on the east and west basin margins.

  20. Sub-patterns of food consumption and hyperglycemia in Mexican young people: a study by factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Juan Antonio Córdova; del Valle Laveaga, David; Cano, Juan Manuel Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Background The student population that is admitted to the University Juarez of Tabasco has poor healthy eating habits. Fasting glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L was found in 10% of the students. Objective We wanted to identify the sub-pattern of their eating habits that could explain the hyperglycemia. Design A questionnaire on the feeding habits was applied to 3,559 first-year students, who were subjected to a blood analysis to determine biochemical markers in 2011. Based on the obtained questionnaire data, the factorial analysis was used for the statistical analysis. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure for sampling adequacy was used for validation. To determine eating habits, Varimax normalization with Kaiser was used. Results The number of students with euglycemia was 3,138, including 366 with values for prediabetes, and 55 with values for diabetes. After normalization using Varimax rotation with Kaiser, component 1 of participants with euglycemia included eight foods. The number of foods in component 1 of those participants with prediabetes was seven, and it diminished to four in those with fasting glucose >7 mmol/L. Conclusions It was found that glucose levels increase in direct relation to the diminution in the number of selected foods. PMID:26928049

  1. Early maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation in Mexico: dating sedimentary pollen records and its implications.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, Andrew; Dominguez, Gabriela

    2006-01-24

    A sedimentary pollen sequence from the coastal plain of Veracruz, Mexico, demonstrates maize cultivation by 5,000 years ago, refining understanding of the geography of early maize cultivation. Methodological issues related to bioturbation involved in dating that record combine with its similarity to a pollen sequence from the coastal plain of Tabasco, Mexico, to suggest that the inception of maize cultivation in that record occurred as much as 1,000-2,000 years more recently than the previously accepted 7,000 years ago. Our analysis thereby has substantive, theoretical, and methodological implications for understanding the complex process of maize domestication. Substantively, it demonstrates that the earliest securely dated evidence of maize comes from macrofossils excavated near Oaxaca and Tehuacán, Mexico, and not from the coastal plain along the southern Gulf of Mexico. Theoretically, that evidence best supports the hypothesis that people in the Southern Highlands domesticated this important crop plant. Methodologically, sedimentary pollen and other microfossil sequences can make valuable contributions to reconstructing the geography of early maize cultivation, but we must acknowledge the limits to precision that bioturbation in coastal lagoons imposes on the dating of such records.

  2. Investigations of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.; Fvwaraye, A. O.; Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The investigations were directed at determining the radiation history and surface chronology of lunar materials using the etched particle track technique. The major lunar materials studied are the igneous rocks and double core from Apollo 12, the breccia and soil samples from Apollo 14, and the core samples from Luna 16. In the course of this work two new and potentially important observations were made: (1) Cosmic ray-induced spallation-recoil tracks were identified. The density of such tracks, when compared with the density of tracks induced by a known flux of accelerator protons, yields the time of exposure of a sample within the top meter or two of moon's surface. (2) Natural, fine scale plastic deformation was found to have fragmented pre-existing charged particle tracks, allowing the dating of the mechanical event causing the deformation.

  3. Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Heidi D; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, S Honoré; Christensen, S Brøgger

    2002-11-06

    Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries.

  4. Development of a high-precision selenodetic coordinate system for the physical surface of the Moon based on LED beacons on its surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirenin, A. M.; Mazurova, E. M.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a mathematical algorithm for processing an array of angular measurements of light beacons on images of the lunar surface onboard a polar artificial lunar satellite (PALS) during the Luna-Glob mission and coordinate-time referencing of the PALS for the development of reference selenocentric coordinate systems. The algorithm makes it possible to obtain angular positions of point light beacons located on the surface of the Moon in selenocentric celestial coordinates. The operation of measurement systems that determine the position and orientation of the PALS during its active existence have been numerically simulated. Recommendations have been made for the optimal use of different types of measurements, including ground radio trajectory measurements, navigational star sensors based on the onboard star catalog, gyroscopic orientation systems, and space videos of the lunar surface.

  5. An enigmatic aquatic snake from the Cenomanian of Northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D.; Neenan, James M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first record of a snake from the Cretaceous of northern South America. The remains come from the La Luna Formation (La Aguada Member, Cenomanian of Venezuela) and consist of several vertebrae, which belong to the precloacal region of the vertebral column. Comparisons to extant and extinct snakes show that the remains represent a new taxon, Lunaophis aquaticus gen. et sp nov. An aquatic mode of life is supported by the ventral position of the ribs, indicating a laterally compressed body. The systematic relationships of this new taxon are difficult to determine due to the scarcity of fossil material; it is, however, a representative of an early lineage of snakes that exploited tropical marine pelagic environments, as reflected by the depositional conditions of the La Aguada Member. Lunaophis is also the first aquatic snake from the Cenomanian found outside of the African and European Tethyan and Boreal Zones. PMID:27257536

  6. A young multilayered terrane of the northern Mare Imbrium revealed by Chang'E-3 mission.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long; Zhu, Peimin; Fang, Guangyou; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zou, Yongliao; Zhao, Jiannan; Zhao, Na; Yuan, Yuefeng; Qiao, Le; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiang; Huang, Jun; Huang, Qian; He, Qi; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Yicai; Zhang, Qunying; Shen, Shaoxiang; Li, Yuxi; Gao, Yunze

    2015-03-13

    China's Chang'E-3 (CE-3) spacecraft touched down on the northern Mare Imbrium of the lunar nearside (340.49°E, 44.12°N), a region not directly sampled before. We report preliminary results with data from the CE-3 lander descent camera and from the Yutu rover's camera and penetrating radar. After the landing at a young 450-meter crater rim, the Yutu rover drove 114 meters on the ejecta blanket and photographed the rough surface and the excavated boulders. The boulder contains a substantial amount of crystals, which are most likely plagioclase and/or other mafic silicate mineral aggregates similar to terrestrial dolerite. The Lunar Penetrating Radar detection and integrated geological interpretation have identified more than nine subsurface layers, suggesting that this region has experienced complex geological processes since the Imbrian and is compositionally distinct from the Apollo and Luna landing sites.

  7. Moon: possible nature of the body that produced the imbrian basin, from the composition of apollo 14 samples.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, R; Laul, J C; Morgan, J W; Anders, E

    1972-01-07

    Soils from the Apollo 14 site contain nearly three times as much meteoritic material as soils from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Luna 16 sites. Part of this material consists of the ubiquitous micrometeorite component, of primitive (carbonaceous-chondrite-like) composition. The remainder, seen most conspicuously in coarse glass and norite fragments, has a decidedly fractionated composition, with volatile elements less than one-tenth as abundant as siderophiles. This material seems to be debris of the Cyprus-sized planetesimal that produced the Imbrian basin. Compositionally this planetesimal has no exact counterpart among known meteorite classes, though group IVA irons come close. It also resembles the initial composition of the earth as postulated by the two-component model. Apparently the Imbrian planetesimal was an Earth satellite swept up by the moon during tidal recession or capture, or an asteroid deflected by Mars into terrestrial space.

  8. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  9. Scientific considerations in the design of the Mars observer gamma-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Englert, P.; Feldman, W.C.; Metzger, A.E.; Reedy, R.C.; Squyres, S.W.; Trombka, J.I.; Wanke, H.

    1987-01-01

    Cosmic-ray primary and secondary particles induce characteristic gamma-ray and neutron emissions from condensed bodies in our solar system. These characteristic emissions can be used to obtain qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses of planetary surfaces from orbital altitudes. Remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy has been successfully used to obtain elemental composition of the Moon and Mars during United States Apollo 15 and 16 missions and the Soviet Luna and Mars missions. A remote sensing gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer will be included aboard the United States Mars Observer Mission. If proper care is not taken in the design of the spectrometer and choice of materials in the construction of the detector system and spacecraft, the sensitivity of these remote sensing spectrometers can be greatly degraded. A discussion of these design and material selection problems is presented. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Apollo 14 - Some geochemical aspects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Nava, D. F.; Bottino, M. L.; Fullagar, P. D.; Thomas, H. H.; Schuhmann, S.; Kouns, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical analyses have been obtained for five samples of Apollo 14 regolith fines, three 14230 core samples, 14049 soil clod, 14305 and 14319 breccias, 14310 basalt, and some separated phases. The chemical uniformity of these Apollo 14 samples indicates thorough mixing and/or uniform source rocks. Basalt 14310 can be matched well in composition by a four-to-one mixture of soil and plagioclase. Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratios calculated for 14310 pigeonite and plagioclase are similar to those for Apollo 12 and 15 mare-type basalt phases; this indicates similar redox conditions. The investigated Apollo 14 samples are chemically similar to Apollo 12 and 15 KREEP as distinct from Apollo 11, 12, and 15, and Luna 16 mare-type basalts. A relationship between the two types of basalt, in which mare-basalts would represent fused cumulates, is suggested.

  11. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource-assessment program, Fiscal Year 1980. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N.

    1981-08-01

    Magnetic, gravity, seismic-refraction, and seismic-reflection profiles across the Las Alturas Geothermal Anomaly, New Mexico, are presented. Studies in the Socorro area include the following: seismic measurements of the tertiary fill in the Rio Grande Depression west of Socorro, geothermal data availability for computer simulation in the Socorro Peak KGRA, and ground water circulation in the Socorro Geothermal Area. Regional geothermal exploration in the Truth or Consequences Area includes: geological mapping of the Mud Springs Mountains, hydrogeology of the thermal aquifer, and electrical-resistivity investigation of the geothermal potential. Other studies included are: geothermal exploration with electrical methods near Vado, Chamberino, and Mesquite; a heat-flow study of Dona Ana County; preliminary heat-flow assessment of Southeast Luna County; active fault analysis and radiometric dating of young basalts in southern New Mexico; and evaluation of the geothermal potential of the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico.

  12. Identification of a New Spinel-Rich Lunar Rock Type by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M (sup 3))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Combe, J. P.; Green, R.; Goswami, J. N.; Head, J. W., III; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L. A.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.

    2010-01-01

    The canonical characterization of the lunar crust is based principally on available Apollo, Luna, and meteorite samples. The crust is described as an anorthosite-rich cumulate produced by the lunar magma ocean that has been infused with a mix of Mgsuite components. These have been mixed and redistributed during the late heavy bombardment and basin forming events. We report a new rock-type detected on the farside of the Moon by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1 that does not easily fit with current crustal evolution models. The rock-type is dominated by Mg-spinel with no detectible pyroxene or olivine present (<5%). It occurs along the western inner ring of Moscoviense Basin as one of several discrete areas that exhibit unusual compositions relative to their surroundings but without morphological evidence for separate processes leading to exposure.

  13. Are Noachian-age ridged plains (Nplr) actually early Hesperian in age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.; Doudnikoff, C. E.; Mongeon, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    Whether or not the Nplr units in Memnonia and Argyre truly represent ridged plains volcanism of Noachian age or are simply areas of younger (Early Hesperian age) volcanism which failed to bury older craters and therefore have a greater total crater age than really applies to the ridged plains portion of those terrains is examined. The Nuekum and Hiller technique is used to determine the number of preserved crater retention surfaces in the Memnonia and Argyre regions where Scott and Tanaka show Nplr units to be common. The results for cratered terrain (Npl) in Memnonia is summarized along with those for ridged plains (Nplr) in both Memnonia and Argyre, and they are compared with similar results obtained for Tempe Terra and Lunae Plunum.

  14. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  15. Surface registration using a multi-beam optical probe and backscatter reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Jeremy R.; Maskaly, Garry; Younk, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a technique for locating the position and orientation of an object surrounding a compound optical probe. The probe allows for simultaneous measurement of 150 points of laser velocimetry, and prior to a dynamic experiment it is important to know the initial position of the surface. Using an optical switch and a Luna OBR rangefinder, we measure the surface distance at hundreds of locations. These measurements are then combined with a dimensional inspection of the object and analysis routines to report the orientation and location of the inner surface relative to the probe. In addition, we present a technique to simultaneously measure the beam paths using a reference hemispherical surface and a number of distance measurements. LA-UR-15-26588

  16. Exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Alimov, V. I.; Melekhin, V. P.; Milman, I. I.; Kryuk, V. I.; Kunin, L. L.; Tarasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    A secondary electron multiplier was used to study the thermostimulated exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station. The natural exoemission from fragments of slag, glass, anorthosite, and a metallic particle was recorded in the isochronic and isothermal thermostimulation regimes. The temperature of emission onset depended on the type of regolith fragment. For the first three particles the isothermal drop in emission is described by first-order kinetic equations. For the anorthosite fragment, exoemission at constant temperature is characterized by a symmetric curve with a maximum. These data indicate the presence of active surface defects, whose nature can be due to the prehistory of the particles.

  17. Nuclear Astrophysics at LNL: The 10B(p, α )7Be Reaction Studied at the AN2000 Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caciolli, Antonio

    The National Laboratory of Legnaro (LNL) has a wealth of experience in Nuclear Physics measurements. Recently a new effort to perform Nuclear Astrophysics studies has been initiated. This effort started with the collaboration of LNL with the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) collaboration for the study of targets. In 2014 the study of 10B(p, α )7Be was performed in order to give a precise normalisation to the indirect measurements. As a matter of fact, a normalization problem was raised in previous works due to discrepancies in the results of different experimental datasets. At LNL the cross section was determined by measuring the activated samples at the low counting facility of the LNL laboratory. The analysis of that experiment is now complete and a detailed report of the obtained results will be presented in this contribution.

  18. Effects of Rocket Exhaust on Lunar Soil Reflectance Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; Plescia, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Apollo, Surveyor, and Luna spacecraft descent engine plumes affected the regolith at and surrounding their landing sites. Owing to the lack of rapid weathering processes on the Moon, surface alterations are still visible as photometric anomalies in Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. These areas are interpreted as disturbance of the regolith by rocket exhaust during descent of the spacecraft, which we refer to as "blast zones" (BZs). The BZs consist of an area of lower reflectance (LR-BZ) compared to the surroundings that extends up to a few meters out from the landers, as well as a broader halo of higher reflectance (HR-BZ) that extends tens to hundreds of meters out from the landers. We use phase-ratio images for each landing site to determine the spatial extent of the disturbed regions and to quantify differences in reflectance and backscattering characteristics within the BZs compared to nearby undisturbed regolith. We also compare the reflectance changes and BZ dimensions at the Apollo sites with those at Luna and Surveyor sites. We seek to determine the effects of rocket exhaust in terms of erosion and particle redistribution, as well as the cause(s) of the reflectance variations, i.e., physical changes at the regolith surface. When approximated as an ellipse, the average Apollo BZ area is ~29,000 m2 (~175 ± 60 m by 200 ± 27 m) which is 10x larger than the average Luna BZ, and over 100x larger than the average Surveyor BZ. Moreover, BZ area scales roughly with lander mass (as a proxy for thrust). The LR-BZs are evident at the Apollo sites, especially where astronaut bioturbation has roughened the soil, leading to a 2-14% reduction in reflectance at ~30° phase. The LR-BZs at the Luna and Surveyor sites are less evident and may be mostly confined to the area below the landers. The average normalized reflectance in the HR-BZs for images with a 30° phase angle is 2-16% higher than in the undisturbed surrounding

  19. Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

  20. Optical characteristics of regolith from the Sea of Fertility, Sea of Tranquillity, and Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipova-Karatayeva, I. I.; Stakheyev, Y. I.; Florenskiy, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    A diffuse reflection spectra analysis is reported for regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station and by the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 expeditions. The spectra of the specular reflection of Sea of Fertility regolith, as well as the spectra of diffuse reflection from polished sections of lunar rocks from the Sea of Tranquillity and the Ocean of Storms have no well-defined structures and are close to each other. The lowest reflectivity is exhibited by the Sea of Tranquillity regolith, and the highest -- by the Ocean of Storms regolith. A weak absorption band with a maximum near 1 nm is noted in the spectra, corresponding to the Fe-2(+) ion in the octahedral position in the lattice of regolith mineral constituents. When the indicatrix of scattering of the regolith was recorded, a specular component was detected.

  1. Petrology of lunar rocks from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, A. S.; Tarasov, L. S.; Shevaleyevskiy, I. D.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Based on a comparative analysis of the petrochemistry of an integrated sample of gabbro basalts and a fine fraction from regolith returned by Luna 16 automatic station from the Sea of Fertility, with the mean compositions of various types of mare basalts, anorthosites, and regolith from the Sea of Tranquillity and the Ocean of Storms, with reference to several data on rare elements, the nature of the fine fractions is discussed. It is shown that the integrated sample of gabbro basalt from the coarse fraction in the lower part of the core can be represented as a mixture of mare basalts of the Sea of Tranquillity and nonmare basalts of the krip type in the ratio of about 3 to 2. It is confirmed that the compositions of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 regolith are complementary with the compositions of basalts and anorthosites of the Sea of Tranquillity and the Ocean of Storms.

  2. Petrology of basaltic and monomineralic soil fragments from the Sea of Fertility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. E.; Holzwarth, W.; Papike, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Basaltic and monomineralic fragments from the 150-425 micron size fractions of the Luna 16 core obtained from the Sea of Fertility were studied by optical petrographic, electron microprobe, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Three textural varieties were identified in the basalts (intersertal, subophitic, and recrystallized). These textures, the assemblages, and individual mineral compositions (especially pyroxenes) indicate that these basalts crystallized under conditions very similar to those from Apollo 11. The pyroxenes have slightly lower Ti/Al (atomic) ratios than the Apollo 11 pyroxenes. We interpret the presence of octahedral Al as being due to the low TiO2/Al2O3 (weight %) ratio in the bulk rock. All observations made on the fine-grained basalt fragments are consistent with a rapid, near-surface, one-stage crystallization history.

  3. Granulometric characteristics of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakheyev, Y. I.; Vulfson, Y. K.; Ivanov, A. V.; Florenskiy, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The particle size distributions in the 1-1000 micrometer range along the length of the core of lunar surface material returned by Luna 16 were recorded by electrical impulse as well as sieve methods. The measurements are represented in the form of cumulative functions of the logarithm of size versus the logarithm of particle number, and also as the logarithm of size versus particle mass on a probability scale. The former functions at all depths consist of the super-positioning of two straight lines with slopes from 2.10 to 4.05. The second functions are near linear, which together with the closeness of the calculated asymmetries of the distribution to zero and the nearness of the calculated excess of the distributions to unity indicate the closeness of the recorded distributions to the logarithmically normal law. This agrees with the assumption that regolith particles were formed in a process of intensive mechanical grinding.

  4. Inert gases in Sea of Fertility regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, A. P.; Zadorozhnyy, I. K.

    1974-01-01

    The content and isotopic composition were studied of inert gases -- He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe -- in samples of lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. The samples were taken from depths of about 12 and 30 cm. The high concentrations of inert gases exceed by several orders their concentrations observed in ordinary stony meteorites. The gases in lunar regolith were a complex mixture of gases of different origins: Solar, cosmogenic, radiogenic, and so on. Solar wind gases predominated, distributed in the thin surficial layer of the regolith grains. The concentrations of these gases in the surficial layer is several cubic centimeters per gram. The isotopic composition of the inert gases of solar origin approaches their composition measured in gas-rich meteorites.

  5. A highland sample strategy for Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, Rene A.

    1994-01-01

    Potential landing sites are confined to latitudes between 0 deg and 30 deg N and surfaces below 0 km elevation. The landing ellipse is 100 x 200 km oriented N 74 deg E. The constraints essentially eliminate the slopes of Elysium Mons, Olympus Mons, Tharsis Ridge, Lunae Plaunum, all the southern highlands, and almost all the Noachian material of Arabia Terra. Those areas that remain as potential landing sites are chiefly lowland plains of Amazonis Chryse, Isidis, and Elysium Planitia. Any attempt to sample highland material further constrains the possible landing sites by eliminating areas of Hesperian or Amazonian lavas and sediments. One possible sampling strategy is to sample materials within those few 'highland' terrains that extend to low elevations. A second strategy is to sample materials at the mouth of an outflow channel that drains from the highlands. Potential landing sites include outflow channel material at the edge of Chryse Planitia and highland materials bordering southern Amazonis Planitia.

  6. Investigation of dust particles with future Russian lunar missions: achievements of further development of PmL instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Ilya; Zakharov, Alexander; Afonin, Valeri; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Lyash, Andrey; Dolnikov, Gennady; Popel, Sergey; Lisin, Evgeny

    2016-07-01

    One of the complicating factors of the future robotic and human lunar landing missions is the influence of the dust. Meteorites bombardment has accompanied by shock-explosive phenomena, disintegration and mix of the lunar soil in depth and on area simultaneously. As a consequence, the lunar soil has undergone melting, physical and chemical transformations. Recently we have the some reemergence for interest of Moon investigation. The prospects in current century declare USA, China, India, and European Union. In Russia also prepare two missions: Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. Not last part of investigation of Moon surface is reviewing the dust condition near the ground of landers. Studying the properties of lunar dust is important both for scientific purposes to investigation the lunar exosphere component and for the technical safety of lunar robotic and manned missions. The absence of an atmosphere on the Moon's surface is leading to greater compaction and sintering. Properties of regolith and dust particles (density, temperature, composition, etc.) as well as near-surface lunar exosphere depend on solar activity, lunar local time and position of the Moon relative to the Earth's magneto tail. Upper layers of regolith are an insulator, which is charging as a result of solar UV radiation and the constant bombardment of charged particles, creates a charge distribution on the surface of the moon: positive on the illuminated side and negative on the night side. Charge distribution depends on the local lunar time, latitude and the electrical properties of the regolith (the presence of water in the regolith can influence the local distribution of charge). On the day side of Moon near surface layer there exists possibility formation dusty plasma system. Altitude of levitation is depending from size of dust particle and Moon latitude. The distribution of dust particles by size and altitude has estimated with taking into account photoelectrons, electrons and ions of solar wind

  7. Neutron detection in nuclear astrophysics experiments: study of organic liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciani, Giovanni Francesco

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the nuclear reaction 13 C(α,n)16 O, crucial for the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei (A>58), the LUNA collaboration at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, is looking for the best neutron detector to use in the set up. One of the possibilities is to use detectors based on cell filled with Organic Liquid Scintillator BC501A. These detectors are sensible to fast neutron, but also to gamma rays. A Pulse Shape Discrimination process using the Zero Crossing method has been performed to select only signals from neutrons. Comparing the neutron spectra after the Pulse Shape Discrimination and the spectrum from a GEANT4 simulations, the efficiency of the BC501A, in function of the neutron energy and varying the light threshold, has been evaluated.

  8. Radioactivity of the moon, planets, and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkou, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical data is summarized for the content of natural radioactive elements in meteorites, eruptive terrestrial rocks, and also in lunar samples returned by Apollo missions and the Luna series of automatic stations. The K-U systematics of samples analyzed in the laboratory are combined with data for orbital gamma-ray measurements for Mars (Mars 5) and with the results of direct gamma-ray measurements of the surface of Venus by the Venera 8 lander. Using information about the radioactivity of solar system bodies and evaluations of the content of K, U, and Th in the terrestrial planets, we examine certain aspects of the evolution of material in the protoplanetary gas-dust cloud and then in the planets of the solar system.

  9. History of meteorites from the moon collected in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Eugster, O

    1989-09-15

    In large asteroidal or cometary impacts on the moon, lunar surface material can be ejected with escape velocities. A few of these rocks were captured by Earth and were recently collected on the Antarctic ice. The records of noble gas isotopes and of cosmic ray-produced radionuclides in five of these meteorites reveal that they originated from at least two different impact craters on the moon. The chemical composition indicates that the impact sites were probably far from the Apollo and Luna landing sites. The duration of the moon-Earth transfer for three meteorites, which belong to the same fall event on Earth, lasted 5 to 11 million years, in contrast to a duration of less than 300,000 years for the two other meteorites. From the activities of cosmic ray-produced radionuclides, the date of fall onto the Antarctic ice sheet is calculated as 70,000 to 170,000 years ago.

  10. Sistema Planeta-Satélite. Simulación orbital y potenciales gravitatorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, C.; Carrillo, M.

    Se presenta un programa (desarrollado en Quick Basic 4.5) que simula, en tres dimensiones, el movimiento orbital de un satélite (o luna) alrededor de un planeta, al tiempo que calcula y grafica, en un plano, el potencial gravitatorio del sistema en función de la distancia al planeta. Para la simulación orbital, se emplea la matriz de transformación entre el sistema del planeta y el plano orbital. Para el cálculo y graficación del potencial se aplica un desarrollo en serie hasta el segundo orden, que da cuenta del efecto de achatamiento de los polos, en caso de que éste exista. Las longitudes de los ejes del planeta, la masa de éste y del satélite, sus tamaños aparentes, y los parámetros orbitales son introducidos por el usuario.

  11. Naming moon's features created 'Ocean of Storms'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1979-01-01

    The naming of lunar features from the time Galileo first viewed the moon through a telescope to the period of spaceborne lunar exploration is surveyed. Attention is given to Galileo's designation of terrae (highlands) and maria, and the 1651 scheme of Riccioli, which is responsible for the attributive names of maria and the commemoration of famous philosophers and astronomers by major craters. The standardization of lunar nomenclature by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1932 is noted, and the naming of far-side features discovered by the Luna 3 and Lunar Orbiter spacecraft by their respective nations is discussed. The designation of small features during the planning of the Apollo moon landings is explained, and the formalization of operational lunar designations and the names of surface features of Mercury, Venus and Mars and its moons are considered.

  12. Mapping of the Lunokhod-1 Landing Site: A Case Study for Future Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Konopikhin, A.; Shingareva, K.; Gusakova, E.; Kokhanov, A.; Baskakova, M.; Peters, O.; Scholten, F.; Wählisch, M.; Robinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Luna-17 landed on November 17, 1970 and deployed Lunokhod-1, the first remotely operated roving vehicle ever to explore a planetary surface. Within 332 days, the vehicle conquered a traverse of approx. 10 km. The rover was equipped with a navigation camera system as well as a scanner camera with which panoramic images were obtained. From separated stations, stereoscopic views were obtained. The history of the Lunokhods came back into focus recently, when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1] obtained images from orbit at highest resolutions of 0.5-0.25 m/pixel. The Luna-17 landing platform as well as the roving vehicles at their final resting positions can clearly be identified. In addition, the rover tracks are clearly visible in most areas. From LRO stereo images, digital elevation model (DEM) of the Lunokhod-1 landing site areas have been derived [2]. These are useful to study the topographic profile and slopes of the traverse. The data are also useful to study the 3-D morphology of craters in the surroundings. Methodology. Lunokhod-1 area mapping have been done using GIS techniques. With CraterTools [3] we digitized craters in the Lunokhod-1 traverse area and created a geodatabase, which consists at this moment of about 45,000 craters including their diameters and depths, obtained from the DEM [4]. The LRO DEM also was used to measure traverse. We used automatic GIS functions for calculating various surface parameters of the Lunokhod-1 area surface including slopes, roughness, crater cumulative and spatial densities, and prepared respective thematic maps. We also measured relative depth (ratio D/H) and inner slopes of craters and classified craters by their morphological type using automatic and visual methods. Vertical profiles through several craters using the high resolution DEM have been done, and the results show good agreement with the topographic models with contours in 10cm that have been obtained from the Lunokhod-1 stereo images [5]. The

  13. Large-Scale Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Alix M.

    2012-05-01

    Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. We report here on efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center to develop the next generation of lunar retroreflectors. We will describe a new facility that is being used to design, assemble, and test large-scale hollow retroreflectors. We will also describe results from investigations into various bonding techniques used to assemble the open corner cubes and mirror coatings that have dust mitigation properties.

  14. Mapping the Concentration of Iron, Titanium, and Thorium in Mare Basalts in the Western Procellarum Region of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flor, E. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Mare basalt flows in the Western Procellarum region (WPR) are extensive and include some of the youngest geologic features on the Moon. Compositional remote sensing by the Lunar Prospector gammaray spectrometer (LPGRS) indicates elevated Th concentrations in many of these flows relative to basalts sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions [1,2,3,4]. The primary goals of this investigation are to determine whether the Th enrichment in this region contributed to the extensive and prolonged volcanism in the WPR, and to determine whether the Th is inherent to the basalts themselves or a result of contamination from nonvolcanic material. Thorium enrichment indigenous to the basalts of the Western Procellarum Region would provide evidence that the general concentration of Th in the Procellarum region extends below the crust and possibly as deep as the sources for the basalts themselves.

  15. Toward a Suite of Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for NASA's Lunar Missions: Recommendations of the 2005 Workshop of Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, R. A.; Sibille, L.; Carpenter, P.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fast-pace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The conclusions from the workshop and considerations concerning the feasibility (both technical and programmatic) of producing such materials will be presented here.

  16. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  17. Large-Scale Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Alix

    2012-01-01

    Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. We report here on efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center to develop the next generation of lunar retroreflectors. We will describe a new facility that is being used to design, assemble, and test large-scale hollow retroreflectors. We will also describe results from investigations into various bonding techniques used to assemble the open comer cubes and mirror coatings that have dust mitigation properties.

  18. Basaltic magmatism on the Moon. A perspective from volcanic picritic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    It is widely accepted that basaltic magmas are products of partial fusion of peridotite within planetary mantles. As such they provide valuable insights into the structure and processes of planetary interiors. Those compositions which approach primary melt compositions provide both a clearer vision of planetary interiors and a starting point at which to understand basaltic evolution. Within the collection of lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions are homogeneous, picritic glass beads of volcanic origin. These glass beads provide a unique perspective concerning the origin of mare basalts, the characteristics of the lunar interior, and processes culminating in the early differentiation of the moon. In this presentation, we report our ion microprobe derived trace element data from all picritic glasses previously identified. We place this trace element data and literature isotopic and experimental data on the picritic glasses with the framework of mare basaltic magmatism.

  19. Systematics of the parasitic wasp genus Oxyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.), part III: African fauna

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Roger A.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.; Austin, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract African species of Oxyscelio (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.) are revised. A total of 14 species are recognized, 13 of which are described as new: Oxyscelio absentiae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio galeri Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio gyri Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio idoli Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio intensionis Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio io Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio kylix Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio lunae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio nemesis Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio pulveris Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio quassus Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio teli Burks, sp. n. and Oxyscelio xenii Burks, sp. n. The genus Freniger Szabó, syn. n. is recognized as part of an endemic African species group of Oxyscelio with incomplete hind wing venation, and Oxyscelio bicolor (Szabó), comb. n. is therefore recognized as the only previously described species of Oxyscelio from Africa. The Oxyscelio crateris and Oxyscelio cuculli species groups, previously known from southeast Asia, are represented in Africa by seven and one species respectively. PMID:27081336

  20. Lunar basalt meteorite EET 87521: Petrology of the clast population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenova, A. S.; Nazarov, M. A.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1993-01-01

    The Elephant Moraine meteorite EET 87521 was classified as a lunar mare basalt breccia which is composed mainly of VLT basalt clasts. Here we report on our petrological study of lithic clasts and monomineralic fragments in the thin sections EET 87521,54 and EET 87521,47,1, which were prepared from the meteorite. The results of the study show that EET 87521 consists mainly of Al-rich ferrobasalt clasts and olivine pyroxenite clasts. The bulk composition of the meteorite can be well modelled by the mixing of these lithic components which appear to be differentiates of the Luna 25 basalt melt. KREEP and Mg-rich gabbro components are minor constituents of EET 87521.

  1. Basalts and gabbros from Mare Crisium - Evidence for extreme fractional crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, F.; Taylor, L. A.; Jin, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Petrographic and electron microprobe techniques were used to examine igneous fragments in Luna 24 samples 24088 and 24105. It is the complex chemistry of the pyroxenes that distinguishes the different rock types. Basaltic pyroxenes exhibit an Fe-enrichment trend; the evolutionary trends are more complex in the gabbros, with enrichments in both Fe and Ti and a depletion in Cr. These chemical evolutionary trends are displayed by a progressive variation in rock types from Mg-rich olivine-gabbro to olivine-gabbro, and to ferrogabbro and ferrotroctolite. The low TiO2 content of the primary melt, possibly represented by the least-evolved Mg-rich olivine-gabbro, retarded the formation of early ilmenite and spinel, such that 'Fenner Trend' Fe enrichment occurred. The ferrotroctolite is probably the end product of chemical evolution by extreme fractional crystallization, controlled primarily by olivine and pyroxene crystallization.

  2. Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Alix M.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. At Goddard Space Flight Center, we have developed a facility where we can design, build, and test next-generation hollow retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging. Here we will describe this facility as well as report on the bonding techniques used to assemble the retroreflectors. Results from investigations into different high reflectivity mirror coatings, as well as dust mitigation coatings will also be presented.

  3. Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The interpretive evolution of the moon can be divided now into seven major stages beginning sometime near the end of the formation of the solar system. These stages and their approximate durations in time are as follows: (1) The Beginning: 4.6 billion years ago, (2) The Melted Shell: 4.6 to 4.4 billion years ago, (3) The Cratered Highlands: 4.4 to 4.1 billion years ago, (4) The Large Basins: 4.1 to 3.9 billion years ago, (5) The Light-colored Plains: 3.9 to 3.8 billion years ago, (6) The Basaltic Maria: 3.8 to 3.0(?) billion years ago, and (7) The Quiet Crust: 3.0(?) billion years ago to the present. The contributions of the Apollo and Luna exploration toward the study of those stages of evolution are reviewed.

  4. Determination of nimetazepam and 7-aminonimetazepam in human urine by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuang-Chuan; Cheng, Min-Chi; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Hsu, Jung-Fa; Wu, Jen-Der; Lee, Ching-Kuo

    2013-01-10

    We report determination of metabolites of popular drugs of abuse, including nimetazepam and nitrazepam, in urine by using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nimetazepam and its metabolites, 7-aminonimetazepam and nitrazepam, were extracted by solid-phase extraction using a DAU cartridge. An ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 4) and a Luna polar-RP column were selected as the mobile and stationary phase, respectively, for liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry was used for analysis and was optimized for operation in the positive mode for all analytes. The urine specimens were screened for the presence of nimetazepam and its metabolites nitrazepam and 7-aminonimetazepam at a concentration of 0.1ng/mL. Presence of 7-aminonimetazepam in the urine was an indicator of the subject being a probable abuser of nimetazepam.

  5. Distribution of inert gases in fines from the Cayley-Descartes region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. R.; Lakatos, S.; Heymann, D.

    1973-01-01

    The inert gases in 14 different fines and in one sample of 2 to 4 mm fines from Apollo 16 were measured by mass spectroscopy with respect to trapped solar wind gases, cosmogenic gases, and 'parentless' Ar-40. Such studies are helpful for the understanding of regolith evolution, of transport of regolith fines, and of the lunar atmosphere. The Apollo 16 soils are unique because they represent, after Luna 20, the second and much more extensive record from the lunar highlands. The landing site presents the problem of materials from the Cayley Formation vs those from the Descartes Formation. There are two large, relatively fresh craters in the area, North Ray and South Ray, whose ejecta patterns may be recognized in the inert-gas record.

  6. The origin and evolution of terrestrial and Martian rock labyrinths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brook, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and evolutionary development of rock labyrinths on Earth (in sandstone, volcanics, and carbonates) are compared with those on Mars. On Earth rock labyrinths originate as parallel, an echelon, or intersecting narrow grabens, or develop where fault and joint networks are selectively eroded. Labyrinths frequently contain both downfaulted and erosional elements. Closed labyrinths contain depressions; open labyrinths do not, they are simple part of a fluvial network generally of low order. As closed labyrinths made up of intersecting grabens or made up of connected erosional depressions are extremely common on Mars, the research focussed on an understanding of these labyrinth types. Field investigations were carried out in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and in the Chirachahua Mountains of Arizona. Martian labyrinths were investigated using Viking orbiter images. In addition, research was undertaken on apparent thermokarst features in Lunae Planum and Chryse Planitia where closed depressions are numerous and resemble atlas topography.

  7. The 21 and 27 fluorspar mines, Zuni Mountains, Valencia County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, E.N.

    1945-01-01

    The 21 and 27 mines, near the southeastern end of the Zuni Mountains and about 14 miles southwest of Grants, Valencia County, N. Mex., are in one of the most productive fluorspar areas in the West. They were named after sections 21 and 27, respectively, of T. 9 N., R. 11 W., in which they are located. The veins were discovered in December 1940 by James Mallery, and since then the two mines have produced about 120,000 tons of crude ore. Each mine has a shaft of about 300 feet deep and several thousands of feet of workings. Both mines are operated by the Zuni Milling Co., and the ore is treated in a flotation mill at Los Lunas, N. Mex.

  8. Low-Background, High-Efficiency Setup for the Study of 22Ne(p, γ)23Na Reaction at Low Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Federico

    Measuring cross sections of astrophysical interest requires a low-background, high-efficiency setup and a very pure target. The Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) developed a dedicated setup for the cross section measurement of the 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction. A windowless gas target and a six-fold, optically segmented BGO detector surrounding the interaction volume were used. A calorimetric system was developed for the real-time measurement of the beam current. Three recently measured resonances at 156.2, 189.5, and 259.7 keV and the possible resonances at 71 and 105 keV have been investigated with high statistics. Direct capture measurements were carried out as well.

  9. Gairo virus, a novel arenavirus of the widespread Mastomys natalensis: Genetically divergent, but ecologically similar to Lassa and Morogoro viruses.

    PubMed

    Gryseels, Sophie; Rieger, Toni; Oestereich, Lisa; Cuypers, Bart; Borremans, Benny; Makundi, Rhodes; Leirs, Herwig; Günther, Stephan; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2015-02-01

    Despite its near pan-African range, the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, carries the human pathogen Lassa virus only in West Africa, while the seemingly non-pathogenic arenaviruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Luna have been detected in this semi-commensal rodent in Mozambique/Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Zambia, respectively. Here, we describe a novel arenavirus in M. natalensis from Gairo district of central Tanzania, for which we propose the name "Gairo virus". Surprisingly, the virus is not closely related with Morogoro virus that infects M. natalensis only 90km south of Gairo, but clusters phylogenetically with Mobala-like viruses that infect non-M. natalensis host species in Central African Republic and Ethiopia. Despite the evolutionary distance, Gairo virus shares basic ecological features with the other M. natalensis-borne viruses Lassa and Morogoro. Our data show that M. natalensis, carrying distantly related viruses even in the same geographical area, is a potent reservoir host for a variety of arenaviruses.

  10. Global small-scale lunar cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipskiy, Y. N.; Pskovskiy, Y. P.; Rodionova, Z. F.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Chikmachev, V. I.; Volchkova, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    The primary sources information for compiling this map were the photographs of the visible hemisphere obtained by earth-based observatories, the Luna 3 and Zond 3 pictures, and a small number of Lunar Orbiter pictures. The primary content of the complete lunar map is the surface relief and its tonal characteristics. In preparing the map, particular attention was devoted to the variety of lunar relief forms. The color spectrum of the map was selected not only for the natural coloring of the lunar surface, but also with the objective of achieving maximum expressiveness. A lunar globe to scale 1:10 million was prepared along with the preparation of the map. The scale of the globe, half that of the map, led to some selection and generalization of the relief forms. The globe permits maintaining simultaneously geometric similarity of contours, exact proportions of areas, and identical scales in all directions. The globe was prepared in both the Latin and Russian languages.

  11. Lunar soil strength estimation based on Chang'E-3 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Spiteri, Conrad; Li, Chun-Lai; Zheng, Yong-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Chang'E-3 (CE-3) was the third mission by China to explore the Moon which had landed two spacecraft, the CE-3 lander and Yutu rover on the lunar surface in late 2013. The paper presents analytical results of high-resolution terrain data taken by CE-3's onboard cameras. The image data processing aims to extract sinkage profiles of the wheel tracks during the rover traverse. Further analysis leads to derivation or estimation of lunar soil physical properties (in terms of strength and stiffness) based on the wheel sinkage, despite the fact Yutu does not possess in situ soil measurement instruments. Our findings indicate that the lunar soil at the CE-3 landing site has similar stiffness to what is measured at the Luna 17 landing site but has much less strength compared to the Apollo 15 landing site.

  12. Martian Surface Properties: Inferences from Resolved Differences in Crater Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valiant, G. J.; Stewart, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    Impact craters are a natural probe of planetary sub-surfaces, both from the excavated material and from crater geometries, which are sensitive to material properties of the target. One of the most intriguing aspects of Martian craters is the morphology of the ejecta blankets. All fresh and many older Martian craters larger than a few km are surrounded by ejecta blankets which appear fluidized, with morphologies believed to form by entrainment of liquid water. In addition to the ejecta morphology, quantitative information about the subsurface composition may be derived from geometrical measurements, e.g., rim uplift height and ejecta blanket volumes. In order to use craters to derive subsurface composition or test rampart morphology formation hypotheses, accurate measurements with quantified error estimates are required. We have developed and tested a toolkit for measurements of crater geometry using the MOLA altimetry data. Here, we present the results from geometry measurements on fresh craters in Lunae Planum and Utopia Planitia.

  13. [First record of simuliidae (Diptera) with pollinaria of asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) attached].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Jansen F; Rapini, Alessandro; Barbosa, Ulysses C; Py-Daniel, Victor; Braga, Pedro I S

    2008-01-01

    The presence of pollinaria of two species of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae), possibly Tassadia cf. martiana Decne. and T. cf. obovata Decne., attached to the mouth parts of simulid black flies [Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Goeldi), C. argentiscutum (Shelley & Luna Dias), C. oyapockense (Floch & Abonnenc), and Cerqueirellum sp.] are reported for the first time. The frequency and distribution of simulids recorded with pollinaria suggest that removal of pollinaria by these flies is not casual. Simulids probably use nectar in flowers of Asclepiadoideae as source of sugar, being able to remove their pollinaria. This finding demonstrates that simulids are not only vector of pathogenic parasites, but also carry pollinaria, and thus may represent a group of pollinators for species of Asclepiadoideae with small flowers.

  14. The observed day-to-day variability of Mars water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Lapointe, Michael R.; Zurek, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The diurnal variability of atmospheric water vapor as derived from the Viking MAWD data is discussed. The detection of day to day variability of atmospheric water would be a significant finding since it would place constraints on the nature of surface reservoirs. Unfortunately, the diurnal variability seen by the MAWD experiment is well correlated with the occurrence of dust and/or ice hazes, making it difficult to separate real variations from observational effects. Analysis of the day to day variability of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggests that the observations are, at certain locations and seasons, significantly affected by the presence of water-ice hazes. Because such effects are generally limited to specific locations, such as Tharsis, Lunae Planum, and the polar cap edge during the spring, the seasonal and latitudinal trends in water vapor that have been previously reported are not significantly affected.

  15. Progress of the Felsenkeller Shallow-Underground Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cowan, T. E.; Grieger, M.; Hensel, T.; Junghans, A. R.; Ludwig, F.; Müller, S. E.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Schulz, S.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    Low-background experiments with stable ion beams are an important tool for putting the model of stellar hydrogen, helium, and carbon burning on a solid experimental foundation. The pioneering work in this regard has been done by the LUNA collaboration at Gran Sasso, using a 0.4 MV accelerator. In the present contribution, the status of the project for a higher-energy underground accelerator is reviewed. Two tunnels of the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, Germany, are currently being refurbished for the installation of a 5 MV high-current Pelletron accelerator. Construction work is on schedule and expected to complete in August 2017. The accelerator will provide intense, 50 µA, beams of 1H+, 4He+, and 12C+ ions, enabling research on astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions with unprecedented sensitivity.

  16. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  17. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  18. Fieldpath Lunar Meteorite Graves Nunataks 06157, a Magnesian Piece of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 49 feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) have been recovered, likely representing a minimum of 35 different sample locations in the lunar highlands. The compositional variability among FLMs far exceeds the variability observed among highland samples in the Apollo and Luna sample suites. Here we will discuss in detail one of the compositional end members of the FLM suite, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06157, which was collected by the 2006-2007 ANSMET field team. At 0.79 g, GRA 06157 is the smallest lunar meteorite so far recovered. Despite its small size, its highly feldspathic and highly magnesian composition are intriguing. Although preliminary bulk compositions have been reported, thus far no petrographic descriptions are in the literature. Here we expand upon the bulk compositional data, including major-element compositions, and provide a detailed petrographic description of GRA 06157.

  19. Underground Cross Section Measurements of Stellar Reactions at Astrophysically Relevant Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formicola, A.; Gugliemetti, A.

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is important to understand the generation of energy, the luminosity of neutrinos, and the synthesis of elements in stars and in the primordial nucleosynthesis. An innovative experimental approach for the study of nuclear fusion reactions based on an accelerator installed in a low background underground laboratory (the LUNA experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory) was able to give breaktrough results in this field over the last 25 years. By going underground and by using the typical techniques of low background physics, it is possible to measure nuclear cross sections down to the energy of stellar interest. In this proceeding, the experimental techniques adopted in underground nuclear astrophysics and an overwiev of present and proposed future facilities and of their major scientific drivers are reported.

  20. Data for a comparative proteomic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis (clb) mutants.

    PubMed

    de Luna-Valdez, L A; Martínez-Batallar, A G; Hernández-Ortiz, M; Encarnación-Guevara, S; Ramos-Vega, M; López-Bucio, J S; León, P; Guevara-García, A A

    2014-12-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article titled Proteomic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis (clb) mutants uncovers novel proteins potentially involved in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts (de Luna-Valdez et al., 2014) [1]. This research article describes the 2-D PAGE-based proteomic analysis of wild-type and four mutant lines (cla1-1, clb2, clb5 and clb19) affected in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts. The report concludes with the discovery of three proteins potentially involved in chloroplast biogenesis. The information presented here represent the tables and figures that detail the processing of the raw data obtained from the image analysis of the 2-D PAGE gels.

  1. Data for a comparative proteomic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis (clb) mutants

    PubMed Central

    de Luna-Valdez, L.A.; Martínez-Batallar, A.G.; Hernández-Ortiz, M.; Encarnación-Guevara, S.; Ramos-Vega, M.; López-Bucio, J.S.; León, P.; Guevara-García, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article titled Proteomic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis (clb) mutants uncovers novel proteins potentially involved in the development ofArabidopsis thalianachloroplasts (de Luna-Valdez et al., 2014) [1]. This research article describes the 2-D PAGE-based proteomic analysis of wild-type and four mutant lines (cla1-1, clb2, clb5 and clb19) affected in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts. The report concludes with the discovery of three proteins potentially involved in chloroplast biogenesis. The information presented here represent the tables and figures that detail the processing of the raw data obtained from the image analysis of the 2-D PAGE gels. PMID:26217679

  2. Highland crust at the Apollo 14 site: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent petrologic studies of pristine nonmare samples from the Apollo 14 site have demonstrated the unique character of the western highlands crust. Many of the lithologies which occur here are not found at other highland sites or represent unique variations of more common lithologies. Rare highland samples found at the Apollo 12 site have petrologic and geochemical affinities with the Apollo 14 highland suite and the two sites taken together constitute what can be called the Western Highland Province. Rocks of the Western Highland Province are geochemically distinct from similar lithologies found at eastern highland sites (Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, and the Luna sites) -- a fact which adds further complications to current petrogenetic models for the lunar crust. Nonetheless, an understanding of how the Western Highlands Province formed and why it differs from highland crust in the east is crucial to our overall understanding of primordial lunar differentiation and petrogenesis.

  3. Lunar Science Conference, 4th, Houston, Tex., March 5-8, 1973, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Mineralogy and petrology. Volume 2 - Chemical and isotope analyses. Organic chemistry. Volume 3 - Physical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gose, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The mineralogy, petrology, chemistry, isotopic composition, and physical properties of lunar materials are described in papers detailing methods, results, and implications of research on samples returned from eight lunar landing sites: Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, and Luna 16 and 20. The results of experiments conducted or set up on the lunar surface by the astronauts are also described along with observations taken from Command Modules and subsatellites. Major topics include general geology, soil and breccia studies, petrologic studies, mineralogic analyses, elemental compositions, radiometric age determinations, rare gas chemistry, radionuclides, organogenic compounds, particle track records, thermal properties, seismic studies, resonance studies, orbital mapping, lunar atmosphere, magnetic studies, electrical studies, optical properties, and microcratering. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  4. Degradation of Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Parker, T. J.; Golombek, M. P.; Wilson, S. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The Opportunity rover has traversed portions of two western rim segments of Endeavour, a 22 km-diameter crater in Meridiani Planum, for the past three years. The resultant data enables the evaluation of the geologic expression and degradation state of the crater. Endeavour is Noa-chian-aged, complex in morphology, and originally may have appeared broadly similar to the more pristine 20.5 km-diameter Santa Fe complex crater in Lunae Palus (19.5degN, 312.0degE). By contrast, Endeavour is considerably subdued and largely buried by younger sulfate-rich plains. Exposed rim segments dubbed Cape York (CY) and Solander Point/Murray Ridge/Pillinger Point (MR) located approximately1500 m to the south reveal breccias interpreted as remnants of the ejecta deposit, dubbed the Shoemaker Formation. At CY, the Shoemaker Formation overlies the pre-impact rocks, dubbed the Matijevic Formation.

  5. Multispectral Analysis of the Kasei Vallis-lanae Planum Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, R. B.; Cloutis, E.; Roush, T. L.; Mouginismark, P. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Christensen, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Kasei Vallis - Lunae Planum region of Mars was investigated using the three color Viking Orbiter 1 data. Spatial resolution is 820m and Ls = 100 deg, a season of low atmospheric and and surface dustiness. This region was chosen for high quality color and thermal inertia data as well as for the diversity of volcanic plains and fluvial landform. The data was reformatted to Mercator projection and calibrated to normal reflectance using in flight calibration parameters and observed photometric properties. Color properties from this image are displayed in two forms: the Red Albedo vs. Violet Albedo two dimensional histogram, and representative 3 point spectra. Virtually the full range of regolith color properties known from prior research is represented, plus some new characteristics. Interpretations of the data are presented which address general composition and formation processes of channel and intracrater deposits.

  6. Project for the Space Science in Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, M.; Oberst, J.; Malinnikov, V.; Shingareva, K.; Grechishchev, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Konopikhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: Based on the proposal call of the Government of Russian Federation 40 of international scientists came to Russia for developing and support-ing research capabilities of national educational institutions. Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK) and invited scientist Prof. Dr. Jurgen Oberst were awarded a grant to establish a capable research facility concerned with Planetary Geodesy, Cartography and Space Exploration. Objectives: The goals of the project are to build laboratory infrastructure, and suitable capability for MIIGAiK to participate in the planning, execution and analyses of data from future Russian planetary mis-sions and also to integrate into the international science community. Other important tasks are to develop an attractive work place and job opportunities for planetary geodesy and cartography students. For this purposes new MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab) was organized. We involved professors, researchers, PhD students in to the projects of Moon and planets exploration at the new level of Russian Space Science development. Main results: MExLab team prepare data for upcom-ing Russian space missions, such as LUNA-GLOB and LUNA-RESOURSE. We established cooperation with Russian and international partners (IKI, ESA, DLR, and foreign Universities) and actively participated in international conferences and workshops. Future works: For the future science development we investigated the old Soviet Archives and received the access to the telemetry data of the Moon rovers Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2. That data will be used in education purposes and could be the perfect base for the analysis, development and support in new Russian and international missions and especially Moon exploration projects. MExLab is open to cooperate and make the consortiums for science projects for the Moon and planets exploration. Acknowledgement: Works are funded by the Rus-sian Government (Project name: "Geodesy, cartography and the

  7. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Lunar Sample Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Sample ages have enabled us to infer that impact-melt breccias from Apollo 14 and 15 record the formation of the Imbrium Basin, those from the highland massifs at Apollo 17 record the age of Serenitatis, those from the KREEP-poor Apollo 16 site record the age of Nectaris, and materials from Luna 24 record the age of Crisium. Ejecta from smaller and younger craters Copernicus and Tycho were sampled at Apollo 12 and 17, respectively, and local craters such as Cone at Apollo 14, and North Ray and South Ray at Apollo 16 were also sampled and ages determined for those events. Much of what we understand about the lunar impact flux is based on these ages. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples.

  8. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Sample Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Sample ages have enabled us to infer that impact-melt breccias from Apollo 14 and 15 record the formation of the Imbrium Basin, those from the highland massifs at Apollo 17 record the age of Serenitatis, those from the KREEP-poor Apollo 16 site record the age of Nectaris, and materials from Luna 24 record the age of Crisium. Ejecta from smaller and younger craters Copernicus and Tycho were sampled at Apollo 12 and 17, respectively, and local craters such as Cone at Apollo 14, and North Ray and South Ray at Apollo 16 were also sampled and ages determined for those events. Much of what we understand about the lunar impact flux is based on these ages. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples.

  9. Clinical gaseous microemboli assessment of an oxygenator with integral arterial filter in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Preston, Thomas J; Gomez, Daniel; Olshove, Vincent F; Phillips, Alistair; Galantowicz, Mark

    2009-12-01

    The use of an arterial line filter (ALF) within the pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit is not a new concept. It has always presented the perfusionist with a circuit component that while valuable, increased prime volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in prime volume and emboli between a conventional oxygenator with separate ALF and a new generation oxygenator with integral arterial filter (AF). We performed a clinical, non-randomized retrospective evaluation of the Terumo Capiox RX15 (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI) (n = 10) in conjunction with the Terumo Capiox AF125X ALF or the Capiox AF02 vs. the Terumo Capiox FX15 oxygenator with integral AF (n = 10). The above circuit components, in combination with the LUNA EDAC (emboli detection and classification) Quantifier (LUNA Innovations, Blacksburg, VA) were placed at various locations within each patient's CPB circuit to establish and quantify the presence and volume of gaseous emboli during all phases of cardiopulmonary bypass. The EDAC system is available/used for all patients undergoing CPB at this institution. When compared to a more conventional CPB circuit, the Capiox FX15 primes more easily as it does not require a carbon dioxide flush while still providing a 32 microm AF. There was no statistical difference in air handling between the tested oxygenators and their associated circuits. During this review it was determined that use of the Capiox FX15 simplifies the arterial limb of the pediatric CPB circuit. Removal of the separate ALF led to the removal of several, now unnecessary, arterial connectors and additional tubing (arterial line filter bypass). Removal of these components led to a reduction in prime volume and decreased the hemodilutional effect. The FX15 provided a safe, simplified pediatric CPB circuit and was as effective in gaseous microemboli removal as was the more traditional RX15 with separate ALF during this review.

  10. Clinical Gaseous Microemboli Assessment of an Oxygenator with Integral Arterial Filter in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Thomas J.; Gomez, Daniel; Olshove, Vincent F.; Phillips, Alistair; Galantowicz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The use of an arterial line filter (ALF) within the pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit is not a new concept. It has always presented the perfusionist with a circuit component that while valuable, increased prime volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in prime volume and emboli between a conventional oxygenator with separate ALF and a new generation oxygenator with integral arterial filter (AF). We performed a clinical, non-randomized retrospective evaluation of the Terumo Capiox® RX15 (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI) (n = 10) in conjunction with the Terumo Capiox® AF125X ALF or the Capiox ® AF02 vs. the Terumo Capiox® FX15 oxygenator with integral AF (n = 10). The above circuit components, in combination with the LUNA EDAC® (emboli detection and classification) Quantifier (LUNA Innovations, Blacksburg, VA) were placed at various locations within each patient’s CPB circuit to establish and quantify the presence and volume of gaseous emboli during all phases of cardiopulmonary bypass. The EDAC® system is available/used for all patients undergoing CPB at this institution. When compared to a more conventional CPB circuit, the Capiox® FX15 primes more easily as it does not require a carbon dioxide flush while still providing a 32 μ AF. There was no statistical difference in air handling between the tested oxygenators and their associated circuits. During this review it was determined that use of the Capiox® FX15 simplifies the arterial limb of the pediatric CPB circuit. Removal of the separate ALF led to the removal of several, now unnecessary, arterial connectors and additional tubing (arterial line filter bypass). Removal of these components led to a reduction in prime volume and decreased the hemodilutional effect. The FX15 provided a safe, simplified pediatric CPB circuit and was as effective in gaseous microemboli removal as was the more traditional RX15 with separate ALF during this

  11. The Effects of B/L-Dependent Heating on the Formation and Evolution of a Multi-Threaded Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; Luna, M.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive, multi-threaded, three-dimensional model of the plasma dynamics and energetics of a prominence and its overlying arcade (Luna et al. 2012). In this model, the basic magnetic structure is that of two interacting sheared arcades, while the cool condensations composing the prominence are formed by the well-studied thermal nonequilibrium mechanism. In a given filament-channel flux tube, the mass is evaporated from the chromosphere by heating localized near the footpoints, and condenses in the form of transient blobs or a persistent thread. Our previous studies of thermal nonequilibrium used steady or impulsive heating functions with no dependence on local physical. However, parametric active-region models with steady heating proportional to B/L, where B is the flux-tube magnetic field strength at each footpoint and L is the flux-tube length, yield the best agreement with observations (e.g., Schrijver et al. 2008). We have determined the effects of this active-region heating function on our model for the formation and evolution of prominence mass. We have also expanded the range of our computational domain to include more ofthe overlying arcade (the so-called "cavity") than in Luna et al. (2012), and have increased the number of selected flux tubes from 125 to 533. We will illustrate the time-dependent plasma behavior produced by the B/L heating function with synthetic images in several ALA passbands, and compare the resulting prominence properties with those predicted by our model with steady heating.

  12. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this CAP is to provide the plan for implementation of the recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for CAU 568. Site characterization activities were performed in 2014, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the CAU 568 CADD. The CAAs were recommended in the CADD. The scope of work required to implement the recommended CAAs of closure in place and clean closure at 11 of the 14 CASs includes the following: The installation of physical barriers over the nine safety experiment ground zeroes to cover contamination at CASs 03-23-20 (Otero), 03-23-23 (San Juan and Pascal-C), 03-23-31 (Pascal-B, Luna, Colfax), 03-23-32 (Pascal-A), 03-23-33 (Valencia), and 03-23-34 (Chipmunk); the characterization and removal of three soil and debris piles at CAS 03-08-04, and one HCA soil pile at CAS 03-23-30; the removal of three steel well head covers (PSM) from CASs 03-23-20 (Otero), 03-23-31 (Luna), and 03-23-33 (Valencia); the removal of soil and lead PSM from two locations at CAS 03-26-04; Implementation of FFACO use restrictions at nine safety experiment ground zeroes at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, 03-23-32, 03-23-33, and 03-23-34; the steel well head cover at CAS 03-23-23; the areas meeting HCA conditions at CASs 03-23-19 and 03-23-31; and the Boomer crater area at CAS 03-45-01. The FFACO use restriction boundaries will be presented in the CAU 568 closure report.

  14. Lunar photoelectron sheath and levitation of dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodha, M. S.; Mishra, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    The decision to launch Luna Glob and Luna Resus satellites, carrying instrumentation to investigate the structure of photoelectron sheath and levitation of dust particles in the sheath, adjacent to the surface of the moon has intensified interest in this exciting area. The present analysis incorporates the following novel features: (i) In contrast to intuitive half Maxwellian (M) distribution of velocities of the photoelectrons, emitted from the surface of the moon, which corresponds to an arbitrary temperature, a well-established half Fermi Dirac (F-D) distribution [R. H. Fowler, Phys. Rev. 38, 45 (1931)] has been used, (ii) the profiles for electric potential, electric field, and electron density have been derived (not a priori assumed), (iii) an expression for the rate of electron accretion on a positively charged dust particle, which takes account of the anisotropic flux of electrons has been derived and used in the analysis, and (iv) a derived (rather than intuitive) expression for the rate of photoelectron emission from a positively charged dust particle has been used for the first time in such analyses. The profiles of the electric potential, electric field, and electron density in the photoelectric sheath have been evaluated for typical lunar environment and used to obtain the profile of the radius of a dust particle for levitation. The dependence of the electric potential on the surface of the moon on the parameters of the solar wind and photo-efficiency of the material of moon's surface has also been discussed. It is seen that the results based on half F-D distribution are significantly different from those obtained on the basis of M-distribution.

  15. The New Face of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, J. N.

    2012-07-01

    The beginning of this century ushered a new era in lunar exploration. It started with the Smart-1 mission, launched in 2003, that was followed in quick succession by Kaguya, Change-1, Chandrayaan-1, LRO, LCROSS, Change-2 and the most recent GRAIL mission, launched in late 2011. Results obtained by these missions have strengthened some of the existing postulates of lunar evolution, such as the global magma hypothesis, questioned many of our earlier views on moon and generated renewed interest in laboratory studies of lunar samples. Moon can no longer be considered as a bone-dry object. Signatures of hydroxyl and water molecules were found at high latitude lunar regions by Chandrayaan-1 mission and LCROSS mission detected water in the plume generated by a planned impact on a permanently shadowed lunar polar site. Laboratory studies confirmed presence of hydroxyl as a structural component in minerals present in lunar rocks. The permanently shadowed regions turned out to be some of the coldest place in the solar system and could potentially host surface/sub-surface water ice and frozen volatiles. New results obtained by these missions suggest the presence of previously unidentified lunar rock types, young volcanic and tectonic activities, layering within the top kilometre of the lunar surface and the possibility that moon host a very tenuous exosphere. Interesting new features of solar wind interactions with the lunar surface and localized lunar magnetic field have also been delineated. The ongoing effort to reconstruct the new face of the moon will get a boost from results from the GRAIL mission on gravity anomalies and from other upcoming missions, LADEE, Chandrayaan-2, Luna Resource and Luna Glob. A general overview of our current ideas of lunar evolution will be presented along with a preview of upcoming efforts to better understand our closest neighbour in space.

  16. Effect of ancestry on behavioral variation in two species of howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata) and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lucy; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Dias, Pedro Américo D; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J

    2014-09-01

    Social differences between primate species may result from both flexible responses to current conditions or fixed differences across taxa, yet we know little about the relative importance of these factors. Here, we take advantage of a naturally occurring hybrid zone in Tabasco, Mexico to characterize the variation in social structure among two endangered howler monkey species, Alouatta pigra and A. palliata, and their hybrids. Work in pure populations has suggested that A. pigra females maintain closer proximity, exhibit higher rates of affiliation, and lower rates of agonism than A. palliata females, but we do not know what accounts for this difference. Using identical data collection and analysis methods across three populations, we first seek to confirm previously reported interspecific differences in social structure across all sexes. We next examine: (1) how female social relationships changed with ancestry (by comparing pure and hybrid individuals); (2) how female social relationships changed with group size (A. pigra have smaller groups than A. palliata); and (3) whether female social relationships differed between two taxonomic groups within a single forest fragment (thus controlling for ecological variation). We confirmed previously described species differences, including closer proximity among females than among males in all populations. We also found that smaller groups maintained closer proximity. However, even after accounting for variation in group size, A. pigra females had closer proximity and more affiliation than A. palliata females. Furthermore, differences between pigra-like and palliata-like hybrids paralleled differences between pure populations and persisted even after controlling for ecological variation. Together, our results suggest that flexibility cannot account for all of the social differences between A. pigra and A. palliata and indicate an important genetic component in primate social behavior.

  17. Effect of nesting environment on incubation temperature and hatching success of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) in an urban lake of Southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Luna, Marco A; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea G; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; González-Ramón, Mariana Del C; Rangel-Mendoza, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Incubation temperature is an important aspect in terms of biological performance among crocodiles, and several controlled experiments have demonstrated a significant relationship between incubation temperature, success in hatching and survival of hatchlings. However, a few studies have tested these relationships in the wild. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of nest characteristics and environment (hatch year, nest basal area and height, clutch size, distance to shore line, and vegetation cover), to incubation temperature and hatching success among Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii). The study was carried out during the nesting seasons of Morelet's crocodile, from 2007 to 2009 in the Laguna de Las Ilusiones, an urban lake located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico. We physically characterized 18 nests and inserted a temperature data logger in each nest chamber. At the end of the nesting season and prior to hatching, we recovered the crocodile eggs and data loggers and calculated hatching success, under laboratory conditions. We related the environmental variables of the nest with the mean and fluctuation (standard deviation) of nest temperature, using linear models. We also related the environmental variables affecting the nest, to mean nest temperature and fluctuation in incubation temperature and to hatching success, using linear models. Although we found differences in incubation temperature between nests, mean incubation temperature did not differ between years, but there were differences in nest thermal fluctuation between years. The mean incubation temperature for 11 nests (61.1%) was lower than the suggested Female-Male pivotal temperature (producing 50% of each sex) for this species, and all hatchlings obtained were males. There were no differences in clutch size between years, but hatching success varied. Our study indicates that hatching success depends on certain environmental variables and nest conditions to which the

  18. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  19. [Population and environment: the challenges of complexity].

    PubMed

    Tudela, F

    1995-06-01

    This work argues that the emerging science of complexity could provide a systemic and interdisciplinary approach to problems of population and the environment. The concept of complexity in everyday speech is first distinguished from the more specific scientific notion of complexity that has gained popularity in the past two decades. There is as yet no consensus on the definition of complexity, but it is provisionally identified as a characteristic of systems that meet certain criteria, including networks of internal and external relationships and nonlinearity of relations. Complex systems are human constructs; they are inventions or models including elements that establish nonlinear relations between themselves and with the total system. Construction and analysis of such models aids in understanding the functional relationships of a specific situation and opens up the possibility of interdisciplinary studies. Since the most important initial contribution to scientific recognition of complexity came from the hard sciences, chaos, a particular form of complexity, has been found to be ubiquitous and is no longer regarded as a curious exception in a world ruled by regularity. Four examples of situations in which the relationships between population and environmental pressures have been altered illustrate the uses of complex systems. The decimation of the New World population following the Spanish conquest, the scarcity of rubber plants in the Brazilian Amazon during World War II, the collapse of banana plantations in the Mexican state of Tabasco in 1941, and the drought and famine in the Sahel in the early 1970s are discussed in this light. Some of the most important methodological issues that may arise in applying the perspective of complexity are identified and discussed, including delimitation of the system and its surrounding conditions, identification of scales and levels of analysis, structural characterization of the system, trends and changes in complex systems

  20. Seasonal spermatogenic cycle and morphology of germ cells in the viviparous lizard Mabuya brachypoda (Squamata, Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen

    2012-11-01

    We describe seasonal variations of the histology of the seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts of the tropical, viviparous skink, Mabuya brachypoda, throughout the year. The specimens were collected monthly, in Nacajuca, Tabasco state, Mexico. The results revealed strong annual variations in testicular volume, stages of the germ cells, and diameter and height of the epithelia of seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts. Recrudescence was detected from November to December, when initial mitotic activity of spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules were observed, coinciding with the decrease of temperature, photoperiod and rainy season. From January to February, early spermatogenesis continued and early primary and secondary spermatocytes were developing within the seminiferous epithelium. From March through April, numerous spermatids in metamorphosis were observed. Spermiogenesis was completed from May through July, which coincided with an increase in temperature, photoperiod, and rainfall. Regression occurred from August through September when testicular volume and spermatogenic activity decreased. During this time, the seminiferous epithelium decreased in thickness, and germ cell recruitment ceased, only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were present in the epithelium. Throughout testicular regression spermatocytes and spermatids disappeared and the presence of cellular debris, and scattered spermatozoa were observed in the lumen. The regressed testes presented the total suspension of spermatogenesis. During October, the seminiferous tubules contained only spermatogonia and Sertoli cells, and the size of the lumen was reduced, giving the appearance that it was occluded. In concert with testis development, the efferent ducts were packed with spermatozoa from May through August. The epididymis was devoid of spermatozoa by September. M. brachypoda exhibited a prenuptial pattern, in which spermatogenesis preceded the mating season. The seasonal cycle variations of

  1. A comparison of the response of Simocephalus mixtus (Cladocera) and Daphnia magna to contaminated freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Cruz-Cisneros, Jade Lizette; García-Hernández, Leonardo

    2008-09-01

    The southeast region of Mexico is characterized by intensive oil industry activities carried out by the national public enterprise Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). The freshwater lagoon "El Limón", located in the municipality of Macuspana, state of Tabasco, Mexico, has received over 40 years discharges of untreated waste waters from the Petrochemical Complex "Ciudad PEMEX", located on the border of the lagoon. To assess the toxicity of the sediments and, hence, to obtain information on the biological effects of these contaminating discharges, the cladoceran Simocephalus mixtus was used as a test organism in acute (48h) and chronic (12d) toxicity assays. For comparison purposes, bioassays were also conducted with the reference cladoceran Daphnia magna. The sediments of this lagoon contain important amounts of metals and hydrocarbons that have been accumulated over time; however, the acute tests only registered reduced lethal effects on the test organisms (maxima of 10% and 17% mortality for D. magna and S. mixtus, respectively). This may be due to low bioavailability of the pollutants present in the sediments. On the other hand, partial or total inhibition and delay in the start of reproduction, reduction in clutch sizes, reduced survival, as well as reduction in the size of adults and offspring were recorded in the chronic assays. The most evident chronic effects were found in S. mixtus; in this species, reproduction was inhibited up to 72%, whereas D. magna was only affected by 24%. We determined that S. mixtus is a more sensitive test organism than D. magna to assess whole-sediment toxicity in tropical environments, and that chronic exposure bioassays are required for an integrated sediment evaluation. The sediments from "El Limón" lagoon induced chronic intoxication responses and, therefore, remediation measures are urgently needed to recover environmental conditions suitable for the development of its aquatic biota.

  2. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae) from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perera-Garcia, Martha A; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido; Ferrara, Allyse; Huerta-Ortiz, Maricela; Hernández-Gómez, Raúl E

    2013-06-01

    Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro) and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos) commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt = 109.21(1-e-0.2(t+0.57)) for Barra Bosque, FLt = 94.56(1-e-027(t+0.485)) for Barra San Pedro, FLt = 97.15(1-e 0.17(t + 1.32)) for San Pedro and FLt = 83.77(1-e-026(t + 0.49)) for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling's T2, p < 0.05) test growth was significantly greater for females than for males. Based on the Chen test, von Bertalanffy growth curves were different among the study sites (RSS, p < 0.05). Based on the observed differences in growth parameters among sampling sites (coastal and riverine environments) future research need to be conducted on migration and population genetics, in order to delineate the stock structure of this population and support management programs.

  3. Molecular identification of two strains of Cercospora rodmanii isolated from water hyacinth present in Yuriria lagoon, Guanajuato, Mexico and identification of new hosts for several other strains.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Calderón, José Guadalupe; Martínez-Álvarez, José Ascención; Vieyra-Hernández, Ma Teresa; Rangel-Macías, Luz Imelda; Razzo-Soria, Tannia; Chávez-Herrera, Roberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Leal-Morales, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Water hyacinth is a beautiful monocotyledon plant that has been dispersed all over the world by humans. The plant has been present in Mexico since 1907, and many water bodies have become infested with it since then. In 2001, we initiated a survey in Yuriria lagoon in southern Guanajuato state to isolate fungi able to biocontrol the plant. We isolated 25 morphologically distinct fungal cultures, of which two were identified as members of the genus Cercospora. Cercospora species are among the most prevalent and destructive of plant pathogens and can be found on leaves, pedicels, stems, fruits, and bracts. Only two species of Cercospora, Cercospora piaropi, and Cercospora rodmanii, have been described on water hyacinth; however, the classification of these species has been controversial. Several molecular approaches have been used for Cercospora identification, and some candidate genes have been identified for use in Cercospora species determination. Although the nrRNA genes alone do not show sufficient resolution for species determination, histone H3, translation elongation factor1-α, β-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin have been shown in previous studies to have an adequate number of nucleotide changes to allow species identification. In the present study, we used partial sequences of the histone H3, actin, and calmodulin genes to identify our two isolates as C. rodmanii. Our two strains are not specific to water hyacinth, as they are also pathogenic to beet and sugar beet. Similar host ranges were found for C. rodmanii strains isolated from Tabasco in México, Zambia, and Brazil, however, the specificity for water hyacinth persists in Cercospora piaropi Tharp and C. rodmanii Conway, the latter being the most pathogenic.

  4. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding.

    PubMed

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network.

  5. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding

    PubMed Central

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network. PMID:27602231

  6. Foraging ecology of howler monkeys in a cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantation in Comalcalco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, David; Estrada, Alejandro; Naranjo, Eduardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2006-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that primate populations may persist in neotropical fragmented landscapes by using arboreal agroecosystems, which may provide temporary habitats, increased areas of vegetation, and connectivity, among other benefits. However, limited data are available on how primates are able to sustain themselves in such manmade habitats. We report the results of a 9-month-long investigation of the feeding ecology of a troop of howler monkeys (n = 24) that have lived for the past 25 years in a 12-ha cacao plantation in the lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. A vegetation census indicated the presence of 630 trees (> or =20 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)) of 32 shade species in the plantation. The howlers used 16 plant species (13 of which were trees) as sources of leaves, fruits, and flowers. Five shade tree species (Ficus cotinifolia, Pithecellobium saman, Gliricidia sepium, F. obtusifolia, and Ficus sp.) accounted for slightly over 80% of the total feeding time and 78% of the total number trees (n = 139) used by the howlers, and were consistently used by the howlers from month to month. The howlers spent an average of 51% of their monthly feeding time exploiting young leaves, 29% exploiting mature fruit, and 20% exploiting flowers and other plant items. Monthly consumption of young leaves varied from 23% to 67%, and monthly consumption of ripe fruit varied from 12% to 64%. Differences in the protein-to-fiber ratio of young vs. mature leaves influenced diet selection by the monkeys. The howlers used 8.3 ha of the plantation area, and on average traveled 388 m per day in each month. The howlers preferred tree species whose contribution to the total tree biomass and density was above average for the shade-tree population in the plantation. Given the right conditions of management and protection, shaded arboreal plantations in fragmented landscapes can sustain segments of howler monkey populations for many decades.

  7. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    PubMed

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  8. Using msa-2b as a molecular marker for genotyping Mexican isolates of Babesia bovis.

    PubMed

    Genis, Alma D; Perez, Jocelin; Mosqueda, Juan J; Alvarez, Antonio; Camacho, Minerva; Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Rojas, Carmen; Figueroa, Julio V

    2009-12-01

    Variable merozoite surface antigens of Babesia bovis are exposed glycoproteins having a role in erythrocyte invasion. Members of this gene family include msa-1 and msa-2 (msa-2c, msa-2a(1), msa-2a(2) and msa-2b). To determine the sequence variation among B. bovis Mexican isolates using msa-2b as a genetic marker, PCR amplicons corresponding to msa-2b were cloned and plasmids carrying the corresponding inserts were purified and sequenced. Comparative analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed distinct degrees of variability and identity among the coding gene sequences obtained from 16 geographically different Mexican B. bovis isolates and a reference strain. Clustal-W multiple alignments of the MSA-2b deduced amino acid sequences performed with the 17 B. bovis Mexican isolates, revealed the identification of three genotypes with a distinct set each of amino acid residues present at the variable region: Genotype I represented by the MO7 strain (in vitro culture-derived from the Mexico isolate) as well as RAD, Chiapas-1, Tabasco and Veracruz-3 isolates; Genotype II, represented by the Jalisco, Mexico and Veracruz-2 isolates; and Genotype III comprising the sequences from most of the isolates studied, Tamaulipas-1, Chiapas-2, Guerrero-1, Nayarit, Quintana Roo, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas-2, Yucatan and Guerrero-2. Moreover, these three genotypes could be discriminated against each other by using a PCR-RFLP approach. The results suggest that occurrence of indels within the variable region of msa-2b sequences can be useful markers for identifying a particular genotype present in field populations of B. bovis isolated from infected cattle in Mexico.

  9. Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  10. Criminal Code, Federal District, 16 February 1971.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Article 320 of the Criminal Code of the Federal District of Mexico defines "abortion" as the death of the conceptus at any time during pregnancy. Articles 320-32 specify penalties for inducing abortion, and Articles 333-34 exempt punishment if the abortion resulted from failure of the woman to take proper care, if the pregnancy was the result of rape, or if the pregnancy endangered the life of the woman. The abortion provisions of the criminal codes of the Mexican states of Baja California, Chiapas, Mexico, Sinoala, Sonora, Tabasco, and Tamaulipas are nearly identical to those of the Federal District Code. Certain states also give immunity from prosecution for abortion 1) if the pregnancy resulted from artificial insemination neither requested or assented to by the woman, provided that the abortion is carried out within the first 90 days of pregnancy; 2) if there is good reason to believe that the unborn child suffers from severe physical or mental disabilities of genetic or congenital origin; 3) if the health of the woman would be seriously jeopardized by the pregnancy, and 4) if the abortion is carried out for serious and substantiated economic reasons in cases where the woman has at least three children. Guanajuato and Queretaro allow abortions only when the pregnancy is the result of rape. Guerrero authorizes abortions only when the pregnancy is the result of rape, when the pregnancy results from an unlawful artificial insemination, or for eugenic reasons. Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, and San Luis Potosi allows abortions only when the pregnancy is the result of rape or when the continuation of the pregnancy would seriously jeopardize the woman's health. In Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Oaxaca, and Veracruz, abortions allowed because the pregnancy resulted from rape must be performed in the first 90 days of pregnancy.

  11. Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-10-15

    In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%.

  12. Cognitive State following Stroke: The Predominant Role of Preexisting White Matter Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kliper, Efrat; Ben Assayag, Einor; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Artzi, Moran; Korczyn, Amos D.; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Aizenstein, Orna; Hallevi, Hen; Mike, Anat; Shopin, Ludmila; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Stroke is a major cause of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults, however the role of the ischemic lesions themselves, on top of other risk factors known in the elderly, remains controversial. This study used structural equation modeling to determine the respective impact of the new ischemic lesions' volume, preexisting white matter lesions and white matter integrity on post stroke cognitive state. Methods Consecutive first ever mild to moderate stroke or transient ischemic attack patients recruited into the ongoing prospective TABASCO study underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans within seven days of stroke onset and were cognitively assessed one year after the event using a computerized neuropsychological battery. The volumes of both ischemic lesions and preexisting white matter lesions and the integrity of the normal appearing white matter tissue were measured and their contribution to cognitive state was assessed using structural equation modeling path analysis taking into account demographic parameters. Two models were hypothesized, differing by the role of ischemic lesions' volume. Results Structural equation modeling analysis of 142 patients confirmed the predominant role of white matter lesion volume (standardized path coefficient β = −0.231) and normal appearing white matter integrity (β = −0.176) on the global cognitive score, while ischemic lesions' volume showed no such effect (β = 0.038). The model excluding the ischemic lesion presented better fit to the data (comparative fit index 0.9 versus 0.092). Conclusions Mild to moderate stroke patients with preexisting white matter lesions are more vulnerable to cognitive impairment regardless of their new ischemic lesions. Thus, these patients can serve as a target group for studies on cognitive rehabilitation and neuro-protective therapies which may, in turn, slow their cognitive deterioration. PMID:25153800

  13. Effects of rocket exhaust on lunar soil reflectance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Robinson, Mark S.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Plescia, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution images of the Surveyor, Luna, and Apollo landing sites obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) show regions around the landers where reflectivity of the surface was modified. We interpret the change in reflectance properties of these regions mainly as disturbance of the regolith by rocket exhaust during descent of the spacecraft and we refer to these areas herein as "blast zones" (BZs). The BZs consist of an area of lower reflectance (LR-BZ) compared to the surroundings that extends up to a few meters out from the landers, as well as a broader halo of higher reflectance (HR-BZ) that extends tens to hundreds of meters away from the landers. When approximated as an ellipse, the average Apollo BZ area is ˜29,000 m2 (˜175 ± 60 m by 200 ± 27 m) which is 10× larger than the average Luna BZ, and over 100× larger than the average Surveyor BZ. The LR-BZs are most evident at the Apollo sites, especially where astronaut activity disturbed the soil, leading to a 15-30% (relative to background undisturbed areas) reduction in reflectance at ˜30° phase angle. The LR-BZs at the Surveyor and Luna sites are less evident and are unresolvable with NAC images. The average reflectance in the HR-BZs as determined for 30° phase angle is 3-12% higher than in the undisturbed surrounding areas; this magnitude is the same, within uncertainty, for all sites, indicating a common process or combination of processes causing differences in reflectance properties of the regolith. Phase-ratio images and photometric data collected over a range of illumination geometries show that a greater separation in reflectance occurs between the HR-BZs and undisturbed areas at phase angles between 0° and 70° and indicates that the HR-BZs are less backscattering than undisturbed areas. The LR-BZs are affected by macroscopic disruption of the surface and astronaut activity (at the Apollo sites). For the HR-BZ areas, reflectance has likely been

  14. In Situ Analysis of the Volatiles in the Lunar Regolith with the Gas Analytical Package Experiment: Calibration of a GCMS Protoype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscia, David; Szopa, Cyril; Gerasimov, Mikhail; Wurz, Peter; Hofer, Lukas; cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Buch, Arnaud; Fausch, Rico; Sap gir, S. A.; Aseev, Sergei; Zaitsev, Maxim; GAC Team

    2016-10-01

    Volatiles were recently shown to be present at the Lunar pole. They probably come from meteorites and micrometeorites which continuously deliver their material at the surface of the satellite. Thus, their characterisation would enable to better constrain the nature of the species brought by the meteorites to the solar system bodies, evaluate their evolution under Moon surface conditions. Within a few years, it could be done in situ with the Gas Analytical Package experiment onboard the Russian Luna Ressource mission, in part devoted to analyse regolith samples. With this aim, our team proposes an instrumentation to characterize in situ the content of volatiles in the lunar soil and rocks. This instrumentation would provide important reference data about the samples collected. It is based on pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and could have the capability to: extract volatile materials (either condensed or present in the minerals) from the solid samples, separate the volatile and analyze their structure for identification and quantification, and analyze isotopic ratios in a certain extent. This instrumentation is based on an inheritance of the GAP instrument that was present onboard the late Phobos-Grunt probe. The instrumentation would be composed of : i. a pyrolyzer capable to heat the samples up to about 1000°C, and developed by IKI (Rus), which is also in charge to the whole instrument (PI M. Gerasimov); ii. a gas chromatograph devoted to separate and detect the volatile species released from the samples, developed by LATMOS and LISA (Fr.) ; iii. a time of flight mass spectrometer for the structural identification of the molecules, developed by the University of Bern (Sw.). This instrumentation should allow the identification of inorganic volatile molecules and small organic molecules (up to about benzene). This communication aims at presenting this instrumentation that should be onboard the Luna Ressource probe to the lunar South

  15. Addition of nucleophiles on cyanoacetylene N≡CCH=CH-X (X = NH2, OH, SH, …). Synthesis and Physico-chemical Properties of Potential Prebiotic Compounds or Interstellar Molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    . Askeland, H. Møllendal, E. Uggerud, J.-C. Guillemin, J.-R. Aviles Moreno, J. Demaison, T. R. Huet, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2006, 110, 12572-12584. [3] Cole, G. C. ; M¨llendal, H. ; Khater, B. ; Guillemin, J.-C. J. Phys. Chem. A 2007; 111, o 1259 - 1264 [4] A. Luna, O. M—, M. Y‡-ez, Jean-Fraņois Gal, P.-C. Maria, J.-C. Guillemin Chemistry, c Eur. J. 2006, 12, 9254-9261. Luna, A.; Ḿ, O.; Ýnez, M.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Gal, J.-F.; Maria, o ã P.-C. Int. J. Mass. Spectrom., 2007, 267, 125-133.

  16. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgner, Ch.

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  17. Concentrations of selected trace elements and other constituents in the Rio Grande and in fish tissue in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    The State of New Mexico and the Pueblo of Isleta have established surface-water standards for trace elements to control discharges of these contaminants. Before these standards can be meaningfully applied, however, ambient concentrations and loads of trace elements, principally arsenic, need to be determined in the Rio Grande and inflow sources. Arsenic concentrations also need to be determined in the edible portion of fish tissue because the Pueblo of Isleta standard for arsenic is based on fish consumption. Eighteen surface-water sampling sites on a reach of the Rio Grande from the Pueblo of San Felipe to Los Lunas, New Mexico, were sampled quarterly from October 1994 to August 1996. The sites include eight Rio Grande sites, one Jemez River site, five riverside drain sites, and four wastewater- treatment plant outfalls. Trace-element protocol was used to collect and process the samples. Field and laboratory quality-control samples were analyzed, and the results are included in this report. Fish-tissue samples were collected from four of the Rio Grande sites and the Albuquerque Riverside Drain, the Atrisco Riverside Drain, and three lakes at a recreational fishing area on the Isleta Indian Reservation. Arsenic in the Rio Grande is nearly all in the dissolved phase. There was little temporal change in arsenic concentration at the Rio Grande sites. The mean dissolved-arsenic concentration in the Rio Grande increased downstream from 1.8 micrograms per liter at the Pueblo of San Felipe to 3.6 micrograms per liter at Los Lunas. Mean dissolved-arsenic concentrations in the riverside drains were slightly higher (2.8 to 4.5 micrograms per liter) than those in the Rio Grande and were higher still in the wastewater-treatment plant outfalls (7.9 to 16.2 micrograms per liter) and the Jemez River (18.2 micrograms per liter). The mean total-arsenic concentration in fish-tissue samples from the Rio Grande and Albuquerque Riverside Drain was 14.53 micrograms per kilogram.

  18. Automatic robotic arm operations and sampling in near zero gravity environment - functional tests results from Phobos-Grunt mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

    The sample return missions have made a very significant progress to understanding of geology, the extra-terrestrial materials, processes occurring on surface and subsurface level, as well as of interactions between such materials and mechanisms operating there. The various sample return missions in the past (e.g. Apollo missions, Luna missions, Hayabusa mission) have provided scientists with samples of extra-terrestrial materials allowing to discover answers to critical scientific questions concerning the origin and evolution of the Solar System. Several new missions are currently planned: sample return missions, e.g Russian Luna-28, ESA Phootprint and MarcoPolo-R as well as both robotic and manned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. One of the key challenges in such missions is the reliable sampling process which can be achieved by using many different techniques, e.g. static excavating technique (scoop), core drilling, sampling using dynamic mechanisms (penetrators), brushes and pneumatic systems. The effectiveness of any sampling strategy depends on many factors, including the required sample size, the mechanical and chemical soil properties (cohesive, hard or porous regolith, stones), the environment conditions (gravity, temperature, pressure, radiation). Many sampling mechanism have been studied, designed and built in the past, two techniques to collect regolith samples were chosen for the Phobos-Grunt mission. The proposed system consisted of a robotic arm with a 1,2m reach beyond the lander (IKI RAN); a tubular sampling device designed for collecting both regolith and small rock fragments (IKI RAN); the CHOMIK device (CBK PAN) - the low velocity penetrator with a single-sample container for collecting samples from the rocky surface. The functional tests were essential step in robotic arm, sampling device and CHOMIK device development process in the frame of Phobos-Grunt mission. Three major results were achieved: (i) operation scenario for autonomous

  19. FY12 Quarter 3 Computing Utilization Report – LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, Cheryl L.; McClellan, Laura Ann

    2012-07-25

    DSW continues to dominate the capacity workload, with a focus in Q3 on common model baselining runs in preparation for the Annual Assessment Review (AAR) of the weapon systems. There remains unmet demand for higher fidelity simulations, and for increased throughput of simulations. Common model baselining activities would benefit from doubling the resolution of the models and running twice as many simulations. Capacity systems were also utilized during the quarter to prepare for upcoming Level 2 milestones. Other notable DSW activities include validation of new physics models and safety studies. The safety team used the capacity resources extensively for projects involving 3D computer simulations for the Furrow series of experiments at DARHT (a Level 2 milestone), fragment impact, surety theme, PANTEX assessments, and the 120-day study. With the more than tripling of classified capacity computing resources with the addition of the Luna system and the safety team's imminent access to the Cielo system, demand has been met for current needs. The safety team has performed successful scaling studies on Luna up to 16K PE size-jobs with linear scaling, running the large 3D simulations required for the analysis of Furrow. They will be investigating scaling studies on the Cielo system with the Lustre file system in Q4. Overall average capacity utilization was impacted by negative effects of the LANL Voluntary Separation Program (VSP) at the beginning of Q3, in which programmatic staffing was reduced by 6%, with further losses due to management backfills and attrition, resulting in about 10% fewer users. All classified systems were impacted in April by a planned 2 day red network outage. ASC capacity workload continues to focus on code development, regression testing, and verification and validation (V&V) studies. Significant capacity cycles were used in preparation for a JOWOG in May and several upcoming L2 milestones due in Q4. A network transition has been underway on the

  20. The Petrology and Geochemistry of Feldspathic Granulitic Breccia NWA 3163: Implications for the Lunar Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.; Irvine, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar meteorites are crucial to understand the Moon s geological history because, being samples of the lunar crust that have been ejected by random impact events, they potentially originate from areas outside the small regions of the lunar surface sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions. The Apollo and Luna sample sites are contained within the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT, Jolliff et al., 2000), where KREEP refers to potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus-rich lithologies. The KREEP-rich rocks in the PKT are thought to be derived from late-stage residual liquids after approx.95-99% crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). These are understood to represent late-stage liquids which were enriched in incompatible trace elements (ITE) relative to older rocks (Snyder et al., 1992). As a consequence, the PKT is a significant reservoir for Th and KREEP. However, the majority of the lunar surface is likely to be significantly more depleted in ITE (84%, Jolliff et al., 2000). Lunar meteorites that are low in KREEP and Th may thus sample regions distinct from the PKT and are therefore a valuable source of information regarding the composition of KREEP-poor lunar crust. Northwest Africa (NWA) 3163 is a thermally metamorphosed ferroan, feldspathic, granulitic breccia composed of igneous clasts with a bulk anorthositic, noritic bulk composition. It is relatively mafic (approx.5.8 wt.% FeO; approx.5 wt.% MgO) and has some of the lowest concentrations of ITEs (17ppm Ba) compared to the feldspathic lunar meteorite (FLM) and Apollo sample suites (Hudgins et al., 2011). Localized plagioclase melting and incipient melting of mafic minerals require localized peak shock pressures in excess of 45 GPa (Chen and El Goresy, 2000; Hiesinger and Head, 2006). NWA 3163, and paired samples NWA 4481 and 4883, have previously been interpreted to represent an annealed micro-breccia which was produced by burial metamorphism at depth in the ancient lunar crust (Fernandes et al., 2009

  1. Photometric characterization of the Chang'e-3 landing site using LROC NAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Boyd, A.; Robinson, M. S.; Wagner, R.; Stopar, J. D.; Plescia, J. B.; Speyerer, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    China's robotic Chang'e-3 spacecraft, carrying the Yutu rover, touched down in Mare Imbrium on the lunar surface on 14 December 2013. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) imaged the site both before and after landing. Multi-temporal NAC images taken before and after the landing, phase-ratio images made from NAC images taken after the landing, and Hapke photometric techniques were used to evaluate surface changes caused by the disturbance of regolith at the landing site (blast zone) by the descent engines of the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. The reflectance of the landing site increased by 10 ± 1% (from I/F = 0.040 to 0.044 at 30° phase angle) as a result of the landing, a value similar to reflectance increases estimated for the Apollo, Luna, and Surveyor landing sites. The spatial extent of the disturbed area at the Chang'e-3 landing site, 2530 m2, also falls close to what is predicted on the basis of correlations between lander mass, thrust, and blast zone areas for the historic landed missions. A multi-temporal ratio image of the Chang'e-3 landing site reveals a main blast zone (slightly elongate in the N-S direction; ∼75 m across N-S and ∼43 m across in the E-W direction) and an extended diffuse, irregular halo that is less reflective than the main blast zone (extending ∼40-50 m in the N-S direction and ∼10-15 m in the E-W direction beyond the main blast zone). The N-S elongation of the blast zone likely resulted from maneuvering during hazard avoidance just prior to landing. The phase-ratio image reveals that the blast zone is less backscattering than surrounding undisturbed areas. The similarities in magnitude of increased reflectance between the Chang'e-3 landing site and the Surveyor, Apollo, and Luna landing sites suggest that lunar soil reflectance changes caused by interaction with rocket exhaust are not significantly altered over a period of 40-50 years. The reflectance changes are independent of regolith composition

  2. Contrasting Complement Control, Temporal Adjunct Control and Controlled Verbal Gerund Subjects in ASD: The Role of Contextual Cues in Reference Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Vikki; Perovic, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    This study examines two complex syntactic dependencies (complement control and sentence-final temporal adjunct control) and one pragmatic dependency (controlled verbal gerund subjects) in children with ASD. Sixteen high-functioning (HFA) children (aged 6–16) with a diagnosis of autism and no language impairment, matched on age, gender and non-verbal MA to one TD control group, and on age, gender and verbal MA to another TD control group, undertook three picture-selection tasks. Task 1 measured their base-line interpretations of the empty categories (ec). Task 2 preceded these sentence sets with a weakly established topic cueing an alternative referent and Task 3 with a strongly established topic cueing an alternative referent. In complement control (Ron persuaded Hermione ec to kick the ball) and sentence-final temporal adjunct control (Harry tapped Luna while ec feeding the owl), the reference of the ec is argued to be related obligatorily to the object and subject respectively. In controlled verbal-gerund subjects (VGS) (ec Rowing the boat clumsily made Luna seasick), the ec's reference is resolved pragmatically. Referent choices across the three tasks were compared. TD children chose the object uniformly in complement control across all tasks but in adjunct control, preferences shifted toward the object in Task 3. In controlled VGSs, they exhibited a strong preference for an internal-referent interpretation in Task 1, which shifted in the direction of the cues in Tasks 2 and 3. HFA children gave a mixed performance. They patterned with their TD counterparts on complement control and controlled VGSs but performed marginally differently on adjunct control: no TD groups were influenced by the weakly established topic in Task 2 but all groups were influenced by the strongly established topic in Task 3. HFA children were less influenced than the TD children, resulting in their making fewer object choices overall but revealing parallel patterns of performance. In

  3. Dusty plasmas over the Moon: theory research in support of the upcoming lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Dubinskii, Andrey; Kopnin, Sergey; Golub, Anatoly

    The future Russian lunar missions Luna 25 and Luna 27 are planned to be equipped with instruments for direct detection of nano- and microscale dust particles and determination of plasma properties over the surface of the Moon. Lunar dust over the Moon is usually considered as a part of a dusty plasma system. Here, we present the main our theory results concerning the lunar dusty plasmas. We start with the description of the observational data on dust particles on and over the surface of the Moon. We show that the size distribution of dust on the lunar surface is in a good agreement with the Kolmogorov distribution, which is the size distribution of particles in the case of multiple crushing. We discuss the role of adhesion which has been identified as a significant force in the dust particle launching process. We evaluate the adhesive force for lunar dust particles with taking into account the roughness and adsorbed molecular layers. We show that dust particle launching can be explained if the dust particles rise at a height of about dozens of nanometers owing to some processes. This is enough for the particles to acquire charges sufficient for the dominance of the electrostatic force over the gravitational and adhesive forces. The reasons for the separation of the dust particles from the surface of the Moon are, in particular, their heating by solar radiation and cooling. We consider migration of free protons in regolith from the viewpoint of the photoemission properties of the lunar soil. Finally, we develop a model of dusty plasma system over the Moon and show that it includes charged dust, photoelectrons, and electrons and ions of the solar wind. We determine the distributions of the photoelectrons and find the characteristics of the dust which rise over the lunar regolith. We show that there are no significant constraints on the Moon landing sites for future lunar missions that will study dusty plasmas in the surface layer of the Moon. We discuss also waves in

  4. Martian wrinkle ridge topography: Evidence for subsurface faults from MOLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Anderson, F. S.; Zuber, M. T.

    2001-10-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography shows distinct elevation offsets across wrinkle ridges that can be explained simply by subsurface thrust faults. MOLA has provided the first reliable topographic data of wrinkle ridges to test models for their origin; although previous work has shown that wrinkle ridges result from compressional folding and faulting of near-surface units, the role of thrust faulting and its depth penetration have been argued. Topographic profiles across wrinkle ridges in Solis Planum, Lunae Planum, Tempe Terra, Xanthe Terra, Arcadia, Terra Sirenum, Thaumasia Planum, Arabia Terra, Syrtis Major, and Hesperia Planum show characteristic features such as superposed hills, crenulations, and elevation offsets between the plains on either side of the ridge. The characteristic elevation offsets between plains surfaces on either side of the ridges shown by MOLA are easily explained by subsurface thrust faults that underlie the ridges and produce the offset. In Solis Dorsa, wrinkle ridges are 10-20 km wide (well resolved by the 300 m spaced MOLA elevations), have a total relief of 80-250 m, and have elevation offsets of 50-180 m (well above the uncertainty in the MOLA elevations). MOLA topography shows that the plains decrease in elevation toward the southeast and are deformed into folds or arches not visible in images that are parallel to and in between the ridges. The elevations of the plains on either side of the ridges in Solis and Lunae Plana are characteristically down to the southeast and east, respectively, suggesting that faults beneath the wrinkle ridges offset the plains. This offset indicates underlying thrust faults that dip to the northwest and west, respectively, and systematically lower the southeast side of the plains. The observation that the elevation offsets across the ridges are maintained to the next ridge implies that the thrust fault penetrates to depths of tens of kilometers and thus well into the mechanical lithosphere

  5. Clues to the lithospheric structure of Mars from wrinkle ridge sets and localization instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montési, Laurent G. J.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2003-06-01

    Wrinkle ridges are a manifestation of horizontal shortening in planetary lithospheres, for which deformation is localized on faults that underlie individual ridges. In ridged plains of Mars, such as Solis Planum or Lunae Planum, wrinkle ridges are spaced ~40 km apart, whereas in the Martian northern lowlands, where ridges are identified only in Mars Observed Laser Altimeter (MOLA) altimetric data, the ridge spacing is at least ~80 km. We attribute ridge spacing to an instability of the lithosphere under horizontal compression. The localization instability, which results in periodically spaced faults [ Montési and Zuber, 2003a], links the difference of ridge spacing in the northern lowlands and in the highland ridged plains to the difference of crustal thickness via the depth of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). In Solis and Lunae Plana, where the crust is 50 to 60 km thick, the crust may be ductile at depth, limiting faulting to the BDT of crustal rocks. In the lowlands, the crust is only about 30 km thick and may be brittle throughout. Thus the depth of faulting may be controlled by the BDT of mantle rocks, which is roughly a factor of two deeper than that of crustal rocks. The geotherm can be identical in both regions, at 12 +/- 3 K.km-1, although differences of a few K.km-1 can be accommodated within this model. The heat flux implied by this geotherm is similar to the heat produced by radiogenic decay 3 Gyr ago. Our analysis provides a rheological explanation for the difference in spacing between ridges in the highlands and the lowlands, in contrast to the suggestion of Head et al. [2002], who proposed that alternating lowlands ridges are buried by sediments. In addition, finite element models that use the lithospheric structure deduced from ridge spacing show that modest gradients of crustal thickness or heat flux across a ridged plains favor the formation of faults dipping toward high-elevation areas, as may be the case in Solis Planum [ Golombek et al

  6. Space-radiation-induced Photon Luminescence of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas; Lee, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of a study of the photon luminescence of the Moon induced by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and space radiation from the Sun, using the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The model of the lunar surface is taken to be the chemical composition of soils found at various landing sites during the Apollo and Luna programs, averaged over all such sites to define a generic regolith for the present analysis. This then becomes the target that is bombarded by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) above 1 keV in FLUKA to determine the photon fluence albedo produced by the Moon's surface when there is no sunlight and Earthshine. This is to be distinguished from the gamma-ray spectrum produced by the radioactive decay of radiogenic constituents lying in the surface and interior of the Moon. From the photon fluence we derive the spectrum which can be utilized to examine existing lunar spectral data and to design orbiting instrumentation for measuring various components of the space-radiation-induced photon luminescence present on the Moon.

  7. Complex nanospherulites of zinc oxide and native amorphous boron in the lunar regolith from Mare Crisium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, A. V.; Kartashov, P. M.; Gornostaeva, T. A.; Asadulin, En. E.; Bogatikov, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    During the study of tea-colored impact glass fragments from the sample of lunar regolith delivered to Earth by the Luna 24 automatic station by transmission electron microscopy, the composition variations of the previously described high-carbonaceous film, the presence of at least three composition types of glasses, and unusual nanospherulites with Zn-B-N-O composition were discovered. As a part of a nonuniform high-carbonaceous oxygen-bearing film, sites enriched in either Na, S, Si, or Ca were detected. All these sites, as well as the whole film, are electron-amorphous; however, crystalline graphite was also found. Two types of nanospherulites are composed of amorphous ZnO and regular interstratifications of crystalline ZnO and amorphous boron layers with insignificant participation of adsorbed nitrogen. It is supposed that the formation of zinc-boron nanospherulites was caused by a fast-flowing explosive process and probably was modulated by high-frequency acoustic oscillations in a cloud of evaporated high-temperature ionized gas during the impact event.

  8. First direct measurement of the 2H(α,γ)6Li cross section at big bang energies and the primordial lithium problem.

    PubMed

    Anders, M; Trezzi, D; Menegazzo, R; Aliotta, M; Bellini, A; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Davinson, T; Elekes, Z; Erhard, M; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Prati, P; Rossi Alvarez, C; Scott, D A; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Szücs, T

    2014-07-25

    Recent observations of (6)Li in metal poor stars suggest a large production of this isotope during big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In standard BBN calculations, the (2)H(α,γ)(6)Li reaction dominates (6)Li production. This reaction has never been measured inside the BBN energy region because its cross section drops exponentially at low energy and because the electric dipole transition is strongly suppressed for the isoscalar particles (2)H and α at energies below the Coulomb barrier. Indirect measurements using the Coulomb dissociation of (6)Li only give upper limits owing to the dominance of nuclear breakup processes. Here, we report on the results of the first measurement of the (2)H(α,γ)(6)Li cross section at big bang energies. The experiment was performed deep underground at the LUNA 400 kV accelerator in Gran Sasso, Italy. The primordial (6)Li/(7)Li isotopic abundance ratio has been determined to be (1.5 ± 0.3) × 10(-5), from our experimental data and standard BBN theory. The much higher (6)Li/(7)Li values reported for halo stars will likely require a nonstandard physics explanation, as discussed in the literature.

  9. Chemical markers for bacteria in extraterrestrial samples.

    PubMed

    Fox, Alvin

    2002-11-01

    Interplanetary missions to collect pristine Martian surface samples for analysis of organic molecules, and to search for evidence of life, are in the planning phases. The only extraterrestrial samples currently on Earth are lunar dust and rocks, brought back by the Apollo (U.S.) and Luna (Soviet Union) missions to the moon, and meteorites. Meteorites are contaminated when they pass through the Earth's atmosphere, and during environmental exposure on Earth. Lunar fines have been stored on Earth for over 30 years under conditions designed to avoid chemical but not microbiological contamination. It has been extremely difficult to draw firm conclusions about the origin of chemicals (including amino acids) in extraterrestrial samples. Of particular concern has been the possibility of bacterial contamination. Recent work using state-of-the-art gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has dramatically lowered the chemical background, allowing a clear demonstration that lunar fines are remarkably different from terrestrial dust in that they generally lack certain chemical markers (muramic acid and 3-hydroxy fatty acids) characteristic of Earth's bacteria. Thus, lunar dust might be used as a negative control, in conjunction with GC-MS/MS analyses, in future analytical studies of lunar dust and meteorites. Such analyses may also be important in studies designed to search for the presence of life on Mars.

  10. Miniature CVD-diamond corning drills for robotic sample collection and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D. T.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Coring tools have been used etlectivelv on the Moon, but to date no such tools have been used on any other extraterrestrial surface. The lunar experience includes both manual (Apollo) and robotic (Luna) systems . These coring systems were concerned primarily with acquiring samples from depth for return to Earth or for the creation of instrument emplacement holes (e .g ., heat probes). Current designs for planetary drills differ from the lunar tools primarily in that they are integrated with robotic instrumentation for remote analysis, but the role of the drilling or coring system remains one of acquiring samples that must be extracted from the core barrel for analysis . Missing from current sample collection systems is a tool that can double as both a conng device and a sample holder. This dual utility can minimize the number of motions, the mass, and the power required for several classes of instruments in planetary surface exploration. To be effective, such a system must be durable and simple in operation. Hollow CVD diamond drills possess the hardness, excellent cutting properties, and heat resistance required for drilling into a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Because CVD diamond is also unreactive and transparent to infrared radiation and to X-rays of moderate to high energry, it can be used as a sample holder in various instruments for X-ray diffraction (XRD), Xray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

  11. Key roles for freshwater Actinobacteria revealed by deep metagenomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Picazo, Antonio; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are critical but fragile environments directly affecting society and its welfare. However, our understanding of genuinely freshwater microbial communities, constrained by our capacity to manipulate its prokaryotic participants in axenic cultures, remains very rudimentary. Even the most abundant components, freshwater Actinobacteria, remain largely unknown. Here, applying deep metagenomic sequencing to the microbial community of a freshwater reservoir, we were able to circumvent this traditional bottleneck and reconstruct de novo seven distinct streamlined actinobacterial genomes. These genomes represent three new groups of photoheterotrophic, planktonic Actinobacteria. We describe for the first time genomes of two novel clades, acMicro (Micrococcineae, related to Luna2,) and acAMD (Actinomycetales, related to acTH1). Besides, an aggregate of contigs belonged to a new branch of the Acidimicrobiales. All are estimated to have small genomes (approximately 1.2 Mb), and their GC content varied from 40 to 61%. One of the Micrococcineae genomes encodes a proteorhodopsin, a rhodopsin type reported for the first time in Actinobacteria. The remarkable potential capacity of some of these genomes to transform recalcitrant plant detrital material, particularly lignin-derived compounds, suggests close linkages between the terrestrial and aquatic realms. Moreover, abundances of Actinobacteria correlate inversely to those of Cyanobacteria that are responsible for prolonged and frequently irretrievable damage to freshwater ecosystems. This suggests that they might serve as sentinels of impending ecological catastrophes.

  12. Determination of gymnemagenin in rat plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetics after oral administration of Gymnema sylvestre extract.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Bhagyashree; Gupta, Ankur; Patil, Dada; Khatal, Laxman; Janrao, Shirish; Moothedath, Ismail; Duraiswamy, Basavan

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of gymnemagenin (GMG), a triterpene sapogenin from Gymnema sylvestre, in rat plasma using withaferin A as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were simply extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with tetra-butyl methyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on Luna C(18) column using gradient elution of water and methanol (with 0.1% formic acid and 0.3% ammonia) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. GMG and IS were eluted at 4.64 and 4.36 min, ionized in negative and positive mode, respectively, and quantitatively estimated using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Two MRM transitions were selected at m/z 505.70 → 455.5 and m/z 471.50 → 281.3 for GMG and IS, respectively. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5.280-300.920 ng/mL. The mean plasma extraction recoveries for GMG and IS were found to be 80.92 ± 8.70 and 55.63 ± 0.76%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters of GMG after oral administration of G. sylvestre extract.

  13. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for purity control of clopidogrel-acetylsalicylic acid in combined oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Kahsay, Getu; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2012-03-05

    A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for the simultaneous determination of clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid and their related substances in combined oral formulations was developed and validated. Good separation was achieved on a Luna C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) using gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a column temperature of 35 °C. UV detection was performed at 220 nm. The validation was performed according to the ICH guidelines. The method proved to be specific, sensitive (LOQ=0.975 μg/mL and 0.0384 μg/mL for clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively), linear in the concentration range from LOQ to 325 μg/mL for clopidogrel and from LOQ to 650 μg/mL for acetylsalicylic acid, precise (RSD values for intermediate precision <1%) and accurate with mean recovery values of 100.7% and 100.2% for clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively. Moreover, the solution stability and method robustness were examined. The method gives satisfactory separation of impurities of clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid and so it is suitable for quantification of the related substances as well as for the assay of the actives.

  14. Determination of terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba solid oral dosage forms using HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Dubber, M-J; Kanfer, I

    2006-04-11

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the quantitative determination of the terpene trilactones, ginkgolide A, B, C and J and the sesquiterpene, bilobalide in Ginkgo biloba solid oral dosage forms. Separation was achieved using a minibore Phenomenex Luna (5 microm) C18 column with dimensions 250 mm x 2.00 mm maintained at a temperature of 45 degrees C. A simple gradient method using a mobile phase of methanol:water and a flow rate of 350 microl/min facilitated baseline separation of the selected marker compounds within 14 min. The ELSD parameters affecting the detector response were optimized prior to the validation. The limits of detection and quantification were 31.25 and 62.50 ng, respectively. The percentage relative errors of the recovery ranged between -3.16 and +1.88 and both intra-day and inter-day percentage standard deviations were all better than 6%. This method was used to assay commercially available Ginkgo biloba products and proved to be suitable for the routine analysis of such products for quality control purposes.

  15. Simulant Materials of Lunar Dust: Requirements and feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fast-pace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960 s Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that must be addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and program managers. While the larger size fraction of the lunar regolith has been reproduced in several simulants in the past, little attention has been paid to the fines fraction, commonly refered to as lunar dust. As reported by McKay, this fraction of the lunar regolith below 20 microns can represent upto 30% by mass of the total regolith mass. The issue of reproducing the properties of these fines for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. Preliminary conclusions from the workshop and con- side-rations concerning the feasibility of producing such materials will be presented here.

  16. MDM2 expression during mouse embryogenesis and the requirement of p53.

    PubMed

    Léveillard, T; Gorry, P; Niederreither, K; Wasylyk, B

    1998-06-01

    We compared mouse embryonic expression of the MDM2 proto-oncogene, p21WAF1/CIP1 and their transcriptional regulator, p53. MDM2 expression is ubiquitous from 7.5 to 11.5 days post coitum (dpc) and more restricted from 12.5 dpc, with the highest levels in the testes and neural tube. From 14.5 to 18.5 dpc, the nasal respiratory epithelium expresses high levels of MDM2 RNA and protein and p21WAF1/CIP1 RNA, in both wild type and p53 null embryos. MDM2 expression during development is tissue-specific and, like p21WAF1/CIP1, is independent of p53. MDM2 may have a developmental role after 6.5 dpc, when MDM2 null mice die (Jones, S.N., Roe, A.E., Donehower, L.A., Bradley, A., 1995. Rescue of embryonic lethality in Mdm2-deficient mice by absence of p53. Nature 378, 206-208; Montes de Oca Luna, R., Wagner, D.S., Lozano, G., 1995. Rescue of early embryonic lethality in mdm2-deficient mice by deletion of p53. Nature 378, 203-206).

  17. 'Proyecto Orgullo', an HIV prevention, empowerment and community mobilisation intervention for gay men and transgender women in Callao/Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Andres; Kegeles, Susan; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Cáceres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We used qualitative, quantitative, and observational methods to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of Proyecto Orgullo (PO), a pilot community mobilisation intervention to decrease sexual risk, promote health-seeking behaviours, and facilitate personal and community empowerment among gay men (GM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru. PO was adapted from Mpowerment and Hermanos de Luna y Sol, two US interventions. PO included six interrelated core elements: (1) Self-reflection Small Group sessions; (2) Supporting peers in HIV prevention; (3) Mobilisation Activities addressing HIV, GM/TW issues, and community empowerment; (4) A Core Group (staff + GM/TW volunteers) designing/implementing those activities; (5) A Project Space; (6) Publicity. PO included specific components for TW, but promoted that GM/TW, who historically have not worked well together, collaborate for a common goal. We found that PO was embraced by GM/TW. PO positively influenced GM/TW's HIV prevention beliefs, self-efficacy, and behaviours; provided social support and created community; facilitated individual and community empowerment; achieved that GM/TW collaborate; and established a functional Community Centre for socialising/conducting mobilisation activities. Community mobilisation strategies, lacking from HIV prevention efforts in Peru but considered key to HIV prevention, can help improve health-seeking behaviours and consolidate social norms supporting preventive behaviours among GM/TW.

  18. Inhibitory effects of a novel Val to Thr mutation on the distal heme of human catalase.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi, Zahra; Boeglin, William E; Brash, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    True catalases efficiently breakdown hydrogen peroxide, whereas the catalase-related enzyme allene oxide synthase (cAOS) is completely unreactive and instead metabolizes a fatty acid hydroperoxide. In cAOS a Thr residue adjacent to the distal His restrains reaction with H2O2 (Tosha et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:12610; De Luna et al. (2013) J. Phys. Chem. B 117: 14635) and its mutation to the consensus Val of true catalases permits the interaction. Here we investigated the effects of the reciprocal experiment in which the Val74 of human catalase is mutated to Thr, Ser, Met, Pro, or Ala. The Val74Thr substitution decreased catalatic activity by 3.5-fold and peroxidatic activity by 3-fold. Substitution with Ser had similar negative effects (5- and 3-fold decreases). Met decreased catalatic activity 2-fold and eliminated peroxidatic activity altogether, whereas the Val74Ala substitution was well tolerated. (The Val74Pro protein lacked heme). We conclude that the conserved Val74 of true catalases helps optimize catalysis. There are rare substitutions of Val74 with Ala, Met, or Pro, but not with Ser of Thr, possibly due their hydrogen bonding affecting the conformation of His75, the essential distal heme residue for activity in catalases.

  19. Determination of seven free anabolic steroid residues in eggs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Jiahui; Yu, Jingxian; He, Limin; Shen, Xianguang

    2013-03-01

    A cheap, reliable and practical high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven anabolic steroids in eggs, including trenbolone, boldenone, nandrolone, stanozolol, methandienone, testosterone and methyl testosterone. The analytes were extracted from the egg samples using methanol. The extracts were subjected to the removal of fat by freezing-lipid filtration and then further purified by liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether. The analytes were separated on a Luna C18 column by a gradient elution program with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. This method was validated over 1.00-100 ng/g for all steroids of interest. The correlation coefficients (r) for each calibration curve are higher than 0.99 within the experimental concentration range. The decision limits of the steroids in eggs ranged from 0.20 to 0.44 ng/g, and the detection capabilities were below 1.03 ng/g. The average recoveries were between 66.3 and 82.8% in eggs at three spiked levels of 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00 ng/g for each analyte. The between-day and within-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 2.4-11%. High matrix suppression effects were observed for all compounds of interest.

  20. Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for Space Resource Utilization Technologies Development: Effects of Materials Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fastpace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The recommendation of the workshop of establishing standard simulant materials to be used in lunar technology development and testing will be discussed here with an emphasis on space resource utilization. The variety of techniques and the complexity of functional interfaces make these simulant choices critical in space resource utilization.