Science.gov

Sample records for lunar meteorites yamato-793169

  1. Consortium reports on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757, a new type of mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Lindstrom, M. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Torigoe, N.; Misawa, K.; Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Koeberl, C.; Kojima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Consortium studies on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 (formerly Asuka-31) were performed to characterize these new samples from unknown locations in the lunar mare. Both meteorites are coarse-grained mare rocks having low Mg/Fe ratios (bulk mg'=30-35) and low TiO2 (1.5-2.5 percent in homogenized bulk samples). They are intermediate between VLT and low-Ti mare basalts. Although these meteorites are not identical to each other, their mineral and bulk compositions, isotopic systematics, and crystallization ages are remarkably similar and distinct from those of all other mare basalts. They appear to represent a new type of low-Ti mare basalt that crystallized at about 3.9Ga. These meteorites are inconsistent with the canonical correlation between the TiO2 contents and ages of mare basalts and suggest that our knowledge of lunar volcanism is far from complete.

  2. Consortium study of lunar meteorites Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757: Geochemical evidence of mutual similarity, and dissimilarity versus other mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    Compositions of bulk powders and separated minerals from two meteorites derived from the mare lava plains of the Earth's Moon, Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757, indicate a remarkable degree of similarity to one another, and clearly favor lunar origin. However, these meteorites are unlike any previously studied lunar rock. In both cases, the bulk-rock TiO2 content is slightly greater than the level separating VLT from low-Ti mare basalt, yet the Sc content is much higher than previously observed except among high-Ti mare basalts. Conceivably, the Sc enrichment in A881757 reflects origin of this rock as a cumulate from a mare magma of 'normal' Sc content, but this seems unlikely. Mineral-separate data suggest that most of the Sc is in pyroxene, and a variety of evidence weighs against the cumulus hypothesis as a major cause for the high Sc. The remarkable similarity between Y793169 and A881757 suggests the possibility that they were derived from a single source crater on the Moon.

  3. Antarctic lunar meteorites Yamato-793169, Asuka-881757, MIL 05035, and MET 01210 (YAMM): Launch pairing and possible cryptomare origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Tomoko; Ray Hawke, B.; Giguere, Thomas A.; Misawa, Keiji; Miyamoto, Masamichi; Kojima, Hideyasu

    2010-04-01

    The Antarctic lunar meteorite Meteorite Hills (MET) 01210 is a polymict regolith breccia, dominantly composed of mare basalt components. One relatively large (2.7 × 4.7 mm) basalt clast in MET 01210 (MET basalt) shows remarkable mineralogical similarities to the lunar-meteorite crystalline mare basalts Yamato (Y)-793169, Asuka (A)-881757, and Miller Range (MIL) 05035. All four basalts have similar rock texture, mineral assemblage, mineral composition, pyroxene crystallization trend, and pyroxene exsolution lamellae. The estimated TiO 2 contents (˜2.0 wt%) of the MET basalt and MIL 05035 are close to the bulk-rock TiO 2 contents of Y-793169 and A-881757. These similarities suggest that Y-793169, A-881757, MIL 05035, and the MET basalt came from the same basalt flow, which we designate the YAMM basalt. The source-basalt pairing of the YAMM is also supported by their similar REE abundances, crystallization ages (approx. 3.8-3.9 Ga), and isotopic compositions (low U/Pb, low Rb/Sr, and high Sm/Nd). The pyroxene exsolution lamellae, which are unusually coarse (up to a few microns) by mare standards, imply a relatively slow cooling in an unusually thick lava and/or subsequent annealing within a cryptomare. Reported noble gas and CRE data with close launch ages (˜1 Ma) and ejection depths (deeper than several meters) among the four meteorites further indicate their simultaneous ejection from the moon. Despite the marginally close terrestrial ages, pairing in the conventional Earth-entry sense seems unlikely because of the remote recovery sites among the YAMM meteorites. The high abundance (68%) of mare components in MET 01210 estimated from a two-component mixing model calculation could have resulted from either lateral mixing at a mare-highland boundary or vertical mixing in a cryptomare. The proportion of mare materials in MET 01210 is greater than in Apollo core samples at the mare-highland boundary. The burial depth (>several meters deep) inferred from the lack of

  4. The U-Th-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Ar-Ar isotopic systematics of lunar meteorite Yamato-793169

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoye, Noriko; Misawa, Keji; Dalrymple, G. Brent; Tatsumoto, Mitsunobu

    1993-01-01

    U-Th-Pb, Sm-Nd, and (Ar-40)-(Ar-39) isotopic studies were performed on Yamato (Y)-793169, an unbrecciated diabasic lunar meteorite whose chemical composition is close to low Ti(LT) and very low-Ti (VLT) mare basalts. The isotopic data indicate that the meteorite was formed earlier than 3.9 Ga from a source with low U/Pb and high Sm/Nd and was distributed by a thermal event at 751 Ma. due to the small sample size (104 mg), a plagioclase crystal and glass grains were handpicked for Ar analysis, leaving four fractions for the U-Th-Pb and Sm-Nd studies; a fine-grained fraction (less than 63 microns; Fine) and three medium-grained fractions (63-150 microns). Medium-grained fractions were divided by density; a heavy fraction (rho greater than 3.3) consisting mainly of pyroxene (PX1), a lighter fraction (rho less than 2.8) consisting of plagioclase (PL), and a middle density fraction (predominantly pyroxene; PX2). The fractions were washed with acetone and alcohol, and then leached in 0.01 HBr and 0.1N HBr in order to remove any terrestrial Pb contamination. Analysis of the HBr leaches revealed that this meteorite was heavily contaminated with terrestrial Pb during its residence in Antarctic ice.

  5. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations of lunar basalt meteorites Asuka 881757, Yamato 793169, Miller Range 05035, La Paz Icefield 02205, Northwest Africa 479, and basaltic breccia Elephant Moraine 96008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera A.; Burgess, Ray; Morris, Adam

    2009-06-01

    40Ar-39Ar data are presented for the unbrecciated lunar basaltic meteorites Asuka (A-) 881757, Yamato (Y-) 793169, Miller Range (MIL) 05035, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205, Northwest Africa (NWA) 479 (paired with NWA 032), and basaltic fragmental breccia Elephant Moraine (EET) 96008. Stepped heating 40Ar-39Ar analyses of several bulk fragments of related meteorites A-881757, Y-793169 and MIL 05035 give crystallization ages of 3.763 ± 0.046 Ga, 3.811 ± 0.098 Ga and 3.845 ± 0.014 Ga, which are comparable with previous age determinations by Sm-Nd, U-Pb Th-Pb, Pb-Pb, and Rb-Sr methods. These three meteorites differ in the degree of secondary 40Ar loss with Y-793169 showing relatively high Ar loss probably during an impact event ˜200 Ma ago, lower Ar loss in MIL 05035 and no loss in A-881757. Bulk and impact melt glass-bearing samples of LAP 02205 gave similar ages (2.985 ± 0.016 Ga and 2.874 ± 0.056 Ga) and are consistent with ages previously determined using other isotope pairs. The basaltic portion of EET 96008 gives an age of 2.650 ± 0.086 Ga which is considered to be the crystallization age of the basalt in this meteorite. The Ar release for fragmental basaltic breccia EET 96008 shows evidence of an impact event at 631 ± 20 Ma. The crystallization age of 2.721 ± 0.040 Ga determined for NWA 479 is indistinguishable from the weighted mean age obtained from three samples of NWA 032 supporting the proposal that these meteorites are paired. The similarity of 40Ar-39Ar ages with ages determined by other isotopic systems for multiple meteorites suggests that the K-Ar isotopic system is robust for meteorites that have experienced a significant shock event and not a prolonged heating regime.

  6. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  7. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  8. Evolved mare basalt magmatism, high Mg/Fe feldspathic crust, chondritic impactors, and the petrogenesis of Antarctic lunar breccia meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Floss, Christine; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Anand, Mahesh; Patchen, Allan D.

    2006-12-01

    Antarctic lunar meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007 are breccias that come from different regolith lithologies on the Moon. MET 01210 is composed predominantly of fractionated low-Ti basaltic material and is classified as an immature, predominantly basaltic glassy matrix regolith breccia. PCA 02007 is a predominantly feldspathic regolith breccia consisting of metamorphosed feldspathic, noritic, troctolitic and noritic-anorthosite clasts, agglutinate and impact-glasses, as well as a number of basaltic clasts with mare and possible non-mare affinities. The basalt clasts in MET 01210 have undergone 'Fenner' trend enrichments in iron and may also have witnessed late-stage crystallization of zircon or a zirconium-rich mineral. Some of the features of MET 01210 are similar to other basaltic lunar breccia meteorites (e.g., Northwest Africa 773; Elephant Moraine 87521/96008; Yamato 793274/981031), but it is not paired with them. The presence of metamorphic anorthositic clasts as well as agglutinates indicates a small regolith component. Similarities with previously discovered evolved (e.g., LaPaz Icefield 02205; Northwest Africa 032) and ferroan (e.g., Asuka 881757; Yamato 793169) basaltic lunar meteorites suggest a similar mare source region for MET 01210. Despite lack of evidence for pairing, PCA 02007 shares many features with other feldspathic regolith breccias (e.g., Yamato 791197, Queen Alexandra Range 94281), including a high Mg/Fe whole-rock composition, glass spherules, agglutinate fragments and a diverse clast inventory spanning the range of ferroan anorthosite and high magnesium suite rocks. Some of the basalt fragments in this sample are fractionated and have an igneous origin. However, the majority of the basalt fragments are impact melt clasts. PCA 02007 supports previous studies of feldspathic lunar meteorites that have suggested an aluminous crust for the Moon, with compositions more similar to magnesium granulite breccias than

  9. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is < 13 because in some cases a single impact appears to have yielded more than one LM. Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 are considered "source-crater paired" or "launch paired" because they are compositionally and petrographically similar to each other and distinct from the others, and both have similar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) histories. The same can be said of QUE 94281 and Y 793274. Thus the 13 meteorites probably represent a maximum of 11 locations on the Moon. The minimum number of likely source craters is debated and in flux as new data for different isotopic systems are obtained. Conservatively, considering CRE data only, a minimum of about 5 impacts is required. Compositional and petrographic data offer only probabilistic constraints. An extreme, but not

  10. Relationships among basaltic lunar meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1991-01-01

    During the past two years four meteorites of dominantly mare basalt composition were identified in the Japanese and US Antarctic collections. Basalts represent a much higher proportion of the lunar meteorites than is expected from photogeologic mapping of mare and highland regions. Also, the basaltic lunar meteorites are all described as VLT mare basalt, which is a relatively uncommon type among returned lunar samples. The significance of the basaltic meteorites to the understanding of the lunar crust depends on the evaluation of possible relationships among the individual meteorites. None of the specimens are paired meteorites. They differ from each other in petrography and composition. It is important to determine whether they might be paired ejecta which were ejected from the same mare region by the same impact. The question of paired ejecta must be addressed using a combination of exposure histories and petrographic/compositional characteristics. It is possible that the basaltic lunar meteorites are paired ejecta from the same region of the Moon. However, the relationships among them are more complicated than the basaltic breccias being simply brecciated mare gabbros.

  11. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  12. Martian "microfossils" in lunar meteorites?

    PubMed

    Sears, D W; Kral, T A

    1998-07-01

    One of the five lines of evidence used by McKay et al. (1996) for relic life in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 was the presence of objects thought to be microfossils. These ovoid and elongated forms are similar to structures found in terrestrial rocks and described as "nanobacteria" (Folk, 1993; McBride et al., 1994). Using the same procedures and apparatus as McKay et al. (1996), we have found structures on internal fracture surfaces of lunar meteorites that cannot be distinguished from the objects described on similar surfaces in ALH 84001. The lunar surface is currently a sterile environment and probably always has been. However, the lunar and Martian meteorites share a common terrestrial history, which includes many thousands of years of exposure to Antarctic weathering. Although we do not know the origin of these ovoid and elongated forms, we suggest that their presence on lunar meteorites indicates that the objects described by McKay et al. (1996) are not of Martian biological origin.

  13. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  14. NASA Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxworth, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program is designed for K-12 classroom educators who work in K-12 schools, museums, libraries, or planetariums. Educators have to be certified to borrow the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks by attending a NASA Certification Workshop provided by a NASA Authorized Sample Disk Certifier.

  15. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment: Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-11-30

    S72-37257 (November 1972) --- The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites Experiment (S-202), one of the experiments of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the physical parameters of primary and secondary particles impacting the lunar surface.

  16. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  17. Lunar and martian meteorite delivery services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    Launch mechanisms for lunar and martian meteorites have been investigated, by integrating physical modeling constraints, geochemical cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) constraints, and petrologic constraints. The potential source region for lunar meteorites is remarkably small compared to the final crater volume. CRE constraints indicate that most launches start at depths of less than or equal to 3.2 m, and cratering theory implies derivation of suitably accelerated objects from a subvolume with diameter only about 0.3 x the final crater diameter. The shallow depth provenance is probably related to shock-wave interference, enhanced by the lunar regolith's extremely low compressional wave velocity. CRE constraints alone imply that four to five separate launch events are represented among the eight well-studied lunar meteorites. Most of the lunar meteorites are regolith breccias, which tend to show only limited compositional diversity within any kilometer-scale region of the Moon. Several others are polymict breccias, which also show relatively subdued compositional diversity, compared to igneous rocks. The observed diversity among these samples in terms of abundances of mare basalt and KREEP, and in Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio, implies that among eight well-studied lunar meteorites only two potential source craters pairings are plausible: between Asuka-881757 + Y-793169 (most probable) and between Y-793274 + EET875721. Altogether, these eight lunar meteorites apparently represent at least six separate source craters, including three in the past 10(exp 5) years and five in the past 10(exp 6) years. CRE constraints imply that SNC meteorites are launched from systematically greater than lunar meteorites. SNCs are also systematically bigger, and all nine well-studied SNCs are uncommonly young (by martian standards) mafic igneous rocks. Comparison between Viking and Apollo results reveals that rocks the size of common meteorites are remarkably scarce in the martian regolith, probably due

  18. Petrography, Geochemistry, and Pairing Relationships of Basaltic Lunar Meteorite Miller Range 13317

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2016-08-01

    A petrographic and geochemical description of "new" lunar meteorite MIL 13317, an evolved lunar basaltic regolith breccia. The pairing relationships with previously described lunar meteorites are also explored.

  19. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. III - Lunar and basaltic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Batchelor, J. D.; Symes, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data were obtained to investigate recent thermal and radiation histories of the lunar meteorite MacAlpine Hills 88104/5 and 65 eucrites, howardites, diogenites, and mesosiderites. All these meteorites have low levels of natural TL compared to chondrites, which is primarily because they display anomalous fading. Some meteorites have especially low natural TL which must reflect heating within the last 100,000-1,000,000 y. The parameters for TL decay were determined assuming plausible values for cosmic ray dose rate and that the natural TL of MAC88104/5 was totally drained by ejection from the moon. The obtained parameters for TL decay suggest that the moon-earth transit times for MAC88104 and MAC88105 were 2,000 and 1,800 y, respectively, compared with 19,000 and 2,500 y for Y791197 and ALHA81005, respectively.

  20. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. III - Lunar and basaltic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Batchelor, J. D.; Symes, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data were obtained to investigate recent thermal and radiation histories of the lunar meteorite MacAlpine Hills 88104/5 and 65 eucrites, howardites, diogenites, and mesosiderites. All these meteorites have low levels of natural TL compared to chondrites, which is primarily because they display anomalous fading. Some meteorites have especially low natural TL which must reflect heating within the last 100,000-1,000,000 y. The parameters for TL decay were determined assuming plausible values for cosmic ray dose rate and that the natural TL of MAC88104/5 was totally drained by ejection from the moon. The obtained parameters for TL decay suggest that the moon-earth transit times for MAC88104 and MAC88105 were 2,000 and 1,800 y, respectively, compared with 19,000 and 2,500 y for Y791197 and ALHA81005, respectively.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Meteorites" included the following reports:Description of a New Stony Meteorite Find from Bulloch County, Georgia; Meteorite Ablation Derived from Cosmic Ray Track Data Dhofar 732: A Mg-rich Orthopyroxenitic Achondrite Halogens, Carbon and Sulfur in the Tagish Lake Meteorite: Implications for Classification and Terrestrial Alteration; Electromagnetic Scrape of Meteorites and Probably Columbia Tiles; Pre-Atmospheric Sizes and Orbits of Several Chondrites; Research of Shock-Thermal History of the Enstatite Chondrites by Track, Thermoluminescence and Neutron-Activation (NAA) Methods; Radiation and Shock-thermal History of the Kaidun CR2 Chondrite Glass Inclusions; On the Problem of Search for Super-Heavy Element Traces in the Meteorites: Probability of Their Discovery by Three-Prong Tracks due to Nuclear Spontaneous Fission Trace Element Abundances in Separated Phases of Pesyanoe, Enstatite Achondrite; Evaluation of Cooling Rate Calculated by Diffusional Modification of Chemical Zoning: Different Initial Profiles for Diffusion Calculation; Mineralogical Features and REE Distribution in Ortho- and Clinopyroxenes of the HaH 317 Enstatite Chondrite Dhofar 311, 730 and 731: New Lunar Meteorites from Oman; The Deuterium Content of Individual Murchison Amino Acids; Clues to the Formation of PV1, an Enigmatic Carbon-rich Chondritic Clast from the Plainview H-Chondrite Regolith Breccia ;Numerical Simulations of the Production of Extinct Radionuclides and ProtoCAIs by Magnetic Flaring.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Meteorites" included the following reports:Description of a New Stony Meteorite Find from Bulloch County, Georgia; Meteorite Ablation Derived from Cosmic Ray Track Data Dhofar 732: A Mg-rich Orthopyroxenitic Achondrite Halogens, Carbon and Sulfur in the Tagish Lake Meteorite: Implications for Classification and Terrestrial Alteration; Electromagnetic Scrape of Meteorites and Probably Columbia Tiles; Pre-Atmospheric Sizes and Orbits of Several Chondrites; Research of Shock-Thermal History of the Enstatite Chondrites by Track, Thermoluminescence and Neutron-Activation (NAA) Methods; Radiation and Shock-thermal History of the Kaidun CR2 Chondrite Glass Inclusions; On the Problem of Search for Super-Heavy Element Traces in the Meteorites: Probability of Their Discovery by Three-Prong Tracks due to Nuclear Spontaneous Fission Trace Element Abundances in Separated Phases of Pesyanoe, Enstatite Achondrite; Evaluation of Cooling Rate Calculated by Diffusional Modification of Chemical Zoning: Different Initial Profiles for Diffusion Calculation; Mineralogical Features and REE Distribution in Ortho- and Clinopyroxenes of the HaH 317 Enstatite Chondrite Dhofar 311, 730 and 731: New Lunar Meteorites from Oman; The Deuterium Content of Individual Murchison Amino Acids; Clues to the Formation of PV1, an Enigmatic Carbon-rich Chondritic Clast from the Plainview H-Chondrite Regolith Breccia ;Numerical Simulations of the Production of Extinct Radionuclides and ProtoCAIs by Magnetic Flaring.

  3. Lunar sample analysis. [Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results on the antarctic meteorite ALPHA 77003 which contribute to understanding the alteration processes which produced matrix in unequilibrated chondrites are presented. Also included are additional scanning electron microscope results confirming that the matrix in Allende was formed by in situ alteration.

  4. Petrography and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Miller Range 13317

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 13317 is a 32-g lunar meteorite collected during the 2013-2014 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) field season. It was initially described as having 25% black fusion crust covering a light- to dark-grey matrix, with numerous clasts ranging in size up to 1 cm; it was tenta-tively classified as a lunar anorthositic breccia. Here we present the petrography and geochemistry of MIL 13317, and examine possible pairing relationships with previously described lunar meteorites.

  5. Comparison of lunar rocks and meteorites: Implications to histories of the moon and parent meteorite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    There are many similarities between lunar samples and stone meteorites. Lunar samples, especially from the highlands, indicate that they have been affected by complex and repeated impact processes. Similar complex and repeated impact processes have also been operative on the achondritic and chondritic meteorites. Similarities between lunar and meteoritic rocks are discussed as follows: (1) Monomict and polymict breccias occur in lunar rocks, as well as in achondritic and chondritic meteorites, having resulted from complex and repeated impact processes; (2) Chondrules are present in lunar meteorites, as well as in a few achondritic and most chondritic meteorites. They apparently crystallized spontaneously from molten highly supercooled droplets which may have formed from impact melts or, perhaps, volcanic processes (as well as from the solar nebula, in the case of meteoritic chondrites); (3) Lithic fragments vary from little modified (relative to the apparent original texture) to partly or completely melted and recrystallized lithic fragments. Their detailed study allows conclusions to be drawn about their parent rock types and their origin, thereby gaining insight into preimpact histories of lunar and meteoritic breccias. There is evidence that cumulate rocks were involved in the early history of both moon and parent meteorite bodies.

  6. Trapped noble gases indicate lunar origin for Antarctic meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Johnson, P.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic abundances of the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) are reported for Antarctic ALHA 81005. It contains solar wind-implanted gases whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to lunar regolith samples but not to other meteorites. ALHA 81005 also contains a large excess Ar-40 component which is identical to the component in lunar fines implanted from the lunar atmosphere. Large concentrations of cosmogenic Ne-21, Kr-82, and Xe-126 in ALHA 81005 indicate a total cosmic ray exposure age of at least 200 million years. The noble gas data alone are strong evidence for a lunar origin of this meteorite.

  7. Natural thermoluminescence profiles in lunar cores and implications for meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorites and lunar samples have been irradiated by high energy cosmic rays, typically for millions of years. In addition to producing isotopic changes, the irradiation creates ionization which may be recorded in the form of stored thermoluminescence (TL) in certain minerals, the most important of which is feldspar. One aspect of interpreting the TL of these samples is the effect of 'shielding' or depth control, which is particularly important for meteorites, since they have lost an unknown amount of mass during atmospheric entry. Here we report theoretical calculations which we compare with samples from lunar cores for which we have excellent stratigraphic control. We then discuss the implications for these results for the TL of meteorites, which have a different irradiation geometry. We find that, in general, calculated profiles are similar to those observed in lunar samples and meteorites. Additional effects, such as orbital (thermal) history and terrestrial age must also be considered in the case of meteorites.

  8. Lunar and Meteorite Thin Sections for Undergraduate and Graduate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Galindo, C.; Luckey, M.; Reustle, J.; Todd, N.; Allen, C.

    2012-03-01

    Lunar and meteorite thin sections sets are available from JSC Curation for loans to domestic university petrology classes. See the new website for information http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/Education/index.cfm.

  9. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, E; Ozawa, S; Miyahara, M; Ito, Y; Mikouchi, T; Kimura, M; Arai, T; Sato, K; Hiraga, K

    2011-01-11

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO(2) in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8-30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the (39)Ar/(40)Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Isotopes in Meteorites" consisted of the following presentations:The Common Property of Isotopic Anomalies in Meteorites; Revised Production Rates for 22Na and 54Mn in Meteorites Using Cross Sections Measured for Neutron-induced Reactions; Modeling of 14C and 10Be Production Rates in Meteorites and Lunar Samples; Investigating Xenon Isotopic Fractionation During Rayleigh-type Distillation; The Mean Life Squared Relationship for Abundances of Extinct Radioactivities; and Magnesium Isotopic Fractionation of Forsterite During Evaporation from Different Crystallographic Surfaces.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Isotopes in Meteorites" consisted of the following presentations:The Common Property of Isotopic Anomalies in Meteorites; Revised Production Rates for 22Na and 54Mn in Meteorites Using Cross Sections Measured for Neutron-induced Reactions; Modeling of 14C and 10Be Production Rates in Meteorites and Lunar Samples; Investigating Xenon Isotopic Fractionation During Rayleigh-type Distillation; The Mean Life Squared Relationship for Abundances of Extinct Radioactivities; and Magnesium Isotopic Fractionation of Forsterite During Evaporation from Different Crystallographic Surfaces.

  12. The Origin and Processing of Magnesian Glass in Lunar Meteorite Northwest Africa 10404

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, A.; Korotev, R. L.; Kuehner, S. M.; Irving, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    Magnesian glass clasts in lunar meteorite NWA 10404 record fusion of Mg-rich lunar rocks or an achondrite impactor with feldspathic crust; the meteorite's launch caused vitrification and vesiculation of its groundmass and reheated the glass clasts.

  13. The Thermal and Radiation Exposure History of Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) of seven lunar meteorites in order to examine their crystallization, irradiation, and recent thermal histories. Lunar meteorites have induced TL properties similar to Apollo samples of the same provenance (highland or mare), indicating similar crystallization and metamorphic histories. MacAlplne Hills 88104/5 has experienced the greatest degree of impact/regolith processing among the highland-dominated meteorites. The basaltic breccia QUE 94281 is dominated by mare component but may also contain a significant highland component. For the mare-dominated meteorites, EET 87521 may have a significant highland impact-melt component, while Asuka 881757 and Y-793169 have been heavily shocked. The thermal history of Y-793169 included slow cooling, either during impact processing or during its initial crystallization. Our natural TL data indicate that most lunar meteorites have apparently been irradiated in space a few thousand years, with most less than 15,000 a. Elephant Moraine 87521 has the lowest irradiation exposure time, being less than 1,000 a. Either the natural TL of ALHA81005, Asuka 881757 and Y-82192 was only partially reset by lunar ejection or these meteorites were in small perihelia orbits (less than or equal to 0.7 AU).

  14. Lunar and Meteorite Thin Sections for Undergraduate and Graduate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Allen, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. Studies of rock and soil samples from the Moon and meteorites continue to yield useful information about the early history of the Moon, the Earth, and the inner solar system. Petrographic Thin Section Packages containing polished thin sections of samples from either the Lunar or Meteorite collections have been prepared. Each set of twelve sections of Apollo lunar samples or twelve sections of meteorites is available for loan from JSC. The thin sections sets are designed for use in domestic college and university courses in petrology. The loan period is very strict and limited to two weeks. Contact Ms. Mary Luckey, Education Sample Curator. Email address: mary.k.luckey@nasa.gov Each set of slides is accompanied by teaching materials and a sample disk of representative lunar or meteorite samples. It is important to note that the samples in these sets are not exactly the same as the ones listed here. This list represents one set of samples. A key education resource available on the Curation website is Antarctic Meteorite Teaching Collection: Educational Meteorite Thin Sections, originally compiled by Bevan French, Glenn McPherson, and Roy Clarke and revised by Kevin Righter in 2010. Curation Websites College and university staff and students are encouraged to access the Lunar Petrographic Thin Section Set Publication and the Meteorite Petrographic Thin Section Package Resource which feature many thin section images and detailed descriptions of the samples, research results. http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/Education/index.cfm Request research samples: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ JSC-CURATION-EDUCATION-DISKS@mail.nasa.govLunar Thin Sections; Meteorite Thin Sections;

  15. Petrography and Geochemistry of Feldspathic Lunar Meteorite Larkman Nunatak 06638

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    LAR 06638 is a glassy-matrix lunar regolith breccia based on the presence of glass spherules, which also contains prominent clasts of a feldspathic fragmental breccia lithology. The similarity in composition of the two lithologies is unsurprising given the observed similarities in the clast populations and mineral compositions in both lithologies. The small differences in composition are likely explained by the incorporation of small amounts of more diverse material into the regolith breccia lithologies, e.g., KREEPy glass clasts to account for the higher siderophile and ITE concentrations and excess plagioclase to account for the lower concentrations of mafic elements and increased Na concentrations. Given the relatively small masses analyzed (approx.120 mg of each lithology), these small compositional differences could also be sampling effects. The presense of multiple generations of glass coatings on LAR 06638 is, to our knowledge, unique among lunar meteorites. The more mafic, schlieren and nanophase Fe bearing glass is similar in morphology to the South Ray Crater glass coatings at the Apollo 16 site [3] and likely has a similar origin. The outer, more feldspathic glass has a morphology typical of fusion crust observed on other feldspathic lunar meteorites. It is unclear at this time whether the partially melted glass area represents a partially formed fusion crust or incipient melting due to heating on the lunar surface, likely from an overlying (and possibly ablated) glass splash coating. LAR 06638 is unlikely to be source-crater paired with any other lunar meteorites. For all elements, it plots right in the range of "typical feldspathic lunar meteorites" [4]. Among lunar meteorites from Antarctica, LAR 06638 most closely resembles MAC 88104/5 in composition, although it is slightly more feldspathic and 1.8 richer in siderophile elements. Compositionally it is more similar to hot-desert meteorites like Dhofar 490/1084 and NWA 2200 [4].

  16. Geochemistry of Lunar Highland Meteorites Mil, 090034, 090036 AND 090070

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirai, N.aoki; Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nyquist, L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo and Luna samples were collected from a restricted area on the near side of the Moon, while the source craters of the lunar meteorites are randomly distributed. For example, Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] found a variety of lithic clasts in Dho 489 and Y 86032 which were not represented by Apollo samples, and some of these clasts have lower rare earth elements (REE) and FeO abundances than Apollo anorthosites, respectively. Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] concluded that Dho 489 and Y 86032 originated from the lunar farside. Therefore, lunar meteorites provide an opportunity to study lunar surface rocks from areas not sampled by Apollo and Luna missions. Three lunar anorthitic breccias (MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070) were found on the Miller Range Ice Field in Antarctica during the 2009-2010 ANSMET season [3]. In this study, we determined elemental abudnances for MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070 by using INAA and aimed to characterize these meteorites in chemical compositions in comparison with those for other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples.

  17. Lunar and Meteorite Thin Sections for Undergraduate and Graduate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J.; Galindo, C.; Luckey, M.; Reustle, J.; Todd, N.; Allen, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand and dust from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected on US expeditions to Antarctica including rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. Studies of rock and soil samples from the Moon and meteorites continue to yield useful information about the early history of the Moon, the Earth, and the inner solar system.

  18. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalts As Deduced From Analysis of Data for Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence; Basilevsky, A.; Neukum, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we analyze chronological data for lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/lmc/contents.cfm cited thereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter and from the associated literature.

  19. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105: A new FAN of lunar petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, C.R. Univ. of Notre Dame, IN ); Taylor, L.A. ); Lui, Yungang; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1991-11-01

    New lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 represents an exciting new opportunity to study a potentially unsampled region of the Moon. The authors have analyzed six thin sections by electron microprobe and three bulk samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INA) in order to determine the chemical characteristics of this new lunar sample. Lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts which appear to be of basaltic origin. One of these basaltic clasts (clast E in MAC88105,84) is probably mesostasis material, whereas the second larger clast (clast G) may be similar to the Very Low-Ti (VLT) or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105,69 and ,72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite. There is little evidence of any LKFM (Low-K Fra Mauro or low-K KREEP) contribution to this meteorite, as MAC88104/5 and other brecciated lunar meteorites are Fe-rich and poor in the incompatible elements relative to Apollo 16 regolith and feldspathic breccias. While the exact site of origin for the lunar meteorites cannot be pinpointed, it is evident that they were divided from a relatively KREEP-free ferroan anorthosite terrain.

  20. Comparison of lunar rocks and meteorites: Implications to histories of the moon and parent meteorite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.

    1974-01-01

    A number of similarities between lunar and meteoritic rocks are reported and suggest that the comparison is essential for a clear understanding of meteorites as probes of the early history of the solar systems: (1) Monomict and polymict breccias occur in lunar rocks, as well as in achondritic and chondritic meteorites, having resulted from complex and repeated impact processes. (2) Chondrules are present in lunar, as well as in a few achondritic and most chondritic meteorites. It is pointed out that because chondrules may form in several different ways and in different environments, a distinction between the different modes of origin and an estimate of their relative abundance is important if their significance as sources of information on the early history of the solar system is to be clearly understood. (3) Lithic fragments are very useful in attempts to understand the pre- and post-impact history of lunar and meteoritic breccias. They vary from little modified (relative to the apparent original texture), to partly or completely melted and recrystallized lithic fragments.

  1. Lunar Meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and the Iron Concentration of the Lunar Highlands Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 is a clast-rich, glassy-matrix regolith breccia of ferroan, highly aluminous bulk composition. It is similar in composition to other feldspathic lunar meteorites but differs in having higher concentrations of siderophile elements and incompatible trace elements. Based on electron microprobe analyses of the fusion crust, glassy matrix, and clasts, and instrumental neutron activation analysis of breccia fragments, QUE 93069 is dominated by nonmare components of ferroan, noritic- anorthosite bulk composition. Thin section QUE 93069,31 also contains a large, impact-melted, partially devitrified clast of magnesian, anorthositic-norite composition. The enrichment in Fe, Sc, and Cr and lower Mg/Fe ratio of lunar meteorites Yamato 791197 and Yamato 82192/3 compared to other feldspathic lunar meteorites can be attributed to a small proportion (5-10%) of low-Ti mare basalt. It is likely that the non- mare components of Yamato 82192/3 are similar to and occur in similar abundance to those of Yamato 86032, with which it is paired. There is a significant difference between the average FeO concentration of the lunar highlands surface as inferred from the feldspathic lunar meteorites (mean: approx. 5.0%; range: 4.3-6.1 %) and a recent estimate based on data from the Clementine mission (3.6%).

  2. Discovery of seifertite in a shocked lunar meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Masaaki; Kaneko, Shohei; Ohtani, Eiji; Sakai, Takeshi; Nagase, Toshiro; Kayama, Masahiro; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Naohisa

    2013-04-01

    Many craters and thick regoliths of the moon imply that it has experienced heavy meteorite bombardments. Although the existence of a high-pressure polymorph is a stark evidence for a dynamic event, few high-pressure polymorphs are found in a lunar sample. α-PbO2-type silica (seifertite) is an ultrahigh-pressure polymorph of silica, and is found only in a heavily shocked Martian meteorite. Here we show evidence for seifertite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Northwest Africa 4734. Cristobalite transforms to seifertite by high-pressure and -temperature condition induced by a dynamic event. Considering radio-isotopic ages determined previously, the dynamic event formed seifertite on the moon, accompanying the complete resetting of radio-isotopic ages, is ~2.7 Ga ago. Our finding allows us to infer that such intense planetary collisions occurred on the moon until at least ~2.7 Ga ago.

  3. Discovery of seifertite in a shocked lunar meteorite.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Masaaki; Kaneko, Shohei; Ohtani, Eiji; Sakai, Takeshi; Nagase, Toshiro; Kayama, Masahiro; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Naohisa

    2013-01-01

    Many craters and thick regoliths of the moon imply that it has experienced heavy meteorite bombardments. Although the existence of a high-pressure polymorph is a stark evidence for a dynamic event, few high-pressure polymorphs are found in a lunar sample. α-PbO₂-type silica (seifertite) is an ultrahigh-pressure polymorph of silica, and is found only in a heavily shocked Martian meteorite. Here we show evidence for seifertite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Northwest Africa 4734. Cristobalite transforms to seifertite by high-pressure and -temperature condition induced by a dynamic event. Considering radio-isotopic ages determined previously, the dynamic event formed seifertite on the moon, accompanying the complete resetting of radio-isotopic ages, is ~2.7 Ga ago. Our finding allows us to infer that such intense planetary collisions occurred on the moon until at least ~2.7 Ga ago.

  4. Evidence for meteoritic sulfur in the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, J. F.; Kaplan, I. R.; Petrowski, C.

    1975-01-01

    Abundance and isotopic data are presented for a suite of 19 soils from the Apollo 16 mission. It is concluded that the S systematics of the lunar regolith support a model in which S from a number of indigenous rock types is mixed with a time-dependent, extralunar component of probably meteoritic origin. This mixture is processed on the lunar surface by a time-dependent mechanism which removes S-32 enriched S from the moon, enriching the residue in S-34. The loss of S by this mechanism approximately equals the meteoritic input, producing the apparent coincidence between rock abundances and abundances in soils which has led to adoption of simplified mixing models. In reality, at least for the Apollo 16 site, addition of meteoritic S slightly outweighs loss from the moon, resulting in a positive trend.

  5. Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.

    2004-01-01

    LAP 02205 is a 1.2 kg unbrecciated basalt found in the LaPaz icefield of Antarctica during the 2002-2003 ANSMET season [1]. It has been classified as a lunar basalt on the basis of pyroxene Fe/Mn ratios (approx. 60) and oxygen isotopes [1]; both are within previously defined compositional ranges for the Moon [2]. We have initiated a comprehensive study of the mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of this new and unique meteorite. The results reported here will allow the comparison of this sample both to the other lunar basaltic meteorites (NWA 032, A881757, Y793169, Dho287A), as well as to lunar basalts in the Apollo and Luna collections.

  6. Radioactivites in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    The cosmic-ray, solar-flare, and solar-wind bombardments of lunar rocks and soils and meteorites were studied by measurements of tritium, carbon-14 and argon radioactivity. The radioactivity integrates the bombardment for a time period equal to several half-lines. H-3, Ar-37, Ar-39, C-14. For the interior samples of lunar rocks and for deep lunar soil samples, the amounts of the radioactivities were equal to those calculated for galactic cosmic-ray interactions. The top near-surface samples of lunar rocks and the shallow lunar soil samples show excess amounts of the radioactivities attributable to solar flares. Lunar soil fines contain a large amount of hydrogen due to implanted solar wind. Studies of the H-3 in lunar soils and in recovered Surveyor-3 materials gave an upper limit for the H-3/H ratio in the solar wind of 10 to the -11th power. Solar wind carbon is also implanted on lunar soil fines. Lunar soils collected on the surface contained a 0.14 component attributable to implanted solar wind C-14. The C-14/H ratio attributed to the solar wind from this C-14 excess is approximately 4 x 10 to the -11th power.

  7. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, E.; Ozawa, S.; Miyahara, M.; Ito, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Arai, T.; Sato, K.; Hiraga, K.

    2011-01-01

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO2 in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8–30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the 39Ar/40Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  8. COMPARISON OF LUNAR WITH TERRESTRIAL AND METEORITIC ROCKS*

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Francis J.; Ulbrich, Mabel

    1969-01-01

    This note examines critically recent attempts to identify or closely correlate lunar surface samples—on the basis of alpha-scattering analysis—with terrestrial igneous rocks (basalts) or with eucrite meteorites. Basalts show considerable variety; but all have chemical characteristics inherited from terrestrial mantle rock melted under a limited range of terrestrial pressure-temperature conditions. What is characteristic is not so much the content of any particular element or oxide—e.g., SiO2 47-52 per cent—but rather a complete chemical pattern in which such ratios as Fe/Mg and Ca/(Na + K) show consistent relationships to Si content. These are the chemical criteria that might be useful in comparing terrestrial basalt with extraterrestrial rocks. Basalts also have distinctive mineralogical and textural characteristics; and if a lunar or meteoritic rock is to be identified as basalt it must possess these, too. Turkevich's analysis of alpha-scattering data for lunar samples (Surveyor V) show significant departure from basaltic composition: Very high (Ca + K)/Na associated with distinctly high Fe/Mg. In basalts relatively high (Ca + K)/Na—in no case approaching the reported lunar values—tends to be associated with Fe/Mg values lower than average. The same “lunar” pattern of high (Ca + K)/Na and Fe/Mg appears in recorded analyses of eucrite meteorites. In the lunar samples, Ti is notably higher than in basalts, and even more so than in eucrites. If eucrites are of lunar origin their Ti values are, so far, a real anomaly. PMID:16591797

  9. Ion-beam analysis of meteoritic and lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    Charged particle-induced nuclear reactions were used in the following problems: the determination of elemental abundances of boron and fluorine in carbonaceous chondritic meteorites; the identification of products of lunar vulcanism; and the study of solar wind-implanted atoms in lunar materials. The technique was seen as an important supplement to other methods of elemental and isotopic analysis. This was especially true for cases involving light elements at very low concentrations or where high resolution depth distribution information was needed in non-destructive analysis.

  10. Connecting Lunar Meteorites to Source Terrains on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Carpenter, P. K.; Korotev, R. L.; North-Valencia, S. N.; Wittmann, A.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The number of named stones found on Earth that have proven to be meteorites from the Moon is approx. 180 so far. Since the Moon has been mapped globally in composition and mineralogy from orbit, it has become possible to speculate broadly on the region of origin on the basis of distinctive compositional characteristics of some of the lunar meteorites. In particular, Lunar Prospector in 1998 [1,2] mapped Fe and Th at 0.5 degree/pixel and major elements at 5 degree/pixel using gamma ray spectroscopy. Also, various multispectral datasets have been used to derive FeO and TiO2 concentrations at 100 m/pixel spatial resolution or better using UV-VIS spectral features [e.g., 3]. Using these data, several lunar meteorite bulk compositions can be related to regions of the Moon that share their distinctive compositional characteristics. We then use EPMA to characterize the petrographic characteristics, including lithic clast components of the meteorites, which typically are breccias. In this way, we can extend knowledge of the Moon's crust to regions beyond the Apollo and Luna sample-return sites, including sites on the lunar farside. Feldspathic Regolith Breccias. One of the most distinctive general characteristics of many lunar meteorites is that they have highly feldspathic compositions (Al2O3 approx. 28% wt.%, FeO <5 wt.%, Th <1 ppm). These compositions are significant because they are similar to a vast region of the Moon's farside highlands, the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane, which are characterized by low Fe and Th in remotely sensed data [4]. The meteorites provide a perspective on the lithologic makeup of this part of the Moon, specifically, how anorthositic is the surface and what, if any, are the mafic lithic components? These meteorites are mostly regolith breccias dominated by anorthositic lithic clasts and feldspathic glasses, but they do also contain a variety of more mafic clasts. On the basis of textures, we infer these clasts to have formed by large impacts

  11. Pairing Relationships Among Feldspathic Lunar Meteorites from Miller Range, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Range ice fields have been amongst the most prolific for lunar meteorites that ANSMET has searched [1-3]. Six different stones have been recovered during the 2005, 2007, and 2009 field seasons: MIL 05035 (142 g), MIL 07006 (1.4 g), MIL 090034 (196 g), MIL 090036 (245 g), MIL 090070 (137 g), and MIL 090075 (144 g). Of these, the five stones collected during the 2007 and 2009 seasons are feldspathic breccias. Previous work on the Miller Range feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) has suggested that they are not all paired with each other [4-5]. Here we examine the pairing relationships among the Miller Range FLMs using petrography in concert with traceand major-element compositions.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Martian Meteorites: Petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Martian Meteorites: Petrology: included the following reports:Volatile Behavior in Lunar and Terrestrial Basalts During Shock: Implications for Martian Magmas; Problems with a Low-Pressure Tholeiitic Magmatic History for the Chassigny Dunite; Fast Cooling History of the Chassigny Martian Meteorite; Rehomogenized Interstitial and Inclusion Melts in Lherzolitic Shergottite ALH 77005: Petrologic Significance; Compositional Controls on the Formation of Kaersutite Amphibole in Shergottite Meteorites; Chemical Characteristics of an Olivine-Phyric Shergottite, Yamato 980459; Pb-Hf-Sr-Nd Isotopic Systematics and Age of Nakhlite NWA 998; Noble Gases in Two Samples of EETA 79001 (Lith. A); Experimental Constraints on the Iron Content of the Martian Mantle; and Mars as the Parent Body for the CI Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Data.

  13. Lunar basalt meteorite EET 87521: Petrology of the clast population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenova, A. S.; Nazarov, M. A.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1993-01-01

    The Elephant Moraine meteorite EET 87521 was classified as a lunar mare basalt breccia which is composed mainly of VLT basalt clasts. Here we report on our petrological study of lithic clasts and monomineralic fragments in the thin sections EET 87521,54 and EET 87521,47,1, which were prepared from the meteorite. The results of the study show that EET 87521 consists mainly of Al-rich ferrobasalt clasts and olivine pyroxenite clasts. The bulk composition of the meteorite can be well modelled by the mixing of these lithic components which appear to be differentiates of the Luna 25 basalt melt. KREEP and Mg-rich gabbro components are minor constituents of EET 87521.

  14. Fantastic New Chondrites, Achondrites, And Lunar Meteorites As The Result Of Recent Meteorite Search Expeditions In Hot And Cold Deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Addi

    In the last 25 years thousands of new meteorites were recovered in the ``cold deserts'' of Antarctica and in the hot deserts of Australia, New Mexico, North Africa, and Oman. Based on the findings of many spectacular samples new meteorite classes could be defined. Considering the undifferentiated chondrites, the new class of the Rumuruti (R-) chondrites was established and the carbonaceous chondrites gained three more subgroups (CR-, CH-, and CK-chondrites). Also, among the achondrites new meteorite classes were defined in recent years (angrites, brachinites, and the primitive achondrite classes of acapulcoites, winonaites, and lodranites). Certainly, the most spectacular discovery among the cold and hot desert meteorites was the recognition of the Lunar meteorites. In addition, the number of Martian meteorites has been significantly increased based on successful meteorite search. Among the thousands of meteorite fragments mainly collected by American and Japanese expeditions in Antarctica the first lunar meteorite ALHA81005 was identified in 1982. ALHA81005 is a highland breccia like several other samples that were collected in Antarctica in the following years. The first lunar meteorite found outside Antarctica is Calcalong Creek (Australia), a small 19 g sample. In recent years several lunar meteorites were found in North Africa and Oman. The first lunar sample recovered from the northern hemisphere is Dar al Gani 262, a 513 g fragment found March 1997 in the Sahara. It was the 13th lunar meteorite. Since 1997 some more rocks from the Moon were collected: Dar al Gani 400, Yamato 981031, Dhofar 025, 026 and 071, and Northwest Africa 032 and 482. Dhofar 071 contains high abundance of once-molten fragments and interstitial fine-grained (devitrified) material.

  15. Exposure history of the lunar meteorite, Elephant Moraine 87521

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Eugster, O.; Michel, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Kraehenbuhl, U.; Middleton, R.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Fink, D.; Klein, J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the noble gas concentrations and the Al-26, Be-10, Cl-36, and Ca-41 activities of the Antarctic lunar meteorite Elephant Moraine 87521. Although the actual exposure history of the meteorite may have been more complex, the following model history accounts satisfactorily for the cosmogenic nuclide data: A first stage of lunar irradiation for about 1 Ma at a depth of 1-5 g/sq cm followed, not necessarily directly, by a second one for 26 Ma at about 565 g/sq cm; launch from the moon less than 0.1 Ma ago; and arrival on earth 15-50 ka ago. The small concentration of trapped gases shows that except for some material that may have been introduced at the moment of launch, EET 87521 spent less than 1 Ma at a lunar depth less than 1 g/sq cm. EET 87521 has a K/Ar age in the range 3.0-3.4 Ga, which is typical for lunar mare basalts.

  16. The Origin and Impact History of Lunar Meteorite Yamato 86032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Ebihara, M.; Karouji, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Yamato (Y) 86032 is a feldspathic lunar highland breccia having some characteristics of regolith breccia. The absence of KREEP components in the matrix in Y86032 indicates that these meteorites came from a long distance from Mare Imbrium, perhaps from the far-side of the moon. One ferroan anorthosite (FAN) clast in Y86032 has a very old Ar-Ar age of approximately 4.35-4.4 Ga. The negative Nd of this clast may suggest a direct link with the primordial magma ocean. The facts indicate that Y86032 contains components derived from a protolith of the original lunar crust. Detailed petrologic characterization of each component in this breccia is essential to understand the early impact history and origin of the lunar highland crust. We made a large slab (5.2 x 3.6 cm x 3-5 mm) of Y86032 to better understand the relationship of various lithologies and their petrologic origin.

  17. Solar flares, the lunar surface, and gas rich meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, D. J.; Cowsik, R.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.; Rajan, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations on the Fe-group nuclei track density vs depth in lunar rocks and Surveyor 3 TV camera filter glass were critically examined considering more factors than previously. The analysis gives a firmer basis to the observation of the preferential leakage of low energy Fe nuclei from the accelerating region of the sun. The track density gradients in lunar rock 12022 and filter glass are used to determine the lunar erosion rate of 3 angstroms/yr. Track gradients are less steep than predicted from energy spectrum observed in the Surveyor glass, perhaps due to sputtering. High densities of etchable tracks were found at all depths down to 60 cm in fines from Apollo cores and also in thin sections of the Pesjanoe, Pantar, and Fayetteville gas-rich meteorites. It is felt unlikely that suprathermal heavy ions were responsible for the high track densities.

  18. Mineralogic and Petrologic Studies of Meteorites and Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, John A.

    1998-01-01

    In the period named, P.I. Wood and his Research Associate M.I. Petaev published or submitted for publication the following papers and abstracts, which address the subjects: Simulation of melting-crystallization relationships in chondritic and achondritic igneous systems. METEOMOD: A numerical model for the calculation of melting-crystalyization relationships in meteoritic igneous systems. Secondary Ca-Fe-rich minerals in the Bali-like and Allende-like oxidized CV3 chondrites and Allende dark inclusions. Silica minerals in the Gibeon IVA iron meteorite. Drusy vugs in the Albion iron meteorite: Mineralogy and textures. Search for exsolved ferromagnesian olivines: A meteoritic survey. Cr-bearing minerals in the Gibeon IVA iron: Indicators of sulfur and oxygen fugacities in the parent body. Lunar Planet. Computer modelling of ordinary chondrite melting. Drusy vugs in the Albion iron meteorite: Early speculation on the origin. Also Processing of chondritic and planetary material in spiral density waves in the nebula. Chondrite formation by turbulence and shock in the solar nebula.

  19. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, M.M.; McKay, D.S. ); Wentworth, S.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Mittlefehldt, D.W. ); Wang, Mingsheng; Lipschutz, M.E. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 are anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered from the same area in Antarctica which are demonstrated to be paired samples of the same fall. Petrographic studies of matrix and clasts show that mAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It contains a small amount of highland impact glass and very few regolith glass spherules. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan (mg{prime} = 63) and highly aluminous (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 28%). REE and other incompatible element concentrations are very low. Compositions of anorthositic, granulitic, and impact melt breccia clasts are very similar to, but distinct from, matrix composition. MAC88104/5 is very similar in composition to the other anorthositic lunar meteorites, but each of the meteorites is distinct. The anorthositic lunar meteorites, especially MAC88104/5 and Y82192/3/86032, are very similar to North Ray Crater feldspathic fragmental breccias in composition and petrography. These fragmental lunar meteorites may have been ancient, deeply buried breccias from the megaregolith. Comparisons of chemical petrographic features and exposure histories suggest that the twelve lunar meteorites were derived from two to nine, but probably four to seven, impact onto the lunar surface. Discrepancies between the proportions of lunar meteorites and results of Apollo missions may be due to unrepresentative sampling. Lunar meteorites provide valuable new information on the nature of the lunar crust.

  20. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    PubMed

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Sara S.; Joy, Katherine H.; Jeffries, Teresa E.; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. PMID:25114312

  2. Fieldpath Lunar Meteorite Graves Nunataks 06157, a Magnesian Piece of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 49 feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) have been recovered, likely representing a minimum of 35 different sample locations in the lunar highlands. The compositional variability among FLMs far exceeds the variability observed among highland samples in the Apollo and Luna sample suites. Here we will discuss in detail one of the compositional end members of the FLM suite, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06157, which was collected by the 2006-2007 ANSMET field team. At 0.79 g, GRA 06157 is the smallest lunar meteorite so far recovered. Despite its small size, its highly feldspathic and highly magnesian composition are intriguing. Although preliminary bulk compositions have been reported, thus far no petrographic descriptions are in the literature. Here we expand upon the bulk compositional data, including major-element compositions, and provide a detailed petrographic description of GRA 06157.

  3. Water in Olivine, Clinopyroxenen and Plagioclase of Lunar Meteorites of the NWA 773 Clan by IR Micro-Spectrosocpy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayama, M.; Nakashima, S.; Tomioka, N.; Ohtani, E.; Seto, Y.; Nagaoka, H.; Ozawa, S.; Sekine, T.; Miyahara, M.; Miyake, A.; Götze, J.; Tomeoka, K.

    2016-08-01

    Water in olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase of gabbroic lunar meteorites of Northwest Africa 2977 and 6950 and gabbroic/basaltic brecciated lunar meteorite of NWA 2727 were characterized by in-situ Fourier-transform infrared micro-spectroscopy.

  4. The Thermal History of Lunar Rocks, Regolith, and Lunar Meteorites: Secondary Processing as Viewed by Thermoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symes, S.; Benoit, P. H.; Batchelor, J. D.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Moon has served as a petrogenic testing ground since the inception of the Apollo program. Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements on returned lunar material were fairly common during the earliest days of the program (e.g., Hoyt et al., 1972), but virtually ceased after the first few missions. Since that time, much has been learned about TL properties and their value in deciphering the history of extraterrestrial samples (Sears, 1988). Here we report new TL data for a suite of lunar samples covering virtually all the major lunar rock types present in the Apollo and lunar meteorite collections. Both highland and mare material were examined and data for highland core 60009/10 were also obtained. We have previously discussed natural TL of lunar meteorites (Sears et al., 1991); our present discussion is confined to induced TL measurements. In lunar and meteoritic samples, three induced TL parameters are measured: the intensity of the signal (TL sensitivity) reflects the amount and composition of feldspar, while the TL peak temperature and peak width reflect its structural state, which is, in turn, determined by thermal/metamorphic history (Fig. 1). There is fairly clear distinction between highland and mare samples in TL sensitivity, with the mare samples having lower values. This presumably reflects the greater abundance of feldspar in highland samples, although the TL sensitivities even for highland samples are unusually low in view of their high feldspar contents. The high TL peak temperatures suggests that the feldspar of both highland and mare samples is predominantly disordered. Only two rock samples have minor amounts of ordered feldspar and this form of feldspar is dominant only in lunar core 60009/10. For mare samples this is not surprising, since many of these are known to have cooled very rapidly. The lack of ordered feldspar in highlands samples (including lunar meteorites) reflects the lack of pervasive metamorphism similar to that experienced by the

  5. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary C-14 study on lunar soil was carried out with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator mass spectrometer. This accelerator was recommended for C-14 work by Dr. R. Schneider of A.S. and E., who was the field engineer during the assemblage and start-up operation of the accelerator. After the preliminary study using CO2 from 10084,937 soil, which had previously been counted with low-level mini-proportional counters, it became clear that the Toronto accelerator could carry out C-14/C-13/C-12 ratio measurements on 1 gram meteorite and lunar samples and that the C-14 measurements are done with higher precision and better reliability than elsewhere. A collaborative program with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator group, which is expected to be scientifically fruitful. Arrangements have been made for Dr. R.P. Beukens of the Toronto Accelerator Group to extract the carbon compounds from Antarctic meteorite and lunar samples and to convert the compounds to CO2. During the past two years, a uranium-series dating method was developed for polar ice, which method is being applied to ice from the Allan Hills site, Byrd core, and the Beardsmore glacier.

  6. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-08-01

    A preliminary C-14 study on lunar soil was carried out with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator mass spectrometer. This accelerator was recommended for C-14 work by Dr. R. Schneider of A.S. and E., who was the field engineer during the assemblage and start-up operation of the accelerator. After the preliminary study using CO2 from 10084,937 soil, which had previously been counted with low-level mini-proportional counters, it became clear that the Toronto accelerator could carry out C-14/C-13/C-12 ratio measurements on 1 gram meteorite and lunar samples and that the C-14 measurements are done with higher precision and better reliability than elsewhere. A collaborative program with the University of Toronto Iso Trace accelerator group, which is expected to be scientifically fruitful. Arrangements have been made for Dr. R.P. Beukens of the Toronto Accelerator Group to extract the carbon compounds from Antarctic meteorite and lunar samples and to convert the compounds to CO2. During the past two years, a uranium-series dating method was developed for polar ice, which method is being applied to ice from the Allan Hills site, Byrd core, and the Beardsmore glacier.

  7. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite MET 01210, A New Basaltic Regolith Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar meteorite MET 01210 (hereafter referred to as MET) is a 22.8 g breccia collected during the 2001 field season in the Meteorite Hills, Antarctica. Although initially classified as an anorthositic breccia, MET is a regolith breccia composed predominantly of very-low-Ti (VLT) basaltic material. Four other brecciated lunar meteorites (NWA 773, QUE 94281, EET 87/96, Yamato 79/98) with a significant VLT basaltic component have been identified. We present here the petrography and bulk major element composition of MET and compare it to previously studied basaltic lunar meteorite breccias.

  8. Petrogenesis of the Northwest Africa 4734 basaltic lunar meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Hsu, Weibiao; Guan, Yunbin; Li, Xianhua; Li, Qiuli; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guoqiang

    2012-09-01

    We report the petrography, mineralogy, trace element abundance geochemistry, and Pb-Pb geochronology of the lunar meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 4734 and make a comparison with the LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205/02224 low-Ti lunar basaltic meteorites. NWA 4734 is an unbrecciated low-Ti mare basalt composed mainly of subophitic-textured pyroxene (60 vol%) and plagioclase (30%). Pyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine exhibit large compositional variations and intra-grain chemical zoning. Pyroxene and plagioclase in NWA 4734 have rare earth element (REE) concentrations and patterns similar to those of the LAPs. The crystallization age of NWA 4734, determined in situ in baddeleyite, is 3073 ± 15 Ma (2σ), nearly identical to that of the LAPs (3039 ± 12 Ma). NWA 4734 and the LAPs have similar textures, modal abundances, mineral chemistry, and crystallization ages, and are most likely source-crater paired on the Moon. One baddeleyite grain in LAP 02224 displays distinctively older and spatially variable ages, from 3349 ± 62 to 3611 ± 62 Ma (2σ), similar to another baddeleyite grain (3109 ± 29 to 3547 ± 21 Ma) reported by Zhang et al. (2010) for the same meteorite. Raman spectra, cathodoluminescence, and stoichiometric studies of the baddeleyite suggest that the two older grains were not endogenic but were trapped by the parental magma. Equilibrium partition calculation shows that the parental melt from which the NWA 4734 plagioclase crystallized has much lower REE contents than its whole rock, indicating an open system during magma evolution. NWA 4734 could have originated from a parental melt with REE concentrations similar to that of the Apollo 12 olivine basalt. The magma likely assimilated a small amount (˜4 wt%) of KREEP-rich material during its ascent through the lunar crust.

  9. MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 lunar highland meteorites - General description and consortium overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Schwarz, Carol; Score, Roberta; Mason, Brian

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 meteorites found in nearby locations in Antarctica, which are considered to be pieces of the same meteorite, are described. MAC88104/5 is an anorthositic breccia consisting of numerous small clasts in a glassy matrix. A summary list of lunar meteorites and a review of consortium research are presented.

  10. MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 lunar highland meteorites - General description and consortium overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Schwarz, Carol; Score, Roberta; Mason, Brian

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 meteorites found in nearby locations in Antarctica, which are considered to be pieces of the same meteorite, are described. MAC88104/5 is an anorthositic breccia consisting of numerous small clasts in a glassy matrix. A summary list of lunar meteorites and a review of consortium research are presented.

  11. Mineralogic and petrologic studies of meteorites and lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    During a 13 year period beginning in 1971, the Extraterrestrial Petrology Group examined lunar soils from all 6 Apollo missions and those returned by the Soviet Luna 16, Luna 20, and Luna 24 missions. In addition, the properties and apparent origin of the carbonaceous chondrites were examined. Chondrules, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) and the fine grained matrix materials that accompany chondrules and CAI's in primitive meteorites were investigated. The effects of planetary hydrothermal alteration of matrix materials in the C1 chondrite was also investigated. Full length papers and extended abstracts published during the grant are listed chronologically.

  12. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2004-01-01

    PCA 02007 is a 22.4 g lunar meteorite collected in 2003 near the Pecora Escarpment in Antarctica [1]. PCA is a feldspathic regolith breccia composed of mature regolith. It is compositionally and texturally similar to other feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) [2] and may be launch paired with Yamato 791197 [3]. Here we present a petrographic description and compositions of mineral clasts, glass clasts, lithic clasts, and the bulk meteorite.

  13. A lunar meteorite and maybe some from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, R. A.

    1983-04-01

    A meteorite (Allan Hills 81005) the size of a golf ball picked off the Antarctic ice early in 1982 is geochemically and petrologically indistinguishable from rocks returned from the lunar highlands. It may be a more pristine sample of the lunar highlands than any rock returned by the Apollo missions because it is very low in KREEP. It is explained how a rock could have been ejected from the moon by an impact without being melted or pulverized by the impact. Even though the geochemical evidence is strong that an Antarctic shergottite (Elephant Moraine 79001) is of Martian origin, there is still no satisfactory explanation of how the rock could have been ejected from that planet.

  14. Mineralogy of the Lunar Crust through Complex Craters and Links to Lunar Meteorite Geologic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, P.; Hiroi, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.; Pieters, C. M.; Liu, Y.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Orbital measurements allow the composition of planetary surfaces to be mapped globally, something not possible with returned samples. Optical instruments such as reflectance spectrometers, which are sensitive to the very uppermost surface (~1-2 mm depth), provide the highest spatial resolution of the various compositional remote sensing techniques. Major lunar rock-forming minerals exhibit diagnostic absorptions across visible to near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths, and data returned by VNIR reflectance spectrometers enable global mineralogical mapping. Focused analyses of central peaks eliminate two of the drawbacks of remote VNIR reflectance spectroscopy. The steep slopes of central peaks inhibit the development of a thick regolith layer, meaning that central peaks are relatively optically immature and thus preserve the diagnostic spectral absorption features critical to compositional analyses. Furthermore, the crater formation process brings to the surface materials from depth [e.g., Melosh, 1989, Cintala and Grieve, 1998], exposing materials that would otherwise be inaccessible to optical remote sensing. We will present a survey of lunar crater central peaks, following the work of Tompkins and Pieters [1999] and Cahill et al. [2009], who used Clementine UVVIS multispectral data. We employ a band fitting procedure that gives estimates of the position, strength, and width of the mafic 1 μm absorption feature, which are used to evaluate the mineralogy of the central peaks. In addition to the central peaks survey, we will present laboratory spectroscopy data for a suite of lunar meteorite samples. The lunar meteorites offer an important opportunity for "new-sample science" due to their diverse source regions from across the Moon, as opposed to the very limited coverage of manned exploration missions. However, the scientific utility of the lunar meteorites is limited by a lack of geologic context for the samples. Our sample suite includes a range of compositions

  15. Lunar Meteorites: What They Tell us About the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.

    2010-01-01

    Here we analyze the chronology and statistical distribution of lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ antmet/ lmc/contents.cfm cited hereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter, NASA Johnson Space Center, and from the associated literature. The Compendium was last modified on May 12, 2008.

  16. Reported sulfate mineral in lunar meteorite PCA 02007 is impact glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Harlow, George E.

    2017-01-01

    A grain of light-blue sulfate material was reported in the lunar highlands regolith meteorite PCA 02007 (Satterwhite and Righter 2013). Allocated grains of that material are, in fact, aluminosilicate glass with a chemical composition like that of the bulk meteorite and other lunar highlands regoliths. The calcium sulfate detected in PCA 02007 was likely a surface coating, and reasonably of Antarctic (not lunar) origin.

  17. Lunar meteorite Yamato-86032 - Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Kurat, Gero; Brandstaetter, Franz

    1990-01-01

    Yamato-86032 is a shock-lithified anorthositic fragmental breccia. It consists mainly of highly feldspathic meta-breccias and meta-meltrocks and possibly contains a small contribution from mare lithologies, but there is no indication of a KREEP component. In many respects Y-86032 is similar to the previously described lunar meteorites Y-82192/3, but there are some notable differences. We have analyzed about 40 major and trace elements in bulk matrix, impact melt, and clast samples from two chips of Y-86032. The abundances of most lithophile and incompatible elements are lower in Y-86032 than in Y-82192 (which contains very low abundances compared to normal lunar highland rocks). The REE abundances are comparable to those of Y-82192. The elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co have significantly lower abundances than in Y-82192, and the siderophile element pattern is also different. Since cosmic ray exposure data indicate pairing of Y-86032 with Y-82192/3, the source region for these meteorites on the moon must have been fairly heterogeneous.

  18. Mineralogic and petrologic studies of lunar samples and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental and thermodynamic research on the pressure temperature limits of the stability of the mineral assemblages found in pristine, spinel bearing lunar highland lithologies demonstrated the likelihood that the minerals originated in the lower stratigraphic levels of the primordial crust. The phase equilibrium in silicate solid/liquid systems of planetary importance were thermochemically interpreted in order to model the early formation of the crusts and maneles of Earth and Moon sized planets. The petrography and chemical composition of coarse grained gabbro, the chemical analysis and age dating of clasts from Apollo 16 breccia, the analysis of glass particles from Apollo 16 soil samples, the study of Allende and Mokoia meteorites as a source of information about events in the solar nebula, and the hydrothermal alteration of amorphous materials were also investigated. The capabilities of a model for addressing the problem of the origin of the Earth's moon by the disruptive capture mechanism are examined as well as models of the thermal evolution of hypothetical meteorite bodies. Progress in determining the composition of stony meteorite specimens collected at the Allan Hills site during the Antarctic field exploration is reported.

  19. MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 lunar highland meteorites: General description and consortium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, M.M. ); Schwarz, C.; Score, R. ); Mason, B. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 are new lunar meteorites returned from Antarctica by the 1988-1989 US meteorite collection team. The two specimens were found in nearby locations and, based on field and laboratory evidence, are thought to be pieces of the same meteorite. MAC88105 is the largest lunar meteorite yet found (662 g). MAC88104/5 is an anorthositic breccia consisting of numerous small clasts in a glassy matrix. An origin on the Moon is supported by mineral, bulk, and oxygen isotope compositions. A consortium of twenty research groups has studied these meteorites. Samples were prepared at the NASA Johnson Space Center meteorite processing laboratory. Details of consortium plans and allocations are documented herein. A summary list of lunar meteorites and an overview of consortium research is presented. Discussions in this and the following consortium papers involve the issue of paired meteorites and paired ejecta, and what new information about the nature and evolution of the lunar crust is provided by the lunar meteorites.

  20. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  1. Mineralogy, Petrology and Oxygen Fugacity of the LaPaz Icefield Lunar Basaltic Meteorites and the Origin of Evolved Lunar Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. J.; Righter, K.; Brandon, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    LAP 02205 is a 1.2 kg lunar mare basalt meteorite found in the Lap Paz ice field of Antarctica in 2002 [1]. Four similar meteorites were also found within the same region [1] and all five have a combined mass of 1.9 kg (LAP 02224, LAP 02226, LAP 02436 and LAP 03632, hereafter called the LAP meteorites). The LAP meteorites all contain a similar texture, mineral assemblage, and composition. A lunar origin for these samples comes from O isotopic data for LAP 02205 [1], Fe/Mn ratios of pyroxenes [1-5], and the presence of distinct lunar mineralogy such as Fe metal and baddeleyite. The LAP meteorites may represent an area of the Moon, which has never been sampled by Apollo missions, or by other lunar meteorites. The data from this study will be used to compare the LAP meteorites to Apollo mare basalts and lunar basaltic meteorites, and will ultimately help to constrain their origin.

  2. The spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts as deduced from analysis of data for lunar meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we analyze data for lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium ( http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/lmc/contents.cfm cited hereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter, NASA Johnson Space Center, and from the associated literature. Analysis of the data showed that (i) a significant part of the lunar meteorite source craters are not larger than hundreds of meters in diameter; (ii) cryptomaria seem to be rather abundant in lunar highlands; (iii) the ratios of lunar meteorites belonging to three broad petrologic groups (mare basalt/gabbro, feldspatic highland breccias, and mingled breccias which are a mixture of mare and highland components) seem to be roughly proportional to the areal distribution of these rocks on the lunar surface; and (iv) the meteorite mare basalt ages show a range from ˜2.5 to 4.3 Ga and fill the gaps in the Apollo/Luna basalt age distribution. The ages of mare basalt clasts from mingled breccias seem to be systematically higher than those of "normal" mare basalts, which supports the suggestion that mingled breccias originated mostly from cryptomaria.

  3. Mineralogical comparison of the Y86032-type lunar meteorites to feldspathic fragmental breccia 67016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Mori, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Wentworth, S. J.; Mckay, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical characteristics of lunar meteorites Y82193 and Y86032 were compared to those of Apollo-16 fieldspathic fragmental breccia 67016, using results from electron microprobe analysis and TEM. It was found that the pyroxene mineralogy and chemistry of granulitic clasts in 67016 breccia and the Y86032-type lunar meteorites were much alike, suggesting that the formation processes of the fieldspathic fragmental breccias are also important in the genesis of lunar meteorites. There were differences in matrix microtextures, however, implying that 67016 and Y86032-type breccia formation temperatures were different.

  4. Constraining the source regions of lunar meteorites using orbital geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzada-Diaz, A.; Joy, K. H.; Crawford, I. A.; Nordheim, T. A.

    2015-02-01

    Lunar meteorites provide important new samples of the Moon remote from regions visited by the Apollo and Luna sample return missions. Petrologic and geochemical analysis of these meteorites, combined with orbital remote sensing measurements, have enabled additional discoveries about the composition and age of the lunar surface on a global scale. However, the interpretation of these samples is limited by the fact that we do not know the source region of any individual lunar meteorite. Here, we investigate the link between meteorite and source region on the Moon using the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer remote sensing data set for the elements Fe, Ti, and Th. The approach has been validated using Apollo and Luna bulk regolith samples, and we have applied it to 48 meteorites excluding paired stones. Our approach is able broadly to differentiate the best compositional matches as potential regions of origin for the various classes of lunar meteorites. Basaltic and intermediate Fe regolith breccia meteorites are found to have the best constrained potential launch sites, with some impact breccias and pristine mare basalts also having reasonably well-defined potential source regions. Launch areas for highland feldspathic meteorites are much less well constrained and the addition of another element, such as Mg, will probably be required to identify potential source regions for these.

  5. Impact ejection of lunar meteorites and the age of Giordano Bruno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Jörg

    2012-11-01

    Based on literature data from lunar meteorites and orbital observations it is argued that the lunar crater Giordano Bruno (22 km ∅) formed more than 1 Ma ago and probably ejected the lunar meteorites Yamato 82192/82193/86032 at 8.5 ± 1.5 Ma ago from the Th-poor highlands of the Moon. The efficiency and time scale to deliver 3He-rich lunar material into Earth’s sediments is discussed to assess the temporal relationship between the Giordano Bruno cratering event and a 1 Ma enduring 3He-spike which is observed in 8.2 Ma old sediments on Earth.

  6. 187Os/186Os in Lunar and Meteoritic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birck, J. L.; Allegre, C. J.

    1993-07-01

    achondrites (Juvinas, Nuevo Laredo), diogenites (Roda, Tatahouine), lunar basalts (15555, 70017) and various terrestrial basalts were analyzed. So far all extraterrestrial basalts give ^187Os/^186Os ratios below 1.3 whereas old terrestrial basalts reach up to more than 100. The concentration of Os in extraterrestrial and terrestrial basalts are similar. There is no correlation with age. Re concentrations of terrestrial basalts are about 1000 times higher than extraterrestrial basalts. This difference in behavior of Re between terrestrial context and extraterrestrial context may have several origins: combined with pressure differences in the water content of the different planetary bodies may be one cause, but our preferred interpretation is that Re is present in a different oxidation state (ReVII) under terrestrial conditions. In contrast Re(IV) should be the dominant species in the Moon and in the basaltic achondrite parent body(ies). References: [1] Herr W. et al. (1961) Z. Naturforsch., 16a, 1053. [2] Luck J. M. and Allegre C. J. (1983) Nature, 302, 130. [3] Roy-Barman M. (1993) Ph.D. thesis, Paris. [4] Greaser R. A. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 397. [5] Volkening J. et al. (1991) Int. J. Mass Spec. Ion Proc., 105, 147. [6] Gopel C. et al. (1985) Nature, 317, 341. [7] Burnett D. S. and Wasserburg G. J. (1967) EPSL, 2, 137. [8] Birck J. L. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 318.

  7. Petrology and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Abar al'Uj 012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, M.; Hofmann, B. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Gnos, E.; Greber, N.; Greenwood, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of Abar al’Uj 012, a feldspathic lunar meteorite found in Saudi Arabia is described. The meteorite is a vesicular crystalline impact-melt breccia, which lacks a fusion crust and has a ferroan anorthosite affinity.

  8. Formation Process of High-Pressure Silica Polymorphs in Lunar Meteorites of the NWA 773 Clan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayama, M.; Tomioka, N.; Seto, Y.; Ohtani, E.; Nagaoka, H.; Fagan, T. J.; Ozawa, S.; Sekine, T.; Miyahara, M.; Miyake, A.; Tomeoka, K.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of lunar samples discovered high-pressure phases of silica in Asuka-881757, NWA 4734 and Apollo 15299. Here, we first discovered high-pressure silica from lunar meteorite NWA 773 clan, constraining the shock-pressure and temperature.

  9. The discovery and initial characterization of Allan Hills 81005 - The first lunar meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1983-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALHA81005, discovered in the Allan Hills region of Victoria Land, is a polymict anorthositic breccia which differs from other meteorites in mineralogical and chemical composition but is strikingly similar to lunar highlands soil breccias. The petrologic character and several independent lines of evidence identify ALHA81005 as a meteorite from the moon. Two small clasts of probable mare basalt occur among the highlands lithologies in Thin Section 81005,22. This lunar specimen, which shows relatively minor shock effects, has generated new ideas on the types of planetary samples found on the earth.

  10. Allochthonous Addition of Meteoritic Organics to the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of lunar samples 74220,861 was discussed in detail in [3, 4]. Our analysis sequence was as follows: optical microscopy, UV fluorescence imaging, -Raman, FESEM-EDX imaging and mapping, FETEMEDX imaging and mapping of a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) extracted section, and NanoSIMs analysis. We observed fluffytextured C-rich regions of interest (ROI) on three different volcanic glass beads. Each ROI was several m2 in size and fluoresced when exposed to UV. Using FESEM/EDX, the largest ROI measured 36 m and was located on an edge of a plateau located on the uppermost surface of the bead. The ROI was covered on one edge by a siliceous filament emanating from the plateau surface indicating it was attached to the bead while on the Moon. EDX mapping of the ROI shows it is composed primarily of heterogeneously distributed C. Embedded with the carbonaceous phase are localized concentrations of Si, Fe, Al and Ti indicating the presence of glass and/or minerals grains. -Raman showed strong D- and G-bands and their associated second order bands; intensity and location of these bands indicates the carbonaceous matter is structurally disorganized. A TEM thin section was extracted from the surface of a glass bead using FIB microscopy. High resolution TEM imaging and selected area electron diffraction demonstrate the carbonaceous layer to be amorphous; it lacked any long or short range order characteristic of micro- or nanocrystalline graphite. Additionally TEM imaging also revealed the presence of submicron mineral grains, typically < 50 nm in size, dispersed within the carbonaceous layer. NanoSIMs data will be presented and discussed at the meeting. Given the noted similarities between the carbonaceous matter present on 74220 glass beads and meteoritic kerogen, we suggest the allochthonous addition of meteoritic organics as the most probable source for the C-rich ROIs.

  11. Importance of lunar meteorites in understanding the evolution of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, V. A.; Burgess, R.

    Presently, there are 40 different lunar meteorites collected on Earth, and most of this material represent regions of the Moon that were not sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions [1]. Thus these meteorites provide the first global sample-set of lunar samples and offer a context for interpreting the age and chemical results of Apollo and Luna missions samples, mainly as the Apollo mission samples were strongly influenced by Imbrium ejecta and development of the Procellarum KREEP terraine (PKT) [2].From this list, only 7 are mare basalts, and yet they represent important samples to gain a global perspective of lunar volcanism. Age determination and chemical characterisation of basaltic lunar meteorites gives better understanding of the lunar mantle composition and its volcanic history as their source can be from any of the maria. Since our lunar work is laboratory based and concentrates on chronology and geochemistry of lunar meteorites, presently we are interested in attempting to tie the lunar meteorites to ground truth on the Moon - specifically where are their sources. Thus, an important next step will be to integrate results obtained from the meteorites with geochemical data obtained by orbiting (and in the future lander) spacecraft (e.g. [3]). Until recently sample age determination suggested that volcanic episodes occurred on the Moon between ˜3.9 to 3.1 Ga. However, remote sensing data for long (e.g. [4,5]) has suggested that volcanism occurred until 1.1 Ga. More recent age determinations of Luna 16 and 24 basalts, and 3 lunar basalt meteorites (NWA 032/479 and 773, LAP 02205, Kalahari 009; [6-13]) show that volcanism must have occurred as recently as 2.5 Ga. Potential lunar source areas: Based on the chemical composition and age of the mare meteorites and also highland material, and comparing with lunar elemental composition maps by [14,15] and future elemental maps by data obtained by the instrument D-CIXS on board SMART-1 mission of ESA [16,17], and

  12. Element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.

    1986-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble gas isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years.

  13. Possible lunar source areas of meteorite ALHA 81005 Geochemical remote sensing information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Hawke, B. R.; Gaffey, M.; Mcfadden, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALHA 81005 is a regolith breccia apparently sent to earth by an impact event in the lunar highlands. Laboratory studies of this sample provide information that is used to understand the source region on the moon using remote sensing data. The meteorites low thorium content is inconsistent with thorium values measured for the central lunar nearside from orbit with Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers. Similarly, the mineral assemblages inferred from near-IR spectra of small impact craters on the lunar nearside do not exhibit the significant component of olivine and Fe-bearing feldspar that is observed in the meteorite spectra. The existing remote sensing data suggest the most probable source region for ALHA 81005 is the nearside limb or the lunar farside and that the composition of ALHA 81005 represents a surface unit that has not previously been extensively sampled.

  14. Feldspathic lunar meteorites and their implications for compositional remote sensing of the lunar surface and the composition of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Zeigler, Ryan A.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Haskin, Larry A.

    2003-12-01

    We present new compositional data for six feldspathic lunar meteorites, two from cold deserts (Yamato 791197 and 82192) and four from hot deserts (Dhofar 025, Northwest Africa 482, and Dar al Gani 262 and 400). The concentrations of FeO (or Al 2O 3) and Th (or any other incompatible element) together provide first-order compositional information about lunar polymict samples (breccias and regoliths) and regions of the lunar surface observed from orbit. Concentrations of both elements on the lunar surface have been determined from data acquired by orbiting spacecraft, although the derived concentrations have large uncertainties and some systematic errors compared to sample data. Within the uncertainties and errors in the concentrations derived from orbital data, the distribution of FeO and Th concentrations among lunar meteorites, which represent ˜18 source regions on the lunar surface, is consistent with that of 18 random samples from the surface. Approximately 11 of the lunar meteorites are low-FeO and low-Th breccias, consistent with large regions of the lunar surface, particularly the northern farside highlands. Almost all regoliths from Apollo sites, on the other hand, have larger concentrations of both elements because they contain Fe-rich volcanic lithologies from the nearside maria and Th-rich lithologies from the high-Th anomaly in the northwestern nearside. The feldspathic lunar meteorites thus offer our best estimate of the composition of the surface of the feldspathic highlands, and we provide such an estimate based on the eight most well-characterized feldspathic lunar meteorites. The variable but high (on average) Mg/Fe ratio of the feldspathic lunar meteorites compared to ferroan anorthosites confirms a hypothesis that much of the plagioclase at the surface of the feldspathic highlands is associated with high-Mg/Fe feldspathic rocks such as magnesian granulitic breccia, not ferroan anorthosite. Geochemically, the high-Mg/Fe breccias appear to be

  15. Lunar Meteorites Sayh Al Uhaymir 449 and Dhofar 925, 960, and 961: Windows into South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, Ryan A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, three lunar meteorites were collected in close proximity to each other in the Dhofar region of Oman: Dhofar 925 (49 g), Dhofar 960 (35 g), and Dhofar 961 (22 g). In 2006, lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 449 (16.5 g) was found about 100 km to the NE. Despite significant differences in the bulk composition of Dhofar 961 relative to Dhofar 925/960 and SaU 449 (which are identical to each other), these four meteorites are postulated to be paired based on their find locations, bulk composition, and detailed petrographic analysis. Hereafter, they will collectively be referred to as the Dhofar 961 clan. Comparison of meteorite and component bulk compositions to Lunar Prospector 5-degree gamma-ray data suggest the most likely provenance of this meteorite group is within the South Pole-Aitken Basin. As the oldest, largest, and deepest recognizable basin on the Moon, the composition of the material within the SPA basin is of particular importance to lunar science. Here we review and expand upon the geochemistry and petrography of the Dhofar 961 clan and assess the likelihood that these meteorites come from within the SPA basin based on their bulk compositions and the compositions and characteristics of the major lithologic components found within the breccia.

  16. Age of Lunar Meteorite LAP02205 and Implications for Impact-Sampling of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Bogard, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the age of lunar meteorite LAP02205 by the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar methods. Sm-Nd analyses are in progress. The Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicate a crystallization age of approx. 3 Ga. Comparing the ages of LAP02205 and other lunar mare basaltic meteorites to mare surface ages based on the density of impact craters shows no significant bias in impact- sampling of lunar mare surfaces. Comparing the isotopic and geochemical data for LAP02205 to those for other lunar mare basalts suggests that it is a younger variant of the type of volcanism that produced the Apollo 12 basalts. Representative impact-sampling of the lunar surface

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Martian Meteorites: Chemical Weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Martian Meteorites: Chemical Weathering" included the following reports:Chemical Weathering Records of Martian Soils Preserved in the Martian Meteorite EET79001; Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Meteorites in Thin Section: Preliminary Results; A Survey of Olivine Alteration Products Using Raman Spectroscopy; and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics of Shergottite NWA 856: Crystallization Age and Implications for Alteration of Hot Desert SNC Meteorites.

  18. Noble Gases in the Lunar Meteorites Calcalong Creek and QUE 93069

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Burkland, M. K.; Grier, J. A.

    1995-09-01

    Although the world's collections contain comparable numbers of martian and lunar meteorites (about 10 each), their ejection histories seem to be quite different [1]. We have sampled no more than four martian craters, but almost every one of the lunar meteorites apparently represents a separate cratering event. Furthermore, most lunar meteorites were apparently ejected from the top meter of the surface, unlike any of the martian meteorites. We have measured noble gases in two bulk samples of the lunar meteorite QUE93069 and three of Calcalong Creek, ranging in size from 7 to 15 mg. Averaged results are given in Table 1. Both meteorites contain solar-wind-implanted noble gas. QUE 93069, which is a mature anorthositic regolith breccia [2], contains amounts comparable to the most gas-rich lunar meteorites. The relatively low 40Ar/36Ar ratios of both meteorites suggest surface exposures no more than 2.5 Ga ago [3]. Calcalong Creek has readily observable spallogenic gas. The 131Xe/126Xe ratio of 4.8+/-0.3 corresponds to an average shielding depth of slightly more than 40 gm/cm^2 [4]. In common with many lunar breccias, Calcalong Creek has been exposed to cosmic rays for several hundred Ma (calculations based on [4] and [5]). The 3He apparent exposure age is much shorter, suggesting diffusive loss of He. To determine the detailed exposure history, it is necessary to have measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides. Our samples were too small to measure 81Kr, but [6] have measured 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl. Their data are consistent with either extended exposure at <70 gm/cm^2 in the lunar regolith followed by a short (200,000 years) transit to Earth, or with ejection from several meters depth about 2 Ma ago [6]. Our data, requiring several hundred Ma of exposure at an average depth of 40-50 gm/cm^2, are clearly more consistent with the first scenario. The only other lunar meteorite which could have been ejected at the same time is MAC 88104/5 [1], but the chemical differences

  19. In Situ Chemical Characterization of Mineral Phases in Lunar Granulite Meteorite Northwest Africa 5744

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, J. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Peslier, A. H.; Irving, A. J.; Coleff, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5744 meteorite is a granulitic and troctolitic lunar breccia which may represent nearly pristine lunar crust (Fig. 1). NWA 5744 is unusually magnesian compared to other lunar breccias, with bulk [Mg/(Mg+Fe)] 0.79 [1, 2]. Inspection shows impactor content is likely to be very minor, with low Ni content and a lack of metal grains. Some terrestrial contamination is present, evidenced by calcite within cracks. NWA 5744 has notably low concentrations of incompatible trace elements (ITEs) [2]. The goal of this study is to attempt to classify this lunar granulite through analyses of in situ phases.

  20. Siderophile, lithophile and mobile trace elements in the lunar meteorite Allan Hills 81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verkouteren, R. M.; Dennison, J. E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The content of trace elements (siderophile Co, Au, As, Sb, Ga; chalcophile/mobile Se, Te, Bi, In, Ag, Zn, Tl, Cd; lithophile Rb, Cs, U) is investigated to ascertain whether the meteorite is of lunar origin. Five elements reflect lunar crustal processes, whereas the remaining 11 siderophile and mobile elements suggest 1.4 + or - 0.5 percent micrometeorite admixture or enrichment by thermal redistribution on the moon. It is found that the impact launching of ALH A81005 to the earth was not attended by substantial shock loading. A Martian origin for severely shocked SNC meteorites is therefore considered plausible.

  1. Siderophile, lithophile and mobile trace elements in the lunar meteorite Allan Hills 81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verkouteren, R. M.; Dennison, J. E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The content of trace elements (siderophile Co, Au, As, Sb, Ga; chalcophile/mobile Se, Te, Bi, In, Ag, Zn, Tl, Cd; lithophile Rb, Cs, U) is investigated to ascertain whether the meteorite is of lunar origin. Five elements reflect lunar crustal processes, whereas the remaining 11 siderophile and mobile elements suggest 1.4 + or - 0.5 percent micrometeorite admixture or enrichment by thermal redistribution on the moon. It is found that the impact launching of ALH A81005 to the earth was not attended by substantial shock loading. A Martian origin for severely shocked SNC meteorites is therefore considered plausible.

  2. Workshop on Past and Present Solar Radiation: The Record in Meteoritic and Lunar Regolith Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Mckay, D. S. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The principal question addressed in the workshop was the extent to which asteroidal and lunar regoliths have collected and preserved, in meteoritic regolith breccias and in lunar soils and regolith breccias, a record of the flux, energy, and compositional history of the solar wind and solar flares. Six central discussion topics were identified. They are: (1)Trapped solar wind and flare gases, tracks, and micrometeorite pits in regolith components; (2)Comparison between lunar regolith breccias, meteoritic regolith breccias, and the lunar soil; (3)The special role of regolith breccias and the challenge of dating their times of compaction; (4)Implications of the data for the flux and compositional history of solar particle emission, composition, and physical mechanisms in the solar source regions, and the composition of the early nebula; (5)How and to what extent have records of incident radiation been altered in various types of grains; (6)Future research directions

  3. The MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorite and implications of the lunar meteorites collectively for the composition and origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyen, G.W. )

    1991-11-01

    The MAC88104/MAC88105 meteorite is a lunar highlands regolith breccia even more anorthositic than previously available samples of highlands regolith. Clasts studied include two unusual pristine rocks. One, a 2.5-mm, slightly granulitic clast rated as probably pristine, contains extraordinarily Fe-rich (Fo{sub 40}) olivine. The other, a 5-mm clast with clear vestiges of a poikilitic cumulate texture, has silicate compositions that extend the range of the Mg-suite in the direction of the high-mg end of the ferroan-anorthositic suite. The pyroxene of the latter clast is relatively Ca-rich and poorly equilibrated by lunar cumulate standards, suggesting that it may have formed in an uncommonly shallow intrusion. The consistently high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition indicated for the upper crust supports the magmasphere hypothesis. For the trace-element composition of the crust, the highlands meteorites indicate that the central nearside Apollo and Luna sites are in several respects grossly unrepresentative. Concentrations of siderophile elements are far lower in highlands-meteoritic regolith breccias than in their central nearside counterparts. The high overall siderophile levels and hyperchondritic Ni/Ir and Au/Ir ratios characteristic of highlands materials from Apollo 16 and Apollo 14 are evidently idiosyncracies of the central nearside. Concentrations of incompatible elements, including K, Th, and U, are far lower in the highlands meteorites than in regolith samples from the central nearside. This trend implies that certain lower limits on the bulk-Moon content of U (and associated refractory lithophile elements) should be relaxed. Models of lunar origin implying large enrichments of refractory lithophile elements are not favored by the new constraints from these meteorites.

  4. The MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorite and implications of the lunar meteorites collectively for the composition and origin of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1991-01-01

    The MAC88104/105 meteorite, a lunar highlands regolith breccia, is described. The rock and a number of its component clasts are characterized. One of the clasts is considered to be a rare pristine nonmare rock containing extraordinarily Fe-rich (Fo40) olivine; the other has silicate compositions that extend the range of the Mg-suite in the direction of the high-mg* end of the ferroan-anorthositic suite. For the major element composition of the crust, the highlands meteorites confirm that the two low-Th central nearside sites, Luna 20 and Apollo 16, are approximately representative. The high Al2O3 composition indicated for the upper crusts supports the magmasphere hypothesis. For the trace-element composition of the crust, the highlands meteorites indicate that the central nearside Apollo and Luna sites are in several respects grossly unrepresentative.

  5. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon-14 measurements were made for meteorites with a Van der Graaf accelerator. Accelerator C-14 dating improved the precision by a factor of ten, allowed the use of smaller sample sizes, and gave speedier results than C-14 dating with counters. A methodology for determining the terrestrial ages of several antarctic meteorites is described and the results are listed.

  6. Noble Gases in Recently Found Hot and Cold Desert Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, P.; Maden, C.; Busemann, H.

    2016-08-01

    We report He-Xe noble gas data for 7 lunar meteorites. Of 4 paired and unbrecciated mare basalts 2 surprisingly contain abundant solar wind - so far unknown for mare basalts. Potential implications for our understanding of the Moon will be discussed.

  7. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  8. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  9. Galactic cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides in Antarctic meteorites and a lunar core

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide depth effects in a meteorite, the history and pairing of Antarctic meteorites and processes on the lunar surface are discussed in six chapters. A depth profile of /sup 26/Al, /sup 10/Be and /sup 53/Mn activities have been measured in eleven metal phase samples of the Antarctic meteorite ALHA78084 to determine the importance of the secondary cascade in producing these nuclides in a 30 centimeter diameter meteorite. The results show a buildup of lower energy reaction products and a flat profile for high energy reaction products with depth. The activity of /sup 53/Mn has been measured as a function of depth in eleven soil samples from the lunar double drive tubes 15011/15010. The results agree within error with the previous results of Nishiizumi. These data are consistent with the previously published /sup 26/Al results of the Battelle Northwest group which indicated a disturbed profile down to 17 g/cm/sup 2/ and an accumulation rate of 2 cm/My. Comparison with the gardening models of Arnold and Langevin and the local topography suggests such a continuous accumulation is the result of steady downslope transport of surface soil for 7 to 10 My at this site. The /sup 53/Mn activity was determined in eleven samples in eight Allan Hills-80 Antarctic meteorites and one sample from an Elephant Moraine Antarctic meteorite. Mineralogic and field relation data suggest that Allan Hills meteorites to be two sets of paired falls. The /sup 53/Mn results are consistent with the grouping of these meteorites as paired falls excluding the meteorite ALHA80127. comparison with future nuclear particle track work and results from the measurement of other cosmogenic nuclides will provide more definitive results.

  10. Exposure histories of the lunar meteorites - MAC88104, MAC88105, Y791197, and Y86032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Dockhorn, B.; Korschinek, G.; Nolte, E.

    1991-01-01

    Four lunar meteorites were analyzed for the cosmogenic radionuclides Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and Ca-41. Histories of exposure to cosmic rays were modelled in terms of two-stage irradiations, each with a long first stage on the moon, lasting a time T sub 2pi greater than 5 Ma at a burial depth d sub 2pi(g/sq cm), followed by a second stage in space, i.e., the transit time between the moon and the earth, lasting a time T sub 4pi (Ma) in a body of typical metereological size. It is inferred that the production rate is of the order of 5/Ma and the arrival rate worldwide is about 3,000,000 meteorites/Ma. It is concluded that each impact event large enough to produce lunar meteorites sends a large number of them to the earth.

  11. Preliminary examination of the Yamato-86032 lunar meteorite. II - Major and trace element chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Spettel, Bernhard; Fukuoka, Takaaki

    1989-01-01

    Results of the chemical composition analysis of Yamato-86032, found in Antarctica in 1986, are summarized. The meteorite may be classified as an anorthositic breccia, but its trace element composition is different from the composition of the other known lunar meteorites. The major element chemistry of Y-86032 is similar to the other lunar meteorites, except for the iron content, which is lower by a factor of about 1.4. The abundances of incompatible and lithophile elements such as Zr, Hf, Ta, Th, or the REEs are very low and comparable to Y-82192/3. Other elements, in particular Fe, Ti, Sc, Cr, Mn, and Co, have lower abundances in Y-86032 than in Y-82192/3. Variations between individual analysis demonstrate that the rock itself is heterogeneous.

  12. Pinpointing the source of a lunar meteorite: implications for the evolution of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A; Al-Kathiri, Ali; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Eugster, Otto; Whitehouse, Martin J; Villa, Igor M; Jull, A J Timothy; Eikenberg, Jost; Spettel, Bernhard; Krähenbühl, Urs; Franchi, Ian A; Greenwood, Richard C

    2004-07-30

    The lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir 169 consists of an impact melt breccia extremely enriched with potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorus [thorium, 32.7 parts per million (ppm); uranium, 8.6 ppm; potassium oxide, 0.54 weight percent], and adherent regolith. The isotope systematics of the meteorite record four lunar impact events at 3909 +/- 13 million years ago (Ma), approximately 2800 Ma, approximately 200 Ma, and <0.34 Ma, and collision with Earth sometime after 9.7 +/- 1.3 thousand years ago. With these data, we can link the impact-melt breccia to Imbrium and pinpoint the source region of the meteorite to the Lalande impact crater.

  13. Late Bombardment of the Lunar Highlands Recorded in MIL 090034, MIL 090036 and MIL 090070 Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Herzog, G. F.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J.; Turrin, B.; Swisher, C., III

    2013-01-01

    The Kaguya mission detected small but widespread outcrops of nearly pure ferroan anorthosite in and around large impact basins on the Moon. Along with certain lunar rocks, highly feldspathic lunar meteorites such as MIL 090034 (M34), 090036 (M36), and 090070 (M70) may provide samples of this material. We have measured the Ar-40/Ar-39 release patterns and cosmogenic Ar-38 concentrations of several small (<200 microg) samples separated from M34,36, and 70. From petrographic observations concluded that "some of the clasts and grains experienced generations of modifications," a conclusion that we examine in light of our data.

  14. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Lunar meteorite LAP 02205 is a 1.23 kg basalt collected during the 2002 field season in the La- Paz ice field, Antarctica [1]. We present a petrographic description including mineral modes and compositions, and the major-element composition of the bulk meteorite. LAP 02205 is an Fe-rich, moderately low-Ti mare basalt that is similar in composition, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry to the NWA 032 basaltic lunar meteorite. LAP 02205 is yet another of the moderately low- Ti basaltic meteorites that are underrepresented among Apollo and Luna samples but that appear from remote sensing to be the most common basalt type on the Moon.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Meteorites: Experiments and Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Meteorites: Experiments and Spectroscopy" included the following reports:The Suitability of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Determining the Compositions of Extraterrestrial Material; Deconvolving Terrestrial Alteration Mineral Spectral Signatures from Meteorite Reflectance Measurements; Impacts of Ions and Micrometeorites on Mineral Surfaces: Reflectance and Chemical Changes Found in Ordinary Chondrites; FT-IR Micro-spectroscopy of Fine-grained Planetary Materials: Further Results; Effusion Cell Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Cobalt at Temperatures up to 2000K: Comparisons with Iron and Nickel; Kinetics of Fe2+-Mg Order-Disorder in P21/c Pigeonite: Implications for Cooling Rates Calculations; Compressional and Shear Wave Velocities in Meteorites; Chemical and Mineralogical Size Segregation in the Impact Disruption of Anhydrous Stone Meteorites; and Shock Pressures of Impacts vs. Crystallization Pressures of Shock-induced Melt Veins of the chondrites.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Meteorites: Experiments and Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Meteorites: Experiments and Spectroscopy" included the following reports:The Suitability of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Determining the Compositions of Extraterrestrial Material; Deconvolving Terrestrial Alteration Mineral Spectral Signatures from Meteorite Reflectance Measurements; Impacts of Ions and Micrometeorites on Mineral Surfaces: Reflectance and Chemical Changes Found in Ordinary Chondrites; FT-IR Micro-spectroscopy of Fine-grained Planetary Materials: Further Results; Effusion Cell Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Cobalt at Temperatures up to 2000K: Comparisons with Iron and Nickel; Kinetics of Fe2+-Mg Order-Disorder in P21/c Pigeonite: Implications for Cooling Rates Calculations; Compressional and Shear Wave Velocities in Meteorites; Chemical and Mineralogical Size Segregation in the Impact Disruption of Anhydrous Stone Meteorites; and Shock Pressures of Impacts vs. Crystallization Pressures of Shock-induced Melt Veins of the chondrites.

  17. Basaltic fragments in lunar feldspathic meteorites: Connecting sample analyses to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Katharine L.; Treiman, Allan H.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2012-03-01

    The feldspathic lunar meteorites contain rare fragments of crystalline basalts. We analyzed 16 basalt fragments from four feldspathic lunar meteorites (Allan Hills [ALHA] 81005, MacAlpine Hills [MAC] 88104/88105, Queen Alexandra Range [QUE] 93069, Miller Range [MIL] 07006) and utilized literature data for another (Dhofar [Dho] 1180). We compositionally classify basalt fragments according to their magma's estimated TiO2 contents, which we derive for crystalline basalts from pyroxene TiO2 and the mineral-melt Ti distribution coefficient. Overall, most of the basalt fragments are low-Ti basalts (1-6% TiO2), with a significant proportion of very-low-Ti basalts (<1% TiO2). Only a few basalt clasts were high-Ti or intermediate Ti types (>10% TiO2 and 6-10% TiO2, respectively). This distribution of basalt TiO2 abundances is nearly identical to that obtained from orbital remote sensing of the moon (both UV-Vis from Clementine, and gamma ray from Lunar Prospector). However, the distribution of TiO2 abundances is unlike those of the Apollo and Luna returned samples: we observe a paucity of high-Ti basalts. The compositional types of basalt differs from meteorite to meteorite, which implies that all basalt subtypes are not randomly distributed on the Moon, i.e., the basalt fragments in each meteorite probably represent basalts in the neighborhood of the meteorite launch site. These differences in basalt chemistry and classifications may be useful in identifying the source regions of some feldspathic meteorites. Some of the basalt fragments probably originate from ancient cryptomaria, and so may hold clues to the petrogenesis of the Moon's oldest volcanism.

  18. Feldspathic Meteorites MIL 090034 and 090070: Late Additions to the Lunar Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shirai, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Ebihara, M.

    2016-01-01

    Our studies of the Miller Range lunar meteorites MIL 090034, 090036, and 090070 show them to be a diverse suite of rocks from the lunar highlands hereafter referred to as MIL 34, MIL 36, and MIL 70, resp. MIL34 and MIL70, the focus of this work, are crystalline melt breccias. Plagioclase compositions in both peak sharply around An96-97. Mg numbers of olivine vary from 58-65 with a few higher values. MIL36 is a regolith breccia. MIL 34 and MIL 70 have some of the highest Al2O3 abundances of lunar highland meteorites, indicating that they have among the largest modal abundances of plagioclase for lunar meteorites. They have lower Sc and Cr abundances than nearly all lunar highland meteorites except Dho 081, Dho 489 and Dho 733. MIL34 and MIL70 also have similar cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of approximately 1-2 Ma indicating they are launch paired. (MIL36 has a larger CRE age approximately greater than 70 Ma). Park et al. found a variation in Ar-Ar ages among subsamples of MIL 34 and MIL70, but preferred ages of 3500+/-110 Ma for the "Dark" phase of MIL 34 anorthite and 3520+/-30 Ma for the "Light" phase of MIL70. Bouvier et al. reported a Pb-Pb age of 3894+/-39 Ma for a feldspathic clast of MIL 34 and a similar age for a melt lithology. Here we reexamine the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data, which show complexities qualitatively consistent with those of the Ar-Ar and Pb-Pb data. The Sm-Nd data in particular suggest that the feldspathic compositions of MIL 34 and MIL 70 formed during initial lunar geochemical differentiation, and REE modeling suggests a relatively late-stage formation.

  19. Lunar meteorite Yamato-983885: Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.

    2015-11-01

    Noble gases and nitrogen have been in lunar meteorite from antartcica: the polymict regolith breccias, Yamato-983885 (hereafter Y-983885). Y-983885 has highest concentration of trapped noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) among all the lunar meteorites and returned lunar samples. Noble gases and nitrogen abundances measured in two samples of the lunar meteorite Y-983885. The concentration of trapped noble gases in Y-983885 (A) are, 20Ne=3.69×10-3, 36Ar=12.6×10-4, 84kr=8.57×10-7 and 132Xe=1.63×10-7 ccSTP/g. The cosmic-ray exposure ages for Y-983885 are thus calculated to be T21 (A)=1592±232 Ma and T21 (B)=574±85 Ma for 2π geometry (using production rates as per Hohenberg et al., 1978 and bulk composition). The exposure ages of samples A and B differ, indicating that they have undergone different exposure scenarios on the lunar surface. The different irradiation ages (T21 (A)=1592±232 Ma and T21 (B)=574±85 Ma) indicates that the regolith material which constitutes the meteorite Y-983885 resided at different shielding depths on lunar surface before agglomeration into the final meteorite. Exposure ages calculated using end member compositon like norite, basalt, tractolite (1947 to 1365 and 711 to 455 for A and B respectively) indicates clearly that the two samples A and B has undergone different exposure on Moon. The 20Ne/22Ne ratio of 13.60±0.01 in temperature step 400 °C of Y-983885 (A) demonstrate a clear retention of solar wind signature in this meteorite. The presence of high contents of trapped solar wind gases indicates that Y-983885 consists of mature lunar regolith material. Variable amounts of solar gases as well as cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Y-983885 (A and B) is compacted from several fragments that were exposed at the surface and/or at various depths in the regolith, before becoming part of Y-983885.

  20. Measurements of I-129 in meteorites and lunar rock by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nizhiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Elmore, D.; Gove, H. E.; Honda, M.

    1983-01-01

    Precise measurements of the half-life of I-129 in three different meteorites and one lunar surface rock are reported. The meteorite source of I-129 was produced by cosmic ray secondary neutron reactions on Te, while the source in lunar materials in spallation on barium and rare earth elements. The Abee, Allende, and Dhajala meteorites were examined, together with the lunar rock 14310. Details of the process used to extract the iodine are provided. The Abee and Allende samples exhibited a production of 0.5 atom/min per gm of Te from the (n,2n) reaction and 0.05 atom/min/gm for the (n,gamma) reaction. The I-129 is concluded to be a viable tool for long-lived cosmogenic nuclide studies. Further work to extend the data to include the constancy of the cosmic ray flux, the meteorite bombardment history, and the cosmic exposure age dating by means of the I-129 and Xe-129 method is indicated.

  1. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  2. Elephant Moraine 87521 - The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of trace-element analyses and detailed petrography obtained for the Elephant Moraine 87521 meteorite (EET87521) found recently in Antarctica. Its high values found for the Fe/Mn ratio and the bulk-Co content indicate that the EET87521 is not, as was originally classified, a eucrite. Moreover, its low Ga/Al and Na/Ca ratios exclude the possibility that it is an SNC meteorite. These and other characteristics (e.g., a very low Ti content) of the EET87521 suggest its affinity with very-low-Ti high-alumina varieties of lunar mare basalt.

  3. Implications for the origins of pure anorthosites found in the feldspathic lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Karouji, Yuzuru; Ohtake, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Akira; Yoneda, Shigekazu; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Remote observation by the reflectance spectrometers onboard the Japanese lunar explorer Kaguya (SELENE) showed the purest anorthosite (PAN) spots (>98% plagioclase) at some large craters. Mineralogical and petrologic investigations on the feldspathic lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489 and Dhofar 911, revealed the presence of several pure anorthosite clasts. A comparison with Apollo nearside samples of ferroan anorthosite (FAN) indicated that of the FAN samples returned by the Apollo missions, sample 60015 is the largest anorthosite with the highest plagioclase abundance and homogeneous mafic mineral compositions. These pure anorthosites (>98% plagioclase) have large chemical variations in Mg number (Mg# = molar 100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe)) of each coexisting mafic mineral. The variations imply that these pure anorthosites underwent complex formation processes and were not formed by simple flotation of plagioclase. The lunar highland samples with pure anorthosite and the PAN observed by Kaguya suggest that pure anorthosite is widely distributed as lunar crust lithology over the entire Moon.

  4. Electrostatic dust transport and Apollo 17 LEAM experiment. [Lunar Ejecta And Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, J. W.; Berg, O. E.; Wolf, H.

    1977-01-01

    The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite (LEAM) experiment has been in operation since December 1973 when it was deployed in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon by the Apollo 17 crew. A specialized analysis based on more than twenty-two lunations of the impact data shows that all of the events recorded by the sensors during the terminator passages are essentially lunar surface microparticles carrying a high electrostatic charge. Charged lunar fines held in place by adhesive forces can be ejected into space if the electrostatic stress exceeds the adhesive strength. A simple laboratory test demonstrated that this soil transport can indeed take place at the lunar terminator and in the vicinity of it.

  5. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials and in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon 14 terrestial ages were determined with low level minicomputers and accelerator mass spectrometry on 1 Yamato and 18 Allan Hills and nearby sited meteorites. Techniques for an accelerator mass spectrometer which make C(14) measurements on small samples were developed. Also Be(10) concentrations were measured in Byrd core and Allan Hills ice samples.

  6. On the origins of trapped helium, neon and argon isotopic variations in meteorites. I - Gas-rich meteorites, lunar soil and breccia. II - Carbonaceous meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented from stepwise heating experiments and total extractions on five meteorites: Kapoeta, Fayetteville, Holman Island, Cee Vee, and Pultusk. These data reveal the presence of four isotopically distinct trapped neon components. A comparison of trapped neon with trapped helium and argon in bulk analyses indicates the existence of correlated helium, neon and argon isotopic structures. Component B is attributed primarily to direct implantation of rare gas ions by the present day solar wind. Component C is identified with directly implanted low energy (1-10 Mev/n) solar flare rare gases. Component D is associated with rare gas ions implanted in meteoritic material by the primitive, pre-main sequence, solar wind. A fourth component, observed only in Kapoeta and the lunar fines and breccia, is tentatively attributed to parent body 'atmospheric' ions implanted in surface material by a solar wind induced electric field.

  7. On the origins of trapped helium, neon and argon isotopic variations in meteorites. I - Gas-rich meteorites, lunar soil and breccia. II - Carbonaceous meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented from stepwise heating experiments and total extractions on five meteorites: Kapoeta, Fayetteville, Holman Island, Cee Vee, and Pultusk. These data reveal the presence of four isotopically distinct trapped neon components. A comparison of trapped neon with trapped helium and argon in bulk analyses indicates the existence of correlated helium, neon and argon isotopic structures. Component B is attributed primarily to direct implantation of rare gas ions by the present day solar wind. Component C is identified with directly implanted low energy (1-10 Mev/n) solar flare rare gases. Component D is associated with rare gas ions implanted in meteoritic material by the primitive, pre-main sequence, solar wind. A fourth component, observed only in Kapoeta and the lunar fines and breccia, is tentatively attributed to parent body 'atmospheric' ions implanted in surface material by a solar wind induced electric field.

  8. Meteoritic influence on sodium and potassium abundance in the lunar exosphere measured by LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály; Colaprete, Anthony; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). Here we compare coincident LDEX measurements of meteoritic influx to exospheric column densities of Na and K derived by UVS. We report a strong correlation of exospheric potassium and meteoroid ejecta during the Geminids meteoroid shower, exhibiting a much stronger response than sodium. With the exception of the Geminids, we find a weak correlation between the sporadic meteoroid influx as measured by LDEX and exospheric density as measured by UVS.

  9. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  10. Volatile/mobile trace elements in meteoritic, non-lunar basalts: Guides to Martian sample contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.; Paul, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of genetic processes on or in extraterrestrial objects can be examined by study of volatile/mobile trace elements. Doubtless, considerable efforts will be expended on determining these elements in returned Martian samples. The purpose is to estimate levels of such elements expected to be present in returned Martian samples. Some ideas about Martian genesis were already advanced from the volatile/mobile element contents in SNC meteorites, assuming that Mars was their parent body. Even is Mars and the SNC meteorite parent body are identical, compositional ranges for returned Martian samples should exceed those of SNC meteorites. It is expected, therefore, that Martian samples returned from locations other than Polar regions will have indigenous volatile/mobile element contents within howardite-diogenite ranges. Elements with strong lithophile tendences may be more abundant, as they are in many lunar samples. Most of these elements should be at ppb levels except for Co, Ga, Zn, and Rb, which should lie at ppm levels. If Martian volcanism was accompanied by fumarolic emanations, it should be reflected in occasional huge enrichments of mobile trance elements, as in lunar meteorite Y 791197. During collection and transport Earthward, samples must be contained under conditions appropriate to ppb concentrations. Materials must be used that will not cause contamination which occurred during the Apollo program, where indium from seals contaminated many samples.

  11. Volatile/mobile trace elements in meteoritic, non-lunar basalts: Guides to Martian sample contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.; Paul, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of genetic processes on or in extraterrestrial objects can be examined by study of volatile/mobile trace elements. Doubtless, considerable efforts will be expended on determining these elements in returned Martian samples. The purpose is to estimate levels of such elements expected to be present in returned Martian samples. Some ideas about Martian genesis were already advanced from the volatile/mobile element contents in SNC meteorites, assuming that Mars was their parent body. Even is Mars and the SNC meteorite parent body are identical, compositional ranges for returned Martian samples should exceed those of SNC meteorites. It is expected, therefore, that Martian samples returned from locations other than Polar regions will have indigenous volatile/mobile element contents within howardite-diogenite ranges. Elements with strong lithophile tendences may be more abundant, as they are in many lunar samples. Most of these elements should be at ppb levels except for Co, Ga, Zn, and Rb, which should lie at ppm levels. If Martian volcanism was accompanied by fumarolic emanations, it should be reflected in occasional huge enrichments of mobile trance elements, as in lunar meteorite Y 791197. During collection and transport Earthward, samples must be contained under conditions appropriate to ppb concentrations. Materials must be used that will not cause contamination which occurred during the Apollo program, where indium from seals contaminated many samples.

  12. Petrogenesis and chronology of lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 4472: A KREEPy regolith breccia from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, K. H.; Burgess, R.; Hinton, R.; Fernandes, V. A.; Crawford, I. A.; Kearsley, A. T.; Irving, A. J.; EIMF g

    2011-05-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 4472 is a polymict lunar regolith meteorite. The sample is KREEP-rich (high concentrations of potassium, rare earth elements and phosphorus) and comprises a heterogeneous array of lithic and mineral fragments. These clasts and mineral fragments were sourced from a range of lunar rock types including the lunar High Magnesian Suite, the High Alkali Suite, KREEP basalts, mare basalts and a variety of impact crater environments. The KREEP-rich nature of NWA 4472 indicates that the sample was ejected from regolith on the nearside of the Moon in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane and we have used Lunar Prospector gamma-ray remote sensing data to show that the meteorite is most similar to (and most likely sourced from) regoliths adjacent to the Imbrium impact basin. U-Pb and Pb-Pb age dates of NWA 4472 phosphate phases reveal that the breccia has sampled Pre-Nectarian (4.35 Ga) rocks related to early episodes of KREEP driven magmatism. Some younger phosphate U-Pb and Pb-Pb age dates are likely indicative of impact resetting events at 3.9-4 Ga, consistent with the suggested timing of basin formation on the Moon. Our study also shows that NWA 4472 has sampled impact melts and glass with an alkali-depleted, incompatible trace element-rich (high Sc, low Rb/Th ratios, low K) compositional signature not related to typical Apollo high-K KREEP, or that sampled by KREEPy lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 169. This provides evidence that there are numerous sources of KREEP-rich protoliths on the Moon.

  13. Comparisons of Mineralogy Between Cumulate Eucrites and Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside Anorsothitic Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Yamaguchi, A.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Ohtake, M.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Anorthosites composed of nearly pure anorthite (PAN) at many locations in the farside highlands have been observed by the Kaguya multiband imager and spectral profiler [1]. Mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites of the Dhofar 489 group [2,3] and Yamato (Y-) 86032 [4], all possibly from the farside highlands, showed some aspects of the farside crust. Nyquist et al. [5] performed Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar studies of pristine ferroan anorthosites (FANs) of the returned Apollo samples and of Dhofar 908 and 489, and discussed implications for lunar crustal history. Nyquist et al. [6] reported initial results of a combined mineralogical/chronological study of the Yamato (Y-) 980318 cumulate eucrite with a conventional Sm-Nd age of 4567 24 Ma and suggested that all eucrites, including cumulate eucrites, crystallized from parental magmas within a short interval following differentiation of their parent body, and most eucrites participated in an event or events in the time interval 4400- 4560 Ma in which many isotopic systems were partially reset. During the foregoing studies, we recognized that variations in mineralogy and chronology of lunar anorthosites are more complex than those of the crustal materials of the HED parent body. In this study, we compared the mineralogies and reflectance spectra of the cumulate eucrites, Y-980433 and 980318, to those of the Dhofar 307 lunar meteorite of the Dhofar 489 group [2]. Here we consider information from these samples to gain a better understanding of the feldspathic farside highlands and the Vesta-like body.

  14. An apatite-rich, ferroan, mafic lithology from lunar meteorite ALHA81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1985-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite Allan Hills A81005 is a polymict, anorthositic regolith breccia of lunar origin. Most lithic clasts in the meteorite 81005 are similar to those from other lunar rocks. However, some, such as 'hyperferroan' anorthosites, have not been reported before the discovery of 81005. On the basis of the composition of some granulitic polymict breccia clasts, it appears possible that other new lithologies are present. In the present paper, a description is provided of an unusual, apatite-rich, ferroan, mafic lithology, and its origin is discussed. Three clasts which appeared to contain two minerals were separated as samples ,32 ,28 and ,27. It is found in a study that the clast in ,32 and ,28 is an apatite-rich ferroan anorthositic troctolite which is probably pristine. This rock is unique among lunar samples. On the basis of an evaluation of the significance of the results of the study, it is concluded that complex processes were apparently involved in the evolution of the primitive lunar crust.

  15. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  16. Thermal and irradiation history of lunar meteorite Dhofar 280

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korochantseva, Ekaterina V.; Buikin, Alexei I.; Hopp, Jens; Lorenz, Cyrill A.; Korochantsev, Alexander V.; Ott, Ulrich; Trieloff, Mario

    2016-12-01

    Dhofar 280 recorded a complex history on the Moon revealed by high-resolution 40Ar-39Ar dating. Thermal resetting occurred less than 1 Ga ago, and the rock was exposed to several impact events before and afterwards. The cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age spectrum indicates a 400 ± 40 Ma CRE on the lunar surface. A unique feature of this lunar sample is a partial loss of cosmogenic 38Ar, resulting in a (low-temperature) CRE age plateau of about 1 Ma. This was likely caused by the same recent impact event that reset the (low-temperature) 40Ar-39Ar age spectrum and preceded the short transit phase to Earth of ≤1 Ma. Dhofar 280 may be derived from KREEP-rich lunar frontside terrains, possibly associated with the Copernicus crater or with a recent impact event on the deposits of the South Pole-Aitken basin. Although Dhofar 280 is paired with Dhofar 081, their irradiation and thermal histories on the Moon were different. An important trapped Ar component in Dhofar 280 is "orphan" Ar with a low 40Ar/36Ar ratio. It is apparently a mixture of two components, one endmember with 40Ar/36Ar = 17.5 ± 0.2 and a second less well-constrained endmember with 40Ar/36Ar ≤10. The presence of two endmembers of trapped Ar, their compositions, and the breccia ages seem to be incompatible with a previously suggested correlation between age or antiquity and the (40Ar/36Ar)trapped ratio (Eugster et al. 2001; Joy et al. 2011a). Alternatively, "orphan" Ar of this impact melt breccia may have an impact origin.

  17. Exposure Histories of Lunar Meteorites Northwest Africa 032 and DHOFAR 081

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.

    2001-04-01

    Recent additions to the list of lunar meteorites include Northwest Africa (NWA) 032 and Dhofar 081. NWA 032 is an unbrecciated basalt, found in Morocco; Dhofar 081 is a fragmented feldspathic breccia, found in Oman. Our goal is the determination of the cosmic ray exposure history of these objects. Most lunar meteorites have complex cosmic ray exposure histories, having been exposed both at some depth on the lunar surface (2{pi} irradiation) before their ejection and as small bodies in space (4{pi} irradiation) during transport from the Moon to the Earth. These exposures were then followed by residence on the Earth's surface, the terrestrial residence time. Unraveling the complex history of these objects requires the measurement of at least four cosmogenic nuclides. The specific goals of these measurements are to constrain the depth of the sample at the time of ejection from the Moon, the transit time from the time of ejection to the time of capture by the Earth, and the residence time on the Earth's surface. These exposure durations in conjunction with the sample depth on the Moon can then be used to model impact and ejection mechanisms. To investigate the complex exposure histories of lunar meteorites, we measured cosmogenic nuclides, {sup 36}Cl (half-life = 3.01 x 10{sup 5} yr), {sup 26}Al (7.05 x 10{sup 5} yr), and {sup 10}Be (1.5 x 10{sup 6} yr) in NWA 032 and Dhofar 081. The measurements of {sup 41}Ca (1.04 x 10{sup 5} yr) are in progress.

  18. Minerologic and Petrologic Studies of Meteorites and Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, John

    2000-01-01

    In the past year this group continued essentially full time research on extraterrestrial materials, and the question of the origin of the solar system. The continuing scientific staff consists of the P.I. and Visiting Scientist Michael Petaev. Vitae for Wood and Petaev appear in Sec. 6. We benefit from the part time services of a Project Administrator (Judith Terry) and a Secretary (Muazzez Lohmiller). In January 1999 the P.I. assumed the Chairmanship of COMPLEX, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the Space Studies Board, National Research Council. Wood and Petaev were authors or coauthors of 21 publications, new manuscripts, and abstracts in the last year. These are listed above, and referenced by number [n] in the discussion below. Other references to the literature made in this Section are listed in Sec. 3.

  19. Mineralogy and petrogenesis of lunar magnesian granulitic meteorite Northwest Africa 5744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Jeremy J.; Brandon, Alan D.; Joy, Katherine H.; Peslier, Anne H.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Irving, Anthony J.; Coleff, Daniel M.

    2017-09-01

    Lunar meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5744 is a granulitic breccia with an anorthositic troctolite composition that may represent a distinct crustal lithology not previously described. This meteorite is the namesake and first-discovered stone of its pairing group. Bulk rock major element abundances show the greatest affinity to Mg-suite rocks, yet trace element abundances are more consistent with those of ferroan anorthosites. The relatively low abundances of incompatible trace elements (including K, P, Th, U, and rare earth elements) in NWA 5744 could indicate derivation from a highlands crustal lithology or mixture of lithologies that are distinct from the Procellarum KREEP terrane on the lunar nearside. Impact-related thermal and shock metamorphism of NWA 5744 was intense enough to recrystallize mafic minerals in the matrix, but not intense enough to chemically equilibrate the constituent minerals. Thus, we infer that NWA 5744 was likely metamorphosed near the lunar surface, either as a lithic component within an impact melt sheet or from impact-induced shock.

  20. Exposure History of Lunar Meteorites Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and 94269

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Jull, A. J. T.; Reedy, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic-ray produced C-14 (t(sub 1/2) = 5730 years), 36Cl (3.01 x 10(exp 5 years), Al-26 (7.05 x 10(exp 5 years), and Be-10 (1.5 x 10(exp 6 years) in the recently discovered lunar meteorites Queen Alexandra Range 93069 (QUE 93069) and 94269 (QUE 94269) were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. The abundance pattern of these four cosmogenic radionuclides and of noble gases indicates QUE 93069 and QUE 94269 were a paired fall and were exposed to cosmic rays near the surface of the Moon for at least several hundred million years before ejection. After the meteorite was launched from the Moon, where it had resided at a depth of 65-80 g/cm square, it experienced a short transition time, approximately 20-50 ka, before colliding with the Earth. The terrestrial age of the meteorite is 5-10 ka. Comparison ofthe cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in QUE 93069/94269 and MAC 88104/88105 clearly shows that these meteorites were not ejected by a common event from the Moon.

  1. Compositional Evidence for Launch Pairing of the YQ and Elephant Moraine Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jollitt, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Arai and Warren provide convincing evidence that QUE (Queen Alexandra Range) 94281 derives from the same regolith as Y (Yamato) 793274 and, therefore, that the two meteorites were likely ejected from the Moon by the same impact. Recently discovered Y981031 is paired with Y793274. The "YQ" meteorites (Y793274/Y981031 and QUE 94281 are unique among lunar meteorites in being regolith breccias composed of subequal amounts of mare volcanic material (a VLT [very-low-Ti] basalt or gabbro) and feldspathic highland material. EET (Elephant Moraine) 87521 and its pair EET 96008 are fragmental breccias composed mainly of VLT basalt or gabbro. Warren, Arai, and colleagues note that the volcanic components of the YQ and EET meteorites are texturally similar more similar to each other than either is to mare basalts of the Apollo collection. Warren and colleagues address the issue of possible launch pairing of YQ and EET, but note compositional differences between EET and the volcanic component of YQ, as inferred from extrapolations of regressions to high FeO concentration. We show here that: (1) EET 87/96 consists of fragments of a differentiated magma body, (2) subsamples of EET represent a mixing trend between Fe-rich and Mg-rich differentiates, and (3) the inferred volcanic component of YQ is consistent with a point on the EET mixing line. Thus, there is no compositional impediment to the hypothesis that YQ is launch paired with EET.

  2. Compositional Evidence for Launch Pairing of the YQ and Elephant Moraine Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jollitt, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Arai and Warren provide convincing evidence that QUE (Queen Alexandra Range) 94281 derives from the same regolith as Y (Yamato) 793274 and, therefore, that the two meteorites were likely ejected from the Moon by the same impact. Recently discovered Y981031 is paired with Y793274. The "YQ" meteorites (Y793274/Y981031 and QUE 94281 are unique among lunar meteorites in being regolith breccias composed of subequal amounts of mare volcanic material (a VLT [very-low-Ti] basalt or gabbro) and feldspathic highland material. EET (Elephant Moraine) 87521 and its pair EET 96008 are fragmental breccias composed mainly of VLT basalt or gabbro. Warren, Arai, and colleagues note that the volcanic components of the YQ and EET meteorites are texturally similar more similar to each other than either is to mare basalts of the Apollo collection. Warren and colleagues address the issue of possible launch pairing of YQ and EET, but note compositional differences between EET and the volcanic component of YQ, as inferred from extrapolations of regressions to high FeO concentration. We show here that: (1) EET 87/96 consists of fragments of a differentiated magma body, (2) subsamples of EET represent a mixing trend between Fe-rich and Mg-rich differentiates, and (3) the inferred volcanic component of YQ is consistent with a point on the EET mixing line. Thus, there is no compositional impediment to the hypothesis that YQ is launch paired with EET.

  3. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 - A new 'FAN' of lunar petrology. [ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lui, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the chemical characteristics of the MAC88104/5 meteorite six thin sections and three bulk samples were analyzed by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation. It is concluded that this meteorite is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts of basaltic origin. It is suggested that one of these basaltic clasts, clast E, is mesostasis material, and clast G is similar to the very low-Ti or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105, 69, and 72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite.

  4. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites - ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Ca-41, Cl-36, Al-26, and Be-10 in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105, and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Mn-53 in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by neutron activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/sq cm and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the moon to the earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  5. Ar-40-Ar-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 961

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara; Frasl, Barbara; Jolliff, Brad; Korotev, Randy; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite was found in 2003 in Oman. It is texturally paired with Dhofar 925 and Dhofar 960 (though Dhofar 961 is more mafic and richer in incompatible elements). Several lines of reasoning point to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) basin as a plausible source (Figure 2): Mafic character of the melt-breccia lithic clasts consistent the interior of SPA, rules out feldspathic highlands. Compositional differences from Apollo impact-melt groups point to a provenance that is separated and perhaps far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane SPA "hot spots" where Th concentrations reach 5 ppm and it has a broad "background" of about 2 ppm, similar to lithic clasts in Dhofar 961 subsamples If true, impact-melt lithologies in this meteorite may be unaffected by the Imbrium-forming event that is pervasively found in our Apollo sample collection, and instead record the early impact history of the Moon.

  6. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites - ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Ca-41, Cl-36, Al-26, and Be-10 in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105, and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Mn-53 in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by neutron activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/sq cm and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the moon to the earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  7. Petrology and chemistry of hyperferroan anorthosites and other clasts from lunar meteorite ALHA81005

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, C.A.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-11-15

    The results of petrographic and chemical studies of 11 previously undescribed clasts from the lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005 are reported. The majority of lithic clasts in this regolith breccia are granular to cataclastic polymict breccias that are mixtures of ferroan anorthosites and troctolitic Mg-suite plutonic rocks with mg greater than 84, An 97, and REE abundances consistent with those of known Mg-suite rocks. Clasts of appropriate Mg-suite end members have not been found in 81005, although magnesian olivine fragments are present. Impact-melt clasts similar in composition to bulk 81005 also occur. AH81005 is low in KREEP.

  8. Basaltic Clasts in Y-86032 Feldspathic Lunar Meteorite: Ancient Volcanism far from the Procellarum Kreep Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D.; Karouji, Y.; Ebihara, M.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Y-86032 is a fragmental or regolith breccia enriched in Al2O3 (28-31 wt%) and having very low concentrations of REEs and Th, U [e.g., 1]. Nyquist et al. [2] suggested that Y- 86032 contains a variety of lithologies not represented by the Apollo samples. They found clasts with old Ar-Ar ages and an ancient Sm-Nd age, and negative Nd indicating a direct link to the primordial magma ocean. Importantly, the final lithification of the Y-86032 breccia was likely >3.8-4.1 Ga ago. Therefore, any lithic components in the breccia formed prior to 3.8 Ga, and lithic components in breccia clasts in the parent breccia formed even earlier. Here we report textures and mineralogy of basaltic and gabbroic clasts in Y- 86032 to better understand the nature of ancient lunar volcanism far from the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT) [3] and the central nearside.

  9. Galactic Cosmic-Ray-Produced Thermoluminescence Profiles in Meteorites Lunar Samples and a Terrestrial Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Chen, Yongheng

    1996-01-01

    The long-term radiation shielding properties of common extraterrestrial materials are poorly known, although these materials are the most likely structural elements on airless worlds such as the Moon. We report on radiation dose profiles in meteorites and lunar soil cores using specific minerals as naturally-occurring "dosimeters". We find that radiation profiles are fairly flat in typical meteoroid bodies (less than 85 cm radius) and drop by only about 40% through about 2.5 m of lunar soil. These profiles are produced by primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary proton cascade but with a significant contribution by secondary neutrons at depths of about 2 m (300 g/sq cm).

  10. A Review of Lunar Meteorite Impact-Melt Clast Compositions and Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important outstanding goals of lunar science is understanding the bombardment history of the Moon and calibrating the impact flux curve for extrapolation to the Earth and other terrestrial planets. Obtaining a sample from a carefully-characterized interior melt sheet or ring massif is a reliable way to tell a single crater's age. A different but complementary approach is to use extensive laboratory characterization (microscopic, geochemical, isotopic) of float samples to understand the integrated impact history of a region. Both approaches have their merits and limitations. In essence, the latter is the approach we have used to understand the impact history of the Feldspathic Highland Terrain (FHT) as told by lunar feldspathic meteorites.

  11. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) with Raman Imaging Applied to Lunar Meteorites.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joseph P; Smith, Frank C; Booksh, Karl S

    2017-01-01

    Lunar meteorites provide a more random sampling of the surface of the Moon than do the returned lunar samples, and they provide valuable information to help estimate the chemical composition of the lunar crust, the lunar mantle, and the bulk Moon. As of July 2014, ∼96 lunar meteorites had been documented and ten of these are unbrecciated mare basalts. Using Raman imaging with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), we investigated portions of polished thin sections of paired, unbrecciated, mare-basalt lunar meteorites that had been collected from the LaPaz Icefield (LAP) of Antarctica-LAP 02205 and LAP 04841. Polarized light microscopy displays that both meteorites are heterogeneous and consist of polydispersed sized and shaped particles of varying chemical composition. For two distinct probed areas within each meteorite, the individual chemical species and associated chemical maps were elucidated using MCR-ALS applied to Raman hyperspectral images. For LAP 02205, spatially and spectrally resolved clinopyroxene, ilmenite, substrate-adhesive epoxy, and diamond polish were observed within the probed areas. Similarly, for LAP 04841, spatially resolved chemical images with corresponding resolved Raman spectra of clinopyroxene, troilite, a high-temperature polymorph of anorthite, substrate-adhesive epoxy, and diamond polish were generated. In both LAP 02205 and LAP 04841, substrate-adhesive epoxy and diamond polish were more readily observed within fractures/veinlet features. Spectrally diverse clinopyroxenes were resolved in LAP 04841. Factors that allow these resolved clinopyroxenes to be differentiated include crystal orientation, spatially distinct chemical zoning of pyroxene crystals, and/or chemical and molecular composition. The minerals identified using this analytical methodology-clinopyroxene, anorthite, ilmenite, and troilite-are consistent with the results of previous studies of the two meteorites using electron microprobe

  12. Lunar Meteorite QUE 93069: History Derived from Cosmic-Ray-Produced and Trapped Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, Ch.; Eugster, O.

    1995-09-01

    We obtained lunar meteorite QUE 93069,7 (0.304 g) from the NASA/MWG for the determination of its noble gas isotopic abundances and exposure history. The data relevant for the discussion of the exposure history and trapped noble gases are given in Tables 1 and 2. Exposure history: The duration of Moon-Earth transfer was determined by Nishiizumi et al. [1]. Based on 10Be these authors obtained 1.9 +/- 0.4 Ma for a 4 pi model (all radionuclides produced in 4 pi space) and <0.1 Ma for a 2 pi model (most radionuclides produced on the Moon). Adopting these times we find that less than one percent of the cosmogenic noble gases were produced during Moon- Earth transfer. The overwhelming amounts of 21Nec and 38Arc must have been produced during residence in the lunar regolith. Using lunar regolith production rates [2] at 5-10 g/cm2 shielding [1], we calculated the exposure times, T (2 pi), on the Moon. Table 2 gives the results and compares them with the exposure times for other anorthositic lunar meteorites (MAC 88105 and ALHA 81005). QUE 93069 shows the longest exposure to cosmic rays (1100 +/- 400 Ma) of all lunar meteorites if we compare the T38 values. Based on 21Nec we obtain 420 +/- 60 Ma. Typically for lunar surface material the T21 are lower than those based on 38Arc, 83Krc, and 126Xec due to 21Ne loss. This effect is also observed for MAC 88105 and ALHA 81005. Characteristics of the trapped noble gases: The long lunar surface residence time and the shallow shielding depth are consistent with the very large amounts of trapped solar wind particles (20Ne and 36Ar, Table 1) for QUE 93069. The concentration of trapped 36Ar is quite similar to that of Y-791197: Takaoka [3] and Ostertag et al. [4] obtained 33900 and 36600 x 10-8 cm3 STP/g, respectively. The trapped ratio 40Ar/36Ar, an antiquity indicator for lunar soil, yields information on the time when the breccia was compacted from regolith material [5]. For QUE 93069 we obtain (40Ar/36Ar)trapped = 1.9 +/- 0

  13. International Workshop on Antarctic Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annexstad, J. O.; Schultz, L.; Waenke, H.

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: meteorite concentration mechanisms; meteorites and the Antarctic ice sheet; iron meteorites; iodine overabundance in meteorites; entrainment, transport, and concentration of meteorites in polar ice sheets; weathering of stony meteorites; cosmic ray records; radiocarbon dating; element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorites; thermoanalytical characterization; trace elements; thermoluminescence; parent sources; and meteorite ablation and fusion spherules in Antarctic ice.

  14. Solar flare and galactic cosmic ray tracks in lunar samples and meteorites - What they tell us about the ancient sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.

    1980-01-01

    Evidence regarding the past activity of the sun in the form of nuclear particle tracks in lunar samples and meteorites produced by heavy ions in galactic cosmic rays and solar flares is reviewed. Observations of track-rich grains found in deep lunar cores and meteorite interiors are discussed which demonstrate the presence of solar flare activity for at least the past 4 billion years, and the similarity of track density profiles from various lunar and meteoritic samples with those in a glass filter from Surveyor 3 exposed at the lunar surface for almost three years is presented as evidence of the relative constancy of the solar flare energy spectrum over the same period. Indications of a heavy ion enrichment in solar flares are considered which are confirmed by recent satellite measurements, although difficult to quantify in lunar soil grains. Finally, it is argued that, despite previous claims, there exists as yet no conclusive evidence for either a higher solar activity during the early history of the moon or a change in galactic cosmic ray intensity, average composition or spectrum over the last 50 million years.

  15. Solar flare and galactic cosmic ray tracks in lunar samples and meteorites - What they tell us about the ancient sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.

    1980-01-01

    Evidence regarding the past activity of the sun in the form of nuclear particle tracks in lunar samples and meteorites produced by heavy ions in galactic cosmic rays and solar flares is reviewed. Observations of track-rich grains found in deep lunar cores and meteorite interiors are discussed which demonstrate the presence of solar flare activity for at least the past 4 billion years, and the similarity of track density profiles from various lunar and meteoritic samples with those in a glass filter from Surveyor 3 exposed at the lunar surface for almost three years is presented as evidence of the relative constancy of the solar flare energy spectrum over the same period. Indications of a heavy ion enrichment in solar flares are considered which are confirmed by recent satellite measurements, although difficult to quantify in lunar soil grains. Finally, it is argued that, despite previous claims, there exists as yet no conclusive evidence for either a higher solar activity during the early history of the moon or a change in galactic cosmic ray intensity, average composition or spectrum over the last 50 million years.

  16. Visible and near-infrared spectral survey of lunar meteorites recovered by the National Institute of Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, T.; Kaiden, H.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kojima, H.; Uemoto, K.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Sasaki, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lunar meteorite chip samples recovered by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) have been studied by a UV-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, targeting small areas of about 3 × 2 mm in size. Rock types and approximate mineral compositions of studied meteorites have been identified or obtained through this spectral survey with no sample preparation required. A linear deconvolution method was used to derive end-member mineral spectra from spectra of multiple clasts whenever possible. In addition, the modified Gaussian model was used in an attempt of deriving their major pyroxene compositions. This study demonstrates that a visible-near-infrared spectrometer on a lunar rover would be useful for identifying these kinds of unaltered (non-space-weathered) lunar rocks. In order to prepare for such a future mission, further studies which utilize a smaller spot size are desired for improving the accuracy of identifying the clasts and mineral phases of the rocks.

  17. Lunar highland meteorite Dhofar 026 and Apollo sample 15418: Two strongly shocked, partially melted, granulitic breccias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, B. A.; James, O.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Nazarov, M.A.; Barsukova, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of lunar meteorite Dhofar 026, and comparison to Apollo sample 15418, indicate that Dhofar 026 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia (or a fragmental breccia consisting almost entirely of granulitic breccia clasts) that experienced considerable post-shock heating, probably as a result of diffusion of heat into the rock from an external, hotter source. The shock converted plagioclase to maskelynite, indicating that the shock pressure was between 30 and 45 GPa. The post-shock heating raised the rock's temperature to about 1200 ??C; as a result, the maskelynite devitrified, and extensive partial melting took place. The melting was concentrated in pyroxene-rich areas; all pyroxene melted. As the rock cooled, the partial melts crystallized with fine-grained, subophitic-poikilitic textures. Sample 15418 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia that had a similar history, but evidence for this history is better preserved than in Dhofar 026. The fact that Dhofar 026 was previously interpreted as an impact melt breccia underscores the importance of detailed petrographic study in interpretation of lunar rocks that have complex textures. The name "impact melt" has, in past studies, been applied only to rocks in which the melt fraction formed by shock-induced total fusion. Recently, however, this name has also been applied to rocks containing melt formed by heating of the rocks by conductive heat transfer, assuming that impact is the ultimate source of the heat. We urge that the name "impact melt" be restricted to rocks in which the bulk of the melt formed by shock-induced fusion to avoid confusion engendered by applying the same name to rocks melted by different processes. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  18. Elephant Moraine 87521: The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W. )

    1989-12-01

    The trace-element chemistry and detailed petrography of brecciated Antarctic meteorite EET87521 reveal that it is not, as originally classified, a eucrite. Its Fe/Mn ratio and bulk Co content are fair higher than expected for a eucrite. Only one known type of extraterrestrial material resembles EET87521 in all important respects for which constraints exist: very-low-Ti (VLT) lunar mare basalts. Even compared to VLT basalts, EET87521 is enriched in REE. However, other varieties of high-alumina, low-Ti mare basalt are known that contain REE at even higher concentrations than EET87521. Several clasts in EET87521 preserve clear vestiges of coarse-grained igneous, possibly orthocumulate, textures. Mineralogically, these coarse-grained clasts are diverse; e.g., olivine ranges from Fo{sub 15} in one to Fo{sub 67} in another. One clast with an anomalously fine-grained texture is anorthositic and contains exceptionally Mg-rich pyroxene and Na-poor plagioclase, along with the only FeNi-metal in the thin section. Its FeNi-metals have compositions typical of metals incorporated into lunar soils and polymict breccias as debris from metal-rich meteorites. However, the low Ni and Ir contents of our bulk-rock analysis imply that the proportion of impact-projectile matter in our chip sample is probably small. The moderate degree of lithologic diversity among the lithic lasts and the bulk composition in general indicate that EET87521 is dominated by a single rock type: VLT mare basalt.

  19. High crustal diversity preserved in the lunar meteorite Mount DeWitt 12007 (Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collareta, Alberto; D'Orazio, Massimo; Gemelli, Maurizio; Pack, Andreas; Folco, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    The meteorite Mount DeWitt (DEW) 12007 is a polymict regolith breccia mainly consisting of glassy impact-melt breccia particles, gabbroic clasts, feldspathic clasts, impact and volcanic glass beads, basaltic clasts, and mingled breccia clasts embedded in a matrix dominated by fine-grained crystals; vesicular glassy veins and rare agglutinates are also present. Main minerals are plagioclase (typically An>85) and clinopyroxene (pigeonites and augites, sometimes interspersed). The presence of tranquillityite, coupled with the petrophysical data, the O-isotope data (Δ17O = -0.075), and the FeOtot/MnO ratios in olivine (91), pyroxene (65), and bulk rock (77) indicate a lunar origin for DEW 12007. Impactites consist of Al-rich impact-melt splashes and plagioclase-rich meta-melt clasts. The volcanic products belong to the very low titanium (VLT) or low titanium (LT) suites; an unusual subophitic fragment could be cryptomare-related. Gabbroic clasts could represent part of a shallow intrusion within a volcanic complex with prevailing VLT affinity. DEW 12007 has a mingled bulk composition with relatively high incompatible element abundances and shows a high crustal diversity comprising clasts from the Moon's major terranes and rare lithologies. First-order petrographic and chemical features suggest that DEW 12007 could be launch-paired with other meteorites including Y 793274/981031, QUE 94281, EET 87521/96008, and NWA 4884.

  20. Comparisons of Mineralogy of Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside and the Kaguya Remote Sensing Data to Reconstruct the Earliest Anorthositic Crust of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Ohtake, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Morota, T.; Karouji, Y.; Haruyma, J.; Katou, M.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2012-03-01

    Comparisons of mineralogy of lunar meteorites (Dhofar 911, etc.) from the farside and the Kaguya Th concentrations a to reconstruct the earliest, asymmetric anorthositic crust of the Moon. We propose that these meteorites might have come from the Dirichlet-Jackson basin.

  1. The oxidation state of europium as an indicator of oxygen fugacity. [lunar and terrestrial rocks, achondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Empirical oxygen barometers based on Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratios in plagioclase feldspar and magmatic liquid were developed using Philpott's (1970) approach and the experimental data of Drake (1972). Oxygen fugacities calculated on the basis of Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratios for terrestrial basalts cluster tightly around 10 to the negative seventh power. Oxygen fugacities for Apollo 11 and 12 lunar ferrobasalts cluster tightly around 10 to the negative 12.7 power. Calculated oxygen fugacities for achondritic meteorites are lower than for lunar samples by several orders of magnitude.

  2. The oxidation state of europium as an indicator of oxygen fugacity. [lunar and terrestrial rocks, achondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Empirical oxygen barometers based on Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratios in plagioclase feldspar and magmatic liquid were developed using Philpott's (1970) approach and the experimental data of Drake (1972). Oxygen fugacities calculated on the basis of Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratios for terrestrial basalts cluster tightly around 10 to the negative seventh power. Oxygen fugacities for Apollo 11 and 12 lunar ferrobasalts cluster tightly around 10 to the negative 12.7 power. Calculated oxygen fugacities for achondritic meteorites are lower than for lunar samples by several orders of magnitude.

  3. Atlas of reflectance spectra of terrestrial, lunar and meteoritic powders and frosts from 92 to 1800 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Jeffrey; Hapke, Bruce; Wells, Eddie

    1987-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of powdered samples of selected minerals, meteorites, lunar materials and frosts are presented as an aid in the interpretation of present and future remote sensing data of solar system objects. Spectra obtained in separate wavelength regions have been combined and normalized, yielding coverage from 92 to 1800 nm. Spectral features include reflectance maxima in the far UV region produced by valence-conduction interband transitions, and reflectance minima in the near UV, visible and near IR regions, produced by charge transfer and crystal field transitions. Specific maxima and minima are diagnostic of mineral type and composition; additionally, the minerals present in mixtures such as meteorites and lunar samples can be determined.

  4. Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Meteorites have long been known to offer a unique window into planetary formation processes at the time of solar system formation and into the materials that rained down on Earth at the time of the origin of life. Their material properties determine the impact hazard of Near Earth Asteroids. Some insight into how future laboratory studies of meteorites and laboratory astrophysics simulations of relevant physical processes can help address open questions in these areas and generate new astronomical observations, comes from what was learned from the recent laboratory studies of freshly fallen meteorites. The rapid recovery of Almahata Sitta (a polymict Ureilite), Sutter's Mill (a CM chondrite regolith breccia), Novato (an L6 chondrite), and Chelyabinsk (an LL5 chondrite) each were followed by the creation of a meteorite consortium, which grew to over 50 researchers in the case of Chelyabinsk. New technologies were used to probe the organic content of the meteorites as well as their magnetic signatures, isotopic abundances, trapped noble gasses, and cosmogenic radio nucleides, amongst others. This has resulted in fascinating insight into the nature of the Ureilite parent body, the likely source region of the CM chondrites in the main asteroid belt, and the collisional environment of the CM parent body. This work has encouraged follow-up in the hope of catching more unique materials. Rapid response efforts are being developed that aim to recover meteorites as pristinely as possible from falls for which the approach orbit was measured. A significant increase in the number of known approach orbits for different meteorite types will help tie meteorite types to their asteroid family source regions. Work so far suggests that future laboratory studies may recognize multiple source regions for iron-rich ordinary chondrites, for example. Hope is that these source regions will give insight into the material properties of impacting asteroids. At least some future laboratory

  5. Constraints on the Composition and Evolution of the Lunar Crust from Meteorite NWA 3163

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Fernandes, V. A.; Peslier, A. H.; Lapen, T. J.; Irving, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The lunar meteorite NWA 3163 (paired with NWA 4881, 4483) is a ferroan, feldspathic granulitic breccia characterized by pigeonite, augite, olivine, maskelynite and accessory Tichromite, ilmenite and troilite. Bulk rock geochemical signatures indicate the lack of a KREEP- derived component (Eu/Eu* = 3.47), consistent with previously studied lunar granulites and anorthosites. Bulk rock chondrite-normalized signatures are however distinct from the anorthosites and granulites sampled by Apollo missions and are relatively REE-depleted. In-situ analyses of maskelynite reveal little variation in anorthite content (average An% is 96.9 +/- 1.6, 2 sigma). Olivine is relatively ferroan and exhibits very little variation in forsterite content with mean Fo% of 57.7 +/- 2.0 (2 sigma). The majority of pyroxene is low-Ca pigeonite (En57Fs33Wo10). Augite (En46Fs21Wo33) is less common, comprising approximately 10% of analyzed pyroxene. Two pyroxene thermometry on co-existing orthopyroxene and augite yield an equilibrium temperature of 1070C which is in reasonable agreement with temperatures of 1096C estimated from pigeonite compositions. Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of separated fractions yield an average measured Sr-87/Sr-87 of 0.699282+/-0.000007 (2 sigma). Sr model ages are calculated using a modern day Sr-87/Sr-86 Basaltic Achondrite Best Initial (BABI) value of 0.70475, from an initial BABI value Sr-87/Sr-86 of 0.69891 and a corresponding Rb-87/Sr-97 of 0.08716. The Sr model Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) age, which represents the time of separation of a melt from a source reservoir having chondritic evolution, is 4.56+/-0.1 Ga. A Sr model T(sub RD) age, which is a Rb depletion age and assumes no contribution from Rb in the sample in the calculation, yields 4.34+/-0.1 Ga (i.e. a minimum age). The Ar-Ar dating of paired meteorite NWA 4881 reveals an age of c. 2 Ga, likely representing the last thermal event this meteorite experienced. An older Ar-40/Ar-39 age of c. 3.5 Ga may

  6. Constraints on the Composition and Evolution of the Lunar Crust from Meteorite Nwa 3163

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Fernandes, V. A.; Peslier, A. H.; Lapen, T. J.; Irving, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar meteorite NWA 3163 (paired with NWA 4881, 4483) is a ferroan, feldspathic granulitic breccia characterized by pigeonite, augite, olivine, maskelynite and accessory Ti-chromite, ilmenite and troilite. Bulk rock geochemical signatures indicate that a KREEP-rich component was not likely in the source(s) for the protoliths(s) of this stone (Eu/Eu* = 3.47), consistent with previously studied lunar granulites and anorthosites. Bulk rock chondrite-normalized REE signatures are however distinct from the anorthosites and granulites sampled by Apollo missions and are relatively REE-depleted. In-situ analyses of maskelynite reveal little variation in anorthite content (average An% is 96.9 × 1.6, 2σ). Olivine is relatively ferroan and exhibits very little variation in forsterite content with mean Fo% of 57.7 × 2.0 (2σ). The majority of pyroxene is low-Ca pigeonite (En 57Fs33Wo10). Augite (En46Fs21Wo33) is less common, comprising approximately 10% of analyzed pyroxene. Two pyroxene thermometry on co-existing orthopyroxene and augite yield an equilibrium temperature of 1070oC which is in reasonable agreement with temperatures of 1096oC estimated from pigeonite compositions. Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of separated fractions yield an average measured 87Sr/86Sr of 0.699282×0.000007 (2σ). Sr model ages are calculated using a modern day 87Sr/86Sr BABI value of 0.70475, from an initial BABI value 87Sr/86Sr of 0.69891 and a corresponding 87Rb/86Sr of 0.08716. The Sr model TMA age, which represents the time of separation of a melt from a source reservoir having chondritic evolution, is 4.56×0.1 Ga. A Sr model TRD age, which is a Rb depletion age and assumes no contribution from Rb in the sample in the calculation, yields 4.34×0.1 Ga (i.e. a minimum age). The Ar-Ar dating of paired meteorite NWA 4881 reveals an age of c. 2 Ga, likely representing the last thermal event this meteorite experienced. An older 40Ar-39Ar age of c. 3.5 Ga may record the thermal event which

  7. A model for meteoritic and lunar 40Ar/39Ar age spectra: Addressing the conundrum of multi-activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnke, P.; Harrison, T. Mark; Heizler, M. T.; Warren, P. H.

    2016-11-01

    Results of whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analyses of extra-terrestrial materials have been used to constrain the timing of impacts in the inner solar system, solidification of the lunar magma ocean, and development of planetary magnetic fields. Despite the importance of understanding these events, the samples we have in hand are non-ideal due to mixed provenance, isotopic disturbances from potentially multiple heating episodes, and laboratory artifacts such as nuclear recoil. Although models to quantitatively assess multi-domain, diffusive 40Ar* loss have long been applied to terrestrial samples, their use on extra-terrestrial materials has been limited. Here we introduce a multi-activation energy, multi-diffusion domain model and apply it to 40Ar/39Ar temperature-cycling, step-heating data for meteoritic and lunar samples. We show that age spectra of extra-terrestrial materials, the Jilin chondrite (K-4) and Apollo 16 lunar breccia (67514 , 43), yielding seemingly non-ideal behavior commonly interpreted as either laboratory artifacts or localized shock heating of pyroxene, are meaningful and can be understood in context of the presence of multi-diffusion domains containing multiple activation energies. Internally consistent results from both the meteoritic and lunar samples reveal high-temperature/short duration thermal episodes we interpret as due to moderate shock heating.

  8. The regolith portion of the lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir 169

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kathiri, A.; Gnos, E.; Hofmann, B. A.

    Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 169 is a composite lunar meteorite from Oman that consists of polymict regolith breccia (8.44 ppm Th), adhering to impact-melt breccia (IMB; 32.7 ppm Th). In this contribution we consider the regolith breccia portion of SaU 169, and demonstrate that it is composed of two generations representing two formation stages, labeled II and III. The regolith breccia also contains the following clasts: Ti-poor to Ti-rich basalts, gabbros to granulites, and incorporated regolith breccias. The average SaU 169 regolith breccia bulk composition lies within the range of Apollo 12 and 14 soil and regolith breccias, with the closest correspondence being with that of Apollo 14, but Sc contents indicate a higher portion of mare basalts. This is supported by relations between Sm-Al2O3, FeO-Cr2O3-TiO2, Sm/Eu and Th-K2O. The composition can best be modeled as a mixture of high-K KREEP, mare basalt and norite/troctolite, consistent with the rareness of anorthositic rocks. The largest KREEP breccia clast in the regolith is identical in its chemical composition and total REE content to the incompatible trace-element (ITE)- rich high-K KREEP rocks of the Apollo 14 landing site, pointing to a similar source. In contrast to Apollo 14 soil, SaU 169 IMB and SaU 169 KREEP breccia clast, the SaU 169 regolith is not depleted in K/Th, indicating a low contribution of high-Th IMB such as the SaU 169 main lithology in the regolith. The data presented here indicate the SaU 169 regolith breccia is from the lunar front side, and has a strong Procellarum KREEP Terrane signature.

  9. Solar cosmic ray produced neon in lunar soils and their implication for gas-rich meteorite studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nautiyal, C. M.; Rao, M. N.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristic neon isotopic ratios, produced due to solar cosmic ray spallation (SCR) in lunar soils, are useful in deciphering and estimating the relative contributions of SCR and GCR spallation. To delineate these features, etched mineral grains from mature and immature lunar soils (14148 and 61221 respectively) were analyzed using mass spectrometry. The SF-Ne composition deduced in this work agrees with that obtained from earlier etched lunar pyroxene studies. The data points for mature soil 14148 define a line which significantly deviates from the 61221 tie line. This deviation is attributed to the presence of SCR spallation component. In this context, neon isotopic compositions (step-wise heating) in Pantar and Leighton dark portions were studied and compared with that of Fayetteville. The meteorite data points deviate significantly from the tie line joining SF-Ne and GCR (pyroxene) end points. This deviation is attributed to SCR-spallation in gas-rich chondrites.

  10. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element constraints on ages and nature of meteoritic components in ancient lunar impact rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Becker, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd, Au) and 187Os/188Os isotope compositions have been determined for 67 subsamples of six lunar impact rocks from the Apollo 14, 16 and 17 landing sites, and the lunar meteorite Dar al Gani (DaG) 400 using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS). We report the first Re-Os isochron age on a lunar impact melt rock. 187Re-187Os isotope systematics for Apollo 16 sample 67935 define an isochron age of 4.21 ± 0.13 Ga (MSWD = 1.5), which is interpreted to reflect localized partitioning processes between solid metal-liquid metal as this rock melted. The new age adds further constraints on the significance of pre-4.0 Ga basin forming impacts on the Moon and possible mixing of ancient impactor compositions in lunar impact rocks. Linear correlations displayed by subsamples of a given impact rock in plots of HSE versus Ir concentrations are explained by dilution processes through essentially HSE-free anorthositic lunar crustal target rocks or binary mixing between a high HSE meteoritic end-member and a low HSE end-member composition. Slope-derived HSE ratios and 187Os/188Os of the meteoritic component in granulitic impactites 67915, 67955 and 79215 are similar to slightly volatile element depleted carbonaceous chondrites. Suprachondritic ratios of Ru/Ir, Pt/Ir, Rh/Ir, and Pd/Ir for Apollo 14 impact melt rock 14310 are similar to ratios observed for other Apollo 14 samples and Apollo 17 poikilitic impact melt rocks. Apollo 16 poikilitic and subophitic impact melt rocks 60315 and 67935 show slightly subchondritic Os/Ir and suprachondritic ratios of 187Os/188Os, Ru/Ir, Pt/Ir, Rh/Ir, Pd/Ir and Au/Ir. Their strongly fractionated HSE compositions are similar to some members of the IVA iron meteorite group and provide further evidence for an iron meteorite impactor component in Apollo 16 impact melt rocks. The range of chondritic

  11. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Lunar Highland Meteorite Y86032 and Lunar Ferroan Anorthosites 60025 and 67075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Yamato (Y) 86032 is a feldspathic breccia containing anorthositic fragments similar to ferroan anorthosite (FAN) clasts commonly found in Apollo 16 highland rocks. Previous Ar-39-Ar-40 analyses of a grey anorthositic clast (,116 GC) in Y86032 revealed an old degassing age of 4.39 plus or minus 0.06 Ga, which is as old as crystallization ages of some FANs e.g. 60025, 67016 and 67215, as determined by the more robust Sm-Nd radiometric method. The calculated initial Nd value for the clast is -1.8 plus or minus 0.3 for the age. The old age and its negative initial Nd value indicate that Y86032 contains components of the primitive lunar crust related to the lunar magma ocean (LMO). We undertook further Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic investigation of three major lithologies in the meteorite as described in the mineralogical and petrological studies. Ar-39-Ar-40 analyses of these component lithologies are presented in this volume. Also, we analyzed two Apollo 16 FANs, 60025 and 67075, to compare their ages and isotopic signatures to Y86032. Y86032 probably came from a feldspathic highland terrane (FHT) on the northern farside highlands, a locality not sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions.

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of feldspathic impact-melt breccia Abar al' Uj 012, the first lunar meteorite from Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Marianna; Hofmann, Beda A.; Lanari, Pierre; Korotev, Randy L.; Gnos, Edwin; Greber, Nicolas D.; Leya, Ingo; Greenwood, Richard C.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.

    2016-10-01

    Abar al' Uj (AaU) 012 is a clast-rich, vesicular impact-melt (IM) breccia, composed of lithic and mineral clasts set in a very fine-grained and well-crystallized matrix. It is a typical feldspathic lunar meteorite, most likely originating from the lunar farside. Bulk composition (31.0 wt% Al2O3, 3.85 wt% FeO) is close to the mean of feldspathic lunar meteorites and Apollo FAN-suite rocks. The low concentration of incompatible trace elements (0.39 ppm Th, 0.13 ppm U) reflects the absence of a significant KREEP component. Plagioclase is highly anorthitic with a mean of An96.9Ab3.0Or0.1. Bulk rock Mg# is 63 and molar FeO/MnO is 76. The terrestrial age of the meteorite is 33.4 ± 5.2 kyr. AaU 012 contains a 1.4 × 1.5 mm2 exotic clast different from the lithic clast population which is dominated by clasts of anorthosite breccias. Bulk composition and presence of relatively large vesicles indicate that the clast was most probably formed by an impact into a precursor having nonmare igneous origin most likely related to the rare alkali-suite rocks. The IM clast is mainly composed of clinopyroxenes, contains a significant amount of cristobalite (9.0 vol%), and has a microcrystalline mesostasis. Although the clast shows similarities in texture and modal mineral abundances with some Apollo pigeonite basalts, it has lower FeO and higher SiO2 than any mare basalt. It also has higher FeO and lower Al2O3 than rocks from the FAN- or Mg-suite. Its lower Mg# (59) compared to Mg-suite rocks also excludes a relationship with these types of lunar material.

  13. Isotopic Evidence for Multi-stage Cosmic-ray Exposure Histories of Lunar Meteorites: Long Residence on the Moon and Short Transition to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Keisuke; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2017-06-01

    It is known that most lunar meteorites have complicated cosmic-ray exposure experiences on the Moon and in space. In this study, cosmic-ray irradiation histories of six lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489, Northwest Africa 032 (NWA 032), NWA 479, NWA 482, NWA 2995, and NWA 5000, were characterized from neutron-captured isotopic shifts of Sm and Gd, and from the abundances of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides like 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca. Sm and Gd isotopic data of all of six meteorites show significant isotopic shifts of 149Sm-150Sm and 157Gd-158Gd caused by accumulation of neutron capture reactions due to cosmic-ray irradiation, corresponding to the neutron fluences of (1.3-9.6) × 1016 n cm-2. In particular, very large Sm and Gd isotopic shifts of NWA 482 are over those of a lunar regolith 70002, having the largest isotopic shifts among the Apollo regolith samples, corresponding to cosmic-ray exposure duration over 800 million years in the lunar surface (2π irradiation). Meanwhile, the concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides for individual six meteorites show the short irradiation time less than one million years as their bodies in space (4π irradiation). Our data also support the results of previous studies, revealing that most of lunar meteorites have long exposure ages at shallow depths on the Moon and short transit times from the Moon to the Earth.

  14. Cosmic-ray exposure histories of the lunar meteorites AaU 012 and Shişr 166

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Marianna; Leya, Ingo; Hofmann, Beda A.

    2017-09-01

    We measured the concentrations and isotopic compositions of the stable isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in the two lunar impact-melt breccias Abar al' Uj (AaU) 012 and Shişr 166 to obtain information on their cosmic-ray exposure histories and possible launch pairing; the latter was suggested because of their similar chemical composition. AaU 012 has higher gas concentrations than Shişr 166 and clearly contains implanted solar wind gases, indicating a shallow to moderate shielding for this meteorite in the lunar regolith. The maximum shielding depth of AaU 012 was most likely ≤310 g cm-2 and its lunar regolith residence time was ≥420 ± 70 Ma. Our results indicate that in Shişr 166 the trapped component is a mixture of air and solar wind. The low concentration of cosmogenic and solar wind gases indicate substantial diffusive gas loss and a shielding depth of <700 g cm-2 on the Moon for Shişr 166. All differences seen in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of the noble gases suggest that AaU 012 and Shişr 166 are most likely not launch pairs, although a different exposure history on the Moon does not exclude the possibility that the two meteorites were ejected by a single, large impact event.

  15. Crystallization of Pyroxene and Spinel in Gabbroic Lunar Meteorite Asuka 881757

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, T.; Takeda, H.; Warren, P. H.

    1995-09-01

    Lunar meteorite Asuka (A)881757 is a distinct new type of low-Ti (LT) mare basalt [e.g. 1,2], considerably older than nearly all Apollo and Luna mare basalt samples [3], and may be an product of the earliest mare volcanism. It shows an extraordinarily coarse-grained gabbroic texture, and is mainly composed of Fe-rich pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, Ti-rich spinel, troilite and Fe-Ni [4]. Extensive chemical zonings, which are recognized in pyroxenes and spinels, were studied by means of elemental distribution maps in order to deduce crystallization condition of pyroxene and spinel, and their mutual relationship during crystallization. We studied polished thin sections (PTS) A881757, 51-4, A881757, 53D-2, and A881757, 53E-2 supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR). Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by EPMA and SEM. Elemental distribution maps of pyroxenes and spinels for Fe, Mg, Ti, Cr, and Al were obtained by EPMA. Pyroxenes are generally zoned from Mg-rich core Fe(sub)37Mg(sub)40Ca(sub)23 to Fe-rich rim Fe(sub)65Mg(sub)10Ca(sub)25 in three PTSs. Spinels are distributed quite heterogeneously through three PTS and modal abundance of spinel reachs 11% only in one PTS. Spinels in three PTS can be divided in two groups: spinels in mesostases and interstitial ones between pyroxenes. Mesostasis spinels, which are homogeneous and have similar compositions from grain to grain, crystallized with very Fe-rich pyroxene. Interstitial spinels which are zoned for TiO2 and Cr2O3 within crystals, and show different composition between crystals, cocrystallized with relatively Mg- rich pyroxenes. Interstitial spinels (TiO2= 23-28wt%, Cr2O3= 8-17 wt%) are more Ti-rich and less Cr-rich than mesostasis ones (TiO2= 30-31wt%, Cr2O3= 3-4 wt%). It is noted that more Ti-rich spinels tend to be surrounded by more Fe-rich pyroxene. Spinels in mare basalts generally change their compositions from Fe2TiO4 (ulvospinel) to FeCr2O4 (chromite) during

  16. Laser-Ablation ICP-MS Analyses of Meteoritic Metal Grains in Lunar Impact-Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lunar impact-melt breccias contain metal grains from the meteorites that formed the breccias. Because the breccias contain clastic material that may derive from older breccias, metal grains from earlier impacts may be present, too. The large subset of moderately mafic (8 - 12% FeO), KREEP-rich ("LKFM") melt breccias is particularly important because: (1) these are the melt breccias most likely to have been produced in basin-forming impacts, (2) it is from these breccias that many of the approx. 3.9 Gyr ages that are so common in lunar samples derive, (3) the breccias contain large proportions of FeNi metal, more than 1% in some types of Apollo 16 breccias, and (4) the metal potentially provides information about the impactors causing the apparent cataclysm at 3.9 Gyr.

  17. Laser-Ablation ICP-MS Analyses of Meteoritic Metal Grains in Lunar Impact-Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lunar impact-melt breccias contain metal grains from the meteorites that formed the breccias. Because the breccias contain clastic material that may derive from older breccias, metal grains from earlier impacts may be present, too. The large subset of moderately mafic (8 - 12% FeO), KREEP-rich ("LKFM") melt breccias is particularly important because: (1) these are the melt breccias most likely to have been produced in basin-forming impacts, (2) it is from these breccias that many of the approx. 3.9 Gyr ages that are so common in lunar samples derive, (3) the breccias contain large proportions of FeNi metal, more than 1% in some types of Apollo 16 breccias, and (4) the metal potentially provides information about the impactors causing the apparent cataclysm at 3.9 Gyr.

  18. Siderophile and volatile trace elements in 72255 and 72275. [meteoritic and igneous composition of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1974-01-01

    Of six samples from boulder 1 at Station 2, four contain a unique meteoritic component, which is attributed to the Crisium projectile. The other two samples are meteorite free, igneous rocks: an unusual, alkali- and Ge-rich pigeonitic basalt, and an alkali-poor norite of unexceptional trace element chemistry.

  19. Papers presented to the Conference on Origins of Planetary Magnetism. [magnetic properties of meteorites and solar, lunar, and planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 63 papers accepted for publication are presented. Topics cover geomagnetism in the context of planetary magnetism, lunar magnetism, the dynamo theory and nondynamo processes, comparative planetary magnetism (terrestrial and outer planets), meteoritic magnetism, and the early solar magnetic field. Author and subject indexes are provided.

  20. The Chronology and Petrogenesis of the Mare Basalt Clast from Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 287: Rb-Sr and Sm- Nd Isotopic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nazarov, M. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isochron for lunar mare basalt meteorite Dhofar 287A yields T = 3.46 +/- 0.03 Ga and Nd = 0.6 +/- 0.3. Its Rb-Sr isotopic system is severely altered. The basalt is unique, probably coming from an enriched mantle source. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. The Chronology and Petrogenesis of the Mare Basalt Clast from Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 287: Rb-Sr and Sm- Nd Isotopic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nazarov, M. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isochron for lunar mare basalt meteorite Dhofar 287A yields T = 3.46 +/- 0.03 Ga and Nd = 0.6 +/- 0.3. Its Rb-Sr isotopic system is severely altered. The basalt is unique, probably coming from an enriched mantle source. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Geochemical comparison of impact glasses from lunar meteorites ALHA81005 and MAC88105 and Apollo 16 regolith 64001

    SciTech Connect

    Delano, J.W. )

    1991-11-01

    Most glasses that occur in lunar highland regolith are quenched droplets of impact melt. The chemical compositions of these glasses are equivalent, in the absence of volatile losses, to the original target materials. The compositional range of impact glasses in a regolith reflects the chemical diversity that existed throughout the region up to the time of system closure (e.g., breccia formation). Since these glasses are a product of widespread and random sampling, both in terms of space and time, they can be used for geochemical exploration of the Moon. The major-element compositions of impact glasses occurring in three samples of lunar feldspathic regolith (ALHA81005; MAC88105; Apollo 16 64001) have been determined by electron microprobe. The glass populations among these three unrelated samples are compositionally distinct. While most of the impact glasses within each of these three samples are compositionally similar to the regolith in which they are found, up to 40% of the impact glasses are different. Some of the compositionally exotic glasses were ballistically transported from other areas of the Moon and thereby provide information about the compositional range of regoliths that exist elsewhere. Since the geological setting of the Apollo 16 region is well known compared to the source areas of the lunar meteorites, the Apollo 16 glasses provide a ground truth for interpretations.

  3. Wanted: Lunar detectives to unravel the mysteries of the Moon] Crime to be solved: Mass extinctions on the Moon by meteorite impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    The criteria and clues for identifying meteorite contamination are outlined to aid in the quest for more knowledge regarding the evolution of the Moon and the early Earth. The Warren and Wasson seven criteria for establishing the pristine nature of highland rocks are presented. Other topics covered include iron/nickel metals, monomict nature, and lunar glasses. The major conclusion is that pristinity should not be the primary consideration in the study of lunar rocks. The most important criterion to establish is whether or not the lunar sample contains more than one lunar rock type. Even if a sample is non-pristine, as long as only one lunar rock type is present, petrogenetic interpretation can still be carried out.

  4. Wanted: Lunar detectives to unravel the mysteries of the Moon! Crime to be solved: Mass extinctions on the Moon by meteorite impact!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1991-01-01

    The criteria and clues for identifying meteorite contamination are outlined to aid in the quest for more knowledge regarding the evolution of the Moon and the early Earth. The Warren and Wasson seven criteria for establishing the pristine nature of highland rocks are presented. Other topics covered include iron/nickel metals, monomict nature, and lunar glasses. The major conclusion is that pristinity should not be the primary consideration in the study of lunar rocks. The most important criterion to establish is whether or not the lunar sample contains more than one lunar rock type. Even if a sample is non-pristine, as long as only one lunar rock type is present, petrogenetic interpretation can still be carried out.

  5. Maskelynite in asteroidal, lunar and planetary basaltic meteorites: An indicator of shock pressure during impact ejection from their parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2015-09-01

    Maskelynite is a diaplectic glass that forms from plagioclase at shock pressures of ∼20-30 GPa, depending on the Ca concentration. The proportion of maskelynite-rich samples in a basaltic meteorite group correlates with the parent-body escape velocity and serves as a shock indicator of launching conditions. For eucrites (basalts widely presumed to be from Vesta; vesc = 0.36 km s-1), ∼5% of the samples are maskelynite rich. For the Moon (vesc = 2.38 km s-1), ∼30% of basaltic meteorites are maskelynite rich. For Mars (vesc = 5.03 km s-1), ∼93% of basaltic meteorites are maskelynite rich. In contrast, literature data show that maskelynite is rare (∼1%) among mare basalts and basaltic fragments in Apollo 11, 12, 15 and 17 soils (which were never ejected from the Moon). Angrites are unbrecciated basaltic meteorites that are maskelynite free; they were ejected at low-to-moderate shock pressures from an asteroid smaller than Vesta. Because most impacts that eject materials from a large (⩾100 km) parent body are barely energetic enough to do that, a collision that has little more than the threshold energy required to eject a sample from Vesta will not be able to eject identical samples from the Moon or Mars. There must have been relatively few impacts, if any, that launched eucrites off their parent body that also imparted shock pressures of ∼20-30 GPa in the ejected rocks. More-energetic impacts were required to launch basalts off the Moon and Mars. On average, Vesta ejecta were subjected to lower shock pressures than lunar ejecta, and lunar ejecta were subjected to lower shock pressures than martian ejecta. H and LL ordinary chondrites have low percentages of shock-stage S5 maskelynite-bearing samples (∼1% and ∼4%, respectively), probably reflecting shock processes experienced by these rocks on their parent asteroids. In contrast, L chondrites have a relatively high proportion of samples containing maskelynite (∼11%), most likely a result of

  6. Photomosaics of the cathodoluminescence of 60 sections of meteorites and lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akridge, D.G.; Akridge, J.M.C.; Batchelor, J.D.; Benoit, P.H.; Brewer, J.; DeHart, J.M.; Keck, B.D.; Jie, L.; Meier, A.; Penrose, M.; Schneider, D.M.; Sears, D.W.G.; Symes, S.J.K.; Yanhong, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) petrography provides a means of observing petrographic and compositional properties of geological samples not readily observable by other techniques. We report the low-magnification CL images of 60 sections of extraterrestrial materials. The images we report include ordinary chondrites (including type 3 ordinary chondrites and gas-rich regolith breccias), enstatite chondrites, CO chondrites and a CM chondrite, eucrites and a howardite, lunar highland regolith breccias, and lunar soils. The CL images show how primitive materials respond to parent body metamorphism, how the metamorphic history of EL chondrites differs from that of EH chondrites, how dark matrix and light clasts of regolith breccias relate to each other, how metamorphism affects eucrites, the texture of lunar regolith breccias and the distribution of crystallized lunar spherules ("lunar chondrules"), and how regolith working affects the mineral properties of lunar soils. More particularly, we argue that such images are a rich source of new information on the nature and history of these materials and that our efforts to date are a small fraction of what can be done. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Data analysis to separate particles of different speed regimes and charges. [lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment and pioneer space probe data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the instruments on the lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment (LEAM) and the Pioneer 8 and 9 space probes were essentially similar, a comparison of their results indicates that different sets of particles caused the different responses. On Pioneer, the events were caused by the impact of cosmic dust, the so-called beta particles expelled from the vicinity of the sun by solar radiation pressure, augmented by extremely high energy but definitely identifiable interstellar grains. On the moon, the events were due to the impact of slowly moving, highly charged lunar dust being propelled electrostatically across the terminator. Both theoretical analysis and experimental testing confirming these conclusions are discussed.

  8. Cosmogenic Cl-36 production rates in meteorites and the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Kubik, P. W.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Activity vs. depth profiles of cosmic ray produced Cl-36 were measured in metal from two cores each in the St. Severin and Jilin chondrites and in lunar core 15008. Production of Cl-36 in these samples range from high-energy reactions with Fe and Ni to low-energy reactions with Ca and K and possibly neutron-capture reactions with Cl-36. The cross sections used in the Reedy-Arnold model for neutron-induced reactions were adjusted to get production rates that fit the measured Cl-36 activities in St. Severin metal and in the lunar soil of core 15008. The Cl-36 in metal from St. Severin has a fairly flat activity-vs-depth profile, unlike most other cosmogenic nuclides in bulk samples from St. Severin, which increase in concentration with depth. In metal from Jilin, a decrease in Cl-36 was observed near its center. The length of Jilin's most recent cosmic-ray exposure was approximately 0.5 My. Lunar core 15008 has an excess in Cl-36 of about 4 dpm/kg near its surface that was produced by solar-proton-induced reactions. The calculated production rates are consistent with these measured trends in 15008.

  9. Cosmogenic /sup 36/Cl production rates in meteorites and the lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiizumi, K.; Kubik, P.W.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R.C.; Arnold, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Activity-versus-depth profiles of cosmic-ray-produced /sup 36/Cl were measured in metal from two cores each in the St. Severin and Jilin chondrites and in lunar core 15008. Production of /sup 36/Cl in these samples range from high-energy reactions with Fe and Ni to low-energy reactions with Ca and K and possibly neutron-capture reactions with /sup 35/Cl. The cross sections used in the Reedy-Arnold model for neutron-induced reactions were adjusted to get production rates that fit the measured /sup 36/Cl activities in St. Severin metal and in the lunar soil of core 15008. The /sup 36/Cl in metal from St. Severin has a fairly flat activity-versus-depth profile, unlike most other cosmogenic nuclides in bulk samples from St. Severin, which increase in concentration with depth. In metal from Jilin, a decrease in /sup 36/Cl was observed near its center. The length of Jilin's most recent cosmic-ray exposure was /approximately/0.5 My. Lunar core 15008 has an excess in /sup 36/Cl of about 4 dpm/kg near its surface that was produced by solar-proton-induced reactions. The calculated production rates are consistent with these measured trends in 15008. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The variety of lithologies in the Yamato-86032 lunar meteorite: Implications for formation processes of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Karouji, Y.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L.; Bogard, D.; Ebihara, M.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Garrison, D.; Park, J.; McKay, G.

    2010-08-01

    We performed a petrologic, mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic study of several lithologies in the Y-86032 feldspathic breccia. This study leads us to conclude that Y-86032 likely originated on the lunar farside. Y-86032 is composed of several types of feldspathic clasts, granulitic breccias, and minor basaltic clasts set in a clastic matrix. We identify an "An97 anorthosite" that has An contents similar to those of nearside FANs. Mg' (= molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) × 100) values vary significantly from ˜45 to ˜80 covering the ranges of both nearside FANs and the Mg' gap between FANs and the Mg-suite. A light-gray feldspathic (LG) breccia making up ˜20% of the investigated slab (5.2 × 3.6 cm 2) mainly consists of fragments of anorthosites ("An93 anorthosite") more sodic than nearside FANs. LG also contains an augite-plagioclase clast which either could be genetically related to the An93 anorthosite or to slowly-cooled basaltic magma intruded into the precursor rock. The Na-rich nature of both An93 anorthosite and this clast indicates that the LG breccia was derived from a relatively Na-rich but incompatible-element-poor source. The Mg' variation indicates that the "An97 anorthosite" is a genomict breccia of several types of primary anorthosites. Granulitic breccias in Y-86032 have relatively high Mg' in mafic minerals. The highest Mg' values in mafic minerals for the "An97 anorthosite" and granulitic breccias are similar to those of Mg-rich lithologies recently described in Dhofar 489. Basaltic clasts in the dark-gray matrix are aluminous, and the zoning trends of pyroxene are similar to those of VLT or LT basalts. The crystallization of these basaltic clasts pre-date the lithification age of the clastic matrix at ˜3.8 Ga. The low K contents of plagioclase in both the anorthositic and basaltic clasts and generally low incompatible element abundances in all the lithologies in Y-86032 indicate that KREEP was not involved during the formation of the precursor

  11. Trace elements and radioactivity in lunar rocks: implications for meteorite infall, solar-wind flux, and formation conditions of moon.

    PubMed

    Keays, R R; Ganapathy, R; Laul, J C; Anders, E; Herzog, G F; Jeffery, P M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar soil and type C breccias are enriched 3-to 100-fold in Ir, Au, Zn, Cd, Ag, Br, Bi, and Tl, relative to type A, B rocks. Smaller enrichments were found for Co, Cu, Ga, Pd, Rb, and Cs. The solar wind at present intensity can account for only 3 percent of this enrichment; an upper limit to the average proton flux during the last 4.5 x 109 years thus is 8 x 10(9) cm(-2) yr(-1). The remaining enrichment seems to be due to a 1.5 to 2 percent admixture of carbonaceous-chondritelike material, corresponding to an average influx rate of meteoritic and cometary matter of 2.9 x 10(-9) g cm(-2) yr(-1) at Tranquility Base. This is about one-quarter the terrestrial rate. Type A, B rocks are depleted 10-to 100-fold in Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, In, Tl, and Bi, relative to terrestrial basalts. This suggests loss by high-temperature volatilization, before or after accretion of the moon. Positron activities due mainly to (22)Na and (26)Al range from 90 to 220 beta(+) min(-1) kg(-1) in five small rocks or fragments (9 to 29 g). The higher activities presumably indicate surface locations. Th and U contents generally agree with those found by the preliminary examination team.

  12. Lunar formation. Dating the Moon-forming impact event with asteroidal meteorites.

    PubMed

    Bottke, W F; Vokrouhlický, D; Marchi, S; Swindle, T; Scott, E R D; Weirich, J R; Levison, H

    2015-04-17

    The inner solar system's biggest and most recent known collision was the Moon-forming giant impact between a large protoplanet and proto-Earth. Not only did it create a disk near Earth that formed the Moon, it also ejected several percent of an Earth mass out of the Earth-Moon system. Here, we argue that numerous kilometer-sized ejecta fragments from that event struck main-belt asteroids at velocities exceeding 10 kilometers per second, enough to heat and degas target rock. Such impacts produce ~1000 times more highly heated material by volume than do typical main belt collisions at ~5 kilometers per second. By modeling their temporal evolution, and fitting the results to ancient impact heating signatures in stony meteorites, we infer that the Moon formed ~4.47 billion years ago, which is in agreement with previous estimates. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. New Lunar Meteorite Northwest Africa 773: A Tholeiite from the Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Hicks, T. L.; Killgore, M.; Bunch, T. E.; Wittke, J. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2002-12-01

    Olivines and pyroxenes in gabbroic rock fragments from the recently found meteorite Northwest Africa 773 (NWA773) show evidence of Fe-enrichment broadly similar to the tholeiitic trend defined for terrestrial rocks. The meteorite consists of two main lithologies: a two-pyroxene olivine gabbro and a fragmental, heterolithic breccia. The olivine gabbro lithology consists of olivine (Fo68), pigeonite (Wo11En65), augite (Wo36En50), and plagioclase (An90), with minor K,Ba-feldspar (Or89Cs04Ab04An02), chromite, Ca-phosphates, ilmenite, troilite and metal. The texture is dominated by cumulate olivine crystals up to 1300 æm across and pyroxenes of slightly smaller grain size. Plagioclase feldspar is interstitial and K,Ba-feldspar is restricted to interstitial sites enriched in incompatible elements. The breccia lithology consists of a variety of clasts, but most of these can be plausibly linked to the olivine gabbro or more Fe-rich differentiates from the same magmatic system. Pyroxenes from the breccia exhibit continuous trends in Mg/(Mg+Fe) and Ti/(Ti+Cr) from values similar to the olivine gabbro (0.79 and 0.18, respectively) to extremely differentiated compositions (0.06 and 1.00, respectively). Olivines are characterized by compositions ranging over Fo71-55 and Fo13-01. The fayalitic olivines occur in clasts with silica, +/- hedenbergitic pyroxene. These variations in mineral composition can be explained as a consequence of extreme Fe-enrichment in a single pluton or related plutonic bodies on the Moon. The presence of silica in NWA 773 is due primarily to Fe-enrichment of residual liquid into ?the forbidden zone? of the pyroxene quadrilateral. The Fe-enrichment trend and cumulate textures suggest that NWA 773 may have originated from a magmatic system broadly similar to terrestrial layered mafic intrusives.

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Rocks from Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205; LAP02205 Lunar Meteorite: Lunar Mare Basalt with Similarities to the Apollo 12 Ilmenite Basalt; Mineral Chemistry of LaPaz Ice Field 02205 - A New Lunar Basalt; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032; KREEP-rich Basaltic Magmatism: Diversity of Composition and Consistency of Age; Mineralogy of Yamato 983885 Lunar Polymict Breccia with Alkali-rich and Mg-rich Rocks; Ar-Ar Studies of Dhofar Clast-rich Feldspathic Highland Meteorites: 025, 026, 280, 303; Can Granulite Metamorphic Conditions Reset 40Ar-39Ar Ages in Lunar Rocks? [#1009] A Ferroan Gabbronorite Clast in Lunar Meteorite ALHA81005: Major and Trace Element Composition, and Origin; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia; and Troilite Formed by Sulfurization: A Crystal Structure of Synthetic Analogue

  15. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  16. The 45th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, P. (Compiler); Turner, L. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Impact craters and shock effects, chondrite formation and evolution, meteorites, chondrules, irons, nebular processes and meteorite parent bodies, regoliths and breccias, antarctic meteorite curation, isotopic studies of meteorites and lunar samples, organics and terrestrial weathering, refractory inclusions, cosmic dust, particle irradiations before and after compaction, and mineralogic studies and analytical techniques are discussed.

  17. Comparisons of Mineralogy of Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside and The Kaguya Remote Sensing Data to Reconstruct the Earliest Anorthositic Crust of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Ohtake, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Morota, T.; Karouji, Y.; Haruyma, J.; Katou, M.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Ohtake et al. [1] observed by the Kaguya multiband imager and spectral profiler anorthosites composed of nearly pure anorthite (PAN) at numerous locations in the farside highlands. Based on the Th map made by the GRS group of the Kaguya mission, Kobayashi et al. [2] showed that the lowest Th region in the lunar farside occurs near the equatorial region and noted that the regions well correspond to the lunar highest region and the thickest crust region recently measured by Kaguya mission [3,4]. Such remote sensing data have been interpreted in terms of mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites of the Dhofar 489 group [5,6] (e.g., Dhofar 489, 908, and 307) and Yamato (Y-) 86032 [7], all possibly from the farside highlands. Although the presence of magnesian anorthosites in the Dhofar 489 group has been reported, we have not encountered large clast clearly identifiable as PAN. In this study, we investigated mineralogy and textures of large clasts of nearly pure anorthosites recognized in Dhofar 911 and the d2 clast in Dhofar 489 [8]. The d2 clast is the largest white anorthosite clast in Dhofar 489, but its mineralogy has not been investigated at that time. The low bulk FeO concentrations suggests that the d2 clast may be the pure anorthosite with very low abundance of mafic silicates. In conjunction with all data of the Dhofar 489 group including Dhofar 489, 908, 309 and 307, we propose a model of formation of the farside crust.

  18. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, and planetary mantles.

  19. A Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotope Geochronology and Trace Element Study of Lunar Meteorite LaPaz Icefield 02205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankenburg, K.; Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium and samarium-neodymium isotopes of lunar meteorite LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205 are consistent with derivation of the parent magma from a source region similar to that which produced the Apollo 12 low-Ti olivine basalts followed by mixing of the magma with small amounts (1 to 2 wt%) of trace element-enriched material similar to lunar KREEP-rich sample SaU 169. The crystallization age of LAP 02205 is most precisely dated by an internal Rb-Sr isochron of 2991+/-14 Ma, with an initial Sr-87/Sr-88 at the time of crystallization of 0.699836+/-0.000010. Leachable REE-rich phosphate phases of LAP 02205 do not plot on a Sm-Nd mineral isochron, indicating contamination or open system behavior of the phosphates. Excluding anomalous phases from the calculation of a Sm-Nd isochron yields a crystallization age of 2992+/-85 (initial Epsilon Nd-143 = +2.9+/-0.8) that is within error of the Rb-Sr age, and in agreement with other independent age determinations for LAP 02205 from Ar-Ar and U-Pb methods. The calculated Sm-147/Nd-144 source ratios for LAP 02205, various Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, and samples with strong affinities to KREEP (SaU 169, NWA 773, 15386) are uncorrelated with their crystallization ages. This finding does not support the involvement of a common KREEP component as a heat source for lunar melting events that occurred after crystallization of the lunar magma ocean.

  20. Research-Grade 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples: Novel Visualization of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Benefit Curation, Research, and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K. R.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's vast and growing collections of astromaterials are both scientifically and culturally significant, requiring unique preservation strategies that need to be recurrently updated to contemporary technological capabilities and increasing accessibility demands. New technologies have made it possible to advance documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. Our interdisciplinary team has developed a method to create 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples (VAS) of the existing collections of Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorites. Research-grade 3D VAS will virtually put these samples in the hands of researchers and educators worldwide, increasing accessibility and visibility of these significant collections. With new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop advanced curation standards for documentation and visualization methodologies.

  1. Effects of lunar soil, Zagami meteorite, and ocean ridge basalt on the excretion of itoic acid, a siderophore, and coproporphyrin by Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, T.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of lunar soil (10084,151), Zagami meteorite, postulated to be ejected from Mars, and ocean ridge basalt, the most abundant volcanic rock on earth, all completely inhibited the excretion of itoic acid and of coproporphyrin by Bacillus subtilis, a common airborne bacterium. Since such inhibition has been known to occur only under iron rich growth conditions(the excretion of these compounds occurs under iron deficient growth conditions), the result indicated that the organism was capable of extracting iron quite readily from these materials. A sample of synthetic ilmenite completely failed to inhibit the excretion of coproporphyrin, and inhibited the excretion of itoic acid only slightly. The result suggested that much of the iron extracted by the organism must have come from iron sources other than ilmenite,such as pyroxenes and olivines,in these natural materials tested.

  2. Effects of lunar soil, Zagami meteorite, and ocean ridge basalt on the excretion of itoic acid, a siderophore, and coproporphyrin by Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, T.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of lunar soil (10084,151), Zagami meteorite, postulated to be ejected from Mars, and ocean ridge basalt, the most abundant volcanic rock on earth, all completely inhibited the excretion of itoic acid and of coproporphyrin by Bacillus subtilis, a common airborne bacterium. Since such inhibition has been known to occur only under iron rich growth conditions(the excretion of these compounds occurs under iron deficient growth conditions), the result indicated that the organism was capable of extracting iron quite readily from these materials. A sample of synthetic ilmenite completely failed to inhibit the excretion of coproporphyrin, and inhibited the excretion of itoic acid only slightly. The result suggested that much of the iron extracted by the organism must have come from iron sources other than ilmenite,such as pyroxenes and olivines,in these natural materials tested.

  3. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bouvier, Audrey; Agee, Carl B.

    2017-05-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 103 contains 2582 meteorites including 10 falls (Ardón, Demsa, Jinju, Križevci, Kuresoi, Novato, Tinajdad, Tirhert, Vicência, Wolcott), with 2174 ordinary chondrites, 130 HED achondrites, 113 carbonaceous chondrites, 41 ureilites, 27 lunar meteorites, 24 enstatite chondrites, 21 iron meteorites, 15 primitive achondrites, 11 mesosiderites, 10 Martian meteorites, 6 Rumuruti chondrites, 5 ungrouped achondrites, 2 enstatite achondrites, 1 relict meteorite, 1 pallasite, and 1 angrite, and with 1511 from Antarctica, 588 from Africa, 361 from Asia, 86 from South America, 28 from North America, and 6 from Europe. Note: 1 meteorite from Russia was counted as European. The complete contents of this bulletin (244 pages) are available on line. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available on line at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/.

  4. 3.1 Ga crystallization age for magnesian and ferroan gabbro lithologies in the Northwest Africa 773 clan of lunar meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaulis, B. J.; Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Irving, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    The Northwest Africa (NWA) 773 clan of meteorites is a group of paired and/or petrogenetically related stones that contain at least six different lithologies: magnesian gabbro, ferroan gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, olivine phyric basalt, regolith breccia, and polymict breccia. Uranium-lead dates of baddeleyite in the magnesian gabbro, ferroan gabbro, and components within breccia lithologies of paired lunar meteorites NWA 773, NWA 3170, NWA 6950, and NWA 7007 indicate a chronologic link among the meteorites and their components. A total of 50 baddeleyite grains were analyzed and yielded weighted average 207Pb-206Pb dates of 3119.4 ± 9.4 (n = 27), 3108 ± 20 (n = 13), and 3113 ± 15 (n = 10) Ma for the magnesian gabbro, ferroan gabbro, and polymict breccia lithologies, respectively. A weighted average date of 3115.6 ± 6.8 Ma (n = 47/50) was calculated from the baddeleyite dates for all lithologies. A single large zircon grain found in a lithic clast in the polymict breccia of NWA 773 yielded a U-Pb concordia date of 3953 ± 18 Ma, indicating a much more ancient source for some of the components within the breccia. A U-Pb concordia date of apatite and merrillite grains from the magnesian gabbro and polymict breccia lithologies in NWA 773 is 3112 ± 33 Ma, identical to the baddeleyite dates. Magnesian and ferroan gabbros, as well as the dated baddeleyite and Ca-phosphate-bearing detritus in the breccia lithologies, formed during the same igneous event at about 3115 Ma. These data also strengthen proposed petrogenetic connections between magnesian and ferroan gabbro lithologies, which represent some of the youngest igneous rocks known from the Moon.

  5. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc.

  6. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  7. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bouvier, Audrey; Herd, Christopher D. K.; Agee, Carl B.

    2015-09-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 101 contains 2639 meteorites accepted by the Nomenclature Committee in 2012, including 1 fall (Battle Mountain), with 2308 ordinary chondrites, 156 carbonaceous chondrites, 63 HED achondrites, 17 relict meteorites, 16 Rumuruti chondrites, 15 enstatite chondrites, 15 ureilites, 10 iron meteorites, 9 lunar meteorites, 9 primitive achondrites, 8 ungrouped achondrites, 7 mesosiderites, 4 Martian meteorites, and 2 Pallasites, and with 1812 from Antarctica, 437 from Asia, 301 from Africa, 43 from South America, 21 from Europe (including Russia), 21 from North America, 3 from Oceania, and 1 from unknown. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available on line at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/.

  8. P-Bearing Olivines in Lunar Rocks: A New View on Lunar Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, S. I.; Brandstätter, F.; Ntaflos, Th.; Kononkova, N. N.

    2017-05-01

    We report about finding of P-bearing olivines in lunar samples of Luna 16, 20, Apollo 14, and in Dhofar 025, 961, 287 lunar meteorites and discuss their implications for lunar petrology and geochemistry.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites includes the following topics: 1) Investigating the Impact of UV Radiation on High-Altitude Shallow Lake Habitats, Life Diversity, and Life Survival Strategies: Clues for Mars' Past Habitability Potential? 2) An Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars; 3) Radiation Inactivation of Bacterial spores on Mars; 4) Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers; 5) Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents; 6) Signs of Life in Meridiani Planum-What Might Opportunity See (or Miss)? 7) Isolation of PUrines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite Using Sublimation; and 8) Relative Amino Acid Composition of CM1 Carbonaceous Chondrites.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites includes the following topics: 1) Investigating the Impact of UV Radiation on High-Altitude Shallow Lake Habitats, Life Diversity, and Life Survival Strategies: Clues for Mars' Past Habitability Potential? 2) An Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars; 3) Radiation Inactivation of Bacterial spores on Mars; 4) Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers; 5) Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents; 6) Signs of Life in Meridiani Planum-What Might Opportunity See (or Miss)? 7) Isolation of PUrines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite Using Sublimation; and 8) Relative Amino Acid Composition of CM1 Carbonaceous Chondrites.

  11. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bouvier, Audrey; Herd, Christopher D. K.; Agee, Carl B.

    2015-09-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 102 contains 3141 meteorites including 12 falls (Boumdeid (2003), Boumdeid (2011), Braunschweig, Chelyabinsk, Dongyang, Draveil, Heyetang, Indian Butte, Katol, Ladkee, Ouadangou, Xining), with 2611 ordinary chondrites, 264 HED achondrites, 124 carbonaceous chondrites, 30 ureilites, 20 Martian meteorites, 16 primitive achondrites, 16 Rumuruti chondrites, 15 mesosiderites, 12 iron meteorites, 10 lunar meteorites, 9 enstatite chondrites, 4 enstatite achondrites, 4 Pallasites, 4 ungrouped achondrites, and 2 angrites, and with 1708 from Antarctica, 956 from Africa, 294 from South America, 126 from Asia, 47 from North America, 6 from Europe (including Russia), and 4 from Oceania. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available on line at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/.

  12. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  13. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  14. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    It may be useful to know if a meteorite was found at the site where it fell. For instance, the polymict ureilites North Haig and Nilpena were found 1100 km apart, yet are petrologically identical [1]. Could this distance represent transport from a single strewn field, or does it represent distinct fall sites? A meteorite may contain sufficient clues to suggest some characteristics of its fall site. If these inferences are inconsistent with the find site, one may infer that the meteorite has been transported. It will likely be impossible to determine the exact fall site of a transported meteorite. Data relevant to a meteorite's fall site may be intrinsic to the meteorite, or acquired at the site. For instance, an intrinsic property is terrestrial residence age (from abundances of cosmogenic radioisotopes and their decay products); a meteorite's terrestrial residence age must be the same or less than that of the surface on which it fell. After falling, a meteorite may acquire characteristic telltales of terrestrial geological, geochemical, and biological processes. These telltale clues may include products of chemical weathering, adhering geological materials, biological organisms living (or once living) on the meteorite, and biological materials adhering to (but never living on) the meteorite. The effects of chemical weathering, present in all but the freshest finds, range from slight rusting to extensive decomposition and veining The ages of weathering materials and veins, as with terrestrial residence ages above, must be less than the age of the fall surface. The mineralogy and chemistry, elemental and isotopic, of weathering materials will differ according to the mineralogy and composition of the meteorite, and the mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the fall site. Weathering materials may also vary as climate changes and may vary among the microenvironments associated with a meteorite on the Earth's surface. Geological materials (rock, sediment

  15. Atlas of reflectance spectra of terrestrial, lunar, and meteoritic powders and frosts from 92 to 1800 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Jeffrey K.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Wells, Eddie N.

    1987-01-01

    The spectra of samples of several powder and frost materials are presented to serve in a reference database for future far-UV scans of solar system bodies. The spectra cover in the 92-1800 nm wavelengths, i.e., wavenumbers 110,000-5600/cm and photon energies from 13.5-1.5 eV. Preparation procedures for the particulates are delineated. The survey includes feldspars, orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, olivines, assorted minerals, achondrites, carbonaceous chondrites and ordinary chondrites, lunar soils and rocks. Frosts of H2O, CO2, NH3 and SO2 gases were also examined. The data are expected to aid in obtaining spectral matches for asteroids and meteoroids when far-UV telescopy of solar system bodies is performed.

  16. Atlas of reflectance spectra of terrestrial, lunar, and meteoritic powders and frosts from 92 to 1800 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Jeffrey K.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Wells, Eddie N.

    1987-01-01

    The spectra of samples of several powder and frost materials are presented to serve in a reference database for future far-UV scans of solar system bodies. The spectra cover in the 92-1800 nm wavelengths, i.e., wavenumbers 110,000-5600/cm and photon energies from 13.5-1.5 eV. Preparation procedures for the particulates are delineated. The survey includes feldspars, orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, olivines, assorted minerals, achondrites, carbonaceous chondrites and ordinary chondrites, lunar soils and rocks. Frosts of H2O, CO2, NH3 and SO2 gases were also examined. The data are expected to aid in obtaining spectral matches for asteroids and meteoroids when far-UV telescopy of solar system bodies is performed.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of GCR neutron capture production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites and lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KolláR, D.; Michel, R.; Masarik, J.

    2006-03-01

    A purely physical model based on a Monte Carlo simulation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particle interaction with meteoroids is used to investigate neutron interactions down to thermal energies. Experimental and/or evaluated excitation functions are used to calculate neutron capture production rates as a function of the size of the meteoroid and the depth below its surface. Presented are the depth profiles of cosmogenic radionuclides 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 59Ni, and 129I for meteoroid radii from 10 cm up to 500 cm and a 2π irradiation. Effects of bulk chemical composition on n-capture processes are studied and discussed for various chondritic and lunar compositions. The mean GCR particle flux over the last 300 ka was determined from the comparison of simulations with measured 41Ca activities in the Apollo 15 drill core. The determined value significantly differs from that obtained using equivalent models of spallation residue production.

  18. Mineralogy, petrology, and shock history of lunar meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir 300: A crystalline impact-melt breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, J. A.; Walton, E. L.; Spray, J. G.

    Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 300 comprises a microcrystalline igneous matrix (grain size <10 μm), dominated by plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. Pyroxene geothermometry indicates that the matrix crystallized at ˜1100 °C. The matrix encloses mineral and lithic clasts that record the effects of variable levels of shock. Mineral clasts include plagioclase, low- and high-Ca pyroxene, pigeonite, and olivine. Minor amounts of ilmenite, FeNi metal, chromite, and a silica phase are also present. A variety of lithic clast types are observed, including glassy impact melts, impact-melt breccias, and metamorphosed impact melts. One clast of granulitic breccia was also noted. A lunar origin for SaU 300 is supported by the composition of the plagioclase (average An95), the high Cr content in olivine, the lack of hydrous phases, and the Fe/Mn ratio of mafic minerals. Both matrix and clasts have been locally overprinted by shock veins and melt pockets. SaU 300 has previously been described as an anorthositic regolith breccia with basaltic components and a granulitic matrix, but we here interpret it to be a polymict crystalline impact-melt breccia with an olivine-rich anorthositic norite bulk composition. The varying shock states of the mineral and lithic clasts suggest that they were shocked to between 5-28 GPa (shock stages S1-S2) by impact events in target rocks prior to their inclusion in the matrix. Formation of the igneous matrix requires a minimum shock pressure of 60 GPa (shock stage >S4). The association of maskelynite with melt pockets and shock veins indicates a subsequent, local 28-45 GPa (shock stage S2-S3) excursion, which was probably responsible for lofting the sample from the lunar surface. Subsequent fracturing is attributed to atmospheric entry and probable breakup of the parent meteor.

  19. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 98, September 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Michael K.; Smith, Caroline; Herd, Christopher; Haack, Henning; Yamaguchi, Akira; Chennaoui Aoudjehane, Hasnaa; Welzenbach, Linda; Grossman, Jeffrey N.

    2010-09-01

    This issue of The Meteoritical Bulletin reports information on 1103 meteorites including 281 non-Antarctic meteorites (Table 1) and 822 Antarctic meteorites (Table 2). Reported in full written descriptions are three falls. Full descriptions are also given for three shergottites, two ungrouped irons, a primitive achondrite, an olivine diogenite, and a lunar meteorite. One iron, Gebel Kamil, was found in and around the Kamil impact crater. Also reported is a new dense collection area in Tunisia. Tables list a wide variety of meteorites including chondrites, ureilites, irons, acapulcoites, and HEDs. Antarctic meteorites reported in this edition include meteorites recovered by ANSMET (US), CHINARE (China), KOREAMET (Korea), and the NIPR (Japan) meteorite recovery programs.

  20. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute are summarized. Recent research relating to geophysics, planetary geology, the origin of the Earth and Moon, the lunar surface, Mars, meteorites, and image processing techniques is discussed.

  1. Apollo lunar surface experiments package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Developments in the ALSEP program are reported. A summary of the status for the total ALSEP program is included. Other areas discussed include: (1) status of Apollo 16 (array D) and Apollo 17 (array E), (2) lunar seismic profiling experiment, (3) lunar ejecta and meteorites experiment, and (4) lunar mass spectrometer experiments.

  2. Meteorite incidence angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    1993-06-01

    Think about an asteroid smashing into the surface of the Moon and excavating a crater; or hitting Earth and scattering meteorite fragments over a strewn field. Imagine a fragment of cometary dust burning out in the Earth's atmosphere and producing a meteor. These bodies have paths that are inclined at some angle to the vertical. But what is the predominant value of this angle of incidence, i? How does the number of incident bodies vary as a function of angle i? And how do both these affect the prevalence of non- circular lunar craters and the ellipticity of meteorite strewn fields?

  3. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration.

  4. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  5. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 88, 2004 July

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, S.S.; Folco, L.; Grady, M.M.; Zolensky, M.E.; Jones, R.; Righter, K.; Zipfel, J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Meteoritical Bulletin No. 88 lists information for 1610 newly classified meteorites, comprising 753 from Antarctica, 302 from Africa, 505 from Asia (495 of which are from Oman), 40 from North America, 5 from South America, 4 from Europe, and 1 of unknown origin. Information is provided for 9 falls (Alby sur Che??ran, Al Zarnkh, Devgaon, Kamioka, Kendrapara, Maromandia, New Orleans, Sivas, and Villalbeto de la Pen??a). Noteworthy specimens include a eucrite fall (Alby sur Che??ran), 6 martian meteorites, 13 lunar meteorites, and 12 irons including one weighing 3 metric ions (Dronino). ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  6. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  7. The Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 85, 2001 September

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Zipfel, J.

    2001-01-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin No. 85 lists information for 1376 newly classified meteorites, comprising 658 from Antarctica, 409 from Africa, 265 from Asia (262 of which are from Oman), 31 from North America, 7 from South America, 3 from Australia, and 3 from Europe. Information is provided for 11 falls (Dergaon, Dunbogan, Gujba, Independence, Itqiy, Mora??vka, Oued el Hadjar, Sayama, Sologne, Valera, and Worden). Noteworthy non-Antarctic specimens include 5 martian meteorites (Dar al Gani 876, Northwest Africa 480 and 817, and Sayh al Uhaymir 051 and 094); 6 lunar meteorites (Dhofar 081, 280, and 287, and Northwest Africa 479, 482, and 773); an ungrouped enstatite-rich meteorite (Itqiy); a Bencubbin-like meteorite (Gujba); 9 iron meteorites; and a wide variety of other interesting stony meteorites, including CH, CK, CM, CO, CR, CV, R, enstatite, and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, primitive achondrites, HED achondrites, and ureilites.

  8. Why Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikal, M. Th. S.

    2014-09-01

    The present work is focused on the characteristic features of meteorites, different types and their composition, world distribution, the global effects of large meteorite impacts through the geologic eras, economic aspects and environmental assessments.

  9. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 100, 2014 June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey N.; Garvie, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin 100 contains 1943 meteorites including 8 falls (Boumdeid [2011], Huaxi, Košice, Silistra, Sołtmany, Sutter's Mill, Thika, Tissint), with 1575 ordinary chondrites, 139 carbonaceous chondrites, 96 HED achondrites, 25 ureilites, 18 primitive achondrites, 17 iron meteorites, 15 enstatite chondrites, 11 lunar meteorites, 10 mesosiderites, 10 ungrouped achondrites, 8 pallasites, 8 Martian meteorites, 6 Rumuruti chondrites, 3 enstatite achondrites, and 2 angrites, and with 937 from Antarctica, 592 from Africa, 230 from Asia, 95 from South America, 44 from North America, 36 from Oceania, 6 from Europe, and 1 from an unknown location. This will be the last Bulletin published in the current format. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available online at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/

  10. Cliftonite in meteorites: A proposed origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Higgins, G.T.

    1967-01-01

    Cliftonite, a polycrystalline aggregate of graphite with cubic morphology, is known in ten meteorites. Some workers have considered it to be a pseudomorph after diamond, and have used the proposed diamond ancestry as evidence of a meteoritic parent body of at least lunar dimensions. We have synthesized cliftonite in Fe-Ni-C alloys in vacuum, as a product of decomposition of cohenite [(Fe,Ni)3C]. We therefore suggest that a high pressure origin is unnecessary for meteorites which contain cliftonite, and that these meteorites were formed at low pressures. This conclusion is in agreement with other recent evidence.

  11. Bench Crater Meteorite: Hydrated Asteroidal Material Delivered to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, K. H.; Messenger, S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Frank, D. R.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    D/H measurements from the lunar regolith agglutinates [8] indicate mixing between a low D/H solar implanted component and additional higher D/H sources (e.g., meteoritic/ cometary/volcanic gases). We have determined the range and average D/H ratio of Bench Crater meteorite, which is the first direct D/H analysis of meteoritic material delivered to the lunar surface. This result provides an important ground truth for future investigations of lunar water resources by missions to the Moon.

  12. Meteoritic Zircon.

    PubMed

    Marvin, U B; Klein, C

    1964-11-13

    Zircon (ZrSiO(5)) has been identified as an accessory mineral in the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite and in the troilite nodules of the Toluca iron meteorite. The occurrence in Vaca Muerta is a new discovery confirmned by electron-probe nmicroanalysis of a grain in a polished section of the meteorite. Our identification of zircon in Toluca substantiates an occurrence in this meteorite reported in 1895 by Laspeyres and Kaiser.

  13. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 82, 1998 July

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.

    1998-01-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin No. 82 lists information for 974 new meteorites, including 521 finds from Antarctica, 401 finds from the Sahara, 21 finds from the Nullarbor region of Australia, and 7 falls (Ban Rong Du, Burnwell, Fermo, Jalanash, Juancheng, Monahans (1998), and Silao). Many rare types of meteorites are reported: counting pairing groups as one, these include one CR chondrite, two CK chondrites, two CO chondrites, four CV chondrites, one CH chondrite or Bencubbin-like, six C2 (unclassified) chondrites, two EH chondrites, two EL chondrites, three R chondrites, thirty unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, one ungrouped chondrite, three eucrites, six howardites, one diogenite, eleven ureilites, nine iron meteorites, one mesosiderite, two brachinites, one lodranite, one winonaite, and two lunar meteorites (Dar al Gani 400 and EET 96008). All italicized abbreviations refer to addresses tabulated at the end of this document. ?? Meteoritical Society, 1998.

  14. Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, W. A.; Rancitelli, L. A.

    1982-04-01

    An abundance of meteorites has been discovered on two sites in the Antarctic which may assist in the study of the origins of meteorites and the history of the solar system. Characteristics particular to those meteorites discovered in this region are explained. These specimens, being well preserved due to the climate, have implications in the study of the cosmic ray flux through time, the meteoroid complex in space, and cosmic ray exposure ages. Implications for the study of the Antarctic, particularly the ice flow, are also discussed. Further discoveries of meteorites in this region are anticipated.

  15. Abstracts for the 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritic Society are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: Antarctic meteorites; nebula and parent body processing; primary and secondary SNC parent planet processes; enstatite chondrites and aubrites; achondrite stew; refractory inclusions; meteorite exposure ages and sizes; interstellar/meteorite connections; lunar origins, processes and meteorites; craters, cratering and tektites; cretaceous-tertiary impact(s); IDPs (LDEF, stratosphere, Greenland and Antarctica); chondrules; and chondrites.

  16. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption analysis and a variety of simulation studies.

  17. Lunar Roving Vehicle Parked Beside Boulder on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is parked beside a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Litttrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center developed LRV. The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  18. Bibliography. [of asteroids, comets, meteorites, cosmic dust and other particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopal, Z.; Moutsoulas, M.; Waranius, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Articles entered into the data base and Lunar and Planetary Institute Library in the period from May to October, 1983 are listed in annotated bibliography. The topics of the articles include asteroids, comets, and meteorites.

  19. Meteorites and the Evolution of Our Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The study of meteorites has long been of intense interest ever since these objects were discovered to be of extraterrestrial origin. Meteorite research contributes to unraveling the mysteries in understanding the formation and evolution processes of our solar system. Meteorites, of which there are a variety of widely diverse types of chemical and mineralogical compositions, are the most ancient of solar system objects that can be studied in the laboratory. They preserve a unique historical record of the astronomical and astrophysical events of our solar system. This record is being discerned by a host of ever evolving analytical laboratory methods. Recent discoveries of what are believed to be Martian meteorites, lunar meteorites, a meteorite containing indigenous water, and the recovery from the Cretaceous layer of a small meteorite fragment thought to be from the dinosaur-killing asteroid have fueled additional excitement for studying meteorites.

  20. Mineralogy of Meteorite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 275 mineral species have been identified in meteorites, reflecting diverse redox environments, and, in some cases, unusual nebular formation conditions. Anhydrous ordinary, carbonaceous and R chondrites contain major olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase; major opaque phases include metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and chromite. Primitive achondrites are mineralogically similar. The highly reduced enstatite chondrites and achondrites contain major enstatite, plagioclase, free silica and kamacite as well as nitrides, a silicide and Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Na-, Cr-, K- and Ti-rich sulfides. Aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites contain major amounts of hydrous phyllosilicates, complex organic compounds, magnetite, various sulfates and sulfides, and carbonates. In addition to kamacite and taenite, iron meteorites contain carbides, elemental C, nitrides, phosphates, phosphides, chromite and sulfides. Silicate inclusions in IAB/IIICD and lIE iron meteorites consist of mafic silicates, plagioclase and various sulfides, oxides and phosphates. Eucrites, howardites and diogenites have basaltic to orthopyroxenitic compositions and consist of major pyroxene and calcic plagioclase and several accessory oxides. Ureilttes .are made up mainly of calcic, chromian olivine and low-Ca clinopyroxene embedded in a carbonaceous matrix; accessory phases include the C polymorphs graphite, diamond, lonsdaleite and chaoite as well as metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and halides. Angrites are achondrites rich in fassaitic pyroxene (i.e. , AI-Ti diopside); minor olivine with included magnesian kirschsteinite is also present. Martian meteorites comprise basalts, Iherzolites, a dunite and an orthopyroxenite. Major phases include various pyroxenes and olivine; minor to accessory phases include various sulfides, magnetite, chromite and Ca-phosphates. Lunar meteorites comprise mare basalts with major augite and calcic plagioclase and anorthositic breccias with major calcic plagioclase. Several meteoritic

  1. Solar proton produced neon in shergottite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, D. H.; Rao, M. N.; Bogard, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides produced by near-surface, nuclear interactions of energetic solar protons (approx. 10-100 MeV) were reported in several lunar rocks and a very small meteorites. We recently documented the existence and isotopic compositions of solar-produced (SCR) Ne in two lunar rocks. Here we present the first documented evidence for SCR Ne in a meteorite, ALH77005, which was reported to contain SCR radionuclides. Examination of literature data for other shergottites suggests that they may also contain a SCR Ne component. The existence of SCR Ne in shergottites may be related to a Martian origin.

  2. Asteroid, Meteor, Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2010-04-01

    Almahata Sitta is the name identifying the collection of meteorite remnants of the first observed fall of a tracked asteroid, 2008 TC3. Ground-based observatories, orbiting satellites, a pilot of a commercial airline flight, and eyewitnesses of the fireball in the Nubian Desert of northern Sudan all observed evidence of the spectacular events on October 6, 2008. The first meteorites were recovered two months later in Sudan by students and staff from the University of Khartoum (Sudan) led by Dr. Muawia Shaddad and further guided by Dr. Peter Jenniskens of the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center (Mt. View, California). A session at the 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held March 1-5, 2010 focused on ureilitic asteroids and insights from Almahata Sitta, and forms the basis for this article. Rather than discuss the results of each of the talks and posters presented at the conference, I highlight what makes the impact, recovery, and characterization of the ureilite meteorite fragments so outstanding.

  3. Meteorite classification and the definition of new chondrite classes as a result of successful meteorite search in hot and cold deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Addi

    2001-07-01

    Meteorites are classified in order to sort these extraterrestrial rocks into broadly similar types of objects to enable a better understanding of the origin of these rocks and their relationships. Considering their origin and evolution, meteorites are broadly subdivided into two main divisions "differentiated" and "undifferentiated" meteorites. Successful meteorite searches in hot and cold deserts have drastically increased the number of meteorite finds. More than 20 000 meteorite fragments have been recovered mainly by Japanese and American expeditions from Antarctica. The number of collected meteorites from hot deserts is estimated to be about 7000-8000 including several 10 000 of fragments. Many rare samples are among the new meteorite finds leading to the definition of new meteorite classes and groups. These are R chondrites, CK, CR, and CH chondrites, acapulcoites, winonaites, lodranites, brachinites, angrites, and Lunar meteorites.

  4. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 96, September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weisberg, M.K.; Smith, C.; Benedix, G.; Herd, C.D.K.; Righter, K.; Haack, H.; Yamaguchi, A.; Chennaoui, Aoudjehane H.; Grossman, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    The Meteoritical Bulletin No. 96 contains a total of 1590 newly approved meteorite names with their relevant data. These include 12 from specific locations within Africa, 76 from northwest Africa, 9 from the Americas, 13 from Asia, 1 from Australia, 2 from Europe, 950 from Antarctica recovered by the Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE), and 527 from the American Antarctic program (ANSMET). Among these meteorites are 4 falls, Almahata Sitta (Sudan), Sulagiri (India), Ash Creek (United States), and Maribo (Denmark). Almahata Sitta is an anomalous ureilite and is debris from asteroid 2008 TC3 and Maribo is a CM2 chondrite. Other highlights include a lunar meteorite, a CM1 chondrite, and an anomalous IVA iron. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2009.

  5. Meteorites on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Mckay, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    Four types of meteoritic material should be found on Mars: (1) micrometeorites, many of which will survive atmospheric entry unmelted, which should fall relatively uniformly over the planet's surface, (2) ablation products from larger meteorites which ablate, break up and burn up in the Mars atmosphere, (3) debris from large, crater forming objects, which, by analogy to terrestrial and lunar impact events, will be concentrated in the crater ejecta blankets (except for rare, large events, such as the proposed C-T event on earth, which can distribute debris on a planetary scale), and (4) debris from the early, intense bombardment, which, in many areas of the planet, may now be incorporated into rocks by geologic processes subsequent to the intense bombardment era. To estimate the extent of meteoritic addition to indigenous Martian material, the meteoritic flux on Mars must be known. It is estimated that the overall flux is twice that for the Moon and 1.33 that for Earth. For small particles, whose orbital evolution is dominated by Poynting Robertson drag, the flux at Mars can be estimated from the Earth flux. The smaller Martian gravitational enhancement as well as the decrease in the spatial density of interplanetary dust with increasing heliocentric distance should reduce the flux of small particles at Mars to about 0.33 times the flux at Earth. Because of the smaller planetary cross-section the total infalling mass at Mars is then estimated to be 0.09 time the infalling mass in the micrometeorite size range at Earth.

  6. An extremely low U Pb source in the Moon: UThPb, SmNd, RbSr, and 40Ar 39Ar isotopic systematics and age of lunar meteorite Asuka 881757

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misawa, K.; Tatsumoto, M.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Yanai, K.

    1993-01-01

    We have undertaken UThPb, SmNd, RbSr, and 40Ar 39Ar isotopic studies on Asuka 881757, a coarse-grained basaltic lunar meteorite whose chemical composition is close to low-Ti and very low-Ti (VLT) mare basalts. The PbPb internal isochron obtained for acid leached residues of separated mineral fractions yields an age of 3940 ?? 28 Ma, which is similar to the U-Pb (3850 ?? 150 Ma) and Th-Pb (3820 ?? 290 Ma) internal isochron ages. The Sm-Nd data for the mineral separates yield an internal isochron age of 3871 ?? 57 Ma and an initial 143Nd 144Nd value of 0.50797 ?? 10. The Rb-Sr data yield an internal isochron age of 3840 ?? 32 Ma (??(87Rb) = 1.42 ?? 10-11 yr-1) and a low initial 87Sr 86Sr ratio of 0.69910 ?? 2. The 40Ar 39Ar age spectra for a glass fragment and a maskelynitized plagioclase are relatively flat and give a weighted mean plateau age of 3798 ?? 12 Ma. We interpret these ages to indicate that the basalt crystallized from a melt 3.87 Ga ago (the Sm-Nd age) and an impact event disturbed the Rb-Sr system and completely reset the K-Ar system at 3.80 Ga. The slightly higher Pb-Pb age compared to the Sm-Nd age could be due to the secondary Pb (from terrestrial and/or lunar surface Pb contamination) that remained in the residues after acid leaching. Alternatively, the following interpretation is also possible; the meteorite crystallized at 3.94 Ga (the Pb-Pb age) and the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and K-Ar systems were disturbed by an impact event at 3.80 Ga. The crystallization age obtained here is older than those reported for low-Ti basalts (3.2-3.5 Ga) and for VLT basalts (3.4 Ga), but similar to ages of some mare basalts, indicating that the basalt may have formed from a magma related to a basin-forming event (Imbrium?). The age span for VLT basalts from different sampling sites suggest that they were erupted over a wide area during an interval of at least ~500 million years. The impact event that thermally reset the K-Ar system of Asuka 881757 must have been post

  7. Rust Contamination from Water Leaks in the Cosmic Dust Lab and Lunar and Meteorite Thin Sections Labs at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, J. J.; Berger, E. L.; Fries, M. D.; Bastien, R.; McCubbin, F. M.; Pace, L.; Righter, K.; Sutter, B.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    On the early morning of September 15th, 2016, on the first floor of Building 31 at NASA-Johnson Space Center, the hose from a water chiller ruptured and began spraying water onto the floor. The water had been circulating though old metal pipes, and the leaked water contained rust-colored particulates. The water flooded much of the western wing of the building's ground floor before the leak was stopped, and it left behind a residue of rust across the floor, most notably in the Apollo and Meteorite Thin Section Labs and Sample Preparation Lab. No samples were damaged in the event, and the affected facilities are in the process of remediation. At the beginning of 2016, a separate leak occurred in the Cosmic Dust Lab, located in the same building. In that lab, a water leak occurred at the bottom of the sink used to clean the lab's tools and containers with ultra-pure water. Over years of use, the ultra-pure water eroded the metal sink piping and leaked water onto the inside of the lab's flow bench. This water also left behind a film of rusty material. The material was cleaned up and the metal piping was replaced with PVC pipe and sealed with Teflon plumber's tape. Samples of the rust detritus were collected from both incidents. These samples were imaged and analyzed to determine their chemical and mineralogical compositions. The purpose of these analyses is to document the nature of the detritus for future reference in the unlikely event that these materials occur as contaminants in the Cosmic Dust samples or Apollo or Meteorite thin sections.

  8. Identification of new meteorite, Mihonoseki (L), from broken fragments in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Y.; Noma, Y.

    1993-01-01

    New meteorite of Mihonoseki fallen in Shimane-ken was identified by fine broken pieces by using an energy-dispersive scanning electron microprobe analyzer. It shows fusion-crust (i.e. Fe-Si melt), meteoritic minerals (kamacite, taenite, troilite, amorphous plagioclase etc.) and chrondrule with clear glassy rim. Mineralogical, and petrological data of several fine grains suggest that broken fragments of Mihonoseki are L3/4 chondritic meteorite which is the first identification in a Japanese fallen meteorite. The prompt identification method of meteorite-fragments will be applied to the next lunar, Martian and asteroid explorations, as well as meteorite falls on the terrestrial surface.

  9. The origin of lunar craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, A.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of four hypotheses concerning the origin of lunar craters, taking into account the bubble hypothesis, the tide hypothesis, the volcanic hypothesis, and the impact hypothesis. A description is given of a series of experiments on impact craters and studies of a meteorite crater in Arizona are considered. It is concluded that the typical lunar craters can best be interpreted as impact craters.

  10. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  11. Evolution of gas-rich meteorites: Clues from cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of gas-rich meteorites in general, and the setting in which the observed solar-wind, solar-flare irradiation records were imprinted in individual components of these meteorites are understood only in qualitative terms, although contrary viewpoints do exist. The regolith irradiation hypothesis, bolstered by the observations of irradiation features in lunar regolith materials, similar to those observed in gas-rich meteorites, is accepted by many workers in this field. However, a close analysis of the problem suggests that the regolith irradiation may not be the dominant mode in producing the observed precompaction irradiation features in the gas-rich meteorites.

  12. Meteorite craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Bazilevskiy, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The origin and formation of various types of craters, both on the Earth and on other planetary bodies, are discussed. Various models are utilized to depict various potential causes of the types and forms of meteorite craters in our solar system, and the geological structures are also discussed.

  13. Lunar Samples - Apollo 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-28

    S69-60354 (29 Nov. 1969) --- A scientist's gloved hand holds one of the numerous rock samples brought back to Earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. The rocks are under thorough examination in the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). This sample is a highly shattered basaltic rock with a thin black-glass coating on five of its six sides. Glass fills fractures and cements the rock together. The rock appears to have been shattered and thrown out by a meteorite impact explosion and coated with molten rock material before the rock fell to the surface.

  14. The lunar dust environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Eberhard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2011-11-01

    Each year the Moon is bombarded by about 10 6 kg of interplanetary micrometeoroids of cometary and asteroidal origin. Most of these projectiles range from 10 nm to about 1 mm in size and impact the Moon at 10-72 km/s speed. They excavate lunar soil about 1000 times their own mass. These impacts leave a crater record on the surface from which the micrometeoroid size distribution has been deciphered. Much of the excavated mass returns to the lunar surface and blankets the lunar crust with a highly pulverized and "impact gardened" regolith of about 10 m thickness. Micron and sub-micron sized secondary particles that are ejected at speeds up to the escape speed of 2300 m/s form a perpetual dust cloud around the Moon and, upon re-impact, leave a record in the microcrater distribution. Such tenuous clouds have been observed by the Galileo spacecraft around all lunar-sized Galilean satellites at Jupiter. The highly sensitive Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the LADEE mission will shed new light on the lunar dust environment. LADEE is expected to be launched in early 2013. Another dust related phenomenon is the possible electrostatic mobilization of lunar dust. Images taken by the television cameras on Surveyors 5, 6, and 7 showed a distinct glow just above the lunar horizon referred to as horizon glow (HG). This light was interpreted to be forward-scattered sunlight from a cloud of dust particles above the surface near the terminator. A photometer onboard the Lunokhod-2 rover also reported excess brightness, most likely due to HG. From the lunar orbit during sunrise the Apollo astronauts reported bright streamers high above the lunar surface, which were interpreted as dust phenomena. The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) Experiment was deployed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 17 astronauts in order to characterize the lunar dust environment. Instead of the expected low impact rate from interplanetary and interstellar dust, LEAM registered hundreds of signals

  15. Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, petrography, meteoritic composition, planetary geology, atmospheric composition, astronomical spectroscopy, lunar geology, Mars (planet), Mars composition, Mars surface, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, Mars craters, lunar craters, mineralogy, mineral deposits, lithology, asteroids, impact melts, planetary composition, planetary atmospheres, planetary mapping, cosmic dust, photogeology, stratigraphy, lunar craters, lunar exploration, space exploration, geochronology, tectonics, atmospheric chemistry, astronomical models, and geochemistry.

  16. Isotopic studies in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, E. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of lunar soil samples returned by Apollo 11 and 12 flights are discussed. Isotopic studies of the rare gases from Apollo 11 flight lunar samples are presented. The lunar soil analyses indicated the following: (1) high concentrations of solar wind rare gases, (2) isotopic match between solar wind gases and gas components in gas-rich meteorites, and (3) rare gases attributable to spallation reactions induced in heavier nuclides by cosmic ray particles.

  17. Photometry of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Schmitt, B.; Moynier, F.; Barrat, J.-A.

    2012-03-01

    We have measured the bi-directional reflectance phase function on selected meteorite samples (1 howardite, 1 eucrite, 1 diogenite, Orgeuil (CI), Tagish Lake (CC), Allende (CV), Lunar meteorite (MAC 88105), Forest Vale (H4)) covering part of the geochemical and petrologic diversity expected for asteroid surfaces. Samples were measured as powders, for which we achieved reflectance measurements from phase angles down to 3°, and up to 150°, at five different wavelengths covering the VIS-NIR spectral region. The data were fitted by the photometric model of Hapke (Hapke, B. [1993]. Theory of reflectance and emittance spectroscopy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). The physical sense of the retrieved Hapke’s parameters seems unclear but they permit to interpolate the data to any observation geometry. Strong opposition effects were observed for all samples. The absolute intensity of this effect appears moderately variable among our sample suite, and is not correlated with the average sample reflectance. We interpret this observation as Shadow-Hiding Opposition Effect (SHOE). In the case of samples presenting intense absorption bands (the Fe crystal field band at 1 μm of HED and the ordinary chondrite), we observe significant dependence of band depth to phase angle, up to 70°, even for moderate variation of phase angle. In addition, a general trend of spectral reddening with phase angle is observed. This reddening, linear with phase angle, is present in all meteorites studied. This behavior is not predicted by classical radiative theories. We propose that small-scale roughness (of the order of or below the wavelength) may induce such a behavior.

  18. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 87, 2003 July

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, S.S.; Zipfel, J.; Folco, L.; Jones, R.; Grady, M.M.; McCoy, T.; Grossman, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin No. 87 lists information for 1898 newly classified meteorites, comprising 1048 from Antarctica, 462 from Africa, 356 from Asia (355 of which are from Oman), 18 from North America, 5 from South America, 5 from Europe, and 3 from Australia. Information is provided for 10 falls (Beni M'hira, Elbert, Gasseltepaoua, Hiroshima, Kilabo, Neuschwanstein, Park Forest, Pe??, Pe??te??lkole??, and Thuathe). Two of these-Kilabo and Thuathe-fell on the same day. Orbital characteristics could be calculated for Neuschwanstein. Noteworthy specimens include 8 Martian meteorites (5 from Sahara, 2 from Oman and 1 from Antarctica), 13 lunar meteorites (all except one from Oman), 3 irons, 3 pallasites, and many carbonaceous chondrites and achondrites.

  19. Classification of Meteorites and Their Genetic Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Keil, K.; Scott, E. R. D.; Goodrich, C. A.; Weisberg, M. K.

    In this chapter, we review current classification of meteorites, which is based on several primary classification parameters the whole-rock chemical compositions, oxygen isotopic compositions, carbon and nitrogen abundances and isotopic compositions, stable-isotope anomalies, mineralogy and petrography. Secondary classification parameters - petrologic type and shock metamorphism stages - provide clues to the thermal and shock history of meteorites, and degree of terrestrial weathering. We summarize the major mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of chondrite groups (H, L, LL, EH, EL, R, K, CI, CM, CR, CO, CK, CV, CH, and CB), and nonchondritic meteorites, both asteroidal (winonaites, acapulcoites-lodranites, brachinites, ureilites, angrites, howardites-eucrites-diogenites, mesosiderites, pallasites, and irons) and planetary (lunar and Martian - shergottites, nakhlites, chassignites, and orthopyroxenites). Finally, we discuss possible genetic relationships among meteorite groups.

  20. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 81, 1997 July

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 81 lists 181 new meteorites. Noteworthy among these are a new lunar meteorite (Dar al Gani 262), four observed falls (Dong Ujimqin Qi, Galkiv, Mount Tazerzait, and Piplia Kalan), four irons (Albion, Great Sand Sea 003, Hot Springs, and Mont Dieu), two mesosiderites (Dong Ujimqin Qi and Lamont), an acapulcoite (FRO 95029), a eucrite (Piplia Kalan), two probably-paired ureilites (Dar al Gani 164 and 165), an R chondrite (Hammadah al Hamra 119), an ungrouped type-3 chondrite (Hammadah al Hamra 180), a highly unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (Wells, LL3.3), and a variety of carbonaceous and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites from Libya and Antarctica. All italicized abbreviations refer to addresses listed in the appendix. ?? Meteoritical Society, 1997.

  1. Lunar Crustal History from Isotopic Studies of Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Bogard, D. D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of approx.3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. [1]. We will present recent chronological studies of anorthosites [2] that are relevant both to the LMO hypothesis and also to the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Old (approx.4.4 Ga) Sm-Nd ages have been determined for some Apollo 16 anorthosites, and primitive initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios have been measured for several, but well-defined Rb-Sr ages concordant with the Sm-Nd ages have not been determined until now. Lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater, has concordant Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages of 4.47+/-0.07 Ga and 4.49+/-0.07 Ga, respectively. Initial Nd-143/Nd-144 determined from the Sm-Nd isochron corresponds to E(sub Nd,CHUR) = 0.3+/-0.5 compared to a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir, or E(sub Nd,HEDPB) = -0.6+/-0.5 compared to the initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of the HED Parent Body [3]. Lunar anorthosites tend to have E(sub Nd) > 0 when compared to CHUR, apparently inconsistent with derivation from a single lunar magma ocean. Although E(sub Nd) < 0 for some anorthosites, if lunar initial Nd-143/Nd-144 is taken equal to HEDR for the HED parent body [3], enough variability remains among the anorthosite data alone to suggest that lunar anorthosites do not derive from a single source, i.e., they are not all products of the LMO. An anorthositic clast from desert meteorite Dhofar 908 has an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.42+/-0.04 Ga, the same as the 4.36-4.41+/-0.035 Ga Ar-39-Ar-40 age of anorthositic clast Y-86032,116 in Antarctic meteorite Yamato- 86032 [3,4]. Conclusions: (i) Lunar anorthosites come from diverse sources. Orbital geochemical studies confirm variability in lunar crustal composition [1, 5]. We suggest that the variability extends to anorthosites alone as shown by the Sm-Nd data (Fig. 2) and the existence of magnesian anorthosites (MAN, [6]) and "An93 anorthosites

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM presents papers presented to the Thirty-first Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2000, Houston, Texas. Eighty-one conference sessions, and over one thousand extended abstracts are included. Abstracts cover topics such as Martian surface properties and geology, meteoritic composition, Martian landing sites and roving vehicles, planned Mars Sample Return Missions, and general astrobiology.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM presents papers presented to the Thirty-first Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2000, Houston, Texas. Eighty-one conference sessions, and over one thousand extended abstracts are included. Abstracts cover topics such as Martian surface properties and geology, meteoritic composition, Martian landing sites and roving vehicles, planned Mars Sample Return Missions, and general astrobiology.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference covered topics on Mars, planetary origins, planetary analog studies, education,chondrite studies, and meteorite composition. Over 1000 reports were presented at the conference in over 100 sessions. Each session, and presentations,was processed separately for the database.

  5. Apollo lunar surface experiments package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The ALSEP program status and monthly progress are reported. Environmental and quality control tests and test results are described. Details are given on the Apollo 17 Array E, and the lunar seismic profiling, ejecta and meteorites, mass spectrometer, surface gravimeter, and heat flow experiments. Monitoring of the four ALSEP systems on the moon is also described.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Crust as Sampled by Basins and Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Crust as Samples by Basins and Craters" included:Radar Properties of Lunar Basin Deposits; Numerical Modeling of the South Pole-Aitkin Impact; Lunar South Pole-Aitken Impact Basin: Topography and Mineralogy; Comparison of the Geologic Setting of the South Pole-Aitken Basin Interior with Apollo 16: Implications for Regolith Components; Identifying Impact Events Within the Lunar Cataclysm from 40Ar-39Ar Ages of Apollo 16 Impact Melt Rocks; Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications; Lunar Meteorite PCA 02 007: A Feldspathic Regolith Breccia with Mixed Mare/Highland Components; Compositional Constraints on the Launch Pairing of LAP 02205 and PCA 02007 with Other Lunar Meteorites; An In-Situ Study of REE Abundances in Three Anorthositic Impact Melt Lunar Highland Meteorites; A Crustal Rock Clast in Magnesian Anorthositic Breccia, Dhofar 489 and Its Excavation from a Large Basin; The Origin and Impact History of Lunar Meteorite Yamato 86032; Evolved Lithologies and Their Inferred Sources in the Northwestern Procellarum Region of the Moon; and Revisiting the Interpretation of Thorium Abundances at Hansteen Alpha.

  8. modeling lunar seisms in class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancou, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-01

    Students are taught that the internal structure of the Earth has been described by analyzing seismometer data collected at the surface of the Earth. With this in mind, a group of 17-years old students asked whether lunar seisms could be used to explore the internal structure of the Moon. Seismometers placed during Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16 missions recorded many seismic events. The signals obtained on the Moon are different form those recorded on Earth and are due to meteorite impact, lunar tides and thermal variations. Students tried to model meteorite impacts and thermal moonquakes to determine whether they can be distinguished based on their seismic signature. To this aim, the impact of meteorites were modeled by a metallic ball falling in sand and thermal moonquakes were modeled by storing hydrates rocks on a freezer during a week and then upon a bain marie. Signal were collected in both conditions with microphones. Data showed distinctive feature depending on vibration origin.

  9. Apollo 17 View of Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This view of the Lunar surface was taken during the Apollo 17 mission. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972.

  10. Developments in Our Understanding of Lunar Crustal Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet-Fisher, J. F.; Joy, K. H.

    2016-05-01

    Our recent understanding of lunar crustal formation has developed through the combination of analytical advances, and the increased availability of anorthositic material sampled as clasts within meteorite regolith breccias.

  11. An Interdisciplinary Method for the Visualization of Novel High-Resolution Precision Photography and Micro-XCT Data Sets of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Create Combined Research-Grade 3D Virtual Samples for the Benefit of Astromaterials Collections Conservation, Curation, Scientific Research and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technologies make possible the advancement of documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. With increasing demands for accessibility to updated comprehensive data, and with new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop new standards for contemporary documentation and visualization methodologies. Our interdisciplinary team has expertise in the fields of heritage conservation practices, professional photography, photogrammetry, imaging science, application engineering, data curation, geoscience, and astromaterials curation. Our objective is to create virtual 3D reconstructions of Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples that are a fusion of two state-of-the-art data sets: the interior view of the sample by collecting Micro-XCT data and the exterior view of the sample by collecting high-resolution precision photography data. These new data provide researchers an information-rich visualization of both compositional and textural information prior to any physical sub-sampling. Since January 2013 we have developed a process that resulted in the successful creation of the first image-based 3D reconstruction of an Apollo Lunar Sample correlated to a 3D reconstruction of the same sample's Micro- XCT data, illustrating that this technique is both operationally possible and functionally beneficial. In May of 2016 we began a 3-year research period during which we aim to produce Virtual Astromaterials Samples for 60 high-priority Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples and serve them on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation website. Our research demonstrates that research-grade Virtual Astromaterials Samples are beneficial in preserving for posterity a precise 3D reconstruction of the sample prior to sub-sampling, which greatly improves documentation practices, provides unique and novel visualization of the sample's interior and

  12. An Interdisciplinary Method for the Visualization of Novel High-Resolution Precision Photography and Micro-XCT Data Sets of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Create Combined Research-Grade 3D Virtual Samples for the Benefit of Astromaterials Collections Conservation, Curation, Scientific Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Beaulieu, K. R.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Hanna, R.; Ketcham, R. A.; Todd, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    New technologies make possible the advancement of documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. With increasing demands for accessibility to updated comprehensive data, and with new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop new standards for contemporary documentation and visualization methodologies. Our interdisciplinary team has expertise in the fields of heritage conservation practices, professional photography, photogrammetry, imaging science, application engineering, data curation, geoscience, and astromaterials curation. Our objective is to create virtual 3D reconstructions of Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples that are a fusion of two state-of-the-art data sets: the interior view of the sample by collecting Micro-XCT data and the exterior view of the sample by collecting high-resolution precision photography data. These new data provide researchers an information-rich visualization of both compositional and textural information prior to any physical sub-sampling. Since January 2013 we have developed a process that resulted in the successful creation of the first image-based 3D reconstruction of an Apollo Lunar Sample correlated to a 3D reconstruction of the same sample's Micro-XCT data, illustrating that this technique is both operationally possible and functionally beneficial. In May of 2016 we began a 3-year research period during which we aim to produce Virtual Astromaterials Samples for 60 high-priority Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples and serve them on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation website. Our research demonstrates that research-grade Virtual Astromaterials Samples are beneficial in preserving for posterity a precise 3D reconstruction of the sample prior to sub-sampling, which greatly improves documentation practices, provides unique and novel visualization of the sample's interior and

  13. Discovery and characterization of lunar materials: An incomplete process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D.

    1991-01-01

    Our knowledge of lunar materials is based on (1) sample collections (by the Apollo and Lunar missions, supplemented by Antarctic lunar meteorites); and (2) remote sensing (Earth-based or by spacecraft). The characterization of lunar materials is limited by the small number of sampled sites and the incomplete remote-sensing database (geochemical data collected from orbit cover 20 percent of the lunar surface). There is much about lunar surface materials that remains to be discovered. Listed are some features suspected form present knowledge: (1) Polar Materials; (2) Farside Materials; (3) Crater-Floor Materials; (4) Crater-Wall and Central Peak Materials; (5) Volcanic Shield and Dome Materials; (6) Transient-Event Materials; and (7) Meteoritic and Cometary Materials; This short list of likely discoveries isn't exhaustive. We know much about a few spots on the Moon, but little about the full range of lunar materials.

  14. Lunar prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W.

    1989-02-01

    Missions to study the possible utilization of lunar resources are discussed. Plans for the Lunar Observer mission are described. Results are presented from a review of the feasibility of a low-cost lunar polar mission. Consideration is given to several proposals, including the Lunar Get Away Special, the Lunar Prospector, and the Japanese Muses-A mission.

  15. Nineteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Press abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: origin of the moon; mineralogy of rocks; CO2 well gases; ureilites; antarctic meteorites; Al-26 decay in a Semarkona chondrule; meteorite impacts on early earth; crystal structure and density of helium; Murchison carbonaceous chondrite composition; greenhouse effect and dinosaurs; Simud-Tiu outflow system of Mars; and lunar radar images.

  16. Nineteenth lunar and planetary science conference. Press abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: origin of the moon; mineralogy of rocks; CO2 well gases; ureilites; antarctic meteorites; Al-26 decay in a Semarkona chondrule; meteorite impacts on early earth; crystal structure and density of helium; Murchison carbonaceous chondrite composition; greenhouse effect and dinosaurs; Simud-Tiu outflow system of Mars; and lunar radar images.

  17. Meteoritic material on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of meteoritic material are found on the moon: micrometeorites, ancient planetesimal debris from the "early intense bombardment," and debris of recent, craterforming projectiles. Their amounts and compositions have been determined from trace element studies. The micrometeorite component is uniformly distributed over the entire lunar surface, but is seen most clearly in mare soils. It has a primitive, C1-chondrite-like composition, and comprises 1 to 1.5 percent of mature soils. Apparently it represents cometary debris. The ancient component is seen in highland breccias and soils. Six varieties have been recognized, differing in their proportions of refractories (Ir, Re), volatiles (Ge, Sb), and Au. All have a fractionated composition, with volatiles depleted relative to siderophiles. The abundance patterns do not match those of the known meteorite classes. These ancient meteoritic components seem to represent the debris of an extinct population of bodies (planetisimals, moonlets) that produced the mare basins during the first 700 Myr of the moon's history. On the basis of their stratigraphy and geographic distribution, five of the six groups are tentatively assigned to specific mare basins: Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum or Nubium.

  18. Lunar Science Conference, 6th, Houston, Tex., March 17-21, 1975, Proceedings. Volume 2 - Chemical and isotopic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical compositions of lunar rocks and soils are examined, taking into account sulfur abundances and distributions in mare basalts and their source magmas, lithophile trace and major elements in Apollo 16 and 17 lunar samples, the role of vaporization processes in lunar rock formation, chemical studies of the lunar regolith with emphasis on zirconium and hafnium, a model for the lunar anorthositic gabbro, and trace-element chemistry and reducing capacity of size fractions from the Apollo 16 regolith. Other topics considered are related to lunar chronology, volatile meteoritic elements, isotopic studies, light element geochemistry, and agglutinates and regolith processes. Attention is given to meteoritic material in four terrestrial meteorite craters, the state of meteoritic material on the moon, volatile elements in Allende inclusions, oxygen isotope fractionation in Apollo 17 rocks, cosmogenic isotope production in Apollo deep-core samples, and the effects of exposure conditions on cosmic-ray records in lunar rocks.

  19. Lunar Science Conference, 6th, Houston, Tex., March 17-21, 1975, Proceedings. Volume 2 - Chemical and isotopic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical compositions of lunar rocks and soils are examined, taking into account sulfur abundances and distributions in mare basalts and their source magmas, lithophile trace and major elements in Apollo 16 and 17 lunar samples, the role of vaporization processes in lunar rock formation, chemical studies of the lunar regolith with emphasis on zirconium and hafnium, a model for the lunar anorthositic gabbro, and trace-element chemistry and reducing capacity of size fractions from the Apollo 16 regolith. Other topics considered are related to lunar chronology, volatile meteoritic elements, isotopic studies, light element geochemistry, and agglutinates and regolith processes. Attention is given to meteoritic material in four terrestrial meteorite craters, the state of meteoritic material on the moon, volatile elements in Allende inclusions, oxygen isotope fractionation in Apollo 17 rocks, cosmogenic isotope production in Apollo deep-core samples, and the effects of exposure conditions on cosmic-ray records in lunar rocks.

  20. Amino acids precursors in lunar finds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

    1975-01-01

    The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

  1. On the origin of lunar soil 12033

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadecker, P.A.; Cuttitta, F.; Rose, H.J.; Schaudy, R.; Wasson, J.T.

    1971-01-01

    The lunar soil 12033 is compositionally distinctly different from both the local rocks at the Apollo 12 site and other lunar samples. It must be a recent deposit, else it would not have retained its identity. It contains a meteoritic component which is about 0.59 times as large as that in the more typical Apollo 12 soils. The amount of meteoritic component may be either a fortuitous residuum from the object which produced the 12033 material as crater ejecta, or 12033 may consist of a mixture of an exotic component with the local soil in approximately 41:59 proportions. The available evidence favors the latter interpretation. ?? 1971.

  2. Chlorine in Lunar Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs, and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, [1]), given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO (e.g., [2]). When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks (e.g., [3-4]), lunar samples often display heavy chlorine isotope compositions [5-9]. Boyce et al. [8] found a correlation between delta Cl-37 (sub Ap) and bulk-rock incompatible trace elements (ITEs) in lunar basalts, and used this to propose that early degassing of Cl (likely as metal chlorides) from the LMO led to progressive enrichment in remaining LMO melt in Cl-37over Cl-35- the early degassing model. Barnes et al. [9] suggested that relatively late degassing of chlorine from urKREEP (to yield delta Cl-37 (sub urKREEP greater than +25 per mille) followed by variable mixing between KREEPy melts and mantle cumulates (characterized by delta Cl-370 per mille) could explain the majority of Cl isotope data from igneous lunar samples. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed an in situ study of chlorine isotopes and abundances of volatiles in lunar apatite from a diverse suite of lunar basalts spanning a range of geochemical types.

  3. Rediscovery of Polish meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Żołądek, P.; Wiśniewski, M.; Olech, A.

    2016-01-01

    The total number of Polish registered meteorites (by July 2016) including the meteoritical artifacts as Czestochowa Raków I and II is 22. Most of them are described by the pioneer of Polish Meteoritics Jerzy Pokrzywnicki who also identified the meteorite fall locations. In recent years prospectors found impressive specimens of known Polish meteorites such as Morasko: 34 kg, 50 kg, 164 kg, 174 kg and 261 kg or Pultusk: 1578 g, 1576 g, 1510 g, 610 g and 580 g expanding and determining precisely the known meteorite strewn fields.

  4. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition.

  5. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  6. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Humes, D H; Clem, J M

    2002-12-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  7. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  8. Design criteria for an underground lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siekmeier, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Underground excavation and construction techniques have been well developed terrestrially and provide an attractive option for lunar mining and habitat construction. The lunar mine, processing facilities and habitats could be located beneath the lunar surface in basaltic rock that would protect the crew and equipment from the hazardous surface environment. A terrestrial-like atmosphere would be created within the underground structures allowing more conventional technologies to be utilized. In addition, the basalt would likely contain higher quality mineral deposits than the regolith (lunar soil) since the minerals in the regolith have been degraded by meteorite bombardment. The conditions that would affect the design of an underground lunar mine are described and a lunar rock mass rated to assess its quality using terrestrial rock mass classification systems. Design criteria are established and a construction scenario proposed. Parameters having the greatest effect on stability are identified based on distinct element computer modeling and terrestrial experience.

  9. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  10. Searching for Meteorites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This lesson combines a series of activities to provide students with an understanding of how meteorites can unlock answers to the early history of the solar system and how meteorites and their big ...

  11. Meteorite Falls in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.

    2016-08-01

    The number of meteorite falls reported in Morocco since 2000 is highest than any other place compared to the other countries in the world, that call into question the efficiency of the randomly meteorite falls on Earth.

  12. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  13. Ion microprobe mass analysis of lunar samples. Lunar sample program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Mass analyses of selected minerals, glasses and soil particles of lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial rocks have been made with the ion microprobe mass analyzer. Major, minor and trace element concentrations have been determined in situ in major and accessory mineral phases in polished rock thin sections. The Pb isotope ratios have been measured in U and Th bearing accessory minerals to yield radiometric age dates and heavy volatile elements have been sought on the surfaces of free particles from Apollo soil samples.

  14. Lunar metallic particle ("mini-moon"): An interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, D.S.; Carter, J.L.; Greenwood, W.R.

    1971-01-01

    A troilite-rich nickel-iron particle ("mini-moon") recovered from the moon may be a mound detached from a sphere of silicate glass. Erosion and pitting of the particle may have been caused by passage through a cloud of hot gas and particulate matter formed by meteorite impact on the lunar surface. This explanation is in contrast to the theory that the particle was meteoritically derived molten material that was furrowed during solidification after lunar impact, subsequently pitted by high-velocity particles, and then abraded and polished by drifting dust while on the lunar surface.

  15. Lunar metallic particle ("mini-moon"): an interpretation.

    PubMed

    McKay, D S; Carter, J L; Greenwood, W R

    1971-02-05

    A troilite-rich nickel-iron particle ("mini-moon") recovered from the moon may be a mound detached from a sphere of silicate glass. Erosion and pitting of the particle may have been caused by passage through a cloud of hot gas and particulate matter formed by meteorite impact on the lunar surface. This explanation is in contrast to the theory that the particle was meteoritically derived molten material that was furrowed during solidification after lunar impact, subsequently pitted by high-velocity particles, and then abraded and polished by drifting dust while on the lunar surface.

  16. Effective radium-226 concentration in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Moreira, Manuel; Zanda, Brigitte; Rochette, Pierre; Teitler, Yoram

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of noble gases in meteorites provides constraints on the early solar system and the pre-solar nebula. This requires a better characterization and understanding of the capture, production, and release of noble gases in meteorites. The knowledge of transfer properties of noble gases for each individual meteorite could benefit from using radon-222, radioactive daughter of radium-226. The radon-222 emanating power is commonly quantified by the effective radium-226 concentration (ECRa), the product of the bulk radium-226 concentration and of the emanation coefficient E, which represents the probability of one decaying radium-226 to inject one radon-222 into the free porous network. Owing to a non-destructive, high-sensitivity accumulation method based on long photomultiplier counting sessions, we are now able to measure ECRa of meteorite samples, which usually have mass smaller than 15 g and ECRa < 0.5 Bq kg-1. We report here the results obtained from 41 different meteorites, based on 129 measurements on 70 samples using two variants of our method, showing satisfactory repeatability and a detection limit below 10-2 Bq kg-1 for a sample mass of 1 g. While two meteorites remain below detection level, we obtain for 39 meteorites heterogeneous ECRa values with mean (min-max range) of ca. 0.1 (0.018-1.30) Bq kg-1. Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit the largest ECRa values and eucrites the smallest. Such values are smaller than typical values from most terrestrial rocks, but comparable with those from Archean rocks (mean of ca. 0.18 Bq kg-1), an end-member of terrestrial rocks. Using uranium concentration from the literature, E is inferred from ECRa for all the meteorite samples. Values of E for meteorites (mean 40 ± 4%) are higher than E values for Archean rocks and reported values for lunar and Martian soils. Exceptionally large E values likely suggest that the 238U-226Ra pair would not be at equilibrium in most meteorites and that uranium and/or radium are most

  17. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Results from a carbon-14 study in size fractions of lunar soil are reported. The 10 to 30 micrometers and 74 to 124 micrometers size fraction results were supplemented by 30 to 37 micrometers results that are given in this report. The gases from the less than 10 micrometers fraction were extracted and purified and carbon-14 counting is now in progress. Meteorites were also studied using carbon-14, with emphasis directed to those recently discovered in the Antarctic.

  18. Theories for the origin of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, W. D.; Dyal, P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the major theories which have been proposed to explain the remanent magnetism found in the lunar crust. A total of nine different mechanisms for lunar magnetism are discussed and evaluated in light of the theoretical and experimental constraints pertinent to lunar magnetism. It is concluded that none of these theories in their present state of development satisfy all the known constraints. However, the theories which agree best with the present understanding of the moon are meteorite impact magnetization, thermoelectric dynamo field generation, and an early solar wind field.

  19. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, A.E.J.; Engel, C.G.

    1970-01-01

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elements and the initial compositions of the earth and moon.

  20. Theories for the origin of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, W. D.; Dyal, P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the major theories which have been proposed to explain the remanent magnetism found in the lunar crust. A total of nine different mechanisms for lunar magnetism are discussed and evaluated in light of the theoretical and experimental constraints pertinent to lunar magnetism. It is concluded that none of these theories in their present state of development satisfy all the known constraints. However, the theories which agree best with the present understanding of the moon are meteorite impact magnetization, thermoelectric dynamo field generation, and an early solar wind field.

  1. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E; Engel, C G

    1970-01-30

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elemizents and the initial compositions of the earth and moon.

  2. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William; Taylor, L. A.; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused momentary health issues for some of the astronauts. Therefore, the plan to resume robotic and manned missions to the Moon in the next decade has led to a renewed interest in the properties of lunar dust, ranging from geological to chemical to toxicological. An important property to understand is the reactivity of the dust particles. Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. On the Moon, these species can be maintained for millennia without oxygen or water vapor present to satisfy the broken bonds. Unfortunately, the Apollo dust samples that were returned to Earth were inadvertently exposed to the atmosphere, causing them to lose their reactive characteristics. In order to aid in the preparation of mitigation techniques prior to returning to the Moon, we measured the ability of lunar dust, lunar dust simulant, and quartz samples to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution[1]. As a first approximation of meteorite impacts on the lunar surface, we ground samples using a mortar and pestle. Our initial studies showed that all three test materials (lunar dust (62241), lunar dust simulant (JSC-1Avf), and quartz) produced hydroxyl radicals after grinding and mixing with water. However, the radical production of the ground lunar dust was approximately 10-fold and 3-fold greater than quartz and JSC-1 Avf, respectively. These reactivity differences between the different samples did not correlate with differences in specific surface area. The increased reactivity produced for the quartz by grinding was attributed to the presence of silicon- or oxygen-based radicals on the surface, as had been seen previously[2]. These radicals may also

  3. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  4. Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, petrography, meteoritic composition, planetary geology, atmospheric composition, astronomical spectroscopy, lunar geology, Mars (planet), Mars composition, Mars surface, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, Mars craters, lunar craters, mineralogy, mineral deposits, lithology, asteroids, impact melts, planetary composition, planetary atmospheres, planetary mapping, cosmic dust, photogeology, stratigraphy, lunar craters, lunar exploration, space exploration, geochronology, tectonics, atmospheric chemistry, astronomical models, and geochemistry. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  5. Lunar interactions: Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference on Interactions of the Interplanetary Plasma with the Modern and Ancient Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R. (Editor); Freeman, J. W. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Reviewed are the active mechanisms relating the moon to its environment and the linkage between these mechanisms and their records in the lunar sample and geophysical data. Topics: (1) large scale plasma interactions with the moon and non-magnetic planets; (2) ancient and present day lunar surface magnetic and electric fields; (3) dynamics and evolution of the lunar atmosphere; (4) evolution of the solar plasma; (5) lunar record of solar radiations; (6) non-meteoritic and meteoritic disturbance and transport of lunar surface materials; and (7) future lunar exploration.

  6. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  7. Apollo 17 Astronaut and United States Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 Astronaut standing upon the lunar surface with the United States flag in the background. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE)and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  8. Water in lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speed, R. C.

    1963-01-01

    Two lines of evidence, suggest independently that materials which formed the Moon were not anhydrous: 1. Meteorites, our only sample of extraterrestrial material, contain water in varying amounts. Chondrites average about 0.25% water by weight. Carbonaceous chondrites, however, contain up to 20% water; and, although much of this water may be adsorbed atmospheric and surface water, the abundance of silicate hydrates in these objects indicates that considerable water existed in these meteorites before Earth impact. 2. The gas emission from Alphonsus observed by Kosyrev indicates that volatiles are diffusing out of the Moon. The observed emission was a C, band. Analyses of presumably juvenile gases reaching the Earth's surface show that water generally composes 95% or more of the gas. By analogy, it is suggested that water must be reaching the lunar surface. Consequently, it is reasonable to conclude that water existed in the materials which formed the Moon as well as those which formed the Earth or meteorites (or their source object). An estimate of the water content of the primordial Earth is 0.03%.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses" included the following reports:Consequences of High Crystallinity for the Evolution of the Lunar Magma Ocean: Trapped Plagioclase; Low Abundances of Highly Siderophile Elements in the Lunar Mantle: Evidence for Prolonged Late Accretion; Fast Anorthite Dissolution Rates in Lunar Picritic Melts: Petrologic Implications; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints II: Detailed analysis of ROIs; Origin of Lunar High Titanium Ultramafic Glasses: A Hybridized Source?; Ilmenite Solubility in Lunar Basalts as a Function of Temperature and Pressure: Implications for Petrogenesis; Garnet in the Lunar Mantle: Further Evidence from Volcanic Glasses; Preliminary High Pressure Phase Relations of Apollo 15 Green C Glass: Assessment of the Role of Garnet; Oxygen Fugacity of Mare Basalts and the Lunar Mantle. Application of a New Microscale Oxybarometer Based on the Valence State of Vanadium; A Model for the Origin of the Dark Ring at Orientale Basin; Petrology and Geochemistry of LAP 02 205: A New Low-Ti Mare-Basalt Meteorite; Thorium and Samarium in Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses: Insights into the Composition of the Lunar Mantle and Basaltic Magmatism on the Moon; and Eu2+ and REE3+ Diffusion in Enstatite, Diopside, Anorthite, and a Silicate Melt: A Database for Understanding Kinetic Fractionation of REE in the Lunar Mantle and Crust.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session"Viewing the Lunar Interior Through Titanium-Colored Glasses" included the following reports:Consequences of High Crystallinity for the Evolution of the Lunar Magma Ocean: Trapped Plagioclase; Low Abundances of Highly Siderophile Elements in the Lunar Mantle: Evidence for Prolonged Late Accretion; Fast Anorthite Dissolution Rates in Lunar Picritic Melts: Petrologic Implications; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints II: Detailed analysis of ROIs; Origin of Lunar High Titanium Ultramafic Glasses: A Hybridized Source?; Ilmenite Solubility in Lunar Basalts as a Function of Temperature and Pressure: Implications for Petrogenesis; Garnet in the Lunar Mantle: Further Evidence from Volcanic Glasses; Preliminary High Pressure Phase Relations of Apollo 15 Green C Glass: Assessment of the Role of Garnet; Oxygen Fugacity of Mare Basalts and the Lunar Mantle. Application of a New Microscale Oxybarometer Based on the Valence State of Vanadium; A Model for the Origin of the Dark Ring at Orientale Basin; Petrology and Geochemistry of LAP 02 205: A New Low-Ti Mare-Basalt Meteorite; Thorium and Samarium in Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses: Insights into the Composition of the Lunar Mantle and Basaltic Magmatism on the Moon; and Eu2+ and REE3+ Diffusion in Enstatite, Diopside, Anorthite, and a Silicate Melt: A Database for Understanding Kinetic Fractionation of REE in the Lunar Mantle and Crust.

  11. Trace geochemistry of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar samples from the Apollo 16 and 17 flights which were analyzed include soil, igneous rock, anorthositic gabbro, orange soil, subfloor basalt, and norite breccia. Up to 57 elements including majors, minors, rare earths and other trace elements were determined in the lunar samples. The analytical techniques used were spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The latter was done either instrumentally or with group radiochemical separations. The differences in abundances of the elements in lunar soils at the various sites are discussed. With regard to the major elements only Si is about the same at all the sites. A detailed analysis which was performed on a sample of the Allende meteorite is summarized.

  12. High-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Naotaka; Miyahara, Masaaki

    2017-09-01

    Heavily shocked meteorites contain various types of high-pressure polymorphs of major minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and quartz) and accessory minerals (chromite and Ca phosphate). These high-pressure minerals are micron to submicron sized and occur within and in the vicinity of shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in chondrites and lunar, howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED), and Martian meteorites. Their occurrence suggests two types of formation mechanisms (1) solid-state high-pressure transformation of the host-rock minerals into monomineralic polycrystalline aggregates, and (2) crystallization of chondritic or monomineralic melts under high pressure. Based on experimentally determined phase relations, their formation pressures are limited to the pressure range up to 25 GPa. Textural, crystallographic, and chemical characteristics of high-pressure minerals provide clues about the impact events of meteorite parent bodies, including their size and mutual collision velocities and about the mineralogy of deep planetary interiors. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the findings on natural high-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites that have been reported over the past 50 years.

  13. Meteorite transport—Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2017-08-01

    Meteorites are delivered from the asteroid belt by way of chaotic zones (Wisdom 1985a). The dominant sources are believed to be the chaotic zones associated with the ν6 secular resonance, the 3:1 mean motion resonance, and the 5:2 mean motion resonance. Though the meteorite transport process has been previously studied, those studies have limitations. Here I reassess the meteorite transport process with fewer limitations. Prior studies have not been able to reproduce the afternoon excess (the fact that approximately twice as many meteorites fall in the afternoon as in the morning) and suggested that the afternoon excess is an observational artifact; here it is shown that the afternoon excess is in fact consistent with the transport of meteorites by way of chaotic zones in the asteroid belt. By studying models with and without the inner planets it is found that the inner planets significantly speed up the transport of meteorites.

  14. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, Volume 31, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satterwhite, Cecilia (Editor); Righter, Kevin (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This newsletter reports 418 new meteorites from the 2004 and 2006 ANSMET seasons from the Cumulus Hills (CMS), LaPaz Ice Field (LAP), Graves Nunataks (GRA), Grosvenor Mountains (GRO), Larkman Nunatak (LAR), MacAlpine Hills (MAC), Miller Range (MIL), Roberts Massif (RBT), and Scott Glacier (SCO). These new samples include one iron, 1 eucrite, 1 mesosiderite, 6 CK chondrites (2 with pairing), 2 CV3 chondrites, 1 CM1, 7 CM2 (4 with pairing), 3 CR2 (2 with pairing), and one each of a type 3 L and H chondrites. The CK6 chondrites (LAR 06869, 06872, 06873) are unusual in that they have no discernable chondrules, extremely fine-grained texture, and are full of veins. This newsletter represents a break from recent newsletters in which we have announced many unusual and popular samples, including new lunar and martian meteorites, an unusual achondrite (GRA 06128 and 06129 the topic of a special session at this years LPSC).

  15. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter contains something for everyone! It lists classifications of about 440 meteorites mostly from the 1997 and 1998 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) seasons. It also gives descriptions of about 45 meteorites of special petrologic type. These include 1 iron, 17 chondrites (7 CC, 1 EC, 9 OC) and 27 achondrites (25 HED, UR). Most notable are an acapoloite (GRA98028) and an olivine diogenite (GRA98108).

  16. Fluorine in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. O., Jr.; Clark, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    Microanalysis using a resonant nuclear reaction was used to measure F concentrations in USGS standard rocks and 21 meteorites. The F appears to be a moderately depleted element, but there were significant variations within each sample. Measurements on separated metal phases suggest that about 20% of meteoritic F is in the metal or in a phase closely associated with it. Simultaneous measurements of F, Mg, Na, Al and Si in the nonmagnetic fractions of meteorites suggest plagioclase as a F containing phase.

  17. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  18. Sparking young minds with Moon rocks and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    What could be more exciting than seeing pieces of other worlds? The Apollo program left a legacy of astounding accomplishments and precious samples. Part of the thrill of those lunar missions is brought to schools by the lunar sample educational disks, which contain artifacts of six piloted trips to the Moon. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is preparing 100 new educational disks containing pieces of meteorites collected in Antarctica. These represent chunks of several different asteroids, that were collected in one of the most remote, forbidding environments on Earth. These pieces of the Moon and asteroids represent the products of basic planetary processes (solar nebular processes, initial differentiation, volcanism, and impact), and, in turn, these processes are controlled by basic physical and chemical processes (energy, energy transfer, melting, buoyancy, etc.). Thus, the lunar and meteorite sample disks have enormous educational potential. New educational materials are being developed to accompany the disks. Present materials are not as effective as they could be, especially in relating samples to processes and to other types of data such as spectral studies and photogeology. Furthermore, the materials are out of date. New background materials will be produced for teachers, assembling slide sets with extensive captions, and devising numerous hands-on classroom activities to do while the disks are at a school and before and after they arrive. The classroom activities will be developed by teams of experienced teachers working with lunar and meteorite experts.

  19. Sparking young minds with Moon rocks and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    What could be more exciting than seeing pieces of other worlds? The Apollo program left a legacy of astounding accomplishments and precious samples. Part of the thrill of those lunar missions is brought to schools by the lunar sample educational disks, which contain artifacts of six piloted trips to the Moon. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is preparing 100 new educational disks containing pieces of meteorites collected in Antarctica. These represent chunks of several different asteroids, that were collected in one of the most remote, forbidding environments on Earth. These pieces of the Moon and asteroids represent the products of basic planetary processes (solar nebular processes, initial differentiation, volcanism, and impact), and, in turn, these processes are controlled by basic physical and chemical processes (energy, energy transfer, melting, buoyancy, etc.). Thus, the lunar and meteorite sample disks have enormous educational potential. New educational materials are being developed to accompany the disks. Present materials are not as effective as they could be, especially in relating samples to processes and to other types of data such as spectral studies and photogeology. Furthermore, the materials are out of date. New background materials will be produced for teachers, assembling slide sets with extensive captions, and devising numerous hands-on classroom activities to do while the disks are at a school and before and after they arrive. The classroom activities will be developed by teams of experienced teachers working with lunar and meteorite experts.

  20. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  1. Kinetic Damage from Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William; Brown, Peter; Matney, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A Near Earth object impacting into Earth's atmosphere may produce damaging effects at the surface due to airblast, thermal pulse, or kinetic impact in the form of meteorites. At large sizes (greater than many tens of meters), the damage is amplified by the hypersonic impact of these large projectiles moving with cosmic velocity, leaving explosively produced craters. However, much more common is simple "kinetic" damage caused by the impact of smaller meteorites moving at terminal speeds. As of this date a handful of instances are definitively known of people or structures being directly hit and/or damaged by the kinetic impact of meteorites. Meteorites known to have struck humans include the Sylacauga, Alabama fall (1954) and the Mbale meteorite fall (1992). Much more common is kinetic meteorite damage to cars, buildings, and even a post box (Claxton, Georgia - 1984). Historical accounts indicate that direct kinetic damage by meteorites may be more common than recent accounts suggest (Yau et al., 1994). In this talk we will examine the contemporary meteorite flux and estimate the frequency of kinetic damage to various structures, as well as how the meteorite flux might affect the rate of human casualties. This will update an earlier study by Halliday et al (1985), adding variations expected in meteorite flux with latitude (Le Feuvre and Wieczorek, 2008) and validating these model predictions of speed and entry angle with observations from the NASA and SOMN fireball networks. In particular, we explore the physical characteristics of bright meteors which may be used as a diagnostic for estimating which fireballs produce meteorites and hence how early warning of such kinetic damage may be estimated in advance through observations and modeling.

  2. Kinetic Damage from Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William; Brown, Peter; Matney, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A Near Earth object impacting into Earth's atmosphere may produce damaging effects at the surface due to airblast, thermal pulse, or kinetic impact in the form of meteorites. At large sizes (>many tens of meters), the damage is amplified by the hypersonic impact of these large projectiles moving with cosmic velocity, leaving explosively produced craters. However, much more common is simple "kinetic" damage caused by the impact of smaller meteorites moving at terminal speeds. As of this date a handful of instances are definitively known of people or structures being directly hit and/or damaged by the kinetic impact of meteorites. Meteorites known to have struck humans include the Sylacauga, Alabama fall (1954) and the Mbale meteorite fall (1992). Much more common is kinetic meteorite damage to cars, buildings, and even a post box (Claxton, Georgia - 1984). Historical accounts indicate that direct kinetic damage by meteorites may be more common than recent accounts suggest (Yau et al., 1994). In this talk we will examine the contemporary meteorite flux and estimate the frequency of kinetic damage to various structures, as well as how the meteorite flux might affect the rate of human casualties. This will update an earlier study by Halliday et al (1985), adding variations expected in meteorite flux with latitude (Le Feuvre and Wieczorek, 2008) and validating these model predictions of speed and entry angle with observations from the NASA and SOMN fireball networks. In particular, we explore the physical characteristics of bright meteors which may be used as a diagnostic for estimating which fireballs produce meteorites and hence how early warning of such kinetic damage may be estimated in advance through observations and modelling.

  3. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions. [from Allende and Leoville meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The present absolute isotope abundance measurements of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites show the extreme rarity of nonlinear isotope effects in Ca, in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects whose range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. A correlation is found between Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects and inclusion type, and a possible correlation between isotope fractionation and rare earth element abundance patterns is discussed.

  4. Magnetism in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview is presented of magnetism in meteorites. A glossary of magnetism terminology followed by discussion of the various techniques used for magnetism studies in meteorites are included. The generalized results from use of these techniques by workers in the field are described. A brief critical analysis is offered.

  5. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of whether organic compounds originated in meteorites as a primary condensate from a solar gas or whether they were introduced as a secondary product into the meteorite during its residence in a parent body is examined by initially attempting to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation (temperature, pressure, time) from clues in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is then analyzed on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, and compounds synthesized in model experiments on the condensation of carbon are compared with those actually found in meteorites. Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ammonia in the solar nebula at 360 to 400 K temperature and about 3 to 7.6 microtorr pressure. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures.

  6. Fullerenes in Allende Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, L.; Bada, J. L.; Winans, R. E.; Bunch, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of fullerenes in deposits from meteor impacts has led to renewed interest in the possibility that fullerenes are present in meteorites. Although fullerenes have not previously been detected in the Murchison and Allende meteorites, the Allende meteorite is known to contain several well-ordered graphite particles which are remarkably similar in size and appearance to the fullerene-related structures carbon onions and nanotubes. We report that fullerenes are in fact present in trace amounts in the Allende meteorite. In addition to fullerenes, we detected many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Allende meteorite, consistent with previous reports. In particular, we detected benzofluoranthene and corannulene (C20H10), five-membered ring structures which have been proposed as precursors to the formation of fullerene synthesis, perhaps within circumstellar envelopes or other sites in the interstellar medium.

  7. Fullerenes in Allende Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, L.; Bada, J. L.; Winans, R. E.; Bunch, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of fullerenes in deposits from meteor impacts has led to renewed interest in the possibility that fullerenes are present in meteorites. Although fullerenes have not previously been detected in the Murchison and Allende meteorites, the Allende meteorite is known to contain several well-ordered graphite particles which are remarkably similar in size and appearance to the fullerene-related structures carbon onions and nanotubes. We report that fullerenes are in fact present in trace amounts in the Allende meteorite. In addition to fullerenes, we detected many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Allende meteorite, consistent with previous reports. In particular, we detected benzofluoranthene and corannulene (C20H10), five-membered ring structures which have been proposed as precursors to the formation of fullerene synthesis, perhaps within circumstellar envelopes or other sites in the interstellar medium.

  8. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of whether organic compounds originated in meteorites as a primary condensate from a solar gas or whether they were introduced as a secondary product into the meteorite during its residence in a parent body is examined by initially attempting to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation (temperature, pressure, time) from clues in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is then analyzed on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, and compounds synthesized in model experiments on the condensation of carbon are compared with those actually found in meteorites. Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ammonia in the solar nebula at 360 to 400 K temperature and about 3 to 7.6 microtorr pressure. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures.

  9. Lunar polar ice deposits: scientific and utilization objectives of the Lunar Ice Discovery Mission proposal.

    PubMed

    Duke, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The Clementine mission has revived interest in the possibility that ice exists in shadowed craters near the lunar poles. Theoretically, the problem is complex, with several possible sources of water (meteoroid, asteroid, comet impact), several possible loss mechanisms (impact vaporization, sputtering, photoionization), and burial by meteorite impact. Opinions of modelers have ranged from no ice to several times 10(16) g of ice in the cold traps. Clementine bistatic radar data have been interpreted in favor of the presence of ice, while Arecibo radar data do not confirm its presence. The Lunar Prospector mission, planned to be flown in the fall of 1997, could gather new evidence for the existence of ice. If ice is present, both scientific and utilitarian objectives would be addressed by a lunar polar rover, such as that proposed to the NASA Discovery program, but not selected. The lunar polar rover remains the best way to understand the distribution and characteristics of lunar polar ice.

  10. Electrostatic charging of lunar dust

    SciTech Connect

    Walch, Bob; Horanyi, Mihaly; Robertson, Scott

    1998-10-21

    Transient dust clouds suspended above the lunar surface were indicated by the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor spacecrafts and the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite Experiment (Apollo 17), for example. The theoretical models cannot fully explain these observations, but they all suggest that electrostatic charging of the lunar surface due to exposure to the solar wind plasma and UV radiation could result in levitation, transport and ejection of small grains. We report on our experimental studies of the electrostatic charging properties of an Apollo-17 soil sample and two lunar simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1. We have measured their charge after exposing individual grains to a beam of fast electrons with energies in the range of 20{<=}E{<=}90 eV. Our measurements indicate that the secondary electron emission yield of the Apollo-17 sample is intermediate between MLS-1 and JSC-1, closer to that of MLS-1. We will also discuss our plans to develop a laboratory lunar surface model, where time dependent illumination and plasma bombardment will closely emulate the conditions on the surface of the Moon.

  11. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  12. Leftovers from Ancient Lunar Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2012-06-01

    The lunar basins mark a time, over three and a half billion years ago, of extreme bombardment in the early Solar System, including in the young Earth-Moon system. What hit the Moon (and by proxy, Earth) at the end of the basin-forming epoch has now been determined directly, for the first time, from the analyses of impactor debris found in samples returned from the Apollo 16 landing site. Katie Joy (Lunar and Planetary Institute, NASA Lunar Science Institute) and colleagues working in Houston and Honolulu identified 30 tiny mineral and rock relics of chondritic impactors during their systematic search of regolith breccias bormed between about 3.8-3.4 billion years ago. The relatively uniform composition of these chondritic meteorite fragments is in contrast to the variety of meteorites in our collections, supporting the idea that the influx of materials bombarding the Moon and Earth 3.4 billion years ago, or more, was different from more recent times.

  13. Understanding the Potential Toxic Properties of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust causes a variety of problems for spacecraft. It can obscure vision, clog equipment, cause seal failures and abrade surfaces. Additionally, lunar dust is potentially toxic and therefore hazardous to astronauts. Lunar dust can be activated by meteorites, UV radiation and elements of solar wind and, if inhaled, could produce reactive species in the lungs (freshly fractured quartz). Methods of lunar dust deactivation must be determined before new lunar missions. This requires knowledge of how to reactivate lunar dust on Earth - thus far crushing/grinding, UV activation and heating have been tested as activation methods. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of hydroxyl radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Decreases in pH lead to increased lunar simulant leaching. Additionally, both ground and unground lunar simulant and unground quartz have been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. The results suggest the need for further studies on lunar dust and simulants prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  14. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  15. Lunar shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, P.; Garcia, M.; Higham, D.; Spackman, D.; Garcia, J.; Chapman, T.; Cook, M.; Jelke, J.; Slingerland, G.; Anderson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the extension of human presence into the solar system include the establishment of a permanently occupied base on the Moon for use as a source of raw materials, a transportation node, a facility for the fabrication and launch of elements of the space exploration infrastructure, and a base for scientific investigation and astronomical observatories. All of the aforementioned uses of a lunar base foresee the requirement for a lunar shuttle to operate from the lunar surface to one or more orbiting space stations located in low lunar orbits (LLO). The Utah State University lunar shuttle design is baslined for implementation after a mature lunar base has been established. The shuttle is designed to operate between the lunar base and a space station located in a 400-km-altitude orbit. This orbit was chosen with reference to Apollo experience, which has indicated that very low orbits, on the order of 100-km, may be unstable over periods of many months. After a thorough investigation of the anticipated needs and production capabilities of a lunar base, several design requirements were placed upon the shuttle. These requirements are (1) maximum use of lunar-derived propellant; (2) modularity and payload versatility; (3) two-way transport of 25-metric-ton cargo; (4) human transport capability; (5) satellite servicing; and (6) 3000-kg mass budget.

  16. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  17. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    New initiatives to begin lunar and martian colonization within the next few decades are illustrative of the resurgence of interest in space travel. One of NASA's major concerns with extended human space exploration is the inadvertent and repeated exposure to unknown dust. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates both the geochemical reactivity (e.g. iron solubility and acellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and the relative toxicity (e.g. in vitro and in vivo pulmonary inflammation) of six meteorite samples representing either basalt or regolith breccia on the surface of the Moon, Mars, and Asteroid 4Vesta. Terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is also used for comparison. The MORB demonstrated higher geochemical reactivity than most of the meteorite samples but caused the lowest acute pulmonary inflammation (API). Notably, the two martian meteorites generated some of the highest API but only the basaltic sample is significantly reactive geochemically. Furthermore, while there is a correlation between a meteorite's soluble iron content and its ability to generate acellular ROS, there is no direct correlation between a particle's ability to generate ROS acellularly and its ability to generate API. However, assorted in vivo API markers did demonstrate strong positive correlations with increasing bulk Fenton metal content. In summary, this comprehensive dataset allows for not only the toxicological evaluation of astromaterials but also clarifies important correlations between geochemistry and health.

  18. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-11-30

    S72-37259 (November 1972) --- The Geophone Module and Cable Reels of the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203), a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. LSPE components are four geophones similar to those used in an earlier active seismic experiment, an electronics package in the ALSEP central station, and eight explosive packages which will be deployed during the geology traverse. The four geophones will be placed one in the center and one at each corner of a 90-meter equilateral triangle. Explosive charges placed on the surface will generate seismic waves of varying strengths to provide data on the structural profile of the landing site. After the charges have been fired by ground command, the experiment will settle down into a passive listening mode, detecting moonquakes, meteorite impacts and the thump caused by the Lunar Module ascent stage impact.

  19. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiments package

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-05-10

    S72-37260 (November 1972) --- The remote antenna for the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment, Numbered S-203, a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. LSPE components are four geophones similar to those used in earlier active seismic experiments an electronics package in the ALSEP central station, and eight explosive packages which will be deployed during the geology traverse. The four geophones will be placed one in the center and at each corner of a 90-meter equilateral triangle. Explosive charges placed on the surface will generate seismic waves of varying strengths to provide data on the structural profile of the landing site. After the charges have been fired by ground command, the experiment will settle down into a passive listening mode, detecting moonquakes, meteorite impacts and the thump caused by the Lunar Module ascent stage impact. The antenna is of the telescoping type.

  20. Radiocarbon datings of Yamato meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kigoshi, K.; Matsuda, E.

    1986-01-01

    The terrestrial ages of five Yamato Meteorites were measured by the content of cosmic-ray-produced carbon-14. Three Yamato Meteorites Y-74013, Y-74097, and Y-74136, which are all diogenites, were found at sites from one to two kilometers apart from each other. Evidence is presented for these three meteorites being a single meteorite. Also presented is a method adopted in the experimental procedure which includes a check for modern carbon contamination in the meteorites.

  1. Meteorites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, G. Joseph H.

    2012-05-01

    The article by Fairén et al. (2011) is very interesting to me, as not only have I published, albeit very cursorily, on the occurrence of meteorites on Mars (McCall 2005, 2011, 2012; McCall et al. 2006), but I was the author (McCall 1965) of the description of the Mount Padbury mesosiderite cited by Schröder et al. (2010) in their description of the four stony meteorites also found by the Opportunity rover. I have given my reasons elsewhere for thinking these are not mesosiderites (McCall 2012), but are likely differentiated stony meteorites of a hitherto unknown type.

  2. The mineralogy of meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, B.

    1972-01-01

    Of particular interest among minerals recently discovered in meteorites are five phosphate minerals, three of them unknown in terrestrial rocks; a chromium nitride and a silicon oxynitride; lonsdaleite and chaoite, new polymorphs of carbon; ringwoodite and majorite, the spinel and garnet analogs of olivine and pyroxene, respectively; a number of calcium- and aluminum-rich silicates in the Allende meteorite, a type III carbonaceous chondrite which fell in 1969; and several alkali-rich silicates found as inclusions in iron meteorites. Knowledge of the compositional range of the common minerals olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase has also been greatly increased by recent researches.

  3. Lunar Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Cohen, Barbara; Walden, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Flashlight is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory project, with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) serving as the principal investigator and providing the solar sail propulsion system. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence and abundance of exposed lunar water ice within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) at the lunar south pole, and to map its concentration at the 1-2 kilometer scale to support future exploration and use. After being ejected in cis-lunar space by the launch vehicle, Lunar Flashlight deploys solar panels and an 85-square-meter solar sail and maneuvers into a low-energy transfer to lunar orbit. The solar sail and attitude control system work to bring the satellite into an elliptical polar orbit, spiraling down over a period of 18 months to a perilune of 30-10 kilometers above the south pole for data collection. Lunar Flashlight uses its solar sail to shine reflected sunlight onto the lunar surface, measuring surface reflectance with a four-filter point spectrometer. The spectrometer measures water ice absorption features (1.5, 1.95 microns) and the continuum between them (1.1, 1.9 microns). The ratios of water ice bands to the continuum will provide a measure of the abundance of surface frost and its variability across PSRs. Water ice abundance will be correlated with other data from previous missions, such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, to provide future human and robotic explorers with a map of potential resources. The mission is enabled by the use of an 85-square-meter solar sail being developed by MSFC.

  4. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers from this report.

  5. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology.

  6. A 8.2 Ma Age for the Lunar Crater Giordano Bruno?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, J.

    2011-03-01

    Giordano Bruno (22 km diameter) is the youngest lunar crater of its size. Its formation age is discussed by using lit. data on (1) crater statistics, (2) ejection ages and petrography of lunar meteorites, and (3) 3He profiles of Earth’s sediments.

  7. History of meteorites from the moon collected in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Eugster, O

    1989-09-15

    In large asteroidal or cometary impacts on the moon, lunar surface material can be ejected with escape velocities. A few of these rocks were captured by Earth and were recently collected on the Antarctic ice. The records of noble gas isotopes and of cosmic ray-produced radionuclides in five of these meteorites reveal that they originated from at least two different impact craters on the moon. The chemical composition indicates that the impact sites were probably far from the Apollo and Luna landing sites. The duration of the moon-Earth transfer for three meteorites, which belong to the same fall event on Earth, lasted 5 to 11 million years, in contrast to a duration of less than 300,000 years for the two other meteorites. From the activities of cosmic ray-produced radionuclides, the date of fall onto the Antarctic ice sheet is calculated as 70,000 to 170,000 years ago.

  8. History of meteorites from the moon collected in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, O.

    1989-09-01

    In large asteroidal or cometary impacts on the moon, lunar surface material can be ejected with escape velocities. A few of these rocks were captured by earth and were recently collected on the Antarctic ice. The records of noble gas isotopes and of cosmic ray-produced radio-nuclides in five of these meteorites reveal that they originated from at least two different impact craters on the moon. The chemical composition indicates that the impact sites were probably far from the Apollo and Luna landing sites. The duration of the moon-earth transfer for three meteorites, which belong to the same fall event on earth, lasted 5 to 11 million years, in contrast to a duration of less than 300,000 years for the two other meteorites. From the activities of cosmic ray-produced radionuclides, the date of fall onto the Antarctic ice sheet is calculated as 70,000 to 170,000 years ago.

  9. Rock Degradation by Alkali Metals: A Possible Lunar Erosion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Naughton, J J; Barnes, I L; Hammond, D A

    1965-08-06

    When rocks melt under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, their alkali components volatilize as metals. These metal vapors act to comminute polycrystalline rocks to their component minerals. The resultant powder is porous and loosely packed and its characteristics may be compatible with the lunar surface as revealed by the Ranger photographs. If meteorite impact or lunar volcanism has produced vaporization or areas of molten lava, alkali erosion may have given dust of this character in adjacent solid areas.

  10. Processing of metal and oxygen from lunar deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Constance F.

    1992-01-01

    On the moon, some whole rocks may be ores for abundant elements, such as oxygen, but beneficiation will be important if metallic elements are sought from raw lunar dirt. In the extraction process, a beneficiated metallic ore, such as an oxide, sulfide, carbonate, or silicate mineral, is converted to reduced metal. A variety of plausible processing technologies, which includes recovery of meteoritic iron, and processing of lunar ilmenite, are described in this report.

  11. Antimony in iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Sb concentrations determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in 60 iron meteorites range from 0.2 ng/g to 36 microg/g. The meteorites with the highest Sb concentrations are those of the nonmagmatic groups IAB and IIICD, while meteorites with the lowest Sb concentrations are found in groups IVA and IVB. In all groups Sb is positively correlated with Ni; slopes on log Sb vs log Ni plots decrease with increasing Ni. This decrease may reflect an increasing tendency to avoid schreibersite during the analysis of high-Ni meteorites because Sb partitions strongly into schreibersite. It is found that schreibersite from New Westville is enriched in Cr, Ni, Ge, As, Sb, and Au and depleted in Fe, Co, Ir; the Sb content in schreibersite is 540 times higher than the bulk metal value.

  12. Thermal and impact histories of pyroxenes in lunar eucrite-like gabbros and eucrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, H.; Mori, H.; Ishii, T.; Miyamoto, M.

    Pyroxenes located at levels which are below those at which the near-surface basalts are found must be investigated to obtain more information on the cooling histories of primitive crusts. However, lunar analogs of the cumulate eucrites are rare. The discovery of the pristine eucrite-like gabbro from Descartes by Marvin and Warren (1980) provided an opportunity to investigate more slowly cooled and presumably deep crustal lunar rocks. The present investigation is, therefore, concerned with a comparison of pyroxene in lunar eucrite-like gabbro (61223,47 and 61224,36) and a KREEP-rich quartz monzodiorite (15405,148) with pyroxenes in lunar eucritic analogs (Moore County, Juvinas, and Yamato-74356). Attention is given to differences between lunar and meteoritic eucrites. It is found that the lunar analogs were subjected to complex shock effects of a much higher degree than the meteoritic eucrites.

  13. Shock metamorphism in lunar samples.

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, W; Arndt, J; Müller, W F; Stöffler, D

    1970-01-30

    Indications of shock metamorphism produced by pressures up to the megabar region have been observed in the fine material and the breccias, but very rarely in the coarser fragments of crystalline rocks. These indications are deformation structures in plagioclase and pyroxene, diaplectic plagioclase glasses, and glasses formed by shock-induced melting of lunar rocks. Two sources of shock waves have been distinguished: primary impact of meteorites and secondary impact of crater ejecta. There are two major chemical types of shock-induced melts. The differences in chemistry may be related to impact sites in mare and highland areas.

  14. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  15. Meteorites, Microfossils and Exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of evidence for biogenic activity and possible microfossils in a Martian meteorite may have initiated a paradigm shift regarding the existence of extraterrestrial microbial life. Terrestrial extremophiles that live in deep granite and hydrothermal vents and nanofossils in volcanic tuffs have altered the premise that microbial life and microfossils are inconsistent with volcanic activity and igneous rocks. Evidence for biogenic activity and microfossils in meteorites can no longer be dismissed solely because the meteoritic rock matrix is not sedimentary. Meteorite impact-ejection and comets provide mechanisms for planetary cross-contamination of biogenic chemicals, microfossils, and living microorganisms. Hence, previously dismissed evidence for complex indigenous biochemicals and possible microfossils in carbonaceous chondrites must be re-examined. Many similar, unidentifiable, biological-like microstructures have been found in different carbonaceous chondrites and the prevailing terrestrial contaminant model is considered suspect. This paper reports the discovery of microfossils indigenous to the Murchison meteorite. These forms were found in-situ in freshly broken, interior surfaces of the meteorite. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and optical microscopy images indicate that a population of different biological-like forms are represented. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy reveals these forms have high carbon content overlaying an elemental distribution similar to the matrix. Efforts at identification with terrestrial microfossils and microorganisms were negative. Some forms strongly resemble bodies previously isolated in the Orgueil meteorite and considered microfossils by prior researchers. The Murchison forms are interpreted to represent an indigenous population of the preserved and altered carbonized remains (microfossils) of microorganisms that lived in the parent body of this meteorite at diverse times during the past 4.5 billion

  16. Meteorite falls in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen

    2017-10-01

    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  17. Chronology of SNC meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    1991-04-01

    A model is presented for the geochemical evolution of Mars which is constrained by the isotope systematics of Pb, Nd, and Sr determined for SCN meteorites. The young magmatic crystallization ages of SCNs may indicate that these meteorites do in fact stem from Mars. Internal ages of U-Pb and Pb-Pb systematics strongly suggest that they are the result of two magmatic processes. In addition, shock metamorphism is implied from observed petrographic shock features.

  18. [Possibility of exacerbation of allergy by lunar regolith].

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori; Kuroda, Etsushi; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    Japan, U.S.A. and other foreign space agencies have plans for the construction of a lunar base and long-term stay of astronauts on the moon. The surface of the moon is covered by a thick layer of soil that includes fine particles called "lunar regolith", which is formed by meteorite impact and space weathering. Risk assessment of particulate matter on the moon is important for astronauts working in microgravity on the moon. However, there are few investigations about the biological influences of lunar regolith. Especially, there is no investigation about allergic activity to lunar regolith. The main chemical components of lunar regolith are SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeO, etc. Of particular interest, approximately 50% of lunar regolith consists of SiO2. There is a report that the astronauts felt hay fever-like symptoms from the inhalation of the lunar regolith. Yellow sand, whose chemical components are similar to lunar regolith, enhances allergenic reactions, suggesting the possibility that lunar regolith has an adjuvant-like activity. Although intraperitoneal administration of lunar regolith with ovalbumin to mouse did not show enhancement of allergenic reactions, further evaluation of lunar regolith's potential to exacerbate the effects of allergies is essential for development of the moon.

  19. Meteorites, Ice, and Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, William A.

    2003-08-01

    Bill Cassidy led meteorite recovery expeditions in the Antarctic for fifteen years and his searches have resulted in the collection of thousands of meteorite specimens from the ice. This personal account of his field experiences on the U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites Project reveals the influence the work has had on our understanding of the moon, Mars and the asteroid belt. Cassidy describes the hardships and dangers of fieldwork in a hostile environment, as well as the appreciation he developed for its beauty. William Cassidy is Emeritus Professor of Geology and Planetary Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He initiated the U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) nroject and led meteorite recovery expeditions in Antarctica in1976. His name is found attached to a mineral (cassidyite), on the map of Antarctica (Cassidy Glacier), and in the Catalog of Asteroids (3382 Cassidy). Profiled in "American Men of Science," and "Who's Who in America," he is also a recipient of The Antarctic Service Medal from the United States and has published widely in Science, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, and The Journal of Geophysical Research.

  20. Lunar Science for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will return humans to the Moon and will include robotic precursor missions in its early phases, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, now in development. Many opportunities for scientific investigations will arise from this program of exploration. Such opportunities will span across disciplines of planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science via remote observation and monitoring. This abstract focuses on some of the key lunar science objectives that can be addressed with robotic and human missions. Even after 35+ years of study of Apollo samples and data, and global remote sensing missions of the 1990's, key lunar science questions remain. Apollo provided ground truth for the central nearside, but ground truth is lacking for the lunar farside and poles. Lunar meteorites provide knowledge about areas potentially far distant from the central nearside, but ground truth in key areas such as the farside South Pole-Aitken Basin, which provides access to the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle, will enable more direct correlations between the lunar meteorites and global remotely sensed data. Extending and improving knowledge of surface compositions, including partially buried basalt deposits, globally, is needed to better understand the composition of the Moon's crust as a function of depth and of the mantle, and to provide new tests of the Moon's origin and early surface and internal evolution. These issues can be addressed in part with robotic measurements on the surface; however, samples cached for return to Earth are needed for detailed chemical, lithologic, and geochronologic investigations. Apollo experience has shown that regolith samples and/or rock fragments sieved from regolith provide a wealth of information that can be interpreted within the context of regional geology. Targeted sampling by humans and human/robotic teams can optimize sampling strategies. Detailed knowledge of specific

  1. Labile trace elements in basaltic achondrites: Can they distinguish between meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and V-type asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Stephen F.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    2009-06-01

    We report data for 14 mainly labile trace elements (Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn) in eight whole-rock lunar meteorites (Asuka [A-] 881757, Dar al Gani [DaG] 262, Elephant Moraine [EET] 87521, Queen Alexandra Range [QUE] 93069, QUE 94269, QUE 94281, Yamato [Y-] 793169, and Y-981031), and Martian meteorite (DaG 476) and incorporate these into a comparative study of basaltic meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and V-type asteroids. Multivariate cluster analysis of data for these elements in 14 lunar, 13 Martian, and 34 howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites demonstrate that materials from these three parents are distinguishable using these markers of late, low-temperature episodes. This distinguishability is essentially as complete as that based on markers of high-temperature igneous processes. Concentrations of these elements in 14 lunar meteorites are essentially lognormally distributed and generally more homogeneous than in Martian and HED meteorites. Mean siderophile and labile element concentrations in the 14 lunar meteorites indicate the presence of a CI-equivalent micrometeorite admixture of 2.6% When only feldspathic samples are considered, our data show a slightly higher value of 3.4% consistent with an increasing micrometeorite content in regolith samples of higher maturity. Concentrations of labile elements in the 8 feldspathic samples hint at the presence of a fractionated highly labile element component, possibly volcanic in origin, at a level comparable to the micrometeorite component. Apparently, the process(es) that contributed to establishing lunar meteorite siderophile and labile trace element contents occurred in a system open to highly labile element transport.

  2. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (<30%) consists of a rich organic inventory of soluble organic compounds, including key compounds important in terrestrial biochemistry [2-4]. Different carbonaceous meteorites contain soluble organic molecules with different abundances and distributions, which may reflect the extension of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism on the meteorite parent bodies. Extensive aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body may result on 1) the decomposition of α-amino acids [5, 6]; 2) synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids [2, 6-9]; 3) higher relative abundances of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [6, 10]; and 4) higher L-enantiomer excess (Lee) value of isovaline [6, 11, 12].The soluble organic content of carbonaceous meteorites may also have a contribution from Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Concerning Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV session entitled "Concerning Chondrites" includes the following topics: 1) Petrology and Raman Spectroscopy of Shocked Phases in the Gujba CB Chondrite and the Shock History of the CB Parent Body; 2) The Relationship Between CK and CV Chondrites: A Single Parent Body Source? 3) Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites; 4) Composition and Origin of SiO2-rich Objects in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites; 5) Re-Os Systematics and HSE distribution in Tieschitz (H3.6); Two Isochrons for One Meteorite; 6) Loss of Chromium from Olivine During the Metamorphism of Chondrites; 7) Very Short Delivery Times of Meteorites After the L-Chondrite Parent Body Break-Up 480 Myr Ago; and 8) The Complex Exposure History of a Very Large L/LL5 Chondrite Shower: Queen Alexandra Range 90201.

  4. Interstellar organic globules in meteorites and comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Keller, Lindsay

    Organic matter in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is often enriched in D/H and 15N/14N relative to terrestrial values [1-3] due to preservation of interstellar cold molecular cloud material [1]. Some meteorites and IDPs contain micrometer-size inclusions with extreme H and N isotopic anomalies [2-4], possibly due to preserved primordial organic grains. In the Tagish Lake meteorite the main carriers of these anomalies are sub-micrometer, hollow organic globules [5]. Similar objects have been observed in extracts of other chondritic meteorites, but little is known about their N and H isotopic compositions [6-8]. We have measured the H, C, and N isotopic compositions of organic globules in the Bells CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorite, NASA Stardust (comet Wild-2) mission samples, and in ‘cometary' IDPs. High-resolution TEM imaging and EELS show that the globules consist of structurally amorphous carbon lacking long range order or development of graphite-like domains. In almost all cases the organic globules have strong enrichments in D/H and 15N/14N. These isotopic anomalies likely resulted from low temperature ( 10 K) chemical reactions in a cold molecular cloud or at the outer regions of the protosolar nebula. These results show that microscopic organic grains were widespread constituents of the protoplanetary disk. Microscopic organic globules may thus have been a common form of prebiotic organic matter delivered to the early Earth by comets and meteorites. References: [1] Messenger S. and Walker R.M. in Astrophysical Implications of the Laboratory Study of Presolar Materials (1997), p.545. [2] Messenger S. (2000) Nature 404, 968. [3] Busemann H. et al. (2006), Science 312, 727. [4] Floss C. et al. (2004) Science 303, 1355. [5] Nakamura-Messenger K. et al. (2006) Science, 314, 1439. [6] Claus G. and Nagy B., (1961) Nature 192, 594 [7] Aoki T., Akai J., Makino K. (2003) Int Symp.Evol. of Solar System Materials 5 [8] Garvie L

  5. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  6. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  7. Lunar beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    Natural concentrations of industrially valuable minerals are far less likely to be found on the Moon than on the Earth. But that is all the more reason for devising beneficiation processes to concentrate and extract the useful mineral components in lunar rocks and soils. As an example of a useful mineral that can be beneficiated, it has been estimated that ilmenite abundance accounts for 15 and 20 percent of the volume of the Apollo 11 and 17 basalts and 2 and 5 percent by volume in the Apollo 11 and 17 soils. Reduction of lunar ilmenite with hydrogen imported from Earth appears to one of the more practical schemes for obtaining lunar oxygen. While the reported concentrations are significant, a more highly concentrated ilmenite extract would improve the efficiency of the reduction process. The topics covered include electrostatic concentration, magnetic concentration, lunar soil sizing, and electrical sizing.

  8. Thermoluminescence and Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Hasan, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The level of natural thermoluminescence (TL) in meteorites is the result of competition between build-up, due to exposure to cosmic radiation, and thermal decay. Antarctic meteorites tend to have lower natural TL than non-Antarctic meteorites because of their generally larger terrestrial ages. However, since a few observed falls have low TL due to a recent heating event, such as passage within approximately 0.7 astronomical units of the Sun, this could also be the case for some Antarctic meteorites. Dose rate variations due to shielding, heating during atmospheric passage, and anomalous fading also cause natural TL variations, but the effects are either relatively small, occur infrequently, or can be experimentally circumvented. The TL sensitivity of meteorites reflects the abundance and nature of the feldspar. Thus intense shock, which destroys feldspar, causes the TL sensitivity to decrease by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, while metamorphism, which generates feldspar through the devitrification of glass, causes TL sensitivity to increase by a factor of approximately 10000. The TL-metamorphism relationship is particularly strong for the lowest levels of metamorphism. The order-disorder transformation in feldspar also affect the TL emission characteristics and thus TL provides a means of paleothermometry.

  9. The equation of state of a lunar anorthosite - 60025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, R.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    High-pressure equation of state data for lunar anorthosite with an initial porosity of about 18% are compared with previous results for nonporous anorthosite and lunar samples. The porous anorthosite is characterized by a lower shock impedance than the nonporous anorthosite; nonporous gabbroic anorthosite and high-titanium mare basalt show higher shock impedances than the nonporous anorthosite. Thus the properties of target rocks may bias crater statistics and apparent cratering ages for different lunar terranes. Repeated meteoritic bombardment of the moon resulting in even mild brecciation and, hence, porosity, could lead to increases in the efficiency with which thermal energy is trapped by the surface upon impact.

  10. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter. Volume 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Satterwhite, Cecilia E.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of 116 new meteorites from the 1994-1996 collections is announced. There are 4 special chondrites, 2 carbonaceous chondrites, and 1 achondrite among the new meteorites. Also included is a redescription of Lodranite GRA95209.

  11. Development of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Meeker, G.; Wilson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lunar exploration requires scientific and engineering studies using standardized testing procedures that ultimately support flight certification of technologies and hardware. It is necessary to anticipate the range of source materials and environmental constraints that are expected on the Moon and Mars, and to evaluate in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) coupled with testing and development. We describe here the development of standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials that are traceable inter-laboratory standards for testing and technology development. These SLRS materials must simulate the lunar regolith in terms of physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. A summary of these issues is contained in the 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials [l]. Lunar mare basalt simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1 were developed in the late 1980s. MLS-1 approximates an Apollo 11 high-Ti basalt, and was produced by milling of a holocrystalline, coarse-grained intrusive gabbro (Fig. 1). JSC-1 approximates an Apollo 14 basalt with a relatively low-Ti content, and was obtained from a glassy volcanic ash (Fig. 2). Supplies of MLS-1 and JSC-1 have been exhausted and these materials are no longer available. No highland anorthosite simulant was previously developed. Upcoming lunar polar missions thus require the identification, assessment, and development of both mare and highland simulants. A lunar regolith simulant is manufactured from terrestrial components for the purpose of simulating the physical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith. Significant challenges exist in the identification of appropriate terrestrial source materials. Lunar materials formed under comparatively reducing conditions in the absence of water, and were modified by meteorite impact events. Terrestrial materials formed under more oxidizing conditions with significantly greater access to water, and were modified by a wide range of weathering processes. The composition space of lunar

  12. Search for and analysis of radioactive halos in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The lunar halo search was conducted because halos in terrestrial minerals serve as pointers to localized radioactivity, and make possible analytical studies on the problems of isotopic dating and mode of crystallization of the host mineral. Ancillary studies were conducted on terrestrial halos and on certain samples of special origin such as tektites and meteorites.

  13. The relict magnetism of meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisowski, S. M.; Hood, L. L.

    1991-01-01

    Meteorite paleomagnetic studies are reviewed and evaluated. Possible mechanisms for producing early solar system magnetic fields that could have been responsible for the magnetization of some or all meteorite classes are explored. A detailed review of paleointensity results derived from the various classes of meteorites is given, and the likelihood that the results might related to solar or nebulawide magnetic fields is considered. The implications of meteorite magnetism for early solar system evolution are discussed.

  14. The relict magnetism of meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisowski, S. M.; Hood, L. L.

    1991-01-01

    Meteorite paleomagnetic studies are reviewed and evaluated. Possible mechanisms for producing early solar system magnetic fields that could have been responsible for the magnetization of some or all meteorite classes are explored. A detailed review of paleointensity results derived from the various classes of meteorites is given, and the likelihood that the results might related to solar or nebulawide magnetic fields is considered. The implications of meteorite magnetism for early solar system evolution are discussed.

  15. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science - XVII: Joseph Goldstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2012-05-01

    In this interview, Joseph Goldstein (Fig. 1) recounts how he became interested in meteorites during his graduate studies working with Robert Ogilvie at MIT. By matching the Ni profiles observed across taenite fields in the Widmanstätten structure of iron meteorites with profiles he computed numerically he was able to determine cooling rates as the meteorites cooled through 650-400 °C. Upon graduating, he worked with a team of meteorite researchers led by Lou Walter at Goddard Space Flight Center where for 4 years he attempted to understand metallographic structures by reproducing them in the laboratory. Preferring an academic environment, Joe accepted a faculty position in the rapidly expanding metallurgy department at Lehigh University where he was responsible for their new electron microprobe. He soon became involved in studying the metal from lunar soils and identifying the metallic component from its characteristic iron and nickel compositions. Over the next two decades he refined these studies of Ni diffusion in iron meteorites, particularly the effect of phosphorus in the process, which resulted in superior Fe-Ni-P phase diagrams and improved cooling rates for the iron meteorites. After a period as vice president for research at Lehigh, in 1993 he moved to the University of Massachusetts to serve as dean of engineering, but during these administrative appointments Joe produced a steady stream of scientific results. Joe has served as Councilor, Treasurer, Vice President, and President of the Meteoritical Society. He received the Leonard Medal in 2005, the Sorby Award in 1999, and the Dumcumb Award for in 2008.

  16. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  17. Kinetic Damage from Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W.; Matney, M.; Brown, P.

    2017-01-01

    Comparing the natural meteorite flux at the Earth's surface to that of space debris, reentering debris is approx. 2 orders of magnitude less of a kinetic hazard at all but the very largest (and therefore rarest) sizes compared to natural impactors. Debris re-entries over several metric tonnes are roughly as frequent as natural impactors, but the survival fraction is expected to be much higher. Kinetic hazards from meteorites are very small, with only one recorded (indirect) injury reported. We expect fatalities to be even more rare, on the order of one person killed per several millennia. That several reports exist of small fragments/sand hitting people during meteorite falls is consistent with our prediction that this should occur every decade or so.

  18. Kinetic Damage from Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W.; Brown, P.; Matney, M.

    2017-01-01

    Comparing the natural meteorite flux at the Earth's surface to that of space debris, re-entering debris is 2 orders of magnitude less of a kinetic hazard at all but the very largest (and therefore rarest) sizes compared to natural impactors. Debris re-entries over several metric tonnes are roughly as frequent as natural impactors, but the survival fraction is expected to be much higher. Kinetic hazards from meteorites are very small, with only one recorded (indirect) injury reported. We expect fatalities to be even more rare, on the order of one person killed per several millennia. That several reports exist of small fragments/sand hitting people during meteorite falls is consistent with our prediction that this should occur every decade or so.

  19. Primordial material in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Primordial is a term which applied to material that entered the solar system early and became incorporated into a meteorite without totally losing its identity. Identification of such material surviving in meteorites is so far solely through recognition of anomalous isotopic compositions of generally macroscopic entities contained within those meteorites. Isotopic anomalies are, by definition, isotopic compositions which differ from the canonical solar system abundances in ways which cannot be explained in terms of local processes such as mass dependent fractionation, cosmic ray induced spallation or decay of radionuclides. A comprehensive account of isotopic anomalies is impractical here, so it is necessary to be selective. Issues which are potentially addressable through the study of such primordial material are examined. Those issues will be illustrated with specific, but not exhaustive, examples.

  20. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  1. Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of the Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites, September 11-12, 2002, in Houston, Texas. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  2. Discovery of Coesite, Stishovite and Seifertite in Shocked Meteorites and Its Implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, M.; Ohtani, E.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ozawa, S.

    2016-08-01

    The high-pressure polymorphs of silica were discovered from several shocked meteorites and a lunar return sample. Now the high-pressure polymorphs of silica are becoming a new clue for clarifying a dynamic event occurred in the solar system.

  3. Meteorites and their parent planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, Harry Y.

    This book explores the origins of meteorites by tracing them back to their parent bodies, which are the sites of various geological processes. Recent discoveries are reviewed which reveal that the chemical and physical properties of meteorites contain a record of the processes that formed the solar system. How meteorites escape their parent bodies and find their way to earth is explained.

  4. Organics In Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1996-01-01

    The variety of classes of organic compounds that occur in carbonaceous meteorites suggests a rich pre-planetary chemistry with possible connections to interstellar, solar nebular and parent body processes. Structural diversity prevails within all classes examined in detail. Among amino acids for instance, all possible isomers are found up to species containing 4-6 carbon atoms, with abundances decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Such diversity seems limited to those carbonaceous meteorites which show evidence of having been exposed to liquid water; meteorites lacking such evidence also show much lower abundances and less structural diversity in their organic contents. This apparent dependency on water suggests a role for cometary ices in the chemical evolution of organic compounds on parent bodies. Measurements of the stable isotope compositions of C, H, N and S in classes of compounds and at the individual compound level show strong deviations from average chondritic values. These deviations are difficult to explain by solar system or parent body processes, and precedents for some of these isotopic anomalies exist in interstellar (e.g., high D/H ratios) and circumstellar chemistry. Therefore, presolar origins for much if not all of the meteoritic organic compounds (or their precursors) is a distinct possibility. In contrast, evidence of solar nebular origins is either lacking or suspect. Results from molecular and isotopic analyses of meteoritic organics, from laboratory simulations and from a model of interstellar grain reactions will be used to flesh out the hypothesis that this material originated with interstellar chemistry, was distributed within the early solar system as cometary ices, and was subsequently altered on meteorite parent bodies to yield the observed compounds.

  5. Organics In Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1996-01-01

    The variety of classes of organic compounds that occur in carbonaceous meteorites suggests a rich pre-planetary chemistry with possible connections to interstellar, solar nebular and parent body processes. Structural diversity prevails within all classes examined in detail. Among amino acids for instance, all possible isomers are found up to species containing 4-6 carbon atoms, with abundances decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Such diversity seems limited to those carbonaceous meteorites which show evidence of having been exposed to liquid water; meteorites lacking such evidence also show much lower abundances and less structural diversity in their organic contents. This apparent dependency on water suggests a role for cometary ices in the chemical evolution of organic compounds on parent bodies. Measurements of the stable isotope compositions of C, H, N and S in classes of compounds and at the individual compound level show strong deviations from average chondritic values. These deviations are difficult to explain by solar system or parent body processes, and precedents for some of these isotopic anomalies exist in interstellar (e.g., high D/H ratios) and circumstellar chemistry. Therefore, presolar origins for much if not all of the meteoritic organic compounds (or their precursors) is a distinct possibility. In contrast, evidence of solar nebular origins is either lacking or suspect. Results from molecular and isotopic analyses of meteoritic organics, from laboratory simulations and from a model of interstellar grain reactions will be used to flesh out the hypothesis that this material originated with interstellar chemistry, was distributed within the early solar system as cometary ices, and was subsequently altered on meteorite parent bodies to yield the observed compounds.

  6. Antarctic Meteorite Location and Mapping Project (AMLAMP): Antarctic meteorite location map series explanatory text and user's guide to AMLAMP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J.; Fessler, B.; Cassidy, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    This technical report is an update to LPI Technical Report 89-02, which contained data and information that was current to May 1987. Since that time approximately 4000 new meteorites have been collected, mapped, and characterized, mainly from the numerous ice fields in the Allan Hills-David Glacier region, from the Pecora Escarpment and Moulton Escarpment in the Thiel Mountains-Patuxent region, the Wisconsin Range region, and from the Beardmore region. Meteorite location maps for ice fields from these regions have been produced and are available. This report includes explanatory texts for the maps of new areas and provides information on updates of maps of the areas covered in LPI Technical Report 89-02. Sketch maps and description of locales that have been searched and have yielded single or few meteorites are also included. The meteorite listings for all the ice fields have been updated to include any classification changes and new meteorites recovered from ice fields in the Allan Hills-David Glacier region since 1987. The text has been reorganized and minor errors in the original report have been corrected. Computing capabilities have improved immensely since the early days of this project. Current software and hardware allow easy access to data over computer networks. With various commercial software packages, the data can be used many different ways, including database creation, statistics, and mapping. The databases, explanatory texts, and the plotter files used to produce the meteorite location maps are available through a computer network. Information on how to access AMLAMP data, its formats, and ways it can be used are given in the User's Guide to AMLAMP Data section. Meteorite location maps and thematic maps may be ordered from the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Ordering information is given in Appendix A.

  7. Shock effects in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Bischoff, A.; Buchwald, V.; Rubin, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The impacts that can occur between objects on intersecting solar system orbits can generate shock-induced deformations and transformations, creating new mineral phases or melting old ones. These shock-metamorphic effects affect not only the petrography but the chemical and isotopic properties and the ages of primordial meteoritic materials. A fuller understanding of shock metamorphism and breccia formation in meteorites will be essential not only in the study of early accretion, differentiation, and regolith-evolution processes, but in the characterization of the primordial composition of the accreted material itself.

  8. Iron Meteorite on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has found an iron meteorite on Mars, the first meteorite of any type ever identified on another planet. The pitted, basketball-size object is mostly made of iron and nickel. Readings from spectrometers on the rover determined that composition. Opportunity used its panoramic camera to take the images used in this approximately true-color composite on the rover's 339th martian day, or sol (Jan. 6, 2005). This composite combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer (red), 530-nanometer (green), and 480-nanometer (blue) filters.

  9. Descriptions of stony meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Score, R.; King, T. V. V.; Schwarz, C. M.; Reid, A. M.; Mason, B.

    1982-01-01

    The individual specimens, arranged by class are described. Within the chondrites, the specimens are grouped according to the Van Schmus-Wood classification, and the descriptions follow the order of increasing petrographic type. The original weight of the specimen is given to the nearest gram (nearest 0.1 gram for specimens weighing less than 100 grams). Material on al characterized meteorites collected together with descriptions of some meteorites is included. Specimens weighing less than 100 grams are listed without descriptions, unless they show distinctive features.

  10. Identification of Iron-Bearing Phases on the Martian Surface and in Martian Meteorites and Analogue Samples by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Agresti, D. G.; Schroeder, C.; Rodionov, D.; Yen, A.; Ming, Doug; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit (Gusev Crater) and Opportunity (Meridiani Planum) have each analyzed more than 100 targets during their ongoing missions (>1050 sols). Here we summarize the Fe-bearing phases identified to date and compare the results to Moessbauer analyses of martian meteorites and lunar samples. We use lunar samples as martian analogues because some, particularly the low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts, have bulk chemical compositions that are comparable to basaltic martian meteorites [1,2]. The lunar samples also provide a way to study pigeonite-rich samples. Pigeonite is a pyroxene that is not common in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon and is present in basaltic martian meteorites

  11. The Microstructure of Lunar Micrometeorite Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The peak of the mass flux of impactors striking the lunar surface is made up of objects approximately 200 micrometers in diameter that erode rocks, comminute regolith grains, and produce agglutinates. The effects of these micro-scale impacts are still not fully understood. Much effort has focused on evaluating the physical and optical effects of micrometeorite impacts on lunar and meteoritic material using pulsed lasers to simulate the energy deposited into a substrate in a typical hypervelocity impact. Here we characterize the physical and chemical changes that accompany natural micrometeorite impacts into lunar rocks with long surface exposure to the space environment (12075 and 76015). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were obtained from cross-sections of approximately 10-20 micrometers diameter craters that revealed important micro-structural details of micrometeorite impact processes, including the creation of npFe (sup 0) in the melt, and extensive deformation around the impact site.

  12. A Comparison of Anorthositic Lunar Lithologies: Variation on the FAN Theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Shirai, N.

    2014-01-01

    Certain anorthositic rocks that are rare in the returned lunar samples have been identified among lunar meteorites. The variety of anorthosites in the Apollo collection also is more varied than is widely recognized. James eta. identified three lithologies in a composite clast o ferroan anorthosite (FAN)-suite rocks in lunar breccia 64435. They further divided all FANs into four subgroups: anorthositic ferroan (AF), mafic magnesian (MM), mafic ferroan (MF), and anorthositic sodic (AS, absent in the 64435 clast). Here we report Sm-Nd isotopic studies of the lithologies present in the 64435 composite clast and compare the new data to our previous data for lunar anorthosites incuding lunar anorthositic meteorites. Mineralogy-petrography, in situ trace element studies, Sr-isotope studies, and Ar-Ar chronology are included, but only the Nd-isotopic studies are currently complete.

  13. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  14. Lunar basins and craters - Evidence for systematic compositional changes of bombarding population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertogen, J.; Janssens, M.-J.; Takahashi, H.; Palme, H.; Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Of the 33 lunar samples considered in the investigation, 31 came from the North Ray Crater. The relationship between meteoritic component and rock type is studied. There appears to be some correlation between the meteoritic component, as given by the Ir/Au ratio, and the rock type, as given by the U content. The relation of ancient meteoritic components to basins and craters is examined, taking into account the resolution of groups, the relative ages from clast-matrix relations, assignments to specific basins or craters, and the relation between meteoritic components and Woenke's 'primary matter'. A table shows seven meteorite-free samples which are all low-alkali cataclastic anorthosites, or anorthositic clasts in light-matrix breccias. The origin of ancient meteoritic bodies are also investigated. The latest data strengthen earlier conclusions that the basin-forming objects were genetically related to the moon.

  15. Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples, some of which can be seen in this photograph. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  16. Minor-element signature of relic olivine grains in deep-sea particles - A match with forsterites from C2 meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The results of high-precision electron microprobe analyses on relic forsterites in 13 different deep sea particles (DSP) are described, comparing their 'minor' element (Mn, Cr, Ca, Ti, Al) signatures with those of olivines found in several types of meteorites. The results show that the DSP olivines do not match those from terrestrial and lunar rocks and achondritic meteoroties, match poorly those of the carbonaceous Allende (CV3) and Orgeuil (CI) meteorites, but are well matched with olivines from C2 meteorites, including the unusual Belgica 7904 meteorite.

  17. Minor-element signature of relic olivine grains in deep-sea particles - A match with forsterites from C2 meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The results of high-precision electron microprobe analyses on relic forsterites in 13 different deep sea particles (DSP) are described, comparing their 'minor' element (Mn, Cr, Ca, Ti, Al) signatures with those of olivines found in several types of meteorites. The results show that the DSP olivines do not match those from terrestrial and lunar rocks and achondritic meteoroties, match poorly those of the carbonaceous Allende (CV3) and Orgeuil (CI) meteorites, but are well matched with olivines from C2 meteorites, including the unusual Belgica 7904 meteorite.

  18. Radioactivity of the moon, planets, and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkou, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical data is summarized for the content of natural radioactive elements in meteorites, eruptive terrestrial rocks, and also in lunar samples returned by Apollo missions and the Luna series of automatic stations. The K-U systematics of samples analyzed in the laboratory are combined with data for orbital gamma-ray measurements for Mars (Mars 5) and with the results of direct gamma-ray measurements of the surface of Venus by the Venera 8 lander. Using information about the radioactivity of solar system bodies and evaluations of the content of K, U, and Th in the terrestrial planets, we examine certain aspects of the evolution of material in the protoplanetary gas-dust cloud and then in the planets of the solar system.

  19. Computed tomographic analysis of meteorite inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Testa, J. P., Jr.; Friedman, P. J.; Kambic, G. X.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining nondestructively a cross-sectional display of very dense heterogeneous rocky specimens, whether lunar, terrestrial or meteoritic, by using a fourth generation computed tomographic (CT) scanner, with modifications to the software only, is discussed. A description of the scanner, and of the experimental and analytical procedures is given. Using this technique, the interior of heterogeneous materials such as Allende can be probed nondestructively. The regions of material with high and low atomic numbers are displayed quickly; the object can then be cut to obtain for analysis just the areas of interest. A comparison of this technique with conventional industrial and medical techniques is made in terms of image resolution and density distribution display precision.

  20. Computed tomographic analysis of meteorite inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Testa, J. P., Jr.; Friedman, P. J.; Kambic, G. X.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining nondestructively a cross-sectional display of very dense heterogeneous rocky specimens, whether lunar, terrestrial or meteoritic, by using a fourth generation computed tomographic (CT) scanner, with modifications to the software only, is discussed. A description of the scanner, and of the experimental and analytical procedures is given. Using this technique, the interior of heterogeneous materials such as Allende can be probed nondestructively. The regions of material with high and low atomic numbers are displayed quickly; the object can then be cut to obtain for analysis just the areas of interest. A comparison of this technique with conventional industrial and medical techniques is made in terms of image resolution and density distribution display precision.

  1. Huge waves of meteorite origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Kozelkov, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid and meteorite risk is now actively investigated in various aspects. If the meteorite falls in the ocean it can generate huge waves with heights exceeded 10 m. For whole history about 10-20 events related with entry of meteorite in water are known. The last event occurred on February 15, 2013 when the meteorite exploded in sky of Chelyabinsk (Russia) and its big piece entered in the Chebarkul Lake. Very often, huge waves of meteorite origin are computed using the conception of equivalent (parametrical) source, whose parameters are determined through meteorite characteristics. Recently, direct methods based on numerical simulations of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) have been applied to study wave processes generated by the entry of meteorite. These approaches and their applications to the historic events are discussed in paper.

  2. Antarctic Meteorite Location Map Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John (Editor); Fessler, Brian (Editor); Cassidy, William (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Antarctica has been a prolific source of meteorites since meteorite concentrations were discovered in 1969. The Antarctic Search For Meteorites (ANSMET) project has been active over much of the Trans-Antarctic Mountain Range. The first ANSMET expedition (a joint U.S.-Japanese effort) discovered what turned out to be a significant concentration of meteorites at the Allan Hills in Victoria Land. Later reconnaissance in this region resulted in the discovery of meteorite concentrations on icefields to the west of the Allan Hills, at Reckling Moraine, and Elephant Moraine. Antarctic meteorite location maps (reduced versions) of the Allan Hills main, near western, middle western, and far western icefields and the Elephant Moraine icefield are presented. Other Antarctic meteorite location maps for the specimens found by the ANSMET project are being prepared.

  3. Carbon in primitive meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, John F.

    1990-01-01

    No meteorites are truly primitive, in the sense of being pristine collections of interstellar grains or solar-nebular condensates. Nonetheless, some chrondritic meteorites have been so little altered by secondary processing that they are commonly termed primitive and it is almost a definition of such chondrites that they contain significant quantities of carbon. Most of that carbon is of apparently local, i.e., solar-system, origin but a proportion that ranges from trace, in some cases, to minor, in others, is believed to be exotic, i.e., of circumstellar or interstellar origin, and it is upon such material that researchers focus here. The nature of the meteoritic samples and the techniques used to analyse them are briefly discussed and the observational record is surveyed. Clearly, the study of exotic carbon preserved in meteorites has been informative about sites of nucleosynthesis, processes of nucleation and growth of grains in stellar outflows, grain survival in the interstellar medium, and many other topics of astrophysical significance. Much more work, particularly of an interdisciplinary nature remains to be done, however.

  4. Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Microfossils of large filamentous trichomic prokaryotes have been detected during in-situ investigations of carbonaceous meteorites. This research has been carried out using the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to examine freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The images obtained reveal that many of these remains are embedded in the meteorite rock matrix. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) studies establish that the filamentous microstructures have elemental compositions consistent with the meteorite matrix, but are often encased within carbon-rich electron transparent sheath-like structures infilled with magnesium sulfate. This is consistent with the taphonomic modes of fossilization of cyanobacteria and sulphur bacteria, since the life habits and processes of these microorganisms frequently result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with the properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, and the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the sheath. In this paper the evidence for biogenicity presented includes detailed morphological and morphometric data consistent with known characteristics of uniseriate and multiseriate cyanobacteria. Evidence for indigeneity includes the embedded nature of the fossils and elemental compositions inconsistent with modern biocontaminants.

  5. Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Microfossils of large filamentous trichomic prokaryotes have been detected during in-situ investigations of carbonaceous meteorites. This research has been carried out using the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to examine freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The images obtained reveal that many of these remains are embedded in the meteorite rock matrix. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) studies establish that the filamentous microstructures have elemental compositions consistent with the meteorite matrix, but are often encased within carbon-rich electron transparent sheath-like structures infilled with magnesium sulfate. This is consistent with the taphonomic modes of fossilization of cyanobacteria and sulphur bacteria, since the life habits and processes of these microorganisms frequently result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with the properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, and the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the sheath. In this paper the evidence for biogenicity presented includes detailed morphological and morphometric data consistent with known characteristics of uniseriate and multiseriate cyanobacteria. Evidence for indigeneity includes the embedded nature of the fossils and elemental compositions inconsistent with modern biocontaminants.

  6. Magnetic classification of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Consolmagno, G.; Denise, M.; Folco, L.; Gattacceca, J.; Osete, M.; Pesonen, L.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (X) provides a versatile rapid and non destructive way to quantify the amount of magnetic minerals (FeNi metal, magnetic oxides and sulfides) on large volume of material. As petrological studies of meteorites suggest that this parameter should be quite discriminant, we assembled a database of measurements on about 1200 stony meteorites from various European collections: Helsinki, Madrid, Moscou, Paris, Prague, Roma, Siena, Vatican, and other smaller collections. From 1 to >20 pieces and 1 to >100 cc per meteorite allow to define a representative mean value, using a large coil (8 cm) Kappabridge. For ordinary chondrites, it appears that weathering is responsible for a systematic bias toward low X for Antarctic (Frontier Mountain) and non Antarctic (mainly from Sahara) finds. Once only falls are considered a quite narrow range of X is observed for a given class, with no effect of petrological grade except for LL. This does not support suggested decrease of metal amount with metamorphism for L chondrites. High grade LLs (heated above 400°C) develop the weakly magnetic antitaenite-tetrataenite phases during slow cooling, explaining the difference with low grade taenite-bearing LLs. Once a few % of outliers are excluded, well defined means for H and L are observed with no overlap at 2 s.d.; this agrees with the lack of overlap on metal amount. For non ordinary chondrites and achondrites, weakly magnetic classes are HED, Aubrites and SNC (below LL), strongly ones are E (above H) and Ureilites (in the L-H range), while C chondrites are spread in the whole range, again with each class showing restricted variation. Outliers appeared to be in most cases either misclassified meteorites or misindentified samples, based on petrographic and microprobe investigations of thin sections from outlying samples. It appears that systematic magnetic screening of large collections is an efficient way to detect erroneous sample identification, due to exchange with

  7. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  8. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  9. Siberian Meteorite Chelyabinsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.

    On the February 15, 2013, in 9 (h) 20 (m) LT, a spectacular phenomenon - large meteorite fall - was observed over Chelyabinsk city in Siberia, Russia. Basically, this rather routine astronomical event (though largest for the recent one hundred years) attracted great attention because occurred in the well populated area and affected environment and people. The phenomenon has been well documented and numerous fragments of the fall collected, the largest one excavated from Chebarcul lake amounting 560 kg. The meteorite was called Chelyabinsk. It was observed as very bright bolide of 18 m in size which was exploded and mostly destroyed at the heights between 23 and 29 km and formed a powerful bow shock responsible for destructions when reaching the ground. Energy release at the explosion was estimated 300 to 500 Kt of TNT. The pieces collected brought evidence that Chelyabinsk is the stony meteorite classified as typical ordinary chondrite of LL type of the 5th petrological class. Morphology and isotopic composition of the meteorite’s matter allowed us to reconstruct its history and to conclude that it represents a fragment of much larger asteroid-type body of the age close to the solar system origin and experienced a number of collisions, including the very early one during the first 30 million years after formation, which resulted to melted phase in the structure of the main matrix. The study of meteorites gives us unique opportunity to penetrate deep in the fundamental cosmochemical aspects of the solar system origin and also provide unique information concerning the processes of its thermal and dynamical early evolution. The new data contribute to the study. Besides, Chelyabinsk meteorite fall brought new important evidence that Earth is vulnerable to space hazards and raised warning how to protect our planet from asteroid-comet impacts.

  10. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  11. Impact ages of meteorites: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, D.

    1995-05-01

    Isotopic ages of meteorites that indicate chronometer resetting due to impact heating are . Most of the ages were obtained by the 39Ar-40Ar technique, but several Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, and Sm-Nd ages also suggest some degree of impact resetting. Considerations of experimental data on element diffusion in silicates suggest that various isotopic chronometers ought to differ in their ease of resetting during shock heating in the order K-Ar (easiest), Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, and Sm-Nd, which is approximately the order observed in meteorites. Partial rather than total chronometer resetting by impacts appears to be the norm; consequently, interpretation of the event age is not always straightforward. Essentially all 39Ar-40Ar ages of eucrites and howardites indicate partial to total resetting in the relatively narrow time interval of 3.44.1 Ga ago (1 Ga = l09 years). Several disturbed Rb-Sr ages appear consistent with this age distribution. This grouping of ages and the brecciated nature of many eucrites and all howardites argues for a large-scale impact bombardment of the HED parent body during the same time period that the Moon received its cataclysmic bombardment. Other meteorite parent bodies such as those of mesosiderites, some chondrites, and HE irons also may have experienced this bombardment. These data suggest that the early bombardment was not lunar specific but involved much of the inner Solar System, and may have been caused by breakup of a larger planetismal. Although a few chondrites show evidence of age resetting ˜3.5-3.9 Ga ago, most impact ages of chondrites tend to fall below 1.3 Ga in age. A minimum of ˜4 impact events, including events at 0.3, 0.5, 1.2, and possibly 0.9 Ga appear to be required to explain the younger ages of H, L, and LL chondrites, although additional events are possible. Most L chondrites show evidence of shock, and the majority of 39Ar40Ar ages of L chondrites fall near 0.5 Ga. The L chondrite parent body apparently experienced a major impact at

  12. Elemental composition of the lunar surface: Analysis of gamma ray spectroscopy data from Lunar Prospector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Hagerty, J. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; McKinney, G. W.; Vaniman, D. T.

    2006-12-01

    Gamma ray spectroscopy data acquired by Lunar Prospector are used to determine global maps of the elemental composition of the lunar surface. Maps of the abundance of major oxides, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, TiO2, and FeO, and trace incompatible elements, K and Th, are presented along with their geochemical interpretation. Linear spectral mixing is used to model the observed gamma ray spectrum for each map pixel. The spectral shape for each elemental constituent is determined by a Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation. Linearization of the mixing model is accomplished by scaling the spectral shapes with lunar surface parameters determined by neutron spectroscopy, including the number density of neutrons slowing down within the surface and the effective atomic mass of the surface materials. The association of the highlands with the feldspathic lunar meteorites is used to calibrate the mixing model and to determine backgrounds. A linear least squares approach is used to unmix measured spectra to determine the composition of each map pixel. The present analysis uses new gamma ray production cross sections for neutron interactions, resulting in improved accuracy compared to results previously submitted to the Planetary Data System. Systematic variations in lunar composition determined by the spectral unmixing analysis are compared with the lunar soil sample and meteorite collections. Significant results include improved accuracy for the abundance of Th and K in the highlands; identification of large regions, including western Procellarum, that are not well represented by the sample collection; and the association of relatively high concentrations of Mg with KREEP-rich regions on the lunar nearside, which may have implications for the concept of an early magma ocean.

  13. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context.

  14. Lunar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-09

    In this lunar eclipse viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., the full moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere. This light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through - when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse.

  15. Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

  16. Squeezing Meteorites to Reveal the Martian Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    A piece of a Martian lava flow, Antarctic meteorite Yamato-980459, appears to represent the composition of a magma produced by partial melting of the Martian interior. That's the view of researchers Don Musselwhite, Walter Kiefer, and Allan Treiman (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston) and Heather Dalton (Arizona State University). Musselwhite and his colleagues determined that this basaltic Martian meteorite represented a primary melt from the mantle. This was an important discovery because magma produced inside a planet contains significant clues to the composition of the region of the interior in which it formed. The lava flows that decorate the surface of planets tell us about the mantle, the rocky region beneath the crust and above the metallic core. The researchers used apparatus at the Johnson Space Center to determine what minerals are present when samples with the composition of Y-980459 are heated to a range of temperatures and squeezed to a range of pressures like those that planetary scientists expect to exist in the interior of Mars. The results indicate that the magma represented by this special meteorite formed at a depth of about 100 kilometers and a temperature of about 1540 degrees C. From the high temperature and high ratio of magnesium to iron in the magma, Musselwhite and his colleagues infer that the amount of melting to produce the Y-980459 parent magma was high, which suggests that the temperature at the boundary between the metallic core and the rocky mantle was higher than previous estimates. This work gives us clues to the composition and dynamics of the Martian interior--all from a rock chipped off a lava flow on Mars and flung to Earth by an impact.

  17. Cliftonite: A proposed origin, and its bearing on the origin of diamonds in meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Higgins, G.T.

    1969-01-01

    Cliftonite, a polycrystalline aggregate of graphite with spherulitic structure and cubic morphology, is known in 14 meteorites. Some workers have considered it to be a pseudomorph after diamond, and have used the proposed diamond ancestry as evidence of a meteoritic parent body of at least lunar dimensions. Careful examination of meteoritic samples indicates that cliftonite forms by precipitation within kamacite. We have also demonstrated that graphite with cubic morphology may be synthesized in a Fe-Ni-C alloy annealed in a vacuum. We therefore suggest that a high pressure origin is unnecessary for meteorities which contain cliftonite, and that these meteorities were formed at low pressures. This conclusion is in agreement with other recent evidence. We also suggest that recently discovered cubes and cubo-octahedra of lonsdaleite in the Canyon Diablo meteorite are pseudomorphs after cliftonite, not diamond, as has previously been suggested. ?? 1969.

  18. Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Sessions with oral presentations include: A SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER at Mercury, Mars: Pingos, Polygons, and Other Puzzles, Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Mars: Ice On the Ground and In the Ground, SPECIAL SESSION: Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Mission to the Moon, Outer Planet Satellites: Not Titan, Not Enceladus, SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Science: Past, Present, and Future, Mars: North Pole, South Pole - Structure and Evolution, Refractory Inclusions, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observations, Mars Sedimentary Processes from Victoria Crater to the Columbia Hills, Formation and Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites, New Achondrite GRA 06128/GRA 06129 - Origins Unknown, The Science Behind Lunar Missions, Mars Volcanics and Tectonics, From Dust to Planets (Planetary Formation and Planetesimals):When, Where, and Kaboom! Astrobiology: Biosignatures, Impacts, Habitability, Excavating a Comet, Mars Interior Dynamics to Exterior Impacts, Achondrites, Lunar Remote Sensing, Mars Aeolian Processes and Gully Formation Mechanisms, Solar Nebula Shake and Bake: Mixing and Isotopes, Lunar Geophysics, Meteorites from Mars: Shergottite and Nakhlite Invasion, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Lunar Samples: Chronology, Geochemistry, and Petrology, Enceladus, Venus: Resurfacing and Topography (with Pancakes!), Overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Mars Sulfates, Phyllosilicates, and Their Aqueous Sources, Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites, Impact Calibration and Effects, Comparative Planetology, Analogs: Environments and Materials, Mars: The Orbital View of Sediments and Aqueous Mineralogy, Planetary Differentiation, Titan, Presolar Grains: Still More Isotopes Out of This World, Poster sessions include: Education and Public Outreach Programs, Early Solar System and Planet Formation, Solar Wind and Genesis, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Carbonaceous

  19. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  20. Cosmic-ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.

    2003-12-01

    hundreds of meteorites had been estimated from noble gas measurements. Histograms of the CRE age distributions pointed to several important observations.(i) The CRE ages of meteorites increase in the order stones meteorites available for analyses has increased greatly, by a factor of ˜10, thanks to abundant finds in the Antarctic, northern Africa/Arabia, and Australia. With increased sampling, the statistical properties of CRE age distributions have become more convincing. Further, the worlds collection of meteorites collection has become more diverse. In this respect, the lunar and the martian meteorites take pride of place but leave ample room for R, CH, and CB chondrites, new angrites, and other unusual specimens. At the same time, better

  1. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  2. Lunar oasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Niehoff, John

    1989-01-01

    The 'lunar oasis' emphasizes development toward self-sufficiency in order to reduce dependence on the earth for resupply, and to enable expansion utilizing indigeneous resources. The oasis phase includes: (1) habitation and work facilities for 10 people, (2) capability for extraction of volatile consumables (H2O, O2, N2, etc.) from indigenous resources for resupply of losses and filling of reservoirs, and (3) a highly closed life support system, including food production. In the consolidation phase, the base grows from 10 to 30 crewmembers. Lunar resources are used for expanding the lunar foothold, including construction of habitats, extraction of metals for the fabrication of products for maintenance and repair, and expansion of the power system. The strategy does not produce propellants for space transportation. A 10-year scenario is laid out, which contains all elements needed to allow the base to enter a self-expanding utilization phase. Three lunar missions yer year, two cargo missions and one crew flight, are required. At the end of a decade, the base is producing more than it requires for its continued support, although it is unlikely to be completely self-sufficient.

  3. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  4. Recent documented meteorite falls, a review of meteorite - asteroid links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2014-07-01

    Since the previous Meteoroids 2010 meeting, 25 confirmed meteorite falls have been reported, and one additional meteorite was linked tentatively to an observed fireball. All but two of those are classified as ordinary chondrites. Sutter's Mill is a rare carbonaceous chondrite, while Martian meteorite Tissint is a Shergotite. For 18 of these falls the associated fireball was observed, but only four provided a pre-atmospheric orbit derived from video and photographic records. Results were published for Sutter's Mill, Novato, and Chelyabinsk, providing insight into the asteroid belt source regions for CM2, L and LL type chondrites, respectively. Proposed meteorite-asteroid links are discussed.

  5. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Hammond, D. K.; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to returning to the moon, understanding the effects of lunar dust on both human physiology and mechanical equipment is a pressing concern, as problems related to lunar dust during the Apollo missions have been well documented (J.R. Gaier, The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions. 2005, NASA-Glenn Research Center. p. 65). While efforts were made to remove the dust before reentering the lunar module, via brushing of the suits or vacuuming, a significant amount of dust was returned to the spacecraft, causing various problems. For instance, astronaut Harrison Schmitt complained of hay fever effects caused by the dust, and the abrasive nature of the material was found to cause problems with various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. It is clear that, in order to avoid potential health and performance problems while on the lunar surface, the reactive properties of lunar dust must be quenched. It is likely that soil on the lunar surface is in an activated form, i.e. capable of producing oxygen-based radicals in a humidified air environment, due to constant exposure to meteorite impacts, UV radiation, and elements of the solar wind. An activated silica surface serves as a good example. An oxygen-based radical species arises from the breaking of Si-OSi bonds. This system is comparable to that expected for the lunar dust system due to the large amounts of agglutinic glass and silicate vapor deposits present in lunar soil. Unfortunately, exposure to the Earth s atmosphere has passivated the active species on lunar dust, leading to efforts to reactivate the dust in order to understand the true effects that will be experienced by astronauts and equipment on the moon. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is commonly used for the study of radical species, and has been used previously to study silicon- and oxygen-based radicals, as well as the hydroxyl radicals produced by these species in solution (V. Vallyathan, et al., Am. Rev

  6. Organic matter in meteorites.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Jordi

    2004-12-01

    Some primitive meteorites are carbon-rich objects containing a variety of organic molecules that constitute a valuable record of organic chemical evolution in the universe prior to the appearance of microorganisms. Families of compounds include hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amino acids, amines, amides, heterocycles, phosphonic acids, sulfonic acids, sugar-related compounds and poorly defined high-molecular weight macromolecules. A variety of environments are required in order to explain this organic inventory, including interstellar processes, gas-grain reactions operating in the solar nebula, and hydrothermal alteration of parent bodies. Most likely, substantial amounts of such organic materials were delivered to the Earth via a late accretion, thereby providing organic compounds important for the emergence of life itself, or that served as a feedstock for further chemical evolution. This review discusses the organic content of primitive meteorites and their relevance to the build up of biomolecules.

  7. Fluid inclusions in stony meteorites - A cautionary note

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Ashwal, L. D.; Henry, D. J.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H. E.; Colucci, M. T.

    1985-01-01

    Newly discovered fluid inclusions in thin sections of Bjurbole chondrules, shergottite EETA79001, lunar meteorite ALHA81005, and Apollo 16 glasses possess physical properties similar to those of fluid inclusions found in thin sections of five stony meteorites recently described by Warner et al. (1983). The distribution and physical properties of these new fluid inclusions indicate they may be artifacts of thin section preparation; it is suggested that saw coolant was sucked into vacuum vesicles in glasses and minerals through submicroscopic fractures produced during sawing. The similarities between these fluid inclusions and fluid inclusions previously described by Warner et al. (1983) indicate that many of the fluid inclusions reported earlier may be artifacts. Consequently, the origin of any fluid inclusions observed in thin sections of extraterrestrial materials must be interpreted with caution. The most probable true extraterrestrial fluid inclusions are those that have been observed in grains prepared without exposure to liquids of any kind.

  8. Hydrogen in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hervig, R.; Irving, T.

    2017-01-01

    Most volatile studies of Mars have targeted its surface via spacecraft and rover data, and have evidenced surficial water in polar caps and the atmosphere, in the presence of river channels, and in the detection of water bearing minerals. The other focus of Martian volatile studies has been on Martian meteorites which are all from its crust. Most of these studies are on hydrous phases like apatite, a late-stage phase, i.e. crystallizing near the end of the differentiation sequence of Martian basalts and cumulates. Moreover, calculating the water content of the magma a phosphate crystallized from is not always possible, and yet is an essential step to estimate how much water was present in a parent magma and its source. Water, however, is primarily dissolved in the interiors of differentiated planets as hydrogen in lattice defects of nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) of the crust and mantle. This hydrogen has tremendous influence, even in trace quantities, on a planet's formation, geodynamics, cooling history and the origin of its volcanism and atmosphere as well as its potential for life. Studies of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous phases of Martian meteorites are rare. Measuring water contents and hydrogen isotopes in well-characterized nominally anhydrous minerals of Martian meteorites is the goal of our study. Our work aims at deciphering what influences the distribution and origin of hydrogen in Martian minerals, such as source, differentiation, degassing and shock.

  9. Meteor Beliefs Project: meteoritic weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristine Larsen, K.; McBeath, A.

    2012-01-01

    A discussion of meteoritic iron weapons and weapon-like tools is given, drawing on fictional, mythological, and real-world examples. The evidence suggests that no great significance was attached to such metal purely because of its "heavenly" provenance prior to the early 19th century AD, despite later assumptions, including during the period of increased interest in meteorites, cratering events and the early usage of meteoritic iron, beginning in the early 20th century.

  10. Four new iron meteorite finds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Wasson, J. T.; Bild, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Four new iron meteorites are described: Buenaventura (IIIB) from Chihuahua, Mexico: mass 114 kg; Denver City (anomalous) from Texas, USA: mass 26.1 kg; Kinsella (IIIB) from Alberta, Canada: mass 3.7 kg; and Tacoma (IA) from Washington, USA: mass 17 g. Denver City is unique - i.e., not related to any other known iron. Tacoma is the smallest iron meteorite recorded. The meteorites were initially discovered in 1969, 1975, 1946, and between 1925 and 1932, respectively.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

  13. Iron Meteorites and Upwelling in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlay, B. S.; Behr, E.; Mardon, A.; Behr, E.

    2016-09-01

    In Antarctica, a meteorite stranding zone, stone meteorites are more common than iron. Dr. Evatt's team suggests that the heat conductivity of iron may be opposing the upwelling effects so iron meteorites sink under the ice unlike the stone ones.

  14. Prospecting for lunar resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much

  15. Unraveling the Origin of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2010-09-01

    The nonmare rocks that dominate the highlands of the Moon are particularly fascinating because they tell us about the origin of the most ancient crust. Two random samples of highlands rocks arrived to Earth as lunar meteorites Allan Hills (ALH) A81005 and Dhofar 309. Researchers Allan Treiman, Amy Maloy, Juliane Gross (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston) and Chip Shearer (University of New Mexico) took a look at a particular kind of fragment inside these meteorites so geochemically distinct from other highlands materials as to warrant further investigations of their mineral, bulk, and trace element compositions. The attention-grabbing fragments are magnesium-rich anorthositic granulites that tell part of the story of lunar crustal evolution, though the details of the story are still being worked out. Magnesian anorthositic granulites, found in several distinct lunar meteorites, may represent a widespread rock type in the highlands, a notion supported by remote sensing chemical data. These fragments could be metamorphosed relicts of KREEP-free plutons that intruded into the plagioclase-rich ancient crust.

  16. Meteorite Sterlitamak -- A New Crater Forming Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petaev, M. I.

    1992-07-01

    recovered at a depth of ~12 m. This sample is a 50 x 45 x 28 cm block with front, rear and two adjoining lateral surfaces covered by regmaglypts and thick (~0.5 mm) fusion crust. The other two surfaces are very rough, contain no regmaglypts, and have a thinner fusion crust. The preimpact shape of the meteorite may be approximately modeled as a slab ~100 x 100 x 28 cm. An estimate of the projectile mass was made based on the crater dimensions. From the relationships between crater diameter and projectile mass determined for the Sikhote-Alin craters, the impact mass of the Sterlitamak meteorite is estimated at ~1 ton (Petaev, 1992). A separate estimate, based on cratering energy, yields a total mass of ~1.5 tons (Ivanov, Petaev, 1992). A comparison of the estimated projectile mass and the weight and morphology of the individual recovered suggests a fragmentation of the projectile in the atmosphere and the formation of the crater by the impact of an agglomeration of individuals. The other fragments of the projectile are still in the crater. REFERENCES Ivanov B.A., Petaev M.I. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. (abstract), 23, 573-574. Petaev M.I. (1992) Astron. Vestnik, #4, in press (in Russian) (English translation is named Solar System Research). Petaev M.I., Kisarev Yu.L., Mustafin Sh.A., Shakurov R.K., Pavlov A.V., Ivanov B.A. (1991) Lunar Planet. Sci. (abstract), 22, 1059-1060

  17. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2013-01-01

    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  18. The meteorite component of Apollo 16 noritic impact melt breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    Noritic melt rocks (alias LKFM and VHA) from Apollo 16 have concentrations of Ni approximately three to five times those of impact melt rocks of similar composition from other lunar landing sites. The melt rock associated with Apollo 16 dimict breccias has the highest mean concentration of Ni of any lunar rock type (1150 µg/g in 11 samples). The Ni is contained in Fe-Ni metal that is dissimilar in composition to metal from ordinary chondrites in having a lower Ni concentration (6%) and lower Ni/Co ratio (17). It also has Ir/Ni and Ir/Au ratios of about one-half and one-third those of chondrites. The metal in the noritic impact melts is the carrier of the siderophile element signature of ancient meteorite group 1H. The composition of the Fe-Ni metal is dissimilar to that of chondrites because it derives from metal-rich meteorites, probably irons, that created the impact melts 3.9 Ga ago. The metal from these iron meteorites dominates the siderophile element concentrations of polymict samples at Apollo 16. Models that attempt to estimate indigenous concentrations of Ni and Co in Apollo 16 materials overestimate their abundance by assuming that the meteoritic component has chondritic ratios of Ir to Ni and Co. The type-2 melt (VHA) associated with the dimict breccias and the type-1 melt (Apollo 16 LKFM) were most likely produced by impact of two related iron meteoroids that impacted near the Apollo 16 site. The type-2 melt found in samples from station 7 is probably from the same impact as that producing the dimict breccias, although it could represent the impact of a third, related iron.

  19. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  20. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  1. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Automation Recognition oF Crater-Like Structures in Terrestrial and Plantary Images; Condensation from Cluster-IDP Enriched Vapor Inside the Snow Line: Implications for Mercury, Asteroids, and Enstatite Chondrites; Tomographic Location of Potential Melt-Bearing Phenocrysts in Lunar Glass Spherules; Source and Evolution of Vapor Due to Impacts into Layered Carbonates and Silicates; Noble Gases and I-Xe Ages of the Zag Meteorite; The MArs Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) for the 209 Mars Science Laboratory; The Sedimentary Rocks of Meridiani Planum, in Context; Three-System Isotopic of Lunar Norite 78238: Rb-Sr Results; Constraints on the Role of Curium-247 as a Source of Fission Xenon in the Early Solar System; New Features in the ADS Abstract Service; Cassini RADAR's First Look at Titan; Volcanism and Volatile Recycling on Venus from Lithospheric Delamination; The Fate of Water in the Martian Magma Ocean and the Formation of an Early Atmosphere; Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer Water-Equivalent Hydrogen: Comparison with Glacial; Landforms on Tharsis; Using Models of Permanent Shadow to Constrain Lunar Polar Water Ice Abundances; Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method; Petrological and Geochemical Consideration on the Tuserkanite Meteorite; and Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  3. Apollo 17 Astronaut Cernan Adjusts U.S. Flag on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan adjusts the U.S. flag deployed upon the Moon. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Cernan; Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center developed LRV. The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  4. The lunar magma ocean - A transient lunar phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minear, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The time required for the solidification of a lunar magma ocean is considered. In the absence of a thermal boundary crust, heat loss is by radiation and the ocean will solidify in a few decades. However, only a few millimeters of crust would effectively limit radiation. The current investigation has the objective to present estimates of conduction boundary (crust) thickness based on several models of the mechanism of crustal formation. Three different models for estimating conduction boundary layer thickness are discussed. They are based on the formation of a chill margin, a plagioclase flotation layer, and a layer which is continually destroyed by meteorite impacts and regrows by conductive heat loss. Based on these models, the maximum solidification time for a 200 km thick ocean is about 100 million years. A more probable solidification time based on a plagioclase flotation crust model is about 60 million years.

  5. Synthesis of Seifertite and its Applications to Shocked Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, M. E.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Asahara, Y.; Saxena, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seifertite is a high pressure polymorph of silica and a post-stishovite phase. The stable phase is observed at very high pressures around the core-mantle boundary, generally above 100 GPa. Despite this, the mineral is increasingly found in shocked meteorites, both Martian (1) (Sharp et al., 1999), and lunar (2) (Miyahara et al., 2013). It appears, then, that the occurrence of seifertite may indicate intensive shock events on Mars and the Moon. In direct contrast to this, recent high pressure studies have shown metastable formation of seifertite from cristobalite, a high-temperature and low-pressure polymorph of silica, at high pressures of only 30 GPa (3) (Dubrovinski et al., 2001) or less (4) (Kubo et al., 2012). Thus, the formation conditions of seifertite in meteorites are not well catalogued. Knowing this, experiments on the reaction kinetics of formation of seifertite from cristobalite are investigated. Synthesis experiments at 20 GPa and 600 C and 900 C were carried out for various heating duration using the Kawai type mutianvil apparatus. Formation of seifertite from cristobalite was observed, and seifertite was quenchable and recovered to ambient conditions. Present results suggest that the existence of seifertite does not indicate an intensive shock pressure above 100 GPa. Rather, it is as low as 20 GPa around 600 C. We intend to report a more detailed study on reaction kinetics of seifertite from cristobalite at high pressures and temperatures, and will discuss new constraints on the impact conditions of some Martian and lunar meteorites from which seifertite was reported. (1) Sharp, T. G. et al. A Post-Stishovite SiO2 Polymorph in the Meteorite Shergotty: Implications for Impact Events, Science, 284, 1511 (1999) (2) Miyahara, M. et al. Discovery of Seifertite in a Shocked Lunar Meteorite, Nat Commun, 4, 1737 (2013) (3) Dubrovinsky, L. S. et al. Pressure-induced Transformations of Cristobalite, Chem Phys Lett, 333, 264 (2001) (4) Kubo, T. et al. Formation

  6. Studies related to the evolution of the lunar soil materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of the chemistry and morphology of the lunar samples are reported. The presence of fragments of plagoclase in the centers of the impact craters indicate that the glass spheres were derived by meteoritic impact from high velocity particles, while the glass was at high temperatures. From the study of the Apollo 16 samples, it is suggested that this material was formed in a hot impact ejecta blanket, or in an igneous environment, and later exposed to meteoritic impact. It is suggested that particles from Apollo 17 were formed in a cloud of siliceous vapors.

  7. Seismometer reading from impact made by Lunar Module ascent stage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-20

    S69-59547 (20 Nov. 1969) --- The seismometer reading from the impact made by the Lunar Module ascent stage when it struck the lunar surface. The impact was registered by the Passive Seismic Experiment Package which was deployed on the moon by the Apollo 12 astronauts. PSEP, which is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, will detect surface tilt produced by tidal deformations, moonquakes, and meteorite impacts. The LM's ascent stage was jettisoned and sent journeying toward impact on the moon after astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. and Alan L. Bean returned to lunar orbit and rejoined astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr. in the Command and Service Modules. Information from the PSEP is transmitted to Earth through the ALSEP's central station and monitored by equipment at the Manned Spacecraft Center.

  8. Endemic isotopic anomalies in titanium. [in four inclusions from Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Abundances of the titanium isotopes were determined using a new high-precision technique that shows terrestrial, lunar, and bulk meteorite samples to be indistinguishable. Ca-Al-Ti-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite are found to contain Ti of widely varying isotopic composition reflecting the presence of at least three nucleosynthetic components. The anomalies in Ti appear to be relatively widespread and, when correlated with Ca data, provide a clue to nucleosynthesis in the neighborhood of the iron peak and to the late-stage nucleosynthetic processes which immediately preceded formation of the solar nebula.

  9. The Chervettaz (L5) meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, B.; Bussy, F.; Meisser, N.

    1994-09-01

    The Chervettaz meteorite was an observed fall on 1901 November 30. Our study confirms the previous classification as an L5 chondrite. Weak deformations indicate stage S3 of shock deformations. We present mineralogical and chemical studies of this undescribed and poorly known Swiss meteorite.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 13th, Houston, TX, March 15-19, 1982, Proceedings. Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Ahrens, T. J.

    The present conference on planetary and lunar science considers theoretical models for the composition of the Venus crust, the lunar crust, the prediction of phase relationships in planetary mantles, the volumetric analysis of complex lunar craters, grazing impacts on Mars, the determination of lunar structure by means of electrical conductivity and seismic experiments, results of studies on the Apollo 16 site rocks, as well as Apollo 14, 15 and 17 lunar glasses and regoliths, and carbon components and isotopic compositions of chondritic meteorites. Also discussed are iron meteorites, interplanetary dust and tektites, and such theoretical and experimental issues as refractory condensates and chondrules from solar furnace experiments, molecular synthesis through the irradiation of silicates, and the adsorption of excess fission Xe.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 13th, Houston, TX, March 15-19, 1982, Proceedings. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V. (Editor); Ahrens, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on planetary and lunar science considers theoretical models for the composition of the Venus crust, the lunar crust, the prediction of phase relationships in planetary mantles, the volumetric analysis of complex lunar craters, grazing impacts on Mars, the determination of lunar structure by means of electrical conductivity and seismic experiments, results of studies on the Apollo 16 site rocks, as well as Apollo 14, 15 and 17 lunar glasses and regoliths, and carbon components and isotopic compositions of chondritic meteorites. Also discussed are iron meteorites, interplanetary dust and tektites, and such theoretical and experimental issues as refractory condensates and chondrules from solar furnace experiments, molecular synthesis through the irradiation of silicates, and the adsorption of excess fission Xe.

  12. Meteorite Magazine: Promoting Science, Discovery, And Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; Sears, H.; Sears, D.

    2006-09-01

    In late 2005, Larry and Nancy Lebofsky and Derek and Hazel Sears took over the editing and publishing of Meteorite magazine. We saw a great educational potential for the magazine. With a circulation over 600, the magazine reaches a broad readership: meteorite scientists, hunters, collectors, and enthusiasts. Unlike the professional journal of the Meteoritical Society, Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, the articles in Meteorite range from scientific articles, reports from meteorite shows, and how to preserve meteorites to stories about searching for meteorites around the world. Meteorites are of interest to people. Asteroids, meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites are in many states' science standards. Yet, how many museums have meteorite collections with staff who know little about them? How many amateur astronomers, when seeing meteors or meteor showers, can explain how asteroids, comets, meteors, and meteorites are related and what they tell us about the formation of our Solar System? How many meteorite collectors are knowledgeable about how these objects are related to each other? How do we reach the broader community? Unlike the hundreds of amateur and school astronomy clubs, there are no meteorite clubs. While one can point out the wonders of the night sky and what can be seen through a telescope at star parties, there is no such thing as school meteorite hunting parties. The meteorite and planetary sciences communities working together can bring the excitement of meteorites and the science behind these fascinating objects to teachers, students, and museum and planetarium staff. We will present ideas for accomplishing this.

  13. Lunar Mare Basalts as Analogues for Martian Volcanic Compositions: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The lunar mare basalts potentially provide a unique sample suite for understanding the nature of basalts on the martian surface. Our current knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical composition of the basaltic material on Mars comes from studies of the basaltic martian meteorites and from orbital and surface remote sensing observations. Petrographic observations of basaltic martian meteorites (e.g., Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001) show that the dominant phases are pyroxene (primarily pigeonite and augite), maskelynite (a diaplectic glass formed from plagioclase by shock), and olivine [1,2]. Pigeonite, a low calcium pyroxene, is generally not found in abundance in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon [3]. Lunar samples thus provide a means to examine a variety of pigeonite-rich basalts that also have bulk elemental compositions (particularly low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts) that are comparable to basaltic SNC meteorites [4,5]. Furthermore, lunar basalts may be mineralogically better suited as analogues of the martian surface basalts than the basaltic martian meteorites because the plagioclase feldspar in the basaltic Martian meteorites, but not in the lunar surface basalts, is largely present as maskelynite [1,2]. Analysis of lunar mare basalts my also lead to additional endmember spectra for spectral libraries. This is particularly important analysis of martian thermal emission spectra, because the spectral library apparently contains a single pigeonite spectrum derived from a synthetic sample [6].

  14. Lunar Mare Basalts as Analogues for Martian Volcanic Compositions: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The lunar mare basalts potentially provide a unique sample suite for understanding the nature of basalts on the martian surface. Our current knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical composition of the basaltic material on Mars comes from studies of the basaltic martian meteorites and from orbital and surface remote sensing observations. Petrographic observations of basaltic martian meteorites (e.g., Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001) show that the dominant phases are pyroxene (primarily pigeonite and augite), maskelynite (a diaplectic glass formed from plagioclase by shock), and olivine [1,2]. Pigeonite, a low calcium pyroxene, is generally not found in abundance in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon [3]. Lunar samples thus provide a means to examine a variety of pigeonite-rich basalts that also have bulk elemental compositions (particularly low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts) that are comparable to basaltic SNC meteorites [4,5]. Furthermore, lunar basalts may be mineralogically better suited as analogues of the martian surface basalts than the basaltic martian meteorites because the plagioclase feldspar in the basaltic Martian meteorites, but not in the lunar surface basalts, is largely present as maskelynite [1,2]. Analysis of lunar mare basalts my also lead to additional endmember spectra for spectral libraries. This is particularly important analysis of martian thermal emission spectra, because the spectral library apparently contains a single pigeonite spectrum derived from a synthetic sample [6].

  15. Meteorite regolithic breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Rajan, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to endogenic processes such as heating and aqueous activity, meteorite parent bodies were subjected also to exogenic processing brought about by the impact of the other solar-system objects. Such impacts can produce a variety of effects, ranging from shock metamorphism of individual mineral grains to production of breccias; i.e., rocks consisting of mixtures of disparate lithic units. The present paper reviews recent studies of such breccias, which have generated significant information about the accretional growth of parent bodies, as well as their evolution, composition, stratigraphy, and geological processing.

  16. Stardust in meteorites

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and comets contain dust grains that formed around stars that lived their lives before the solar system formed. These remarkable objects have been intensively studied since their discovery a little over twenty years ago and they provide samples of other stars that can be studied in the laboratory in exquisite detail with modern analytical tools. The properties of stardust grains are used to constrain models of nucleosynthesis in red giant stars and supernovae, the dominant sources of dust grains that are recycled into the interstellar medium by stars. PMID:22106261

  17. Comets, meteorites and atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Bar-Nun, A.

    1996-01-01

    The relatively low value of Xe/Kr in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars seems to rule out meteorites as the major carriers of noble gases to the inner planets. Laboratory experiments on the trapping of gases in ice forming at low temperatures suggest that comets may be a better choice. It is then possible to develop a model for the origin of inner planet atmospheres based on volatiles delivered by comets added to volatiles originally trapped in planetary rocks. The model will be tested by results from the Galileo Entry Probe.

  18. The SNC Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    The SNC (Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny) group, are achondritic meteorites. Of all SNC meteorites recognized up to date, shergottites are the most abundant group. The petrographic study of Shergotty began several years ago when Tschermak, (1872) identified this rock as an extraterrestrial basalt. Oxygen isotopes in SNC meteorites indicate that these rocks are from a single planetary body (Clayton and Mayeda, 1983). Because the abundance patterns of rare gases trapped in glasses from shock melts (e.g., Pepin, 1985) turned out to be very similar to the Martian atmosphere (as analyzed by the Viking landers, Owen, 1976), the SNC meteorites are believed to originate from Mars (e.g. McSween, 1994). Possibly, they were ejected from the Martian surface either in a giant impact or in several impact events (Meyer 2006). Although there is a broad consensus for nakhlites and chassignites being -1.3Ga old, the age of the shergottites is a matter of ongoing debates. Different lines of evidences indicate that these rocks are young (180Ma and 330-475Ma), or very old (> 4Ga). However, the young age in shergottites could be the result of a resetting of these chronometers by either strong impacts or fluid percolation on these rocks (Bouvier et al., 2005-2009). Thus, it is important to check the presence of secondary processes, such as re-equilibration or pressure-induce metamorphism (El Goresy et al., 2013) that can produce major changes in compositions and obscure the primary information. A useful tool, that is used to reconstruct the condition prevailing during the formation of early phases or the secondary processes to which the rock was exposed, is the study of glass-bearing inclusions hosted by different mineral phases. I will discuss the identification of extreme compositional variations in many of these inclusions (Varela et al. 2007-2013) that constrain the assumption that these objects are the result of closed-system crystallization. The question then arises whether these

  19. Stardust in meteorites.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew M

    2011-11-29

    Primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and comets contain dust grains that formed around stars that lived their lives before the solar system formed. These remarkable objects have been intensively studied since their discovery a little over twenty years ago and they provide samples of other stars that can be studied in the laboratory in exquisite detail with modern analytical tools. The properties of stardust grains are used to constrain models of nucleosynthesis in red giant stars and supernovae, the dominant sources of dust grains that are recycled into the interstellar medium by stars.

  20. Meteorites for K-12 Classrooms: NASA Meteorite Educational Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M.; Allen, J.

    1995-09-01

    The fall of a new meteorite is an event that catches the interest of the public in matters of science. The threat of a huge impact like last year's comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 gives us all reason to evaluate such potential risks. NASA's meteorite educational materials use our natural interest in rocks from space to present classroom activities on planetary science. The meteorite educational package includes a meteorite sample disk, a teachers's guide and a slide set. The sample disk is a lucite disk containing chips of six different kinds of meteorites (3 chondrites, achondrite, iron, stony-iron). EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is a teacher's guide with background information and 19 hands-on or heads-on activities for grades 4-12. It was prepared in a partnership of planetary scientists and teachers. The slide set consists of 48 slides with captions to be used with the activities. The materials will be available in Fall 1995. Teachers may obtain a loan of the whole package from NASA Teacher Resource Centers; researchers may borrow them from the JSC meteorite curator. The booklet is available separately from the same sources, and the slide set will be available from NASA CORE. EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is an interdisciplinary planetary science unit which teaches basic science concepts and techniques together with math, reading, writing and social studies The activities are done in a variety of different teaching styles which emphasize observation, experimentation and critical thinking. The activities are ideal for middle schools where teaming makes interdisciplinary units desireable, but most of the activities can be easily modified for grade levels from upper elementary through high school. Meteorites are a natural subject for interdisciplinary teaching because their study involves all fields of science and offers fascinating historical accounts and possibilities for creative expression. Topics covered in EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERES are centered around basic

  1. Future directions in meteorite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, E.; Kerridge, John F.

    Information presently available on meteorite composition and history and the areas in meteorite research that should be covered in future in order to shed additional light on the earliest history of the solar system are discussed. Attention is given to the work needed in the classification schemes for chondrites, the question of the identification of parent bodies of the major meteorite and chondrite types, the igneous differentiation of certain asteroids, the effects of irradiation, the solar-system chronology, and issues concerning the early solar system. Other important areas discussed include the elemental composition of chondrites, the magnetic properties of meteorites, the composition and the petrology of chondrules, the properties of primitive material surviving in chondrites, the micrometeorites, the nebula, the presolar material in meteorites, the nucleosynthesis, and the nucleocosmochronology.

  2. Magnetic record in chondrite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Faris, J. L.; Obryan, M. V.

    1993-01-01

    What we know about the magnetic record in chondrite meteorites based on new data and previously published results is summarized. Strips from thin slabs of chondrite meteorites were cut into near cubical subsamples (several mm on edge) numbering approximately 60 to approximately 120 per meteorite. A common orientation was assigned to each subsample from a given meteorite in order to ensure that we could discover the vector makeup of the bulk meteorite. The new data set includes: Shaw (L7), Roy (L5/6), Claytonville (L5), Plainview (H5), Etter (H5), Leoville (C3V), and Allende (C3V). In addition to these new results, literature data of sufficient detail, e.g. Bjurbole (L4), ALH769 (L6), Abee (E4), Allende (C3V), and Olivenza (L5), is considered.

  3. Magnetic record in chondrite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Faris, J. L.; Obryan, M. V.

    1993-01-01

    What we know about the magnetic record in chondrite meteorites based on new data and previously published results is summarized. Strips from thin slabs of chondrite meteorites were cut into near cubical subsamples (several mm on edge) numbering approximately 60 to approximately 120 per meteorite. A common orientation was assigned to each subsample from a given meteorite in order to ensure that we could discover the vector makeup of the bulk meteorite. The new data set includes: Shaw (L7), Roy (L5/6), Claytonville (L5), Plainview (H5), Etter (H5), Leoville (C3V), and Allende (C3V). In addition to these new results, literature data of sufficient detail, e.g. Bjurbole (L4), ALH769 (L6), Abee (E4), Allende (C3V), and Olivenza (L5), is considered.

  4. Proceedings of the lunar and planetary science conference, 13th, part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, W.V.; Ahrens, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    The second part of the proceedings of the Thirteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference considers sedimentary processes and crustal cycling on Venus, a model for the formation of the earth's core, evidence of resurfacing in the lunar nearside highlands, the geology of Tethys, thermal stresses in planetary elastic lithospheres, the petrology and comparative thermal and mechanical histories of clasts in breccia 62236, lunar paleointensity data and its implications for the origin of lunar magnetism, and a model for the accumulation of solar wind radiation damage effects in lunar dust grains. Also discussed are fluid inclusions in stony meteorites, nuclear track and compositional studies of olivines in CI and CM chondrites, the impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and the extinction of terrestrial life, cooling rates for glass-containing lunar compositions, and the homogeneity of lava flows.

  5. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments in the Laboratory Relating to Lunar Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, M. J.; Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Crawford, I. A.

    2010-12-01

    The results of a set of laboratory impact experiments (speeds in the range 1-5 km s-1) are reviewed. They are discussed in the context of terrestrial impact ejecta impacting the Moon and hence lunar astrobiology through using the Moon to learn about the history of life on Earth. A review of recent results indicates that survival of quite complex organic molecules can be expected in terrestrial meteorites impacting the lunar surface, but they may have undergone selective thermal processing both during ejection from the Earth and during lunar impact. Depending on the conditions of the lunar impact (speed, angle of impact etc.) the shock pressures generated can cause significant but not complete sterilisation of any microbial load on a meteorite (e.g. at a few GPa 1-0.1% of the microbial load can survive, but at 20 GPa this falls to typically 0.01-0.001%). For more sophisticated biological products such as seeds (trapped in rocks) the lunar impact speeds generate shock pressures that disrupt the seeds (experiments show this occurs at approximately 1 GPa or semi-equivalently 1 km s-1). Overall, the delivery of terrestrial material of astrobiological interest to the Moon is supported by these experiments, although its long term survival on the Moon is a separate issue not discussed here.

  6. Rock 14068 - An unusual lunar breccia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helz, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Rock 14068 is a walnut-sized clast of dark breccia from station C1 near Cone Crater. The rock's dominant component is an olivine-rich groundmass. Petrographic and chemical studies were made of polished sections of the rock. The origin of the material is discussed. It is thought possible that the melt was produced by remelting a preexisting lunar rock of the same composition. Another possibility considered is that the rock composition constitutes a mixture of several rock types of partly meteoritic origin.

  7. X-ray diffraction studies of shocked lunar analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanss, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction experiments on shocked rock and mineral analogs of particular significance to lunar geology are described. Materials naturally shocked by meteorite impact, nuclear-shocked, or artificially shocked in a flat plate accelerator were utilized. Four areas were outlined for investigation: powder diffractometer studies of shocked single crystal silicate minerals (quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, pyroxene), powder diffractometer studies of shocked polycrystalline monomineralic samples (dunite), Debye-Scherrer studies of single grains of shocked granodiorite, and powder diffractometer studies of shocked whole rock samples. Quantitative interpretation of peak shock pressures experienced by materials found in lunar or terrestrial impact structures is presented.

  8. Evidence and implications of shock metamorphism in lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Short, N M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar microbreccias and loose regolith materials contain abundant evidence of shock metamorphism related to crater-forming meteorite impacts. Diagnostic shock effects include (i) planar features in a silica phase and feldspars, and lamellae in clinopyroxene, (ii) thetomorphic feldspar glass, (iii) heterogeneous glasses of rock and mineral composition, (iv) distinctive recrystallization textures, and (v) characteristic changes in crystal structure as indicated by x-ray diffraction analysis and measurements of refractive index. The microbreccias are produced from regolith materials (ejected fromz craters) by shock lithification. Some feldsparrich fragments may represent ejecta introduced from nonlocal sources, such as the lunar highlands.

  9. Water and carbon in rusty lunar rock 66095

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, I.; Hardcastle, K. G.; Gleason, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The reported study of the lunar rock 66095 included the determination of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope ratios. One group of experiments with rock 66095 and meteoritic rust involved the examination of the O-18 content of the oxygen in the ferric oxide found on the rock and the determination of the O-18 content in the oxygen of the adsorbed or hydration water. It is suggested that the enrichment of the rock 66095 in volatile materials is caused by volcanic or fumarolic activity. Water released by such activity may be juvenile lunar water.

  10. The Mbale meteorite shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Betlem, Hans; Betlem, Jan; Barifaijo, Erasmus; Schluter, Thomas; Hampton, Craig; Laubenstien, Matthias; Kunz, Joachim; Heusser, Gerd

    1994-01-01

    On 1992 August 14 at 12:40 UTC, an ordinary chondrite of type L5/6 entered the atmosphere over Mbale, Uganda, broke up, and caused a strewn field of size 3 x 7 km. Shortly after the fall, an expedition gathered eye witness accounts and located the position of 48 impacts of masses between 0.19 and 27.4 kg. Short-lived radionuclide data were measured for two specimens, one of which was only 12 days after the fall. Subsequent recoveries of fragements has resulted in a total of 863 mass estimates by 1993 October. The surfaces of all fragments contain fusion crust. The meteorite shower caused some minor inconveniences. Most remarkably, a young boy was hit on the head by a small specimen. The data interpreted as to indicate that the meteorite had an initial mass between 400-1000 kg (most likely approximately 1000 kg) and approached Mbale from AZ = 185 +/- 15, H = 55 +/- 15, and V(sub infinity) = 13.5 +/- 1.5/s. Orbital elements are given. Fragmentation of the initial mass started probably above 25 km altitude, but the final catastrophic breakup occurred at an altitude of 10-14 km. An estimated 190 +/- 40 kg reached the Earth's surface minutes after the final breakup of which 150 kg of material has been recovered.

  11. Meteoritic Sulfur Isotopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemens, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Funds were requested to continue our program in meteoritic sulfur isotopic analysis. We have recently detected a potential nucleosynthetic sulfur isotopic anomaly. We will search for potential carriers. The documentation of bulk systematics and the possible relation to nebular chemistry and oxygen isotopes will be explored. Analytical techniques for delta(sup 33), delta(sup 34)S, delta(sup 36)S isotopic analysis were improved. Analysis of sub milligram samples is now possible. A possible relation between sulfur isotopes and oxygen was detected, with similar group systematics noted, particularly in the case of aubrites, ureilites and entstatite chondrites. A possible nucleosynthetic excess S-33 has been noted in bulk ureilites and an oldhamite separate from Norton County. High energy proton (approximately 1 GeV) bombardments of iron foils were done to experimentally determine S-33, S-36 spallogenic yields for quantitation of isotopic measurements in iron meteorites. Techniques for measurement of mineral separates were perfected and an analysis program initiated. The systematic behavior of bulk sulfur isotopes will continue to be explored.

  12. The Mbale meteorite shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Betlem, H.; Betlem, J.; Barifaijo, E.; Schluter, T.; Hampton, C.; Laubenstein, M.; Kunz, J.; Heusser, G.

    1994-03-01

    On 1992 August 14 at 12:40 UTC, an ordinary chondrite of type L5/6 entered the atmosphere over Mbale, Uganda, broke up, and caused a strewn field of size 3 x 7 km. Shortly after the fall, an expedition gathered eye witness accounts and located the position of 48 impacts of masses between 0.19 and 27.4 kg. Short-lived radionuclide data were measured for two specimens, one of which was only 12 days after the fall. Subsequent recoveries of fragements has resulted in a total of 863 mass estimates by 1993 October. The surfaces of all fragments contain fusion crust. The meteorite shower caused some minor inconveniences. Most remarkably, a young boy was hit on the head by a small specimen. The data interpreted as to indicate that the meteorite had an initial mass between 400-1000 kg (most likely approximately 1000 kg) and approached Mbale from AZ = 185 +/- 15, H = 55 +/- 15, and Vinfinity = 13.5 +/- 1.5/s. Orbital elements are given. Fragmentation of the initial mass started probably above 25 km altitude, but the final catastrophic breakup occurred at an altitude of 10-14 km. An estimated 190 +/- 40 kg reached the Earth's surface minutes after the final breakup of which 150 kg of material has been recovered.

  13. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  14. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  15. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, Volume 28, Number 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin (Editor); Satterwhite, Cecilia (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    This newsletter contains classifications for 274 new meteorites from the 2003 and 2004 ANtarctic Search for METeorites (ANSMET) collections. They include samples from the Cumulus Hills, Larkman Nunatak, LaPaz Ice Field, MacAlpine Hills, Dominion Range, Miller Range, Roberts Massif, and Sandford Cliffs. Tables are provided of the newly classified Antarctic meteorites, meteorites classified by type, and tentative pairings petrographic descriptions.

  16. Oxygen Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. N.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotope abundance variations in meteorites are very useful in elucidating chemical and physical processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system (Clayton, 1993). On Earth, the mean abundances of the three stable isotopes are 16O: 99.76%, 17O: 0.039%, and 18O: 0.202%. It is conventional to express variations in abundances of the isotopes in terms of isotopic ratios, relative to an arbitrary standard, called SMOW (for standard mean ocean water), as follows:The isotopic composition of any sample can then be represented by one point on a "three-isotope plot," a graph of δ17O versus δ18O. It will be seen that such plots are invaluable in interpreting meteoritic data. Figure 1 shows schematically the effect of various processes on an initial composition at the center of the diagram. Almost all terrestrial materials lie along a "fractionation" trend; most meteoritic materials lie near a line of "16O addition" (or subtraction). (4K)Figure 1. Schematic representation of various isotopic processes shown on an oxygen three-isotope plot. Almost all terrestrial materials plot along a line of "fractionation"; most primitive meteoritic materials plot near a line of "16O addition." The three isotopes of oxygen are produced by nucleosynthesis in stars, but by different nuclear processes in different stellar environments. The principal isotope, 16O, is a primary isotope (capable of being produced from hydrogen and helium alone), formed in massive stars (>10 solar masses), and ejected by supernova explosions. The two rare isotopes are secondary nuclei (produced in stars from nuclei formed in an earlier generation of stars), with 17O coming primarily from low- and intermediate-mass stars (<8 solar masses), and 18O coming primarily from high-mass stars (Prantzos et al., 1996). These differences in type of stellar source result in large observable variations in stellar isotopic abundances as functions of age, size, metallicity, and galactic location ( Prantzos

  17. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  18. Irradiation history and accretionary processes in lunar and meteoritic breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdougall, D.; Rajan, R. S.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    Particle track studies reveal an abundant record of fossil solar flare tracks in breccia components. Metamorphic events govern the degree to which this record is preserved, and studies of phases with different track retentivities allow limits to be placed on temperatures reached during a rock's history. The least affected breccias have never experienced temperatures as great as 300 C. Two breccias which contain xenon from spontaneous fission of Pu-244 (14301 and 14318) and Xe-129 (14301 only) have never been heated above about 700 C. This and evidence for a surface irradiation of some of the breccia components support a surface implantation model for the origin of the xenon in these breccias. Green glass spheres in 15086 have not been heated above about 300 C during or after breccia formation yet have retained fission tracks for less than 0.7 G.y. Argon ages of about 3.5 G.y. for similar green glass are at least five times as great and may indicate that the glass was not completely outgassed at is formation.

  19. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  20. Meteorites and Their Parent Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne

    Harry Y. McSween's latest book, Meteorites and Their Parent Planets, is not intended primarily as a textbook or a technical reference for the dedicated researcher in meteoritics. Several up-to-date books along these lines already exist (Meteorites: A Petrologic-Chemical Synthesis, by R. T. Dodd, Cambridge University Press, London, 1981; Meteorites: Their Record of Early Solar System History, by J. T. Wasson, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, Calif., 1985; Meteorites and the Early Solar System, edited by J. F. Kerridge and M. Matthews, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, in press, 1988). Rather, it is intended as an introduction of the field of meteoritics and the study of the formation and evolution of the Solar System, and it is aimed at a broad spectrum of scientists and nonscientists.McSween has undertaken a difficult task. Many problems in meteoritics require synthesis of information and lines of reasoning from such diverse and highly specialized areas of study as celestial mechanics, astrophysics, cratering dynamics, spectrophotometry, igneous petrology, and isotope geochemistry. Hence these problems are often difficult for the student, or even the advanced researcher, to grasp and are rarely appreciated by the nonscientist. McSween, however, succeeds remarkably well in presenting this complex subject in a way that any curious, intelligent person can understand.

  1. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  2. Lunar surface vehicle model competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

  3. On the Survivability and Detectability of Terrestrial Meteorites on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.; Baldwin, Emily C.; Taylor, Emma A.; Bailey, Jeremy A.; Tsembelis, Kostas

    2008-04-01

    Materials blasted into space from the surface of early Earth may preserve a unique record of our planet's early surface environment. Armstrong et al. (2002) pointed out that such materials, in the form of terrestrial meteorites, may exist on the Moon and be of considerable astrobiological interest if biomarkers from early Earth are preserved within them. Here, we report results obtained via the AUTODYN hydrocode to calculate the peak pressures within terrestrial meteorites on the lunar surface to assess their likelihood of surviving the impact. Our results confirm the order-of-magnitude estimates of Armstrong et al. (2002) that substantial survivability is to be expected, especially in the case of relatively low velocity (ca. 2.5 km/s) or oblique (<=45°) impacts, or both. We outline possible mechanisms for locating such materials on the Moon and conclude that searching for them would be a scientifically valuable activity for future lunar exploration.

  4. Solar flare neon and solar cosmic ray fluxes in the past using gas-rich meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nautiyal, C. M.; Rao, M. N.

    1986-01-01

    Methods were developed earlier to deduce the composition of solar flare neon and to determine the solar cosmic ray proton fluxes in the past using etched lunar samples and at present, these techniques are extended to gas rich meteorites. By considering high temperature Ne data points for Pantar, Fayetteville and other gas rich meteorites and by applying the three component Ne-decomposition methods, the solar cosmic ray and galactic cosmic ray produced spallation Ne components from the trapped SF-Ne was resolved. Using appropiate SCR and GCR production rates, in the case of Pantar, for example, a GCR exposure age of 2 m.y. was estimated for Pantar-Dark while Pantar-Light yielded a GCR age of approx. 3 m.y. However the SCR exposure age of Pantar-Dark is two orders of magnitude higher than the average surface exposure ages of lunar soils. The possibility of higher proton fluxes in the past is discussed.

  5. On the irradiation history and origin of gas-rich meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope study of the track density gradients and irradiation geometries of track-rich grains and chondrules in sections of Fayetteville and Kapoeta, and in sections of lunar breccias and grains from lunar soil. A substantial fraction (50 to 90%) of the meteoritic track-rich grains and chondrules show evidence of having been irradiated anisotropically in their different faces, as would be expected for irradiation on the surface of a parent body. The observations thus support the hypothesis that the irradiation of these grains and chondrules took place on the regoliths of asteroidal-sized bodies. Measurements of steepest track density gradients indicate that, while there are finite differences between spectra exhibited by individual gas-rich meteorites, the average solar flare spectral shapes have been similar over the last 4 b.y. or so.

  6. Modulation of solar flare particles and track density profiles in gas-rich meteorite grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A solution is presented to the problem concerning the time-averaged solar flare particle flux as a function of kinetic energy and distance from the sun for a given particle injection spectrum at the sun within the framework of standard diffusion-convection-adiabatic deceleration theory with the diffusion coefficient independent of distance from the sun. Results of the calculations which give best agreement with observations at 1 AU are presented and discussed, with particular reference to their implications for gas-rich meteorites. Normalization at the orbit of earth is achieved via observed track density versus depth profiles in lunar vug crystals. It is shown that if gas-rich meteorite grains were irradiated in the asteroid belt and if source and modulation parameters have changed little since irradiation, the track density should be 'harder' than the lunar vug profile by about 0.2-0.3 in the index. Quantitative estimation of solar flare particle exposure ages is discussed.

  7. On the survivability and detectability of terrestrial meteorites on the moon.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Ian A; Baldwin, Emily C; Taylor, Emma A; Bailey, Jeremy A; Tsembelis, Kostas

    2008-04-01

    Materials blasted into space from the surface of early Earth may preserve a unique record of our planet's early surface environment. Armstrong et al. (2002) pointed out that such materials, in the form of terrestrial meteorites, may exist on the Moon and be of considerable astrobiological interest if biomarkers from early Earth are preserved within them. Here, we report results obtained via the AUTODYN hydrocode to calculate the peak pressures within terrestrial meteorites on the lunar surface to assess their likelihood of surviving the impact. Our results confirm the order-of-magnitude estimates of Armstrong et al. (2002) that substantial survivability is to be expected, especially in the case of relatively low velocity (ca. 2.5 km/s) or oblique (lunar exploration.

  8. Impact-Driven Overturn of Lunar Regolith: A Refreshed Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, E.; Ghent, R. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Tai Udovicic, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Meteoritic impactors churn up lunar regolith, the layer of heterogeneous grains that covers nearly the entire lunar surface to a depth of tens to hundreds of meters, and affect its geologic, petrographic and chemical makeup. An understanding of the physical characteristics of the regolith and how they change through time is fundamentally important to our ability to interpret underlying geological processes from surface observations. Characterizing impact-driven regolith overturn in particular could help us understand the lifetime of rays, ejecta blankets, and stratigraphic layering. Several probabilistic models exist that describe the meteoritic impact-driven overturn process, including that presented by Gault et. al. in their paper `Mixing of the Lunar Regolith.' We re-visit this oft-cited model, updating the constants used with more modern laboratory impact experiments and time variable meteoritic flux estimates. Further, we compare the results of Gault's model to new approaches using remote sensing datasets and Monte Carlo cratering simulations that include conditions Gault's model did not such as the erosion, seismic settling, and degradation that result from the superposition of craters. From this work we present an updated understanding of overturn as a function of time and depth. Gault et. al. showed that the upper millimeter of regolith is mixed with great frequency and the rate of turnover drops off sharply at depth. Our work elaborates on this idea, addressing the sensitivity of this result to variations in parameters including meteoritic flux, impactor mass, velocity, angle of impact and crater geometry. In addition, we use these new methods and parameters to characterize the "mixing layer," as well as those less mixed layers below in an attempt to quantitatively match the new insights on spatial variation of the change in density with depth derived by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer.

  9. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter. Volume 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satterwhite, Cecilia (Editor); Lindstrom, Marilyn (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This Newsletter Contains Classifications of 143 New Meteorites from the 1997 ANSMET Collection. Descriptions are given for 6 meteorites;2 eucrites, and 4 ordinary chondrites. We don't expect much excitement from the rest of the 1997 collection. JSC has examined another 100 meteorites to send to the Smithsonian for classification and they appear to be more of the same LL5 shower. However, past experience tells us that there will be some treasures hidden in the remaining samples. Hope rings eternal, but we can't wait to see the 1998 collection described below.

  10. Barred olivine 'chondrules' in lunar spinel troctolite 62295

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Several objects have been found in sections of lunar igneous spinel troctolite 62295 that resemble certain meteoritic barred olivine chondrules. Each consists of an apparently spherical single crystal of Fo90 olivine, approximately 0.6-0.8 mm in diameter, containing a set of approximately 30-40 subparallel stringers of An95 plagioclase, whereas the stringers in ordinary meteoritic chondrules consist of glass. The olivine of the 62295 chondrules is also more magnesian, and is radially zoned, having a relatively iron-rich core and rim and an iron-poor intermediate zone. Several possible origins are proposed: impact-generated melt globules solidified in flight, spherical phenocrysts, and meteoritic chondrules, but none of these seems adequate to explain the detailed observations.

  11. Astronaut Charles Conrad uses lunar equipment conveyer at Lunar Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, uses the lunar equipment conveyer (LEC) at the Lunar Module during the Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot.

  12. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.

  13. An Adulterated Martian Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-07-01

    Martian meteorite, Elephant Moraine EETA79001, is composed of two distinct rock types. Scientists have thought that both formed from magmas, hence are igneous rocks and contain important information about the interior of Mars, the nature of lava flows on its surface, and the timing of igneous events on Mars. All that is now open to question, as a group of investigators at Lockheed Martin Space Operations and the Johnson Space Center led by David Mittlefehldt (Lockheed) has shown that one of the rock types making up EETA79001, designated lithology A, is almost certainly a melted mixture of other rocks. Mittlefehldt and coworkers suggest that formation by impact melting is the most likely explanation for the chemical and mineralogical features seen in the rock. If confirmed by other investigations, this may change the way we view the igneous evolution of Mars.

  14. Boron in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, D. M.; Higgins, M. D.; Hinton, R. W.; Truscott, M. G.; Middleton, T. A.

    1988-09-01

    The B and Li content and distribution in 14 chondrites are investigated experimentally by means of prompt gamma neutron activation on bulk samples, EMPA, and alpha-track imaging of thin polished sections attached to neutron-irradiated cellulose nitrate films. Alpha-track and transmitted-light images are shown, and numerical results are presented in extensive tables. Chondrites of lower equilibration grades are found to contain practically no Li or B in chondrules, inclusions, sulfides, or metal, so that bulk B/Li content represents material from the matrix. Weathering products in Antarctic meteorites are shown to be significantly enriched in B and Cl, and the bulk B content in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites is found to range from 0.2 to 1 ppm (mean 0.55 ppm).

  15. Osmium isotopes and highly siderophile elements in lunar glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, M.; Walker, R.; Shearer, C.; Papike, J.

    2003-04-01

    The absolute and relative abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) present in planetary mantles are primarily controlled by silicate-metal partitioning during core-mantle differentiation and by later planetary accretion. Constraints on HSE distributions in the lunar mantle will provide insights to the formation and late accretionary history of not only the Moon, but also Earth. Because no samples of the lunar mantle have been collected, the only materials presently available for constraining mantle abundances are lunar volcanic rocks. The Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glasses are spherules derived from fire-fountain eruptions of mare basalts. These glasses are more primitive than the mare basalts, and probably were derived by the melting of cumulate assemblages from the lunar magma ocean in the deep interior (> 400 km). Despite our limited understanding of mantle-melt partitioning of the HSE, even for terrestrial systems, these glasses provide the best hope for constraining the HSE composition of the lunar interior. We report Os isotopic composition data and Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd isotope dilution concentration data for green glass (15426,164) and orange glass (74001,1217). Absolute and relative abundances of HSE are variable. The green glass has elemental ratios of the HSE and an Os isotopic composition within the range defined by chondritic meteorites, suggesting that the HSE were dominated by a meteoritic contaminant. This sample probably provides little information about the lunar interior, but may help constrain the types of meteorites impacting the lunar surface. Two size fractions (180-325 mesh and 75-180 mesh) of the orange glass were analyzed. HSE patterns for both size fractions are fractionated, having higher chondrite-normalized abundances of Pt and Pd, compared with Os and Ir. The supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratio (0.1339) of the finer fraction indicates modestly fractionated Re/Os relative to chondritic. The coarser size fraction

  16. Chondrules in Apollo 14 samples - Implications for the origin of chondritic meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, E. A., Jr.; Carman, M. F.; Butler, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Chondrules have been observed in several breccia samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission. These lunar chondrules are believed to have formed during a large impact event, perhaps the one that formed the Imbrian Basin. This suggests that some meteoritic chondrules are also formed by impact processes such as crystallization after shock melting and abrasion and diffusion in base-surge and fall-back deposits generated by impacts on planetary surfaces.

  17. The Lunar Regolith as a Recorder of Cosmic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie; McKay, D.; Riofrio, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon can be considered a giant tape recorder containing the history of the solar system and Universe. The lunar regolith (soil) has recorded the early history of the Moon, Earth, the solar system and Universe. A major goal of future lunar exploration should be to find and play back existing fragments of that tape . By reading the lunar tape, we can uncover a record of planetary bombardment, as well as solar and stellar variability. The Moon can tell us much about our place in the Universe. The lunar regolith has likely recorded the original meteoritic bombardment of Earth and Moon, a violent cataclysm that may have peaked around 4 Gyr, and the less intense bombardment occurring since that time. This impact history is preserved on the Moon as regolith layers, ejecta layers, impact melt rocks, and ancient impact breccias. The impact history of the Earth and Moon possibly had profound effects on the origin and development of life. Decrease in meteor bombardment allowed life to develop on Earth. Life may have developed first on another body, such as Mars, then arrived via meteorite on Earth. The solar system may have experienced bursts of severe radiation from the Sun, other stars, or from unknown sources. The lunar regolith has recorded this radiation history in the form of implanted solar wind, solar flare materials and radiation damage. Lunar soil can be found sandwiched between layers of basalt or pyroclastic deposits. This filling constitutes a buried time capsule that is likely to contain well-preserved ancient regolith. Study of such samples will show us how the solar system has evolved and changed over time. The lunar tape recorder can provide detailed information on specific portions of solar and stellar variability. Data from the Moon also offers clues as to whether so-called fundamental constants have changed over time.

  18. Composition of solar flare noble gases preserved in meteorite parent body regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Badhwar, G.; Murali, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    Isotopic composition of solar-flare (SF) Ne was determined in acid-etched pyroxene mineral separates from the Kapoeta meteorite, a brecciated meteorite known to contain implanted solar gases. The results yield the SF Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 11.6 +/-0.2, confirming previous determinations of this SF ratio in lunar and meteoritic samples. The same SF Ne composition was also obtained by applying an ordinate intercept technique to the same data set. The ordinate intercept technique was then applied to the Ar and He data. The results are SF Ar-36/Ar-38 = 4.9 +/-0.1 and SF He-4/He-3 = 3800 +/-200. These values are significantly different from the solar-wind (SW) Ar and He values. It is estimated that the concentration of the SF component in Kapoeta pyroxenes is about 20 percent that of the SW component, orders of magnitude higher than expected from SW and SF proton flux measurements.

  19. Nature of the fossil evidence - Moon and meteorites. [solar activity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of the fossil evidence to be found in extraterrestrial materials concerning the history of solar activity is reviewed. The various types of lunar rocks and meteorites containing evidence of exposure to solar radiations are distinguished, including igneous rocks, breccias, glassy agglutinates, single mineral crystals, carbonaceous meteorites, and the Antarctic meteorites, some of which fell to earth as much as a million years ago. The characteristic effects of energetic particles from space in materials are then examined, including ion implantation and surface radiation damage to a depth of several hundred A by the solar wind, radioactivity, electron trapping and track production induced by solar flares to depths from millimeters to centimeters, and spallation due to galactic cosmic rays at depths from centimeters to meters. Complications in the interpretation of radiation exposure histories represented by dynamic surface processes, the nonsolar origin of some trapped elements, and difficulties in determining the duration and epoch of surface exposure of individual crystals are also noted.

  20. Composition of solar flare noble gases preserved in meteorite parent body regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Badhwar, G.; Murali, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    Isotopic composition of solar-flare (SF) Ne was determined in acid-etched pyroxene mineral separates from the Kapoeta meteorite, a brecciated meteorite known to contain implanted solar gases. The results yield the SF Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 11.6 +/-0.2, confirming previous determinations of this SF ratio in lunar and meteoritic samples. The same SF Ne composition was also obtained by applying an ordinate intercept technique to the same data set. The ordinate intercept technique was then applied to the Ar and He data. The results are SF Ar-36/Ar-38 = 4.9 +/-0.1 and SF He-4/He-3 = 3800 +/-200. These values are significantly different from the solar-wind (SW) Ar and He values. It is estimated that the concentration of the SF component in Kapoeta pyroxenes is about 20 percent that of the SW component, orders of magnitude higher than expected from SW and SF proton flux measurements.