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Sample records for lunar surface roving

  1. Artist's Concept of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Artist's manned and unmanned concepts of a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Mobility Test Article (MTA) on the Lunar surface. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  2. Comparison of Nonlinear Filtering Techniques for Lunar Surface Roving Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimber, Lemon; Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Leading up to the Apollo missions the Extended Kalman Filter, a modified version of the Kalman Filter, was developed to estimate the state of a nonlinear system. Throughout the Apollo missions, Potter's Square Root Filter was used for lunar navigation. Now that NASA is returning to the Moon, the filters used during the Apollo missions must be compared to the filters that have been developed since that time, the Bierman-Thornton Filter (UD) and the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). The UD Filter involves factoring the covariance matrix into UDUT and has similar accuracy to the Square Root Filter; however it requires less computation time. Conversely, the UKF, which uses sigma points, is much more computationally intensive than any of the filters; however it produces the most accurate results. The Extended Kalman Filter, Potter's Square Root Filter, the Bierman-Thornton UD Filter, and the Unscented Kalman Filter each prove to be the most accurate filter depending on the specific conditions of the navigation system.

  3. Lunar roving vehicle thermal control system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, R. G.; Paoletti, C. J.; Britt, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A thermal control system was incorporated into the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to maintain temperature sensitive components within appropriate temperature limits during the translunar transportation phase, lunar surface operation, and quiescent periods between lunar traverses. This paper describes the thermal control system and discusses its thermal characteristics during all phases of operation. The basic concept is a passive system which stores internally generated energy during operation with subsequent radiation to space. The external environments are regulated by selected radiative surface finishes. Multi-layer insulation blankets, space radiators, flexible thermal straps, and fusible mass heat sinks were designed to control the temperatures of the electronic components.

  4. Astronauts Scott and Irwin shown on Lunar Roving Vehicle at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronauts David R. Scott (right), commander, and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, are shown on the Lunar Roving Vehicle at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity simlations.

  5. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  6. Bendix Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    An engineer demonstrates a Mobility Test Article (MTA) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as he goes down a slope onto soft earth. This unit, weighing 1/6th as much as an actual vehicle, was built by the Bendix Corporation and was one of the concepts of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  7. Bendix Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    An engineer demonstrates a Mobility Test Article (MTA) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This unit, weighing 1/6th as much as an actual vehicle, was built by the Bendix Corporation and was one of the concepts of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  8. Bendix Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This Mobility Test Article (MTA), built by the Bendix Corporation for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), was driven over rocks in Arizona. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed under the direction of the MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  9. Lunar roving vehicle navigation system performance review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. C.; Mastin, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    The design and operation of the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) navigation system are briefly described. The basis for the premission LRV navigation error analysis is explained and an example included. The real time mission support operations philosophy is presented. The LRV navigation system operation and accuracy during the lunar missions are evaluated.

  10. Bendix Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    An engineer demonstrates a Mobility Test Article (MTA) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This unit, weighing 1/6th as much as an actual vehicle, was built by the Bendix Corporation and was one of the concepts of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  11. Bendix Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Newsmen watch a test engineer drive a Mobility Test Article (MTA) demonstrated at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This unit, built by the Bendix Corporation, was one of the concepts of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  12. Bendix Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Newsmen listen as an engineer explains operations and capabilities of a Mobility Test Article (MTA) demonstrated at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This unit, built by the Bendix Corporation, was one of the concepts of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  13. Astronaut James Irwin keeps Lunar Roving Vehicle from sliding downhill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, holds the Lunar Roving Vehicle from sliding downhill during the second Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. Apparently, both of the Rover's rear wheels are off the ground. The Rover was parked facing downhill on a 15 to 20 degree slope. Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, took this photograph. Scott was performing other tasks while Irwin held the Rover. They were parked at a 'fresh' crater on the Apennine Front (Hadley Delta Mountain) slope. In the foreground a lunar rake lies atop a mound.

  14. Mobility performance of the lunar roving vehicle: Terrestrial studies: Apollo 15 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costes, N. C.; Farmer, J. E.; George, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    The constriants of the Apollo 15 mission dictated that the average and limiting performance capabilities of the first manned lunar roving vehicle be known or estimated within narrow margins. Extensive studies were conducted and are compared with the actual performance of the lunar roving vehicle during the Apollo 15 mission. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn relating to the capabilities and limitation of current terrestrial methodology in predicting the mobility performance of lunar roving vehicles under in-situ environmental conditions, and recommendations are offered concerning the performance of surface vehicles on future missions related to lunar or planetary exploration.

  15. Astronaut James Irwin works at Lunar Roving Vehicle during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, works at the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the first Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Falcon' is in the foreground. This view is looking northeast, with Mount Hadley in the background. This photograph was taken by Astronaut David R. Scott, commander.

  16. Design and manufacture of wheels for a dual-mode (manned - automatic) lunar surface roving vehicle. Volume 2: Proposed test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A developmental test plan for the wheel and wheel drive assembly of the dual-mode (manned/automated) lunar surface roving vehicle is presented. The tests cover performance, as well as critical environmental characteristics. Insofar as practical, the environmental conditions imposed will be in the sequence expected during the hardware's life from storage through the lunar mission. Test procedures are described for static load deflection and endurance tests. Soft soil tests to determine mobility characteristics including drawbar-pull and thrust vs slip, and motion resistance for various wheel loads are also discussed. Test designs for both ambient and thermal vacuum conditions are described. Facility, transducer, and instrumentation requirements are outlined.

  17. Bendix Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    An engineer demonstrates a Mobility Test Article (MTA) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as he crosses a soft clay strip onto rocky ground. This unit, weighing 1/6th as much as an actual vehicle, was built by the Bendix Corporation and was one of the concepts of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  18. The Lunar Roving Vehicle: Historical perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morea, Saverio F.

    1992-01-01

    As NASA proceeds with its studies, planning, and technology efforts in preparing for the early twenty-first century, it seems appropriate to reexamine past programs for potential applicability in meeting future national space science and exploration goals and objectives. Both the National Commission on Space (NCOS) study and NASA's 'Sally Ride study' suggest future programs involving returning to the Moon and establishing man's permanent presence there, and/or visiting the planet Mars in both the unmanned and manned mode. Regardless of when and which of these new bold initiatives is selected as our next national space goal, implementing these potentially new national thrusts in space will undoubtedly require the use of both manned and remotely controlled roving vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to raise the consciousness level of the current space exploration planners to what, in the early 1970s, was a highly successful roving vehicle. During the Apollo program the vehicle known as the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was designed for carrying two astronauts, their tools, and the equipment needed for rudimentary exploration of the Moon. This paper contains a discussion of the vehicle, its characteristics, and its use on the Moon. Conceivably, the LRV has the potential to meet some future requirements, either with relatively low cost modifications or via an evolutionary route. This aspect, however, is left to those who would choose to further study these options.

  19. The Lunar Roving Vehicle: Historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Saverio F.

    1992-09-01

    As NASA proceeds with its studies, planning, and technology efforts in preparing for the early twenty-first century, it seems appropriate to reexamine past programs for potential applicability in meeting future national space science and exploration goals and objectives. Both the National Commission on Space (NCOS) study and NASA's 'Sally Ride study' suggest future programs involving returning to the Moon and establishing man's permanent presence there, and/or visiting the planet Mars in both the unmanned and manned mode. Regardless of when and which of these new bold initiatives is selected as our next national space goal, implementing these potentially new national thrusts in space will undoubtedly require the use of both manned and remotely controlled roving vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to raise the consciousness level of the current space exploration planners to what, in the early 1970s, was a highly successful roving vehicle. During the Apollo program the vehicle known as the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was designed for carrying two astronauts, their tools, and the equipment needed for rudimentary exploration of the Moon. This paper contains a discussion of the vehicle, its characteristics, and its use on the Moon. Conceivably, the LRV has the potential to meet some future requirements, either with relatively low cost modifications or via an evolutionary route. This aspect, however, is left to those who would choose to further study these options.

  20. Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article on Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A test engineer drove a Mobility Test Article (MTA) of a possible future Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) over rocks during tests in Arizona. The machine was built by General Motors for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Under the direction of MSFC, the LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  1. Test of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A test engineer drives a Mobility Test Article (MTA) during a test of a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) concept through the mountains of Arizona. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  2. Astronaut Charles Duke works at front of Lunar Roving Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, works at front of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) parked in this rock field at a North Ray crater geological site during the Mission's third extravehicular activity (EVA-3) on April 23, 1972. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, took this picture with a 70mm Hasselblad camera.

  3. The Development of Wheels for the Lunar Roving Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake; Delap, Damon; Creager, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was developed for NASA s Apollo program so astronauts could cover a greater range on the lunar surface, carry more science instruments, and return more soil and rock samples than by foot. Because of the unique lunar environment, the creation of flexible wheels was the most challenging and time consuming aspect of the LRV development. Wheels developed for previous lunar systems were not sufficient for use with this manned vehicle; therefore, several new designs were created and tested. Based on criteria set by NASA, the choices were narrowed down to two: the wire mesh wheel developed by General Motors (GM), and the hoop spring wheel developed by the Bendix Corporation. Each of these underwent intensive mechanical, material, and terramechanical analyses, and in the end, the wire mesh wheel was chosen for the LRV. Though the wire mesh wheel was determined to be the best choice for its particular application, it may be insufficient towards achieving the objectives of future lunar missions that could require higher tractive capability, increased weight capacity, or extended life. Therefore lessons learned from the original LRV wheel development and suggestions for future Moon wheel projects are offered.

  4. Lunar Roving Vehicle gets speed workout by Astronaut John Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) gets a speed workout by Astronaut John W. Young in the 'Grand Prix' run during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera held by Astronaut Charels M. Duke Jr.

  5. Astronaut James Irwin works at Lunar Roving Vehicle during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, works at the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the first Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. A portion of the Lunar Module 'Falcon' is on the left. The undeployed Laser Ranging Retro Reflector (LR-3) lies atop the LM's MOdulear Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA). This view is looking slightly west of south. Hadley Delta and the Apennine Front are in the background to the left. St. George crater is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) in the distance behind Irwin's head. This photograph was taken by Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander.

  6. The Discharging of Roving Objects in the Lunar Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Stubbs, T. B.

    2012-01-01

    the gradient in pressure that would act in a collisional neutral gas. Human systems (roving astronauts or robotic systems created by humans) may be required to gain access to the crater floor to collect resources such as water and other cold-trapped material. However, these human systems are also exposed to the above-described harsh thermal and electrical environments in the region. Thus, the objective of this work is to determine the nature of charging and discharging for a roving object in the cold, plasma-starved lunar polar regions. To accomplish this objective, we first define the electrical charging environment within polar craters. We then describe the subsequent charging of a moving object near and within such craters. We apply a model of an astronaut moving in periodic steps/cadence over a surface regolith. In fact the astronaut can be considered an analog for any kind of moving human system. An astronaut stepping over the surface accumulates charge via contact electrification (tribocharging) v.lith the lunar regolith. We present a model of this tribo-charge build-up. Given the environmental plasma in the region, we determine herein the dissipation time for the astronaut to bleed off its excess charge into the surrounding plasma.

  7. Roving Vehicles for Lunar and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes the design, development, and application of lunar and Mars rovers; vehicle instrumentation and power supplies; navigation and control technologies; and site selection.

  8. Lunar Roving Vehicle gets speed workout by Astronaut John Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) gets a speed workout by Astronaut John W. Young in the 'Grand Prix' run during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Note the front wheels of the LRV are off the ground. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera held by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr.

  9. Bendix Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A test engineer drove a Mobility Test Article (MTA) over rocks in Arizona. This unit was built by the Bendix Corporation for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of the MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  10. APOLLO 15 ASTRONAUTS SCOTT AND IRWIN BRIEFED NEWSMEN ON THE LUNAR ROVING VEHICLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 15 astronauts David Scott, right, and James Irwin, left, briefed newsmen today on the Lunar Roving Vehicle which will be used for lunar exploration for the first time during July's Apollo 15 mission.

  11. Astronaut John Young reaches for tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, reaches for tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. This view is looking south from the base of Stone Mountain.

  12. Astronaut John Young replaces tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, replaces tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Smoky Mountain, with the large Ravine crater on its flank, is in the left background. This view is looking northeast.

  13. Astronauts Young and Duke participate in training with Lunar Roving Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronauts John W. Young (right) and Charles M. Duke Jr., participate in simulation training with the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) during Apollo 16 pre-launch activity at the Kennedy Space Center. All systems on the LRV-2 were activated and checked for trouble-free operation during the simulations. Young is the Apollo 16 commander; and Duke is the lunar module pilot.

  14. Astronaut John Young drives Lunar Roving Vehicle to final parking place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, drives the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left.

  15. A mechanical model for deformable and mesh pattern wheel of lunar roving vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongchao; Wang, Yongfu; Chen, Gang (Sheng); Gao, Haibo

    2015-12-01

    As an indispensable tool for astronauts on lunar surface, the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) is of great significance for manned lunar exploration. An LRV moves on loose and soft lunar soil, so the mechanical property of its wheels directly affects the mobility performance. The wheels used for LRV have deformable and mesh pattern, therefore, the existing mechanical theory of vehicle wheel cannot be used directly for analyzing the property of LRV wheels. In this paper, a new mechanical model for LRV wheel is proposed. At first, a mechanical model for a rigid normal wheel is presented, which involves in multiple conventional parameters such as vertical load, tangential traction force, lateral force, and slip ratio. Secondly, six equivalent coefficients are introduced to amend the rigid normal wheel model to fit for the wheels with deformable and mesh-pattern in LRV application. Thirdly, the values of the six equivalent coefficients are identified by using experimental data obtained in an LRV's single wheel testing. Finally, the identified mechanical model for LRV's wheel with deformable and mesh pattern are further verified and validated by using additional experimental results.

  16. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt seated in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed seated in the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) at Station 9 (Van Serg Crater) during the third Apollo 17 extrvehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, crew commander.

  17. Design and manufacture of wheels for a dual-mode (manned - automatic) lunar surface roving vehicle. Volume 1: Detailed technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The concept development, testing, evaluation, and the selection of a final wheel design concept for a dual-mode lunar surface vehicle (DLRV) is detailed. Four wheel configurations were fabricated (one open wheel and three closed wheel) (and subjected to a series of soft soil, mechanical, and endurance tests. Results show that the open wheel has lower draw-bar pull (slope climbing) capability in loose soil due to its higher ground pressure and tendency to dig in at high wheel slip. Endurance tests indicate that a double mesh, fully enclosed wheel can be developed to meet DLRV life requirements. There is, however, a 1.0 to 1.8 lb/wheel weight penalty associated with the wheel enclosure. Also the button cleats used as grousers for the closed-type wheels result in local stress concentration and early fatigue failure of the wire mesh. Load deflection tests indicate that the stiffness of the covered wheel increased by up to 50% after soil bin testing, due to increased friction between the fabric and the wire mesh caused by the sand. No change in stiffness was found for the open wheel. The single woven mesh open wheel design with a chevron tread is recommended for continued development

  18. Effect of yaw angle on steering forces for the lunar roving vehicle wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    A series of tests was conducted with a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) wheel operating at yaw angles ranging from -5 to +90 deg. The load was varied from 42 to 82 lb (187 to 365 N), and the speed was varied from 3.5 to 10.0 ft/sec (1.07 to 3.05 m/sec). It was noted that speed had an effect on side thrust and rut depth. Side thrust, rut depth, and skid generally increased as the yaw angle increased. For the range of loads used, the effect of load on performance was not significant.

  19. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface to salute flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  20. Astronaut David Scott simulates use of Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Drill at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, commander of the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission, simulates use of the Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Drill (ALSD) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Scott's fellow moon-exploring crewman, Astronaut James Irwin, can be seen in the background near Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) trainer.

  1. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  2. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface as he salutes U.S. flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. flag during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) on the Moon, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, is standing in the background.

  3. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  4. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  5. Magnetometer on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Sitting on the lunar surface, this magnetometer provided new data on the Moon's magnetic field. This was one of the instruments used during the Apollo 12 mission. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  6. ASTRONAUTS EUGENE CERNAN AND HARRISON SCHMITT CONDUCT TESTS ON THE LUNAR ROVING VEHICLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center launch team is continuing the checkout of Apollo 17 flight hardware for the final lunar exploration mission of Project Apollo. Participating in the test were prime crew members Harrison H. Schmitt, Lunar Module Pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, Commander.

  7. Astronaut David Scott watching hammer and feather fall to lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander, watches a geological hammer and a feather hit the lunar surface simultaneously in a test of Galileo's law of motion concerning falling bodies, as seen in this color reproduction taken from a transmission made by the RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Scott released the hammer from his right hand and the feather from his left at the same instant. This experiment occured toward the end of the third and final lunar surface extravehicular activity.

  8. A study and analysis of the MSFC lunar roving vehicle dust profile test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullis, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    The dust problem and fender design for the LRV were studied under reduced gravity with a lunar soil simulant. The test equipment, soil characteristics of the lunar soil simulant, and the test procedures are described. It is concluded: (1) The fender plus flap design is adequate. (2) Vacuum conditions tend to eliminate or reduce suspended dust clouds. (3) Reduced gravity conditions tend to increase the dust problems. (4) Slow starting speeds are necessary to minimize slip and reduce initial dust generation.

  9. Astronauts Young and Duke begin simulated lunar surface traverse at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronauts John W. Young, right, Apollo 16 commander, and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, prepare to begin a simulated traverse in a training area at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Among the experiments to fly on Apollo 16 is the soil mechanics (S-200) experiment, or self-recording penetrometer, a model of which is held here by Duke. A training model of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is parked between the two crewmen (30694); Young and Duke maneuver a training version of the LRV about a field at KSC simulated to represent the lunar surface (30695).

  10. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Table-top views of two of the Apollo 17 lunar orbital experiments. Views include the the Far-Ultraviolet Spectrometer, Experiment S-169, one of the lunar orbital science experiments which will be mounted in the SIM bay of the Apollo 17 Service Module. Atomic composition, density and scale height for several contituents of the lunar atmosphere will be measured by the experiment. Solar far-UV radiation reflected from the lunar surface as well as UV radiation emitted by galactic sources also will be detected (53470); The Infrared Scanning Radiometer (ISR), Experiment S-171, which will be mounted in the SIM bay of the Service Module. The ISR experiment will provide a lunar surface temperature map with improved temperature and spatial resolution over what has been possible before (53471).

  11. Lunar Dust on Heat Rejection System Surfaces: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Heat rejection from power systems will be necessary for human and robotic activity on the lunar surface. Functional operation of such heat rejection systems is at risk of degradation as a consequence of dust accumulation. The Apollo astronauts encountered marked degradation of performance in heat rejection systems for the lunar roving vehicle, science packages, and other components. Although ground testing of dust mitigation concepts in support of the Apollo mission identified mitigation tools, the brush concept adopted by the Apollo astronauts proved essentially ineffective. A better understanding of the issues associated with the impact of lunar dust on the functional performance of heat rejection systems and its removal is needed as planning gets underway for human and robotic missions to the Moon. Renewed emphasis must also be placed on ground testing of pristine and dust-covered heat rejection system surfaces to quantify degradation and address mitigation concepts. This paper presents a review of the degradation in performance of heat rejection systems encountered on the lunar surface to-date, and will discuss current activities underway to evaluate the durability of candidate heat rejection system surfaces and current dust mitigation concepts.

  12. Lunar surface magnetometer design review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Design and fabrication parameters of a lunar surface magnetometer are discussed. Drawings and requirements for mechanical design, electronic packaging design, thermal design, quality assurance and systems testing are included.

  13. Lunar surface mining equipment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podnieks, Egons R.; Siekmeier, John A.

    Results of a NASA-sponsored assessment of the various proposed lunar surface mining equipment concepts submitted to NASA are presented. The proposed equipment was reviewed and evaluated with due consideration of equipment design criteria, basic mining principles, and the lunar environment. On the basis of this assessment, two pieces of mining equipment were conceptualized for surface mining operations: the ripper-excavator-loader, also capable of operating as a load-haul-dump vehicle, and the haulage vehicle, capable of transporting feedstock from the pit, liquid oxygen containers from the processing plant, and materials during construction. Reliable and durable lunar mining equipment is found to be best developed by the evolution of proven terrestrial technology adapted to the lunar environment.

  14. An overnight habitat for expanding lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Samuel S.; Setterfield, Timothy P.; Roberson, Daniel R.; Putbrese, Benjamin; Kotowick, Kyle; Vanegas, Morris D.; Curry, Mike; Geiger, Lynn M.; Barmore, David; Foley, Jordan J.; LaTour, Paul A.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Head, James W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design and analysis of a system intended to increase the range, scientific capability, and safety of manned lunar surface exploration, requiring only a modest increase in capability over the Apollo mission designs. The system is intended to enable two astronauts, exploring with an unpressurized rover, to remove their space suits for an 8-h rest away from the lunar base and then conduct a second day of surface exploration before returning to base. This system is composed of an Environmental Control and Life Support System on the rover, an inflatable habitat, a solar shield and a solar power array. The proposed system doubles the distance reachable from the lunar base, thus increasing the area available for science and exploration by a factor of four. In addition to increasing mission capability, the proposed system also increases fault tolerance with an emergency inflatable structure and additional consumables to mitigate a wide range of suit or rover failures. The mass, volume, and power analyses of each subsystem are integrated to generate a total system mass of 124 kg and a volume of 594 L, both of which can be accommodated on the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle with minor improvements.

  15. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  16. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  17. Characterization of Stereo Vision Performance for Roving at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Uland; Nefian, Ara; Edwards, Larry; Furlong, Michael; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; To, Vinh; Deans, Matthew; Cannon, Howard; Fong, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Surface rover operations at the polar regions of airless bodies, particularly the Moon, are of particular interest to future NASA science missions such as Resource Prospector (RP). Polar optical conditions present challenges to conventional imaging techniques, with repercussions to driving, safeguarding and science. High dynamic range, long cast shadows, opposition and white out conditions are all significant factors in appearance. RP is currently undertaking an effort to characterize stereo vision performance in polar conditions through physical laboratory experimentation with regolith simulants, obstacle distributions and oblique lighting.

  18. Lunar surface mine feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Brad R.

    This paper describes a lunar surface mine, and demonstrates the economic feasibility of mining oxygen from the moon. The mine will be at the Apollo 16 landing site. Mine design issues include pit size and shape, excavation equipment, muck transport, and processing requirements. The final mine design will be driven by production requirements, and constrained by the lunar environment. This mining scenario assumes the presence of an operating lunar base. Lunar base personnel will set-up a and run the mine. The goal of producing lunar oxygen is to reduce dependence on fuel shipped from Earth. Thus, the lunar base is the customer for the finished product. The perspective of this paper is that of a mining contractor who must produce a specific product at a remote location, pay local labor, and sell the product to an onsite captive market. To make a profit, it must be less costly to build and ship specialized equipment to the site, and pay high labor and operating costs, than to export the product directly to the site.

  19. A Lunar Surface Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayar, H.; Balaram, J.; Cameron, J.; Jain, A.; Lim, C.; Mukherjee, R.; Peters, S.; Pomerantz, M.; Reder, L.; Shakkottai, P.; Wall, S,

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Operations Simulator (LSOS) is being developed to support planning and design of space missions to return astronauts to the moon. Vehicles, habitats, dynamic and physical processes and related environment systems are modeled and simulated in LSOS to assist in the visualization and design optimization of systems for lunar surface operations. A parametric analysis tool and a data browser were also implemented to provide an intuitive interface to run multiple simulations and review their results. The simulator and parametric analysis capability are described in this paper.

  20. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  1. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  2. Planetary surface exploration: MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Lentz, Dale; Laux, Richard; Nance, Preston

    1992-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars was designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA-Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray instruments (APX). The system is to be launched with the sixteen MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker was developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian surface. While on Mars the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar-terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation which NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. A detailed description of the designs, methods, and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs are included.

  3. Planetary surface exploration MESUR/autonomous lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Matt; Austin, Dave; Ayers, Raymond; Burton, David; Gaylord, Joe; Kennedy, Jim; Laux, Richard; Lentz, Dale; Nance, Preston

    1992-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration micro-rovers for collecting data about the Moon and Mars have been designed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Idaho. The goal of both projects was to design a rover concept that best satisfied the project objectives for NASA/Ames. A second goal was to facilitate student learning about the process of design. The first micro-rover is a deployment mechanism for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Alpha Particle/Proton/X-ray (APX) Instrument. The system is to be launched with the 16 MESUR landers around the turn of the century. A Tubular Deployment System and a spiked-legged walker have been developed to deploy the APX from the lander to the Martian Surface. While on Mars, the walker is designed to take the APX to rocks to obtain elemental composition data of the surface. The second micro-rover is an autonomous, roving vehicle to transport a sensor package over the surface of the moon. The vehicle must negotiate the lunar terrain for a minimum of one year by surviving impacts and withstanding the environmental extremes. The rover is a reliable track-driven unit that operates regardless of orientation that NASA can use for future lunar exploratory missions. This report includes a detailed description of the designs and the methods and procedures which the University of Idaho design teams followed to arrive at the final designs.

  4. The Influence of Weather and Lunar Phases on the Flight Activity of Paederus Rove Beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, F S; Lobo, S E P D; Lima, D C B; Brito, J M; Costa-Neta, B M

    2015-06-01

    Despite the medical importance of Paederus beetles, no studies have studied the influence of the abiotic factors on the flight activity and nighttime dispersal of these insects in Brazil. Therefore, the influence of both climatic factors and moon phase on black-light catches of Paederus rove beetles was investigated. Paederus beetles were attracted to a black light source hourly from 1800 to 0600 hours, and data on weather conditions as well as moon phase data were taken for every sampling date. Overall, 543 individuals of Paederus beetles belonging to four species were captured: P. protensus, P. columbinus, P. brasiliensis, and P. mutans. Paederus beetles were mostly active in the warmest parts of the studied nights. Variations in nighttime temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phases appear not to affect Paederus flight. The diurnal temperature was observed to affect the night hourly dispersal of Paederus rove beetles as well as their distribution pattern during the entire period of study. The true environmental condition responsible for Paederus beetles seasonal pattern and daily night dispersal in northeastern Brazil were the annual moisture and drought cycles and the diurnal maximum temperatures, respectively. Significant trap catches were observed in the earliest hours after sunset (1800-2100), and people must be aware of this fact, as it can notably increase the risk of acquiring linearis dermatitis from the contact with large numbers of active Paederus.

  5. Lunar Surface-to-Surface Power Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    A human lunar outpost, under NASA study for construction in the 2020's, has potential requirements to transfer electric power up to 50-kW across the lunar surface from 0.1 to 10-km distances. This power would be used to operate surface payloads located remotely from the outpost and/or outpost primary power grid. This paper describes concept designs for state-of-the-art technology power transfer subsystems including AC or DC power via cables, beamed radio frequency power and beamed laser power. Power transfer subsystem mass and performance are calculated and compared for each option. A simplified qualitative assessment of option operations, hazards, costs and technology needs is also described. Based on these concept designs and performance analyses, a DC power cabling subsystem is recommended to minimize subsystem mass and to minimize mission and programmatic costs and risks. Avenues for additional power transfer subsystem studies are recommended.

  6. Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

  7. Review on lunar surface operation robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuochi, Michiaki

    1991-07-01

    A review is given of robots to conduct construction of lunar surface sites, to layout each subsystem, and to support lunar surface experiments performed as the first step to set up a concept of lunar bases. The robots' mission requirements and the system review baselines were studied based on the following premises for their missions: (1) to support manned lunar surface sites construction; (2) to transport, install, and connect piping and wiring heavy goods being laid out in inhabited module or drive self-propelled items; (3) to be used only during day time; and (4) to be used from the initial stage of construction of manned lunar surface sites. The results of the review were presented, and the requirements, the baselines for their review, system structure and composition, main features, electric system chart, and development plans of lunar surface robots are shown. Technical problems to be solved such as stereoscopic image processing and seven degree of freedom control technology for manipulators are presented. Observation equipment to be operated by the robots on the lunar surface are: (1) radio, visible and infrared, and x-ray telescopes; (2) environment monitoring equipment; (3) lunar seismometer; and (4) thermal flow meter.

  8. APOLLO 10: Training for Lunar Surface Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Astronauts train on a mock-up lunar surface, practicing the procedures they will follow on the real thing, and adjusting to the demands of the workload. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 10: 'Green Light for a Lunar Landing''. Part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 10: Manned lunar orbital flight with Thomas P Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan to test all aspects of an actual manned lunar landing except the landing. Mission Duration 192hrs 3mins 23 sec

  9. Lunar soil and surface processes studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    Glass particles in lunar soil were characterized and compared to terrestrial analogues. In addition, useful information was obtained concerning the nature of lunar surface processes (e.g. volcanism and impact), maturity of soils and chemistry and heterogeneity of lunar surface material. It is felt, however, that the most important result of the study was that it demonstrated that the investigation of glass particles from the regolith of planetary bodies with little or no atmospheres can be a powerful method for learning about the surface processes and chemistry of planetary surfaces. Thus, the return of samples from other planetary bodies (especially the terrestrial planets and asteroids) using unmanned spacecraft is urged.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM presents papers presented to the Thirty-first Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2000, Houston, Texas. Eighty-one conference sessions, and over one thousand extended abstracts are included. Abstracts cover topics such as Martian surface properties and geology, meteoritic composition, Martian landing sites and roving vehicles, planned Mars Sample Return Missions, and general astrobiology.

  11. Lighting constraints on lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the levels of ambient lighting on the lunar surface indicates that for most nearside locations, illumination will be adequate throughout most of the lunar night to conduct EVAs with only minor artificial illumination. The maximum lighting available during the lunar night from Earthshine will be similar to the light level on a July evening at approximately 8:00 pm in the southern United States (approximately 15 minutes after sunset). Because of the captured rotation of the Moon about the Earth, the location of the Earth will remain approximately constant throughout the lunar night, with consequent constant shadow length and angle. Variations in the level of Earthside illumination will be solely a function of Earth phase angle. Experience during the Apollo Program suggests that EVA activities during the period around the lunar noon may be difficult due to lack of surface definition caused by elimination of shadows.

  12. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Banazadeh, P.; Baker, J. D.; Staehle, R. L.; Paine, C..; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Water ice and other volatiles may be located in the Moon's polar regions, with sufficient quantities for in situ extraction and utilization by future human and robotic missions. Evidence from orbiting spacecraft and the LCROSS impactor suggests the presence of surface and/or nearsurface volatiles, including water ice. These deposits are of interest to human exploration to understand their potential for use by astronauts. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits could also reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system, so are of scientific interest. The scientific exploration of the lunar polar regions was one of the key recommendations of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program selected three lowcost 6-U CubeSat missions for launch as secondary payloads on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS) scheduled for 2017. The Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as one of these missions, specifically to address the SKG associated with lunar volatiles. Development of the Lunar Flashlight CubeSat concept leverages JPL's Interplanetary Nano- Spacecraft Pathfinder In Relevant Environment (INSPIRE) mission, MSFC's intimate knowledge of the Space Launch System and EM-1 mission, small business development of solar sail and electric propulsion hardware, and JPL experience with specialized miniature sensors. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and its physical state, and map its concentration at the kilometer scale within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight deploys its solar panels and solar sail and maneuvers

  13. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  14. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-07-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to these seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought fro earth should be less than 1000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield.

  15. Integrating advanced mobility into lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlutz, Juergen; Messerschmid, Ernst

    2012-06-01

    With growing knowledge of the lunar surface environment from recent robotic missions, further assessment of human lunar infrastructures and operational aspects for surface exploration become possible. This is of particular interest for the integration of advanced mobility assets, where path planning, balanced energy provision and consumption as well as communication coverage grow in importance with the excursion distance. The existing modeling and simulation tools for the lunar surface environment have therefore been revisited and extended to incorporate aspects of mobile exploration. An extended analysis of the lunar topographic models from past and ongoing lunar orbital missions has resulted in the creation of a tool to calculate and visualize slope angles in selected lunar regions. This allows for the identification of traversable terrain with respect to the mobile system capabilities. In a next step, it is combined with the analysis of the solar illumination conditions throughout this terrain to inform system energy budgets in terms of electrical power availability and thermal control requirements. The combination of the traversability analysis together with a time distributed energy budget assessment then allows for a path planning and optimization for long range lunar surface mobility assets, including manned excursions as well as un-crewed relocation activities. The above mentioned tools are used for a conceptual analysis of the international lunar reference architecture, developed in the frame of the International Architecture Working Group (IAWG) of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). Its systems capabilities are evaluated together with the planned surface exploration range and paths in order to analyze feasibility of the architecture and to identify potential areas of optimization with respect to time-based and location-based integration of activities.

  16. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  17. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  18. Lunar surface chemistry: A new imaging technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andre, C.G.; Bielefeld, M.J.; Eliason, E.; Soderblom, L.A.; Adler, I.; Philpotts, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed chemical maps of the lunar surface have been constructed by applying a new weighted-filter imaging technique to Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 x-ray fluorescence data. The data quality improvement is amply demonstrated by (i) modes in the frequency distribution, representing highland and mare soil suites, which are not evident before data filtering and (ii) numerous examples of chemical variations which are correlated with small-scale (about 15 kilometer) lunar topographic features.

  19. Solar Wind Spectrometer on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Sitting on the lunar surface, this Solar Wind Spectrometer is measuring the energies of the particles that make up the solar wind. This was one of the instruments used during the Apollo 12 mission. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  20. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.

  1. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  2. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-27

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.

  3. View of activity in Mission Control Center during Lunar Module liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the liftoff of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module 'Falcon' ascent stage from the lunar surface. An RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle made it possible for people on Earth to watch the Lunar Module (LM) launch from the Moon. Seated in the right foreground is Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, a spacecraft communicator. Note liftoff on the television monitor in the center background.

  4. Lunar Surface Outgassing and Alpha Particle Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, R. D.; Binder, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particles produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-218 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238. Radon reaches the lunar surface either at areas of high soil porosity or where fissures release the trapped gases in which radon is entrained. Once released, the radon spreads out by "bouncing" across the surface on ballistic trajectories in a randomwalk process. The half-life of radon-222 allows the gas to spread out by several 100 km before it decays (depositing approximately half of the polonium-218 recoil nuclides on the lunar surface) and allows the APS to detect gas release events up to several days after they occur. The long residence time of the lead-210 precursor to polonium-210 allows the mapping of gas vents which have been active over the last approximately 60 years. Because radon and polonium are daughter products of the decay of uranium, the background level of alpha particle activity is a function of the lunar crustal uranium distribution.

  5. The Lunar Surface: A Dusty Plasma Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Brain, D.; Kempf, S.; Munsat, T.; Robertson, S. H.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar surface is an excellent laboratory to study dusty plasma processes that are relevant to all airless planetary objects. The solar wind and UV radiation lead to charging of exposed surfaces, and the formation of plasma sheaths above them. Near-surface intense electric fields are thought to be capable of mobilizing and transporting small charged dust particles. Remote sensing and in situ observations indicating dust transport on the Moon date back to the Apollo era and remain highly controversial. There are many unresolved issues about the physical processes that have to this point prevented the development of a coherent explanation for the existing observations. Dust transport on airless bodies can significantly alter our interpretation of spectral identification of asteroids, the small-scale surface features of Mercury, and the Martian moons Phobos and Deimos. Understanding the behavior of dust laden plasma sheaths is of interest in basic plasma and planetary sciences, and holds the key to efficient dust hazard mitigation for the long-term use of optical and mechanical equipment used for robotic and/or human exploration. NASA Lunar Science Institute's Colorado Center of Lunar Dust is focused on experimental and theoretical investigations of dusty plasmas, and the effects of hypervelocity dust impacts on surfaces. This presentation will describe a series of small-scale laboratory experiments investigating the properties of photoelectron sheaths, and the emergence of intense electric fields near boundaries of lit and dark surfaces and regions shielded and exposed to the solar wind plasma flow. Our progress in the analysis and interpretation of the laboratory observations using simple analytic models and complex plasma simulation tools indicates that these models can be used to predict the expected properties of the lunar near-surface environment with increasing confidence. Based on our laboratory and theoretical efforts, we will also report on the status of

  6. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Shawn; Lipinksi, Ronald; McAlpine, William

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear reactor system could provide power to support a long term human exploration to the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency (Wright, 2003). The goals of the shielding studies were to provide optimal material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX code, a Monte Carlo transport code.

  7. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  8. Functional Risk Modeling for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Fraser; Mathias, Donovan; Go, Susie; Nejad, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an approach to risk modeling that we call functional modeling , which we have developed to estimate the capabilities of a lunar base. The functional model tracks the availability of functions provided by systems, in addition to the operational state of those systems constituent strings. By tracking functions, we are able to identify cases where identical functions are provided by elements (rovers, habitats, etc.) that are connected together on the lunar surface. We credit functional diversity in those cases, and in doing so compute more realistic estimates of operational mode availabilities. The functional modeling approach yields more realistic estimates of the availability of the various operational modes provided to astronauts by the ensemble of surface elements included in a lunar base architecture. By tracking functional availability the effects of diverse backup, which often exists when two or more independent elements are connected together, is properly accounted for.

  9. Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Jurns, John M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering propulsion system concepts for future missions including human return to the lunar surface. Studies have identified cryogenic methane (LCH4) and oxygen (LO2) as a desirable propellant combination for the lunar surface ascent propulsion system, and they point to a surface stay requirement of 180 days. To meet this requirement, a test article was prepared with state-of-the-art insulation and tested in simulated lunar mission environments at NASA GRC. The primary goals were to validate design and models of the key thermal control technologies to store unvented methane for long durations, with a low-density high-performing Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) system to protect the propellant tanks from the environmental heat of low Earth orbit (LEO), Earth to Moon transit, lunar surface, and with the LCH4 initially densified. The data and accompanying analysis shows this storage design would have fallen well short of the unvented 180 day storage requirement, due to the MLI density being much higher than intended, its substructure collapse, and blanket separation during depressurization. Despite the performance issue, insight into analytical models and MLI construction was gained. Such modeling is important for the effective design of flight vehicle concepts, such as in-space cryogenic depots or in-space cryogenic propulsion stages.

  10. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shawn; McAlpine, William; Lipinski, Ronald

    2006-01-20

    A nuclear reactor system could provide power to support long term human exploration of the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency. The goals of the shielding studies were to determine a material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX, a Monte Carlo transport code. Lithium hydride must be kept between 600 K and 700 K to prevent excessive swelling from large amounts of gamma or neutron irradiation. The issue is that radiation damage causes separation of the lithium and the hydrogen, resulting in lithium metal and hydrogen gas. The proposed design uses a layer of B4C to reduce the combined neutron and gamma dose to below 0.5Grads before the LiH is introduced. Below 0.5Grads the swelling in LiH is small (less than about 1%) for all temperatures. This approach causes the shield to be heavier than if the B4C were replaced by LiH, but it makes the shield much more robust and reliable.

  11. Lunar surface outgassing and alpha particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, Richard D.; Binder, Alan B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particle?; produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-2 18 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238.

  12. Apollo program soil mechanics experiment. [interaction of the lunar module with the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The soil mechanics investigation was conducted to obtain information relating to the landing interaction of the lunar module (LM) with the lunar surface, and lunar soil erosion caused by the spacecraft engine exhaust. Results obtained by study of LM landing performance on each Apollo mission are summarized.

  13. Shield Design for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    A shielding concept for lunar surface applications of nuclear power is presented herein. The reactor, primary shield, reactor equipment and power generation module are placed in a cavity in the lunar surface. Support structure and heat rejection radiator panels are on the surface, outside the cavity. The reactor power of 1,320 kWt was sized to deliver 50 kWe from a thermoelectric power conversion subsystem. The dose rate on the surface is less than 0.6 mRem/hr at 100 meters from the reactor. Unoptimized shield mass is 1,020 kg which is much lighter than a comparable 4π shield weighing in at 17,000 kg.

  14. Shield Design for Lunar Surface Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gregory A.

    2006-01-20

    A shielding concept for lunar surface applications of nuclear power is presented herein. The reactor, primary shield, reactor equipment and power generation module are placed in a cavity in the lunar surface. Support structure and heat rejection radiator panels are on the surface, outside the cavity. The reactor power of 1,320 kWt was sized to deliver 50 kWe from a thermoelectric power conversion subsystem. The dose rate on the surface is less than 0.6 mRem/hr at 100 meters from the reactor. Unoptimized shield mass is 1,020 kg which is much lighter than a comparable 4{pi} shield weighing in at 17,000 kg.

  15. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  16. Long Shadows on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This oblique view of the Moon's surface was photographed by the Apollo 10 astronauts in May of 1969. Center point coordinates are located at 16 degrees, 2 minutes east longitude and 0 degrees, 3 minutes north latitude. One of the Apollo 10 astronauts attached a 250mm lens and aimed a handheld 70mm camera at the surface from lunar orbit for a series of pictures in this area.

  17. Space environment and lunar surface processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a general rock/soil model capable of simulating in a self consistent manner the mechanical and exposure history of an assemblage of solid and loose material from submicron to planetary size scales, applicable to lunar and other space exposed planetary surfaces is discussed. The model was incorporated into a computer code called MESS.2 (model for the evolution of space exposed surfaces). MESS.2, which represents a considerable increase in sophistication and scope over previous soil and rock surface models, is described. The capabilities of previous models for near surface soil and rock surfaces are compared with the rock/soil model, MESS.2.

  18. Surface Coatings on Lunar Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas,-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    We are undertaking a detailed study of surface deposits on lunar volcanic glass beads. These tiny deposits formed by vapor condensation during cooling of the gases that drove the fire fountain eruptions responsible for the formation of the beads. Volcanic glass beads are present in most lunar soil samples in the returned lunar collection. The mare-composition beads formed as a result of fire-fountaining approx.3.4-3.7 Ga ago, within the age range of large-scale mare volcanism. Some samples from the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 landing sites are enriched in volcanic spherules. Three major types of volcanic glass bead have been identified: Apollo 15 green glass, Apollo 17 orange glass, and Apollo 17 "black" glass. The Apollo 15 green glass has a primitive composition with low Ti. The high-Ti compositions of the orange and black glasses are essentially identical to each other but the black glasses are opaque because of quench crystallization. A poorly understood feature common to the Apollo 15 and 17 volcanic glasses is the presence of small deposits of unusual materials on their exterior surfaces. For example, early studies indicated that the Apollo 17 orange glasses had surface enrichments of In, Cd, Zn, Ga, Ge, Au, and Na, and possible Pb- and Zn-sulfides, but it was not possible to characterize the surface features in detail. Technological advances now permit us to examine such features in detail. Preliminary FE-TEM/X-ray studies of ultramicrotome sections of Apollo 15 green glass indicate that the surface deposits are heterogeneous and layered, with an inner layer consisting of Fe with minor S and an outer layer of Fe and no S, and scattered Zn enrichments. Layering in surface deposits has not been identified previously; it will be key to defining the history of lunar fire fountaining.

  19. Bibliography of the lunar surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeberg, Jacquelyn H.

    1970-01-01

    The term "surface" in this bibliography is defined to include landforms and surface materials and the nature of, and processes responsible for, their physical characteristics. References are divided into two listings: (1) Surface features and materials; and (2) Telescopic observations. The former is accompanied by a subject index, the latter by a locality index.

  20. Lunar/Mars Surface Habitat Mockups Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.; Daues, Katherine R.

    2005-01-01

    Surface habitats play a centric role with respect to integration of the crew operations and supporting surface systems for external operations on the moon and Mars. Up to now the only planetary surface habitat NASA has ever developed is the 2-person, 3-day duration Lunar Module from the 1960 s-era Apollo Program. Today s National Vision for Space Exploration pushes far beyond the safety, performance and operational requirements of the Lunar Module, and NASA needs to develop a basis for making habitat design decisions Experience has shown that using mockups very early in a project s life cycle is extremely beneficial, providing data that influences requirements for human design, volumetrics, functionality, systems hardware and operations. Evaluating and comparing a variety of habitat configurations will provide NASA with a cost-effective basis for trades to support lunar and Martian habitat design selection. This paper describes the NASA project that recently has been created to undertake the development and evaluation of a series of planetary surface habitat mockups. This project is in direct response to the Advanced Space Platforms and Systems (ASPS) Element Program s request for novel systems approaches for robust and reconfigurable habitation systems.

  1. Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives and selected data are presented for the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Cosmic Ray Experiment (LSCRE) for the purpose of introducing an analysis of three of the separate detectors contained within in LSCRE package. The mica detector for measuring heavy solar wind, and the lexan stack and glass detectors for measuring energetic particles in space are discussed in terms of their deployment, exposure time, calibration, and data yield. Relevant articles on solar particles, interplanetary ions, and cosmic ray nuclei are also included.

  2. Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.

  3. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  4. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface siumlation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. At the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module Mockup.

  5. Design of a lunar surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghi, Sohrob

    The next step for manned exploration and settlement is a return to the Moon. In such a return, the most challenging task is the construction of structures for habitation, considering the Moon's hostile environment. Therefore the question is: What is the best way to erect habitable structures on the lunar surface? Given the cost associated with bringing material to the Moon, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is viewed by most as the basis for a successful manned exploration and settlement of the Solar system. Along these lines, we propose an advanced concept where the use of freeform fabrication technologies by autonomous mini-robots can form the basis for habitable lunar structures. Also, locally-available magnesium is proposed as the structural material. While it is one of the most pervasive metals in the regolith, magnesium has been only suggested only briefly as a viable option in the past. Therefore, a study has been conducted on magnesium and its alloys, taking into account the availability of the alloying elements on the Moon. An igloo-shaped magnesium structure, covered by sandbags of regolith shielding and supported on a sintered regolith foundation, is considered as a potential design of a lunar base, as well as the test bed for the proposed vision. Three studies are carried out: First a static analysis is conducted which proves the feasibility of the proposed material and method. Second, a thermal analysis is carried out to study the effect of the regolith shielding as well as the sensitivity of such designs to measurement uncertainties of regolith and sintered thermal properties. The lunar thermal environment is modeled for a potential site at 88º latitude in the lunar South Pole Region. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties are in an acceptable range where a three-meter thick shield is considered. Also, the required capacity of a thermal rejection system is estimated, choosing the thermal loads to be those of the Space Station modules. In the

  6. Lunar surface operations. Volume 4: Lunar rover trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to design a lunar rover trailer for exploration missions. The trailer was designed to carry cargo such as lunar geological samples, mining equipment and personnel. It is designed to operate in both day and night lunar environments. It is also designed to operate with a maximum load of 7000 kilograms. The trailer has a ground clearance of 1.0 meters and can travel over obstacles 0.75 meters high at an incline of 45 degrees. It can be transported to the moon fully assembled using any heavy lift vehicle with a storage compartment diameter of 5.0 meters. The trailer has been designed to meet or exceed the performance of any perceivable lunar vehicle.

  7. Lunar surface construction and assembly equipment study: Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 5.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A set of construction and assembly tasks required on the lunar surface was developed, different concepts for equipment applicable to the tasks determined, and leading candidate systems identified for future conceptual design. Data on surface construction and assembly equipment systems are necessary to facilitate an integrated review of a complete lunar scenario.

  8. Radiation exposure to the orbiting lunar station and lunar surface related to reusable nuclear shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation environment created by the Reusable Nuclear Vehicle (RNS) in performing its normal mission functions while in the lunar vicinity and the impact of that environment on the Orbiting Lunar Station (OLS) and/or the lunar surface are examined. Lunar surface exposures from the operating reactor were evaluated for both the arrival and departure burns and while there is little probability that manned bases would lie along the paths in which measurable exposures would be recorded, the analyses do indicate the need to consider this possibility in planning such operations. Conclusions supported by the analyses and recommended operational constraints for the RNS are presented.

  9. Space environment and lunar surface processes, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The top few millimeters of a surface exposed to space represents a physically and chemically active zone with properties different from those of a surface in the environment of a planetary atmosphere. To meet the need or a quantitative synthesis of the various processes contributing to the evolution of surfaces of the Moon, Mercury, the asteroids, and similar bodies, (exposure to solar wind, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays, heating from solar radiation, and meteoroid bombardment), the MESS 2 computer program was developed. This program differs from earlier work in that the surface processes are broken down as a function of size scale and treated in three dimensions with good resolution on each scale. The results obtained apply to the development of soil near the surface and is based on lunar conditions. Parameters can be adjusted to describe asteroid regoliths and other space-related bodies.

  10. Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the summer of 2004, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate conducted an open call for projects relevant to human and robotic exploration of the Earth-Moon and Mars systems. A project entitled 'Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility' was submitted by JPL and accepted by NASA. The principal investigator of this project describes the robotic vehicle being developed for this effort, which includes six 'wheels-on-legs' so that it can roll efficiently on relatively smooth terrain but walk (using locked wheels as footpads) when "the going gets rough".

  11. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  12. LADEEView: Elemental Composition Analysis of Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, D.; Darrach, M.

    2016-10-01

    LadeeView is a comprehensive lunar data analyzer with modular architecture. Mass spectrometry module is designed to map elemental abundances along the LADEE spacecraft trajectories. These maps are useful input for future models of lunar exosphere.

  13. Lunar surface operations. Volume 3: Robotic arm for lunar surface vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A robotic arm for a lunar surface vehicle that can help in handling cargo and equipment, and remove obstacles from the path of the vehicle is defined as a support to NASA's intention to establish a lunar based colony by the year 2010. Its mission would include, but not limited to the following: exploration, lunar sampling, replace and remove equipment, and setup equipment (e.g. microwave repeater stations). Performance objectives for the robotic arm include a reach of 3 m, accuracy of 1 cm, arm mass of 100 kg, and lifting capability of 50 kg. The end effectors must grip various sizes and shapes of cargo; push, pull, turn, lift, or lower various types of equipment; and clear a path on the lunar surface by shoveling, sweeping aside, or gripping the obstacle present in the desired path. The arm can safely complete a task within a reasonable amount of time; the actual time is dependent upon the task to be performed. The positioning of the arm includes a manual backup system such that the arm can be safely stored in case of failure. Remote viewing and proximity and positioning sensors are incorporated in the design of the arm. The following specific topic are addressed in this report: mission and requirements, system design and integration, mechanical structure, modified wrist, structure-to-end-effector interface, end-effectors, and system controls.

  14. Lunar surface operations. Volume 3: Robotic arm for lunar surface vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-07-01

    A robotic arm for a lunar surface vehicle that can help in handling cargo and equipment, and remove obstacles from the path of the vehicle is defined as a support to NASA's intention to establish a lunar based colony by the year 2010. Its mission would include, but not limited to the following: exploration, lunar sampling, replace and remove equipment, and setup equipment (e.g. microwave repeater stations). Performance objectives for the robotic arm include a reach of 3 m, accuracy of 1 cm, arm mass of 100 kg, and lifting capability of 50 kg. The end effectors must grip various sizes and shapes of cargo; push, pull, turn, lift, or lower various types of equipment; and clear a path on the lunar surface by shoveling, sweeping aside, or gripping the obstacle present in the desired path. The arm can safely complete a task within a reasonable amount of time; the actual time is dependent upon the task to be performed. The positioning of the arm includes a manual backup system such that the arm can be safely stored in case of failure. Remote viewing and proximity and positioning sensors are incorporated in the design of the arm. The following specific topic are addressed in this report: mission and requirements, system design and integration, mechanical structure, modified wrist, structure-to-end-effector interface, end-effectors, and system controls.

  15. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, E; Ozawa, S; Miyahara, M; Ito, Y; Mikouchi, T; Kimura, M; Arai, T; Sato, K; Hiraga, K

    2011-01-11

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO(2) in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8-30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the (39)Ar/(40)Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment.

  16. Lunar Surface Properties from Diviner Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul; Paige, David; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Bandfield, Joshua; Siegler, Matthew; Lucey, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The thermal behavior of planetary bodies can reveal information about fundamental processes shaping their surfaces and interiors. Diviner [1] has been mapping the Moon's diurnal temperatures since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) arrived in 2009, yielding new insights into regolith formation [2, 3], the distribution of volatiles [4, 5], lunar volcanism [6, 7, 8], and impact processes [9]. The Moon's cooling during eclipse provides complementary information on the physical properties of the uppermost surface layer, which can be used to further investigate these and other processes. We used data from Diviner's seven thermal infrared spectral channels to measure surface temperatures before, during and after the 8 Oct., 2014 eclipse. In its standard nadir-pushbroom mode, Diviner maps surface temperatures in a ~6-km swath with a spatial resolution of ~250 m. Using Diviner's independent scanning capability [11], we also targeted two regions of interest on sequential orbits to create a time series of thermal observations: 1) Kepler crater (-38°E, 8°N) and 2) an unnamed nighttime "cold spot" (-33.3°E, 3°N). Pre-eclipse surface temperatures in these regions were ~380 K. As a relatively young Copernican-aged impact crater, Kepler was selected to investigate the abundance and size distribution of rocks in the ejecta and interior. Lunar nighttime "cold spots" are anomalous features around very young impact craters, extending for up to hundreds of crater radii, notable for their low temperatures in the Diviner nighttime data [9]. Although their origins are not fully explained, they are likely the result of in-situ disruption and decompression of regolith during the impact process. The selected cold spot (one of hundreds or even thousands on the lunar surface) was located with good viewing ge- ometry from LRO, and had a diameter of ~10 km surrounding a crater < 1 km in diameter. At Kepler crater, we observed dramatic differences in the amount of cooling related to the

  17. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  18. Surface magnetometer experiments: Internal lunar properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are respectively 38 gammas, 103 gammas (maximum), 3 gammas, and 327 gammas. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites are compressed and that the scale size of the Apollo 16 remanent field is 5 or = L 100 km. The global eddy current fields, induced by magnetic step transients in the solar wind, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile. From nightside data it was found that deeper than 170 km into the moon, the conductivity rises from 0.0003 mhos/m to 0.01 mhos/m at 1000 km depth. Analysis of dayside transient data using a spherically symmetric two-layer model yields a homogeneous conducting core of radios 0.9 R and conductivity sigma = 0.001 mhos/m, surrounded by a nonconducting shell of thickness 0.1 R. This result is in agreement with a nonconducting profile determined from nightside data. The conductivity profile is used to calculate the temperature for an assumed lunar material of peridotite. In an outer layer the temperature rises to 850 to 1050 K, after which it gradually increases to 1200 to 1500 K at a depth of approximately 1000 km.

  19. Potential of a New Lunar Surface Radiator Concept for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Dustin A.; Vogel, Matthew R.; Trevino, Luis A.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    The optimum radiator configuration in hot lunar thermal environments is one in which the radiator is parallel to the ground and has no view to the hot lunar surface. However, typical spacecraft configurations have limited real estate available for top-mounted radiators, resulting in a desire to use the spacecraft s vertically oriented sides. Vertically oriented, flat panel radiators will have a large view factor to the lunar surface, and thus will be subjected to significant incident lunar infrared heat. Consequently, radiator fluid temperatures will need to exceed approx.325 K (assuming standard spacecraft radiator optical properties) in order to provide positive heat rejection at lunar noon. Such temperatures are too high for crewed spacecraft applications in which a heat pump is to be avoided. A recent study of vertically oriented radiator configurations subjected to lunar noon thermal environments led to the discovery of a novel radiator concept that yielded positive heat rejection at lower fluid temperatures. This radiator configuration, called the Upright Lunar Terrain Radiator Assembly (ULTRA), has exhibited superior performance to all previously analyzed concepts in terms of heat rejection in the lunar noon thermal environment. A key benefit of the ULTRA is the absence of louvers or other moving parts and its simple geometry. Analysis of the ULTRA for a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support system (PLSS) is shown to provide moderate heat rejection, on average, at all solar incident angles assuming an average radiator temperature of 294 K, whereas prior concepts exhibited insignificant heat rejection or heat absorption at higher incident angles. The performance of the ULTRA for a lunar lander is also discussed and compared to the performance of a vertically oriented, flat panel radiator at various lunar latitudes.

  20. Plasma sheet at lunar distance - Characteristics and interactions with the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, F. J.; Reasoner, D. L.; Burke, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    The plasma sheet at lunar distance is investigated with the use of data from the charged particle lunar environment experiment (CPLEE), complemented with data from the Explorer 35/ARC magnetometer. It is shown that the presence of the lunar surface does not appreciably affect measurements of the plasma sheet characteristics by the lunar-based CPLEE instrument. In particular, the lunar surface generally does not shadow plasma sheet particles. This may be due to rapid random passage (greater than 40 km/sec) of magnetotail field lines with respect to the lunar surface or to diffusion of plasma sheet electrons into the flux tubes in contact with the lunar surface. The plasma sheet is generally observed as a rapid increase in observed particle fluxes and a simultaneous decrease in field strength. A statistical analysis of the CPLEE data shows that the plasma sheet in the midnight sector has a thickness of 5 R sub E plus or minus 2 R sub E. Geomagnetic activity reduces the probability of encounters between the moon and the plasma sheet.

  1. The Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1995-08-01

    The material included in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal has been assembled so that an uninitiated reader can understand, in some detail, what happened during Apollo 17 and why and what was learned, particularly about living and working on the Moon. At its heart, the Journal consists a corrected mission transcript which is interwoven with commentary by the crew and by Journal Editor -- commentary which, we hope, will make the rich detail of Apollo 17 accessible to a wide audience. To make the Journal even more accessible, this CD-ROM publication contains virtually all of the Apollo 17 audio, a significant fraction of the photographs and a selection of drawings, maps, video clips, and background documents.

  2. Lunar Resource Assessment: Strategies for Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    Use of the indigenous resources of space to support long-term human presence is an essential element of the settlement of other planetary bodies. We are in a very early stage of understanding exactly how and under what circumstances space resources will become important. The materials and processes to recover them that we now think are critical may not ultimately be the raison d'etre for a resource utilization program. However, the need for strategic thinking proceeds in parallel with efforts to implement such plans and it is not too soon to begin thinking how we could and should use the abundant resources of materials and energy available from the Moon. The following commodities from the Moon are discussed: (1) bulk regolith, for shielding and construction on the lunar surface (ultimately for export to human-tended stations in Earth-Moon space), and (2) oxygen and hydrogen, for propellant and life support.

  3. Examining the Uppermost Surface of the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the examination of the uppermost surface of the lunar regolith. It shows the mechanism (i.e. a Clam Shell Sampling Device) that was used to retrieve samples of the surface of the lunar soil. Samples were obtained from the devices, and they were examined in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using a lunar simulant, JSC-1a, test were run to ascertain if the sample from the clam shell device were biased due to the collection. The results of the test were that all the fine grains analyzed to the limit of the capabilities were found to be lunar in composition, though non-lunar contaminants may exist in the submicron population. Further work is required, though the initial study shows that the uppermost surface is enriched in fine (< 2 micron grains) compared to the bulk soil.

  4. Enabling Technology for Lunar Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Choi, M.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; King, R.; Leshin, L.; Lewis, R.; Yeh, P. S.; Young, E.; Lorenz, J.

    2009-03-01

    Implementation of Lunar Exploration Initiative goals will require deployment of science packages at sites with the appropriate vantage point for obtaining the desired measurements and remote from potential (human) sources of contamination, thus requiring stand alone operation. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental lunar science and crew safety. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. We achieved considerable reduction in this mass, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature, reducing the initial mass estimate by a factor of 2, and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes, reducing the initial mass estimate by a factor of 5. Yet to be implemented are strategies involving the universal incorporation of ULT/ULP (Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power) digital and analog electronics, distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems, and state of the art solar power technology. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. Limited battery survival temperature range remains the largest obstacle.

  5. Multispectral mapping of the lunar surface using groundbased telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Feirberg, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Images of the lunar surface were obtained at several wavelengths using a silicon vidicon imaging system and groundbased telescopes. These images were recorded and processed in digital form so that quantitative information is preserved. The photometric precision of the images is shown to be better than 1 percent. Ratio images calculated by dividing images obtained at two wavelengths (0.40/0.56 micrometer) and 0.95/0.56 micrometer are presented for about 50 percent of the lunar frontside. Spatial resolution is about 2 km at the sub-earth point. A complex of distinct units is evident in the images. Earlier work with the reflectance spectrum of lunar materials indicates that for the most part these units are compositionally distinct. Digital images of this precision are extremely useful to lunar geologists in disentangling the history of the lunar surface.

  6. Lunar Surface Habitat Configuration Assessment: Methodology and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Habitat Configuration Assessment evaluated the major habitat approaches that were conceptually developed during the Lunar Architecture Team II Study. The objective of the configuration assessment was to identify desired features, operational considerations, and risks to derive habitat requirements. This assessment only considered operations pertaining to the lunar surface and did not consider all habitat conceptual designs developed. To examine multiple architectures, the Habitation Focus Element Team defined several adequate concepts which warranted the need for a method to assess the various configurations. The fundamental requirement designed into each concept included the functional and operational capability to support a crew of four on a six-month lunar surface mission; however, other conceptual aspects were diverse in comparison. The methodology utilized for this assessment consisted of defining figure of merits, providing relevant information, and establishing a scoring system. In summary, the assessment considered the geometric configuration of each concept to determine the complexity of unloading, handling, mobility, leveling, aligning, mating to other elements, and the accessibility to the lunar surface. In theory, the assessment was designed to derive habitat requirements, potential technology development needs and identify risks associated with living and working on the lunar surface. Although the results were more subjective opposed to objective, the assessment provided insightful observations for further assessments and trade studies of lunar surface habitats. This overall methodology and resulting observations will be describe in detail and illustrative examples will be discussed.

  7. Apollo lunar surface experiments package. Apollo 17 ALSEP (array E) familiarization course handout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The familiarization course for the Apollo 17 ALSEP (ARRAY E) is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) power and data subsystems, (2) lunar surface gravimeter, (3) lunar mass spectrometer, (4) lunar seismic profiling experiment, and (5) heat flow experiment.

  8. Lunar Surface Architecture Utilization and Logistics Support Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienhoff, Dallas; Findiesen, William; Bayer, Martin; Born, Andrew; McCormick, David

    2008-01-01

    Crew and equipment utilization and logistics support needs for the point of departure lunar outpost as presented by the NASA Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) and alternative surface architectures were assessed for the first ten years of operation. The lunar surface architectures were evaluated and manifests created for each mission. Distances between Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) landing sites and emplacement locations were estimated. Physical characteristics were assigned to each surface element and operational characteristics were assigned to each surface mobility element. Stochastic analysis was conducted to assess probable times to deploy surface elements, conduct exploration excursions, and perform defined crew activities. Crew time is divided into Outpost-related, exploration and science, overhead, and personal activities. Outpost-related time includes element deployment, EVA maintenance, IVA maintenance, and logistics resupply. Exploration and science activities include mapping, geological surveys, science experiment deployment, sample analysis and categorizing, and physiological and biological tests in the lunar environment. Personal activities include sleeping, eating, hygiene, exercising, and time off. Overhead activities include precursor or close-out tasks that must be accomplished but don't fit into the other three categories such as: suit donning and doffing, airlock cycle time, suit cleaning, suit maintenance, post-landing safing actions, and pre-departure preparations. Equipment usage time, spares, maintenance actions, and Outpost consumables are also estimated to provide input into logistics support planning. Results are normalized relative to the NASA LAT point of departure lunar surface architecture.

  9. Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction processes as a means to provide pure elements for lunar resource utilization have many advantages. Such processes have. the potential of removing all the oxygen from the lunar soil for use in life support and for propellant. Electrochemical reduction also provides a direct path for the. production of pure metals and silicon which can be utilized for in situ manufacturing and power production. Some of the challenges encountered in the electrolytic reduction processes include the feeding of the electrolytic cell (the transfer of electrolyte containing lunar soil), the withdrawal of reactants and refined products such as the liquidironsiliconalloy with a number of impurities, and the spent regolith slag, produced in the hot electrolytic cell for the reduction of lunar regolith. The paper will discuss some of the possible solutions to the challenges of handling molten materials on the lunar surface, as well as the path toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-concept facility.

  10. Characterization of lunar surface materials for use in construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, which was held at the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 1 and 2, 1991, discussed potential payloads to be placed on the Moon by a common, generic, unmanned, vehicle beginning late in this decade. At this workshop, a variety of payloads were identified including a class of one-meter (and larger) optical telescopes to operate on the lunar surface. These telescopes for lunar-based astronomy are presented in an earlier section of this report. The purpose of this section is to suggest that these and other payloads for the Common Lunar Lander be used to facilitate technology development for the proposed 16-meter Aperture UV/Visible/IR Large Lunar Telescope (LLT) and a large optical aperture-synthesis instrument analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  11. Autonomous Navigation Error Propagation Assessment for Lunar Surface Mobility Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration is focused on the return of astronauts to the Moon. While navigation systems have already been proven in the Apollo missions to the moon, the current exploration campaign will involve more extensive and extended missions requiring new concepts for lunar navigation. In this document, the results of an autonomous navigation error propagation assessment are provided. The analysis is intended to be the baseline error propagation analysis for which Earth-based and Lunar-based radiometric data are added to compare these different architecture schemes, and quantify the benefits of an integrated approach, in how they can handle lunar surface mobility applications when near the Lunar South pole or on the Lunar Farside.

  12. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf" vacuum cleaner has been used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating percent removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner

  13. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  14. Apollo 14 visibility tests: Visibility of lunar surface features and lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    An in-flight visibility test conducted on the Apollo 14 mission is discussed. The need for obtaining experimental data on lunar feature visibility arose from visibility problems associated with various aspects of the Apollo missions; and especially from anticipated difficulties of recognizing lunar surface features at the time of descent and landing under certain illumination conditions. Although visibility problems have influenced many other aspects of the Apollo mission, they have been particularly important for descent operations, due to the criticality of this mission phase and the crew's guidance and control role for landing site recognition and touchdown point selection. A series of analytical and photographic studies were conducted during the Apollo program (prior to as well as after the initial manned lunar operations) to delineate constraints imposed on landing operations by visibility limitations. The purpose of the visibility test conducted on Apollo 14 was to obtain data to reduce uncertainties and to extend the analytical models of visibility in the lunar environment.

  15. Mass fractionation of the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switkowski, Z. E.; Haff, P. K.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the mass-fractionation effects produced in connection with the bombardment of the moon by the solar wind. Most of the material ejected by sputtering escapes the moon's gravity, but some returning matter settles back onto the lunar surface. This material, which is somewhat richer in heavier atoms than the starting surface, is incorporated into the heavily radiation-damaged outer surfaces of grains. The investigation indicates that sputtering of the lunar surface by the solar wind will give rise to significant surface heavy atom enrichments if the grain surfaces are allowed to come into sputtering equilibrium.

  16. Options for a lunar base surface architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    The Planet Surface Systems Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has participated in an analysis of the Space Exploration Initiative architectures described in the Synthesis Group report. This effort involves a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define point designs for evolving lunar and Mars bases that support substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. The analysis addresses systems-level designs; element requirements and conceptual designs; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and overall programmatics and schedules. This paper focuses on the results of the study of the Space Resource Utilization Architecture. This architecture develops the capability to extract useful materials from the indigenous resources of the Moon and Mars. On the Moon, a substantial infrastructure is emplaced which can support a crew of up to twelve. Two major process lines are developed: one produces oxygen, ceramics, and metals; the other produces hydrogen, helium, and other volatiles. The Moon is also used for a simulation of a Mars mission. Significant science capabilities are established in conjunction with resource development. Exploration includes remote global surveys and piloted sorties of local and regional areas. Science accommodations include planetary science, astronomy, and biomedical research. Greenhouses are established to provide a substantial amount of food needs.

  17. Primary cosmic rays on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernov, S. N.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for determination of the galactic cosmic ray flux during various time intervals in the 1965-1972 period, on the basis of data from the instruments of a spacecraft that made a soft landing on the lunar surface, and from the radioactivity of samples returned by the spacecraft. During minimum solar activity (the second half of 1965 and the beginning of 1966) I sub 0 (E greater than or equal to 30 percent MeV/nucleon) was determined to be 0.43 (plus or minus 10 percent). These values, within the error limits of the determinations, agree with the corresponding values of galactic cosmic ray intensities determined by stratospheric measurements. The mean flux of galactic cosmic rays over the past million years is equal to I (E greater or equal to 100 MeV/nucleon) + 0.28 (plus or minus 20 percent). This value agrees with the mean flux of modulated cosmic rays during the period of the nineteenth solar cycle. The mean flux of solar protons between 1965 and 1972 was 2.46.

  18. Imaging Thermal He(+) from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Goldstein, J.; Adrian, M. L.; Spasojevic, M.; Jahn, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet observations of He(+) ions by the EUV instrument on the IMAGE spacecraft have dramatically improved our ability to observe plasmasphere dynamics in the inner magnetosphere. These primarily high latitude observations have revealed the phenomenology of thermal density structures and continue to lead us toward a more complete understanding of inner magnetospheric electric fields and plasmaspheric refilling. Recent analyses have brought attention to the disposition of thermal plasma eroded from the plasmasphere and convected into the outer dayside magnetosphere. The extent to which this plasma is lost into the solar wind or recirculated across the polar cap or through the magnetospheric flanks is an important outstanding question that relates to the influence this plasma has on space weather processes in Geospace. A concept for implementation of enhanced EUV observations from the lunar surface to resolve questions about the global circulation of He(+) plasma in the magnetosphere will be presented. The instrument and science package subsystem elements, including anticipated component capabilities and limitations will be discussed. Attention will also be given to the potential impact of dust contamination.

  19. Options for a lunar base surface architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-02-01

    The Planet Surface Systems Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has participated in an analysis of the Space Exploration Initiative architectures described in the Synthesis Group report. This effort involves a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define point designs for evolving lunar and Mars bases that support substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. The analysis addresses systems-level designs; element requirements and conceptual designs; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and overall programmatics and schedules. This paper focuses on the results of the study of the Space Resource Utilization Architecture. This architecture develops the capability to extract useful materials from the indigenous resources of the Moon and Mars. On the Moon, a substantial infrastructure is emplaced which can support a crew of up to twelve. Two major process lines are developed: one produces oxygen, ceramics, and metals; the other produces hydrogen, helium, and other volatiles. The Moon is also used for a simulation of a Mars mission. Significant science capabilities are established in conjunction with resource development. Exploration includes remote global surveys and piloted sorties of local and regional areas. Science accommodations include planetary science, astronomy, and biomedical research. Greenhouses are established to provide a substantial amount of food needs.

  20. Matching method of the vision image captured by the lunar rover exploring on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lichun; Zhou, Jianliang; Sun, Jun; Shang, Desheng; Xu, Yinghui; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Wenhui

    2014-11-01

    Facing the lunar surface survey of the Lunar Exploring Engineering, the paper summarizes the environment sensing technology based on vision image. For the image matching is the most important step in the process of the lunar exploring images, the accuracy and speed of the matching method is the key problem of the lunar exploring, which play an important role in the rover auto navigating and tele-operating. To conquer difficult problem that there are significant illumination variation of the imaging, lack of image texture, and non-uniform distribution of the image texture, the huge change of the disparity for the prominent target in the scene, in the image process Engineering, the image matching method is proposed which divided the whole image into M×N regions, and each region employs the Forstner algorithm to extract features by which the semi-uniform distribution features of whole image and avoiding of the features gathering is achieved. According to the semi- uniform distribution features, the Sift and Least Square Matching method are used to realize accurate image matching. Guided by the matched features of the first step, the locale plane is detected to restrict dense image registering. The matching experiments show that the method is effective to deal with the image captured by the lunar exploring rover, that has large variation of illumination and lacking of image texture. The robustness and high accuracy of the method is also proved. The method satisfied the request of the lunar surface exploring.

  1. Elemental composition of the lunar surface: Analysis of gamma ray spectroscopy data from Lunar Prospector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Hagerty, J. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; McKinney, G. W.; Vaniman, D. T.

    2006-12-01

    Gamma ray spectroscopy data acquired by Lunar Prospector are used to determine global maps of the elemental composition of the lunar surface. Maps of the abundance of major oxides, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, TiO2, and FeO, and trace incompatible elements, K and Th, are presented along with their geochemical interpretation. Linear spectral mixing is used to model the observed gamma ray spectrum for each map pixel. The spectral shape for each elemental constituent is determined by a Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation. Linearization of the mixing model is accomplished by scaling the spectral shapes with lunar surface parameters determined by neutron spectroscopy, including the number density of neutrons slowing down within the surface and the effective atomic mass of the surface materials. The association of the highlands with the feldspathic lunar meteorites is used to calibrate the mixing model and to determine backgrounds. A linear least squares approach is used to unmix measured spectra to determine the composition of each map pixel. The present analysis uses new gamma ray production cross sections for neutron interactions, resulting in improved accuracy compared to results previously submitted to the Planetary Data System. Systematic variations in lunar composition determined by the spectral unmixing analysis are compared with the lunar soil sample and meteorite collections. Significant results include improved accuracy for the abundance of Th and K in the highlands; identification of large regions, including western Procellarum, that are not well represented by the sample collection; and the association of relatively high concentrations of Mg with KREEP-rich regions on the lunar nearside, which may have implications for the concept of an early magma ocean.

  2. Supercooling on the lunar surface - A review of analogue information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, C. H.; Johnston, R.; Drever, H. I.

    1977-01-01

    Terrestrial analog studies of the phase petrology of supercooled melts and rapid crystal growth are reviewed for possible light shed on lunar crystallization, supercooling, and petrogenic processes, in particular rapid consolidation of lavas extruded on the lunar surface, and impact liquids. Crystallization of major constituent minerals (olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase) in dendritic or skeletal forms is found much more characteristic of lunar igneous rocks than of terrestrial counterparts. Olivine and pyroxene occur often as skeletal phenocrysts, and their stage of crystallization is crucial to the genesis and cooling history of porphyritic lavas. Widespread occurrence of glass and of immature radiate crystallization, particularly of highly zoned pyroxenes and zoned plagioclase, is noted.

  3. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  4. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  5. Simulation of a Lunar Surface Base Power Distribution Network for the Constellation Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Toby; Maslowski, Edward A.; Colozza, Anthony; McFarland, Willard; Prokopius, Kevin P.; George, Patrick J.; Hussey, Sam W.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Power Distribution Network Study team worked to define, breadboard, build and test an electrical power distribution system consistent with NASA's goal of providing electrical power to sustain life and power equipment used to explore the lunar surface. A testbed was set up to simulate the connection of different power sources and loads together to form a mini-grid and gain an understanding of how the power systems would interact. Within the power distribution scheme, each power source contributes to the grid in an independent manner without communication among the power sources and without a master-slave scenario. The grid consisted of four separate power sources and the accompanying power conditioning equipment. Overall system design and testing was performed. The tests were performed to observe the output and interaction of the different power sources as some sources are added and others are removed from the grid connection. The loads on the system were also varied from no load to maximum load to observe the power source interactions.

  6. Recovery of Lunar Surface Access Module Residual and Reserve Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William U.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration calls for human exploration of the lunar surface in the 2020 timeframe. Sustained human exploration of the lunar surface will require supply, storage, and distribution of consumables for a variety of mission elements. These elements include propulsion systems for ascent and descent stages, life support for habitats and extra-vehicular activity, and reactants for power systems. NASA KSC has been tasked to develop technologies and strategies for consumables transfer for lunar exploration as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program. This paper will investigate details of operational concepts to scavenge residual propellants from the lunar descent propulsion system. Predictions on the mass of residuals and reserves are made. Estimates of heat transfer and boiloff rates are calculated and transient tank thermodynamic issues post-engine cutoff are modeled. Recovery and storage options including cryogenic liquid, vapor and water are discussed, and possible reuse of LSAM assets is presented.

  7. Lunar Meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and the Iron Concentration of the Lunar Highlands Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 is a clast-rich, glassy-matrix regolith breccia of ferroan, highly aluminous bulk composition. It is similar in composition to other feldspathic lunar meteorites but differs in having higher concentrations of siderophile elements and incompatible trace elements. Based on electron microprobe analyses of the fusion crust, glassy matrix, and clasts, and instrumental neutron activation analysis of breccia fragments, QUE 93069 is dominated by nonmare components of ferroan, noritic- anorthosite bulk composition. Thin section QUE 93069,31 also contains a large, impact-melted, partially devitrified clast of magnesian, anorthositic-norite composition. The enrichment in Fe, Sc, and Cr and lower Mg/Fe ratio of lunar meteorites Yamato 791197 and Yamato 82192/3 compared to other feldspathic lunar meteorites can be attributed to a small proportion (5-10%) of low-Ti mare basalt. It is likely that the non- mare components of Yamato 82192/3 are similar to and occur in similar abundance to those of Yamato 86032, with which it is paired. There is a significant difference between the average FeO concentration of the lunar highlands surface as inferred from the feldspathic lunar meteorites (mean: approx. 5.0%; range: 4.3-6.1 %) and a recent estimate based on data from the Clementine mission (3.6%).

  8. Risk-Assessment for Equipment Operating on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. C.; Kusiak, A.; Ramachandran, N.

    2008-01-01

    Particle-size distribution of lunar dust simulant is evaluated using scanning electron spectroscopy in order to consider approaches to evaluating risk to individual mechanical components operating on the lunar surface. Assessing component risk and risk-mitigation during actual operations will require noninvasive continuous data gathering on numerous parameters. Those data sets would best be evaluated using data-mining algorithms to assess risk, and recovery from risk, of individual mechanical components in real-time.

  9. ALSEP arrays A, B, C, and A-2. [lunar surface exploration instrument specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the lunar surface exploration packages are defined and the preliminary design of scientific systems hardware is reported. Instrument packages are to collect and transmit to earth scientific data on the lunar interior, the lunar surface composition, and the lunar geomorphology

  10. Modeling the detection of impact ejecta on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanwei; Srama, Ralf; Wu, Yiyong; Grün, Eberhard

    2015-12-01

    The lunar surface is continuously exposed to the micrometeoroid environment. Hypervelocity impacts of interplanetary dust particles with speeds around 17 kms-1 generate secondary ejecta on the lunar surface. A dust detector placed on the moon is capable of characterizing the secondary ejecta population. The purpose of this paper is to study the speed and trajectory information of ejecta by impact simulations and its implications for the location of a dust sensor on the surface. AUTODYN15.0/2D software was used to simulate the velocity and angular distributions of ejecta created by the primary impacts of interplanetary dust particles. We considered projectiles with sizes of 10 μm spheres in diameter with speeds of 17 kms-1. We used impact angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° with respect to the surface. A significant percentage of the impact ejecta are created in the early-time stage of the impact process. This population can be captured by a sensor placed on the lunar surface (e.g. Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment) or by a sensor mounted directly on a lander (e.g. Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX)). The secondary ejecta population above the lunar surface is considered to explain the results of the LEAM experiment. A sensor directly placed on the surface like LEAM is not very well suited to measure the high-speed ejecta component - a sensor located at a few meters height (e.g. on top of a lunar lander) would measure higher fluxes.

  11. Lunar Surface Operations with Dual Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Lofgren, Gary E.; Eppler, Dean E.; Ming, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Lunar Electric Rovers (LER) are currently being developed that are substantially more capable than the Apollo vehicle (LRN ,"). Unlike the LRV, the new LERs provide a pressurized cabin that serves as short-sleeve environment for the crew of two, including sleeping accommodations and other provisions that allow for long tern stays, possibly up to 60 days, on the hear surface, without the need to replenish consumables from some outside source, such as a lander or outpost. As a consequence, significantly larger regions may be explored in the future and traverse distances may be measured in a few hundred kilometers (1, 2). However, crew safety remains an overriding concern, and methods other than "walk back", the major operational constraint of all Apollo traverses, must be implemented to assure -at any time- the safe return of the crew to the lander or outpost. This then causes current Constellation plans to envision long-tern traverses to be conducted with 2 LERs exclusively, each carrying a crew of two: in case one rover fails, the other will rescue the stranded crew and return all 4 astronauts in a single LER to base camp. Recent Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) analog field tests simulated a continuous 14 day traverse (3), covering some 135 km, and included a rescue operation that transferred the crew and diverse consumables from one LER to another these successful tests add substantial realism to the development of long-term, dual rover operations. The simultaneous utilization of 2 LERs is of course totally unlike Apollo and raises interesting issues regarding science productivity and mission operations, the thrust of this note.

  12. Lunar surface base propulsion system study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency, capability, and evolution of a lunar base will be largely dependent on the transportation system that supports it. Beyond Space Station in low Earth orbit (LEO), a Lunar-derived propellant supply could provide the most important resource for the transportation infrastructure. The key to an efficient Lunar base propulsion system is the degree of Lunar self-sufficiency (from Earth supply) and reasonable propulsion system performance. Lunar surface propellant production requirements must be accounted in the measurement of efficiency of the entire space transportation system. Of all chemical propellant/propulsion systems considered, hydrogen/oxygen (H/O) OTVs appear most desirable, while both H/O and aluminum/oxygen propulsion systems may be considered for the lander. Aluminized-hydrogen/oxygen and Silane/oxygen propulsion systems are also promising candidates. Lunar propellant availability and processing techniques, chemical propulsion/vehicle design characteristics, and the associated performance of the total transportation infrastructure are reviewed, conceptual propulsion system designs and vehicle/basing concepts, and technology requirements are assessed in context of a Lunar Base mission scenario.

  13. Astronauts Alan Bean and Charles Conrad on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Their lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. In this photograph, one of the astronauts on the Moon's surface is holding a container of lunar soil. The other astronaut is seen reflected in his helmet. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  14. Lunar surface processes - Report of the 12054 consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartung, J. B.; Hauser, E. E.; Horz, F.; Morrison, D. A.; Schonfeld, E.; Zook, H. A.; Mandeville, J.-C.; Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Schaal, R. B.; Zinner, E.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of lunar surface phenomena were studied using a well-characterized glass-coated ilmenite basalt, 12054, which had a simple surface residence history. Surface processes related to the following effects were studied: microcraters, solar flare and cosmic ray tracks, cosmogenic Al-26, solar wind sputtering, accreta or accretionary material, solar wind implanted noble gases, and loose dust accumulation.

  15. Enabler operator station. [lunar surface vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Keitzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). This LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an earth-bound model. Several recommendations are made in the appendix as to the changes needed in material selection for the lunar environment. The operator station is designed dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which includes life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of grid members, semi-rigid members and woven fabrics.

  16. Mass fractionation of the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switkowski, Z. E.; Haff, P. K.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The sputtering of the lunar surface by the solar wind is examined as a possible mechanism of mass fractionation. Simple arguments based on current theories of sputtering and the ballistics of the sputtered atoms suggest that most ejected atoms will have sufficiently high energy to escape lunar gravity. However, the fraction of atoms which falls back to the surface is enriched in the heavier atomic components relative to the lighter ones. This material is incorporated into the heavily radiation-damaged outer surfaces of grains where it is subject to resputtering. Over the course of several hundred years an equilibrium surface layer, enriched in heavier atoms, is found to form. The dependence of the calculated results upon the sputtering rate and on the details of the energy spectrum of sputtered particles is investigated. It is concluded that mass fractionation by solar wind sputtering is likely to be an important phenomenon on the lunar surface.

  17. Surface Buildup Scenarios and Outpost Architectures for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Troutman, Patrick A.; Culbert, Christopher J.; Leonard, Matthew J.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program Architecture Team and the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office have developed an initial set of lunar surface buildup scenarios and associated polar outpost architectures, along with preliminary supporting element and system designs in support of NASA's Exploration Strategy. The surface scenarios are structured in such a way that outpost assembly can be suspended at any time to accommodate delivery contingencies or changes in mission emphasis. The modular nature of the architectures mitigates the impact of the loss of any one element and enhances the ability of international and commercial partners to contribute elements and systems. Additionally, the core lunar surface system technologies and outpost operations concepts are applicable to future Mars exploration. These buildup scenarios provide a point of departure for future trades and assessments of alternative architectures and surface elements.

  18. Options for a lunar base surface architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of the Space Exploration Initiative architectures involves making definitions of systems engineering designs for the construction of lunar and Mars bases for the support of science, exploration, and resource production on these planets. This paper discusses the results of the Space Resource Utilization Architecture study, which was initiated to develop the technical capability for extracting useful materials from the indigenous resources of the moon and Mars. For the moon, an infrastructure concept of a base is designed which can support a crew of 12. The major phases of the lunar-base development, the systems and the elements involved, and the physical layout and evolution of the base are described.

  19. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, E.; Ozawa, S.; Miyahara, M.; Ito, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Arai, T.; Sato, K.; Hiraga, K.

    2011-01-01

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO2 in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8–30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the 39Ar/40Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment. PMID:21187434

  20. Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface Air Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface air temperature are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher temperatures occurs near full moon and lower temperatures at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean temperature range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.

  1. SP-100 reactor with Brayton conversion for lunar surface applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, L.S.; Rodriguez, C.D.; Mckissock, B.I.; Hanlon, J.C.; Mansfield, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    Examined here is the potential for integrating Brayton-cycle power conversion with the SP-100 reactor for lunar surface power system applications. Two designs were characterized and modeled. The first design integrates a 100-kWe SP-100 Brayton power system with a lunar lander. This system is intended to meet early lunar mission power needs while minimizing on-site installation requirements. Man-rated radiation protection is provided by an integral multilayer, cylindrical lithium hydride/tungsten (LiH/W) shield encircling the reactor vessel. Design emphasis is on ease of deployment, safety, and reliability, while utilizing relatively near-term technology. The second design combines Brayton conversion with the SP-100 reactor in a erectable 550-kWe powerplant concept intended to satisfy later-phase lunar base power requirements. This system capitalizes on experience gained from operating the initial 100-kWe module and incorporates some technology improvements. For this system, the reactor is emplaced in a lunar regolith excavation to provide man-rated shielding, and the Brayton engines and radiators are mounted on the lunar surface and extend radially from the central reactor. Design emphasis is on performance, safety, long life, and operational flexibility.

  2. Electrical Transmission on the Lunar Surface. Part 1; DC Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes a portion of the results from a grant at Auburn University to study the electrical and thermal energy management for lunar facilities. Over the past year (June 1989 to May 1990) the following topics have been investigated: June 1989 to November 1989 - Literature survey, assessment of lunar power needs, and overview study of the requirements of a lunar power system; November 1989 to April 1990 - Develop models for the study of dc electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface; March 1990 to May 1990 - Develop models for the study of ac electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface. Because of the large amount of information in the model development and application to a wide parameter space this report is being bound separately. This report specifically contains the model development and parameter study for dc electrical power transmission lines. The end of the funding year (May 1990) will conclude with an annual report including the literature survey, the overview of the requirements of a lunar power system, and summaries of the dc and ac models of electrical transmission lines.

  3. Lunar dusty plasma: A result of interaction of the solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisin, E. A.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Popel, S. I.; Petrov, O. F.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments “Luna-Glob” and “Luna-Resource” particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered.

  4. The fractal method of the lunar surface parameters analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedev, Yuri; Demina, Natalia; Petrova, Natalia; Demin, Sergey; Andreev, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of complex selenographic systems is a complicated issue. This fully applies to the lunar topography. In this report a new method of the comparative reliable estimation of the lunar maps data is represented. The estimation was made by the comparison of high-altitude lines using the fractal analysis. The influence of the lunar macrofigure variances were determined by the method of fractal dimensions comparison.By now the highly accurate theories of the lunar movement have been obtained and stars coordinates have been determined on the basis of space measurements with the several mas accuracy but there are factors highly influencingon the accuracy of the results of these observations. They are: exactitude of the occultation moment recording, errors of the stars coordinates, accuracy of lunar ephemeris positions and unreliability of lunar marginal zone maps. Existing charts of the lunar marginal zone have some defects. To resolve this task thecomparison method in which the structure of the high-altitude lines of data appropriated with identical lunar coordinates can use. However, such comparison requires a lot of calculations.In order to find the variations of irregularities for the limb points above the mean level of lunar surface were computed the position angles of this points P and D by Hayn' coordinates. Thus the data of our studies was obtained by identical types.Then the first, segments of a lunar marginal zone for every 45" on P were considered. For each segment profile of the surface for a constant D were constructed with a step of 2". Thus 80 profiles were obtained. Secondly the fractal dimensions d for each considered structure was defined. Third the obtained values d were compared with the others maps considered in this work.The obtained results show some well agreement between the mean fractal dimensions for maps. Thus it can be concluded that the using of fractal method for lunar maps analysis to determine the accuracy of the presented to

  5. Lunar surface transportation systems conceptual design lunar base systems study Task 5.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual designs for three categories of lunar surface transportation were described. The level of understanding for the capabilities and design approach varies between the vehicles representing these categories. A summary of the vehicle categories and current state of conceptual design is provided. Finally, a brief evaluation and discussion is provided for a systematic comparison of transportation categories and effectiveness in supporting transportation objectives.

  6. Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

  7. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leich, D. A.; Goldberg, R. H.; Burnett, D. S.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19 (p, alpha gamma)0-16 has been used to perform depth sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction has been applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths of about 1/2 micrometer. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H2O surface contamination and a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H2O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with 0-16 to simulate the radiation damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations have been performed in a 1 pm surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19 alpha gamma)0-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint of lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination.

  8. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leich, D. A.; Goldberg, R. H.; Burnett, D. S.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19(p, alpha gamma)O-16 has been used to perform depth-sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction has been applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths up to 0.45 microns. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H2O surface contamination and of a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H2O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with O-16 to simulate the radiation-damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations have been performed in a 1-micron surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19(p, alpha gamma)O-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint that observed fluorine concentrations are a mixture of true lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination.

  9. The Apollo lunar surface experiment package suprathermal ion detector experiment. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of reports and scientific papers is presented for the following topics: (1) the lunar ionosphere; (2) electric potential of the lunar surface; (3) ion activity on the lunar nightside; (4) bow shock protons; (5) magnetosheath and magnetotail; (6) solar wind-neutral gas cloud interactions at the lunar surface; (7) penetrating solar particles; and (8) rocket exhaust products from Apollo missions. Descriptions and photographs of ion detecting equipment at the lunar sites of Apollo 12, 13, 14, and 15 are given.

  10. Magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface and the interpretation of permanent remanence in lunar surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    A magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface is presented. It was found that there is a distinct correlation between natural remanence (NRM), saturation magnetization, and the hysteresis ratios for the rock samples. The hysteresis classification is able to explain some aspects of time dependent magnetization in the lunar samples and relates the initial susceptibility to NRM, viscous remanence, and to other aspects of magnetization in lunar samples. It is also considered that since up to 60% of the iron in the lunar soil may be super paramagnetic at 400 K, and only 10% at 100 K, the 50% which becomes ferromagnetic over the cycle has the characteristics of thermoremanence and may provide for an enhancement in measurable field on the dark side during a subsatellite magnetometer circuit.

  11. Lunar Fission Surface Power System Design and Implementation Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    At the request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  12. Lunar fission surface power system design and implementation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  13. Lunar Fission Surface Power System Design and Implementation Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-20

    At the request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  14. Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alarez, Erika; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform minor mid-course corrections, a Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn, a de-orbit burn, and the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

  15. Fuel cell technology for lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells have been shown, in several NASA and contractor studies, to be an enabling technology for providing electrical power for lunar bases, outposts, and vehicles. The fuel cell, in conjunction with similar electrolysis cells, comprises a closed regenerative energy storage system, commonly referred to as a regenerative fuel cell (RFC). For stationary applications, energy densities of 1,000 watt-hours per kilograms an order of magnitude over the best rechargeable batteries, have been projected. In this RFC, the coupled fuel cell and electrolyzer act as an ultra-light battery. Electrical energy from solar arrays 'charges' the system by electrolyzing water into hydrogen and oxygen. When an electrical load is applied, the fuel cell reacts the hydrogen and oxygen to 'discharge' usable power. Several concepts for utilizing RFC's, with varying degrees of integration, have been proposed, including both primary and backup roles. For mobile power needs, such as rovers, an effective configuration may be to have only the fuel cell located on the vehicle, and to use a central electrolysis 'gas station'. Two fuel cell technologies are prime candidates for lunar power system concepts: alkaline electrolyte and proton exchange membrane. Alkaline fuel cells have been developed to a mature production power unit in NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. Recent advances in materials offer to significantly improve durability to the level needed for extended lunar operations. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are receiving considerable support for hydrospace and terrestrial transportation applications. This technology promises durability, simplicity, and flexibility.

  16. Fuel cell technology for lunar surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    1992-02-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells have been shown, in several NASA and contractor studies, to be an enabling technology for providing electrical power for lunar bases, outposts, and vehicles. The fuel cell, in conjunction with similar electrolysis cells, comprises a closed regenerative energy storage system, commonly referred to as a regenerative fuel cell (RFC). For stationary applications, energy densities of 1,000 watt-hours per kilograms an order of magnitude over the best rechargeable batteries, have been projected. In this RFC, the coupled fuel cell and electrolyzer act as an ultra-light battery. Electrical energy from solar arrays 'charges' the system by electrolyzing water into hydrogen and oxygen. When an electrical load is applied, the fuel cell reacts the hydrogen and oxygen to 'discharge' usable power. Several concepts for utilizing RFC's, with varying degrees of integration, have been proposed, including both primary and backup roles. For mobile power needs, such as rovers, an effective configuration may be to have only the fuel cell located on the vehicle, and to use a central electrolysis 'gas station'. Two fuel cell technologies are prime candidates for lunar power system concepts: alkaline electrolyte and proton exchange membrane. Alkaline fuel cells have been developed to a mature production power unit in NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. Recent advances in materials offer to significantly improve durability to the level needed for extended lunar operations. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are receiving considerable support for hydrospace and terrestrial transportation applications. This technology promises durability, simplicity, and flexibility.

  17. Lunar Surface Material - Spacecraft Measurements of Density and Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The relation of the density of the lunar surface layer to depth is probably best determined from spacecraft measurements of the bearing capacity as a function of depth. A comparison of these values with laboratory measurements of the bearing capacity of low-cohesion particulate materials as a function of the percentage of solid indicates that the bulk density at the lunar surface is about 1.1 grams per cubic centimeter and that it increases nearly linearly to about 1.6 grams per cubic centimeter at a depth of 5 centimeters.

  18. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  19. Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

  20. ESCA studies of lunar surface chemistry. [Electron Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Grant, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    We have used ESCA to compare the composition of the natural exterior surface in lunar fines samples with that of the interior surface exposed by crushing. Even though the exterior surfaces have been exposed to air a significant amount of Fe in them is reduced. In addition, Ca, Al, and Mg are strongly depleted in exterior surfaces relative to Si, Ti, and Fe. Preferential sputtering by the solar wind is a possible explanation for these changes.

  1. Digital Elevation Models of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. C.; Robinson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Several digital elevation models (DEMs) have been produced at a scale of 1km/pixel and covering approximately one-fifth of the lunar surface. These were produced mostly by semiautomatically matching the stereo available between Clementine UV/VIS images, although some localized DEMs have been produced by applying this technique to Apollo Metric stereo pairs, or by digitizing an existing Apollo Metric contour map. The DEMS that result from Clementine UV/VIS images, although Of Poorer height accuracy (1300-600 in for a single matched point) than the Clementine laser altimeter point measurements (<+/-100 m), do provide considerably higher spatial resolution (e.g., every kilometer vs. every tens of kilometers) and allow topography in the polar regions to be determined. Nadir-pointing Clementine UV-VIS stereo pairs are automatically stereo matched using a patch-based matcher and fed through A stereo intersection camera model to yield a digital terrain model (DTM) of longitude, latitude, and height points. The DTM for each stereo pair is then replotted and interpolated to form map-projected DEM tiles. The DEM files can then be fitted to absolute height laser altimeter points, or iteratively to each other, to form a DEM mosaic. Uncertainties in UV-VIS camera pointing and the need to accumulate a sufficiently good topographic S/N ratio necessitates the use of 1 km pixels for the UV-VIS derived DEMs. For Apollo Metric stereo, an internal camera geometry correction and a full photogrammetric block adjustment must be performed using ground- control points to derive a DEM. The image scale of Apollo Metric, as well as the stereo angle, allow for a DEM with 100 m pixels and a height accuracy of +/- 25m. Apollo Metric imagery had previously been used to derive contour maps for much of the lunar equatorial regions; however, to recover this information in digital form these maps must be digitized. Most of the mare areas mapped contain noticeable topographic noise. This results from

  2. NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team: Lunar Surface Exploration Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s agency wide Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to support the ongoing effort to characterize NASA s future human exploration strategy. The DRM design effort includes specific articulations of transportation and surface elements, technologies and operations required to enable future human exploration of various destinations including the moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars as well as interim cis-lunar targets. In prior architecture studies, transportation concerns have dominated the analysis. As a result, an effort was made to study the human utilization strategy at each specific destination and the resultant impacts on the overall architecture design. In particular, this paper considers various lunar surface strategies as representative scenarios that could occur in a human lunar return, and demonstrates their alignment with the internationally developed Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).

  3. The Evolution and Development of the Lunar Regolith and Implications for Lunar Surface Operations and Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David

    2009-01-01

    The lunar regolith consists of about 90% submillimeter particles traditionally termed lunar soil. The remainder consists of larger particles ranging up to boulder size rocks. At the lower size end, soil particles in the 10s of nanometer sizes are present in all soil samples. Lunar regolith overlies bedrock which consists of either lava flows in mare regions or impact-produced megaregolith in highland regions. Lunar regolith has been produced over billions of years by a combination of breaking and communition of bedrock by meteorite bombardment coupled with a variety of complex space weathering processes including solar wind implantation, solar flare and cosmic ray bombardment with attendant radiation damage, melting, vaporization, and vapor condensation driven by impact, and gardening and turnover of the resultant soil. Lunar regolith is poorly sorted compared to most terrestrial soils, and has interesting engineering properties including strong grain adhesion, over-compacted soil density, an abundance of agglutinates with sharp corners, and a variety of properties related to soil maturity. The NASA program has supported a variety of engineering test research projects, the production of bricks by solar or microwave sintering, the production of concrete, the in situ sintering and glazing of regolith by microwave, and the extraction of useful resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, silicon and other products. Future requirements for a lunar surface base or outpost will include construction of protective berms, construction of paved roadways, construction of shelters, movement and emplacement of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal control, and extraction of useful products. One early need is for light weight but powerful digging, trenching, and regolith-moving equipment.

  4. SILVER: Surface Imaging for Lunar Volatiles, Resources, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Cobabe-Ammann, E.; Cook, A. C.; Greeley, R.; Gulick, V. C.; McClintock, W. E.; Moore, J. M.; Stern, S. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; McClelland, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Surface Imaging for Lunar Volatiles, Exploration, and Resources (SILVER) instrument is a proposed imaging investigation for the 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. SILVER and its experienced Measurement Team will prepare for and support future lunar human exploration activities, especially landing site identification and certification on the basis of potential resources. SILVER combines a high-resolution pushbroom visible imaging channel (SILVER-HR) and a wide-field-of-view (45 deg) framing imaging channel (SILVER-WF). SILVER-HR will obtain a single-detector 6 km imaging swath of 12,228 pixels at 0.5 m/pixel to image greater than 100 sq km target areas from 50 km altitude, imaging greater than 15% the lunar surface during a 1 year nominal mission. SILVER-HR has excellent stray-light rejection and its imaging detector has selectable time delay integration (TDI) with up to 128 stages for extreme low-light sensitivity, permitting direct imaging of permanently shadowed polar regions in scattered sunlight or earthshine. SILVER-WF will obtain geodetic framing images in a 2048 x 2048 format at 20m/pixel, with 60% along-track overlap stereo for imaging context and for derivation of a global digital elevation model of meter-scale lunar topography.

  5. In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jerry; Larson, Bill; Sacksteder, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the benefits of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the surface of the moon. Included in this review is the commercialization of Lunar ISRU. ISRU will strongly influence architecture and critical technologies. ISRU is a critical capability and key implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). ISRU will strongly effects lunar outpost logistics, design and crew safety. ISRU will strongly effect outpost critical technologies. ISRU mass investment is minimal compared to immediate and long-term architecture delivery mass and reuse capabilities provided. Therefore, investment in ISRU constitutes a commitment to the mid and long term future of human exploration.

  6. Characterizing transient thermal interactions between lunar regolith and surface spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P. B.; Klaus, D. M.; Walter, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new method, its development, implementation, and verification, for calculating the transient thermal interaction between lunar regolith and moving spacecraft travelling across the surface of the Moon. Regolith temperatures can be determined for lunar landscapes as defined by laser altimeter remote sensing data refined with local crater and boulder models. The purpose of this approach is to enable more detailed, dynamic thermal analyses of mobile systems on the lunar surface rather than relying on worst case, boundary condition design approaches typically used for spacecraft thermal engineering. This new simulation method is based on integrating models that represent small and large scale landscapes; reproduce regolith and boulder temperatures on the Moon; define the position of the Sun; and perform ray tracing to determine infrared and solar heat fluxes between passing objects and the surface. The thermal model of the lunar regolith enhances established models with a slope- and depth-dependent density. The simulation results were verified against remote sensing data obtained from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and from other sources cited in the literature. The verification results for isolated regolith surface patches showed a deviation from established models of about ±3-6 K (±1-6%) during lunar day, and lunar night. For real landscapes such as Crater Calippus and Crater Marius A, the deviation is less than ±15 K (±10%) compared to remote sensing data for the majority of measured data points. Only in regions with presumed different regolith material properties, such as steep slopes or depressions, or in regions with a low resolution on the topographic map, were the deviations up to 100 K (60%). From the results, empirical equations were derived, which can be used for worst case calculations or to calculate initial temperatures for more elaborate time marching numerical models. The proposed new

  7. Calculation of Excavation Force for ISRU on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Xiangwu (David); Burnoski, Louis; Agui, Juan H.; Wilkinson, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Accurately predicting the excavation force that will be encountered by digging tools on the lunar surface is a crucial element of in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Based on principles of soil mechanics, this paper develops an analytical model that is relatively simple to apply and uses soil parameters that can be determined by traditional soil strength tests. The influence of important parameters on the excavation force is investigated. The results are compared with that predicted by other available theories. Results of preliminary soil tests on lunar stimulant are also reported.

  8. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  9. Observing Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Lazio, T. J.; Jones, D. L.; Bale, S. D.; Burns, J.; Kasper, J. C.; Weiler, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages, including fixes locations for the antennas and no terrestrial interference on the far side of the moon. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory for Lunar Sortie Science (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by searching for a low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays designed for faint sources.

  10. Power System Trade Studies for the Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa, L.

    2008-01-01

    A Lunar Lander Preparatory Study (LLPS) was undertaken for NASA's Lunar Lander Pre-Project in 2006 to explore a wide breadth of conceptual lunar lander designs. Civil servant teams from nearly every NASA center responded with dozens of innovative designs that addressed one or more specific lander technical challenges. Although none of the conceptual lander designs sought to solve every technical design issue, each added significantly to the technical database available to the Lunar Lander Project Office as it began operations in 2007. As part of the LLPS, a first order analysis was performed to identify candidate power systems for the ascent and descent stages of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). A power profile by mission phase was established based on LSAM subsystem power requirements. Using this power profile, battery and fuel cell systems were modeled to determine overall mass and volume. Fuel cell systems were chosen for both the descent and ascent stages due to their low mass. While fuel cells looked promising based on these initial results, several areas have been identified for further investigation in subsequent studies, including the identification and incorporation of peak power requirements into the analysis, refinement of the fuel cell models to improve fidelity and incorporate ongoing technology developments, and broadening the study to include solar power.

  11. Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Erika; Forbes, John C.; Thornton, Randall J.

    2010-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform multiple burns including the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine technology testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

  12. Distribution of iron&titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T. H.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Elphic, R. C.; Gasnault, O. M.; Maurice, S.; Moore, K. R.; Binder, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. {approx}140 g/cm{sup 2} for inelastic scattering and {approx}50 g/cm{sup 2} for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods [e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)], which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  13. Observing Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Lazio, T. J.; Bale, S. D.; Burns, J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Jones, D. L.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kasper, J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory for Lunar Sortie Science (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by searching for a low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays. Key design requirements on ROLES include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs below 10 MHz, essentially unobservable from Earth's surface due to the terrestrial ionospheric cutoff. Resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2 deg, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately 500 meters. Operations would consist of data acquisition during the lunar day, with regular data downlinks. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms arranged in a Y shape, with a central electronics package (CEP). Each antenna arm is a linear strip of polyimide film (e.g., Kapton (TM)) on which 16 single polarization dipole antennas are located by depositing a conductor (e.g., silver). The arms also contain transmission lines for carrying the radio signals from the science antennas to the CEP.

  14. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I; Kapernick, Richard J; Dixon, David D; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  15. Comparison of alternative concepts for lunar surface transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Uwe

    The lunar surface transportation system is a key element in lunar development. The decision which means of conveyance should be preferred depends on a lot of influencing factors such as transportation requirements, physical boundary conditions and economics. Starting with a systematic approach to define and structure the problem, a model to compare alternative transportation systems has been built. From the pool of possible means of conveyance, chemical rockets, electric cars, maglev-trains and mass-drivers have been chosen as candidates for investigation. With these candidates five different surface transportation systems were defined. For a reference lunar development scenario the systems were compared on the basis of a cost-to-benefit ratio. Preliminary results indicate that under the assumption that LH2 could be produced on lunar surface, LOX/LH2 propulsed "Hoppers" seem very attractive up to medium transportation demands. For large amounts of bulk cargo, mass driver transportation seems to have advantages, and electric cars should be used for all transportation tasks if the transportation demand is high. Maglev-trains seem to be competitive only for very large transportation demand and long life cycles.

  16. Humanoids for lunar and planetary surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Csaszar, Ambrus; Gan, Quan; Hidalgo, Timothy; Moore, Jeff; Newton, Jason; Sandoval, Steven; Xu, Jiajing

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a vision of humanoid robots as human's key partners in future space exploration, in particular for construction, maintenance/repair and operation of lunar/planetary habitats, bases and settlements. It integrates this vision with the recent plans, for human and robotic exploration, aligning a set of milestones for operational capability of humanoids with the schedule for the next decades and development spirals in the Project Constellation. These milestones relate to a set of incremental challenges, for the solving of which new humanoid technologies are needed. A system of systems integrative approach that would lead to readiness of cooperating humanoid crews is sketched. Robot fostering, training/education techniques, and improved cognitive/sensory/motor development techniques are considered essential elements for achieving intelligent humanoids. A pilot project in this direction is outlined.

  17. Surface chemistry of selected lunar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielefeld, M. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Arnold, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing.

  18. PIC Simulations of mini-magnetospheres above the lunar surface and the formation of Lunar Swirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, R. A.; Alves, E. P.; Kellett, B.; Bradford, W. J.; Silva, L.; Crawford, I. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Fonseca, R. A.; Gargate, L.; Bingham, R.

    2013-09-01

    Reiner Gamma (7.4°N, 300.9°E) on the western side of Oceanus Procellarum (Figure 1) is the most distinctive example of a 'Lunar Swirl' [1]. Lunar swirls are white, 'wispy' formations on the Lunar surface that appear to be unrelated to any topographical features or impact ejecta that could otherwise explain the higher albedo of the regolith. The 'fluid-like' discolouration of the formations are often accentuated by low albedo regions, or 'dark lanes', that wind between the bright swirls.(Figure 1). The width of the light and dark features can be < 1km. This indicates that the mechanism that creates them operates on a very fine scale. It is well established that the lunar swirls are colocated with crustal magnetic field anomalies [3]. The implication is that it is an electromagnetic interaction with the fixed magnetic field of the crustal anomaly with the ions in the solar wind that is responsible for albedo alterations [3]. The proton flux is decreased at the swirls i.e. the surface is 'shielded', retarding the ageing processes, compared to non-swirl regions. Yet simultaneously the ion flux is increased on to the adjacent dark lanes accelerating the maturing process. This requires that the plasma interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic anomalies are similarly fine scaled as the markings. This places it in the realm of electron scale collisionless plasma interactions where large-scale approximations such as frozen-in-field and single fluid mechanics, are no longer applicable. Clear indications that this interaction is a miniature collisionless plasma shock is provided by the in-situ spacecraft observations that have traversed, at low altitude, the plasma environment directly above the lunar swirls and other crustal magnetic field anomalies [4]. The in-situ data from multiple spacecraft e.g. [4, 5, 6, 3] is summarized graphically in Figure 2. The collisionless shocks occur as low as 10-20 km above the surface from magnetic field intensities of 10nT (at

  19. Direct measurement of surface carbon concentrations. [in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filleux, C.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of surface concentrations of carbon in lunar soils and soil breccias provide information on the origin of carbon in the regolith. The reaction C-12 (d, p sub zero) is used to measure 'surface' and 'volume' concentrations in lunar samples. This method has a depth resolution of 1 micron, which permits only a 'surface' and a 'volume' component to be measured. Three of four Apollo 16 double drive tube samples show a surface carbon concentration of about 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm, whereas the fourth sample gave 4 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm. It can be convincingly shown that the measured concentration does not originate from fluorocarbon or hydrocarbon contaminants. Surface adsorbed layers of CO or CO2 are removed by a sputter cleaning procedure using a 2-MeV F beam. It is shown that the residual C concentration of 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm cannot be further reduced by increased F fluence, and it is therefore concluded that it is truly lunar. If one assumes that the measured surface C concentration is a steady-state concentration determined only by a balance between solar-wind implantation and sputtering, a sputter erosion rate of 0.1 A/yr is obtained. However, it would be more profitable to use an independently derived sputter erosion rate to test the hypothesis of a solar-wind origin of the surface carbon.

  20. Constraints on the origins of lunar magnetism from electron reflection measurements of surface magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a new method of detecting lunar surface magnetic fields, summarizes electron reflection measurements and correlations of surface field anomalies to moon geologic features, and discusses the constraints on the origin of lunar magnetism. Apollo 15 and 16 measurements of lunar surface magnetic fields by the electron reflection method show patches of strong surface fields distributed over the lunar surface, and a positive statistical correlation is found in lunar mare regions between the surface field strength and the geologic age of the surface. However, there is a lack of correlation of surface field with impact craters indicating that the mare does not have a strong large-scale uniform magnetization as may be expected from an ancient lunar dynamo. Fields were found in lunar highlands which imply that the rille has a strong magnetization associated with it as intrusive, magnetized rock or as a gap in a uniformly magnetic layer of rock.

  1. View of lunar surface taken from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    View of the lunar surface as photographed from the Apollo 8 spacecraft. Zero-phase bright spot. With near vertical sun illumination, topographical detail is washed out and differences in surface brightness are acentuated. the numerous small bright-halo craters become conspicuous. A few larger craters have extremely bright inner walls that are commonly streaked by darker material. The bright glow near the conspicuous bright-walled crater is a halo that surrounds the position of the spacecraft shadow.

  2. MoonRIDERS: NASA and Hawaii's Lunar Surface Flight Experiment for Late 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This briefing will update the MoonRIDERS lunar surface flight experiment project between NASA-KSC, PISCES, and two Hawaii high schools investigating critical lunar dust-removal technologies. Launch planned in early 2017 on GLXP mission.

  3. Remote compositional mapping of lunar titanium and surface maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Larson, S. M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a potential resource capable of providing oxygen for life support and spacecraft propellant for future lunar bases. Estimates of TiO2 content in mature mare soils can be made using an empirical relation between the 400/500 nm reflectance ratio and TiO2 wt percent. A TiO2 abundance map was constructed for the entire near-side lunar maria accurate to + or - 2 wt percent TiO2 using CCD images obtained at the Tumamoc Hill 0.5 m telescope in Tucson, employing bandpass filters centered at 400 and 560 nm. Highest TiO2 regions in the maria are located in western Mare Tranquillitatis. Greater contrast differences between regions on the lunar surface can be obtained using 400/730 nm ratio images. The relation might well be refined to accommodate this possibly more sensitive indicator of TiO2 content. Another potential lunar resource is solar wind-implanted He-3 which may be used as a fuel for fusion reactors. Relative soil maturity, as determined by agglutinate content, can be estimated from 950/560 nm ration images. Immature soils appear darker in this ratio since such soils contain abundant pyroxene grains which cause strong absorption centered near 950 nm due Fe(2+) crystal field transitions. A positive correlation exists between the amount of He-3 and TiO2 content in lunar soils, suggesting that regions high in TiO2 should also be high in He-3. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the region 320 to 870 nm was also obtained for several regions. Below about 340 nm, these spectra show variations in relative reflectance that are caused by as yet unassigned near-UV absorptions due to compositional differences.

  4. Structural disturbances of the lunar surface caused by spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaydash, V. G.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.

    2012-04-01

    From the lunar surface survey performed with a narrow-angle camera of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, the distributions of the phase ratios of the Apollo 11 and 12 landing sites and the Ranger 9 impact site were mapped. In the acquired images, the traces of the structural disturbances of the lunar regolith layer caused by the jet flows are seen. In the Ranger 9 impact site, one can see the crater of about 15 m across with a ray system, which is hardly noticeable in the brightness picture, but has a high contract in the phase ratio picture. The character of the photometric anomaly of the rays of this crater shows that they are formed by the ejected stones composing the rugged relief, which induces a strong shadow effect. At the same time, the influence of jet flows from the rocket engines smooths the relief and leads to the photometric anomaly of the opposite sign. The estimate of the maturity degree of the lunar regolith in the Apollo 11 and 12 landing sites obtained from the SELENE spectral survey suggests that the depth of the influence of the rocket engines on the soil is small, and the surface of the impact crater formed by the Ranger 9 spacecraft contains a large amount of the immature soil.

  5. Possible Albedo Proton Signature of Hydrated Lunar Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N.; Wilson, J. K.; Looper, M. D.; Jordan, A.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Case, A. W.; Iwata, Y.; Kasper, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Lawrence, D. J.; Livadiotis, G.; Mazur, J. E.; Petro, N. E.; Pieters, C. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Smith, S. S.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We find evidence for a surface layer of hydrated material in the lunar regolith using "albedo protons" measured by the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Fluxes of these albedo protons, which are emitted from the regolith due to steady bombardment by high-energy radiation (Galactic Cosmic Rays), are observed to peak near the poles, and cannot be accounted for by either heavy element enrichment (e.g., enhanced Fe abundance), or by deeply buried (> 50 cm) hydrogenous material. The latitudinal distribution of albedo protons does not correlate with that of epithermal or high-energy neutrons. The high latitude enhancement may be due to the conversion of upward directed secondary neutrons from the lunar regolith into tertiary protons due to neutron-proton collisions in a thin (~ 1-10 cm) layer of hydrated regolith near the surface that is more prevalent near the poles. The CRaTER instrument thus provides critical measurements of volatile distributions within lunar regolith and potentially, with similar sensors and observations, at other bodies within the Solar System.

  6. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation because the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar south pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This report presents a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based, stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the stationary surface navigation system needs to be operated either as a two-way navigation system or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while the position solution is integrated over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  7. Transport of solar wind plasma onto the lunar nightside surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.; Wieser, M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dhanya, M. B.; Asamura, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present first measurements of energetic neutral atoms that originate from solar wind plasma having interacted with the lunar nightside surface. We observe two distinct energetic neutral atom (ENA) distributions parallel to the terminator, the spectral shape, and the intensity of both of which indicate that the particles originate from the bulk solar wind flow. The first distribution modifies the dayside ENA flux to reach ˜6° into the nightside and is well explained by the kinetic temperature of the solar wind protons. The second distribution, which was not predicted, reaches from the terminator to up to 30° beyond the terminator, with a maximum at ˜102° in solar zenith angle. As most likely wake transport processes for this second distribution we identify acceleration by the ambipolar electric field and by the negatively charged lunar nightside surface. In addition, our data provide the first observation indicative of a global solar zenith angle dependence of positive dayside surface potentials.

  8. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (< 0.1 eV) obtained by Lunar Prospector because the Kaguya orbiter did not carry a neutron detector. We used the relative change in thermal neutron flux as a function of topography measured by Lunar Prospector. Normalization of Si elemental abundance using the Kaguya data was accomplished using Apollo 11, 12, 16, and 17 archive data. The normalized Si elemental abundance of the Kaguya GRS data ranged from about 15 to 27% Si. The lowest and highest SiO _{2} abundance correspond to mineral groups like pyroxene group (PKT region) and feldspar group (Northern highlands), respectively. The Si abundance permits the quantification of the relative abundance and distribution of mafic or non-mafic lunar surfaces materials. Our KGRS data analysis shows that highland terrains are Si-enriched relative to lower basins and plains regions, which appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to

  9. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  10. Lunar Surface Access Module Pump-Fed Engine Turbopump Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Randall J.

    2007-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new Exploration architecture. Preliminary studies indicate that a 4 engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a likely configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The main Lunar Surface Access Module engines will likely be responsible for mid-course correction burns, lunar orbit insertion burns, a deorbit burn, and the powered descent to the lunar surface. This multi-task engine philosophy imposes a wide throttling requirement on the engines in the range of 10:1. Marshall Space Flight Center has initiated an internal effort to mature the technologies needed for full scale development of such a LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine. In particular, a fuel turbopump is being designed and fabricated at MSFC to address the issues that a small high speed turbopump of this class will face. These issues include adequate throttling performance of the pump and turbine over a very wide operating range. The small scale of the hardware presents issues including performance scaling, and manufacturing issues like that will challenge the traditional methods we have used to fabricate and assemble larger scale turbopumps. The small high speed turbopump being developed at MSFC will operate at speeds greater than 100,000-rpm. These speeds create issues that include structural dynamics and high cycle fatigue as well as rotordynamic stability. The fuel turbopump development at MSFC will address these issues, and plans are in work for component level testing as well as operation in a test bed engine environment. The fuel turbopump design is nearing completion and described herein.

  11. Robotic lunar surface operations: Engineering analysis for the design, emplacement, checkout and performance of robotic lunar surface systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1990-01-01

    The assembly, emplacement, checkout, operation, and maintenance of equipment on planetary surfaces are all part of expanding human presence out into the solar system. A single point design, a reference scenario, is presented for lunar base operations. An initial base, barely more than an output, which starts from nothing but then quickly grows to sustain people and produce rocket propellant. The study blended three efforts: conceptual design of all required surface systems; assessments of contemporary developments in robotics; and quantitative analyses of machine and human tasks, delivery and work schedules, and equipment reliability. What emerged was a new, integrated understanding of hot to make a lunar base happen. The overall goal of the concept developed was to maximize return, while minimizing cost and risk. The base concept uses solar power. Its primary industry is the production of liquid oxygen for propellant, which it extracts from native lunar regolith. Production supports four lander flights per year, and shuts down during the lunar nighttime while maintenance is performed.

  12. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  13. Dilution-of-Precision-Based Lunar Surface Navigation System Analysis Utilizing Lunar Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Connolly, Joseph W.; Sands, Obed S.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration is focused on the return of astronauts to the Moon. Although navigation systems have already been proven in the Apollo missions to the Moon, the current exploration campaign will involve more extensive and extended missions requiring new concepts for lunar navigation. In contrast to Apollo missions, which were limited to the near-side equatorial region of the Moon, those under the Exploration Systems Initiative will require navigation on the Moon's limb and far side. Since these regions have poor Earth visibility, a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will not provide adequate navigation solutions in these areas. In this report, a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based analysis of the performance of a network of Moon orbiting satellites is provided. This analysis extends a previous analysis of a lunar network (LN) of navigation satellites by providing an assessment of the capability associated with a variety of assumptions. These assumptions pertain to the minimum surface user elevation angle and a total single satellite failure in the lunar network. The assessment is accomplished by making appropriately formed estimates of DoP. Different adaptations of DoP, such as geometric DoP and positional DoP (GDoP and PDoP), are associated with a different set of assumptions regarding augmentations to the navigation receiver or transceiver.

  14. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  15. Lunar-Surface Closeup Stereoscopic Photography on the Sea of Tranquility (Apollo 11 Landing Site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, W. R.; Jones, R. L.; Heiken, G.; Bender, M.; Hill, R. O.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of returned lunar samples provides limited information about lunar geology. To obtain information about in-place lunar material, a closeup stereoscopic camera capable of photographing small-scale surface features was built and was used at the Apollo 11 landing site. Stereoscopic photographs were taken of surface areas relative to the lunar module, and the surfaces photographed were analyzed. The photographs are classified into five groups: soil disturbed by astronaut activities, generally undisturbed soil, loose aggregate surface material, crater bottoms with prominent glass deposits, and hard rock deposits. Glass deposits in the returned samples are described for comparison with the features observed in the photographs. The stereoscopic photographs were of outstanding quality and show the nature of lunar-surface material in detail. Lunar topography was reconstructed from the photographs with an analytical plotter. The photography results indicate that the closeup composition and genesis of lunar soil at the Apollo 11 landing site.

  16. View of lunar surface taken from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    View of the lunar surface taken from the Apollo 8 spacecraft looking southward from high altitude across the Southern Sea. The bright-rayed crater near the horizon is located near 130 degrees east longitude and 70 degrees south latitude. The dark floored crater near the middle of the right side of the photograph is about 70 kilometers (45 statute miles) in diameter. Both features are beyond the eastern limb of the moon as viewed from earth; neither has a name.

  17. High-resolution Elemental Mapping of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bradley C.; Ameduri, Frank; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Roussel-Dupre, Diane; Smith, Barham W.

    1992-01-01

    New instruments and missions are being proposed to study the lunar surface as a result of the resurgence of interest in returning to the Moon. One instrument recently proposed is similar in concept to the x-ray fluorescence detectors flown on Apollo, but utilizes fluorescence from the L- and M-shells rather than the K-shell. This soft X-Ray Flourescence Imager (XRFI) is discussed.

  18. Lunar surface roughness derived from LRO Diviner Radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Hayne, Paul O.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded slopes have a variety of temperatures based on their orientation with respect to the Sun. Generally, greater slope angles lead to higher anisothermality within the field of view. This anisothermality is detected by measuring changing emitted radiance as a function of viewing angle or by measuring the difference in brightness temperatures with respect to observation wavelength. Thermal infrared measurements from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Radiometer were used to derive lunar surface roughness via two observation types: (1) nadir multispectral observations with full diurnal coverage and (2) multiple emission angle targeted observations. Measurements were compared to simulated radiance from a radiative equilibrium thermal model and Gaussian slope distribution model. Nadir observations most closely match a 20° RMS slope distribution, and multiple emission angle observations can be modeled using 20-35° RMS slope distributions. Limited sampling of the lunar surface did not show any clear variation in roughness among surface units. Two-dimensional modeling shows that surfaces separated by distances greater than 0.5-5 mm can remain thermally isolated in the lunar environment, indicating the length scale of the roughness features. Non-equilibrium conditions are prevalent at night and near sunrise and sunset, preventing the use of the equilibrium thermal model for roughness derivations using data acquired at these local times. Multiple emission angle observations also show a significant decrease in radiance at high emission angles in both daytime and nighttime observations, and hemispherical emissivity is lower than is apparent from nadir observations. These observations and models serve as a basis for comparison with similar measurements of other airless bodies and as an initial template for the interpretation of TIR measurements acquired under a variety of geometric conditions.

  19. Liquid oxygen production and storage on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Gary; Newell, Dave; Pinter, Dave; Snyder, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Once oxygen is produced on the lunar surface, it must be liquefied and stored for use by the lander vehicle. CSC has performed a preliminary design for the cryogenic storage depot for this liquid oxygen (LOX). Estimates have been made of the refrigeration power and equipment weight required for the liquefaction and storage. The determination is that the system is compatible with solar power limitations and will require little new technology development.

  20. Estimation of Lunar Surface Temperatures: a Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Helbert, J.

    2009-04-01

    About 40 years after the Apollo and other lunar missions, several nations return to the Moon. Indian, Chinese, Japanese and American missions are already in orbit or will soon be launched, and the possibility of a "Made in Germany" mission (Lunar Exploration Orbiter - LEO) looms on the horizon [1]. In preparation of this mission, which will include a thermal infrared spectrometer (SERTIS - SElenological Radiometer and Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer), accurate temperature maps of the lunar surface are required. Because the orbiter will be imaging the Moon's surface at different times of the lunar day, an accurate estimation of the thermal variations of the surface with time is necessary to optimize signal-to-noise ratios and define optimal measurement areas. In this study we present new global temperature estimates for sunrise, noontime and sunset. This work provides new and updated research on the temperature variations of the lunar surface, by taking into account the surface and subsurface bulk thermophysical properties, namely their bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, emissivity and albedo. These properties have been derived from previous spacecraft-based observations, in-situ measurements and returned samples [e.g. 2-4]. In order to determine surface and subsurface temperatures, the one-dimensional heat conduction equation is solved for a resolution of about 0.4°, which is better by a factor of 2 compared to the Clementine measurement and temperature modeling described in [2]. Our work expands on the work of Lawson et al. [2], who calculated global brightness temperatures of subsolar points from the instantaneous energy balance equation assuming the Moon to be a spherical object [2]. Surface daytime temperatures are mainly controlled by their surface albedo and angle of incidence. On the other hand nighttime temperatures are affected by the thermal inertia of the observed surface. Topographic effects are expected to cause earlier or later

  1. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  2. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA's Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of "supportability", in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in a environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test & Verification, Maintenance & Repair, and Scavenging & Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set of

  3. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  4. Assessment of the Lunar Surface Layer and in Situ Materials to Sustain Construction-related Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Chua, Koon Meng

    1992-01-01

    Present and future technologies to facilitate lunar composition and resource assessment with applications to lunar surface construction are presented. We are particularly interested in the construction activity associated with lunar-based astronomy. We address, as an example, the use of ground-probing radar to help assess subsurface conditions at sites for observatories and other facilities.

  5. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  6. Levitated lunar surface dust as evidenced by the LEAM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, S.; Berg, O. E.

    2008-09-01

    The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment was deployed by the Apollo 17 astronauts in the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon in December 1972. The science objectives of LEAM were (1) to investigate the interplanetary dust flux (primary particles) bombarding the lunar surface; (2) to investigate the properties of the lunar ejecta (secondary) particles; (3) to follow the temporal variability of these fluxes along the lunar orbit; and (4) to observe interstellar particles. The design and expected performance was similar to the dust experiments flown on Pioneers 8 and 9 in heliocentric orbits [1]. They responded to plasma generated by hypervelocity dust impacts. The pulse height generated was a function of mv2.6 of the particle (where m [g] is its mass and v [km/s] is its impact velocity) with a detection threshold of typically m = 10-13 g at v = 25 km s-1. Particle velocity was measured directly by its time of flight between two films spaced 5 cm apart. The LEAM contained three sensor systems. The east sensor was pointed 25° north of east, so that once per lunation its field of view swept into the direction of the interstellar dust flow. The west sensor was pointing in the opposite direction, while the up sensor was parallel to the lunar surface and viewing particles coming from above. Only the west sensor was lacking the front film. It was designed to identify low-speed ejecta impacts that were not expected to penetrate the front film. It soon became evident that most events registered by the sensors had to be attributed not to meteorites or lunar ejecta but to slow moving, highly charged lunar surface dust. Most puzzling were two facts: (1) the event rates increased with the passage of the terminators and (2) the events registered in the front film only and with the maximum possible pulse height. The event rate started to increase up to 60 hours before the local sunrise and persisted after sunrise for about 30-60 hours. In this interval the east sensor's rates

  7. Strategies for Ground Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Jeff; Gill, Tracy; Peacock, Mike

    2009-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is the creation of a permanently manned lunar outpost. Facing the challenge of establishing a human presence on the moon will require new innovations and technologies that will be critical to expanding this exploration to Mars and beyond. However, accomplishing this task presents an unprecedented set of obstacles, one of the more significant of which is the development of new strategies for ground test and verification. Present concepts for the Lunar Surface System (LSS) architecture call for the construction of a series of independent yet tightly coupled modules and elements to be launched and assembled in incremental stages. Many of these will be fabricated at distributed locations and delivered shortly before launch, precluding any opportunity for testing in an actual integrated configuration. Furthermore, these components must operate flawlessly once delivered to the lunar surface since there is no possibility for returning a malfunctioning module to Earth for repair or modification. Although undergoing continual refinement, this paper will present the current state of the plans and models that have been devised for meeting the challenge of ground based testing for Constellation Program LSS as well as the rationale behind their selection.

  8. Power requirements for the first lunar outpost (FLO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bozek, John M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Program Office is currently developing a preliminary reference mission description that lays the framework from which the nation can return to the Moon by the end of the decade. The First Lunar Outpost is the initial phase of establishing a permanent presence on the Moon and the next step of sending humans to Mars. Many systems required for missions to Mars will be verified on the Moon, while still accomplishing valuable lunar science and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Some of FLO's major accomplishments will be long duration habitation, extended surface roving (both piloted and teleoperated) and a suite of science experiments, including lunar resources extraction. Of equal challenge will be to provide long life, reliable power sources to meet the needs of a lunar mission.

  9. A New Model of Size-graded Soil Veneer on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Abhijit; McKay, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. We propose a new model of distribution of submillimeter sized lunar soil grains on the lunar surface. We propose that in the uppermost millimeter or two of the lunar surface, soil-grains are size graded with the finest nanoscale dust on top and larger micron-scale particles below. This standard state is perturbed by ejecta deposition of larger grains at the lunar surface, which have a coating of dusty layer that may not have substrates of intermediate sizes. Distribution of solar wind elements (SWE), agglutinates, vapor deposited nanophase Fe0 in size fractions of lunar soils and ir spectra of size fractions of lunar soils are compatible with this model. A direct test of this model requires bringing back glue-impregnated tubes of lunar soil samples to be dissected and examined on Earth.

  10. A Study of an Optical Lunar Surface Communications Network with High Bandwidth Direct to Earth Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K.; Biswas, A.; Schoolcraft, J.

    2011-01-01

    A lunar surface systems study explores the application of optical communications to support a high bandwidth data link from a lunar relay satellite and from fixed lunar assets. The results show that existing 1-m ground stations could provide more than 99% coverage of the lunar terminal at 100Mb/s data rates from a lunar relay satellite and in excess of 200Mb/s from a fixed terminal on the lunar surface. We have looked at the effects of the lunar regolith and its removal on optical samples. Our results indicate that under repeated dust removal episodes sapphire rather than fused silica would be a more durable material for optical surfaces. Disruption tolerant network protocols can minimize the data loss due to link dropouts. We report on the preliminary results of the DTN protocol implemented over the optical carrier.

  11. Automatic Identification of Changes on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, Emerson; Wagner, Robert; Robinson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Since June 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has maintained a stable polar orbit enabling the twin Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) to acquire high-resolution observations of the lunar surface (pixel scale of 0.25 to 2 m/pixel). This orbital configuration facilitates occasional repeat coverage with similar lighting geometries. These before and after observations, referred to in this study as temporal pairs, enable the identification of changes to the surface based on applying a series of change detection techniques. Manual inspection of the temporal pairs by LROC team members resulted in the discovery of hundreds of new changes across the lunar surface [1]. However, this manual process is time consuming (2-4 hours per temporal pair) and each analyst must apply their own judgment on whether they have discovered a real change or an artifact in the image pair. Thus far, the LROC team has identified 650 surface changes as well as 19 resolved craters using the manual approach. Leveraging image processing techniques developed by the LROC team, we started automatically scanning and identifying these changes. The new automated algorithm locates changes based on albedo variations and changes in surface texture. The program provides a list of potential new features for later manual inspection and classification (disturbance lacking resolvable crater or crater with a rim diameter of X meters). This new approach eliminates the human inspector from scanning up to 5.22*109 pixels in each temporal pair and instead provides cropped cutouts with the detected changes centered in the thumbnail image. The LROC NACs have already collected thousands of temporal pair observations and will continue to do so over the remaining extended mission. Highest fidelity change detection comes from temporal pairs with nearly identical lighting geometries. In the next two years, the progression of the LRO orbit with respect to beta angle will enable direct illumination matches (<2 degrees

  12. Evaluation of Surface Modification as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Misconin, Robert M.; Banks, Bruce A.; Crowder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Three surface treatments were evaluated for their ability to lower the adhesion between lunar simulant dust and AZ93, AlFEP, and AgFEP thermal control surfaces under simulated lunar conditions. Samples were dusted in situ and exposed to a standardized puff of nitrogen gas. Thermal performance before dusting, after dusting, and after part of the dust was removed by the puff of gas, were compared to perform the assessment. None of the surface treatments was found to significantly affect the adhesion of lunar simulants to AZ93 thermal control paint. Oxygen ion beam texturing also did not lower the adhesion of lunar simulant dust to AlFEP or AgFEP. But a workfunction matching coating and a proprietary Ball Aerospace surface treatment were both found to significantly lower the adhesion of lunar simulants to AlFEP and AgFEP. Based on these results, it is recommended that all these two techniques be further explored as dust mitigation coatings for AlFEP and AgFEP thermal control surfaces.

  13. Meteoroid impacts and dust particles in near-surface lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, S. I.; Golub', A. P.; Lisin, E. A.; Izvekova, Yu N.; Atamaniuk, B.; Dolnikov, G. G.; Zakharov, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that for consideration of dust particle release from the lunar surface one has to take into account (among other effects) both adhesion and meteoroid impacts. The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion intensity on the Moon is discussed. The rate of meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface per unit area is determined. The strength of the regolith due to the adhesion effect is estimated. The processes occurring when a high-speed meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface are described. In particular, the characteristic parameters of zones of evaporation of the substance, its melting, destruction of particles constituting lunar regolith, their irreversible deformations, and elastic deformation of the regolith substance are found. A possibility of the rise of micrometer-sized dust particles above the lunar surface is shown. It is demonstrated that most of the particles rising over lunar surface due to the meteoroid impact originates from the elastic deformation zone. The number of dust particles raised over the lunar surface as result of meteoroid impacts is calculated. The size-distribution function of particles released from the lunar surface due to meteoroid impacts is determined. It is noted that micrometeoroid impacts can result in rise of dust particles of the size of a few μm up to an altitude of about 30 cm that explains the effect of “horizon glow” observed by Surveyor lunar lander.

  14. Analysis of Lunar Surface Charging for a Candidate Spacecraft Using NASCAP-2K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda; Minow, Joseph; Blackwell, William, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a spacecraft in the lunar environment, and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies, is a critical lunar mission design task, as spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for astronaut safety. To that end, we have performed surface charging calculations of a candidate lunar spacecraft for lunar orbiting and lunar landing missions. We construct a model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties using Object Toolkit and perform the spacecraft charging analysis using Nascap-2k, the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. We use nominal and atypical lunar environments appropriate for lunar orbiting and lunar landing missions to establish current collection of lunar ions and electrons. In addition, we include a geostationary orbit case to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a lunar spacecraft in the geostationary orbit environment. Results from the charging analysis demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as expected. We compare charging results to data taken during previous lunar orbiting or lunar flyby spacecraft missions.

  15. Night side lunar surface potential in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Motohisa; Nishino, Masaki; Yokota, Shoichiro; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    In the Earth's magnetotail, Kaguya repeatedly encountered the plasmoid or plasma sheet. The low energy ion signatures including lobe cold ions, cold ion acceleration in the plasma sheet-lobe boundaries, and hot plasma sheet ions or fast flowing ions associated with plasmoids characterized the encounters. On the dayside of the Moon, tailward flowing cold ions and their acceleration were observed. However, on the night side, tailward flowing cold ions could not be observed since the Moon blocked them. In stead, ion acceleration by the spacecraft potential and the electron beam accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were simultaneously observed. Similar night side ion/electron signatures were often observed at low altitude <~50km when Kaguya was in the magnetotail lobe. When Kaguya stayed in the hemisphere where lobe plasma convection direction was from lobe toward the night side of the Moon, MAP-PACE ion sensors found that the lobe cold ions intruded into the night side of the Moon. The ExB drift motion by the dawn-to-dusk electric field facilitated the intrusion of the lobe cold ions. In addition, very cold ions flowing towards the Earth (towards the Moon) were observed in the opposite hemisphere. It was also found that the flow direction of the lobe cold ions intruded into the night side of the Moon gradually changed from tailward to Earthward (Moonward) while slightly increasing their energy. Acceleration of the intruded cold ions by the electrostatic potential distributed on the night side of the Moon could explain the characteristics of the ions. The electron beams accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were also simultaneously observed. These electron and ion data enabled us to determine both the night side lunar surface potential and spacecraft potential only from the observed data.

  16. Imaging Thermal He(+)in Geospace from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Adrian, Mark L.; Goldstein, Jerry; Jahn, Joerg-Micha; Spasojevic, Maria; Griffin, Brand

    2007-01-01

    By mass, thermal plasma dominates near-earth space and strongly influences the transport of energy and mass into the earth's atmosphere. It is proposed to play an important role in modifying the strength of space weather storms by its presence in regions of magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause and in the near to mid-magnetotail. Ionospheric-origin thermal plasma also represents the most significant potential loss of atmospheric mass from our planet over geological time. Knowledge of the loss of convected thermal plasma into the solar wind versus its recirculation across high latitudes and through the magnetospheric flanks into the magnetospheric tail will enable determination of the mass balance for this mass-dominant component of the Geospace system and of its influence on global magnetospheric processes that are critical to space weather prediction and hence to the impact of space processes on human technology in space and on Earth. Our proposed concept addresses this basic issue of Geospace dynamics by imaging thermal He(+) ions in extreme ultraviolet light with an instrument on the lunar surface. The concept is derived from the highly successful Extreme Ultraviolet imager (EUV) flown on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. From the lunar surface an advanced EUV imager is anticipated to have much higher sensitivity, lower background noise, and higher communication bandwidth back to Earth. From the near-magnetic equatorial location on the lunar surface, such an imager would be ideally located to follow thermal He(+) ions to high latitudes, into the magnetospheric flanks, and into the magnetotail.

  17. Effect of lunar surface material on radiation damage in mice (investigation of biological action of lunar surface material returned to earth by Luna 16 automatic station)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipov, V. V.; Davydov, B. I.; Gaydamakin, N. A.; Lvova, T. S.; Petrukhin, V. G.; Komarova, S. N.; Skvortsova, Y. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effect was studied of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility on the radiation reaction (damage) in mice caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. The material was administered to the organism in three ways -- aerogenically, through the esophagus, or peritoneally. It was shown that administering the lunar surface material did not appreciably affect the death of the animals and the reaction of the peripheral blood caused by the action of radiation. In mice which prior to irradiation had been administered inhalationally or peritoneally the lunar surface material, a lag in the increment of bodyweight was observed.

  18. Astronaut Charles M. Duke, Jr., in shadow of Lunar Module behind ultraviolet camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke, Jr., lunar module pilot, stands in the shadow of the Lunar Module (LM) behind the ultraviolet (UV) camera which is in operation. This photograph was taken by astronaut John W. Young, mission commander, during the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The UV camera's gold surface is designed to maintain the correct temperature. The astronauts set the prescribed angles of azimuth and elevation (here 14 degrees for photography of the large Magellanic Cloud) and pointed the camera. Over 180 photographs and spectra in far-ultraviolet light were obtained showing clouds of hydrogen and other gases and several thousand stars. The United States flag and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) are in the left background. While astronauts Young and Duke descended in the Apollo 16 Lunar Module (lm) 'Orion' to explore the Descartes highlands landing site on the Moon, astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (csm) 'Casper' in lunar orbit.

  19. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study techniques are developed which allow an analysis of a range of different types of transfer trajectories from the Earth to the lunar surface. Trajectories ranging from those obtained using the invariant manifolds of unstable orbits to those derived from collision orbits are analyzed. These techniques allow the computation of trajectories encompassing low-energy trajectories as well as more direct transfers. The range of possible trajectory options is summarized, and a broad range of trajectories that exist as a result of the Sun's influence are computed and analyzed. The results are then classified by type, and trades between different measures of cost are discussed.

  20. Micromorphology and surface characteristics of lunar dust and breccia.

    PubMed

    Cloud, P; Margolis, S V; Moorman, M; Barker, J M; Licari, G R; Krinsley, D; Barnes, V E

    1970-01-30

    Although nothing of direct biologic interest was observed in the sample studied, small shaped glass particles and glazed pits resemble objects which elsewhere have been described as fossils. These features, although nonbiological, do bear on processes of lunar weathering and outgassing. The glazed pits are impact features. Fusion of their surfaces released gases. Electron microscopy of the glasses, pits, and angular microfractured mineral grains indicates a prevalence of destructive weathering processes-thermal expansion and contraction, abrasion by by-passing particles, and, of course, impact. ous at room temperature.

  1. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  2. Field Testing of Utility Robots for Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Deans, Matt; Allan, Mark; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Broxton, Michael; Edwards, Laurence; Lee, Pascal; Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Park, Eric; Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Pacis, Estrellina; Schreckenghost, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, NASA has been working to return to the Moon. In contrast to the Apollo missions, two key objectives of the current exploration program is to establish significant infrastructure and an outpost. Achieving these objectives will enable long-duration stays and long-distance exploration of the Moon. To do this, robotic systems will be needed to perform tasks which cannot, or should not, be performed by crew alone. In this paper, we summarize our work to develop "utility robots" for lunar surface operations, present results and lessons learned from field testing, and discuss directions for future research.

  3. Lunar Prospector: a Preliminary Surface Remote Sensing Resource Assessment for the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential existence of lunar volatiles is a scientific discovery that could distinctly change the direction of pathways of inner solar system human expansion. With a dedicated germanium gamma ray spectrometer launched in the early 1990's, surface water concentrations of 0.7 percent could be detected immediately upon full lunar polar orbit operations. The expense of lunar base construction and operation would be dramatically reduced over a scenario with no lunar volatile resources. Global surface mineral distribution could be mapped out and integrated into a GIS database for lunar base site selection. Extensive surface lunar mapping would also result in the utilization of archived Apollo images. A variety of remote sensing systems and their parameters have been proposed for use in the detection of these lunar ice masses. The detection or nondetection of subsurface and surface ice masses in lunar polar crater floors could dramatically direct the development pathways that the human race might follow in its radiation from the Earth to habitable locales in the inner terran solar system. Potential sources of lunar volatiles are described. The use of remote sensing to detect lunar volatiles is addressed.

  4. Design of a lunar transportation system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. A brief summary of four of the final projects, is presented. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. A lunar flying vehicle that uses clean propellants for propulsion is examined. A design that will not contribute to the considerable amount of caustic pollution already present in the sparse lunar atmosphere is addressed by way of ballistic flight techniques. A second generation redesign of the current Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suit to increase operating time, safety, and efficiency is also addressed. A separate life support system is also designed to be permanently attached to the lunar rover. The two systems would interact through the use of an umbilical cord connection. A ground based vehicle which will travel for greater distances than a 37.5 kilometer radius from a base on the lunar surface was designed. The vehicle is pressurized due to the fact that existing lunar rovers are limited by the EVA suits currently in use. A robotic arm for use at lunar bases or on roving vehicles on the lunar surface was designed. The arm was originally designed as a specimen gathering device, but it can be used for a wide range of tasks through the use of various attachments.

  5. Considerations Regarding the Development of an Environmental Control and Life Support System for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is engaged in early architectural analyses and trade studies aimed at identifying requirements, predicting performance and resource needs, characterizing mission constraints and sensitivities, and guiding technology development planning needed to conduct a successful human exploration campaign of the lunar surface. Conceptual designs and resource estimates for environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) within pressurized lunar surface habitats and rovers have been considered and compared in order to support these lunar campaign studies. This paper will summarize those concepts and some of the more noteworthy considerations that will likely remain as key drivers in the evolution of the lunar surface ECLSS architecture.

  6. Transient Thermal Model and Analysis of the Lunar Surface and Regolith for Cryogenic Fluid Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Plachta, David W.; Yasan, Mohammad M.

    2008-01-01

    A transient thermal model of the lunar surface and regolith was developed along with analytical techniques which will be used to evaluate the storage of cryogenic fluids at equatorial and polar landing sites. The model can provide lunar surface and subsurface temperatures as a function of latitude and time throughout the lunar cycle and season. It also accounts for the presence of or lack of the undisturbed fluff layer on the lunar surface. The model was validated with Apollo 15 and Clementine data and shows good agreement with other analytical models.

  7. An Analytic Function of Lunar Surface Temperature for Exospheric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Grava, Cesare; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Retherford, Kurt D.; Siegler, Matthew; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytic expression to represent the lunar surface temperature as a function of Sun-state latitude and local time. The approximation represents neither topographical features nor compositional effects and therefore does not change as a function of selenographic latitude and longitude. The function reproduces the surface temperature measured by Diviner to within +/-10 K at 72% of grid points for dayside solar zenith angles of less than 80, and at 98% of grid points for nightside solar zenith angles greater than 100. The analytic function is least accurate at the terminator, where there is a strong gradient in the temperature, and the polar regions. Topographic features have a larger effect on the actual temperature near the terminator than at other solar zenith angles. For exospheric modeling the effects of topography on the thermal model can be approximated by using an effective longitude for determining the temperature. This effective longitude is randomly redistributed with 1 sigma of 4.5deg. The resulting ''roughened'' analytical model well represents the statistical dispersion in the Diviner data and is expected to be generally useful for future models of lunar surface temperature, especially those implemented within exospheric simulations that address questions of volatile transport.

  8. Surface electrical properties experiment, part 1. [for measuring lunar surface electrical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupfer, W. S. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    The design evolution, hardware development, and production history of the surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment are discussed. The SEP transmitter and receiver were designed to be used on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission. The equipment was used to measure lunar surface electrical properties over traverses totalling more than 8 kilometers, for a duration of more than 100 minutes. A comprehensive outline of the techniques, is given along with a simplified detailed breakdown of equipment description and function to outline the principles of operation. A history of the design evolution with trade-off criteria and emphasis on changes caused by decisions reached in solving problems inherent in a fast-paced development program are presented from the viewpoint of overall design concept and in detail for each item of deliverable hardware. There is a brief account of lunar operations.

  9. Secondary Impacts on Structures on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Walker, James D.; Grosch, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair Lunar Lander is being designed for the planned return to the Moon by 2020. Since it is hoped that lander components will be re-used by later missions, studies are underway to examine the exposure threat to the lander sitting on the Lunar surface for extended periods. These threats involve both direct strikes of meteoroids on the vehicle as well as strikes from Lunar regolith and rock thrown by nearby meteorite strikes. Currently, the lander design is comprised of up to 10 different types of pressure vessels. These vessels included the manned habitation module, fuel, cryogenic fuel and gas storage containers, and instrument bays. These pressure vessels have various wall designs, including various aluminum alloys, honeycomb, and carbon-fiber composite materials. For some of the vessels, shielding is being considered. This program involved the test and analysis of six pressure vessel designs, one of which included a Whipple bumper shield. In addition to the pressure vessel walls, all the pressure vessels are wrapped in multi-layer insulation (MLI). Two variants were tested without the MLI to better understand the role of the MLI in the impact performance. The tests of performed were to examine the secondary impacts on these structures as they rested on the Lunar surface. If a hypervelocity meteor were to strike the surface nearby, it would throw regolith and rock debris into the structure at a much lower velocity. Also, when the manned module departs for the return to Earth, its rocket engines throw up debris that can impact the remaining lander components and cause damage. Glass spheres were used as a stimulant for the regolith material. Impact tests were performed with a gas gun to find the V50 of various sized spheres striking the pressure vessels. The impacts were then modeled and a fast-running approximate model for the V50 data was developed. This model was for performing risk analysis to assist in the vessel design and in the identification of ideal

  10. Using lunar sounder imagery to distinguish surface from subsurface reflectors in lunar highlands areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Carter, James L.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a method using the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder imagery data which appears capable of filtering out off-nadir surface noise from highland area profiles, so that subsurface features may now be detected in highland areas as well as mare areas. Previously, this had been impossible because the rough topography in the highland areas created noise in the profiles which could not be distinguished from subsurface echoes. The new method is an image processing procedure involving the computerized selection of pixels which represent intermediate echo intensity values, then manually removing those pixels from the profile. Using this technique, a subsurface feature with a horizontal extent of about 150 km, at a calculated depth of approximately 3 km, has been detected beneath the crater Riccioli in the highlands near Oceanus Procellarum. This result shows that the ALSE data contain much useful information that remains to be extracted and used.

  11. Benefits of Using a Mars Forward Strategy for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David; Maples, Dauphne

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies potential risk reduction, cost savings and programmatic procurement benefits of a Mars Forward Lunar Surface System architecture that provides commonality or evolutionary development paths for lunar surface system elements applicable to Mars surface systems. The objective of this paper is to identify the potential benefits for incorporating a Mars Forward development strategy into the planned Project Constellation Lunar Surface System Architecture. The benefits include cost savings, technology readiness, and design validation of systems that would be applicable to lunar and Mars surface systems. The paper presents a survey of previous lunar and Mars surface systems design concepts and provides an assessment of previous conclusions concerning those systems in light of the current Project Constellation Exploration Architectures. The operational requirements for current Project Constellation lunar and Mars surface system elements are compared and evaluated to identify the potential risk reduction strategies that build on lunar surface systems to reduce the technical and programmatic risks for Mars exploration. Risk reduction for rapidly evolving technologies is achieved through systematic evolution of technologies and components based on Moore's Law superimposed on the typical NASA systems engineering project development "V-cycle" described in NASA NPR 7120.5. Risk reduction for established or slowly evolving technologies is achieved through a process called the Mars-Ready Platform strategy in which incremental improvements lead from the initial lunar surface system components to Mars-Ready technologies. The potential programmatic benefits of the Mars Forward strategy are provided in terms of the transition from the lunar exploration campaign to the Mars exploration campaign. By utilizing a sequential combined procurement strategy for lunar and Mars exploration surface systems, the overall budget wedges for exploration systems are reduced and the

  12. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  13. The Lunar Surface Gravimeter as a Lunar Seismometer: New Identification of Unlocated Deep Moonquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Taichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Lognonné, Philippe; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine

    2010-05-01

    The internal structure of the Moon is an essential piece of information to investigate its origin and evolution. The seismic analyses using the data from Apollo Passive Seismic Exploration (Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16) are one of the most successful methods carried out to estimate the inner structure of the Moon. From the seismic analyses, it was found that the Moon is still seismically active and the Moon has layered structure with 40~60 km crust with mantle below. However, because of the limitation of seismic network, only with 4 seismic stations all on the nearside, the experiment could not fully uncover the lunar interior, especially for the region deeper than 1000 km. This is still an important question of the lunar science and new data were desired. In our previous studies, we showed that the Lunar Surface Gravimeter on Apollo 17 can be used as a seismometer. We succeeded in relocating the known seismic event and improving its location by using the additional seismic data of the LSG. In this study, we attempted to locate deep moonquakes that could not be located with the previous data set by using the LSG data. Deep moonquakes are said to occur periodically, at certain seismic source or nests. It is known that seismic events of the same nest have almost identical waveforms at one station. This is the unique characteristic of deep moonquakes and classification by waveform cross-correlation is possible. In this way, more than 300 nests were identified. 106 of them provided sufficient data to locate their sources. Among the remaining unlocated deep moonquakes, 60 provided usable waveform data at more than one station. In this study we focused on these 60 nests and examined whether they are locatable by adding data of the LSG. First, we picked up data for seismic event whose LSG data were available. This leaves 40 nests to be examined with the additional data of LSG. We examined all the seismic events from the 40 nests and identified seismic events from 5 nests

  14. Organic analysis of lunar samples and the Martian surface.

    PubMed

    Oro, J; Flory, D

    1973-01-01

    In addition to the organogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, P) which are necessary for the synthesis of organic molecules, the lunar samples from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 contain substantial amounts (approximately equal to 10 to 100 microgram/g) of CO, N2 and CO2, which are released at relatively high temperatures and smaller amounts (approximately equal to 0.1 to 10 microgram/g) of more complex organic compounds (e.g. benzene). Most of these analyses have been performed by mass spectrometry or by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after appropriate volatilization. The release of very small amounts of water has also been observed and is consistent with the findings of goethite (FeO.OH) and with measurements by the suprathermal ion detector. The lunar surface provides one of the less favorable solar system models for the synthesis of organic compounds yet small amounts of these compounds have been detected in the returned samples. It is reasonable to assume that the different physical and developmental features of the planet Mars (increased gravitational field, presence of an atmosphere with CO2, CO and H2O, recent volcanic and tectonic activity, etc.) would favor an increased organic content of the surface of this planet relative to the moon. Therefore the organic molecules present in the Martian soil should be measurable by miniaturized mass spectrometers after fractional distillation or gas chromatographic separation of the volatiles released by moderate heating.

  15. Analysis of Water Surplus at the Lunar Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Bagdigian, Robert M.; George, Patrick J.; Plachta, David W.; Fincannon, Homer J.; Jefferies, Sharon A.; Keyes, Jennifer P.; Reeves, David M.; Shyface, Hilary R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the benefits to the lunar architecture and outpost of having a surplus of water, or a surplus of energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen, as it has been predicted by Constellation Program's Lunar Surface System analyses. Assumptions and a scenario are presented leading to the water surplus and the revolutionary surface element options for improving the lunar exploration architecture and mission objectives. For example, some of the elements that can benefit from a water surplus are: the power system energy storage can minimize the use of battery systems by replacing batteries with higher energy density fuel cell systems; battery packs on logistics pallets can also be minimized; mobility asset power system mass can be reduced enabling more consumables and extended roving duration and distance; small robotic vehicles (hoppers) can be used to increase the science exploration range by sending round-trip robotic missions to anywhere on the Moon using in-situ produced propellants.

  16. Interviews with Apollo Lunar Surface Astronauts in Support of EVA Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean

    2010-01-01

    A 3-person team interviewed 8 of the 11 surviving Apollo crewmembers in a series of focused interviews to discuss their experiences on the lunar surface. Eppler presented the results of these interviews, along with recommendations for the design of future lunar surface systems.

  17. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Brian; Alhadeff, Sam; Beard, Shawn; Carlile, David; Cook, David; Douglas, Craig; Garcia, Don; Gillespie, David; Golingo, Raymond; Gonzalez, Drew

    1990-01-01

    Lunar surface operations require habitation, transportation, life support, scientific, and manufacturing systems, all of which require some form of power. As an alternative to nuclear power, the development of a modular one megawatt solar power system is studied, examining both photovoltaic and dynamic cycle conversion methods, along with energy storage, heat rejection, and power backup subsystems. For photovoltaic power conversion, two systems are examined. First, a substantial increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency is realized with the use of new GaAs/GaSb tandem photovoltaic cells, offering an impressive overall array efficiency of 23.5 percent. Since these new cells are still in the experimental phase of development, a currently available GaAs cell providing 18 percent efficiency is examined as an alternate to the experimental cells. Both Brayton and Stirling cycles, powered by linear parabolic solar concentrators, are examined for dynamic cycle power conversion. The Brayton cycle is studied in depth since it is already well developed and can provide high power levels fairly efficiently in a compact, low mass system. The dynamic conversion system requires large scale waste heat rejection capability. To provide this heat rejection, a comparison is made between a heat pipe/radiative fin system using advanced composites, and a potentially less massive liquid droplet radiator system. To supply power through the lunar night, both a low temperature alkaline fuel cell system and an experimental high temperature monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell system are considered. The reactants for the fuel cells are stored cryogenically in order to avoid the high tankage mass required by conventional gaseous storage. In addition, it is proposed that the propellant tanks from a spent, prototype lunar excursion vehicle be used for this purpose, therefore resulting in a significant overall reduction in effective storage system mass.

  18. A survey of surface structures and subsurface developments for lunar bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, Warren D.; Wright, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Concepts proposed for lunar-base structures and shelters include those fabricated on earth, fabricated locally using lunar materials, and developed from subsurface features. Early bases may rely on evolutionary growth using Space Station modules and nodes covered with regolith for protection against thermal and radiative stresses. Expandable/inflatable shelters used alone on the surface or in conjunction with subselene (beneath the lunar surface) features and spent portions of the Space Shuttle's fuel tanks offer early alternatives. More mature lunar bases may need larger volumes provided by erectable buildings, hybrid inflatable/rigid spheres, modular concrete buildings using locally derived cement, or larger subselene developments.

  19. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  20. Exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Alimov, V. I.; Melekhin, V. P.; Milman, I. I.; Kryuk, V. I.; Kunin, L. L.; Tarasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    A secondary electron multiplier was used to study the thermostimulated exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station. The natural exoemission from fragments of slag, glass, anorthosite, and a metallic particle was recorded in the isochronic and isothermal thermostimulation regimes. The temperature of emission onset depended on the type of regolith fragment. For the first three particles the isothermal drop in emission is described by first-order kinetic equations. For the anorthosite fragment, exoemission at constant temperature is characterized by a symmetric curve with a maximum. These data indicate the presence of active surface defects, whose nature can be due to the prehistory of the particles.

  1. Parameter Analysis of Lunar Surface Navigation Utilizing Dilution-of-Precision Methodology With Lunar Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    With the NASA Vision for Space Exploration focusing on the return of astronauts to the Moon and eventually to Mars, architectures for new navigation concepts must be derived and analyzed. One such concept, developed by the Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG), is to place a constellation of satellites around the Moon. Previously completed analyses examined the performance of multiple satellite constellations and recommended a constellation oriented as a Walker polar 6/2/1 with a semimajor axis (SMA) of 9250 km. One requirement of the constellations that were examined was that they have continuous access to any location on the lunar surface. In this report, the polar 6/2/1 and polar 8/2/1, with equal SMAs, are examined in greater detail. The dilution-of-precision (DoP) methodology is utilized to examine the effects of longitude surface points, latitude surface points, elevation requirements, and modified failure modes for these two constellations with regard to system availability. Longitude study results show that points along a meridian closely approximate the results of a global set of data points. Latitude study results show that previous assumptions with regard to latitude spacing are adequate to simulate global system availability. Elevation study results show that global system availability curves follow a reverse sigmoid function. Modified failure mode study results show that the benefits of reorienting a failure mode constellation depend on the type of navigation system and the length of the integration period being used.

  2. Measuring Pickup Ions to Characterize the Lunar Surface and Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Hartle, R. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    It has been known for some time that measurement of the ion components, born from neutral exospheres imbedded in the solar wind, can be used to determine the composition and structure of the parent neutral exospheres (Hartle et al., 1973, Hartle and Thomas, 1974, Luhmann, 1996). The ion pickup process has been observed and verified for more than two decades, including pickup ions born from cometary comas, exospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan, and interstellar gases. Several observations (Mall, et al., 1998 and Hilchenbach et al., 1992) of lunar pickup ions have been reported from passing spacecraft including observations of metallic elements that were presumably sputtered from the lunar surface. The ions so formed, primarily by photoionization, electron impact and charge exchange, are picked up and accelerated by the motional electric field E = -V × B, where V is the plasma bulk velocity and B the magnetic field. The unique orbital characteristics of pickup ions make it possible to infer important details about their sources. For a given ion mass, energy, and incoming direction, the ion trajectory can be mapped back to a point where the velocity vanishes at the cusp of a cycloid. When the gyroradius is much greater than the neutral source scale height (most cases), this cusp point is, it can be safely assumed, the source point. This also requires that the source velocity is much less than pickup acceleration integrated from the source point to spacecraft (again, true in most cases). This makes it possible to derive the neutral exosphere density at that point, assuming the ionization rate is known. When this measurement scheme is carried out on numerous orbits of a mission, it will be possible to derive neutral exosphere densities of all those species whose pickup ions can be measured. With the exception of H+, ion gyroradii are much greater than their source gas scale heights for typical solar wind conditions. Then, for a given ion mass, a spectrometer in lunar

  3. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  4. Surface mapping of three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly field: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunakawa, H.; Takahashi, F.; Shimizu, H.; Shibuya, H.; Matsushima, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mapping of the lunar magnetic anomaly gives a crucial constraint on the crustal magnetization structure of the Moon. High spatial resolution of the magnetic anomaly map requires low altitude mapping. We have developed a new method for mapping three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly field on the lunar surface using magnetic field observations by a satellite magnetometer. This surface mapping method was applied to the datasets of several lunar magnetic anomaly regions observed by Lunar Prospector and Kaguya. We will report their preliminary results. The radial component of the crustal magnetic field (Br) on the surface can be obtained from the satellite observations at various altitudes through the inversion of a boundary value problem (Tsunakawa et al., in press). In our method, surface Br values are mapped at almost equal interval points, called generalized spiral points. Two horizontal components are calculated at each point from Br values at the adjacent points. Thus we can map the surface values of three components and total intensity of the lunar magnetic anomaly field (Tsunakawa et al., in prep.). We have applied the method to several strong anomaly regions (e.g. Reiner Gamma) observed by Lunar Prospector and Kaguya. Since the observation altitudes are mostly 15-45 km, spatial resolutions are estimated to be 0.5-1 degree. Preliminary results show strong magnetic anomaly fields with intensity peaks of more than 500 nT on the lunar surface.

  5. Interpretation of Lunar Topography: Impact Cratering and Surface Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenburg, Margaret A.

    This work seeks to understand past and present surface conditions on the Moon using two different but complementary approaches: topographic analysis using high-resolution elevation data from recent spacecraft missions and forward modeling of the dominant agent of lunar surface modification, impact cratering. The first investigation focuses on global surface roughness of the Moon, using a variety of statistical parameters to explore slopes at different scales and their relation to competing geological processes. We find that highlands topography behaves as a nearly self-similar fractal system on scales of order 100 meters, and there is a distinct change in this behavior above and below approximately 1 km. Chapter 2 focuses this analysis on two localized regions: the lunar south pole, including Shackleton crater, and the large mare-filled basins on the nearside of the Moon. In particular, we find that differential slope, a statistical measure of roughness related to the curvature of a topographic profile, is extremely useful in distinguishing between geologic units. Chapter 3 introduces a numerical model that simulates a cratered terrain by emplacing features of characteristic shape geometrically, allowing for tracking of both the topography and surviving rim fragments over time. The power spectral density of cratered terrains is estimated numerically from model results and benchmarked against a 1-dimensional analytic model. The power spectral slope is observed to vary predictably with the size-frequency distribution of craters, as well as the crater shape. The final chapter employs the rim-tracking feature of the cratered terrain model to analyze the evolving size-frequency distribution of craters under different criteria for identifying "visible" craters from surviving rim fragments. A geometric bias exists that systematically over counts large or small craters, depending on the rim fraction required to count a given feature as either visible or erased.

  6. Coronagraphic Observations of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere Near the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium exosphere of the Moon was observed using a solar coronagraph to occult the illuminated surface of the Moon. Exceptionally dust-free atmospheric conditions were required to allow the faint emission from sunlight scattered by lunar sodium atoms to be distinguished from moonlight scattered from atmospheric dust. At 0300 UT on April 22, 1994, ideal conditions prevailed for a few hours, and one excellent image of the sodium exosphere was measured, with the Moon at a phase angle of 51 deg, 81 % illuminated. Analysis of the image data showed that the weighted mean temperature of the exosphere was 1280 K and that the sodium column density varied approximately as cosine-cubed of the latitude. A cosine-cubed variation is an unexpected result, since the flux per unit area of solar photons and solar particles varies as the cosine of latitude. It is suggested that this can be explained by a temperature dependence for the sputtering of sodium atoms from the surface. This is a characteristic feature of chemical sputtering, which has been previously proposed to explain the sodium exosphere of Mercury. A possible interaction between chemical sputtering and solar photons is suggested.

  7. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  8. Analysis of vegetable seedlings grown in contact with Apollo 14 lunar surface fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Johnson, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    Study of plant seedlings treated with lunar material, grown for 14 to 21 days, and then subjected to chemical analyses and other measurements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether plants growing in contact with lunar-surface fines contained a different elemental composition compared with untreated seedlings. The results indicate a direct interaction between germfree plants and lunar material. Treated plants dissolved and absorbed significant quantities of Al, Fe, and Ti from the lunar fines. Cabbage and Brussel sprouts were particularly efficient in the dissolution and absorption of Mn.

  9. Ferromagnetic-superparamagnetic granulometry of lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwerer, F. C.; Nagata, T.

    1976-01-01

    A technique of magnetic granulometry is applied to previously reported data for the temperature dependence of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) in 13 lunar surface samples, including three soils. Observed increases in IRM with decreasing temperature are attributed to changes from superparamagnetic to single-domain types of behavior for fine metallic-iron particles. Based on this hypothesis, the temperature dependence of IRM in the examined samples is analyzed to obtain particle-size distributions over the range of mean diameters from 30 to 130 A. It is found that the distribution functions for the soils and a low-grade breccia vary as the inverse square of particle volume and that the distributions for recrystallized breccias and igneous rocks apparently peak about mean values.

  10. A Large Lunar Surface Testbed from Low Cost Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    For users needing to simulate the lunar surface, several distinct avenues have been used. Numerous volcanic areas, including Hawaii, have been used. While providing very large areas and scenic interest, field parties to such an area is expensive and limits testing time. An alternative is to build test facilities locally. This has been done many ways, contrast GRC-1, GSC-1, BP-1 and the KSC Morpheus facility [1-4]. GRC-1 is a mixture of sand and clay; GSC-1 and BP-1 are waste materials created in the process of crushing basaltic rock. The Morpheus field used salvaged concrete and crushed quartz rock [5]. Here I report about a 30 m X 30 m test area at MSFC which was both low cost and relatively high fidelity [6].

  11. NASA lunar surface habitat and remote exploration demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1992-07-01

    The Human Exploration Demonstration Project (HEDP) conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center to develop technological integration and demonstration capabilities for lunar and Mars space missions is described. The development of safe, effective, and reliable systems requires that independently engineered subsystems be fully integrated and tested under realistic conditions. The primary objective of the HEDP is demonstration of various aspects of human exploration and habitation on extraterrestrial surfaces. Some of the technologies to be demonstrated are also applicable to unmanned precursor mission functions. It is concluded that the HEDP will provide a unique opportunity to address a broad spectrum of advanced mission operations by bridging between the early requirements for robotic systems with control at earth-based workstations.

  12. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  13. Surface-Correlated Nanophase Iron Metal in Lunar Soils: Petrography and Space Weathering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes that act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the Moon, it includes a variety of processes that formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. Understanding these effects is critical in order to fully integrate the lunar sample collection with remotely sensed data from recent robotic missions (e.g., Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Galileo). Our objective is to determine the origin of space weathering effects in lunar soils through combined electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry techniques applied to individual soil particles from <20 pm size factions (dry-sieved) of mature lunar soils. It has been demonstrated that it is the finest size fraction (<25 pm) of lunar soils that dominates the optical properties of the bulk soils.

  14. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  15. Study of friction properties of lunar surface material and its analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukhovskoy, Y. A.; Motovilov, E. A.; Silin, A. A.; Smorodinov, M. I.; Shvarev, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of instruments for determining the friction properties of the surficial layer of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic lunar station, as well as the friction properties of its analogs: andesite-basaltic sand and basalts. The experimental method and results are presented.

  16. Nuclear power for Lunar and Martian surface applications

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Buksa, J.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass, low-volume, long-life nuclear fission power supplies are an attractive option for meeting lunar and Martian surface power requirements. Two factors will have a strong impact on the suitability of a surface nuclear power supply: the technology used by the reactor and the total power supply mass that must be delivered to the planetary surface. In-core thermionic reactors are well suited for planetary surface applications and have several potential advantages over alternative systems. Because power conversion is performed in core, the fueled emitter is the only very high-temperature component. Core structure, coolant channels, and other components operate at a temperature close to that of the radiator (usually 900 to 1050 K). A large data base exists for materials operating in this temperature range; thus, most technical concerns lie with the thermionic fuel elements (TFEs), and few remain for other system components. In addition, the combination of relatively high efficiency and high heat-rejection temperature in thermionic reactors can reduce radiator size to one-sixth of that found in alternative systems. The building-block approach of thermionic systems (power is increased by adding TFEs) provides redundancy, component commonality, and reliability. Thermionic reactors should be available in the near future.

  17. Lunar surface photography - A study of Apollo 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, H. J. P.

    1987-10-01

    Attention is drawn to the perplexing oversight of mission planners to ensure the taking of a photograph of Neil Armstrong by Buzz Aldrin, during the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The ramifications of this oversight for NASA public relations efforts are explored, together with the reasons for its occurrence that have been unearthed during subsequent investigations of both lunar walk planning and communications from earth controllers during the lunar walk activity. From Apollo 12 onwards, both lunar landing module crewmen wore Hasselblad cameras to ensure the appearance of both in numerous operational photographs.

  18. Lunar Beagle: An Experimental Package for Measuring Polar Ice and Volatiles Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; McKay, D. S.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.; Waugh, L.; Lunar Beagle Consortium

    2008-07-01

    Lunar Beagle payload has the capabilities of determining the presence of polar ice and volatiles in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The instrument suite can provide critical information to assist "living off the land".

  19. Back to the Moon: The scientific rationale for resuming lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.; Anand, M.; Cockell, C. S.; Falcke, H.; Green, D. A.; Jaumann, R.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar geological record has much to tell us about the earliest history of the Solar System, the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and the near-Earth cosmic environment throughout Solar System history. In addition, the lunar surface offers outstanding opportunities for research in astronomy, astrobiology, fundamental physics, life sciences and human physiology and medicine. This paper provides an interdisciplinary review of outstanding lunar science objectives in all of these different areas. It is concluded that addressing them satisfactorily will require an end to the 40-year hiatus of lunar surface exploration, and the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the surface of the Moon. Some of these objectives can be achieved robotically (e.g., through targeted sample return, the deployment of geophysical networks, and the placing of antennas on the lunar surface to form radio telescopes). However, in the longer term, most of these scientific objectives would benefit significantly from renewed human operations on the lunar surface. For these reasons it is highly desirable that current plans for renewed robotic surface exploration of the Moon are developed in the context of a future human lunar exploration programme, such as that proposed by the recently formulated Global Exploration Roadmap.

  20. Thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Zhang, Xubing; Wu, Ke

    2016-07-01

    The thorium distribution on the lunar surface is critical for understanding the lunar evolution. This work reports a global map of the thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). Our work exhibits an interesting symmetrical structure of thorium distribution along the two sides of the belt of Th hot spots. Some potential positions of KREEP volcanism are suggested, which are the Fra Mauro region, Montes Carpatus, Aristarchus Plateau and the adjacent regions of Copernicus Crater. Based on the lunar map of thorium distribution, we draw some conclusions on two critical links of lunar evolution: (1) the thorium abundance within the lunar crust and mantle, in the last stage of Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) crystallization, may have a positive correlation with the depth in the crust, reaches a peak when coming through the transitional zone between the crust and mantle, and decreases sharply toward the inside of the mantle; thus, the Th-enhanced materials originated from the lower crust and the layer between the crust and mantle, (2) in PKT, KREEP volcanism might be the primary mechanism of Th-elevated components to the lunar surface, whereas the Imbrium impact acted as a relatively minor role.

  1. Study of variability of permittivity and its mapping over lunar surface and subsurface using multisensors datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calla, O. P. N.; Mathur, Shubhra; Gadri, Kishan Lal; Jangid, Monika

    2016-12-01

    In the present paper, permittivity maps of equatorial lunar surface are generated using brightness temperature (TB) data obtained from Microwave Radiometer (MRM) of Chang'e-1 and physical temperature (TP) data obtained from Diviner of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Here, permittivity mapping is not carried out above 60° latitudes towards the lunar poles due to large anomaly in the physical temperature obtained from the Diviner. Microwave frequencies, which are used to generate these maps are 3 GHz, 7.8 GHz, 19.35 GHz and 37 GHz. Permittivity values are simulated using TB values at these four frequencies. Here, weighted average of physical temperature obtained from Diviner are used to compute permittivity at each microwave frequencies. Longer wavelengths of microwave signals give information of more deeper layers of the lunar surface as compared to smaller wavelength. Initially, microwave emissivity is estimated using TB values from MRM and physical temperature (TP) from Diviner. From estimated emissivity the real part of permittivity (ε), is calculated using Fresnel equations. The permittivity maps of equatorial lunar surface is generated. The simulated permittivity values are normalized with respect to density for easy comparison of simulated permittivity values with the permittivity values of Apollo samples as well as with the permittivity values of Terrestrial Analogue of Lunar Soil (TALS) JSC-1A. Lower value of dielectric constant (ε‧) indicates that the corresponding lunar surface is smooth and doesn't have rough rocky terrain. Thus a future lunar astronaut can use these data to decide proper landing site for future lunar missions. The results of this paper will serve as input to future exploration of lunar surface.

  2. Design and Field Test of a Mass Efficient Crane for Lunar Payload Handling and Inspection: The Lunar Surface Manipulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; King, Bruce D.; Jones, Thomas Carno; Dorsey, John T.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    Devices for lifting, translating and precisely placing payloads are critical for efficient Earthbased construction operations. Both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. Lunar payloads include: a) prepackaged hardware and supplies which must be unloaded from landers and then accurately located at their operational site, b) sensor packages used for periodic inspection of landers, habitat surfaces, etc., and c) local materials such as regolith which require grading, excavation and placement. Although several designs have been developed for Earth based applications, these devices lack unique design characteristics necessary for transport to and use on the harsh lunar surface. These design characteristics include: a) composite components, b) compact packaging for launch, c) simple in-field reconfiguration and repair, and d) support for tele-operated or automated operations. Also, in contrast to Earth-based construction, where special purpose devices dominate a construction site, a lunar outpost will require versatile devices which provide operational benefit from initial construction through sustained operations. This paper will detail the design of a unique, high performance, versatile lifting device designed for operations on the lunar surface. The device is called the Lunar Surface Manipulation System to highlight the versatile nature of the device which supports conventional cable suspended crane operations as well as operations usually associated with a manipulator such as precise positioning where the payload is rigidly grappled by a tool attached to the tip of the device. A first generation test-bed to verify design methods and operational procedures is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center and recently completed field tests at Moses Lake Washington. The design relied on non-linear finite element analysis which is shown to correlate favorably with

  3. Recovery and Restoration of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data by the NSSDC and the PDS Lunar Data Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Taylor, P. T.; McBride, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts on the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions deployed long-lived (5 to 8 years) automated instrument suites on the Moon, the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEP). The instruments were all turned off in September of 1977, but long before this the Apollo program and most of its funding had been abruptly cancelled. One result of this sudden cancellation was the loss of resources to properly archive these experiment data. Much of the data, particularly from the later years, were lost or saved in obsolete or difficult to access formats, and not properly documented. None of the surface data archived at National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) were in a form which could be easily archived with the Planetary Data System (PDS). The Lunar Data Project was started at NSSDC in order to recover and restore Apollo data into usable, well-documented digital formats. The PDS Lunar Data Node was established at NSSDC under the auspices of the PDS Geosciences Node to produce validated PDS data sets from the restored data. Six ALSEP data sets are archived at PDS: Apollo 12 and 15 Solar Wind Spectrometer 28-sec and hourly averages, and Apollo 14 and 15 Cold Cathode Ion Gage plots. (Other surface data, from the Apollo 17 Traverse Gravimeter and the Apollo 15 and 16 Penetrometer Soil Mechanics Experiments, have also been restored and are archived with PDS.) Apollo 14 and 15 Dust Detector data and Apollo 15 and 17 Heat Flow data have been restored and gone through a PDS review. They are now undergoing lien resolution. We are currently recovering data and restoring Apollo 12, 14, and 15 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment, Apollo 14 Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment, Apollo 17 Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment, and Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite data. Lunar Surface Magnetometer data from Apollo 15 and 16 are being restored by another group led by Peter Chi at U.C.L.A. We are also restoring, in conjunction with Yosio Nakamura (University of

  4. Microwave processing of lunar soil for supporting longer-term surface exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, V.; Lim, S.; Anand, M.

    2016-11-01

    The future of human space exploration will inevitably involve longer-term stays and possibly permanent settlement on the surfaces of other planetary bodies. It will, therefore, be advantageous or perhaps even necessary to utilise local resources for building an infrastructure for human habitation on the destination planetary body. In this context human lunar exploration is the next obvious step. Lunar soil is regarded as an ideal feedstock for lunar construction materials. However, significant gaps remain in our knowledge and understanding of certain chemical and physical properties of lunar soil, which need to be better understood in order to develop appropriate construction techniques and materials for lunar applications. This article reviews our current understanding of the dielectric behaviour of lunar soil in the microwave spectrum, which is increasingly recognised as an important topic of research in the Space Architecture field. Although the coupling between the lunar soil and microwave energy is already recognised, considerable challenges must be overcome before microwave processing could be used as a main fabrication method for producing robust structures on the Moon. We also review the existing literature on the microwave processing of lunar soil and identify three key research areas where future efforts are needed to make significant advances in understanding the potential of microwave processing of lunar soil for construction purposes.

  5. Heat Rejection Concepts for Lunar Fission Surface Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for lunar surface Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for surface power applications. Surface reactors may be used for the moon to power human outposts enabling extended stays and closed loop life support. The Brayton Heat Rejection System (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Space Brayton conversion system designs tend to optimize at efficiencies of about 20 to 25 percent with radiator temperatures in the 400 K to 600 K range. A notional HRS was developed for a 100 kWe-class Brayton power system that uses a pumped water heat transport loop coupled to a water heat pipe radiator. The radiator panels employ a tube and fin construction consisting of regularly-spaced circular heat pipes contained within two composite facesheets. The water heat pipes interface to the coolant through curved sections partially contained within the cooling loop. The paper evaluates various design parameters including radiator panel orientation, coolant flow path, and facesheet thickness. Parameters were varied to compare design options on the basis of H2O pump pressure rise and required power, heat pipe unit power and radial flux, radiator area, radiator panel areal mass, and overall HRS mass.

  6. Interaction of gases with lunar materials. [surface properties of lunar fines, especially on exposure to water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, H. F.; Gammage, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The surface properties of lunar fines were investigated. Results indicate that, for the most part, these properties are independent of the chemical composition and location of the samples on the lunar surface. The leaching of channels and pores by adsorbed water vapor is a distinguishing feature of their surface chemistry. The elements of air, if adsorbed in conjunction with water vapor or liquid water, severely impedes the leaching process. In the absence of air, liquid water is more effective than water vapor in attacking the grains. The characteristics of Apollo 17 orange fines were evaluated and compared with those of other samples. The interconnecting channels produced by water vapor adsorption were found to be wider than usual for other types of fines. Damage tracks caused by heavy cosmic ray nuclei and an unusually high halogen content might provide for stronger etching conditions upon exposure to water vapor.

  7. The Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface for Solar studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, Jack O.; Jones, D. L.; Weiler, K. W.; Demaio, L.; Cohen, A.; Paravastu Dalal, N.; Polisensky, E.; Stewart, K.; Bale, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M.; Kasper, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface for Solar studies (ROLSS) is a concept for a near-side low radio frequency imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere. The prime science mission is to image the radio emission generated by Type II and III solar radio burst processes with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Specific questions to be addressed include the following: (1) Isolating the sites of electron acceleration responsible for Type II and III solar radio bursts during coronal mass ejections (CMEs); and (2) Determining if and the mechanism(s) by which multiple, successive CMEs produce unusually efficient particle acceleration and intense radio emission. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by searching for a low radio frequency cutoff to solar radio emission and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Key design requirements on ROLSS include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs at frequencies below 10 MHz. Second, resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2°, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately 1000 m. Operations would consist of data acquisition during the lunar day, with regular data downlinks. No operations would occur during lunar night. ROLSS is envisioned as an interferometric array, because a single aperture would be impractically large. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms arranged in a Y shape, with a central electronics package (CEP) located at the center. The Y configuration for the antenna arms both allows for the formation of reasonably high dynamic range images on short time scales as well as relatively easy

  8. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (what, again?): A Senior Field Geologist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar geological exploration should be founded on key elements that form an integrated operational concept, including mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets, and field tools and IT assets.

  9. Laser Induced-Plasma Ion Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Lunar and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blacic, J. D.; Cremers, D. A.; Ritzau, S. M.; Nordholt, J. E.; Funsten, H. O.

    1999-03-01

    LIMS is being developed to perform isotopic and elemental analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces at standoff distances. It uses an advanced ion mass spectrometer to obtain mass and energy spectra from the ionized plume produced by a laser.

  10. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  11. /sup 10/Be profiles in lunar surface rock 68815

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiizumi, K.; Imamura, M.; Kohl, C.P.; Nagai, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Yoshida, K.; Yamashita, H.; Reedy, R.C.; Honda, M.; Arnold, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cosmic ray produced /sup 10/Be (t/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ years) activities have been measured in fourteen carefully ground samples of lunar surface rock 68815. The /sup 10/Be profiles from 0 to 4 mm are nearly flat for all three surface angles measured and show a very slight increase with depth from the surface to a depth of 1.5 cm. These depth profiles are in contrast to the SCR (solar cosmic ray) produced /sup 26/Al and /sup 53/Mn profiles measured from these same samples. There is no sign of SCR produced /sup 10/Be in this rock. The discrepancy between the data and the Reedy-Arnold theoretical calculation (about 2 dpm /sup 10/Be/kg at the surface) can be explained in two ways: (1) the low energy proton induced cross sections for /sup 10/Be production from oxygen are really lower than those used in the calculations or, (2) compared to the reported fits for /sup 26/Al and /sup 53/Mn, the solar proton spectral shape is actually softer (exponential rigidity parameter Ro less than 100 MV), the omnidirectional flux above 10 MeV is higher (more than 70 protons/cm/sup 2/ s), and the erosion rate is higher (greater than 1.3 mm/My). /sup 10/Be, as a high energy product, is a very useful nuclide for helping to obtain the SCR spectral shape in the past. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Block distributions on the lunar surface: A comparison between measurements obtained from surface and orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Mcbride, Kathleen M.

    1995-01-01

    Among the hazards that must be negotiated by lunar-landing spacecraft are blocks on the surface of the Moon. Unfortunately, few data exist that can be used to evaluate the threat posed by such blocks to landing spacecraft. Perhaps the best information is that obtained from Surveyor photographs, but those data do not extend to the dimensions of the large blocks that would pose the greatest hazards. Block distributions in the vicinities of the Surveyor 1, 3, 6, and 7 sites have been determined from Lunar Orbiter photography and are presented here. Only large (i.e., greater than or equal to 2.5 m) blocks are measurable in these pictures, resulting in a size gap between the Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter distributions. Nevertheless, the orbital data are self-consistent, a claim supported by the similarity in behavior between the subsets of data from the Surveyor 1, 3, and 6 sites and by the good agreement in position (if not slopes) between the data obtained from the Surveyor 3 photography and those derived from the Lunar Orbiter photographs. Confidence in the results is also justified by the well-behaved distribution of large blocks at the surveyor site. Comparisons between the Surveyor distributions and those derived from the orbital photography permit these observations: (1) in all cases but that for Surveyor 3, the density of large blocks is overestimated by extrapolation of the Surveyor-derived trends; (2) the slopes of the Surveyor-derived distributions are consistently lower than those determined for the large blocks; and (3) these apparent disagreements could be mitigated if the overall shapes of the cumulative lunar block populations were nonlinear, allowing for different slopes over different size intervals. The relatively large gaps between the Surveyor-derived and Orbiter-derived data sets, however, do not permit a determination of those shapes.

  13. A preliminary investigation of the Topaz II reactor as a lunar surface power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    Reactor power supplies offer many attractive characteristics for lunar surface applications. The Topaz II reactor resulted from an extensive development program in the former Soviet Union. Flight quality reactor units remain from this program and are currently under evaluation in the United States. This paper examines the potential for applying the Topaz II, originally developed to provide spacecraft power, as a lunar surface power supply.

  14. CE-4 Mission and Future Journey to Lunar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yongliao; Wang, Qin; Liu, Xiaoqun

    2016-07-01

    Chang'E-4 mission, being undertaken by phase two of China Lunar Exploration Program, represents China's first attempt to explore farside of lunar surface. Its probe includes a lander, a rover and a telecommunication relay which is scheduled to launch in around 2018. The scientific objectives of CE-4 mission will be implemented to investigate the lunar regional geological characteristics of landing and roving area, and also will make the first radio-astronomy measurements from the most radio-quiet region of near-earth space. The rover will opreate for at least 3 months, the lander for half a year, and the relay for no less than 3 years. Its scinetific instruments includes Cameras, infrared imaging spectrometer, Penetrating Radar onboard the rover in which is the same as the paylads on board the CE-3 rover, and a Dust-analyzer, a Temperature-instrument and a Wide Band Low Frequency Digital Radio Astronomical Station will be installed on board the lander. Our scientific goals of the future lunar exploration will aim at the lunar geology, resources and surface environments. A series of exploraion missions such as robotic exploration and non-manned lunar scientific station is proposed in this paper.

  15. Solar-Wind Protons and Heavy Ions Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barghouty, N.; Meyer, Fred W; Harris, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Lunar surface materials are exposed to {approx}1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost continuous basis. As the lunar surface consists of mostly oxides, these materials suffer, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering due to the actions of the solar-wind ions. Sputtering is an important mechanism affecting the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere. While the contribution of kinetic sputtering to the changes in the composition of the surface layer of these oxides is well understood and modeled, the role and implications of potential sputtering remain unclear. As new potential-sputtering data from multi-charged ions impacting lunar regolith simulants are becoming available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's MIRF, we examine the role and possible implications of potential sputtering of Lunar KREEP soil. Using a non-equilibrium model we demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  16. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Isotope Heat Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, NASA has used the decay of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTGs have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency and the scarcity of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14.75 Earth days), isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 W with two GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (32% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a four-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of americium-241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling- convertor-based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from tens of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a substitute for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about one-fifth while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 W of electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot

  17. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Am-241

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    For many years NASA has used the decay of Pu-238 (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTG's have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency (-5% efficiency) and the scarcity of Plutoinium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14 earth days) isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 watts with 2 GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (-30% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a 4-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of Americium 241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling convertor based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from 1 O's of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a replacement for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about 1/5 while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 watts electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot end and

  18. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  19. Surface electrical properties experiment study phase, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The choice of an antenna for a subsurface radio sounding experiment is discussed. The radiation properties of the antennas as placed on the surface of the medium is examined. The objective of the lunar surface electrical properties experiment is described. A numerical analysis of the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of a subsurface domain is developed. The application of electromagnetic field measurements between one or more transmitting antennas and a roving receiving station is explained.

  20. Anisotropic Solar Wind Sputtering of the Lunar Surface Induced by Crustal Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Sarantos, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Saito, Y.; Nishino, M.

    2014-01-01

    The lunar exosphere is generated by several processes each of which generates neutral distributions with different spatial and temporal variability. Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface is a major process for many regolith-derived species and typically generates neutral distributions with a cosine dependence on solar zenith angle. Complicating this picture are remanent crustal magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, which decelerate and partially reflect the solar wind before it strikes the surface. We use Kaguya maps of solar wind reflection efficiencies, Lunar Prospector maps of crustal field strengths, and published neutral sputtering yields to calculate anisotropic solar wind sputtering maps. We feed these maps to a Monte Carlo neutral exospheric model to explore three-dimensional exospheric anisotropies and find that significant anisotropies should be present in the neutral exosphere depending on selenographic location and solar wind conditions. Better understanding of solar wind/crustal anomaly interactions could potentially improve our results.

  1. The surface abundance and stratigraphy of lunar rocks from data about their albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.

    1977-01-01

    The data pf ground-based studies and surveys of the lunar surface by the Zond and Apollo spacecraft have been used to construct an albedo map covering 80 percent of the lunar sphere. Statistical analysis of the distribution of areas with various albedos shows several types of lunar surface. Comparison of albedo data for maria and continental areas with the results of geochemical orbital surveys allows the identification of the types of surface with known types of lunar rock. The aluminum/silcon and magnesium/silicon ratios as measured by the geochemical experiments on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 spacecraft were used as an indication of the chemical composition of the rock. The relationship of the relative aluminum content to the age of crystalline rocks allows a direct dependence to be constructed between the mean albedo of areas and the age of the rocks of which they are composed.

  2. Determination of selenographic coordinates of lunar surface points from single pictures obtained from Zond 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziman, Y. L.; Baratova, V. F.; Isavnina, I. V.

    1974-01-01

    Pictures of the lunar surface with an image of practically the entire lunar limb were obtained from the Zond 6 spacecraft. During the time of exposure, the entire lunar surface covered by these photographs was illuminated by the sun. Such single pictures were used to find the external orientation elements and selenographic coordinates of the photographed lunar surface points. The selenographic coordinate system was specified by the Goloseyev catalog and was realized by points of this catalog identified on the pictures and termed reference points. Craters located on the invisible side of the moon and also other points of the Goloseyev catalog, which could be used as control points, were taken as the points being determined. The technique used to compute the selenographic coordinates of the points is outlined.

  3. Thermal mapping of the lunar surface. [using infrared radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raine, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A program of lunar infrared radiometry which uses large area scanning is described, and procedures for atmospheric attenuation correction and data reduction to temperature by relative radiometry are outlined. Flow charts of the computer data reduction program are shown which contain the astrometric analysis from ephemeral data. The scan data, taken on 10 evenings in 1971 and 1972 in the 10 to 12 micron window, are presented as isothermal contour maps of the lunar disc. More than 160 areas of anomalous thermal emission were found in the lunar darkside data. Eclipse cooling curves, measured in the same wavelength band for 7 lunar regions during the eclipse of February 10, 1971, are also presented. Errors of the scan and eclipse data were calculated from accuracy estimates of the parameters.

  4. Special report, diffuse reflectivity of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The far ultraviolet diffuse reflectivity of samples of lunar dust material is determined. Equipment for measuring the diffuse reflectivity of materials (e.g. paint samples) is already in existence and requires only minor modification for the proposed experiment which will include the measurement of the polarizing properties of the lunar samples. Measurements can be made as a function of both illumination angle and angle of observation.

  5. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  6. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  7. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  8. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  9. Ground Simulations of Near-Surface Plasma Field and Charging at the Lunar Terminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polansky, J.; Ding, N.; Wang, J.; Craven, P.; Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Charging in the lunar terminator region is the most complex and is still not well understood. In this region, the surface potential is sensitively influenced by both solar illumination and plasma flow. The combined effects from localized shadow generated by low sun elevation angles and localized wake generated by plasma flow over the rugged terrain can generate strongly differentially charged surfaces. Few models currently exist that can accurately resolve the combined effects of plasma flow and solar illumination over realistic lunar terminator topographies. This paper presents an experimental investigation of lunar surface charging at the terminator region in simulated plasma environments in a vacuum chamber. The solar wind plasma flow is simulated using an electron bombardment gridded Argon ion source. An electrostatic Langmuir probe, nude Faraday probes, a floating emissive probe, and retarding potential analyzer are used to quantify the plasma flow field. Surface potentials of both conducting and dielectric materials immersed in the plasma flow are measured with a Trek surface potential probe. The conducting material surface potential will simultaneously be measured with a high impedance voltmeter to calibrate the Trek probe. Measurement results will be presented for flat surfaces and objects-on-surface for various angles of attack of the plasma flow. The implications on the generation of localized plasma wake and surface charging at the lunar terminator will be discussed. (This research is supported by the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research program.)

  10. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  11. Pickup Ion Mass Spectrometry for Surface Bounded Exospheres and Composition Mapping of Lunar and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Baragiola, R. A.; Cassidy, T. A.; Chornay, D. J.; Collier, M. R.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, R. E.; Killen, R. M.; Koehn, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the small to medium sized objects in the solar system can be characterized as having surface bounded exospheres, or atmospheres so tenuous that scale lengths for inter-particle collisions are much larger than the dimensions of the objects. The atmospheres of these objects are the product of their surfaces, both the surface composition and the interactions that occur on them and also their interiors when gases escape from there. Thus by studying surface bounded exospheres it is possible to develop insight into the composition and processes that are taking place on the surface and interiors of these objects. The Moon and Mercury are two examples of planetary bodies with surface bounded exospheres that have been studied through spectroscopic observations of sodium, potassium, and, on the moon, mass spectrometric measurements of lunar gases such as argon and helium.

  12. Two-Phase Thermal Switching System for a Small, Extended Duration Lunar Surface Science Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; OConnor, Brian F.; Wirzburger, Melissa J.; Abel, Elisabeth D.; Stouffer, Chuck J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel thermal control system for the Warm Electronics Box (WEB) on board a small lunar surface lander intended to support science activities anywhere on the lunar surface for an extended duration of up to 6 years. Virtually all lander electronics, which collectively dissipate about 60 W in the reference mission, are contained within the WEB. These devices must be maintained below 323 K (with a goal of 303 K) during the nearly 15-earth-day lunar day, when surface temperatures can reach 390K, and above 263 K during the nearly 15-earth-day lunar night, when surface temperatures can reach 100K. Because of the large temperature swing from lunar day-to-night, a novel thermal switching system was required that would be able to provide high conductance from WEB to radiator(s) during the hot lunar day and low (or negligible) conductance during the cold lunar night. The concept that was developed consists of ammonia variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) to collect heat from WEB components and a polymer wick propylene loop heat pipe (LHP) to transport the collected heat to the radiator(s). The VCHPs autonomously maximize transport when the WEB is warm and autonomously shut down when the WEB gets cold. The LHP autonomously shuts down when the VCHPs shut down. When the environment transitions from lunar night to day, the VCHPs and LHP autonomously turn back on. Out of 26 analyzed systems, this novel arrangement was able to best achieve the combined goals of zero control power, autonomous operation, long life, low complexity, low T, and landed tilt tolerance.

  13. Application of automation and robotics to lunar surface human exploration operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Bares, Leona C.; Folsom, Rolfe; Mah, Robert; Lousma, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Major results of a study applying automation and robotics to lunar surface base buildup and operations concepts are reported. The study developed a reference base scenario with specific goals, equipment concepts, robot concepts, activity schedules and buildup manifests. It examined crew roles, contingency cases and system reliability, and proposed a set of technologies appropriate and necessary for effective lunar operations. This paper refers readers to four companion papers for quantitative details where appropriate.

  14. Documenting Surface and Sub-surface Volatiles While Drilling in Frozen Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.; Cook, A. M.; Colaprete, A.; Bielawski, R.; Fritzler, E.; Benton, J.; White, B.; Forgione, J.; Kleinhenz, J.; Smith, J.; Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; McMurray, R.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission is intended to characterize the three-dimensional nature of volatiles in lunar polar regions and permanently shadowed regions. RP is slated to carry two instruments for prospecting purposes. These include the Neutron Spectrometer System (NSS) and Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS). A Honybee Robotics drill (HRD) is intended to sample to depths of 1 m, and deliver a sample to a crucible that is processed by the Oxygen Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) where the soil is heated and evolved gas is delivered to the gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer of the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis system (LAVA). For several years, tests of various sub-systems have been undertaken in a large cryo-vacuum chamber facility (VF-13) located at Glenn Research Center. In these tests a large tube (1.2 m high x 25.4 cm diameter) is filled with lunar simulant, NU-LHT-3M, prepared with known abundances of water. There are thermo-couples embedded at different depths, and also across the surface of the soil tube. The soil tube is placed in the chamber and cooled with LN2 as the pressure is reduced to approx.5-6x10(exp -6) Torr. Here we discuss May 2016 tests where two soil tubes were prepared and placed in the chamber. Also located in the chamber were 5 crucibles, an Inficon mass spectrometer, and a trolly permitting x-y translation, where the HRD and NIRVSS, were mounted. The shroud surrounding the soil tube was held at different temperatures for each tube to simulate a warm and cold lunar environment.

  15. Plasma Wake Simulations and Object Charging in a Shadowed Lunar Crater During a Solar Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. W.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a plasma wake that electrostatically diverts ions toward the crater floor and generates a surface potential that can reach kilovolts. In the present work kinetic plasma simulations are employed to investigate the morphology of a lunar crater wake during passage of a solar storm. Results are cast in terms of leading dimensionless ratios including the ion Mach number, ratio of crater depth to plasma Debye length, peak secondary electron yield, and electron temperature vs. electron impact energy at peak secondary yield. This small set of ratios allows generalization to a much wider range of scenarios. The kinetic simulation results are fed forward into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut. In very low-plasma-current environments triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, simulated ion fluxes are used to explore sputtering and implantation processes within an idealized crater. It is suggested that the physics of plasma mini-wakes formed in the vicinity of permanently shadowed topography may play a critical role in modulating the enigmatic spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

  16. Plasma wake simulations and object charging in a shadowed lunar crater during a solar storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2012-08-01

    Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a plasma wake that electrostatically diverts ions toward the crater floor and generates a surface potential that can reach kilovolts. In the present work kinetic plasma simulations are employed to investigate the morphology of a lunar crater wake during passage of a solar storm. Results are cast in terms of leading dimensionless ratios including the ion Mach number, ratio of crater depth to plasma Debye length, peak secondary electron yield, and electron temperature versus electron impact energy at peak secondary yield. This small set of ratios allows generalization to a much wider range of scenarios. The kinetic simulation results are fed forward into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut. In very low-plasma-current environments triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, simulated ion fluxes are used to explore sputtering and implantation processes within an idealized crater. It is suggested that the physics of plasma miniwakes formed in the vicinity of permanently shadowed topography may play a critical role in modulating the enigmatic spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

  17. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials: Role and Some Possible Implications of Potential Sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Reinhold, c.

    2010-01-01

    Solar-wind induced sputtering of the lunar surface includes, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering. The role of the latter mechanism, however, in many focused studies has not been properly ascertained due partly to lack of data but can also be attributed to the assertion that the contribution of solar-wind heavy ions to the total sputtering is quite low due to their low number density compared to solar-wind protons. Limited laboratory measurements show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. Lunar surface sputtering yields are important as they affect, e.g., estimates of the compositional changes in the lunar surface, its erosion rate, as well as its contribution to the exosphere as well as estimates of hydrogen and water contents. Since the typical range of solar-wind ions at 1 keV/amu is comparable to the thickness of the amorphous rim found on lunar soil grains, i.e. few 10s nm, lunar simulant samples JSC-1A AGGL are specifically enhanced to have such rims in addition to the other known characteristics of the actual lunar soil particles. However, most, if not all laboratory studies of potential sputtering were carried out in single crystal targets, quite different from the rim s amorphous structure. The effect of this structural difference on the extent of potential sputtering has not, to our knowledge, been investigated to date.

  18. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (What, Again?): A Senior Field Geologist's Integrated View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar surface geological exploration should be founded on a number of key elements that are seemingly disparate, but which can form an integrated operational concept when properly conceived and deployed. If lunar surface geological exploration is to be useful, this integration of key elements needs to be undertaken throughout the development of both mission hardware, training and operational concepts. These elements include the concept of mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets that are matched with mission class, and field tools and IT assets that make data collection, sharing and archiving transparent to the surface crew.

  19. Solar flares, the lunar surface, and gas rich meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, D. J.; Cowsik, R.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.; Rajan, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations on the Fe-group nuclei track density vs depth in lunar rocks and Surveyor 3 TV camera filter glass were critically examined considering more factors than previously. The analysis gives a firmer basis to the observation of the preferential leakage of low energy Fe nuclei from the accelerating region of the sun. The track density gradients in lunar rock 12022 and filter glass are used to determine the lunar erosion rate of 3 angstroms/yr. Track gradients are less steep than predicted from energy spectrum observed in the Surveyor glass, perhaps due to sputtering. High densities of etchable tracks were found at all depths down to 60 cm in fines from Apollo cores and also in thin sections of the Pesjanoe, Pantar, and Fayetteville gas-rich meteorites. It is felt unlikely that suprathermal heavy ions were responsible for the high track densities.

  20. Solar Wind Access to Lunar Polar Craters: Feedback Between Surface Charging and Plasma Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Jackson, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the plasma environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters is critical to understanding local processes such as surface charging, electrostatic dust transport, volatile sequestration, and space weathering. In order to investigate the nature of this plasma environment, the first two-dimensional kinetic simulations of solar wind expansion into a lunar crater with a self-consistent plasma-surface interaction have been undertaken. The present results reveal how the plasma expansion into a crater couples with the electrically-charged lunar surface to produce a quasi-steady wake structure. In particular, there is a negative feedback between surface charging and ambipolar wake potential that allows an equilibrium to be achieved, with secondary electron emission strongly moderating the process. A range of secondary electron yields is explored, and two distinct limits are highlighted in which either surface charging or ambipoiar expansion is responsible for determining the overall wake structure.

  1. Effects of slightly rough surfaces on the brightness temperature of the lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Huang, Ping; He, Yanchun; Wang, Congcong; Li, Qingxia; Gui, Liangqi; Huang, Quanliang; Lang, Liang; Zheng, Yongchun; Li, Xiongyao; Hua, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Keihm [1984] made a study on the effects of the rough lunar surface on microwave brightness temperature using geometric optics (GO), which is valid only when the microwave wavelength is much smaller than the radius of curvature of the rough surface. This approach is deficient because it has no explicit wavelength dependence. The Chang'E-1 Lunar Orbiter carried out lunar microwave remote sensing of maria where the surface can be regarded as "slightly" rough, and this has motivated our study. We model the mare regolith as a multilayer planar layered media with a slightly rough top surface, and the temperature profile is retrieved by solving the heat conduction equation. The noncoherent method is utilized to calculate the emission of the multilayer media. To calculate the effect of the rough top surface on brightness temperatures, we use the bistatic transmission coefficients by applying the second-order small perturbation method. Using this model, the microwave brightness temperatures of the Apollo 12 area under different roughness conditions are calculated. It is shown that a slightly rough surface will increase or decrease the microwave radiative brightness temperature of the lunar regolith and that the change is related to the roughness, incidence angle, frequency, and polarization. In the case of measurements made by the Chang'E-1 microwave radiometer, where the incidence angle is 0°, the small-scale roughness will increase the brightness temperature of the lunar regolith.

  2. The Use of Solar Heating and Heat Cured Polymers for Lunar Surface Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul; Curran, Jerry; Back, Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Dust ejecta can affect visibility during a lunar landing, erode nearby coated surfaces and get into mechanical assemblies of in-place infrastructure. Regolith erosion was observed at many of the Apollo landing sites. This problem needs to be addressed at the beginning of the lunar base missions, as the amount of infrastructure susceptible to problems will increase with each landing. Protecting infrastructure from dust and debris is a crucial step in its long term functionality. A proposed way to mitigate these hazards is to build a lunar launch pad. Other areas of a lunar habitat will also need surface stabilization methods to help mitigate dust hazards. Roads would prevent dust from being lifted during movement and dust free zones might be required for certain areas critical to crew safety or to critical science missions. Work at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is investigating methods of stabilizing the lunar regolith including: sintering the regolith into a solid and using heat or UV cured polymers to stabilize the surface. Sintering, a method in which powders are heated until fusing into solids, has been proposed as one way of building a Lunar launch/landing pad. A solar concentrator has been built and used in the field to sinter JSC-1 Lunar stimulant. Polymer palliatives are used by the military to build helicopter landing pads and roads in dusty and sandy areas. Those polymers are dispersed in a solvent (water), making them unsuitable for lunar use. Commercially available, solvent free, polymer powders are being investigated to determine their viability to work in the same way as the solvent borne terrestrial analog. This presentation will describe the ongoing work at KSC in this field. Results from field testing will be presented. Physical testing results, including compression and abrasion, of field and laboratory prepared samples will be presented.

  3. Joint Workshop on New Technologies for Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Rick C. (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The workshop included talks on NASA's and DOE's role in Space Exploration Initiative, lunar geology, lunar resources, the strategy for the first lunar outpost, and an industry perspective on lunar resources. The sessions focused on four major aspects of lunar resource assessment: (1) Earth-based remote sensing of the Moon; (2) lunar orbital remote sensing; (3) lunar lander and roving investigations; and (4) geophysical and engineering consideration. The workshop ended with a spirited discussion of a number of issues related to resource assessment.

  4. Remote sensing of the lunar surface using low energy ions from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki N.; Uemura, Kota; Kawamura, Mariko; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    Interaction between the solar wind and a solar system object varies largely according to the object's properties, such as the existence of a global intrinsic magnetic field and/or thick atmosphere. It is well known that the Moon has neither global intrinsic magnetic field nor thick atmosphere. Different from the Earth's case where the intrinsic global magnetic field prevents the solar wind from penetrating into the magnetosphere, solar wind directly impacts the lunar surface. In the Earth's magnetosphere, where the Moon stays for 3 ~ 4 days every month, hot plasma-sheet plasmas in the Earth's magnetosphere (instead of the solar wind) can impact the lunar surface. On the other hand, the ions generated or reflected / scattered at the lunar surface are accelerated by the solar wind / magnetotail convection electric field and are detected by ion detectors on the spacecraft orbiting around the Moon. Since these ions have information about the lunar surface structure / composition, they can be used for remote sensing of the lunar surface. Solar wind protons reflected / backscattered at the lunar surface is one of the ion populations observed on the dayside of the Moon. The solar wind protons that impact the lunar surface are mostly scattered backward inside a scattering cone with ± 40deg. whose center axis is opposite to the incidence direction of the solar wind. It is also found that the energy decrease of the backscattered solar wind is most significant along the axis of the scattering cone. In order to investigate the global distribution of the backscattered solar wind protons, we have made a backscattered proton intensity map. Since the magnetic anomalies magnetically reflect the incident solar wind ions, we have made the backscattered proton intensity map by masking the major magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface. The backscattered proton intensity map shows that the relatively intense backscattering was observed on the lunar maria regions. It indicates that the

  5. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  6. In situ reworking /gardening/ of the lunar surface - Evidence from the Apollo cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.

    1978-01-01

    The in situ reworking (gardening) of the lunar surface by impacting projectiles creates an in situ reworking zone extending horizontally over the entire regolith surface and extending vertically from the surface to a depth which varies from place-to-place on the moon. On the basis of available evidence, the 'high-maturity' zones observed at the top of the lunar cores have resulted from the in situ reworking of the present-day lunar surface. The temporal variation of the in situ reworking depth was investigated using depths inferred from maturity I sub s/FeO and Al-26 profiles of Apollo cores. The observed temporal variation of the in situ reworking depth in units of centimeters is equal to 2.2 times the time (in units of million years) to the 0.45th power.

  7. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is < 13 because in some cases a single impact appears to have yielded more than one LM. Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 are considered "source-crater paired" or "launch paired" because they are compositionally and petrographically similar to each other and distinct from the others, and both have similar cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) histories. The same can be said of QUE 94281 and Y 793274. Thus the 13 meteorites probably represent a maximum of 11 locations on the Moon. The minimum number of likely source craters is debated and in flux as new data for different isotopic systems are obtained. Conservatively, considering CRE data only, a minimum of about 5 impacts is required. Compositional and petrographic data offer only probabilistic constraints. An extreme, but not

  8. Autonomous Surface Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. P.

    2007-08-01

    Surface science sample acquisition is a critical activity within any planetary and lunar exploration mission, and our research is focused upon the design, implementation, experimentation and demonstration of an onboard autonomous surface sample acquisition capability for a rover equipped with a robotic arm upon which are mounted appropriate science instruments. Images captured by a rover stereo camera system can be processed using shape from stereo methods and a digital elevation model (DEM) generated. We have developed a terrain feature identification algorithm that can determine autonomously from DEM data suitable regions for instrument placement and/or surface sample acquisition. Once identified, surface normal data can be generated autonomously which are then used to calculate an arm trajectory for instrument placement and sample acquisition. Once an instrument placement and sample acquisition trajectory has been calculated, a collision detection algorithm is required to ensure the safe operation of the arm during sample acquisition.We have developed a novel adaptive 'bounding spheres' approach to this problem. Once potential science targets have been identified, and these are within the reach of the arm and will not cause any undesired collision, then the 'cost' of executing the sample acquisition activity is required. Such information which includes power expenditure and duration can be used to select the 'best' target from a set of potential targets. We have developed a science sample acquisition resource requirements calculation that utilises differential inverse kinematics methods to yield a high fidelity result, thus improving upon simple 1st order approximations. To test our algorithms a new Planetary Analogue Terrain (PAT) Laboratory has been created that has a terrain region composed of Mars Soil Simulant-D from DLR Germany, and rocks that have been fully characterised in the laboratory. These have been donated by the UK Planetary Analogue Field Study

  9. Science Operations on the Lunar Surface - Understanding the Past, Testing in the Present, Considering the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The scientific success of any future human lunar exploration mission will be strongly dependent on design of both the systems and operations practices that underpin crew operations on the lunar surface. Inept surface mission preparation and design will either ensure poor science return, or will make achieving quality science operation unacceptably difficult for the crew and the mission operations and science teams. In particular, ensuring a robust system for managing real-time science information flow during surface operations, and ensuring the crews receive extensive field training in geological sciences, are as critical to mission success as reliable spacecraft and a competent operations team.

  10. A Kalman Approach to Lunar Surface Navigation using Radiometric and Inertial Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David T.; Welch, Bryan W.; Sands, O. Scott; Nguyen, Binh V.

    2009-01-01

    Future lunar missions supporting the NASA Vision for Space Exploration will rely on a surface navigation system to determine astronaut position, guide exploration, and return safely to the lunar habitat. In this report, we investigate one potential architecture for surface navigation, using an extended Kalman filter to integrate radiometric and inertial measurements. We present a possible infrastructure to support this technique, and we examine an approach to simulating navigational accuracy based on several different system configurations. The results show that position error can be reduced to 1 m after 5 min of processing, given two satellites, one surface communication terminal, and knowledge of the starting position to within 100 m.

  11. A Conceptual Study for the Autonomous Direct Forming of Lunar Regolith into Flexlock (Trademark) Geomats for Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Luke B.; Hintze, Paul; OConnor, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the conceptual method of an autonomously operable Direct Forming machine that would consume regolith or regolith slag to mold intimately, interlinked elements in a continuous process. The resulting product, one to three meter wide geomats, would be deployed over commonly traversed areas to isolate the astronauts and equipment from underlying dust. The porous geotextile would provide areas for dust settling, thereby mitigating dust impingement on astronaut suits or surface structures. Because of their self-supporting yet flexible structure, these geomats could be assembled into shields and buttresses to protect lunar habitants from radiation, forming a "flexoskeleton" from in situ materials.

  12. Effect of Space Radiation Processing on Lunar Soil Surface Chemistry: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukes, C.; Loeffler, M.J.; Baragiola, R.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, J.

    2009-01-01

    Current understanding of the chemistry and microstructure of the surfaces of lunar soil grains is dominated by a reference frame derived mainly from electron microscopy observations [e.g. 1,2]. These studies have shown that the outermost 10-100 nm of grain surfaces in mature lunar soil finest fractions have been modified by the combined effects of solar wind exposure, surface deposition of vapors and accretion of impact melt products [1,2]. These processes produce surface-correlated nanophase Feo, host grain amorphization, formation of surface patinas and other complex changes [1,2]. What is less well understood is how these changes are reflected directly at the surface, defined as the outermost 1-5 atomic monolayers, a region not easily chemically characterized by TEM. We are currently employing X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the surface chemistry of lunar soil samples that have been previously studied by TEM. This work includes modification of the grain surfaces by in situ irradiation with ions at solar wind energies to better understand how irradiated surfaces in lunar grains change their chemistry once exposed to ambient conditions on earth.

  13. Plume Impingement to the Lunar Surface: A Challenging Problem for DSMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, Forrest; Marichalar, Jermiah; Piplica, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The President's Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of human exploration of the Moon. The plans are ambitious and call for the creation of a lunar outpost. Lunar Landers will therefore be required to land near predeployed hardware, and the dust storm created by the Lunar Lander's plume impingement to the lunar surface presents a hazard. Knowledge of the number density, size distribution, and velocity of the grains in the dust cloud entrained into the flow is needing to develop mitigation strategies. An initial step to acquire such knowledge is simulating the associated plume impingement flow field. The following paper presents results from a loosely coupled continuum flow solver/Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique for simulating the plume impingement of the Apollo Lunar module on the lunar surface. These cases were chosen for initial study to allow for comparison with available Apollo video. The relatively high engine thrust and the desire to simulate interesting cases near touchdown result in flow that is nearly entirely continuum. The DSMC region of the flow field was simulated using NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) and must begin upstream of the impingement shock for the loosely coupled technique to succeed. It was therefore impossible to achieve mean free path resolution with a reasonable number of molecules (say 100 million) as is shown. In order to mitigate accuracy and performance issues when using such large cells, advanced techniques such as collision limiting and nearest neighbor collisions were employed. The final paper will assess the benefits and shortcomings of such techniques. In addition, the effects of plume orientation, plume altitude, and lunar topography, such as craters, on the flow field, the surface pressure distribution, and the surface shear stress distribution are presented.

  14. Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface electric potential effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface potential changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves potentials in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface potential.

  15. Observations of Lightning on Earth from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stahl, H. P.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Optical Transient Detector (OTD) launched into a 70deg inclination orbit in April 1995 aboard the MicroLab-1 satellite and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) launched into a 35deg inclination orbit in November 1997 (and still operating today) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission have produced the most comprehensive global observations of lightning activity on Earth. The OTD collected data for 5-yr from an altitude of 740 km while the LIS, in its 10th year of operations, is still collecting data from its current altitude of 402 km. From these altitudes the OTD observes an individual storm within its field of view for approx.3 min and the LIS for approx.90 sec as the satellites orbit the earth. Figures 1-4 show the combined LIS/OTD distribution of lightning for day and night during the Northern Hemisphere warm season from April through August (Fig. 1,2) and the cool season from October through February (Fig. 3,4) as might be observed from the lunar surface (12-h daylight and 12-h nighttime observations). The day and night plots are for the twelve hour periods centered on local noon and midnight. The total viewtime of the global lightning activity is 200 hours or less, depending on latitude (Fig. 5). Most of the observed lightning occurs over the northern hemisphere land areas as reported in previous studies. More lightning activity is seen at the higher northern latitudes during the day. The greatest lightning maxima occurs in the southeastern US, during the day. The corresponding region at night shows much less lightning activity. In contrast, there is a maxima in lightning activity at night over the high Plains area of the U.S. This region had lower lightning rates during the daytime period. During the cold season, the southern hemisphere has significantly more lightning. The maxima in Central Africa is still present, and a secondary maxima is observed in South Africa. In South America, the maxima in Argentina occurs at night in association with

  16. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  17. Beam-powered lunar rover design

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Coomes, E.P.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Chiu, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Manned exploration of our nearest neighbors in the solar systems is the primary goal of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integral part of any manned lunar or planetary outpost will be a system for manned excursions over the surface of the planet. This report presents a preliminary design for a lunar rover capable of supporting four astronauts on long-duration excursions across the lunar landscape. The distinguishing feature of this rover design is that power is provided to rover via a laser beam from an independent orbiting power satellite. This system design provides very high power availability with minimal mass on the rover vehicle. With this abundance of power, and with a relatively small power-system mass contained in the rover, the vehicle can perform an impressive suite of mission-related activity. The rover might be used as the first outpost for the lunar surface (i.e., a mobile base). A mobile base has the advantage of providing extensive mission activities without the expense of establishing a fixed base. This concept has been referred to as ``Rove First.`` A manned over, powered through a laser beam, has been designed for travel on the lunar surface for round-trip distances in the range of 1000 km, although the actual distance traveled is not crucial since the propulsion system does not rely on energy storage. The life support system can support a 4-person crew for up to 30 days, and ample power is available for mission-related activities. The 8000-kg rover has 30 kW of continuous power available via a laser transmitter located at the Earth-moon L1 libration point, about 50,000 km above the surface of the moon. This rover, which is designed to operate in either day or night conditions, has the flexibility to perform a variety of power-intensive missions. 24 refs.

  18. Beam-powered lunar rover design

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Coomes, E.P.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Chiu, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Manned exploration of our nearest neighbors in the solar systems is the primary goal of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integral part of any manned lunar or planetary outpost will be a system for manned excursions over the surface of the planet. This report presents a preliminary design for a lunar rover capable of supporting four astronauts on long-duration excursions across the lunar landscape. The distinguishing feature of this rover design is that power is provided to rover via a laser beam from an independent orbiting power satellite. This system design provides very high power availability with minimal mass on the rover vehicle. With this abundance of power, and with a relatively small power-system mass contained in the rover, the vehicle can perform an impressive suite of mission-related activity. The rover might be used as the first outpost for the lunar surface (i.e., a mobile base). A mobile base has the advantage of providing extensive mission activities without the expense of establishing a fixed base. This concept has been referred to as Rove First.'' A manned over, powered through a laser beam, has been designed for travel on the lunar surface for round-trip distances in the range of 1000 km, although the actual distance traveled is not crucial since the propulsion system does not rely on energy storage. The life support system can support a 4-person crew for up to 30 days, and ample power is available for mission-related activities. The 8000-kg rover has 30 kW of continuous power available via a laser transmitter located at the Earth-moon L1 libration point, about 50,000 km above the surface of the moon. This rover, which is designed to operate in either day or night conditions, has the flexibility to perform a variety of power-intensive missions. 24 refs.

  19. Structural Definition and Mass Estimation of Lunar Surface Habitats for the Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 (LAT-2) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, K, Chauncey; Smith, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 study defined and assessed architecture options for a Lunar Outpost at the Moon's South Pole. The Habitation Focus Element Team was responsible for developing concepts for all of the Habitats and pressurized logistics modules particular to each of the architectures, and defined the shapes, volumes and internal layouts considering human factors, surface operations and safety requirements, as well as Lander mass and volume constraints. The Structures Subsystem Team developed structural concepts, sizing estimates and mass estimates for the primary Habitat structure. In these studies, the primary structure was decomposed into a more detailed list of components to be sized to gain greater insight into concept mass contributors. Structural mass estimates were developed that captured the effect of major design parameters such as internal pressure load. Analytical and empirical equations were developed for each structural component identified. Over 20 different hard-shell, hybrid expandable and inflatable soft-shell Habitat and pressurized logistics module concepts were sized and compared to assess structural performance and efficiency during the study. Habitats were developed in three categories; Mini Habs that are removed from the Lander and placed on the Lunar surface, Monolithic habitats that remain on the Lander, and Habitats that are part of the Mobile Lander system. Each category of Habitat resulted in structural concepts with advantages and disadvantages. The same modular shell components could be used for the Mini Hab concept, maximizing commonality and minimizing development costs. Larger Habitats had higher volumetric mass efficiency and floor area than smaller Habitats (whose mass was dominated by fixed items such as domes and frames). Hybrid and pure expandable Habitat structures were very mass-efficient, but the structures technology is less mature, and the ability to efficiently package and deploy internal subsystems

  20. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Wooden, D. H.; Stubbs, T. J.; Cook, A. M.; Shirley, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon’s exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  1. How Surface Composition and Meteoroid Impacts Mediate Sodium and Potassium in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Wooden, D. H.; Stubbs, T. J.; Cook, A. M.; Shirley, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  2. An evolution strategy for lunar nuclear surface power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1992-01-01

    The production and transmission of electric power for a permanently inhabited lunar base poses a significant challenge which can best be met through an evolution strategy. Nuclear systems offer the best opportunity for evolution in terms of both life and performance. Applicable nuclear power technology options include isotope systems (either radioisotope thermoelectric generators or dynamic isotope power systems) and reactor systems with either static (thermoelectric or thermionic) or dynamic (Brayton, Stirling, Rankine) conversion. A power system integration approach that takes evolution into account would benefit by reduced development and operations cost, progressive flight experience, and simplified logistics, and would permit unrestrained base expansion. For the purposes of defining a nuclear power system evolution strategy, the lunar base development shall consist of four phases: precursor, emplacement, consolidation, and operations.

  3. A surface systems architecture for an evolutionary lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Office of Exploration has completed a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define a point design for an evolving lunar base that supports substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. This study addressed systems level design; element requirements and conceptual designs; assessments of precursor and technology needs, and operations concepts. The central base is assumed to be located equatorially on the lunar nearside north of the crater Moltke in Mare Tranquillitatis. The study considers an aggressive case with three main phases. The initial Man-Tended Phase establishes basic enabling facilities that include a modular habitat that periodically houses a crew of four. During the Experimental Phase the base becomes permanently manned with the construction of a larger habitat that provides augmented workshop and laboratory volumes and housing for crew. The Operational Phase expands base capabilities to a substantially mature level while reducing reliance on earth.

  4. Visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VNIS) for in-situ lunar surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhiping; Xu, Rui; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Binyong; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    The Visible and Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) onboard China's Chang'E 3 lunar rover is capable of simultaneously in situ acquiring full reflectance spectra for objects on the lunar surface and performing calibrations. VNIS uses non-collinear acousto-optic tunable filters and consists of a VIS/NIR imaging spectrometer (0.45-0.95 μm), a shortwave IR spectrometer (0.9-2.4 μm), and a calibration unit with dust-proofing functionality. To been underwent a full program of pre-flight ground tests, calibrations, and environmental simulation tests, VNIS entered into orbit around the Moon on 6 December 2013 and landed on 14 December 2013 following Change'E 3. The first operations of VNIS were conducted on 23 December 2013, and include several explorations and calibrations to obtain several spectral images and spectral reflectance curves of the lunar soil in the Imbrium region. These measurements include the first in situ spectral imaging detections on the lunar surface. This paper describes the VNIS characteristics, lab calibration, in situ measurements and calibration on lunar surface.

  5. View of lunar surface taken from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This near-vertical photograph from the Apollo 8 spacecraft covers an area of approximately 50 x 50 statute miles within a 250 statute mile in diameter crater on the lunar farside. The center of this large crater is located at about 157 degrees west longitude and 4 degrees south latitude. The large crater in the center of the picture is about 20 statute miles in diameter.

  6. View of lunar surface taken from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This Apollo 8 photograph is a view looking south toward the lunar horizon. The bright-rayed crater in the foreground is located at approximately 30 degrees south latitude and 110 degrees east longitude on the farside of the moon. This is another example of a bright-rayed crater which the astronauts photographed during the mission. This type of feature readily stands out in the Apollo 8 photographs because it was photographed at a high sun angle.

  7. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, B.; Alhadeff, S.; Beard, S.; Carlile, D.; Cook, D.; Douglas, C.; Garcia, D.; Gillespie, D.; Golingo, R.; Gonzalez, D.

    1990-01-01

    The work presented here shows that a solar power system can provide power on the order of one megawatt to a lunar base with a fairly high specific power. The main drawback to using solar power is still the high mass, and therefore, cost of supplying energy storage through the solar night. The use of cryogenic reactant storage in a fuel cell system, however, greatly reduces the total system mass over conventional energy storage schemes.

  8. Identification of magnetite in lunar regolith breccia 60016: Evidence for oxidized conditions at the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, Katherine H.; Visscher, Channon; Zolensky, Michael E.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Kring, David A.

    2015-07-01

    Lunar regolith breccias are temporal archives of magmatic and impact bombardment processes on the Moon. Apollo 16 sample 60016 is an "ancient" feldspathic regolith breccia that was converted from a soil to a rock at ~3.8 Ga. The breccia contains a small (70 × 50 μm) rock fragment composed dominantly of an Fe-oxide phase with disseminated domains of troilite. Fragments of plagioclase (An95-97), pyroxene (En74-75, Fs21-22,Wo3-4), and olivine (Fo66-67) are distributed in and adjacent to the Fe-oxide. The silicate minerals have lunar compositions that are similar to anorthosites. Mineral chemistry, synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrate that the oxide phase is magnetite with an estimated Fe3+/ΣFe ratio of ~0.45. The presence of magnetite in 60016 indicates that oxygen fugacity during formation was equilibrated at, or above, the Fe-magnetite or wüstite-magnetite oxygen buffer. This discovery provides direct evidence for oxidized conditions on the Moon. Thermodynamic modeling shows that magnetite could have been formed from oxidization-driven mineral replacement of Fe-metal or desulphurisation from Fe-sulfides (troilite) at low temperatures (<570 °C) in equilibrium with H2O steam/liquid or CO2 gas. Oxidizing conditions may have arisen from vapor transport during degassing of a magmatic source region, or from a hybrid endogenic-exogenic process when gases were released during an impacting asteroid or comet impact.

  9. A Basic LEGO Reactor Design for the Provision of Lunar Surface Power

    SciTech Connect

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched with lunar shipments from Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides approximately 5 kWe. The overall envelope for a single subunit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. Six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network, subject to lunar base power demand. Improvements in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, shielding, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques can help generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for

  10. Determination of temperature variation on lunar surface and subsurface for habitat analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malla, Ramesh B.; Brown, Kevin M.

    2015-02-01

    The ambient environmental factors present on the lunar surface pose some of the most difficult challenges for the success of a long-term human settlement on the Moon. Aside from the dangerous radiation levels and hypervelocity micrometeoroid impacts, the equatorial temperature on the surface of the Moon can range from 102.4 K to 387.1 K. These extremes pose a variety of complications like thermal expansion and contraction, which can, in turn, alter the static, dynamic, and frequency response of a structure. This paper first presents the analytical study of the surface and subsurface thermal/heat flow environments of a potential habitat site located at the Equator of the Moon using a general equation that was developed based on the thermodynamic principle of heat flow to determine the temperature variation/gradient with time as well as depth. This method was then applied, with appropriate modifications, to determine the temperature variation with time and through depth of a 1-m thick regolith shielding layer surrounding a lunar structure. The solution to the general equation was determined through the use of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique of numerical integration. The analysis results showed that the outermost layer of regolith fluff has very strong insulating capabilities causing the temperature to drop 132.3 K from the maximum daytime magnitude of 387.1 K within the first 30 cm at which point it then remains constant with increasing depth. At night, the temperature increases from the minimum magnitude of 102.4 K to 254.8 K within the outermost 30 cm. When considering a layer of regolith shielding atop a lunar habitat, the added albedo radiation input from the adjacent lunar surface to the structure increased the maximum daytime surface temperature to 457 K (about 70 K higher than the lunar surface temperature) and displayed a drop of 138 K within the first 30 cm depth of regolith cover. The minimum temperature at night increased 80.3 K over the surface

  11. Lunar Surface and Dust Grain Potentials during the Earth’s Magnetosphere Crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaverka, J.; Richterová, I.; Pavlu˚, J.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Interaction between the lunar surface and the solar UV radiation and surrounding plasma environment leads to its charging by different processes like photoemission, collection of charged particles, or secondary electron emission (SEE). Whereas the photoemission depends only on the angle between the surface and direction to the Sun and varies only slowly, plasma parameters can change rapidly as the Moon orbits around the Earth. This paper presents numerical simulations of one Moon pass through the magnetospheric tail including the real plasma parameters measured by THEMIS as an input. The calculations are concentrated on different charges of the lunar surface itself and a dust grain lifted above this surface. Our estimations show that (1) the SEE leads to a positive charging of parts of the lunar surface even in the magnetosphere, where a high negative potential is expected; (2) the SEE is generally more important for isolated dust grains than for the lunar surface covered by these grains; and (3) the time constant of charging of dust grains depends on their diameter being of the order of hours for sub-micrometer grains. In view of these results, we discuss the conditions under which and the areas where a levitation of the lifted dust grains could be observed.

  12. Optimization of Crew Shielding Requirement in Reactor-Powered Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    On the surface of the moon and not only during heightened solar activities the radiation environment is such that crew protection will be required for missions lasting in excess of six months. This study focuses on estimating the optimized crew shielding requirement for lunar surface missions with a nuclear option. Simple, transport-simulation based dose-depth relations of the three radiation sources (galactic, solar, and fission) are employed in a one-dimensional optimization scheme. The scheme is developed to estimate the total required mass of lunar regolith separating reactor from crew. The scheme was applied to both solar maximum and minimum conditions. It is shown that savings of up to 30% in regolith mass can be realized. It is argued, however, that inherent variation and uncertainty mainly in lunar regolith attenuation properties in addition to the radiation quality factor can easily defeat this and similar optimization schemes.

  13. Optimization of Crew Shielding Requirement in Reactor-Powered Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.

    2007-01-01

    On the surface of the moon -and not only during heightened solar activities- the radiation environment As such that crew protection will be required for missions lasting in excess of six months. This study focuses on estimating the optimized crew shielding requirement for lunar surface missions with a nuclear option. Simple, transport-simulation based dose-depth relations of the three (galactic, solar, and fission) radiation sources am employed in a 1-dimensional optimization scheme. The scheme is developed to estimate the total required mass of lunar-regolith separating reactor from crew. The scheme was applied to both solar maximum and minimum conditions. It is shown that savings of up to 30% in regolith mass can be realized. It is argued, however, that inherent variation and uncertainty -mainly in lunar regolith attenuation properties in addition to the radiation quality factor- can easily defeat this and similar optimization schemes.

  14. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  15. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN): Testing and Demonstration for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of the Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) designed for use with Lunar Surface applications. This is being done through the DTN experimental Network (DEN), that permit access and testing by other NASA centers, DTN team members and protocol developers. The objective of this work is to demonstrate DTN for high return applications in lunar scenarios, provide DEN connectivity with analogs of Constellation elements, emulators, and other resources from DTN Team Members, serve as a wireless communications staging ground for remote analog excursions and enable testing of detailed communication scenarios and evaluation of network performance. Three scenarios for DTN on the Lunar surface are reviewed: Motion imagery, Voice and sensor telemetry, and Navigation telemetry.

  16. Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Soils: The Roles of Surface Exposure Time and Bulk Chemical Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering effects on lunar soil grains result from both radiation-damaged and deposited layers on grain surfaces. Typically, solar wind irradiation forms an amorphous layer on regolith silicate grains, and induces the formation of surficial metallic Fe in Fe-bearing minerals [1,2]. Impacts into the lunar regolith generate high temperature melts and vapor. The vapor component is largely deposited on the surfaces of lunar soil grains [3] as is a fraction of the melt [4, this work]. Both the vapor-deposits and the deposited melt typically contain nanophase Fe metal particles (npFe0) as abundant inclusions. The development of these rims and the abundance of the npFe0 in lunar regolith, and thus the optical properties, vary with the soil mineralogy and the length of time the soil grains have been exposed to space weathering effects [5]. In this study, we used the density of solar flare particle tracks in soil grains to estimate exposure times for individual grains and then perform nanometer-scale characterization of the rims using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work involved study of lunar soil samples with different mineralogy (mare vs. highland) and different exposure times (mature vs. immature).

  17. Lunar and Martian Sub-surface Habitat Structure Technology Development and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope J.; Strong, Janet D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and great risk for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Subsidace structures such as caves and lava tubes offer readily available and existing in-situ habitat options. Sub-surface dwellings can provide complete radiation, micro-meteorite and exhaust plume shielding and a moderate and constant temperature environment; they are, therefore, excellent pre-existing habitat risk mitigation elements. Technical challenges to subsurface habitat structure development include surface penetration (digging and mining equipment), environmental pressurization, and psychological environment enhancement requirements. Lunar and Martian environments and elements have many beneficial similarities. This will allow for lunar testing and design development of subsurface habitat structures for Martian application; however, significant differences between lunar and Martian environments and resource elements will mandate unique application development. Mars is NASA's ultimate exploration goal and is known to have many very large lava tubes. Other cave types are plausible. The Moon has unroofed rilles and lava tubes, but further research will, in the near future, define the extent of Lunar and Martian differences and similarities. This paper will discuss Lunar and Martian subsurface habitation technology development challenges and opportunities.

  18. Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

  19. A program of data synthesis from the ALSEP/CPLEE ALSEP/SIDE, and Explorer 35 magnetometer to investigate lunar terminator and nightside particle fluxes and surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar nightside electron fluxes were studied with the aid of the ALSEP/CPLEE and other instruments. The flux events were shown to be due to (a) electrons propagating upstream from the earth's bow shock, (b) electrons thermalized and scattered to the lunar surface by disturbances along the boundary of the lunar solarwind cavity, and (c) solar wind electrons scattered to the lunar surface by lunar limb shocks and/or compressional disturbances. These electrons were identified as a cause of the high night surface negative potentials observed in tha ALSEP/SIDE ion data. A study was also made of the shadowing of magnetotail plasma sheet electrons by interactions between the lunar body and the ambient magnetic field and by interactions between charged particles and lunar remnant magnetic fields. These shadowing effects were shown to modify lunar surface and near-lunar potential distributions.

  20. SiGe Based Low Temperature Electronics for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Blalock, Benjamin; Cressler, John

    2012-01-01

    The temperature at the permanently shadowed regions of the moon's surface is approximately -240 C. Other areas of the lunar surface experience temperatures that vary between 120 C and -180 C during the day and night respectively. To protect against the large temperature variations of the moon surface, traditional electronics used in lunar robotics systems are placed inside a thermally controlled housing which is bulky, consumes power and adds complexity to the integration and test. SiGe Based electronics have the capability to operate over wide temperature range like that of the lunar surface. Deploying low temperature SiGe electronics in a lander platform can minimize the need for the central thermal protection system and enable the development of a new generation of landers and mobility platforms with highly efficient distributed architecture. For the past five years a team consisting of NASA, university and industry researchers has been examining the low temperature and wide temperature characteristic of SiGe based transistors for developing electronics for wide temperature needs of NASA environments such as the Moon, Titan, Mars and Europa. This presentation reports on the status of the development of wide temperature SiGe based electronics for the landers and lunar surface mobility systems.

  1. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  2. The Next Frontier - Commercialization of the Lunar Surface and CisLunar Space in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Dholakia, K.; Elliott, E.

    Over the past three decades, commercial activities in space, such as telecommunications, satellite launch system mapping and remote sensing for natural resources and weather prediction, among others, have become increasingly important aspects of economic activity. While still contributing only a small part to overall economic growth, such activities are likely to gain increasing importance over the next several decades. This paper examines the possibilities and potential problems in bringing to fruition a new era in commercial applications on the Moon and in cislunar (between the Earth and the Moon) space. The authors provide a brief history of space exploration and how this history provides a basis for understanding ongoing developments. This is followed by a discussion of timelines for lunar commercial developments, and potential specific applications of commercial activities on the Lunar surface and in cislunar space. Various hurdles to success, including technical issues, incentives, and property rights concerns are noted. While the authors recognize that most potential commercial prospects are decades away, there are some commercial activities that are worthy of early attention.

  3. Metallographic study of metallic fragment of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Petukhova, T. M.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    A high precision investigation of a metallic fragment from the lunar material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station revealed three characteristic temperature intervals with different kinetics of solid solution decomposition. The following were found in the structure of the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy: (1) delta-phase and alpha-ferrite of diffusional, displacement origin in the grain boundary and acicular forms; and (2) martensite of isothermal and athermal nature, acicular, lamellar, massive, and dendritic. The diversity of the shapes of structural constituents is associated with the effect on their formation of elastic distortions and various mechanisms of deformation relaxation processes.

  4. Survival of bacterial spores under some simulated lunar surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G; Bucker, H; Wollenhaupt, H

    1971-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis were exposed to simulated lunar environmental factors, in order to estimate the chance of living matter to survive on the moon. Vacuum, radiation and extreme temperature were selected and their individual and combined influence was tested. High vacuum up to 2 x 10(-7) torr and ultra-high vacuum up to 5 x 10(-9) torr, ultraviolet rays (254 nm) and a temperature of 80 degrees C were used. The results were compared with those of experiments on vegetative cells.

  5. Texture descriptions of lunar surface derived from LOLA data: Kilometer-scale roughness and entropy maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Wu, Zhongchen; Ni, Yuheng; Zhao, Haowei

    2015-11-01

    The lunar global texture maps of roughness and entropy are derived at kilometer scales from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) data obtained by Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We use statistical moments of a gray-level histogram of elevations in a neighborhood to compute the roughness and entropy value. Our texture descriptors measurements are shown in global maps at multi-sized square neighborhoods, whose length of side is 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 pixels, respectively. We found that large-scale topographical changes can only be displayed in maps with longer side of neighborhood, but the small scale global texture maps are more disorderly and unsystematic because of more complicated textures' details. Then, the frequency curves of texture maps are made out, whose shapes and distributions are changing as the spatial scales increases. Entropy frequency curve with minimum 3-pixel scale has large fluctuations and six peaks. According to this entropy curve we can classify lunar surface into maria, highlands, different parts of craters preliminarily. The most obvious textures in the middle-scale roughness and entropy maps are the two typical morphological units, smooth maria and rough highlands. For the impact crater, its roughness and entropy value are characterized by a multiple-ring structure obviously, and its different parts have different texture results. In the last, we made a 2D scatter plot between the two texture results of typical lunar maria and highlands. There are two clusters with largest dot density which are corresponded to the lunar highlands and maria separately. In the lunar mare regions (cluster A), there is a high correlation between roughness and entropy, but in the highlands (Cluster B), the entropy shows little change. This could be subjected to different geological processes of maria and highlands forming different landforms.

  6. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  7. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (<25 m particle diameter), lunar highland simulant NU-LHT-2M, alumina (average diameter of 50 m used per ASTM G76), and silica (50/70 mesh used per ASTM G65). The measured mass loss from each specimen was converted using standard densities to determine total wear volume in cm3. Abrasion was dominated by the alumina and the simulants were only similar to the silica (i.e., sand) on the softer materials of

  8. Radioactivity induced in apollo 11 lunar surface material by solar flare protons.

    PubMed

    Heydegger, H R; Turkevich, A

    1970-05-01

    Comparison of values of the specific radioactivities reported for lunar surface material from the Apollo 11 mission with analogous data for stone meteorites suggests that energetic particles from the solar flare of 12 April 1969 may have produced most of the cobalt-56 observed.

  9. Study of sample of Sea of Fertility lunar surface material by the track method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poupeau, G.; Chatrit, G. C.; Pellas, P.

    1974-01-01

    Tracks in crystals of feldspars, olivines, pyroxenes, and in several fragments of basalts from a sample of Luna 16 lunar surface material were studied. A high track density, exceeding 10 to the 8th power cm/2 was found. The tracks were produced mainly by iron group nuclei of cosmic galactic and solar rays.

  10. Remote control and navigation tests for application to long-range lunar surface exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.; White, P. R.; Vinz, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    Tests conducted with a vehicle system built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to investigate some of the unknown factors associated with remote controlled teleoperated vehicles on the lunar surface are described. Test data are summarized and conclusions are drawn from these data which indicate that futher testing will be required.

  11. Lunar Surface Potential Changes Possible Associated with Traversals of the Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, M. R.; Stubbs, T. J.; Hills, H. K.

    2008-01-01

    We report an analysis of seven Apollo 14 Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) "resonance" events from January 1972 through January 1973. The events appear to be associated with traversals of the Moon through the terrestrial bow shock.

  12. COMBINED ANALYSIS OF THORIUM AND FAST NEUTRON DATA AT THE LUNAR SURFACE

    SciTech Connect

    O. GASNAULT; W. FELDMAN; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The global distribution of the radioactive elements (U, K, Th) at the lunar surface is an important parameter for an understanding of lunar evolution, because they have provided continuous heat over the lifetime of the Moon. Today, only the thorium distribution is available for the whole lunar surface [1]. Another key parameter that characterize the surface of the Moon is the presence of mare basalts. These basalts are concentrated on the nearside and are represented by materials with high-Fe content, sometimes associated with high-Ti. We demonstrated elsewhere that the fast neutron measurement made by Lunar Prospector is representative of the average soil atomic mass [2]. is primarily dominated by Fe and Ti in basaltic terranes, and therefore the map of the fast neutrons provides a good delineation of mare basalts. We focus here on the correlated variations of thorium abundances and fast neutron fluxes averaged over areas of 360 km in diameter, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of the thorium emplacement on the surface of the Moon.

  13. Modeling the Influence of Small-Scale Surface Roughness on the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prem, Parvathy; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.

    2016-10-01

    The Moon and other virtually airless bodies provide distinctive environments for the transport and sequestration of water and other volatiles delivered to their surfaces by various sources. In this work, we conduct Monte Carlo simulations of water vapor transport on the Moon to investigate the role of small-scale roughness (unresolved by orbital measurements) in the migration and cold-trapping of volatiles. Observations indicate that the roughness of the lunar surface, together with the insulating nature of lunar regolith and the absence of significant exospheric heat flow, can cause large variations in temperature over very small scales. Surface temperature is a critical parameter in determining the residence time of migrating water molecules on the lunar surface, which in turn affects the rate and magnitude of volatile transport to permanently shadowed craters (cold traps) near the lunar poles, as well as exospheric structure and the susceptibility of migrating molecules to photodestruction. Here, we develop a rough surface temperature model suitable for simulations of volatile transport on a global scale. We compare results of Monte Carlo simulations of volatile transport with and without the surface roughness model and find that including small-scale temperature variations and shadowing leads to an increased probability of polar cold-trapping, as well as increased thermal escape, compensated for by decreased photodestruction. Exospheric structure is altered only slightly, primarily at the dawn terminator. We also examine the sensitivity of our results to the temperature of small-scale shadows, and the energetics of water molecule desorption from the lunar regolith (two factors that remain to be definitively constrained by other methods) and find that both these factors affect the rate at which cold trap capture and photodissociation occur, as well as exospheric longevity and density.

  14. Apollo 11 drive-tube core samples: an initial physical analysis of lunar surface sediment.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, R; Anderson, D; Carrier, D; Greenwood, W; Heiken, G

    1970-01-30

    Two drive-tube core samples were obtained at Tranquillity Base. Fines include much glass, are unweathered, medium gray, loose, nonstructured, very weakly coherent, and demonstrate both accumulation and mixing in a waterless vacuum environment. In contrast to chemical weathering characteristic on the earth, lunar alteration processes are primarily mechanical. We infer that environmental processes of the lunar surface may be expressed as follows: R (regolith) = f(cl, p, r, t, b, a, . . .), in which climate (cl) is constant and the time (t)-de-pendent processes of bombardment (b) and accumulation (a) assume significance unparalleled on the earth because of their effects on parent material (p) and relief (r).

  15. An investigation to improve selenodetic control through surface and orbital lunar photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, H. J., III

    1970-01-01

    The use of lunar surface photography to achieve the photogrammetric transfer of available selenographic coordinates from future lunar landing sites to neighboring, photoidentifiable features was investigated. It can be implied from the procedures developed that overhead photography, were it available, could be utilized and would provide a material strengthening of the total solution. By the methodic selection of features and confirmation that they can in reality be identified from orbital photography, a modest selenodetic control system can be expanded into a net that could ultimately control all future, manned or unmanned, orbital photographic missions.

  16. A Mission Concept Based on the ISECG Human Lunar Surface Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together with 13 other space agencies to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars [1]. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public. The current GER includes three different near-term themes: exploration of a near-Earth asteroid, extended duration crew missions in cis-lunar space, and humans to the lunar surface.

  17. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  18. Multispectral mapping of the lunar surface using ground-based telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Feierberg, M. A.; Pieters, C.

    1976-01-01

    Images of the lunar surface were obtained at several wavelengths using a silicon vidicon imaging system and ground-based telescopes. These images were recorded and processed in digital form so that quantitative information was preserved. The photometric precision of the images is shown to be better than 1%. Ratio images calculated by dividing images obtained at two wavelengths (0.40/0.56 and 0.95/0.56 microns) are presented for about 50% of the lunar frontside. Spatial resolution is about 2 km at the subearth point. A complex of distinct units is evident in the images. Earlier work with the reflectance spectrum of lunar materials indicates that, for the most part, these units are compositionally distinct.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Seals for Dust Mitigation of Mechanical Components for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Handschuh, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Component tests were conducted on spring-loaded Teflon seals to determine their performance in keeping lunar simulant out of mechanical component gearbox, motor, and bearing housings. Baseline tests were run in a dry-room without simulant for 10,000 cycles to determine wear effects of the seal against either anodized aluminum or stainless steel shafts. Repeat tests were conducted using lunar simulants JSC-1A and LHT-2M. Finally, tests were conducted with and without simulant in vacuum at ambient temperature. Preliminary results indicate minimal seal and shaft wear through 10,000 cycles, and more importantly, no simulant was observed to pass through the seal-shaft interface. Future endurance tests are planned at relevant NASA Lunar Surface System architecture shaft sizes and operating conditions.

  20. The Design of Two Nano-Rovers for Lunar Surface Exploration in the Context of the Google Lunar X Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, E.; Honfi Camilo, L.; Kuystermans, P.; Maas, A. S. B. B.; Buutfeld, B. A. M.; van der Pols, R. H.

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes a study performed by ten students at the Delft University of Technology on a lunar exploration vehicle suited for competing in the Google Lunar X Prize1. The design philosophy aimed at a quick and simple design process, to comply with the mission constraints. This is achieved by using conventional technology and performing the mission with two identical rovers, increasing reliability and simplicity of systems. Both rovers are however capable of operating independently. The required subsystems have been designed for survival and operation on the lunar surface for an estimated mission lifetime of five days. This preliminary study shows that it is possible for two nano-rovers to perform the basic exploration tasks. The mission has been devised such that after launch the rovers endure a 160 hour voyage to the Moon after which they will land on Sinus Medii with a dedicated lunar transfer/lander vehicle. The mission outline itself has the two nano-rovers travelling in the same direction, moving simultaneously. This mission characteristic allows a quick take-over of the required tasks by the second rover in case of one rover breakdown. The main structure of the rovers will consist of Aluminium 2219 T851, due to its good thermal properties and high hardness. Because of the small dimensions of the rovers, the vehicles will use rigid caterpillar tracks as locomotion system. The track systems are sealed from lunar dust using closed track to prevent interference with the mechanisms. This also prevents any damage to the electronics inside the tracks. For the movement speed a velocity of 0.055 m/s has been determined. This is about 90% of the maximum rover velocity, allowing direct control from Earth. The rovers are operated by a direct control loop, involving the mission control center. In order to direct the rovers safely, a continuous video link with the Earth is necessary to assess its immediate surroundings. Two forward pointing navigational cameras

  1. Vitrification darkening of rock powders - Implications for optical properties of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, D. B.; Conel, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that albedoes as low as those on the moon can be produced by vacuum vitrification and associated chemical fractionation of ordinary terrestrial basaltic material. Vitrification is established as an unequivocal process that can account for the low albedo and apparent local darkening with age of the lunar surface. The spectral reflectance curves of glass powders are significantly different than those of the parent rock mineralogy; thus, the presence of ubiquitous glass in lunar surface material complicates compositional determinations by interpretation of spectral reflectance curves. Vitrification of rocks on the moon may highly modify the chemical composition of the resulting glass; thus, glass fragments found in lunar fines cannot be assumed to represent bulk parent rock material. Progressive impact vitrification of lunar surface material throughout the moon's history may have led to a fine-grain, opaque, refractory-rich material we call 'ultimate glass.' This unidentified and, at this point, hypothetical component may exist in dark regolith material; if found, it may be a useful indicator of regolith maturity.

  2. Numerical Investigation of LO2 and LCH4 Storage Tanks on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moder, Jeff; Barsi, Stephen; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Currently NASA is developing technologies to enable human exploration of the lunar surface for duration of up to 210 days. While trade studies are still underway, a cryogenic ascent stage using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) is being considered for the Altair lunar lander. For a representative Altair cryogenic ascent stage, we present a detailed storage analysis of the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks on the lunar surface for durations of up to 210 days. Both the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks are assumed to be pressurized with gaseous helium at launch. A two-phase lumped-vapor computational fluid dynamics model has been developed to account for the presence of a noncondensable gas in the ullage. The CFD model is used to simulate the initial pressure response of the propellant tanks while they are subjected to representative heat leak rates on the lunar surface. Once a near stationary state is achieved within the liquid phase, multizone model is used to extrapolate the solution farther in time. For fixed propellant mass and tank size, the long-term pressure response for different helium mass fractions in both the LO2 and LCH4 tanks is examined.

  3. Tether System for Exchanging Payloads Between the International Space Station and the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    Systems composed of several rotating and/or hanging tethers may provide a means of exchanging supplies between low Earth orbit facilities and lunar bases without requiring the use of propellant. This work develops methods for designing a tether system capable of repeatedly exchanging payloads between a LEO facility such as the International Space Station or a Space Business Park and a base on the lunar surface. In this system, a hanging tether extended upwards from the LEO facility, places a payload into a slightly elliptical orbit, where it is caught by a rotating tether in a higher elliptical orbit. This rotating tether then tosses the payload to the moon. At the moon, a long rotating "Lunavator" tether catches the payload and deposits it on the surface of the moon. By transporting an equal mass of lunar materials such as oxygen back down to the LEO facility through the tether transport system, the momentum and energy of the system is conserved, allowing frequent traffic between LEO and the lunar surface with minimal propellant requirements.

  4. A Radiation Dosimeter Concept for the Lunar Surface Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Watts, John; Kuznetsov, Eugeny N.; Parnell, Thomas A.; Pendleton, Geoff N.

    2007-01-01

    A novel silicon detector configuration for radiation dose measurements in an environment where solar energetic particles are of most concern is described. The dosimeter would also measure the dose from galactic cosmic rays. In the lunar environment a large range in particle flux and ionization density must be measured and converted to dose equivalent. This could be accomplished with a thick (e.g. 2mm) silicon detector segmented into cubic volume elements "voxels" followed by a second, thin monolithic silicon detector. The electronics needed to implement this detector concept include analog signal processors (ASIC) and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for data accumulation and conversion to linear energy transfer (LET) spectra and to dose-equivalent (Sievert). Currently available commercial ASIC's and FPGA's are suitable for implementing the analog and digital systems.

  5. Surface chemistry of selected lunar regions. [using gamma ray spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielefeld, M. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, A. I.; Arnold, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing.

  6. Regenerative fuel cell architectures for lunar surface power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. W.; Gill, S. P.; Nguyen, T. M.; Vrolyk, J. J.

    1991-09-01

    Various Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) configurations for the stationary lunar missions were examined using a RFC computer model. For the stationary applications, a GaAs/Ge photovoltaic (PV) array with a 3000 psi gas storage proton exchange membrane (PEM) RFC providing 25 kWe during the day and 12.5 kWe at night was designed. PV/RFC systems utilizing supercritical H2/O2 storage and cryogenic H2/O2 storage for the RFCs were then compared with the baseline high pressure gas storage RFC system. Preliminary results indicate that for long duration nighttime operation missions, the supercritical H2/O2 storage RFC systems offer over 20 percent mass advantage over the high pressure gas storage while the mass savings for the cryogenic H2/O2 storage RFC systems can be as high as 30 percent.

  7. Regenerative fuel cell architectures for lunar surface power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. W.; Gill, S. P.; Nguyen, T. M.; Vrolyk, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Various Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) configurations for the stationary lunar missions were examined using a RFC computer model. For the stationary applications, a GaAs/Ge photovoltaic (PV) array with a 3000 psi gas storage proton exchange membrane (PEM) RFC providing 25 kWe during the day and 12.5 kWe at night was designed. PV/RFC systems utilizing supercritical H2/O2 storage and cryogenic H2/O2 storage for the RFCs were then compared with the baseline high pressure gas storage RFC system. Preliminary results indicate that for long duration nighttime operation missions, the supercritical H2/O2 storage RFC systems offer over 20 percent mass advantage over the high pressure gas storage while the mass savings for the cryogenic H2/O2 storage RFC systems can be as high as 30 percent.

  8. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  9. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returing from the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left.

  10. The Surface Chemical Composition of Lunar Samples and Its Significance for Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface iron, titanium, calcium, and silicon concentration in numerous lunar soil and rock samples was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy. All soil samples show a large increase in the iron to oxygen ratio compared with samples of pulverized rock or with results of the bulk chemical analysis. A solar wind simulation experiment using 2 keV energy alpha -particles showed that an ion dose corresponding to approximately 30,000 years of solar wind increased the iron concentration on the surface of the pulverized Apollo 14 rock sample 14310 to the concentration measured in the Apollo 14 soil sample 14163, and the albedo of the pulverized rock decreased from 0.36 to 0.07. The low albedo of the lunar soil is related to the iron + titanium concentration on its surface. A solar wind sputter reduction mechanism is discussed as a possible cause for both the surface chemical and optical properties of the soil.

  11. Modeling Solar-Wind Heavy-Ions' Potential Sputtering of Lunar KREEP Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Meyer, F. W.; Harris, R. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Recent laboratory data suggest that potential sputtering may be an important weathering mechanism that can affect the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere; its role and implications, however, remain unclear. Using a relatively simple kinetic model, we will demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering of KREEP surfaces is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We will also also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  12. Surface vector mapping of magnetic anomalies over the Moon using Kaguya and Lunar Prospector observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    We have provided preliminary global maps of three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly on the surface applying the surface vector mapping (SVM) method. The data used in the present study consist of about 5 million observations of the lunar magnetic field at 10-45 km altitudes by Kaguya and Lunar Prospector. The lunar magnetic anomalies were mapped at 0.2° equi-distance points on the surface by the SVM method, showing the highest intensity of 718 nT in the Crisium antipodal region. Overall features on the SVM maps indicate that elongating magnetic anomalies are likely to be dominant on the Moon except for the young large basins with the impact demagnetization. Remarkable demagnetization features suggested by previous studies are also recognized at Hertzsprung and Kolorev craters on the farside. These features indicate that demagnetized areas extend to about 1-2 radii of the basins/craters. There are well-isolated central magnetic anomalies at four craters: Leibnitz, Aitken, Jules Verne, and Grimaldi craters. Their magnetic poles through the dipole source approximation suggest occurrence of the polar wander prior to 3.3-3.5 Ga. When compared with high-albedo markings at several magnetic anomalies such as the Reiner Gamma anomalies, three-dimensional structures of the magnetic field on/near the surface are well correlated with high-albedo areas. These results indicate that the global SVM maps are useful for the study of the lunar magnetic anomalies in comparison with various geological and geophysical data.

  13. Building Strategic Capabilities for Sustained Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, M.; Hufenbach, B.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a lunar exploration architecture that addresses the strategic objective of providing access to the lunar surface. This access enables the most exciting part of the lunar exploration: building a sustained infrastructure on the lunar surface.

  14. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  15. Verification of a thermal simulation tool for moving objects on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, Philipp; Reiss, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    The thermal environment of the Moon is a challenge for the design and successful operation of rovers and scientific instruments, especially for dynamic, mobile situations. Examples range from transport and stability of volatile samples in transport devices at the lunar poles to an analysis instrument, to astronauts exploring varied terrain. A dynamic thermal simulation tool for moving objects on the lunar surface was created and its verification for several test cases against Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter DIVINER brightness temperature data is presented here. The Thermal Moon Simulator (TherMoS) allows the prediction of incoming heat fluxes on a mobile object on the lunar surface and subsequent object temperatures. A model for regolith temperatures based on the models presented in [1,2] was set in a MATLAB simulation context. A time-marching numerical finite-difference approach was used to calculate the temperatures for log-distributed regolith depth nodes to a depth of 2m. The lunar interior heat flux was set to 0.033 [W ? m-2], based on the early publications of [3]. The incoming heat fluxes are calculated with a ray tracing algorithm. Parallel solar rays and their diffuse reflected components lead to the solar heat flux for each surface element. Additionally each surface element emits hemispherical, diffuse infrared rays that are absorbed by the object as well as other lunar surface elements. The lunar topography is represented in a triangular mesh. The topography is either derived from Kaguya LALT data or generated artificially. In the latter case craters and boulders are placed manually or randomly in a level terrain. This approach is restricted to bowl shaped primary craters with a boulder size and spatial distribution that takes into account the region (mare or highland) and the parent crater diameter [4,5,6]. A thermal boulder model is integrated, based on work performed by [7]. This model also uses a finite-difference numerical approach to compute boulder

  16. A Triboelectric Sensor Array for Electrostatic Studies on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, Paul J.; Calle, C. I.

    2015-01-01

    The moons electrostatic environment requires careful consideration in the development of future lunar landers. Electrostatically charged dust was well documented during the Apollo missions to cause thermal control, mechanical, and visibility issues. The fine dust particles that make up the surface are electrostatically charged as a result of numerous charging mechanisms. The relatively dry conditions on the moon creates a prime tribocharging environment during surface operations. The photoelectric effect is dominant for lunar day static charging, while plasma electrons are the main contributor for lunar night electrostatic effects. Electrostatic charging is also dependent on solar intensity, Earth-moon relative positions, and cosmic ray flux. This leads to a very complex and dynamic electrostatic environment that must be studied for the success of long term lunar missions.In order to better understand the electrostatic environment of planetary bodies, Kennedy Space Center, in previous collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed an electrostatic sensor suite. One of the instruments included in this package is the triboelectric sensor array. It is comprised of strategically selected materials that span the triboelectric series and that also have previous spaceflight history. In this presentation, we discuss detailed testing with the triboelectric sensor array performed at Kennedy Space Center. We will discuss potential benefits and use cases of this low mass, low cost sensor package, both for science and for mission success.

  17. The EuroMoon Consortium - Lunar Surface Composition and Processes - Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have seen new observations from an international fleet of lunar probes (including, Chang'e 1, 2, and 3, Chandrayaan-1, Kaguya (SELENE), LRO, LADEE, and SMART-1). Many excellent instruments were led and funded from Europe. Large amounts of historic data exist from the Moon, and the main aim of the EuroMoon consortium is to scientifically exploit this data. Our consortium of the leaders of recent European experiments is reinforced with additional leading international Lunar scientists. Our aim is to investigate the Lunar surface composition and processes that take place in the uppermost layers of the Lunar regolith, including the water cycle on the Moon. The detailed understanding of the physics that processes the material at the surface, altering and recycling it, has been greatly facilitated by recent observations. We have recently begun a coordinated program on this topic at ISSI in Bern, and we will report progress, as well as outlining our future intentions for coordinated proposals to the EU in conjunction with EuroPlanet.

  18. Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1 - The moon and the inner solar system. Volume 2 - Petrogenetic studies of mare and highland rocks. Volume 3 - Planetary and lunar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merril, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Solar system processes are considered along with the origin and evolution of the moon, planetary geophysics, lunar basins and crustal layering, lunar magnetism, the lunar surface as a planetary probe, remote observations of lunar and planetary surfaces, earth-based measurements, integrated studies, physical properties of lunar materials, and asteroids, meteorites, and the early solar system. Attention is also given to studies of mare basalts, the kinetics of basalt crystallization, topical studies of mare basalts, highland rocks, experimental studies of highland rocks, geochemical studies of highland rocks, studies of materials of KREEP composition, a consortium study of lunar breccia 73215, topical studies on highland rocks, Venus, and regional studies of the moon. Studies of surface processes, are reported, taking into account cratering mechanics and fresh crater morphology, crater statistics and surface dating, effects of exposure and gardening, and the chemistry of surfaces.

  19. Regolith Activation on the Lunar Surface and Its Ground Test Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the surfaces of lunar regolith particles can occur through interactions with solar electromagnetic radiation, solar and galactic particle radiation and micrometeoroid bombardment. An attempt has been made to quantify the relative importance of each of those effects. The effects of these activated surfaces may be to enhance the adhesion and toxicity of the particles. Also key to the importance of activation is the lifetimes of activated states in various environments which is controlled by their passivation rate as well as their activation rate. Although techniques exist to characterize the extent of activation of particles in biological system, it is important to be able to quantify the activation state on the lunar surface, in ground-test vacuum systems, and in habitat atmospheres as well.

  20. Radiative transfer in the surfaces of atmosphereless bodies. III - Interpretation of lunar photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumme, K.; Irvine, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Narrowband and UBV photoelectric phase curves of the entire lunar disk and surface photometry of some craters have been interpreted using a newly developed generalized radiative transfer theory for planetary regoliths. The data are well fitted by the theory, yielding information on both macroscopic and microscopic lunar properties. Derived values for the integrated disk geometric albedo are considerably higher than quoted previously, because of the present inclusion of an accurately determined opposition effect. The mean surface roughness, defined as the ratio of the height to the radius of a typical irregularity, is found to be 0.9 + or - 0.1, or somewhat less than the mean value of 1.2 obtained for the asteroids. From the phase curves, wavelength-dependent values of the single scattering albedo and the Henyey-Greenstein asymmetry factor for the average surface particle are derived.

  1. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Kiselev, A.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Bazilevsky, A. T.; Bondarenko, A.; Moiseev, P.

    2013-09-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2015) and Luna-Resurs (launch in 2017) Russian surface missions. The LIS is mounted on the mechanic arm of landing module in the field of view (45°) of stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast together with High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface area in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The electrically commanded acousto-optic filter scans sequentially at a desired sampling, with random access, over the entire spectral range.

  2. High Angular Resolution Imaging of Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, Robert J.; Lazio, Joseph; Bale, Stuart; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, William M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin Christophe; Weiler, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages, including positional stability and a very low ionospheric radio cutoff. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory on the lunar Surface for Solar studies (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The preferred site is on the lunar near side to simplify the data downlink to Earth. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by measuring the low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions or background galactic radio emission, measuring the flux, particle mass, and arrival direction of interplanetary and interstellar dust, and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays. Key design requirements on ROLSS include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs below 10 M Hz, essentially unobservable from Earth's surface due to the terrestrial ionospheric cutoff. Resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2 deg at 10 MHz, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately one kilometer. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms, each of 500 m length, arranged in a Y formation, with a central electronics package (CEP) at their intersection. Each antenna arm is a linear strip of polyimide film (e.g., Kapton(TradeMark)) on which 16 single

  3. An in Situ Technique for Elemental Analysis of Lunar Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, K. Y.; Cremers, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An in situ analytical technique that can remotely determine the elemental constituents of solids has been demonstrated. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a form of atomic emission spectroscopy in which a powerful laser pulse is focused on a solid to generate a laser spark, or microplasma. Material in the plasma is vaporized, and the resulting atoms are excited to emit light. The light is spectrally resolved to identify the emitting species. LIBS is a simple technique that can be automated for inclusion aboard a remotely operated vehicle. Since only optical access to a sample is required, areas inaccessible to a rover can be analyzed remotely. A single laser spark both vaporizes and excites the sample so that near real-time analysis (a few minutes) is possible. This technique provides simultaneous multielement detection and has good sensitivity for many elements. LIBS also eliminates the need for sample retrieval and preparation preventing possible sample contamination. These qualities make the LIBS technique uniquely suited for use in the lunar environment.

  4. Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

  5. Radiative transfer modeling for quantifying lunar surface minerals, particle size, and submicroscopic metallic Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuai; Li, Lin

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to quantify lunar surface minerals (agglutinate, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, and volcanic glass), particle sizes, and the abundance of submicroscopic metallic Fe (SMFe) from the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) data set with Hapke's radiative transfer theory. The mode is implemented for both forward and inverse modeling. We implement Hapke's radiative transfer theory in the inverse mode in which, instead of commonly used look-up tables, Newton's method and least squares are jointly used to solve nonlinear questions. Although the effects of temperature and surface roughness are incorporated into the implementation to improve the model performance for application of lunar spacecraft data, these effects cannot be extensively addressed in the current work because of the use of lab-measured reflectance data. Our forward radiative transfer model results show that the correlation coefficients between modeled and measured spectra are over 0.99. For the inverse model, the distribution of the particle sizes is all within their measured range. The range of modeled SMFe for highland samples is 0.01%-0.5%, and for mare samples it is 0.03%-1%. The linear trend between SMFe and ferromagnetic resonance (Is) for all the LSCC samples is consistent with laboratory measurements. For quantifying lunar mineral abundances, the results show that the R squared for the training samples (Is/FeO ≤ 65) are over 0.65 with plagioclase having highest correlation (0.94) and pyroxene having the lowest correlation (0.68). In future work, the model needs to be improved for handling more mature lunar soil samples.

  6. Estimation of Lunar Surface Permittivity for Low Frequency from Polarizations of Natural Waves Observed by SELENE (Kaguya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Y.; Kimura, R.; Kasahara, Y.; Kumamoto, A.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface permittivity is an important parameter for understanding the Moon and has been observed by many radar experiments from spacecraft since 1960s. In these observations, frequencies of radio transmissions are generally high (HF to UHF band) because of instrumental limitations. One of the interesting topics about the lunar surface permittivity is its frequency response in lower bands. It is known that frequency response of permittivity in the low bands can be a good indicator of the moisture content. In theory, there is a considerable difference between the permittivity of dry soil and ice especially below 100 kHz.The lunar orbiter SELENE (Kaguya) carried out radar observations of the lunar subsurface structures and passive observations of natural waves with the Lunar Radar Sounder instrument (LRS). In the passive observations, an electromagnetic wave from the Earth's auroral region that is called auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) was frequently observed in low frequency (LF) band. An interesting feature of AKR observation from SELENE is that the observed AKR consists of not only waves reached directly from the Earth's auroral region but also waves reflected on the lunar surface. Since such reflections influence polarizations of the observed AKR, we can estimate the lunar surface permittivity for low frequency waves from the comparison between observed polarizations and those theoretically calculated for various parameter sets of the lunar surface. As a result, the observed polarizations are well reconstructed when the permittivity of the lunar surface is assumed to be around 4 to 8 in average. In the presentation, we show the regional distributions of the permittivity that is derived from detailed data analysis and compare them with permittivity map for high frequencies (HF band) that are derived from radar observations from SELENE.

  7. ESCA studies of the surface chemistry of lunar fines. [Electron Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Grant, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents an ESCA analysis based on the use of a synthetic lunar-glass standard that allows determination of the surface composition of lunar samples with an accuracy that appears to be better than 10% of the amount present for all major elements except Ti. It is found that, on the average, grain surfaces in the lunar fines samples 10084 and 15301 are strongly enriched in Si, moderately enriched in Fe, moderately depleted in Al and Ca, and strongly depleted in Mg. This pattern could not be produced by the deposition of any expected meteoritic vapor. Neither could it be produced by simple inverse-mass-dependent element loss during sputtering. It is suggested that at least part of the pattern may be a simple consequence of agglutinate glass formation in the fines since there is some evidence that Si can become enriched on the surface of silicate melts. These results do not support the strong enrichments in Fe on grain surfaces reported from Auger studies.

  8. Lunar far side surface navigation using Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesar, Siamak G.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Leonard, Jason M.; McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Born, George H.

    2015-12-01

    We study the application of Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON) to track vehicles on the far side of the lunar surface. The LiAISON architecture is demonstrated to achieve accurate orbit determination solutions for various mission scenarios in the Earth-Moon system. Given the proper description of the force field, LiAISON is capable of producing absolute orbit determination solutions using relative satellite-to-satellite tracking observations alone. The lack of direct communication between Earth-based tracking stations and the far side of the Moon provides an ideal opportunity for implementing LiAISON. This paper presents a novel approach to use the LiAISON architecture to perform autonomous navigation of assets on the lunar far side surface. Relative measurements between a spacecraft placed in an EML-2 halo orbit and lunar surface asset(s) are simulated and processed. Comprehensive simulation results show that absolute states of the surface assets are observable with an achieved accuracy of the position estimate on the order of tens of meters.

  9. Near-surface magnetic fields and dust transport at lunar swirls (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, I.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Bright swirl-shaped regions on the Moon have remained as one of the most enigmatic lunar geologic features. Generally, lunar swirls have high albedo, low optical maturity, and often exhibit dark, optically mature lanes that interweave with brighter areas. Swirls are associated with the strongest lunar magnetic anomalies, some of which are antipodal to large basins. No completely satisfactory model for swirl formation has emerged. The most promising model suggests that the magnetic anomalies associated with swirls stand off the solar wind and prevent darkening of the underlying soil [1]. Under this model, dark lanes are produced by enhanced fluxes of deflected protons. Because the focusing width of these deflected protons is limited by the proton gyroradius, we can use the width of dark lanes to estimate the near-surface magnetic field at lunar swirls. At Reiner Gamma swirl the width of some lanes approach ~500 m. Assuming a gyroradius of 250 m and typical solar wind parameters, the near-surface fields must be ~12,000 nT, which is >35 times the strongest field measured by the Apollo surface magnetometers. If we model the 12,000 nT fields as due to near-surface magnetized disks with size scales similar to those of the dark lanes, their required magnetization is >20 A/m. However, the most magnetic lunar samples measured have a magnetization of only ~1 A/m. Therefore, Reiner Gamma is either associated with unusually magnetic near-surface material, or the solar wind standoff hypothesis and its dark lane formation mechanism is incomplete. Either of these conclusions is interesting, but we will assume the latter scenario. We do so in part because the standoff model has other difficulties. For example, magnetic fields do not shield out micrometeoroids, which also darken lunar soil. Furthermore, we have identified unique spectral properties of swirl interiors. Plots of band strength (950/750 nm) vs. albedo (750 nm) form parallel clusters, but they are continuously displaced

  10. Solar Wind Implantation into Lunar Regolith: Hydrogen Retention in a Surface with Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    Solar wind protons are implanted directly into the top 100 nm of the lunar near-surface region, but can either quickly diffuse out of the surface or be retained, depending upon surface temperature and the activation energy, U, associated with the implantation site. In this work, we explore the distribution of activation energies upon implantation and the associated hydrogen-retention times; this for comparison with recent observation of OH on the lunar surface. We apply a Monte Carlo approach: for simulated solar wind protons at a given local time, we assume a distribution of U values with a central peak, U(sub c) and width, U(sub w), and derive the fraction retained for long periods in the near-surface. We find that surfaces characterized by a distribution with predominantly large values of U (greater than 1 eV) like that expected at defect sites will retain implanted H (to likely form OH). Surfaces with the distribution predominantly at small values of U (less than 0.2 eV) will quickly diffuse away implanted H. However, surfaces with a large portion of activation energies between 0.3 eV less than U less than 0.9 eV will tend to be H-retentive in cool conditions but transform into H-emissive surfaces when warmed (as when the surface rotates into local noon). These mid-range activation energies give rise to a diurnal effect with diffusive loss of H at noontime.

  11. Solar Wind Implantation into Lunar Regolith: Hydrogen Retention in a Surface with Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Hurley, D.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2014-12-01

    Solar wind protons are implanted directly into the top 100 nanometers of the lunar near-surface region, but can either quickly diffuse out of the surface or be retained, depending upon surface temperature and the activation energy, U, associated with the implantation site. In this work, we explore the distribution of activation energies upon implantation and the associated hydrogen-retention times; this for comparison with recent observation of OH on the lunar surface. We apply a Monte Carlo approach: for simulated solar wind protons at a given local time, we assume a distribution of U values with a central peak, Uc and width, Uw, and derive the fraction retained for long periods in the near-surface. We find that surfaces characterized by a distribution with predominantly large values of U (> 1 eV) like that expected at defect sites will retain implanted Hs (to likely form OH). Surfaces with the distribution predominantly at small values of U (< 0.2 eV) will quickly diffuse away implanted Hs. However, surfaces with a large portion of implantation activation energies between 0.3 eV < U < 0.9 eV will tend to be H-retentive in cool conditions but transform into H-emissive surfaces when warmed (as when the surface rotates into local noon). These mid-range activation energies give rise to a diurnal effect with diffusive loss of H at noontime.

  12. Solar wind implantation into lunar regolith: Hydrogen retention in a surface with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2015-07-01

    Solar wind protons are implanted directly into the top 100 nm of the lunar near-surface region, but can either quickly diffuse out of the surface or be retained, depending upon surface temperature and the activation energy, U, associated with the implantation site. In this work, we explore the distribution of activation energies upon implantation and the associated hydrogen-retention times; this for comparison with recent observation of OH on the lunar surface. We apply a Monte Carlo approach: for simulated solar wind protons at a given local time, we assume a distribution of U values with a central peak, Uc and width, Uw, and derive the fraction retained for long periods in the near-surface. We find that surfaces characterized by a distribution with predominantly large values of U (>1 eV) like that expected at defect sites will retain implanted H (to likely form OH). Surfaces with the distribution predominantly at small values of U (<0.2 eV) will quickly diffuse away implanted H. However, surfaces with a large portion of activation energies between 0.3 eV < U < 0.9 eV will tend to be H-retentive in cool conditions but transform into H-emissive surfaces when warmed (as when the surface rotates into local noon). These mid-range activation energies give rise to a diurnal effect with diffusive loss of H at noontime.

  13. Detecting Volatiles Deep in the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, A.; Heggy, E.; Ciarletti, V.; Colaprete, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Siegler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence, from the Apollo era and after, of volatiles deep in the lunar interior, in the crust and deeper, both hydrogen-rich and otherwise. This comes in the form of fire fountain samples from Apollo 15 and Apollo 17, of hydrated minerals excavated by impacts which reach the base of the lunar crust e.g., crater Bullialdus, of hydration of apatite and other minerals, as well as predictions of a water-concentrated layer along with the KREEP material at the base of the lunar crust. We discuss how the presence of these volatiles might be directly explored. In particular water vapor molecules percolating to the surface through lunar regolith might be expected to stick and freeze into the regolith, at depths of several meters depending on the regolith temperature profile, porosity and particle size distribution, quantities that are not well known beyond two meters depth. To explore these depths in the regolith we use and propose several modes of penetrating radar. We will present results using the SELENE/Kaguya's Lunar Sounding RADAR (LSR) to probe the bulk volatile dielectric and loss structure properties of the regolith in various locations, both within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and without, and within neutron suppression regions (NSRs) as traced by epithermal neutrons and without. We also propose installation of ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) on a roving lunar platform that should be able to probe between 0.2 and 1.6 GHz, which will provide a probe of the entire depth of the lunar regolith as well as a high-resolution (about 4 cm FWHM) probe of the upper meter or two of the lunar soil, where other probes of volatiles such as epithermal neutron absorption or drilling might be employed. We discuss predictions for what kinds of volatile density profiles might be distinguished in this way, and whether these will be detected from orbit as NSRs, whether these must be restricted to PSRs, and how these might appear in

  14. Assessment of the 802.11g Wireless Protocol for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David T.; Bguyen, Hung D.; Foore, Lawrence R.

    2009-01-01

    Future lunar surface missions supporting the NASA Vision for Space Exploration will rely on wireless networks to transmit voice and data. The ad hoc network architecture is of particular interest since it does not require a complex infrastructure. In this report, we looked at data performance over an ad hoc network with varying distances between Apple AirPort wireless cards. We developed a testing program to transmit data packets at precise times and then monitored the receive time to characterize connection delay, packet loss, and data rate. Best results were received for wireless links of less than 75 ft, and marginally acceptable (25-percent) packet loss was received at 150 ft. It is likely that better results will be obtained on the lunar surface because of reduced radiofrequency interference; however, higher power transmitters or receivers will be needed for significant performance gains.

  15. Stair-Step Particle Flux Spectra on the Lunar Surface: Evidence for Nonmonotonic Potentials?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Newheart, Anastasia; Poppe, Andrew R.; Hills, H. Kent; Farrell, William M.

    2016-01-01

    We present examples of unusual "stair-step" differential flux spectra observed by the Apollo 14 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment on the lunar dayside surface in Earth's magnetotail. These spectra exhibit a relatively constant differential flux below some cutoff energy and then drop off precipitously, by about an order of magnitude or more, at higher energies. We propose that these spectra result from photoions accelerated on the lunar dayside by nonmonotonic potentials (i.e.,potentials that do not decay to zero monotonically) and present a model for the expected differential flux. The energy of the cutoff and the magnitude of the differential flux are related to the properties of the local space environment and are consistent with the observed flux spectra. If this interpretation is correct, these surface-based ion observations provide a unique perspective that both complements and enhances the conclusions obtained by remote-sensing orbiter observations on the Moon's exospheric and electrostatic properties.

  16. A study of electric power transmission lines for use on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.; Gaustad, Krista L.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical models have been developed to study the operating characteristics of electrical transmission lines for use on the lunar surface. Important design considerations for a transmission line operating on the lunar surface are mass, temperature, and efficiency. Transmission line parameters which impact these considerations include voltage, power loss, and waveform. The electrical and thermal models developed are used to calculate transmission line mass, size, and temperature as a function of voltage, geometry, waveform, location, and efficiency. The analyses include ac and dc for above and below ground operation. Geometries studied include a vacuum-insulated, two-wire transmission line and a solid-dielectric insulated, coaxial transmission line. A brief discussion of design considerations and the models developed is followed by results for parameter studies for both dc and ac transmission lines.

  17. Integrating Radar, Multispectral, and Landing Site Data for Analysis of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Thompson, T. W.; Hawke, B. R.

    1998-01-01

    Radar maps of the Moon have been produced since the late 1960s, and have been used by a number of authors to study the surface roughness, subsurface rock abundance, and dielectric properties of the lunar surface. These studies focused on a range of topics, including the depth and rock population of the regolith, crater ejecta blankets, pyroclastic mantling layers, and cryptomare deposits. Limited radar sounding data from the Apollo missions identified layering in some regions of the maria. As radar datasets have improved in resolution and calibration, it has become more possible to make quantitative comparisons between the backscatter properties of the Moon, other remote-sensing observations, and the ground truth provided by Surveyor photos and Apollo traverses. This presentation will focus on the results of recent studies of the lunar regolith that make use of these diverse sources of information, and discuss research directions that will be possible with radar data to be collected in the near future.

  18. Development of a refrigeration system for lunar surface and spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of refrigeration devices suitable for potential lunar surface and spacecraft applications was performed. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the vapor compression system is the best overall refrigeration system for lunar surface and spacecraft applications and the single phase radiator system is generally preferred for earth orbit applications, (2) the vapor compression cycle may have some application for simultaneous heating and cooling, (3) a Stirling cycle refrigerator was selected for the manned cabin of the space shuttle, and (4) significant increases in payload heat rejection can be obtained by a kit vapor compression refrigerator added to the shuttle R-21 loop. The following recommendations were made: (1) a Stirling cycle refrigerator may be used for food freezer and biomedical sample storage, (2) the best system for a food freezer/experiments compartment for an earth orbit space station has not been determined, (3) a deployed radiator system can be designed for large heat loads in earth orbit.

  19. Lunar shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, P.; Garcia, M.; Higham, D.; Spackman, D.; Garcia, J.; Chapman, T.; Cook, M.; Jelke, J.; Slingerland, G.; Anderson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the extension of human presence into the solar system include the establishment of a permanently occupied base on the Moon for use as a source of raw materials, a transportation node, a facility for the fabrication and launch of elements of the space exploration infrastructure, and a base for scientific investigation and astronomical observatories. All of the aforementioned uses of a lunar base foresee the requirement for a lunar shuttle to operate from the lunar surface to one or more orbiting space stations located in low lunar orbits (LLO). The Utah State University lunar shuttle design is baslined for implementation after a mature lunar base has been established. The shuttle is designed to operate between the lunar base and a space station located in a 400-km-altitude orbit. This orbit was chosen with reference to Apollo experience, which has indicated that very low orbits, on the order of 100-km, may be unstable over periods of many months. After a thorough investigation of the anticipated needs and production capabilities of a lunar base, several design requirements were placed upon the shuttle. These requirements are (1) maximum use of lunar-derived propellant; (2) modularity and payload versatility; (3) two-way transport of 25-metric-ton cargo; (4) human transport capability; (5) satellite servicing; and (6) 3000-kg mass budget.

  20. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  1. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use.

  2. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  3. Lunar surface processes and cosmic ray histories over the past several million years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Rancitelli, L. A.; Evans, J. C.; Perkins, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the Al-26 and Mn-53 in interior portions of lunar rocks have shown that lunar surface processes which move a significant fraction of kilogram size rocks on the lunar surface occur on time scales of a few million years. These measurements, together with noble gas age dating have made it possible to define the history for nine rock samples selected from whole rock counting data because of anomalously low Al-26 relative to Na-22. Six of the rocks from the Apollo 15 and 16 missions showed evidence of movement during the past five million years. Of these six, only two are of an age consistent with their origin from the South Ray Crater Event. In addition, our measurements of Na-22 and Al-26 in Apollo 17 double drive tube 74001-74002 suggest that one to two cm of soil is missing from the top of this core tube. Even with this loss, at least two cm of gardening is indicated in the top portion of 74002.

  4. Evaluation of Brushing as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Journey, Khrissaundra; Christopher, Steven; Davis, Shanon

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of brushing to remove lunar simulant dust from thermal control surfaces is described. First, strip brushes made with nylon, PTFE, or Thunderon (Nihon Sanmo Dyeing Company Ltd.) bristles were used to remove JSC-1AF dust from AZ93 thermal control paint or aluminized FEP (AlFEP) thermal control surface under ambient laboratory conditions. Nylon and PTFE bristles removed a promising amount of dust from AZ93, and nylon and Thunderon bristles from AlFEP. But when these were tested under simulated lunar conditions in the lunar dust adhesion bell jar (LDAB), they were not effective. In a third effort, seven brushes made up of three different materials, two different geometries, and different bristle lengths and thicknesses were tested under laboratory conditions against AZ93 and AlFEP. Two of these brushes, the Zephyr fiberglass fingerprint brush and the Escoda nylon fan brush, removed over 90 percent of the dust, and so were tested in the fourth effort in the LDAB. They also performed well under these conditions recovering 80 percent or more of the original thermal performance (solar absorptance/thermal emittance) of both AZ93 and AgFEP after 20 strokes, and 90 or more percent after 200 strokes

  5. Evaluation of Brushing as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Journey, Hhrissaundra; Christopher, Steven; Davis, Shanon

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of brushing to remove lunar simulant dust from thermal control surfaces is described. First, strip brushes made with nylon, PTFE, or Thunderon bristles were used to remove JSC-1AF dust from AZ93 thermal control paint or aluminized FEP (AlFEP) thermal control surface under ambient laboratory conditions. Nylon and PTFE bristles removed a promising amount of dust from AZ93, and nylon and Thunderon bristles from AlFEP. But when these were tested under simulated lunar conditions in the lunar dust adhesion bell jar (LDAB), they were not effective. In a third effort, seven brushes made up of three different materials, two different geometries, and different bristle lengths and thicknesses were tested under laboratory conditions against AZ93 and AlFEP. Two of these brushes, the Zephyr fiberglass fingerprint brush and the Escoda nylon fan brush, removed over 90 percent of the dust, and so were tested in the fourth effort in the LDAB. They also performed well under these conditions recovering 80 percent or more of the original thermal performance (solar absorptance/thermal emittance) of both AZ93 and AgFEP after 20 strokes, and 90 or more percent after 200 strokes.

  6. Dependence of Lunar Surface Charging on Solar Wind Plasma Conditions and Solar Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Burchill, J. K.; Collier, M. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Vondrak, R. R.; Delory, G. T.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    The surface of the Moon is electrically charged by exposure to solar radiation on its dayside, as well as by the continuous flux of charged particles from the various plasma environments that surround it. An electric potential develops between the lunar surface and ambient plasma, which manifests itself in a near-surface plasma sheath with a scale height of order the Debye length. This study investigates surface charging on the lunar dayside and near-terminator regions in the solar wind, for which the dominant current sources are usually from the pohotoemission of electrons, J(sub p), and the collection of plasma electrons J(sub e) and ions J(sub i). These currents are dependent on the following six parameters: plasma concentration n(sub 0), electron temperature T(sub e), ion temperature T(sub i), bulk flow velocity V, photoemission current at normal incidence J(sub P0), and photo electron temperature T(sub p). Using a numerical model, derived from a set of eleven basic assumptions, the influence of these six parameters on surface charging - characterized by the equilibrium surface potential, Debye length, and surface electric field - is investigated as a function of solar zenith angle. Overall, T(sub e) is the most important parameter, especially near the terminator, while J(sub P0) and T(sub p) dominate over most of the dayside.

  7. Path Loss Prediction Over the Lunar Surface Utilizing a Modified Longley-Rice Irregular Terrain Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foore, Larry; Ida, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    This study introduces the use of a modified Longley-Rice irregular terrain model and digital elevation data representative of an analogue lunar site for the prediction of RF path loss over the lunar surface. The results are validated by theoretical models and past Apollo studies. The model is used to approximate the path loss deviation from theoretical attenuation over a reflecting sphere. Analysis of the simulation results provides statistics on the fade depths for frequencies of interest, and correspondingly a method for determining the maximum range of communications for various coverage confidence intervals. Communication system engineers and mission planners are provided a link margin and path loss policy for communication frequencies of interest.

  8. Radar studies of the planets. [radar measurements of lunar surface, Mars, Mercury, and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, R. P.; Pettengill, G. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Sebring, P. B. (Editor); Shapiro, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    The radar measurements phase of the lunar studies involving reflectivity and topographic mapping of the visible lunar surface was ended in December 1972, but studies of the data and production of maps have continued. This work was supported by Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Topographic mapping of the equatorial regions of Mars has been carried out during the period of each opposition since that of 1967. The method comprised extended precise traveling time measurements to a small area centered on the subradar point. As measurements continued, planetary motions caused this point to sweep out extensive areas in both latitude and longitude permitting the development of a fairly extensive topographical map in the equatorial region. Radar observations of Mercury and Venus have also been made over the past few years. Refinements of planetary motions, reflectivity maps and determinations of rotation rates have resulted.

  9. Simulation of Lunar Surface Communications Network Exploration Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Thomas W.; Bhasin, Kul B.; White, Alex; Palangala, Srihari

    2006-01-01

    Simulations and modeling of surface-based communications networks provides a rapid and cost effective means of requirement analysis, protocol assessments, and tradeoff studies. Robust testing in especially important for exploration systems, where the cost of deployment is high and systems cannot be easily replaced or repaired. However, simulation of the envisioned exploration networks cannot be achieved using commercial off the shelf network simulation software. Models for the nonstandard, non-COTS protocols used aboard space systems are not readily available. This paper will address the simulation of realistic scenarios representative of the activities which will take place on the surface of the Moon, including selection of candidate network architectures, and the development of an integrated simulation tool using OPNET modeler capable of faithfully modeling those communications scenarios in the variable delay, dynamic surface environments. Scenarios for exploration missions, OPNET development, limitations, and simulations results will be provided and discussed.

  10. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  11. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  12. On a correlation between surface remanent magnetism and chemistry for the lunar frontside and limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Lin, R. P.; Russell, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    Image-processing techniques applied to orbital data have revealed an inverse correlation between lunar surface remanent magnetism and surface concentrations of Fe and Th on a scale of 250 km and greater. The effect can be understood in terms of the implantation of magnetism early in the history of the moon, coupled with the chronological sequence of highland-mare crustal differentiation. The exception seen at the Fra Mauro region suggests the presence of a source of magnetization sometime within 0.3-0.6 b.y. after formation of the moon.

  13. Studies related to the surfaces of the moon and planets. [a discussion of vapor deposition and glasses of lunar composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1974-01-01

    A variety of glasses of lunar composition were prepared with different amounts of Fe and Ti under both reducing and oxidizing conditions, and also by sputter-deposition and thermal evaporation and condensation. These materials were analyzed by wet chemical, electron microprobe, ESR, Mossbauer and magnetic methods. The effects of darkening processes on surface soils of airless bodies are discussed along with the effects of vapor phase deposition processes on the optical, chemical, and magnetic properties of the lunar regolith.

  14. Phase-ratio technique as applied to the assessment of lunar surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaydash, Vadym; Videen, Gorden; Shkuratov, Yuriy

    Regoliths of atmosphereless celestial bodies demonstrate prominent light backscattering that is common for particulate surfaces. This occurs over a wide range of phase angles and can be seen in the phase function [1]. The slope of the function may characterize the complexity of planetary surface structure. Imagery of such a parameter suggests that information can be obtained about the surface, like variations of unresolved surface roughness and microtopography [2]. Phase-ratio imagery allows one to characterize the phase function slope. This imagery requires the ratio of two co-registered images acquired at different phase angles. One important advantage of the procedure is that the inherent albedo variations of the surface are suppressed, and, therefore, the resulting image is sensitive to the surface structure variation [2,3]. The phase-ratio image characterizes surface roughness variation at spatial scales on the order of the incident wavelengths to that of the image resolution. Applying the phase-ratio technique to ground-based telescope data has allowed us to find new lunar surface formations in the southern part of Oceanus Procellarum. These are suggested to be weak swirls [4]. We also combined the phase-ratio technique with the space-derived photometry data acquired from the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter with high spatial resolution. Thus we exploited the method to analyze the sites of Apollo landings and Soviet sample-return missions. Phase-ratio imagery has revealed anomalies of the phase-curve slope indicating a smoothing of the surface microstructure at the sites caused by dust uplifted by the engine jets of the descent and ascent modules [5,6]. Analysis of phase-ratios helps to understand how the regolith properties have been affected by robotic and human activity on the Moon [7,8]. We have demonstrated the use of the method to search for fresh natural disturbances of surface structure, e.g., to detect areas of fresh slumps, accumulated material on

  15. Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles and drilling equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Kenji; Kojima, Masaki; Kinkori, Shuuzou; Suzuki, Manji; Kawashima, Nobuki; Nakatani, Ichirou

    1991-07-01

    Running gears for the Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles and the drilling equipment for the vehicles used to conduct underground exploration are studied. Review results on moving, driving, and running system for the vehicle are presented. For the driving system, comparison between conventional wheel system and crawler system are shown in a comprehensive table, and measures for failures are suggested. As for the development of the drilling equipment, the following items are presented: (1) methods of underground exploration; (2) methods of drilling (core boring and auger boring); (3) specifications for and the results of trial production of the experimental boring machine; (4) results of experimental boring machine operation on a simulated Mars surface; and (5) excavating capability of the experimental boring machine.

  16. Mobile continuous lunar excavation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, John L.

    A novel approach to the concept of lunar mining and the use of in situ oxygen, metallics, and ceramics is presented. The EVA time required to set up, relocate, and maintain equipment, as well as the cost per pound of shipping the mining and processing equipment to the moon are considered. The proposed soil fracturing/loading mechanisms are all based loosely on using the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Frame. All use motor driven tracks for mobility in the forward/reverse and left/right direction. All mechanisms employ the concept of rototillers which are attached to a gantry which, through the use of motor-driven lead screws, provide the rototillers with an up/down capability. A self-reactant excavator, a local mass enhanced excavator, and a soil reactant excavator are illustrated.

  17. Mobile continuous lunar excavation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterson, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A novel approach to the concept of lunar mining and the use of in situ oxygen, metallics, and ceramics is presented. The EVA time required to set up, relocate, and maintain equipment, as well as the cost per pound of shipping the mining and processing equipment to the moon are considered. The proposed soil fracturing/loading mechanisms are all based loosely on using the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Frame. All use motor driven tracks for mobility in the forward/reverse and left/right direction. All mechanisms employ the concept of rototillers which are attached to a gantry which, through the use of motor-driven lead screws, provide the rototillers with an up/down capability. A self-reactant excavator, a local mass enhanced excavator, and a soil reactant excavator are illustrated.

  18. Fully Printed, Flexible, Phased Array Antenna for Lunar Surface Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Hen, Ray T.; Lu, Xuejun; Chen, Maggie Yihong

    2013-01-01

    NASAs future exploration missions focus on the manned exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond, which will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure from planetary surface-to-surface, surface-to-orbit, and back to Earth. Flexible antennas are highly desired in many scenarios. Active phased array antennas (active PAAs) with distributed control and processing electronics at the surface of an antenna aperture offer numerous advantages for radar communications. Large-area active PAAs on flexible substrates are of particular interest in NASA s space radars due to their efficient inflatable package that can be rolled up during transportation and deployed in space. Such an inflatable package significantly reduces stowage volume and mass. Because of these performance and packaging advantages, large-area inflatable active PAAs are highly desired in NASA s surface-to-orbit and surface-to-relay communications. To address the issues of flexible electronics, a room-temperature printing process of active phased-array antennas on a flexible Kapton substrate was developed. Field effect transistors (FETs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with many unique physical properties, were successfully proved feasible for the PAA system. This innovation is a new type of fully inkjet-printable, two-dimensional, high-frequency PAA on a flexible substrate at room temperature. The designed electronic circuit components, such as the FET switches in the phase shifter, metal interconnection lines, microstrip transmission lines, etc., are all printed using a special inkjet printer. Using the developed technology, entire 1x4, 2x2, and 4x4 PAA systems were developed, packaged, and demonstrated at 5.3 GHz. Several key solutions are addressed in this work to solve the fabrication issues. The source/drain contact is developed using droplets of silver ink printed on the source/drain areas prior to applying CNT thin-film. The wet silver ink droplets allow the silver to

  19. An Affordable Test Approach for Lunar Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James; Mason, Lee

    2008-01-21

    The objective of the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) development and qualification program is to assure that the components, subsystems and complete power system satisfy all of their mission requirements with a sufficiently high level of confidence. To accomplish this objective, the FSPS program will conduct nuclear and non-nuclear development and testing in compliance with standard NASA practice for all of the reactor, power conversion, and system integration hardware and software items. The anticipated program includes extensive performance and environmental testing of components throughout their predicted operational conditions and possible fault conditions.

  20. Cosmogenic Cl-36 production rates in meteorites and the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Kubik, P. W.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Activity vs. depth profiles of cosmic ray produced Cl-36 were measured in metal from two cores each in the St. Severin and Jilin chondrites and in lunar core 15008. Production of Cl-36 in these samples range from high-energy reactions with Fe and Ni to low-energy reactions with Ca and K and possibly neutron-capture reactions with Cl-36. The cross sections used in the Reedy-Arnold model for neutron-induced reactions were adjusted to get production rates that fit the measured Cl-36 activities in St. Severin metal and in the lunar soil of core 15008. The Cl-36 in metal from St. Severin has a fairly flat activity-vs-depth profile, unlike most other cosmogenic nuclides in bulk samples from St. Severin, which increase in concentration with depth. In metal from Jilin, a decrease in Cl-36 was observed near its center. The length of Jilin's most recent cosmic-ray exposure was approximately 0.5 My. Lunar core 15008 has an excess in Cl-36 of about 4 dpm/kg near its surface that was produced by solar-proton-induced reactions. The calculated production rates are consistent with these measured trends in 15008.

  1. Development of Mini-Landers for Very Small Lunar Surface Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, NASA has invested in development and risk-reduction activities for a new generation of planetary landers capable of carrying instruments and technology demonstrations to the lunar surface and other airless bodies. The Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project (RLLDP) is jointly implemented by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The RLLDP team has produced mission architecture designs for multiple airless body missions to meet both science and human precursor mission needs. The mission architecture concept studies encompass small, medium, and large landers, with payloads from a few kilograms to over 1000 kg, to the Moon and other airless bodies. The payload and concept of operations for the U.S. contribution to the ILN was guided by an independent Science Definition Team, which required each node to operate for 6 years continuously, including through lunar eclipse periods, and to carry a seismometer, heatflow probe, retroreflector, and electromagnetic sounding instrument. Some configuration trades using penetrators, hard landers, and soft landers are discussed in [1, 2]; the preferred concept became soft-landing propulsive landers discussed in [3]. The landers were sized primairly according to their power systems: an ASRG lander configuration is estimated at 155 kg dry mass, which includes a payload suite estimated at 23 kg including payload accommodation and deployment; a solar array-battery (SAB) lander configuration is somewhat larger at 265 kg of dry mass including a 19 kg payload suite with payload accommodation

  2. Developments to Increase the Performance, Operational Versatility and Automation of a Lunar Surface Manipulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Marting M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and summarize the results of the development efforts for the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS) with respect to increasing the performance, operational versatility, and automation. Three primary areas of development are covered, including; the expansion of the operational envelope and versatility of the current LSMS test-bed, the design of a second generation LSMS, and the development of automation and remote control capability. The first generation LSMS, which has been designed, built, and tested both in lab and field settings, is shown to have increased range of motion and operational versatility. Features such as fork lift mode, side grappling of payloads, digging and positioning of lunar regolith, and a variety of special end effectors are described. LSMS operational viability depends on bei nagble to reposition its base from an initial position on the lander to a mobility chassis or fixed locations around the lunar outpost. Preliminary concepts are presented for the second generation LSMS design, which will perform this self-offload capability. Incorporating design improvements, the second generation will have longer reach and three times the payload capability, yet it will have approximately equivalent mass to the first generation. Lastly, this paper covers improvements being made to the control system of the LSMS test-bed, which is currently operated using joint velocity control with visual cues. These improvements include joint angle sensors, inverse kinematics, and automated controls.

  3. Cosmogenic /sup 36/Cl production rates in meteorites and the lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiizumi, K.; Kubik, P.W.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R.C.; Arnold, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Activity-versus-depth profiles of cosmic-ray-produced /sup 36/Cl were measured in metal from two cores each in the St. Severin and Jilin chondrites and in lunar core 15008. Production of /sup 36/Cl in these samples range from high-energy reactions with Fe and Ni to low-energy reactions with Ca and K and possibly neutron-capture reactions with /sup 35/Cl. The cross sections used in the Reedy-Arnold model for neutron-induced reactions were adjusted to get production rates that fit the measured /sup 36/Cl activities in St. Severin metal and in the lunar soil of core 15008. The /sup 36/Cl in metal from St. Severin has a fairly flat activity-versus-depth profile, unlike most other cosmogenic nuclides in bulk samples from St. Severin, which increase in concentration with depth. In metal from Jilin, a decrease in /sup 36/Cl was observed near its center. The length of Jilin's most recent cosmic-ray exposure was /approximately/0.5 My. Lunar core 15008 has an excess in /sup 36/Cl of about 4 dpm/kg near its surface that was produced by solar-proton-induced reactions. The calculated production rates are consistent with these measured trends in 15008. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Mapping and characterization of non-polar permanent shadows on the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, J. Andrew; Bussey, D. Benjamin; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Spudis, Paul D.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first globally complete inventory of permanent shadows on the lunar surface that are detectable with the current global instrument datasets, including discovery of regions with persistent shadows over geologic time periods as close to the equator as ±58° of latitude. These results were obtained through application of a ray tracing technique to the latest global topographic datasets from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Our analysis reveals that 13,361 km2 of surface in the northern hemisphere and 17,698 km2 in the southern hemisphere are permanently shadowed. We present maps showing the locations of all the permanent shadows detectable using these datasets then turn our focus toward the permanent shadows farthest from the poles. Each permanent shadow on the equator side of ±65° of latitude is shown in detail. Surface brightness temperature data derived from the Diviner mid-infrared radiometer on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter have been analyzed for four of these locations and found to have mid-day temperatures 75-120 K less than nearby comparison locations that experience direct daytime illumination. In some cases the permanently shadowed locations have nighttime temperatures 10-25 K lower than surroundings. The temperature results support our finding that these non-polar craters are permanently shadowed. The surface brightness temperature results also raise interesting questions about their ability to cold trap volatiles. Discovery of these non-polar permanently shadowed regions increases possible locations of water resources and high priority exploration targets on the Moon.

  5. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  6. Surface friction of rock in terrestrial and simulated lunar environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roepke, W. W.; Peng, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    The conventional probe-on-the rotating-disk concept was used to determine the surface friction in mineral probe/specimen interfaces. Nine rocks or minerals and two stainless steels were tested in both new (NT) and same track (ST) tests under three different pressure environments-atmospheric, UHV, and dry nitrogen. Each environment was further subdivided into two testing conditions, that is, ambient and elevated (135 C) temperatures. In NT tests, friction was the lowest in an atmospheric pressure condition for all rock types and increased to the largest in UHV ambient condition except for pyroxene and stainless steel. Friction values measured in dry nitrogen ambient condition lie between the two extremes. Heating tends to increase friction in atmospheric and dry nitrogen environment but decreases in UHV environment with the exception of stainless steel, basalt, and pyroxene. In ST tests, friction was the lowest in the first run and increased in subsequent runs except for stainless steel where the reverse was true. The increases leveled off after a few runs ranging from the second to the seventh depending on rock types.

  7. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Korablev, O.; Mantsevich, S.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R.; Kiselev, A.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bondarenko, A.; Dokuchaev, I.; Moiseev, P.; Victorov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Skorov, Y.; Bisikalo, D.; Velikodsky, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2017) and Luna- Resurs (launch in 2019) Russian surface missions. It's a pencil-beam spectrometer to be pointed by a robotic arm of the landing module. The instrument's field of view (FOV) of 1° is co-aligned with the FOV(45°) of a stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. It's spectrometer based on LIS with required redesign for ExoMars mission. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast coaligned with the FOV (5°) of High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers and are intended for study of the surface composition in the vicinity of the lander and rover. The spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface areas in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The spectral selection is provided by acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF), which scans the spectral range sequentially. Electrical command of the AOTF allows selecting the spectral sampling, and permits a random access if needed.

  8. Lunar Crater Mini-Wakes: Structure, Variability, and Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a regional plasma mini-wake. In the present work kinetic simulations are utilized to investigate how the most prominent structural aspects of a crater mini-wake are modulated during passage of a solar storm. In addition, the simulated particle fluxes are coupled into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut,. including triboelectric charging due to frictional contact with the lunar regolith, to characterize charging of the astronaut suit during the various stages of the storm. In some cases, triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, the present results suggest that wake structure plays a critical role in modulating the spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

  9. Manned lunar exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    The objectives, major missions, outlines of the systems, system structures, system configurations of the manned lunar surface site, and manned lunar transportation system are presented. Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), pressurized environment conditions, and operation schedule of manned lunar surface site are also outlined. This report is represented in viewgraphs only.

  10. Effect of Simulant Type on the Absorptance and Emittance of Dusted Thermal Control Surfaces in a Simulated Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program the effects of lunar dust on thermal control surfaces was found to be more significant than anticipated, with several systems overheating due to deposition of dust on them. In an effort to reduce risk to future missions, a series of tests has been initiated to characterize the effects of dust on these surfaces, and then to develop technologies to mitigate that risk. Given the variations in albedo across the lunar surface, one variable that may be important is the darkness of the lunar dust, and this study was undertaken to address that concern. Three thermal control surfaces, AZ-93 white paint and AgFEP and AlFEP second surface mirrors were dusted with three different lunar dust simulants in a simulated lunar environment, and their integrated solar absorptance ( ) and thermal emittance ( ) values determined experimentally. The three simulants included JSC-1AF, a darker mare simulant, NU-LHT-1D, a light highlands simulant, and 1:1 mixture of the two. The response of AZ-93 was found to be slightly more pronounced than that of AgFEP. The increased with fractional dust coverage in both types of samples by a factor of 1.7 to 3.3, depending on the type of thermal control surface and the type of dust. The of the AZ-93 decreased by about 10 percent when fully covered by dust, while that of AgFEP increased by about 10 percent. It was found that / varied by more than a factor of two depending on the thermal control surface and the darkness of the dust. Given that the darkest simulant used in this study may be lighter than the darkest dust that could be encountered on the lunar surface, it becomes apparent that the performance degradation of thermal control surfaces due to dust on the Moon will be strongly dependent on the and of the dust in the specific locality

  11. Effect of Simulant Type on the Absorptance and Emittance of Dusted Thermal Control Surfaces in a Simulated Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program the effects of lunar dust on thermal control surfaces was found to be more significant than anticipated, with several systems overheating due to deposition of dust on them. In an effort to reduce risk to future missions, a series of tests has been initiated to characterize the effects of dust on these surfaces, and then to develop technologies to mitigate that risk. Given the variations in albedo across the lunar surface, one variable that may be important is the darkness of the lunar dust, and this study was undertaken to address that concern. Three thermal control surfaces, AZ-93 white paint and AgFEP and AlFEP second surface mirrors were dusted with three different lunar dust simulants in a simulated lunar environment, and their solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity values determined experimentally. The three simulants included JSC 1AF, a darker mare simulant, NU-LHT-1D, a light highlands simulant, and 1:1 mixture of the two. The response of AZ-93 was found to be slightly more pronounced than that of AgFEP. The increased with fractional dust coverage in both types of samples by a factor of 1.7 to 3.3, depending on the type of thermal control surface and the type of dust. The of the AZ-93 decreased by about 10 percent when fully covered by dust, while that of AgFEP increased by about 10 percent. It was found that alpha/epsilon varied by more than a factor of two depending on the thermal control surface and the darkness of the dust. Given that the darkest simulant used in this study may be significantly lighter than the darkest dust that could be encountered on the lunar surface, it becomes apparent that the performance degradation of thermal control surfaces due to dust on the moon will be strongly dependent on the and of the dust in the specific locality.

  12. Beagle to the Moon: An Experiment Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Near the beginning of the next decade we will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface and have the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration

  13. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  14. Evaluation and selection of refrigeration systems for lunar surface and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Blount, T. D.; Williams, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluated are the various refrigeration machines which could be used to provide heat rejection in environmental control systems for lunar surface and spacecraft applications, in order to select the best refrigeration machine for satisfying each individual application and the best refrigeration machine for satisfying all of the applications. The refrigeration machine considered include: (1) vapor comparison cycle (work-driven); (2) vapor adsorption cycle (heat-driven); (3) vapor absorption cycle (heat-driven); (4) thermoelectric (electrically-driven); (5) gas cycle (work driven); (6) steam-jet (heat-driven).

  15. High altitude oblique view of lunar surface taken from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    High altitude oblique view of the lunar surface was taken from the Apollo 8 spacecraft looking northeastward. The crater Joliet-Curie, about 175 kilometers in diameter and centered near 94 degrees east longitude and 27 degrees north latitude, is near the center of the left side of this photograph. The bright-rayed crater near the horizon is probably located near 105 degrees east longitude and 45 degrees north latitude. Long, narrow rays that have been reported in the polar region of the earth-facing hemisphere may radiate from this crater.

  16. High altitude view of lunar surface taken from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    High altitude view of the lunar surface was taken from the Apollo 8 spacecraft looking southward across the crater Humboldt toward the Southern Sea. Humbolt, located at 80 degrees east longitude and 28 degrees south latitude, is the 225 kilometer crater at the top center margin of the picture. Note the high albado along cracks in the floor of the crater. Visible structures within the dark areas on the crater floor suggest the dark material is lava. Dark areas near the lower left corner of the picture are more deposits within the Southern Sea.

  17. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: DEPENDENCE OF THE SURFACE POTENTIAL ON THE GRAIN SIZE

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, Z.; Pavlu, J.; Safrankova, J.; Beranek, M.; Richterova, I.; Vaverka, J.; Mann, I.

    2011-09-01

    The secondary electron emission is believed to play an important role for the dust charging at and close to the lunar surface. However, our knowledge of emission properties of the dust results from model calculations and rather rare laboratory investigations. The present paper reports laboratory measurements of the surface potential on Lunar Highlands Type regolith simulants with sizes between 0.3 and 3 {mu}m in an electron beam with energy below 700 eV. This investigation is focused on a low-energy part, i.e., {<=}100 eV. We found that the equilibrium surface potential of this simulant does not depend on the grain size in our ranges of grain dimensions and the beam energies, however, it is a function of the primary electron beam energy. The measurements are confirmed by the results of the simulation model of the secondary emission from the spherical samples. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained in laboratory experiments as well as those inferred from in situ observations.

  18. Energy and Angular Distribution of GCR Secondary Particles from the Lunar Surface: CRaTER Observations and Geant4 Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Blake, B.; Spence, H. E.; Golightly, M. J.; Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Townsend, L. W.

    2012-12-01

    In previous work we have simulated in detail the production of secondary particles from the impact of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) on the lunar surface, and the response of the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) sensor aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft to both primary and secondary particles. Because the imaging science done by most of the other LRO sensors requires that those sensors look straight down at the lunar surface, most CRaTER observations are made with the bidirectional coincidence channels of the sensor responding to cosmic rays coming nearly straight down and secondary particles coming nearly straight up from the lunar surface, and these are the observations with which we have compared our simulations to date. However, LRO does spend some time pointing away from its nominal zenith/nadir orientation. Our simulations show that the flux of secondary particles becomes more intense and reaches to higher energies for particles coming off the surface away from the vertical direction. We present here the first results from a comparison of simulations of these harder, more intense parts of the secondary-particle population with observations of these particles as the sensor points more toward the lunar limb. In addition, previous work included GCR species from hydrogen to nickel, but secondary particles only from GCR protons and alphas; in the present work we add secondaries from heavier GCR ions to the simulated population.

  19. Assessment of Scheduling and Plan Execution of Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    Although over forty years have passed since first landing on the Moon, there is not yet a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of Apollo extravehicular activities (EVAs). Quantitatively evaluating lunar EVAs will provide a better understanding of the challenges involved with surface operations. This first evaluation of a surface EVA centers on comparing the planned and the as-ran timeline, specifically collecting data on discrepancies between durations that were estimated versus executed. Differences were summarized by task categories in order to gain insight as to the type of surface operation activities that were most challenging. One Apollo 14 EVA was assessed utilizing the described methodology. Selected metrics and task categorizations were effective, and limitations to this process were identified.

  20. Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations for EVA and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Davis, J. R.; Duncan, J. M.; Polk, J. D.; Jones, J. A.; Gillis, D. B.; Novak, J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential risk of injury to crewmembers is inherent in aggressive surface activities, whether they be Moon-, Mars-, or asteroid-based. In December 2005, the Space Medicine Division at JSC requested a study to identify Apollo mission issues that had an impact to crew health or performance or both. This talk focused on the Apollo EVA suit and lunar surface operations concerning crew health and performance. There were roughly 20 recommendations from this study of Apollo for improving these two areas for future exploration missions, a few of which were incorporated into the Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Dr. Richard Scheuring covered these topics along with some of the analog work that has been done regarding surface operations and medical contingencies.

  1. A Closer Look at Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Mansur, L.; Reinhold, C.

    2008-01-01

    Solar-wind induced potential sputtering of the lunar surface may be a more efficient erosive mechanism than the "standard" kinetic (or physical) sputtering. This is partly based on new but limited laboratory measurements which show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. The enhancements seen in the laboratory can be orders of magnitude for some surfaces and highly charged incident ions, but seem to depend very sensitively on the properties of the impacted surface in addition to the fluence, energy and charge of the impacting ion. For oxides, potential sputtering yields are markedly enhanced and sputtered species, especially hydrogen and light ions, show marked dependence on both charge and dose.

  2. Geochemical mapping of the lunar surface using laser-induced ion mass spectrometry from landers and rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funsten, H. O.; Elphic, R. C.; Blacic, J. D.; Borovsky, J. E.; McComas, D. J.; Nordholt, J. E.

    In-situ lunar geochemical assessment is essential when remotely prospecting for lunar resources or characterizing the mineralogy of a lunar site. We discuss a technique for lunar geochemical mapping from landed platforms using Laser-induced Ion Mass Spectrometry (LIMS). In this technique, a focused diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser on an lunar lander or rover vaporizes a thin layer of a soil or rock target located at a range of 1 to 100 m. The vapor is ionized through electron heating by inverse Bremsstrahlung, and the expanding plasma cloud contains information about the target composition. Ions in this plasma are analyzed using specialized time-of-flight ion mass spectrometry, providing detailed composition analysis of the lunar surface. In considering this technique, we discuss the effects on the ion trajectories of ambient electric and magnetic fields and present a high sensitivity, high mass-resolution mass spectrometer that is capable of detecting low atomic mass abundances, trace elements, and isotopic variations.

  3. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  4. Advanced and Intelligent Robotics for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.

    Future unmanned (and later again, manned) missions to the Moon will require several critical technologies from the realm of space robotics, that is electromechanical systems with several degrees of freedom and a limited amount of on-board autonomy. Prime examples of relevance for lunar missions are roving vehicles, manipulator arms and sample acquisition systems. This paper gives an overview of applicable technologies and their readiness that have been studied for lunar landing mission opportunities during this decade. Rovers that have been suggested for Europe's Euromoon lander initiative of the late 1990's were tethered short-range vehicles of less than 5 kg mass for deployment of geochemical instruments and so-called `Regional Rovers' of masses between 10 and 30 kg that on lunar Mare-like terrain could cover several 100 m range during mission durations of 5 to 10 Earth days and which would not be able to survive the lunar night. If deployed at high latitude regions, the Regional Rovers were conceived to be able to spend short times (several h) in shaded areas for measurements there. Development of both the tethered and the regional class has been funded by ESA and is still on-going. A much larger rover of the 300-500 kg class modeled after the Russian-French IARES prototype was proposed for the European LEDA lander scenario and could offer superior range capability and nighttime survival if nuclear power or at least a nuclear heat source were used. The Japanese Selene-B mission is planning to deploy a surface rover of the regional rover class of several 10's of kg mass. Sampling devices for lunar landing missions, generally also part of robotics technologies, are gaining renewed interest, in the context of lunar sample return missions (e.g. SPA-SR) but also for possible missions to elucidate the nature of the anomalous hydrogen concentrations in permanently shaded craters in the polar regions into which short-lived landers could be deployed which are tasked to

  5. The global surface temperatures of the Moon as measured by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.-P.; Paige, D. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Sefton-Nash, E.

    2017-02-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been acquiring solar reflectance and mid-infrared radiance measurements nearly continuously since July of 2009. Diviner is providing the most comprehensive view of how regoliths on airless bodies store and exchange thermal energy with the space environment. Approximately a quarter trillion calibrated radiance measurements of the Moon, acquired over 5.5 years by Diviner, have been compiled into a 0.5° resolution global dataset with a 0.25 h local time resolution. Maps generated with this dataset provide a global perspective of the surface energy balance of the Moon and reveal the complex and extreme nature of the lunar surface thermal environment. Our achievable map resolution, both spatially and temporally, will continue to improve with further data acquisition. Daytime maximum temperatures are sensitive to the albedo of the surface and are ∼387-397 K at the equator, dropping to ∼95 K just before sunrise, though anomalously warm areas characterized by high rock abundances can be > 50 K warmer than the zonal average nighttime temperatures. An asymmetry is observed between the morning and afternoon temperatures due to the thermal inertia of the lunar regolith with the dusk terminator ∼30 K warmer than the dawn terminator at the equator. An increase in albedo with incidence angle is required to explain the observed decrease in temperatures with latitude. At incidence angles exceeding ∼40°, topography and surface roughness influence temperatures resulting in increasing scatter in temperatures and anisothermality between Diviner channels. Nighttime temperatures are sensitive to the thermophysical properties of the regolith. High thermal inertia (TI) materials such as large rocks, remain warmer during the long lunar night and result in anomalously warm nighttime temperatures and anisothermality in the Diviner channels. Anomalous maximum and minimum temperatures are

  6. Global Geochemical Variation on the Lunar Surface: A Three-Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, D. R.; Lawrence, D. J.; Vaniman, D.; Feldman, W. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Maurice, S.; Lucey, P. G.; Binder, A. B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a method for displaying the relative abundances of three important elements (Th, Fe, and Ti) on the same map projection of the lunar surface. Using Th-, Fe-, and Ti-elemental abundances from orbital geochemical data and assigning each element a primary color, a false-color map of the lunar surface was created. This approach is similar to the ternary diagram approach presented by Davis and Spudis with some important differences, discussed later. For the present maps, Th abundances were measured by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer(GRS).The new LPGRS low-altitude dataset was used in this analysis. Iron and Ti weight percentages were based on Clementine spectral reflectance data smoothed to the LP low altitude footprint. This method of presentation was designed to aid in the location and recognition of three principal lunar compositions: ferroan anorthosite (FAN), mare basalts (MB), and the Mg suite/ KREEP-rich rocks on the lunar surface, with special emphasis on the highlands and specific impact basins. In addition to the recognition of these endmember rock compositions, this method is an attempt to examine the relationship between elemental compositions that do not conform readily to previously accepted or observed endmember rocks in various specific regions of interest, including eastern highlands regions centered on 150 deg longitude, and a northern highlands Th-rich region observed. The LP low-altitude data has full width at half-maximum spatial resolution of about 40 km. The Clementine spectral reflectance datasets were adapted using an equal-area, gaussian smoothing routine to this footprint. In addition, these datasets, reported in weight percent of FeO and of Ti02, were adjusted to Fe and Ti weight percentages. Each dataset was then assigned one of the three primary colors: blue for Th, red for Fe, and green for Ti. For each element, the data range was normalized to represent the ratio of each point to the maximum in the dataset. (To

  7. Long-Range Transhorizon Lunar Surface Radio Wave Propagation in the Presence of a Regolith and a Sparse Exospheric Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Long-range, over-the-horizon (transhorizon) radio wave propagation is considered for the case of the Moon. In the event that relay satellites are not available or otherwise unwarranted for use, transhorizon communication provides for a contingency or backup option for non line-of-sight lunar surface exploration scenarios. Two potential low-frequency propagation mechanisms characteristic of the lunar landscape are the lunar regolith and the photoelectron induced plasma exosphere enveloping the Moon. Although it was hoped that the regolith would provide for a spherical waveguide which could support a trapped surface wave phenomena, it is found that, in most cases, the regolith is deleterious to long range radio wave propagation. However, the presence of the plasma of the lunar exosphere supports wave propagation and, in fact, surpasses the attenuation of the regolith. Given the models of the regolith and exosphere adopted here, it is recommended that a frequency of 1 MHz be considered for low rate data transmission along the lunar surface. It is also recommended that further research be done to capture the descriptive physics of the regolith and the exospheric plasma so that a more complete model can be obtained. This comprehensive theoretical study is based entirely on first principles and the mathematical techniques needed are developed as required; it is self-contained and should not require the use of outside resources for its understanding.

  8. Developing the global exploration roadmap: An example using the humans to the lunar surface theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by 12 space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group broadly outlines a pathway to send humans beyond low Earth orbit for the first time since Apollo. Three themes have emerged: Exploration of a Near-Earth Asteroid, Extended Duration Crew Missions, and Humans to the Lunar Surface. The lack of detail within each of these themes could mean that realizing the goals of the GER would be significantly delayed. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many of the details needed to fully define and evaluate these themes in terms of scientific rationale, economic viability, and technical feasibility already exist and need to be mapped to the GER. Here, we use the Humans to the Lunar Surface theme as an example to illustrate how this process could work. By mapping documents from a variety of international stakeholders, this process can be used to cement buy-in from the current partners and attract new ones to this effort.

  9. Measurements of the Near-Surface Column Structure of Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    Pyroclastic deposits on the Moon are associated with many types of volcanic constructs, including rilles, pits and linear fractures, and small domes. Prior radar data have revealed buried flows and rocks within some pyroclastics deposits (e.g. Aristarchus), while other deposits have radar polarimetry values that suggest very thick mounds of fine (centimeter-or-less sized) material (Campbell et. al., Geology, 36, 135, 2008; Carter et al., JGR, 114, E11004, doi:10.1029/2009JE003406, 2009). Radar can detect buried blocks or buried structures and provide a measure of roughness, while thermal infrared data provides complimentary information on the surface and near-surface rock abundance. The two wavelength ranges are also sensitive to different sized rocks, and the combined data sets provide the best way to make quantitative measurements of the upper structure of pyroclastic deposits. We use imaging radar data from Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mini-RF data, and LRO Diviner rock abundance and regolith temperature maps, to investigate a range of pyroclastic deposits associated with different types of volcanic structures, including Aristarchus, Rima Hyginus, and domes in Mare Tranquillitatis. Thick pyroclastic deposits have low rock abundance in both radar and infrared data, but in many cases (e.g. lunar domes, Aristarchus buried flows), the radar reveals rocks and structures that are not visible in the Diviner data sets. The derived column structure maps will provide an improved estimate of the thickness and degree of regolith mixing of pyroclastic deposits.

  10. Approach for Mitigating Pressure Garment Design Risks in a Mobile Lunar Surface Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The stated goals of the 2004 Vision for Space Exploration focus on establishing a human presence throughout the solar system beginning with the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. However, the precise objectives to be accomplished on the lunar surface and the optimal system architecture to achieve those objectives have been a topic of much debate since the inception of the Constellation Program. There are two basic styles of system architectures being traded at the Programmatic level: a traditional large outpost that would focus on techniques for survival off our home planet and a greater depth of exploration within one area, or a mobile approach- akin to a series of nomadic camps- that would allow greater breadth of exploration opportunities. The traditional outpost philosophy is well within the understood pressure garment design space with respect to developing interfaces and operational life cycle models. The mobile outpost, however, combines many unknowns with respect to pressure garment performance and reliability that could dramatically affect the cost and schedule risks associated with the Constellation space suit system. This paper provides an overview of the concepts being traded for a mobile architecture from the operations and hardware implementation perspective, describes the primary risks to the Constellation pressure garment associated with each of the concepts, and summarizes the approach necessary to quantify the pressure garment design risks to enable the Constellation Program to make informed decisions when deciding on an overall lunar surface systems architecture.

  11. Model-Driven Development of Reliable Avionics Architectures for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas; Claypool, Ian; Clark, David; West, John; Somervill, Kevin; Odegard, Ryan; Suzuki, Nantel

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a method used for the systematic improvement of NASA s Lunar Surface Systems avionics architectures in the area of reliability and fault-tolerance. This approach utilizes an integrated system model to determine the effects of component failure on the system s ability to provide critical functions. A Markov model of the potential degraded system modes is created to characterize the probability of these degraded modes, and the system model is run for each Markov state to determine its status (operational or system loss). The probabilistic results from the Markov model are first produced from state transition rates based on NASA data for heritage failure rate data of similar components. An additional set of probabilistic results are created from a representative set of failure rates developed for this study, for a variety of component quality grades (space-rated, mil-spec, ruggedized, and commercial). The results show that careful application of redundancy and selected component improvement should result in Lunar Surface Systems architectures that exhibit an appropriate degree of fault-tolerance, reliability, performance, and affordability.

  12. Hybridization of partial least squares and neural network models for quantifying lunar surface minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuai; Li, Lin; Milliken, Ralph; Song, Kaishan

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an efficient and accurate model for using visible-near infrared reflectance spectra to estimate the abundance of minerals on the lunar surface. Previous studies using partial least squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) models for this purpose revealed several drawbacks. PLS has two limitations: (1) redundant spectral bands cannot be removed effectively and (2) nonlinear spectral mixing (i.e., intimate mixtures) cannot be accommodated. Incorporating GA into the model is an effective way for selecting a set of spectral bands that are the most sensitive to variations in the presence/abundance of lunar minerals and to some extent overcomes the first limitation. Given the fact that GA-PLS is still subject to the effect of nonlinearity, here we develop and test a hybrid partial least squares-back propagation neural network (PLS-BPNN) model to determine the effectiveness of BPNN for overcoming the two limitations simultaneously. BPNN takes nonlinearity into account with sigmoid functions, and the weights of redundant spectral bands are significantly decreased through the back propagation learning process. PLS, GA-PLS and PLS-BPNN are tested with the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium dataset (LSCC), which includes VIS-NIR reflectance spectra and mineralogy for various soil size fractions and the accuracy of the models are assessed based on R2 and root mean square error values. The PLS-BPNN model is further tested with 12 additional Apollo soil samples. The results indicate that: (1) PLS-BPNN exhibits the best performance compared with PLS and GA-PLS for retrieving abundances of minerals that are dominant on the lunar surface; (2) PLS-BPNN can overcome the two limitations of PLS; (3) PLS-BPNN has the capability to accommodate spectral effects resulting from variations in particle size. By analyzing PLS beta coefficients, spectral bands selected by GA, and the loading curve of the latent variable with the

  13. Automatic Identification of Changes on the Lunar Surface and the Discovery of New Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Robinson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Since June 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has maintained a stable polar orbit enabling the twin Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) to acquire high-resolution observations of the lunar surface (pixel scale of 0.25 to 2 m/pixel). This orbital configuration facilitates occasional repeat coverage with nearly identical lighting geometries. These before and after observations, referred to in this study as temporal pairs, enable the identification of changes to the surface using a series of automated change detection techniques. Initial manual inspection of temporal pairs resulted in the discovery of many changes across the lunar surface [1]. However, this manual process is time consuming (2-4 hours per temporal pair) and each analyst must apply their own judgment on whether they have discovered a real change or an artifact in the image pair. This manual approach resulted in the identification of 650 surface changes as well as 19 resolved craters. Leveraging image processing techniques developed by the LROC team, we started automatically scanning and identifying temporal changes. The new automated algorithm locates changes based on reflectance variations and changes in surface texture. The program provides a list of potential new features for later manual inspection and classification (disturbance lacking resolvable crater or crater with a rim diameter of x meters). This new approach reduces the time to manually inspect a temporal pair by over a factor of 200 by providing cropped cutouts with the putative changes centered in a thumbnail. The LROC NACs have already collected thousands of temporal pair observations and will continue to do so over the remaining extended mission. Highest fidelity change detection comes from temporal pairs with nearly identical lighting geometries (i.e. sub-solar points within 3°), of which over 5000 pairs exist. In our initial scan of 1645 temporal pairs, over 8000 surface changes were identified along with over 50 new impact craters

  14. On the Search for the Amino Acids on the Lunar Surface as it Relates to Other Extraterrestrial Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2009-01-01

    The early search for the amino acids on the lunar surface fines indicated such a low amount of the amino acids that it was deemed insignifi cant. While the later studies seemed to depart in some ways from the earlier results, they were not pursued. In this paper we critically ev aluate the results from the Apollo missions from the new perspective with considerations of the sensitivity of the instrumentation availabl e at the time. We discuss the possible relevance of the lunar results to the findings of the amino acids on the surfaces of other extraterrestrial bodies, such as Mars.

  15. Lunar surface mining for automated acquisition of helium-3: Methods, processes, and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. T.; Wittenberg, L. J.

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should be maintainable; and (6) economic benefit should be sufficient for commercial exploitation. The economic benefits are not addressed in this paper; however, the energy benefits have been estimated to be between 250 and 350 times the mining energy. A mobile mining scheme is proposed that meets most of the mining objectives. This concept uses a bucket-wheel excavator for excavating the regolith, several mechanical electrostatic separators for beneficiation of the regolith, a fast-moving fluidized bed reactor to heat the particles, and a palladium diffuser to separate H2 from the other solar wind gases. At the final stage of the miner, the regolith 'tailings' are deposited directly into the ditch behind the miner and cylinders of the valuable solar wind gases are transported to a central gas processing facility. During the production of He-3, large quantities of valuable H2, H2O, CO, CO2, and N2 are produced for utilization at the lunar base. For larger production of He-3 the utilization of multiple-miners is recommended rather than increasing their size. Multiple miners permit operations at more sites and provide redundancy in case of equipment failure.

  16. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  17. Lunar surface mining for automated acquisition of helium-3: Methods, processes, and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. T.; Wittenberg, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should be maintainable; and (6) economic benefit should be sufficient for commercial exploitation. The economic benefits are not addressed in this paper; however, the energy benefits have been estimated to be between 250 and 350 times the mining energy. A mobile mining scheme is proposed that meets most of the mining objectives. This concept uses a bucket-wheel excavator for excavating the regolith, several mechanical electrostatic separators for beneficiation of the regolith, a fast-moving fluidized bed reactor to heat the particles, and a palladium diffuser to separate H2 from the other solar wind gases. At the final stage of the miner, the regolith 'tailings' are deposited directly into the ditch behind the miner and cylinders of the valuable solar wind gases are transported to a central gas processing facility. During the production of He-3, large quantities of valuable H2, H2O, CO, CO2, and N2 are produced for utilization at the lunar base. For larger production of He-3 the utilization of multiple-miners is recommended rather than increasing their size. Multiple miners permit operations at more sites and provide redundancy in case of equipment failure.

  18. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  19. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  20. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  1. Solar wind H-3 and C-14 abundances and solar surface processes. [in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; Defelice, J.; Damico, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tritium is measured as a function of depth in a Surveyor 3 sample. The upper limit for solar-wind-implanted tritium gives an H-3/H-1 limit for the solar wind of 10 to the -11th power. The temperature-release patterns of C-14 from lunar soils are measured. The C-14 release pattern from surface soils differs from a trench-bottom soil and gives positive evidence for the presence of C-14 in the solar wind with a C-14/H-1 ratio of approximately 6 by 10 to the -11th power. This C-14 content fixes a minimal magnitude for nuclear processes on the solar surface averaged over the past 10,000 yr. The H-3 and C-14 contents combine to require that either the mixing rate above the photosphere be rapid or that the H-3 produced by nuclear reactions be destroyed by secondary nuclear reactions before escaping in the solar wind.

  2. Direct Observations of Magnetic Anomalies on the Lunar Surface under Varying Solar Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Futaana, Y.; Holmström, M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dhanya, M. B.; Sridharan, R.; Asamura, K.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to Earth, the Moon does not have a global dipolar magnetic field. Since the first lunar landing with Apollo 11, we know, though, that localised magnetic fields exist on the lunar surface. Measurements conducted by the Lunar Prospector magnetometer and electron reflectometer suggested that these localised magnetic fields are able to deflect the impinging solar wind in favourable cases (Lin et al., Science 1998). Magnetohydrodynamic simulations support the implication that mini-magnetospheres are formed above the locations of strong localised magnetic fields and can hold off the impinging solar wind (Harnett and Winglee, JGR 2002). Analysis of magnetic field data from Lunar Prospector of the Reiner Gamma anomaly region showed that the distortion of the magnetic field of this anomaly strongly depends on the impinging solar wind parameters, which was interpreted that the size and shape of the mini-magnetosphere changed with the solar wind parametes (Kurata et al., GRL 2005). Wieser et al., GRL 2010 showed that SARA, the Sub-KeV Atom Analyzer on board Chandrayaan-1, is able to detect an ENA image of the mini-magnetosphere in the measured energetic neutral atom flux. Here we analysed all orbits where CENA, the Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutral Analyzer, recorded data when a magnetic anomaly was in CENA's field-of-view. Our goal was to determine if 1) a signature of the magnetic anomaly is always visible in the ENA signal and if 2) there is a correlation between the solar wind dynamic pressure, the solar wind magnetic field, the local magnetic field strength and the reduction in the reflected ENA flux. Our results show that for the simplest case, i.e., the Gerasimovich anomaly, there is indeed a clear correlation between the shielding efficiency, the magnetic field strength and the solar wind dynamic pressure. For the other observed magnetic anomalies, for which the magnetic fields are not only weaker but also spatially more variable than that of the

  3. Design and Testing of a Prototype Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSLRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    This handbook describes a two-semester senior design course sponsored by the NASA Office of Education, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and the NASA Space Grant Consortium. The course was developed and implemented by the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department (MAE) at Utah State University. The course final outcome is a packaged senior design course that can be readily incorporated into the instructional curriculum at universities across the country. The course materials adhere to the standards of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and is constructed to be relevant to key research areas identified by ESMD. The design project challenged students to apply systems engineering concepts to define research and training requirements for a terrestrial-based lunar landing simulator. This project developed a flying prototype for a Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSRV). Per NASA specifications the concept accounts for reduced lunar gravity, and allows the terminal stage of lunar descent to be flown either by remote pilot or autonomously. This free-flying platform was designed to be sufficiently-flexible to allow both sensor evaluation and pilot training. This handbook outlines the course materials, describes the systems engineering processes developed to facilitate design fabrication, integration, and testing. This handbook presents sufficient details of the final design configuration to allow an independent group to reproduce the design. The design evolution and details regarding the verification testing used to characterize the system are presented in a separate project final design report. Details of the experimental apparatus used for system characterization may be found in Appendix F, G, and I of that report. A brief summary of the ground testing and systems verification is also included in Appendix A of this report. Details of the flight tests will be documented in a separate flight test

  4. Instrumentation and Control Needs for Reliable Operation of Lunar Base Surface Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James; Chicatelli, Amy; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    As one of the near-term goals of the President's Vision for Space Exploration, establishment of a multi-person lunar base will require high-endurance power systems which are independent of the sun, and can operate without replenishment for several years. These requirements may be obtained using nuclear power systems specifically designed for use on the lunar surface. While it is envisioned that such a system will generally be supervised by humans, some of the evolutions required maybe semi or fully autonomous. The entire base complement for near-term missions may be less than 10 individuals, most or all of which may not be qualified nuclear plant operators and may be off-base for extended periods thus, the need for power system autonomous operation. Startup, shutdown, and load following operations will require the application of advanced control and health management strategies with an emphasis on robust, supervisory, coordinated control of, for example, the nuclear heat source, energy conversion plant (e.g., Brayton Energy Conversion units), and power management system. Autonomous operation implies that, in addition to being capable of automatic response to disturbance input or load changes, the system is also capable of assessing the status of the integrated plant, determining the risk associated with the possible actions, and making a decision as to the action that optimizes system performance while minimizing risk to the mission. Adapting the control to deviations from design conditions and degradation due to component failures will be essential to ensure base inhabitant safety and mission success. Intelligent decisions will have to be made to choose the right set of sensors to provide the data needed to do condition monitoring and fault detection and isolation because of liftoff weight and space limitations, it will not be possible to have an extensive set of instruments as used for earth-based systems. Advanced instrumentation and control technologies will be

  5. Fundamental research on Mars exploration using scientific exploration roving vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Nobuki; Nakatani, Ichirou; Kawaguchi, Junichirou; Koyama, Kouichirou; Hasegawa, Norimi; Kinkori, Shuuzou; Suzuki, Manji; Kojima, Masaki; Saitou, Kenji; Adachi, Tsuguo

    1991-07-01

    The following fundamental items concerning Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles are reviewed: (1) special technical aspects; (2) review subjects; (3) purpose of the exploration; (4) methods of underground exploration; (5) other possible methods of scientific exploration; and (6) roving vehicle configuration. Communication between roving vehicles and the Earth, and the stringent environments on Mars are addressed. The driving system, roving distance, and the automatic driving system of the rovers are also presented. Focus is on the underground survey of Mars to check the existence of water or organic substance. The exploration methods covered are as follows: (1) analysis of samples excavated by mechanical drilling; and (2) electromagnetic measurement or sounding using artificial or natural earthquakes in order to explore deeper underground areas where samples can not be obtained by mechanical drilling.

  6. The Roving Inservice--An Innovative Approach to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Delores C.; Bomberger, Audrey S.

    1983-01-01

    The roving inservice is an approach to continuing education which enables the program to be located in multiple nursing units simultaneously for the convenience of the nurses and without an instructor. (SSH)

  7. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  8. Calibration of Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Lv, Gang; Ma, Yan-hua; Wang, Jianyu

    2014-11-01

    Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) is one of the scientific payloads mounted on "Yutu" rover in Chang'e 3 lunar exploration project. The VNIS is composed with a visible and near-infrared (0.45-0.95 μm) spectral imager and a short waveband (0.9-2.4 μm) spectrometer on basis of Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter. According to the in-situ analysis, a calibration unit was also equipped for high precisely spectral radiance and reflectance inversion by using solar as standard calibration source. The calibration unit was driven by lightweight ultrasonic motor, and it could be located on three fixed position including detection (full-opened), calibration (horizontal) and dust-proof (closed). In this paper, the principle of VNIS, especially calibration unit was described firstly. Then, radiometric correction algorithms on lunar surface based on standard solar spectral irradiance were expounded. Through the analysis of VNIS scientific data, the spectral radiance and reflectance curves of detection area were shown in the end.

  9. Power System Mass Analysis for Hydrogen Reduction Oxygen Production on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    The production of oxygen from the lunar regolith requires both thermal and electrical power in roughly similar proportions. This unique power requirement is unlike most applications on the lunar surface. To efficiently meet these requirements, both solar PV array and solar concentrator systems were evaluated. The mass of various types of photovoltaic and concentrator based systems were calculated to determine the type of power system that provided the highest specific power. These were compared over a range of oxygen production rates. Also a hybrid type power system was also considered. This system utilized a photovoltaic array to produce the electrical power and a concentrator to provide the thermal power. For a single source system the three systems with the highest specific power were a flexible concentrator/Stirling engine system, a rigid concentrator/Stirling engine system and a tracking triple junction solar array system. These systems had specific power values of 43, 34, and 33 W/kg, respectively. The hybrid power system provided much higher specific power values then the single source systems. The best hybrid combinations were the triple junction solar array with the flexible concentrator and the rigid concentrator. These systems had a specific power of 81 and 68 W/kg, respectively.

  10. A Versatile Lifting Device for Lunar Surface Payload Handling, Inspection and Regolith Transport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Collins, Timothy J.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Devices for lifting and transporting payloads and material are critical for efficient Earth-based construction operations. Devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar-outpost construction, servicing, inspection, regolith excavation, grading and payload placement. Past studies have proposed that only a few carefully selected devices are required for a lunar outpost. One particular set of operations involves lifting and manipulating payloads in the 100 kg to 3,000 kg range, which are too large or massive to be handled by unassisted astronauts. This paper will review historical devices used for payload handling in space and on earth to derive a set of desirable features for a device that can be used on planetary surfaces. Next, an innovative concept for a lifting device is introduced, which includes many of the desirable features. The versatility of the device is discussed, including its application to lander unloading, servicing, inspection, regolith excavation and site preparation. Approximate rules, which can be used to size the device for specific payload mass and reach requirements, are provided. Finally, details of a test-bed implementation of the innovative concept, which will be used to validate the structural design and develop operational procedures, is provided.

  11. Fuel loading of PeBR for a long operation life on the lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, T. M.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) power system could provide 99.3 kW e to a lunar outpost for 66 full power years and is designed for no single point failures. The core of this fast energy spectrum reactor consists of three sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. Each sector has a separate Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) loop for energy conversion and separate water heat-pipes radiator panels for heat rejection. He-Xe (40 g/mole) binary gas mixture serves as the reactor coolant and CBC working fluid. On the lunar surface, the emplaced PeBR below grade is loaded with spherical fuel pellets (1-cm in dia.). It is launched unfueled and the pellets are launched in separate subcritical canisters, one for each core sector. This paper numerically simulates the transient loading of a core sector with fuel pellets on the Moon. The simulation accounts for the dynamic interaction of the pellets during loading and calculates the axial and radial distributions of the volume porosity in the sector. The pellets pack randomly with a volume porosity of 0.39 - 0.41 throughout most of the sector, except near the walls the local porosity is higher. (authors)

  12. Ceramics for Molten Materials Containment, Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a project on Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface, molten materials containment samples of various ceramics were tested to determine their performance in contact with a melt of lunar regolith simulant. The test temperature was 1600 C with contact times ranging from 0 to 12 hours. Regolith simulant was pressed into cylinders with the approximate dimensions of 1.25 dia x 1.25cm height and then melted on ceramic substrates. The regolith-ceramic interface was examined after processing to determine the melt/ceramic interaction. It was found that the molten regolith wetted all oxide ceramics tested extremely well which resulted in chemical reaction between the materials in each case. Alumina substrates were identified which withstood contact at the operating temperature of a molten regolith electrolysis cell (1600 C) for eight hours with little interaction or deformation. This represents an improvement over alumina grades currently in use and will provide a lifetime adequate for electrolysis experiments lasting 24 hours or more. Two types of non-oxide ceramics were also tested. It was found that they interacted to a limited degree with the melt resulting in little corrosion. These ceramics, Sic and BN, were not wetted as well as the oxides by the melt, and so remain possible materials for molten regolith handling. Tests wing longer holding periods and larger volumes of regolith are necessary to determine the ultimate performance of the tested ceramics.

  13. Analysis of Stationary, Photovoltaic-based Surface Power System Designs at the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeh, Joshua E.

    2009-01-01

    Combinations of solar arrays and either batteries or regenerative fuel cells are analyzed for a surface power system module at the lunar south pole. The systems are required to produce 5 kW of net electrical power in sunlight and 2 kW of net electrical power during lunar night periods for a 10-year period between 2020 and 2030. Systems-level models for energy conservation, performance, degradation, and mass are used to compare to various systems. The sensitivities of important and/or uncertain variables including battery specific energy, fuel cell operating voltage, and DC-DC converter efficiency are compared to better understand the system. Switching unit efficiency, battery specific energy, and fuel cell operating voltage appear to be important system-level variables for this system. With reasonably sized solar arrays, the regenerative fuel cell system has significantly lower mass than the battery system based on the requirements and assumptions made herein. The total operational time is estimated at about 10,000 hours in battery discharge/fuel cell mode and about 4,000 and 8,000 hours for the battery charge and electrolyzer modes, respectively. The estimated number of significant depth-of-discharge cycles for either energy storage system is less than 100 for the 10-year period.

  14. A Study of an Optical Lunar Surface Communications Network with High Bandwidth Direct to Earth Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K.; Biswas, A.; Schoolcraft, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analyzed optical DTE (direct to earth) and lunar relay satellite link analyses, greater than 200 Mbps downlink to 1-m Earth receiver and greater than 1 Mbps uplink achieved with mobile 5-cm lunar transceiver, greater than 1Gbps downlink and greater than 10 Mpbs uplink achieved with 10-cm stationary lunar transceiver, MITLL (MIT Lincoln Laboratory) 2013 LLCD (Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration) plans to demonstrate 622 Mbps downlink with 20 Mbps uplink between lunar orbiter and ground station; Identified top five technology challenges to deploying lunar optical network, Performed preliminary experiments on two of challenges: (i) lunar dust removal and (ii)DTN over optical carrier, Exploring opportunities to evaluate DTN (delay-tolerant networking) over optical link in a multi-node network e.g. Desert RATS.

  15. The surface chemical composition of lunar samples and its significance for optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface Fe, Ti, Ca, and Si concentrations in a variety of soil and rock samples from all the Apollo sites are determined using an Auger spectrometer plus a single-pass cylindrical-mirror analyzer with a standard 15-stage BeCu electron multiplier. It is found that there are no great differences between the surface and bulk concentrations of any of the four elements in the rock samples, but the surface Fe and Ti concentrations in soil samples are higher than the bulk concentrations. Results are also reported for solar-wind simulation experiments in which a pulverized rock sample was bombarded with 2-keV alpha-particles corresponding to about a 30,000-yr dose of the solar-wind proton component. These results indicate that the chemical change induced on the surface of a rock powder by positive-ion bombardment is similar to the change from bulk to surface chemical composition in lunar soil samples. A clear correlation is observed between the surface Fe concentration and albedo of the soil samples.

  16. A miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer for quantitative in situ chemical composition investigation of lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Grimaudo, Valentine; Mezger, Klaus; Moreno-García, Pavel; Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The chemical composition of planetary bodies, moons, comets and asteroids is a key to understand their origin and evolution [Wurz,2009]. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of rocks yield information about the formation of the planetary body, its evolution and following processes shaping the planetary surface. From the elemental composition, conclusions about modal mineralogy and petrology can be drawn. Isotope ratios are a sensitive indicator for past events on the planetary body and yield information about origin and transformation of the matter, back to events that occurred in the early solar system. Finally, measurements of radiogenic isotopes make it possible to carry out dating analyses. All these topics, particularly in situ dating analyses, quantitative elemental and highly accurate isotopic composition measurements, are top priority scientific questions for future lunar missions. An instrument for precise measurements of chemical composition will be a key element in scientific payloads of future landers or rovers on lunar surface. We present a miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer (LMS) designed for in situ research in planetary and space science and optimised for measurements of the chemical composition of rocks and soils on a planetary surface. By means of measurements of standard reference materials we demonstrate that LMS is a suitable instrument for in situ measurements of elemental and isotopic composition with high precision and accuracy. Measurements of soil standards are used to confirm known sensitivity coefficients of the instrument and to prove the power of LMS for quantitative elemental analyses [Neuland,2016]. For demonstration of the capability of LMS to measure the chemical composition of extraterrestrial material we use a sample of Allende meteorite [Neuland,2014]. Investigations of layered samples confirm the high spatial resolution in vertical direction of LMS [Grimaudo,2015], which allows in situ studying of past

  17. Rover requirements for the planet surface segment of the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Connolly, John F.

    1993-01-01

    Annotated requirements for rovers to be used for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and for Mars missions are presented. The requirements are presented in the form of functions as opposed to performance. SEI surface systems will be required to execute many roving vehicle functions ranging from transporting humans to recovery and transporting raw materials to a processing plant. Some of the roving vehicles will be highly automated. These automation functions may include the following: teleoperated site survey and certification; teleoperation for repair; autonomous operations for resource location and mining; autonomous navigation and terrain traverse; and telerobotic scientific investigations. These requirements are complex, contradictory, and will be costly if they are not carefully analyzed and properly allocated to conceptual elements. Of greatest importance will be the iterative analysis of requirements and synergistic utilization of vehicle elements.

  18. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  19. Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray experiment - Measurement of heavy solar wind particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinner, E.; Walker, R. M.; Borg, J.; Maurette, M.

    1974-01-01

    During the Apollo 17 mission a series of metal foils and nuclear track detectors were exposed both in the sun and in the shade on the surface of the moon. Here we give the analysis of the mica detectors which were used to measure the flux of solar wind particles of Fe-group and heavier elements. These particles register as shallow pits after etching in hydrofluoric acid. Calibration experiments were performed to determine the registration properties of different ions and to simulate the lunar environment. We obtain an Fe-group flux of 39,000 per sec per sq cm, which together with the H flux measured on IMP-7 gives an Fe/H ratio of 0.000041. For elements with Z exceeding 45 we can set only an upper limit on the abundance, ruling out an overabundance of extremely heavy elements relative to iron by a factor of 4.

  20. Granulometric characteristics of lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakheyev, Y. I.; Vulfson, Y. K.; Ivanov, A. V.; Florenskiy, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The particle size distributions in the 1-1000 micrometer range along the length of the core of lunar surface material returned by Luna 16 were recorded by electrical impulse as well as sieve methods. The measurements are represented in the form of cumulative functions of the logarithm of size versus the logarithm of particle number, and also as the logarithm of size versus particle mass on a probability scale. The former functions at all depths consist of the super-positioning of two straight lines with slopes from 2.10 to 4.05. The second functions are near linear, which together with the closeness of the calculated asymmetries of the distribution to zero and the nearness of the calculated excess of the distributions to unity indicate the closeness of the recorded distributions to the logarithmically normal law. This agrees with the assumption that regolith particles were formed in a process of intensive mechanical grinding.