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Sample records for lung function tests

  1. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD How the Lungs Work Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... the Lungs Work Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Oxygen Therapy Sarcoidosis Stress Testing Rate This Content: Updated: December 9, ...

  2. [Portable lung function parameters testing system based on DSP].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhanshe; Yuan, Minzhong; Zhou, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Lung function monitoring is a critical technique for clinical medicine. Currently, the lung function testing devices used in our domestic hospitals are both expensive and bulky. A portable and accurate lung function parameters testing system is highly desired and is proposed in this paper. The hardware of the system is based on DSP technology. The breathing passage is designed with an aim suitable for the breathe and signal detection. We use the direct detection method to detect the gas flow, the breathing passage pressure and the breathing time. Thanks to the powerful data processing ability and the high operation speed of the DSP, breathing signals can be easily analyzed. Thus, several lung function parameters of clinical significance can be obtained. Experiments show that the accuracy of the system is better than 3%, and could meet the demand of the lung function testing.

  3. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level.

  4. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  5. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    PubMed

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint.

  6. Passive expiration as a test of lung function.

    PubMed Central

    Ashutosh, K; Keighley, J F

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-five normal subjects, 14 non-smokers and 11 smokers, passively expired into a spirometer after a maximal active inspiration, and after a passive inflation of the chest by a pressure cycled intermittent positive-pressure breathing (IPPB) machine. Acceptable passive expirations could be performed by all subjects after a passive inspiration but by only 12 after an active inspiration. Expired volume was found to change exponentially with time (r greater than 0.98), and the time constant of passive expiration (Tp) was obtained. There was no significant difference between the smokers and non-smokers in age, sex, forced vital capacity, FEV1 FEV1/FVC%, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, maximum expiratory flow at 50% and 25% of the vital capacity, or the magnitude of the fall in the dynamic compliance with increasing frequency of breathing (Cdyn/f). Tp in smokers (1.06 +/- 0.47 SD) was significantly longer than in the non-smokers (0.65 +/- 0.25 SD P less than 0.02). Tp had a significant correlation with Cdyn/f(Tp = 0.6 + 161.81 Cdyn/f +/- 0.38 SE, r = 0.49, P less than 0.02). We conclude that satisfactory passive expiratory spirograms can be easily obtained after a mechanically assisted passive inspiration. Tp thus obtained is determined by the intrinsic properties of the respiratory system (lung plus thorax), and is significantly prolonged in smokers compared with non-smokers when other studies of pulmonary function including frequency dependence of compliance are unchanged. PMID:371059

  7. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  8. Exercise testing in severe emphysema: association with quality of life and lung function.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cynthia D; Benditt, Joshua O; Sciurba, Frank C; Lee, Shing M; Criner, Gerard J; Mosenifar, Zab; Shade, David M; Slivka, William A; Wise, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    Six-minute walk testing (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) are used to evaluate impairment in emphysema. However, the extent of impairment in these tests as well as the correlation of these tests with each other and lung function in advanced emphysema is not well characterized. During screening for the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, maximum ergometer CPX and 6MWT were performed in 1,218 individuals with severe COPD with an average FEV(1) of 26.9 +/- 7.1 % predicted. Predicted values for 6MWT and CPX were calculated from reference equations. Correlation coefficients and multivariable regression models were used to determine the association between lung function, quality of life (QOL) scores, and exercise measures. The two forms of exercise testing were correlated with each other (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). However, the impairment of performance on CPX was greater than on the 6MWT (27.6 +/- 16.8 vs. 67.9 +/- 18.9 % predicted). Both exercise tests had similar correlation with measures of QOL, but maximum exercise capacity was better correlated with lung function measures than 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment, 6MWD had a slightly greater association with total SGRQ score than maximal exercise (effect size 0.37 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 %predicted/unit). Despite advanced emphysema, patients are able to maintain 6MWD to a greater degree than maximum exercise capacity. Moreover, the 6MWT may be a better test of functional capacity given its greater association with QOL measures whereas CPX is a better test of physiologic impairment.

  9. Quantification of heterogeneity in lung disease with image-based pulmonary function testing

    PubMed Central

    Stahr, Charlene S.; Samarage, Chaminda R.; Donnelley, Martin; Farrow, Nigel; Morgan, Kaye S.; Zosky, Graeme; Boucher, Richard C.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Mall, Marcus A.; Parsons, David W.; Dubsky, Stephen; Fouras, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are the mainstays of clinical pulmonary assessment. Spirometry is effort dependent and only provides a single global measure that is insensitive for regional disease, and as such, poor for capturing the early onset of lung disease, especially patchy disease such as cystic fibrosis lung disease. CT sensitively measures change in structure associated with advanced lung disease. However, obstructions in the peripheral airways and early onset of lung stiffening are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, CT imaging poses a radiation risk, particularly for young children, and dose reduction tends to result in reduced resolution. Here, we apply a series of lung tissue motion analyses, to achieve regional pulmonary function assessment in β-ENaC-overexpressing mice, a well-established model of lung disease. The expiratory time constants of regional airflows in the segmented airway tree were quantified as a measure of regional lung function. Our results showed marked heterogeneous lung function in β-ENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermate controls; identified locations of airway obstruction, and quantified regions of bimodal airway resistance demonstrating lung compensation. These results demonstrate the applicability of regional lung function derived from lung motion as an effective alternative respiratory diagnostic tool. PMID:27461961

  10. Pulmonary function tests in the preoperative evaluation of lung cancer surgery candidates. A review of guidelines.

    PubMed

    Trzaska-Sobczak, Marzena; Skoczyński, Szymon; Pierzchała, Władysław

    2014-09-01

    Before planned surgical treatment of lung cancer, the patient's respiratory system function should be evaluated. According to the current guidelines, the assessment should start with measurements of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and DLco (carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity). Pneumonectomy is possible when FEV1 and DLco are > 80% of the predicted value (p.v.). If either of these parameters is < 80%, an exercise test with VO2 max (oxygen consumption during maximal exercise) measurement should be performed. When VO2 max is < 35 % p.v. or < 10 ml/kg/min, resection is associated with high risk. If VO2 max is in the range of 35-75% p.v. or 10-20 ml/kg/min, the postoperative values of FEV1 and DLco (ppoFEV1, ppoDLco) should be determined. The exercise test with VO2 max measurement may be replaced with other tests such as the shuttle walk test and the stair climbing test. The distance covered during the shuttle walk test should be > 400 m. Patients considered for lobectomy should be able to climb 3 flights of stairs (12 m) and for pneumonectomy 5 flights of stairs (22 m).

  11. High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone.

    PubMed

    Thap, Tharoeun; Chung, Heewon; Jeong, Changwon; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-08-17

    In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV₁/FVC) based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM) is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For the healthy subjects, we found that an absolute error (AE) and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the FEV₁/FVC ratio were 4.49% ± 3.38% and 5.54%, respectively. For the COPD patients, we found that AE and RMSE from COPD patients were 10.30% ± 10.59% and 14.48%, respectively. For both groups, we compared the results using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT), and found that VFCDM was superior to CWT and STFT. Further, to estimate other parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), and peak expiratory flow (PEF), regression analysis was conducted to establish a linear transformation. However, the parameters FVC, FEV1, and PEF had correlation factor r values of 0.323, 0.275, and -0.257, respectively, while FEV₁/FVC had an r value of 0.814. The results obtained suggest that only the FEV1/FVC ratio can be accurately estimated from a smartphone built-in microphone. The other parameters, including FVC, FEV1, and PEF, were subjective and dependent on the subject's familiarization with the test and performance of forced exhalation toward the microphone.

  12. High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone

    PubMed Central

    Thap, Tharoeun; Chung, Heewon; Jeong, Changwon; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM) is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For the healthy subjects, we found that an absolute error (AE) and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the FEV1/FVC ratio were 4.49% ± 3.38% and 5.54%, respectively. For the COPD patients, we found that AE and RMSE from COPD patients were 10.30% ± 10.59% and 14.48%, respectively. For both groups, we compared the results using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT), and found that VFCDM was superior to CWT and STFT. Further, to estimate other parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF), regression analysis was conducted to establish a linear transformation. However, the parameters FVC, FEV1, and PEF had correlation factor r values of 0.323, 0.275, and −0.257, respectively, while FEV1/FVC had an r value of 0.814. The results obtained suggest that only the FEV1/FVC ratio can be accurately estimated from a smartphone built-in microphone. The other parameters, including FVC, FEV1, and PEF, were subjective and dependent on the subject’s familiarization with the test and performance of forced exhalation toward the microphone. PMID:27548164

  13. Lung function and six-minute walk test performance in individuals with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Daniela G.; Ruas, Gualberto; Walsh, Isabel A. P.; Castro, Shamyr S.; Jamami, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), which is characterized by a mutation in the gene encoding beta hemoglobin, causes bodily dysfunctions such as impaired pulmonary function and reduced functional capacity. Objective To assess changes in pulmonary function and functional capacity in patients with SCD and to identify the relationships between these variables. Method We evaluated sociodemographic, anthropometric, lung function (spirometry), respiratory (manovacuometer), peripheral muscle strength (Handgrip strength - HS) and functional capacity (i.e., the six-minute walk test) parameters in 21 individuals with SCD (average age of 29±6 years). Shapiro-Wilk, paired Student's, Wilcoxon, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used for statistical analyses, and the significance threshold was set at p<0.05. Results A total of 47.6% of the study subjects exhibited an altered ventilation pattern, 42.8% had a restrictive ventilatory pattern (RVP) and 4.8% exhibited a mixed ventilatory pattern (MVP). The observed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) values were below the predicted values for women (64 cmH2O), and the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) values, HS values and distance walked during the 6MWT were below the predicted values for both men (103 cmH2O, 39 Kgf and 447 m, respectively) and women (64 cmH2O; 27 Kgf; 405 m, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and MEP (r=0.4; p=0.046); MVV and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.003); and between HS and MIP (r=0.7; p=0.001), MEP (r=0.6; p=0.002), MVV (r=0.5; p=0.015), distance walked in the 6MWT (r=0.4; p=0.038) and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.004). Conclusions SCD promoted changes in lung function and functional capacity, including RVPs and a reduction in the distance walked in the 6MWT when compared to the predictions. In addition, significant correlations between the variables were observed. PMID:24675916

  14. [Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE)--limitation of usual lung function test and challenge at practice].

    PubMed

    Takai, Daiya

    2014-12-01

    Spirometry and the flow-volume curve test are commonly performed lung function tests. However, a unique clinical entity occasionally shows almost normal data in these tests, and is therefore missed on screening tests. The clinical entity of combined pulmonary emphysema and pulmdoary fibrosis was recognized and documented in the 90's in Japan, the USA, and Europe. Typical emphysema shows obstructive disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis shows restrictive disorders. Thus, the combination of both should lead to a combined disorder pattern in lung function tests, but this is not the case. In 2005, Cottin reported and redefined this combination of emphysema and fibrosis of the lung as "Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema" (CPFE). The patients are typically heavily smoking males who show an almost normal lung function. The upper lobe of these patients usually shows severe emphysema, which contributes to a static volume and a late phase in the forced volume test. On the other hand their lower lobe shows fibrotic change. The fibrotic portion contributes to early phase flow in the flow-volume curve. These mechanisms are a reason for the normal pattern appearance in lung function tests in CPFE patients. As a matter of course, these patients have damaged upper and lower lobes: their diffusing capacity of the lung shows a low performance, their saturation of blood hemoglobin decreases soon after light exercise, and their KL-6 (a blood marker of pulmonary fibrosis) usually shows a high value. They are considered a high risk group regarding complications of post-surgical treatment. Thus, when medical technologists identify suspicious cases, they should advise doctors to add diffusing capacity and KL-6 tests. (Review).

  15. Predictive Effects of Lung function test on Postoperative Pneumonia in Squamous Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ran; Dong, Wei; Shen, Hongchang; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Wang, Yibing; Du, Jiajun

    2016-03-23

    Pulmonary function tests had prospective implications for postoperative pneumonia, which occurred frequently after esophagectomy. Understanding factors that were associated with pulmonary infection may help in patient selection and postoperative management. We performed a retrospective review of 2 independent cohorts including 216 patients who underwent esophagectomy between November 2011 and May 2014, aiming at identifying predictors of primary pneumonia. Univariate analysis was used to identify potential covariates for the development of primary pneumonia. Adjustments for multiple comparisons were made using False Discovery Rate (FDR) (Holm-Bonferroni method). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors and construct a regression model based on a training cohort (n = 166) and then the regression model was validated using an independent cohort (n = 50). It showed that low PEF (hazard ratio 0.97, P = 0.009) was independent risk factors for the development of primary pneumonia in multivariate analyses and had a predictive effect for primary pneumonia (AUC = 0.691 and 0.851 for training and validation data set, respectively). Therefore, PEF has clinical value in predicting postoperative pneumonia after esophagectomy and it may serve as an indicator of preoperative lung function training.

  16. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    PubMed Central

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange. PMID:27311826

  17. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  18. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary hypertension Sarcoidosis Lung hemorrhage Asthma Risks There are no significant ... Read More Asbestosis Interstitial lung disease Lung disease Sarcoidosis Review Date 11/19/2015 Updated by: Denis ...

  19. [Use of pulmonary function tests and biomarkers studies to diagnose and follow-up interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2014-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis.

  20. Lung function in insulation workers.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Netterstrøm, B; Wolff, C

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of working with modern insulation materials (rock and glass wool), the members of the Copenhagen Union of Insulation Workers were invited to participate in a study based on a health examination that included lung function tests. Three hundred and forty men (74%) agreed to participate, and 166 bus drivers served as the control group. Age distribution, height, and smoking habits were similar in the two groups. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used as tests for lung function. There were no differences in FVC between the study and control groups, but the insulation workers had significantly lower values of FEV1 (mean 2.51) compared with the controls (mean 3.4 1), independent of smoking habits. Six years before the present study, 114 of the insulation workers participated in a similar study, and eight years after the initial study, the lung function of 59 of the bus drivers was tested. The decline in FVC in insulation workers who smoked was significantly higher (7.7 cl/year) than in bus drivers who smoked (3.1 cl/year); the decline in FEV1 was significantly higher in insulation workers independent of smoking habits (17.0 cl/year v 2.9 cl/year). Self assessed former exposure to asbestos was not associated with lung function in insulation workers. The study concludes that working with modern insulation materials is associated with increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease. PMID:8457492

  1. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of regional lung ventilation determined by electrical impedance tomography during pulmonary function testing.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Barbara; Pulletz, Sven; Elke, Gunnar; Zhao, Zhanqi; Zabel, Peter; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz

    2012-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a functional imaging modality capable of tracing continuously regional pulmonary gas volume changes. The aim of our study was to determine if EIT was able to assess spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ventilation during pulmonary function testing in 14 young (37 ± 10 yr, mean age ± SD) and 12 elderly (71 ± 9 yr) subjects without lung disease and in 33 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (71 ± 9 yr). EIT and spirometry examinations were performed during tidal breathing and a forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver preceded by full inspiration to total lung capacity. Regional inspiratory vital capacity (IVC); FVC; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)); FEV(1)/FVC; times required to expire 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% of FVC (t(25), t(50), t(75), t(90)); and tidal volume (V(T)) were determined in 912 EIT image pixels in the chest cross section. Coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated from all pixel values of IVC, FVC, FEV(1), and V(T) to characterize the ventilation heterogeneity. The highest values were found in patients, and no differences existed between the healthy young and elderly subjects. Receiver-operating characteristics curves showed that CV of regional IVC, FVC, FEV(1), and V(T) discriminated the young and elderly subjects from the patients. Frequency distributions of pixel FEV(1)/FVC, t(25), t(50), t(75), and t(90) identified the highest ventilation heterogeneity in patients but distinguished also the healthy young from the elderly subjects. These results indicate that EIT may provide additional information during pulmonary function testing and identify pathologic and age-related spatial and temporal heterogeneity of regional lung function.

  2. Lung ultrasound in systemic sclerosis: correlation with high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests and clinical variables of disease.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Lucci, Silvio; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Quarta, Silvia; Barbano, Biagio; Giovannetti, Antonello; Amoroso, Antonio; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard to diagnose ILD, recently lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged in SSc patients as a new promising technique for the ILD evaluation, noninvasive and radiation-free. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between LUS, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests findings and clinical variables of the disease. Thirty-nine patients (33 women and 6 men; mean age 51 ± 15.2 years) underwent clinical examination, HRCT, pulmonary function tests and LUS for detection of B-lines. A positive correlation exists between the number of B-lines and the HRCT score (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001), conversely a negative correlation exists between the number of B-lines and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = -0.63, p < 0.0001). The number of B-lines increases along with the progression of the capillaroscopic damage. A statistically significant difference in the number of B-lines was found between patients with and without digital ulcers [42 (3-84) vs 16 (4-55)]. We found that the number of B-lines increased with the progression of both HRCT score and digital vascular damage. LUS may therefore, be a useful tool to determine the best timing for HRCT execution, thus, preventing for many patients a continuous and useless exposure to ionizing radiation.

  3. Is my lung function really that good? Flow-type spirometer problems that elevate test results.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Mary C; Hankinson, John L; Lindesmith, Larry A; Slivka, William A; Stiver, Gregg; Ayres, Gerald T

    2004-05-01

    Most spirometry errors reduce test results, and it is widely assumed that measurement accuracy is guaranteed by frequent spirometer calibrations or calibration checks. However, zero errors and changes in flow-type spirometer sensors may occur during testing that significantly elevate test results, even though the spirometer was calibrated recently. To draw attention to these often-unrecognized problems, this report presents anomalous spirograms and test results obtained from occupational medicine clinics and hospital pulmonary function laboratories during quality assurance spirogram reviews. The spurious results appear to have been caused by inaccurate zeroing of the flow sensor, or by condensation, mucus deposition, or unstable calibration of various flow-type spirometers. These errors elevated some FVCs to 144 to 204% of predicted and probably caused 40% of 121 middle-aged working men in respirator medical clearance programs to record both FVC and FEV1 > 120% of predicted. Since spirometers report the largest values from a test, these errors must be recognized and deleted to avoid false-negative interpretations. Flow-type spirometer users at all levels, from the technician to the interpreter of test results, should be aware of the potential for and the appearance of these errors in spirograms.

  4. Early Lung Function Testing in Infants with Aortic Arch Anomalies Identifies Patients at Risk for Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Charles Christoph; Wilitzki, Silke; Opgen-Rhein, Bernd; Kalache, Karim; Proquitté, Hans; Bührer, Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Background Aortic arch anomalies (AAA) are rare cardio-vascular anomalies. Right-sided and double-sided aortic arch anomalies (RAAA, DAAA) are distinguished, both may cause airway obstructions. We studied the degree of airway obstruction in infants with AAA by neonatal lung function testing (LFT). Patients and Methods 17 patients (10 RAAA and 7 DAAA) with prenatal diagnosis of AAA were investigated. The median (range) post conception age at LFT was 40.3 (36.6–44.1) weeks, median body weight 3400 (2320–4665) g. Measurements included tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL), airway resistance (Raw) by bodyplethysmography and the maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity (V′maxFRC) by rapid thoracic-abdominal compression (RTC) technique. V′maxFRC was also expressed in Z-scores, based on published gender-, age and height-specific reference values. Results Abnormal lung function tests were seen in both RAAA and DAAA infants. Compared to RAAA infants, infants with DAAA had significantly more expiratory flow limitations in the TBFVL, (86% vs. 30%, p<0.05) and a significantly increased Raw (p = 0.015). Despite a significant correlation between Raw and the Z-score of V′maxFRC (r = 0.740, p<0.001), there were no statistically significant differences in V′maxFRC and it's Z-scores between RAAA and DAAA infants. 4 (24%) infants (2 RAAA, 2 DAAA) were near or below the 10th percentile of V′maxFRC, indicating a high risk for airway obstruction. Conclusion Both, infants with RAAA and DAAA, are at risk for airway obstruction and early LFT helps to identify and to monitor these infants. This may support the decision for therapeutic interventions before clinical symptoms arise. PMID:21966379

  5. Reliability and minimal detectable change of three functional tests: forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Siles, Carmen; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomas; Jímenez-Rejano, Jose Jesus; de-la-Orden, Susana Granados; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; López-Illescas-Ruiz, Africa; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martín-Casas, Patricia; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the intrasession and intersession reliability and the absolute reliability of three functional dynamic tests—forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand tests—using computerized dynamic posturography. [Subjects and Methods] An intra-test and test-retest, repeated measure study was designed. Forty-five healthy subjects twice carried out the forward-lunge test, step-up-over test, and sit-to-stand test on two days, one week apart. The intrasession and intersession reliabilities as judged by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the minimal detectable change of the three functional tests were calculated. [Results] Excellent to very good intrasession reliability of the forward-lunge test (ICC range of 0.9–0.8) was found. Very good to good intrasession reliability of the step-up-over test (ICC range of 0.9–0.5) was found and very good intrasession reliability of the sit-to-stand test (ICC range of 0.8–0.7) was found. The minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level of most of the measures was lower than 30%. [Conclusion] The forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand tests are reliable measurement tools. PMID:28174457

  6. Lung function in Pakistani wood workers.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan A

    2006-06-01

    The lung function impairment is the most common respiratory problem in industrial plants and their vicinity. Therefore, the purpose was to study the affects of wood dust and its duration of exposure on lung function. This was a matched cross-sectional study of Spirometry in 46 non-smoking wood workers with age range 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of wood dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic Spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) in wood workers relative to their matched controls. This impairment was increased with the duration of exposure to wood industries. It is concluded that lung function in wood workers is impaired and stratification of results shows a dose-response effect of years of wood dust exposure on lung function.

  7. Forced deflation pulmonary function test: a novel method to evaluate lung function in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rakesh K; Ibrahimova, Azada; Escolar, Maria L; Szabolcs, Paul; Lugt, Mark Vander; Windreich, Randy M; Weiner, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    We describe the safety and feasibility of a forced deflation pulmonary function test (dPFT) in infants and young children. Fifty-two dPFT studies were performed in 26 patients (median age, 1.4 years). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow (FEF75 ) were normal in all except one case, but respiratory system compliance (Crs) was reduced in 24% patients. There were no significant differences in pre-blood and marrow transplantation FVC, FEF75 , and Crs between those patients who did and those who did not have posttransplant pulmonary complications. A larger study is needed to determine the prevalence and significance of PFT abnormalities in this age group.

  8. Reference values for lung function tests. II. Maximal respiratory pressures and voluntary ventilation.

    PubMed

    Neder, J A; Andreoni, S; Lerario, M C; Nery, L E

    1999-06-01

    The strength of the respiratory muscles can be evaluated from static measurements (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, MIP and MEP) or inferred from dynamic maneuvers (maximal voluntary ventilation, MVV). Although these data could be suitable for a number of clinical and research applications, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy, randomly selected sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females), 20 to 80 years old, selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations for MIP, MEP and MVV were developed by multiple regression analysis: age and, secondarily, anthropometric measurements explained up to 56% of the variability of the dependent variables. The most cited previous studies using either Caucasian or non-Caucasian samples systematically underestimated the observed values of MIP (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the self-reported level of regular physical activity and maximum aerobic power correlates strongly with both respiratory and peripheral muscular strength (knee extensor peak torque) (P < 0.01). Our results, therefore, provide a new frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of some useful indexes of respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80.

  9. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: optimal lung function tests for monitoring cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and recurrent wheezing in children less than 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Allen, Julian; Arets, Bert H G M; Aurora, Paul; Beydon, Nicole; Calogero, Claudia; Castile, Robert G; Davis, Stephanie D; Fuchs, Susanne; Gappa, Monika; Gustaffson, Per M; Hall, Graham L; Jones, Marcus H; Kirkby, Jane C; Kraemer, Richard; Lombardi, Enrico; Lum, Sooky; Mayer, Oscar H; Merkus, Peter; Nielsen, Kim G; Oliver, Cara; Oostveen, Ellie; Ranganathan, Sarath; Ren, Clement L; Robinson, Paul D; Seddon, Paul C; Sly, Peter D; Sockrider, Marianna M; Sonnappa, Samatha; Stocks, Janet; Subbarao, Padmaja; Tepper, Robert S; Vilozni, Daphna

    2013-04-01

    Although pulmonary function testing plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of chronic pulmonary conditions in children under 6 years of age, objective physiologic assessment is limited in the clinical care of infants and children less than 6 years old, due to the challenges of measuring lung function in this age range. Ongoing research in lung function testing in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers has resulted in techniques that show promise as safe, feasible, and potentially clinically useful tests. Official American Thoracic Society workshops were convened in 2009 and 2010 to review six lung function tests based on a comprehensive review of the literature (infant raised-volume rapid thoracic compression and plethysmography, preschool spirometry, specific airway resistance, forced oscillation, the interrupter technique, and multiple-breath washout). In these proceedings, the current state of the art for each of these tests is reviewed as it applies to the clinical management of infants and children under 6 years of age with cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and recurrent wheeze, using a standardized format that allows easy comparison between the measures. Although insufficient evidence exists to recommend incorporation of these tests into the routine diagnostic evaluation and clinical monitoring of infants and young children with cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or recurrent wheeze, they may be valuable tools with which to address specific concerns, such as ongoing symptoms or monitoring response to treatment, and as outcome measures in clinical research studies.

  10. Lung function in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Low, A T; Medford, A R L; Millar, A B; Tulloh, R M R

    2015-10-01

    Breathlessness is a common symptom in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and an important cause of morbidity. Though this has been attributed to the well described pulmonary vascular abnormalities and subsequent cardiac remodelling, changes in the airways of these patients have also been reported and may contribute to symptoms. Our understanding of these airway abnormalities is poor with conflicting findings in many studies. The present review evaluates these studies for the major PH groups. In addition we describe the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by evaluating cardiopulmonary interaction during exercise. As yet, the reasons for the abnormalities in lung function are unclear, but potential causes and the possible role of inflammation are discussed. Future research is required to provide a better understanding of this to help improve the management of these patients.

  11. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (P<0.001) in Transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and slow vital capacity (SVC) after yoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  12. Functional imaging in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harders, S W; Balyasnikowa, S; Fischer, B M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer represents an increasingly frequent cancer diagnosis worldwide. An increasing awareness on smoking cessation as an important mean to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality, an increasing number of therapy options and a steady focus on early diagnosis and adequate staging have resulted in a modestly improved survival. For early diagnosis and precise staging, imaging, especially positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT), plays an important role. Other functional imaging modalities such as dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) have demonstrated promising results within this field. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a brief and balanced introduction to these three functional imaging modalities and their current or potential application in the care of patients with lung cancer. PMID:24289258

  13. Lung function in sisal ropemakers.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M D; Irwig, L M; Johnston, J R; Turner, D M; Bezuidenhout, B N

    1979-01-01

    Lung function was measured by spirometry in 66 workers in a sisal ropemaking factory, and in their matched controls. The major atmospheric contaminant was the lubricant (or a component part thereof) used to soften the fibre. The concentration of airborne matter was generally less than 1 mug m--3. There was no difference in lung function between the two groups before the start of the working shift, that is, the mixture of softening lubricant and sisal caused no long-term effects. Although there was no change in lung function over the working shift in the group making sisal rope, the control group did show a significant increase in lung function over the same period. This suggests that an effect attributable to the lubricant and sisal dust did exist. In previous studies little mention has been made of the softeners used in the processing of sisal fibre. These additives may exert a significant effect on ventilatory capacity and may act in conjunction with sisal dust. PMID:500780

  14. Lung transplantation in adults and children: putting lung function into perspective.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Bruce Robert; Westall, Glen Philip; Paraskeva, Miranda; Snell, Gregory Ian

    2014-11-01

    The number of lung transplants performed globally continues to increase year after year. Despite this growing experience, long-term outcomes following lung transplantation continue to fall far short of that described in other solid-organ transplant settings. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains common and is the end result of exposure to a multitude of potentially injurious insults that include alloreactivity and infection among others. Central to any description of the clinical performance of the transplanted lung is an assessment of its physiology by pulmonary function testing. Spirometry and the evaluation of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity, remain core indices that are measured as part of routine clinical follow-up. Spirometry, while reproducible in detecting lung allograft dysfunction, lacks specificity in differentiating the different complications of lung transplantation such as rejection, infection and bronchiolitis obliterans. However, interpretation of spirometry is central to defining the different 'chronic rejection' phenotypes. It is becoming apparent that the maximal lung function achieved following transplantation, as measured by spirometry, is influenced by a number of donor and recipient factors as well as the type of surgery performed (single vs double vs lobar lung transplant). In this review, we discuss the wide range of variables that need to be considered when interpreting lung function testing in lung transplant recipients. Finally, we review a number of novel measurements of pulmonary function that may in the future serve as better biomarkers to detect and diagnose the cause of the failing lung allograft.

  15. Cross sectional study on lung function of coke oven workers: a lung function surveillance system from 1978 to 1990

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Kreis, I; Griffiths, D; Darling, C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the association between lung function of coke oven workers and exposure to coke oven emissions. Methods: Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. Multiple regressions were employed to determine significant predictors for lung function indices. The first sets of lung function tests for 613 new starters were pooled to assess the selection bias. The last sets of lung function tests for 834 subjects with one or more year of coke oven history were pooled to assess determinants of lung function. Results: Selection bias associated with the recruitment process was not observed among the exposure groups. For subjects with a history of one or more years of coke oven work, each year of working in the most exposed "operation" position was associated with reductions in FEV1 of around 9 ml (p = 0.006, 95% CI: 3 ml to 16 ml) and in FVC of around 12 ml (p = 0.002, 95% CI: 4 ml to 19 ml). Negative effects of smoking on lung function were also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to coke oven emissions was found to be associated with lower FEV1 and FVC. Effects of work exposure on lung function are similar to those found in other studies. PMID:12468747

  16. Lung Function Monitoring; A Randomized Agreement Study

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Sveinung; Stølevik, Solvor B.; Mowinckel, Petter; Nystad, Wenche; Stensrud, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between devices and repeatability within devices of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) values measured using the four spirometers included in the study. Methods: 50 (24 women) participants (20-64 years of age) completed maximum forced expiratory flow manoeuvres and measurements were performed using the following devices: MasterScreen, SensorMedics, Oxycon Pro and SpiroUSB. The order of the instruments tested was randomized and blinded for both the participants and the technicians. Re-testing was conducted on a following day within 72 hours at the same time of the day. Results: The devices which obtained the most comparable values for all lung function variables were SensorMedics and Oxycon Pro, and MasterScreen and SpiroUSB. For FEV1, mean difference was 0.04 L (95% confidence interval; -0.05, 0.14) and 0.00 L (-0.06, 0.06), respectively. When using the criterion of FVC and FEV1 ≤ 0.150 L for acceptable repeatability, 67% of the comparisons of the measured lung function values obtained by the four devices were acceptable. Overall, Oxycon Pro obtained most frequently values of the lung function variables with highest precision as indicated by the coefficients of repeatability (CR), followed by MasterScreen, SensorMedics and SpiroUSB (e.g. min-max CR for FEV1; 0.27-0.46). Conclusion: The present study confirms that measurements obtained by the same device at different times can be compared; however, measured lung function values may differ depending on spirometers used. PMID:27583055

  17. Early COPD patients with lung hyperinflation associated with poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunlan; Jian, Wenhua; Gao, Yi; Xie, Yanqing; Song, Yan; Zheng, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether aggressive medication strategies should be used for early COPD with or without lung hyperinflation. We aimed to explore the characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness of early COPD patients (stages I and II) with/without lung hyperinflation. Methods Four hundred and six patients with COPD who performed both lung volume and bronchodilation tests were retrospectively analyzed. Residual volume to total lung capacity >120% of predicted values indicated lung hyperinflation. The characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness were compared between the patients with and without lung hyperinflation across all stages of COPD. Results The percentages of patients with lung hyperinflation were 72.7% in the entire cohort, 19.4% in stage I, 68.5% in stage II, 95.3% in stage III, and 100.0% in stage IV. The patients with lung hyperinflation exhibited poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness of both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity than those without lung hyperinflation during early COPD (t=2.21–5.70, P=0.000–0.029), especially in stage I, while age, body mass index, smoking status, smoking history, and disease duration were similar between the two subgroups in the same stages. From stages I to IV of subgroups with lung hyperinflation, stage I patients had the best bronchodilator responsiveness. Use of bronchodilator responsiveness of forced vital capacity to detect the presence of lung hyperinflation in COPD patients showed relatively high sensitivities (69.5%–75.3%) and specificities (70.3%–75.7%). Conclusion We demonstrated the novel finding that early COPD patients with lung hyperinflation are associated with poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness and established a simple method for detecting lung hyperinflation. PMID:27785008

  18. Lung function after acute chlorine exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.N.; Hughes, J.M.; Glindmeyer, H.; Weill, H.

    1986-12-01

    Chlorine gas, spreading from a train derailment, caused the deaths of 8 persons and the hospitalization of 23 with sublethal respiratory injuries. Twenty-five others had at least one sign of lower respiratory abnormality but were not hospitalized. One hundred thirteen who were examined for gas effects in the forty-eight hours after exposure, including 20 of 23 of those hospitalized and 21 of 25 of those not hospitalized but with respiratory abnormality, participated in follow-up studies. Probability of admission to hospital was related to distance from the spill, but by 3 wk after exposure there was no detectable difference in lung function relating to distance or apparent severity of injury. In 60 adults tested multiple times over the following 6 yr, longitudinal change in lung function showed expected differences related to smoking but none related to distance or severity of injury. The average annual change in FEV was -34 ml/yr in current smokers and -18 ml/yr in ex and never-smokers. The lack of a discernible chlorine effect in this cohort accords with the findings in most previous studies. Without pre-exposure measurements, a single, lasting reduction in lung function cannot be excluded, but there is no evidence for a persisting abnormal rate of decline.

  19. Pulmonary function testing.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Gregg L; Enright, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing is often considered the basis for diagnosis in many categories of pulmonary disease. Although most of the testing methodologies are well established and widely employed, there are still many questions regarding how tests should be performed, how to ensure that reliable data are produced, what reference values and rules should be used, and how pulmonary function tests (PFTs) should be interpreted to best support clinical decision making. This conference was organized around a set of questions aimed at many of these issues. Each presenter was asked to address a specific topic regarding what tests should be done, how those test should be performed to answer a particular clinical question, and to relate test results to an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the patient. These topics included testing of adults and children, with concentration on important disease entities such as COPD, asthma, and unexplained dyspnea. Special emphasis was given to discussing reference values, lower limits of normal, interpretive strategies to optimize disease classification, and those factors directly affecting data quality. Established techniques for spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, exercise testing, and bronchial challenges were compared and contrasted with new technologies, and with technologies that might be part of pulmonary function laboratories in the near future.

  20. Functional lung imaging using hyperpolarized gas MRI.

    PubMed

    Fain, Sean B; Korosec, Frank R; Holmes, James H; O'Halloran, Rafael; Sorkness, Ronald L; Grist, Thomas M

    2007-05-01

    The noninvasive assessment of lung function using imaging is increasingly of interest for the study of lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Hyperpolarized gas MRI (HP MRI) has demonstrated the ability to detect changes in ventilation, perfusion, and lung microstructure that appear to be associated with both normal lung development and disease progression. The physical characteristics of HP gases and their application to MRI are presented with an emphasis on current applications. Clinical investigations using HP MRI to study asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, pediatric chronic lung disease, and lung transplant are reviewed. Recent advances in polarization, pulse sequence development for imaging with Xe-129, and prototype low magnetic field systems dedicated to lung imaging are highlighted as areas of future development for this rapidly evolving technology.

  1. Early airway infection, inflammation, and lung function in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, G; Armstrong, D; Carzino, R; Carlin, J; Olinsky, A; Robertson, C; Grimwood, K

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the relation between lower airway infection and inflammation, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective study of children with CF aged younger than 3 years, diagnosed by a newborn screening programme. All were clinically stable and had testing as outpatients. Subjects underwent bronchial lavage (BL) and lung function testing by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique under general anaesthesia. BL fluid was cultured and analysed for neutrophil count, interleukin 8, and neutrophil elastase. Lung function was assessed by forced expiratory volume in 0.5, 0.75, and 1 second. Results: Thirty six children with CF were tested on 54 occasions. Lower airway infection shown by BL was associated with a 10% reduction in FEV0.5 compared with subjects without infection. No relation was identified between airway inflammation and lung function. Daily moist cough within the week before testing was reported on 20/54 occasions, but in only seven (35%) was infection detected. Independent of either infection status or airway inflammation, those with daily cough had lower lung function than those without respiratory symptoms at the time of BL (mean adjusted FEV0.5 195 ml and 236 ml respectively). Conclusions: In young children with CF, both respiratory symptoms and airway infection have independent, additive effects on lung function, unrelated to airway inflammation. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of airway obstruction in these young patients. PMID:12244003

  2. Regional lung function in asbestos workers.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, D

    1977-01-01

    Regional lung function was measured using radioactive xenon-133 in a group of normal subjects and in two groups of asbestos workers. When compared with the normal group, patients with pulmonary asbestosis showed impaired ventilation of the lower zones. Subjects with calcified pleural plaques without radiological evidence of lung parenchymal fibrosis did not show this abnormality. PMID:841532

  3. 99mTc-MIBI Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Raeisi, Alireza; Assadi, Majid; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The differentiation of active inflammatory processes from an inactive form of the disease is of great value in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scans in distinguishing the severity of the disease compared to radiological and clinical parameters. In total, 19 known cases of ILD were included in this study and were followed up for 1 year. Five patients without lung disease were considered as the control group. The patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography scans, followed by 99mTc-MIBI scanning. The 99mTc-MIBI scans were analyzed either qualitatively (subjectively) or semiquantitatively. All 19 ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-MIBI uptake in the lungs compared to the control group. The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were higher in the patient group in both the early phase (0.24[0.19–0.31] vs 0.11[0.10–0.15], P < 0.05) and the delayed phase (0.15[0.09–0.27] vs 0.04[0.01–0.09], P < 0.05) compared with the control group. A positive correlation was detected between the 99mTc-MIBI scan and the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scores (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.65, P < 0.02) in the early phase but not in the delayed phase in patients (P > 0.14). The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were not significantly correlated with the PFT findings (P > 0.05). In total, 5 patients died and 14 patients were still alive over the 1-year follow-up period. There was also a significant difference between the uptake intensity of 99mTc-MIBI and the outcome in the early phase (dead: 0.32[0.29–0.43] vs alive: 0.21[0.18–0.24], P < 0.05) and delayed phase (dead: 0.27[0.22–0.28] vs alive: 0.10[0.07–0.19], P < 0.05). The washout rate was ∼40 min starting from 20 min up to 60 min and this rate was significantly different in our 2 study groups (ILD: 46

  4. 99mTc-MIBI Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Raeisi, Alireza; Assadi, Majid; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    The differentiation of active inflammatory processes from an inactive form of the disease is of great value in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scans in distinguishing the severity of the disease compared to radiological and clinical parameters.In total, 19 known cases of ILD were included in this study and were followed up for 1 year. Five patients without lung disease were considered as the control group. The patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography scans, followed by 99mTc-MIBI scanning. The 99mTc-MIBI scans were analyzed either qualitatively (subjectively) or semiquantitatively.All 19 ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-MIBI uptake in the lungs compared to the control group. The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were higher in the patient group in both the early phase (0.24[0.19-0.31] vs 0.11[0.10-0.15], P < 0.05) and the delayed phase (0.15[0.09-0.27] vs 0.04[0.01-0.09], P < 0.05) compared with the control group. A positive correlation was detected between the 99mTc-MIBI scan and the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scores (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.65, P < 0.02) in the early phase but not in the delayed phase in patients (P > 0.14). The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were not significantly correlated with the PFT findings (P > 0.05). In total, 5 patients died and 14 patients were still alive over the 1-year follow-up period. There was also a significant difference between the uptake intensity of 99mTc-MIBI and the outcome in the early phase (dead: 0.32[0.29-0.43] vs alive: 0.21[0.18-0.24], P < 0.05) and delayed phase (dead: 0.27[0.22-0.28] vs alive: 0.10[0.07-0.19], P < 0.05).The washout rate was ~40 min starting from 20 min up to 60 min and this rate was significantly different in our 2 study groups (ILD: 46.61[15.61-50.39] vs NL: 70.91[27.09-116.36], P = 0.04).The

  5. 99mTc-IgG-Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Malakizadeh, Hasan; Monavvarsadegh, Gholamhossein; Ilkhani Pak, Hoda; Sadeghi, Azadeh; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The discrimination of inactive inflammatory processes from the active form of the disease is of great importance in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-IgG scan for the detection of severity of disease compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT). Patients and Methods: Eight known cases of ILD including four cases of Mustard gas (MG) intoxication and four patients with ILD of unknown cause were included in this study. A population of six patients without lung disease was considered as the control group. The patients underwent PFT and high-resolution computed tomography, followed by 99mTc-IgG scan. They were followed up for one year. 99mTc-IgG scan assessment of IgG uptake was accomplished both qualitatively (subjectively) and semiquantitatively. Results: All eight ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-IgG uptake in the lungs, compared to the control patients. The 99mTc-IgG scan scores were higher in the patient group (0.64[95% confidence interval(CI)=0.61-0.69])) than the control group (0.35 (0.35[95% CI=0.28-0.40]), (P<0.05)). In patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was detected between 99mTc-IgG scan and HRCT scores (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.92, P < 0.008). The 99mTc-Human Immunoglobulin (HIG) scores were not significantly correlated with PFT findings (including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC), O2 saturation and age ( P values > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between 99mTc-IgG score and HRCT patterns including ground glass opacity, reticular fibrosis and honeycombing (P value > 0.05). Conclusion: The present results confirmed that 99mTc-IgG scan could be applied to detect the severity of pulmonary involvement, which was well correlated with HRCT findings. This data also showed that the 99mTc-IgG scan might be used as a complement to HRCT in the functional evaluation

  6. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  7. Tiny Device Mimics Human Lung Function

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Rebecca; Harris, Jennifer; Nath, Pulak

    2016-04-25

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing a miniature, tissue-engineered artificial lung that mimics the response of the human lung to drugs, toxins and other agents. “We breathe in and out thousands of times every day. And while we have control over what we eat or drink, we don’t always have control over what we breathe in,” said Jennifer Harris of Biosecurity and Public Health at Los Alamos, "and so we’re making this miniature lung to be able to test on actual human cells whether something in the environment, or a drug, is toxic or harmful to us." Nicknamed “PuLMo” for Pulmonary Lung Model (Pulmo is also the Latin word for "lung")the device consists of two major parts, the bronchiolar unit and the alveolar unit—just like the human lung. The units are primarily made from various polymers and are connected by a microfluidic “circuit board” that manages fluid and air flow. “When we build our lung, we not only take into account the aspects of different cell types, the tissues that are involved, we also take into account that a lung is supposed to breathe, so PuLMo actually breathes,” said Pulak Nath of Applied Modern Physics, who leads engineering efforts for the project. The most exciting application of PuLMo is a potentially revolutionary improvement in the reliability of drug-toxicity assessments and the prediction of new pharmaceutical success in humans, according to Harris. The PuLMo may also be designed to mimic lung disease conditions, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma, and may be used to study lung air-flow dynamics to better understand the mechanisms of toxins and drug delivery and the effects of smoking, particularly the less-understood effects of e-cigarettes.

  8. [A comparative study of clinical score and lung function tests in the classification of asthma by severity of disease].

    PubMed

    Nakaie, C M; Rozov, T; Manissadjian, A

    1998-01-01

    Fifty nine asthmatic children and adolescents, clinically stable, aged 6 to 15 years, 37 boys and 22 girls, from Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, were studied from September to November, 1994. The patients were classified by the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. They performed baseline spirometry and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), before and after bronchodilator, and measured PEFR three times a day (6 pm, at bedtime and on waking), for one day, at home. Five PEF measurements were made serially and the best readings were considered. Variability of PFE was calculated for 24 hours, as assessed by maximal amplitude. The results were summited to statistical analysis of the Laboratorio de Informática Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da USP. The results of PEFR and it's variability were compared to spirometry, (functional score, FEV1-forced expiratory volume in the first second) and to the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. In case of disagreement between the clinical parameters, the more severe one was chosen. The clinical score classified 20.3% of our patients as mild obstruction, 49.2% as moderate and 30.5% as severely compromised. According to FEV1, 58% of patients were classified as normal while the PEFR and its variability classified as normal 76% and 71%. The PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, correlated with the VEF1, as gold standard, showed good specificity, 91% and 76% respectively and low sensibility, 44% and 32%. It was detected a low level of agreement between FEV1, PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, in the clinical severity classification of asthma. The results of this study showed that FEV1 and PEFR had a low level of agreement in the clinical severity classification of asthma and when they were correlated to the clinical score of the International Consensus, they both presented low sensitivity.

  9. Genetic Ancestry in Lung-Function Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Seibold, Max A.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Williams, L. Keoki; Reiner, Alex P.; Colangelo, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Gignoux, Christopher; Hu, Donglei; Sen, Saunak; Choudhry, Shweta; Peterson, Edward L.; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Nalls, Michael A.; Leak, Tennille S.; O’Meara, Ellen; Meibohm, Bernd; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Li, Rongling; Harris, Tamara B.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Fornage, Myriam; Enright, Paul; Ziv, Elad; Smith, Lewis J.; Liu, Kiang; Burchard, Esteban González

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Self-identified race or ethnic group is used to determine normal reference standards in the prediction of pulmonary function. We conducted a study to determine whether the genetically determined percentage of African ancestry is associated with lung function and whether its use could improve predictions of lung function among persons who identified themselves as African American. METHODS We assessed the ancestry of 777 participants self-identified as African American in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and evaluated the relation between pulmonary function and ancestry by means of linear regression. We performed similar analyses of data for two independent cohorts of subjects identifying themselves as African American: 813 participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (HABC) study and 579 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). We compared the fit of two types of models to lung-function measurements: models based on the covariates used in standard prediction equations and models incorporating ancestry. We also evaluated the effect of the ancestry-based models on the classification of disease severity in two asthma-study populations. RESULTS African ancestry was inversely related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity in the CARDIA cohort. These relations were also seen in the HABC and CHS cohorts. In predicting lung function, the ancestry-based model fit the data better than standard models. Ancestry-based models resulted in the reclassification of asthma severity (based on the percentage of the predicted FEV1) in 4 to 5% of participants. CONCLUSIONS Current predictive equations, which rely on self-identified race alone, may misestimate lung function among subjects who identify themselves as African American. Incorporating ancestry into normative equations may improve lung-function estimates and more accurately categorize disease severity. (Funded by the National

  10. Adenosine promotes vascular barrier function in hyperoxic lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jonathan; Karmouty‐Quintana, Harry; Le, Thuy T.; Chen, Ning‐Yuan; Weng, Tingting; Luo, Fayong; Molina, Jose; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hyperoxic lung injury is characterized by cellular damage from high oxygen concentrations that lead to an inflammatory response in the lung with cellular infiltration and pulmonary edema. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that is generated extracellularly by CD73 in response to injury. Extracellular adenosine signals through cell surface receptors and has been found to be elevated and plays a protective role in acute injury situations. In particular, ADORA2B activation is protective in acute lung injury. However, little is known about the role of adenosine signaling in hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that hyperoxia‐induced lung injury leads to CD73‐mediated increases in extracellular adenosine, which is protective through ADORA2B signaling pathways. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6, CD73−/−, and Adora2B−/− mice to 95% oxygen or room air and examined markers of pulmonary inflammation, edema, and monitored lung histology. Hyperoxic exposure caused pulmonary inflammation and edema in association with elevations in lung adenosine levels. Loss of CD73‐mediated extracellular adenosine production exacerbated pulmonary edema without affecting inflammatory cell counts. Furthermore, loss of the ADORA2B had similar results with worsening of pulmonary edema following hyperoxia exposure without affecting inflammatory cell infiltration. This loss of barrier function correlated with a decrease in occludin in pulmonary vasculature in CD73−/− and Adora2B−/− mice following hyperoxia exposure. These results demonstrate that exposure to a hyperoxic environment causes lung injury associated with an increase in adenosine concentration, and elevated adenosine levels protect vascular barrier function in hyperoxic lung injury through the ADORA2B‐dependent regulation of occludin. PMID:25263205

  11. Comparative study of lung functions in swimmers and runners.

    PubMed

    Sable, Meenakshi; Vaidya, S M; Sable, S S

    2012-01-01

    In the present study pulmonary function tests of two different groups of athletes, swimmers and runners were studied and compared. Thirty swimmers who used to swim a distance of two to three kilometers per day regularly were compared with age, sex, height, and weight matched thirty middle distance runners. Runners and swimmers selected for this study were undergoing training since last three years. Tidal Volume (TV), forced Vital Capacity (FVC). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were higher in swimmers than runners. Swimming exercise affects lung volume measurements as respiratory muscles including diaphragm of swimmers are required to develop greater pressure as a consequence of immersion in water during respiratory cycle, thus may lead to functional improvement in these muscles and also alterations in elasticity of lung and chest wall or of ventilatory muscles, leading to an improvement in forced vital capacity and other lung functions of swimmers than runners.

  12. Divers' lung function: small airways disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Kambestad, B; Gulsvik, A

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary function was measured in 152 professional saturation divers and in a matched control group of 106 subjects. Static lung volumes, dynamic lung volumes and flows, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), transfer volume per unit alveolar volume (KCO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured and compared with reference values from recent Scandinavian studies, British submariners, and the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECCS) recommended reference values. Diving exposure was assessed as years of diving experience, total number of days in saturation and depth, and as the product of days in saturation and mean depth. Divers had significantly lower values for forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, FEF25-75%, FEF75-85%, FEF50%, FEF75%, T1CO, and KCO compared with the controls and a significantly higher CV. There was a positive correlation between diving exposure and CV, whereas the other variables had negative correlations with diving exposure. Values for the control group were not different from the predictive values of Scandinavian reference studies or British submariners, although the ECCS standard predicted significantly lower values for the lung function variables both in divers and the control group. The pattern of the differences in lung function variables between the divers and controls is consistent with small airways dysfunction and with the transient changes in lung function found immediately after a single saturation dive. The association between reduced pulmonary function and previous diving exposure further indicates the presence of cumulative long term effects of diving on pulmonary function. PMID:2393630

  13. Tiny Device Mimics Human Lung Function

    ScienceCinema

    McDonald, Rebecca; Harris, Jennifer; Nath, Pulak

    2016-07-12

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing a miniature, tissue-engineered artificial lung that mimics the response of the human lung to drugs, toxins and other agents. “We breathe in and out thousands of times every day. And while we have control over what we eat or drink, we don’t always have control over what we breathe in,” said Jennifer Harris of Biosecurity and Public Health at Los Alamos, "and so we’re making this miniature lung to be able to test on actual human cells whether something in the environment, or a drug, is toxic or harmful to us." Nicknamed “PuLMo” for Pulmonary Lung Model (Pulmo is also the Latin word for "lung")the device consists of two major parts, the bronchiolar unit and the alveolar unit—just like the human lung. The units are primarily made from various polymers and are connected by a microfluidic “circuit board” that manages fluid and air flow. “When we build our lung, we not only take into account the aspects of different cell types, the tissues that are involved, we also take into account that a lung is supposed to breathe, so PuLMo actually breathes,” said Pulak Nath of Applied Modern Physics, who leads engineering efforts for the project. The most exciting application of PuLMo is a potentially revolutionary improvement in the reliability of drug-toxicity assessments and the prediction of new pharmaceutical success in humans, according to Harris. The PuLMo may also be designed to mimic lung disease conditions, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma, and may be used to study lung air-flow dynamics to better understand the mechanisms of toxins and drug delivery and the effects of smoking, particularly the less-understood effects of e-cigarettes.

  14. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, M; Dahl, R; Jensen, E J; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity. PMID:2799744

  15. [Pediatric lung resection. A case series and evaluation of postoperative lung function].

    PubMed

    Caussade, S; Zúñiga, S; García, C; González, S; Campos, E; Soto, G; Zúñiga, F; Sánchez, I

    2001-12-01

    The most common causes of pulmonary lobectomy in children are congenital lung malformations (CLM) and bronchiectasias. Our aim was to present the causes and clinical course and lung function of lobectomized patients. Between 1990 and July 1999 27 lobectomies were performed on patients whose ages ranged from newborn to 14 years. Lobectomies were performed to correct CLM in 124 cases and for acquired pulmonary disease (APD) in 13. Among CLM cases, half (n = 7) had cystic adenomatoid malformation. Among the APD patients, 10 had bronchiectasias, with etiological confirmation in 6 cases (3 secondary to serious adenovirus infection). Mean hospital stay was 4.6 days among those who experienced no postoperative complications. Symptoms resolved after surgery for most symptomatic patients. Lung function tests could be carried out with 8 patients over 6 years old whose operations had taken place 7 to 78 months earlier (x = 35 months) and whose age at the time of surgery was a mean 7 years 6 months (range 60 to 144 months). Spirometry showed normal forced vital capacity for 7 of 8 patients (87 to 143% of theoretical value). Arterial oxygen saturation measured during and after a 6-minute walking test was normal for 7 of 8 patients. Chest films showed reduced lung volume on the affected side in 5 of 8 patients. In summary, lobectomy is a procedure with few complications. It requires a short hospital stay and has good postoperative prognosis. Function and x-ray studies show adequate lung growth and development, with normal lung function in those who could be so examined because they were old enough to cooperate.

  16. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype.

  17. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  18. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Liver function tests are common tests that are used to see how well the liver is working. Tests include: ... M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  19. Feasibility of measuring lung function in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Nystad, W; Samuelsen, S; Nafstad, P; Edvardsen, E; Stensrud, T; Jaakkola, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: There have been difficulties in applying spirometric tests to children of preschool age. Methods: The feasibility of measuring lung function was examined in 652 children aged 3–6 years using dynamic spirometry with an animation programme and the guidelines approved by the European Respiratory Society. Results: Data from 603 (92%) children with at least two acceptable forced expiratory manoeuvres were analysed; 408 (68%) achieved at least three acceptable manoeuvres. Children with only two acceptable manoeuvres were younger, shorter, and weighed less (p<0.001). The lower levels of lung function in this group were partly explained by body size. 63% of those with three acceptable manoeuvres had a difference of ≤5% between the highest and second highest forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1); when a difference of ≤10% was applied, 91% of the children were included. A similar trend was seen for forced vital capacity (FVC). The acceptability and reproducibility increased with increasing age, and levels of lung function increased linearly with age. The linear regression model showed that standing height was a satisfactory predictor of lung function; the explained fraction of variance (R2) was 59% for FEV1. Most FVC manoeuvres in children older than 3 years were acceptable and reproducible. Conclusions: Spirometric testing is feasible in preschool children and may be useful for both clinical practice and research. This study may fill the deficiency in reference values for European preschool children. PMID:12454295

  20. The Utility of Exercise Testing in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Duc; Mazzone, Peter J; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul; Fuster, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The harm associated with lung cancer treatment include perioperative morbidity and mortality and therapy-induced toxicities in various organs, including the heart and lungs. Optimal treatment therefore entails a need for risk assessment to weigh the probabilities of benefits versus harm. Exercise testing offers an opportunity to evaluate a patient's physical fitness/exercise capacity objectively. In lung cancer, it is most often used to risk-stratify patients undergoing evaluation for lung cancer resection. In recent years, its use outside this context has been described, including in nonsurgical candidates and lung cancer survivors. In this article we review the physiology of exercise testing and lung cancer. Then, we assess the utility of exercise testing in patients with lung cancer in four contexts (preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection, after lung cancer resection, lung cancer prognosis, and assessment of efficiency of exercise training programs) after systematically identifying original studies involving the most common forms of exercise tests in this patient population: laboratory cardiopulmonary exercise testing and simple field testing with the 6-minute walk test, shuttle walk test, and/or stair-climbing test. Lastly, we propose a conceptual framework for risk assessment of patients with lung cancer who are being considered for therapy and identify areas for further studies in this patient population.

  1. Obesity and lung function: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Luciana Costa; da Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça; Calles, Ana Carolina do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat that is harmful to the individuals. Respiratory disorders are among the comorbidities associated with obesity. This study had the objective of investigating the alterations in respiratory function that affect obese individuals. A systematic review was performed, by selecting publications in the science databases MEDLINE and LILACS, using PubMed and SciELO. The articles that assessed pulmonary function by plethysmography and/or spirometry in obese individuals aged under 18 years were included. The results demonstrated that the obese individuals presented with a reduction in lung volume and capacity as compared to healthy individuals. Reduction of total lung capacity and reduction of forced vital capacity, accompanied by reduction of the forced expiratory volume after one second were the most representative findings in the samples. The articles analyzed proved the presence of a restrictive respiratory pattern associated with obesity. PMID:24728258

  2. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Function Tests Liver Function Tests Explore this section to learn more ... including a description and diagnosis. Why is the liver important? The liver is the second largest organ ...

  3. Gas cooking and reduced lung function in school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Neuberger, Manfred

    RationaleOutdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) is associated with reduced respiratory health. This could be due to a unique biological effect of this gaseous pollutant or because it serves as a surrogate of fine particles from incineration sources. Cooking with gas in small kitchens produces high concentrations of gaseous irritants (mainly nitrogen dioxide), but not fine particles. ObjectivesTo study the relative impact of cooking with gas on lung function parameters in a cross sectional study of school children. MethodsNearly all elementary school children (2898 children aged 6-10 years) living in the city of Linz (capital of Upper Austria) underwent lung function testing. In a questionnaire administered simultaneously to their parents, information on household conditions including cooking and tobacco smoke exposure was collected. Impact of cooking with gas on lung function controlling for various confounders was analyzed using loglinear multiple regression. ResultsGas cooking reduced lung function parameters ranging from 1.1% (not significant) for MEF 25 up to 3.4% ( p=0.01) for peak expiratory flow (PEF). ConclusionsGas stoves can have an adverse impact on children's respiratory health. Parents and caretakers should be advised to insure good ventilation while and after cooking, especially in small and poorly ventilated rooms. This study adds to the growing evidence that gaseous pollutants from incineration sources affect respiratory health directly.

  4. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibrosis (scarring or thickening of the lung tissue) Sarcoidosis and scleroderma Muscular weakness can also cause abnormal ... Emphysema Interstitial Lung Diseases Lung Diseases Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  5. Lung cancer tissue diagnosis in poor lung function: addressing the ongoing percutaneous lung biopsy FEV1 paradox using Heimlich valve.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, R; Tavare, A N; Creamer, A; Creer, D; Vancheeswaran, R; Hare, S S

    2016-08-01

    Many centres continue to decline percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) in patients with poor lung function (particularly FEV1 <1 L) due to the theoretically increased risk of pneumothorax. This practice limits access to novel lung cancer therapies and minimally invasive surgical techniques. Our retrospective single-centre analysis of 212 patients undergoing PLB, all performed prospectively and blinded to lung function, demonstrates that using ambulatory Heimlich valve chest drain (HVCD) to treat significant postbiopsy pneumothorax facilitates safe, diagnostic, early discharge lung biopsy irrespective of lung function with neither FEV1 <1 L nor transfer coefficient for carbon monoxide (TLCO) <40% predicted shown to be independent predictors of HVCD insertion or pneumothorax outcomes. Incorporating ambulatory HVCD into standard PLB practice thereby elegantly bridges the gap that currently exists between tissue diagnosis in patients with poor lung function and the advanced therapeutic options available for this cohort.

  6. Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Whitrow, Melissa J.; Harding, Seeromanie

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The relative contribution of body proportion and social exposures to ethnic differences in lung function has not previously been reported in the United Kingdom. Objectives: To examine ethnic differences in lung function in relation to anthropometry and social and psychosocial factors in early adolescence. Methods: The subjects of this study were 3,924 pupils aged 11 to 13 years, of whom 80% were ethnic minorities with satisfactory lung function measures. Data were collected on economic disadvantage, psychological well-being, tobacco exposure, height, FEV1, and FVC. Measurements and Main Results: The lowest FEV1 was observed for Black Caribbean/African children after adjusting for standing height (SH) (white boys: 2.475 L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.442–2.509; white girls: 2.449 L; 95% CI, 2.464–2.535]; Black Caribbean boys: −14% [95% CI, −16 to −12]; Black Caribbean girls: −13% [95% CI, −16 to −11]; Black African boys: −15% [95% CI, −17 to −13]; Black African girls: −17% [95% CI, −19 to −14]; Indian boys: −13% [95% CI, −16 to −11]; Indian girls: −11% [95% CI, −14 to −8]; Pakistani/Bangladeshi boys: −7% [95% CI, −9 to −5]; Pakistani/Bangladeshi girls: −9% [95% CI, −11 to −6]). Adjustment for upper body segment instead of SH achieved a further reduction in ethnic differences of 41 to 51% for children of Black African origin and 26 to 39% for the other groups. Overcrowding (boys) and poor psychological well-being (boys and girls) were independent correlates of FEV1, explaining up to a further 10% of ethnic differences. Similar patterns were observed for FVC. Social exposures were also related to height components. Conclusions: Differences in upper body segment explained more of the ethnic differences in lung function than SH, particularly among Black Caribbeans/African subjects. Social correlates had a smaller but significant impact. Future research needs to consider how differential development of

  7. Lung function in infants and young children with chronic lung disease of infancy: the next steps?

    PubMed

    Stocks, Janet; Coates, Allan; Bush, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Over the past year, a series of papers have reviewed the literature concerning assessment and interpretation of lung function in infants and young children with chronic lung disease of infancy. This manuscript, which represents the final paper in that series, summarizes the findings to date and highlights key areas for future research. Despite the huge literature in this field, interpretation of results and their use in guiding clinical management are still limited by difficulties in 'normalizing data' according to body size and maturation and selection of appropriate control groups. Furthermore, sensitive tests that more closely reflect the underlying pathophysiology of 'new' bronchopulmonary dysplasia, together with simple and reliable methods of assessing lung maturity at birth and true oxygen requirements at specified time points are urgently required. Research in this field is also challenged by the need to separate the independent effects of genetic predisposition, gene-environment interactions, preterm delivery, neonatal respiratory disorders and various treatment strategies on the growing lung. The extent to which disruption of lung growth following premature exposure to the extra-uterine environment leads to an earlier or more aggravated decline in respiratory function in later adult life remains to be elucidated. Whatever its origin, given the increasing survival of smaller and more immature infants, the long term sequelae of neonatal lung disease, are likely to continue to change, requiring ongoing, carefully designed longitudinal studies. Future research strategies need to encompass a multicenter, multi-disciplinary, collaborative approach with closer links between clinicians and basic scientists, to ensure that the most relevant research questions are addressed using appropriate methodology and that findings are implemented into clinical practice in a more timely fashion.

  8. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  9. Phenotyping mouse pulmonary function in vivo with the lung diffusing capacity.

    PubMed

    Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-06

    The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models.

  10. Lung function, breathing pattern, and gas exchange in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, S; Sicilian, L

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the severity of abnormalities in ventilatory function tests and tidal breathing pattern and gas exchange indices in interstitial lung disease. METHODS: Pulmonary function, ventilation, carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, arterial blood gas tensions, and pH were measured during resting steady state conditions in 60 patients with proved interstitial lung disease. Patients were categorised by forced vital capacity (FVC) (percentage of predicted values) as having a mild, moderate, or severe restrictive defect with means (SD) of 71% (4%), 57% (4%), and 41% (7%) of predicted values, respectively. RESULTS: FVC varied from 29% to 79% of predicted values and from 0.99 l to 4.32 l. The two measurements of FVC correlated strongly with most static lung volumes and with transfer factor for carbon monoxide. Mean respiratory rates (per minute) and tidal volumes (ml) were 17 (4) and 484 (131), 20 (4) and 460 (139), and 23 (5) and 377 (109) in mild, moderate, and severe restrictive defects, respectively. FVC correlated negatively with respiratory rate and positively with tidal volume. Arterial carbon dioxide tension ranged from 30 to 49 mm Hg; only two patients were hypercapnic. Mean arterial oxygen tensions were not significantly different among the three groups, and there were no significant correlations between forced expiratory volume in one second or FVC and arterial carbon dioxide tension or carbon dioxide production. CONCLUSION: Low values of FVC were associated with increased respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume; this pattern of breathing mimics external elastic loading, suggesting that mechanoreceptors may contribute to the rapid and shallow pattern of breathing in interstitial lung disease. Hypercapnia seems to be rare in interstitial lung disease even when functional impairment is severe and tidal volume is small. The increased respiratory rate is important in maintaining adequate

  11. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  12. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-11-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  13. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  14. Systemic inflammation and lung function: A longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J.; Gray, Andrew R.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Poulton, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammation is associated with impaired lung function in healthy adults as well as in patients with lung disease. The mechanism for this association is unknown and it is unclear if systemic inflammation leads to impaired lung function or if poor lung function leads to inflammation. We explored the temporal associations between blood C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and white blood cells, and lung function in young adults. Methods Spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion capacity were measured in a population-based cohort at ages 32 and 38 years. High-sensitivity CRP, fibrinogen, and white blood cells were measured at the same ages. Results Higher levels of CRP and, to a lesser extent, fibrinogen were associated with lower lung volumes in cross-sectional analyses at both ages 32 and 38 years. Higher CRP and fibrinogen at age 32 were associated with higher FEV1 and FEV1/FVC at age 38, but not other measures of lung function. Lower lung volumes (total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume) but not airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC) at age 32 were associated with higher CRP at age 38. Associations between age 32 lung function and fibrinogen at follow-up were weaker, but consistent. There were no longitudinal associations between white blood cells and lung function. Conclusions We found no evidence that systemic inflammation causes a decline in lung function. However, lower lung volumes were associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen at follow-up indicating that pulmonary restriction may be a risk factor for systemic inflammation. The mechanism for this association remains unclear. PMID:26733230

  15. Sperm function test

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  16. Identification and Testing of Novel CARP-1 Functional Mimetic Compounds as Inhibitors of Non-Small Cell Lung and Triple Negative Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Somagoni, Jaganmohan; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Yassin, Alaa Eldeen B.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Sochacki, Paula; Polin, Lisa A.; Reddy, Kaladhar B.; Larsen, Scott D.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    The triple negative breast cancer (TNBCs) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) often acquire mutations that contribute to failure of drugs in clinic and poor prognosis, thus presenting an urgent need to develop new and improved therapeutic modalities. Here we report that CARP-1 functional mimetic (CFMs) compounds 4 and 5, and 4.6, a structurally related analog of CFM-4, are potent inhibitors of TNBC and NSCLC cells in vitro. Cell growth suppression by CFM-4 and -4.6 involved interaction and elevated expression of CARP-1/CCAR1 and Death Effector Domain (DED) containing DNA binding (DEDD)2 proteins. Apoptosis by these compounds also involved activation of pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases p38 and JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP and loss of mitotic cyclin B1. Both the CFMs inhibited abilities of NSCLC and TNBC cells to migrate, invade, and form colonies in suspension, while disrupting tubule formation by the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nano-lipid formulation of CFM-4 (CFM-4 NLF) enhanced its serum bioavailability when compared with the free CFM-4. Oral administration of CFM-4 NLF reduced weights and volume of the xenografted tumors derived from A549 NSCLC and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells. Although no gross tissue or histological toxicities were noticed, the immuno-histochemical analysis revealed increased CARP-1 and DNA fragmentation in tumors of the CFM-4 NLF-treated animals. In conclusion, while stimulation of pro-apoptotic CARP-1 and DEDD2 expression and their binding underscore a novel mechanism of apoptosis transduction by CFM compounds, our proof-of-concept xenograft studies demonstrate therapeutic potential of CFM-4 for TNBC and NSCLC. PMID:26485930

  17. The relation of airway size to lung function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, J. Ken; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Bon, Jessica M.; Park, Sang C.; Pu, Jiantao; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may cause airway remodeling, and small airways are the mostly likely site of associated airway flow obstruction. Detecting and quantifying airways depicted on a typical computed tomography (CT) images is limited by spatial resolution. In this study, we examined the association between lung function and airway size. CT examinations and spirometry measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percent predicted (FEV I%) from 240 subjects were used in this study. Airway sections depicted in axial CT section were automatically detected and quantified. Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) were computed to compare lung function across three size categories: (1) all detected airways, (2) the smallest 50% of detected airways, and (3) the largest 50% of detected airways using the CORANOVA test. The mean number of all airways detected per subject was 117.4 (+/- 40.1) with mean size ranging from 20.2 to 50.0 mm2. The correlation between lung function (i.e., FEV I) and airway morphometry associated with airway remodeling and airflow obstruction (i.e., lumen perimeter and wall area as a percent of total airway area) was significantly stronger for smaller compared to larger airways (p < 0.05). The PCCs between FEV I and all airways, the smallest 50%, and the largest 50% were 0.583, 0.617, 0.523, respectively, for lumen perimeter and -0.560, -0.584, and -0.514, respectively, for wall area percent. In conclusion, analyzing a set of smaller airways compared to larger airways may improve detection of an association between lung function and airway morphology change.

  18. Linking lung function and inflammatory responses in ventilator-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Hantos, Zoltan; Sly, Peter D; Zosky, Graeme R

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury are poorly understood. We used strain-dependent responses to mechanical ventilation in mice to identify associations between mechanical and inflammatory responses in the lung. BALB/c, C57BL/6, and 129/Sv mice were ventilated using a protective [low tidal volume and moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuvers] or injurious (high tidal volume and zero PEEP) ventilation strategy. Lung mechanics and lung volume were monitored using the forced oscillation technique and plethysmography, respectively. Inflammation was assessed by measuring numbers of inflammatory cells, cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) levels, and protein content of the BAL. Principal components factor analysis was used to identify independent associations between lung function and inflammation. Mechanical and inflammatory responses in the lung were dependent on ventilation strategy and mouse strain. Three factors were identified linking 1) pulmonary edema, protein leak, and macrophages, 2) atelectasis, IL-6, and TNF-α, and 3) IL-1β and neutrophils, which were independent of responses in lung mechanics. This approach has allowed us to identify specific inflammatory responses that are independently associated with overstretch of the lung parenchyma and loss of lung volume. These data provide critical insight into the mechanical responses in the lung that drive local inflammation in ventilator-induced lung injury and the basis for future mechanistic studies in this field.

  19. GENETIC ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HUMAN CHITINASES AND LUNG FUNCTION IN COPD

    PubMed Central

    Aminuddin, F.; Akhabir, L.; Stefanowicz, D.; Paré, P.D.; Connett, J.E.; Anthonisen, N.R.; Fahy, J.V.; Seibold, M.A.; Burchard, E.G.; Eng, C.; Gulsvik, A.; Bakke, P.; Cho, M. H.; Litonjua, A.; Lomas, D.A.; Anderson, W. H.; Beaty, T.H.; Crapo, J.D.; Silverman, E.K.; Sandford, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Two primary chitinases have been identified in humans – acid mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Mammalian chitinases have been observed to affect the host’s immune response. The aim of this study was to test for association between genetic variation in the chitinases and phenotypes related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Polymorphisms in the chitinase genes were selected based on previous associations with respiratory diseases. Polymorphisms that were associated with lung function level or rate of decline in the Lung Health Study (LHS) cohort were analyzed for association with COPD affection status in four other COPD case-control populations. Chitinase activity and protein levels were also related to genotypes. In the Caucasian LHS population, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was significantly different between the AA and GG genotypic groups of the AMCase rs3818822 polymorphism. Subjects with the GG genotype had higher AMCase protein and chitinase activity compared with AA homozygotes. For CHIT1 rs2494303, a significant association was observed between rate of decline in FEV1 and the different genotypes. In the African American LHS population, CHIT1 rs2494303 and AMCase G339T genotypes were associated with rate of decline in FEV1. Although a significant effect of chitinase gene alleles was found on lung function level and decline in the LHS, we were unable to replicate the associations with COPD affection status in the other COPD study groups. PMID:22200767

  20. LINKING LUNG AIRWAY STRUCTURE TO PULMONARY FUNCTION VIA COMPOSITE BRIDGE REGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Seetharaman, Indu; Jiao, Feiran; Lin, Ching-Long; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2017-01-01

    The human lung airway is a complex inverted tree-like structure. Detailed airway measurements can be extracted from MDCT-scanned lung images, such as segmental wall thickness, airway diameter, parent-child branch angles, etc. The wealth of lung airway data provides a unique opportunity for advancing our understanding of the fundamental structure-function relationships within the lung. An important problem is to construct and identify important lung airway features in normal subjects and connect these to standardized pulmonary function test results such as FEV1%. Among other things, the problem is complicated by the fact that a particular airway feature may be an important (relevant) predictor only when it pertains to segments of certain generations. Thus, the key is an efficient, consistent method for simultaneously conducting group selection (lung airway feature types) and within-group variable selection (airway generations), i.e., bi-level selection. Here we streamline a comprehensive procedure to process the lung airway data via imputation, normalization, transformation and groupwise principal component analysis, and then adopt a new composite penalized regression approach for conducting bi-level feature selection. As a prototype of composite penalization, the proposed composite bridge regression method is shown to admit an efficient algorithm, enjoy bi-level oracle properties, and outperform several existing methods. We analyze the MDCT lung image data from a cohort of 132 subjects with normal lung function. Our results show that, lung function in terms of FEV1% is promoted by having a less dense and more homogeneous lung comprising an airway whose segments enjoy more heterogeneity in wall thicknesses, larger mean diameters, lumen areas and branch angles. These data hold the potential of defining more accurately the “normal” subject population with borderline atypical lung functions that are clearly influenced by many genetic and environmental factors. PMID

  1. Metabolic Functions of the Lung, Disorders and Associated Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Alcibey; Arce, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The primary function of the lungs is gas exchange. Approximately 400 million years ago, the Earth’s atmosphere gained enough oxygen in the gas phase for the animals that emerged from the sea to breathe air. The first lungs were merely primitive air sacs with a few vessels in the walls that served as accessory organs of gas exchange to supplement the gills. Eons later, as animals grew accustomed to a solely terrestrial life, the lungs became highly compartmentalized to provide the vast air-blood surface necessary for O2 uptake and CO2 elimination, and a respiratory control system was developed to regulate breathing in accordance with metabolic demands and other needs. With the evolution and phylogenetic development, lungs were taking a variety of other specialized functions to maintain homeostasis, which we will call the non-respiratory functions of the lung and that often, and by mistake, are believed to have little or no connection with the replacement gas. In this review, we focus on the metabolic functions of the lung, perhaps the least known, and mainly, in the lipid metabolism and blood-adult lung vascular endothelium interaction. When these functions are altered, respiratory disorders or diseases appear, which are discussed concisely, emphasizing how they impact the most important function of the lungs: external respiration. PMID:27635172

  2. Metabolic Functions of the Lung, Disorders and Associated Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Alcibey; Arce, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The primary function of the lungs is gas exchange. Approximately 400 million years ago, the Earth's atmosphere gained enough oxygen in the gas phase for the animals that emerged from the sea to breathe air. The first lungs were merely primitive air sacs with a few vessels in the walls that served as accessory organs of gas exchange to supplement the gills. Eons later, as animals grew accustomed to a solely terrestrial life, the lungs became highly compartmentalized to provide the vast air-blood surface necessary for O2 uptake and CO2 elimination, and a respiratory control system was developed to regulate breathing in accordance with metabolic demands and other needs. With the evolution and phylogenetic development, lungs were taking a variety of other specialized functions to maintain homeostasis, which we will call the non-respiratory functions of the lung and that often, and by mistake, are believed to have little or no connection with the replacement gas. In this review, we focus on the metabolic functions of the lung, perhaps the least known, and mainly, in the lipid metabolism and blood-adult lung vascular endothelium interaction. When these functions are altered, respiratory disorders or diseases appear, which are discussed concisely, emphasizing how they impact the most important function of the lungs: external respiration.

  3. Platelet Function Tests.

    PubMed

    Lordkipanidzé, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally developed for diagnosis of bleeding disorders, platelet function assays have become increasingly used in basic research on platelet physiology, in phenotype-genotype associations in bleeding disorders, in drug development as surrogate endpoints of efficacy of new antiplatelet therapy, and to an extent, in the monitoring of antiplatelet therapy in clinical practice to predict thrombotic and bleeding risk. A multiplicity of platelet function assays is available to measure the level of platelet activity in various settings. These include assays that are restricted to a specialized laboratory as well as point-of-care instruments meant to investigate platelet function at patient bedside. Unlike tests that determine a defined quantity or measurement of a clinical biomarker (e.g., cholesterol or blood pressure), platelet function testing assesses the dynamics of living cells, which immediately presents a series of unique problems to any laboratory or clinic. This article presents currently used platelet function assays and discusses important variables to take into account when performing these assays, including preanalytical issues and difficulties in interpreting platelet function test results.

  4. Pericardial Fat Is Associated With Impaired Lung Function and a Restrictive Lung Pattern in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiankang; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Taylor, Herman A.; Petrini, Marcy F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired lung function has been linked to obesity and systemic inflammation. Pericardial fat has been shown to be associated with anomalies in cardiac structure, function, and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that pericardial fat may have a similar role in the impairment of lung function. Methods: Cross-sectional associations of pericardial fat volumes, quantified by multidetector CT scan, with FEV1 and FVC assessed by spirometry, were investigated in 1,293 participants (54.5 ± 10.8 years; 66.4% women) in the Jackson Heart Study. We also examined whether these associations were independent of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Results: Pericardial fat was associated with impaired lung function after multivariable adjustment, but these associations generally did not remain after adjustment for VAT. An exception was the FEV1/FVC ratio. Higher pericardial fat volumes were associated with higher odds of a restrictive lung pattern and lower odds of airway obstruction. Participants in the highest quartile had the highest odds of a restrictive lung pattern (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.22-2.79, compared with quartile 1), even after adjustment for VAT. The odds of obstruction decreased across increasing quartiles of pericardial fat. These relationships were generally graded, suggesting dose-response trends. Conclusions: Pericardial fat is generally associated with lower lung function and independently associated with a restrictive lung pattern in middle-aged and elderly adults. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms through which pericardial fat contributes to pulmonary anomalies. PMID:21737489

  5. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  6. Dicer function is essential for lung epithelium morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kelley S; Zhang, Zhen; McManus, Michael T; Harfe, Brian D; Sun, Xin

    2006-02-14

    DICER is a key enzyme that processes microRNA and small interfering RNA precursors into their short mature forms, enabling them to regulate gene expression. Only a single Dicer gene exists in the mouse genome, and it is broadly expressed in developing tissues. Dicer-null mutants die before gastrulation. Therefore, to study Dicer function in the later event of lung formation, we inactivated it in the mouse lung epithelium using a Dicer conditional allele and the Sonic Hedgehogcre (Shhcre) allele. Branching arrests in these mutant lungs, although epithelial growth continues in distal domains that are expanded compared with normal samples. These defects result in a few large epithelial pouches in the mutant lung instead of numerous fine branches present in a normal lung. Significantly, the initial phenotypes are apparent before an increase in epithelial cell death is observed, leading us to propose that Dicer plays a specific role in regulating lung epithelial morphogenesis independent of its requirement in cell survival. In addition, we found that the expression of Fgf10, a key gene involved in lung development, is up-regulated and expanded in the mesenchyme of Dicer mutant lungs. Previous studies support the hypothesis that precise localization of FGF10 in discrete sites of the lung mesenchyme serves as a chemoattractant for the outgrowth of epithelial branches. The aberrant Fgf10 expression may contribute to the Dicer morphological defects. However, the mechanism by which DICER functions in the epithelium to influence Fgf10 expression in the mesenchyme remains unknown.

  7. Associations of dairy intake with CT lung density and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Jacobs, David R.; He, Ka; Hoffman, Eric; Hankinson, John; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Objective Dairy products contain vitamin D and other nutrients that may be beneficial for lung function, but are also high in fats that may have mixed effects on lung function. However, the overall associations of dairy intake with lung density and lung function have not been studied. Methods We examined the cross-sectional relations between dairy intake and CT lung density and lung function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Total, low-fat and high-fat dairy intakes were quantified from food frequency questionnaire responses of men and women, aged 45–84 years, free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The MESA-Lung Study assessed CT lung density from cardiac CT imaging and prebronchodilator spirometry among 3,965 MESA participants. Results Total dairy intake was inversely associated with apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and positively associated with FVC (the multivariate-adjusted mean difference between the highest and the lowest quintile of total dairy intake was −0.92 (p for trend=0.04) for apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and 72.0 mL (p=0.01) for FVC). Greater low-fat dairy intake was associated with higher alpha (higher alpha values indicate less emphysema) and lower apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema (corresponding differences in alpha and apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema were 0.04 (p=0.02) and −0.98 (p=0.01) for low-fat dairy intake, respectively). High-fat dairy intake was not associated with lung density measures. Greater low- or high-fat dairy intake was not associated with higher FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC. Conclusions Higher low-fat dairy intake but not high-fat dairy intake was associated with moderately improved CT lung density. PMID:21504976

  8. PREOPERATIVE PREDICTION OF LUNG FUNCTION IN PNEUMONECTOMY BY SPIROMETRY AND LUNG PERFUSION SCINTIGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused by common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Loss of lung tissue in such patients can worsen much the postoperative pulmonary function. So it is necessary to asses the postoperative pulmonary function especially after maximal resection, i.e. pneumonectomy. Objective: To check over the accuracy of preoperative prognosis of postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy using spirometry and lung perfusion scinigraphy. Material and methods: The study was done on 17 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery, who were treated previously at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01. 12. 2008. to 01. 06. 2011. Postoperative pulmonary function expressed as ppoFEV1 (predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second) was prognosticated preoperatively using spirometry, i.e.. simple calculation according to the number of the pulmonary segments to be removed and perfusion lung scintigraphy. Results: There is no significant deviation of postoperative achieved values of FEV1 from predicted ones obtained by both methods, and there is no significant differences between predicted values (ppoFEV1) obtained by spirometry and perfusion scintigraphy. Conclusion: It is necessary to asses the postoperative pulmonary function before lung resection to avoid postoperative respiratory failure and other cardiopulmonary complications. It is absolutely necessary for pneumonectomy, i.e.. maximal pulmonary resection. It can be done with great possibility using spirometry or perfusion lung scintigraphy. PMID:23378687

  9. Chronic effects of air pollution on lung function after lung transplantation in the Systems prediction of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction (SysCLAD) study.

    PubMed

    Benmerad, Meriem; Slama, Rémy; Botturi, Karine; Claustre, Johanna; Roux, Antoine; Sage, Edouard; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Gomez, Carine; Kessler, Romain; Brugière, Olivier; Mornex, Jean-François; Mussot, Sacha; Dahan, Marcel; Boussaud, Véronique; Danner-Boucher, Isabelle; Dromer, Claire; Knoop, Christiane; Auffray, Annick; Lepeule, Johanna; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frederik; Nicod, Laurent; Magnan, Antoine; Pison, Christophe; Siroux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    An irreversible loss in lung function limits the long-term success in lung transplantation. We evaluated the role of chronic exposure to ambient air pollution on lung function levels in lung transplant recipients (LTRs).The lung function of 520 LTRs from the Cohort in Lung Transplantation (COLT) study was measured every 6 months. The levels of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with an aerodynamic cut-off diameter of x µm (PMx) and ozone (O3)) at the patients' home address were averaged in the 12 months before each spirometry test. The effects of air pollutants on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in % predicted were estimated using mixed linear regressions. We assessed the effect modification of macrolide antibiotics in this relationship.Increased 12-month levels of pollutants were associated with lower levels of FVC % pred (-2.56%, 95% CI -3.86--1.25 for 5 µg·m(-3) of PM10; -0.75%, 95% CI -1.38--0.12 for 2 µg·m(-3) of PM2.5 and -2.58%, 95% CI -4.63--0.53 for 10 µg·m(-3) of NO2). In patients not taking macrolides, the deleterious association between PM and FVC tended to be stronger and PM10 was associated with lower FEV1Our study suggests a deleterious effect of chronic exposure to air pollutants on lung function levels in LTRs, which might be modified with macrolides.

  10. Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Functional Lung Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dregely, Isabel

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe (HXe) is a non-invasive contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which upon inhalation follows the functional pathway of oxygen in the lung by dissolving into lung tissue structures and entering the blood stream. HXe MRI therefore provides unique opportunities for functional lung imaging of gas exchange which occurs from alveolar air spaces across the air-blood boundary into parenchymal tissue. However challenges in acquisition speed and signal-to-noise ratio have limited the development of a HXe imaging biomarker to diagnose lung disease. This thesis addresses these challenges by introducing parallel imaging to HXe MRI. Parallel imaging requires dedicated hardware. This work describes design, implementation, and characterization of a 32-channel phased-array chest receive coil with an integrated asymmetric birdcage transmit coil tuned to the HXe resonance on a 3 Tesla MRI system. Using the newly developed human chest coil, a functional HXe imaging method, multiple exchange time xenon magnetization transfer contrast (MXTC) is implemented. MXTC dynamically encodes HXe gas exchange into the image contrast. This permits two parameters to be derived regionally which are related to gas-exchange functionality by characterizing tissue-to-alveolar-volume ratio and alveolar wall thickness in the lung parenchyma. Initial results in healthy subjects demonstrate the sensitivity of MXTC by quantifying the subtle changes in lung microstructure in response to orientation and lung inflation. Our results in subjects with lung disease show that the MXTC-derived functional tissue density parameter exhibits excellent agreement with established imaging techniques. The newly developed dynamic parameter, which characterizes the alveolar wall, was elevated in subjects with lung disease, most likely indicating parenchymal inflammation. In light of these observations we believe that MXTC has potential as a biomarker for the regional quantification of 1

  11. Lung function indices for predicting mortality in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, Afroditi K.; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Smith, Cayley; Kelly, Julia L.; Ward, Simon P.; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by high morbidity and mortality. It remains unknown which aspect of lung function carries the most prognostic information and if simple spirometry is sufficient. Survival was assessed in COPD outpatients whose data had been added prospectively to a clinical audit database from the point of first full lung function testing including spirometry, lung volumes, gas transfer and arterial blood gases. Variables univariately associated with survival were entered into a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. 604 patients were included (mean±sd age 61.9±9.7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 37±18.1% predicted; 62.9% males); 229 (37.9%) died during a median follow-up of 83 months. Median survival was 91.9 (95% CI 80.8–103) months with survival rates at 3 and 5 years 0.83 and 0.66, respectively. Carbon monoxide transfer factor % pred quartiles (best quartile (>51%): HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.172–0.639; and second quartile (51–37.3%): HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.322–0.825; versus lowest quartile (<27.9%)), age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06) and arterial oxygen partial pressure (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77–0.94) were the only parameters independently associated with mortality. Measurement of gas transfer provides additional prognostic information compared to spirometry in patients under hospital follow-up and could be considered routinely. PMID:23349449

  12. Regional lung function and mechanics using image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai

    The main function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. Since many disease or injury conditions can cause biomechanical or material property changes that can alter lung function, there is a great interest in measuring regional lung function and mechanics. In this thesis, we present a technique that uses multiple respiratory-gated CT images of the lung acquired at different levels of inflation with both breath-hold static scans and retrospectively reconstructed 4D dynamic scans, along with non-rigid 3D image registration, to make local estimates of lung tissue function and mechanics. We validate our technique using anatomical landmarks and functional Xe-CT estimated specific ventilation. The major contributions of this thesis include: (1) developing the registration derived regional expansion estimation approach in breath-hold static scans and dynamic 4DCT scans, (2) developing a method to quantify lobar sliding from image registration derived displacement field, (3) developing a method for measurement of radiation-induced pulmonary function change following a course of radiation therapy, (4) developing and validating different ventilation measures in 4DCT. The ability of our technique to estimate regional lung mechanics and function as a surrogate of the Xe-CT ventilation imaging for the entire lung from quickly and easily obtained respiratory-gated images, is a significant contribution to functional lung imaging because of the potential increase in resolution, and large reductions in imaging time, radiation, and contrast agent exposure. Our technique may be useful to detect and follow the progression of lung disease such as COPD, may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy.

  13. Changes in lung function during an extreme mountain ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, G; Rinaldo, N; Giorgi, A; Esposito, F; Trabucchi, P; Millet, G P; Schena, F

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of an extreme mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, 24,000 D+) on lung function. Twenty-nine experienced male ultramarathon runners performed longitudinally [before (pre), during (mid), and immediately after (post) a MUM] a battery of pulmonary function tests. The tests included measurements of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak flow, inspiratory capacity, and maximum voluntary ventilation in 12 s (MVV12). A significant reduction in the running speed was observed (-43.0% between pre-mid and mid-post; P < 0.001). Expiratory function declined significantly at mid (P < 0.05) and at post (P < 0.05). A similar trend was observed for inspiratory function (P < 0.05). MVV12 declined at mid (P < 0.05) and further decreased at post (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there are significant negative correlations between performance time and MVV12 pre-race (R = -0.54, P = 0.02) as well as changes in MVV12 between pre- and post-race (R = -0.53, P = 0.009). It is concluded that during an extreme MUM, a continuous decline in pulmonary function was observed, likely attributable to the high levels of ventilation required during this MUM in a harsh mountainous environment.

  14. Systematic review of pleural plaques and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kerper, Laura E.; Lynch, Heather N.; Zu, Ke; Tao, Ge; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context US EPA proposed a Reference Concentration for Libby amphibole asbestos based on the premise that pleural plaques are adverse and cause lung function deficits. Objective We conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether there is an association between pleural plaques and lung function and ascertain whether results were dependent on the method used to identify plaques. Methods Using the PubMed database, we identified studies that evaluated pleural plaques and lung function. We assessed each study for quality, then integrated evidence and assessed associations based on the Bradford Hill guidelines. We also compared the results of HRCT studies to those of X-ray studies. Results We identified 16 HRCT and 36 X-ray studies. We rated six HRCT and 16 X-ray studies as higher quality based on a risk-of-bias analysis. Half of the higher quality studies reported small but statistically significant mean lung function decrements associated with plaques. None of the differences were clinically significant. Many studies had limitations, such as inappropriate controls and/or insufficient adjustment for confounders. There was little consistency in the direction of effect for the most commonly reported measurements. X-ray results were more variable than HRCT results. Pleural plaques were not associated with changes in lung function over time in longitudinal studies. Conclusion The weight of evidence indicates that pleural plaques do not impact lung function. Observed associations are most likely due to unidentified abnormalities or other factors. PMID:25518994

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus colonization in cystic fibrosis: implications for lung function?

    PubMed

    de Vrankrijker, A M M; van der Ent, C K; van Berkhout, F T; Stellato, R K; Willems, R J L; Bonten, M J M; Wolfs, T F W

    2011-09-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is commonly found in the respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is associated with deterioration of lung function, the effects of A. fumigatus colonization on lung function in the absence of ABPA are not clear. This study was performed in 259 adults and children with CF, without ABPA. A. fumigatus colonization was defined as positivity of >50% of respiratory cultures in a given year. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to study clinical characteristics associated with A. fumigatus colonization. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed to study the effect of A. fumigatus colonization on lung function observed between 2002 and 2007. Longitudinal data were analysed with a linear mixed model. Sixty-one of 259 patients were at least intermittently colonized with A. fumigatus. An association was found between A. fumigatus colonization and increased age and use of inhaled antibiotics. In the longitudinal analysis, 163 patients were grouped according to duration of colonization. After adjustment for confounders, there was no significant difference in lung function between patients colonized for 0 or 1 year and patients with 2-3 or more than 3 years of colonization (p 0.40 and p 0.64) throughout the study. There was no significant difference in lung function decline between groups. Although colonization with A. fumigatus is more commonly found in patients with more severe lung disease and increased treatment burden, it is not independently associated with lower lung function or more severe lung function decline over a 5-year period.

  16. Clinical value of CT-based preoperative software assisted lung lobe volumetry for predicting postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Hoffknecht, Petra; Dicken, Volker; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Lange, Tobias; Thomas, Michael; Heindel, Walter

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate a morphology-based approach for prediction of postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after lung resection from preoperative CT scans. Fifteen Patients with surgically treated (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) bronchogenic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A preoperative chest CT and pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were performed. CT scans were analyzed by prototype software: automated segmentation and volumetry of lung lobes was performed with minimal user interaction. Determined volumes of different lung lobes were used to predict postoperative FEV1 as percentage of the preoperative values. Predicted FEV1 values were compared to the observed postoperative values as standard of reference. Patients underwent lobectomy in twelve cases (6 upper lobes; 1 middle lobe; 5 lower lobes; 6 right side; 6 left side) and pneumonectomy in three cases. Automated calculation of predicted postoperative lung function was successful in all cases. Predicted FEV1 ranged from 54% to 95% (mean 75% +/- 11%) of the preoperative values. Two cases with obviously erroneous LFT were excluded from analysis. Mean error of predicted FEV1 was 20 +/- 160 ml, indicating absence of systematic error; mean absolute error was 7.4 +/- 3.3% respective 137 +/- 77 ml/s. The 200 ml reproducibility criterion for FEV1 was met in 11 of 13 cases (85%). In conclusion, software-assisted prediction of postoperative lung function yielded a clinically acceptable agreement with the observed postoperative values. This method might add useful information for evaluation of functional operability of patients with lung cancer.

  17. Molecular mechanisms underlying variations in lung function: a systems genetics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Obeidat, Ma’en; Hao, Ke; Bossé, Yohan; Nickle, David C; Nie, Yunlong; Postma, Dirkje S; Laviolette, Michel; Sandford, Andrew J; Daley, Denise D; Hogg, James C; Elliott, W Mark; Fishbane, Nick; Timens, Wim; Hysi, Pirro G; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F; Hui, Jennie; Rawal, Rajesh; Schulz, Holger; Stubbe, Beate; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jarvis, Deborah; Kähönen, Mika; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E; Loth, Daan W; Brusselle, Guy G; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Bartz, Traci M; Wilk, Jemma B; O’Connor, George T; Cassano, Patricia A; Tang, Wenbo; Wain, Louise V; Artigas, María Soler; Gharib, Sina A; Strachan, David P; Sin, Don D; Tobin, Martin D; London, Stephanie J; Hall, Ian P; Paré, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Lung function measures reflect the physiological state of the lung, and are essential to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The SpiroMeta-CHARGE consortium undertook the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) so far (n=48 201) for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) in the general population. The lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) study mapped the genetic architecture of gene expression in lung tissue from 1111 individuals. We used a systems genetics approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lung function that act as eQTLs and change the level of expression of their target genes in lung tissue; termed eSNPs. Methods The SpiroMeta-CHARGE GWAS results were integrated with lung eQTLs to map eSNPs and the genes and pathways underlying the associations in lung tissue. For comparison, a similar analysis was done in peripheral blood. The lung mRNA expression levels of the eSNP-regulated genes were tested for associations with lung function measures in 727 individuals. Additional analyses identified the pleiotropic effects of eSNPs from the published GWAS catalogue, and mapped enrichment in regulatory regions from the ENCODE project. Finally, the Connectivity Map database was used to identify potential therapeutics in silico that could reverse the COPD lung tissue gene signature. Findings SNPs associated with lung function measures were more likely to be eQTLs and vice versa. The integration mapped the specific genes underlying the GWAS signals in lung tissue. The eSNP-regulated genes were enriched for developmental and inflammatory pathways; by comparison, SNPs associated with lung function that were eQTLs in blood, but not in lung, were only involved in inflammatory pathways. Lung function eSNPs were enriched for regulatory elements and were over-represented among genes showing differential expression during

  18. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvholm, B.; Bake, B.; Lavenius, B.; Thiringer, G.; Vokmann, R.

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  19. Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation for marginal-function lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Asra; Baciewicz, Frank A; Soubani, Ayman O; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the impact of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation in lung cancer patients undergoing pulmonary resection surgery with marginal lung function. Methods Short-term outcomes of 42 patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s < 1.6 L who underwent lung resection between 01/2006 and 12/2010 were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into group A (no preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation) and group B (receiving pulmonary rehabilitation). In group B, a second set of pulmonary function tests was obtained. Results There were no significant differences in terms of sex, age, race, pathologic stage, operative procedure, or smoking years. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in group A was 1.40 ± 0.22 L and 10.28 ± 2.64 g∙dL(-1) vs. 1.39 ± 0.13 L and 10.75 ± 2.08 g∙dL(-1) in group B. Group B showed significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s from 1.39 ± 0.13 to 1.55 ± 0.06 L ( p = 0.02). Mean intensive care unit stay was 6 ± 5 days in group A vs. 9 ± 9 days in group B ( p = 0.22). Mean hospital stay was 10 ± 4 days in group A vs. 14 ± 9 days in group B ( p = 0.31). There was no significant difference in morbidity or mortality between groups. Conclusion Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation can significantly improve forced expiratory volume in 1 s in some marginal patients undergoing lung cancer resection. However, it does not improve length of stay, morbidity, or mortality.

  20. Can infant lung function predict respiratory morbidity during the first year of life in preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Proietti, Elena; Riedel, Thomas; Fuchs, Oliver; Pramana, Isabelle; Singer, Florian; Schmidt, Anne; Kuehni, Claudia; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Compared with term-born infants, preterm infants have increased respiratory morbidity in the first year of life. We investigated whether lung function tests performed near term predict subsequent respiratory morbidity during the first year of life and compared this to standard clinical parameters in preterms. The prospective birth cohort included randomly selected preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lung function (tidal breathing and multiple-breath washout) was measured at 44 weeks post-menstrual age during natural sleep. We assessed respiratory morbidity (wheeze, hospitalisation, inhalation and home oxygen therapy) after 1 year using a standardised questionnaire. We first assessed the association between lung function and subsequent respiratory morbidity. Secondly, we compared the predictive power of standard clinical predictors with and without lung function data. In 166 preterm infants, tidal volume, time to peak tidal expiratory flow/expiratory time ratio and respiratory rate were significantly associated with subsequent wheeze. In comparison with standard clinical predictors, lung function did not improve the prediction of later respiratory morbidity in an individual child. Although associated with later wheeze, noninvasive infant lung function shows large physiological variability and does not add to clinically relevant risk prediction for subsequent respiratory morbidity in an individual preterm.

  1. Cannabidiol improves lung function and inflammation in mice submitted to LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A; Almeida, V I; Costola-de-Souza, C; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Vitoretti, L B; Gimenes-Junior, J A; Akamine, A T; Crippa, J A; Tavares-de-Lima, W; Palermo-Neto, J

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that the prophylactic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) reduces inflammation in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). In this work we analyzed the effects of the therapeutic treatment with CBD in mice subjected to the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI on pulmonary mechanics and inflammation. CBD (20 and 80 mg/kg) was administered (i.p.) to mice 6 h after LPS-induced lung inflammation. One day (24 h) after the induction of inflammation the assessment of pulmonary mechanics and inflammation were analyzed. The results show that CBD decreased total lung resistance and elastance, leukocyte migration into the lungs, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, protein concentration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant. Thus, we conclude that CBD administered therapeutically, i.e. during an ongoing inflammatory process, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect and also improves the lung function in mice submitted to LPS-induced ALI. Therefore the present and previous data suggest that in the future cannabidiol might become a useful therapeutic tool for the attenuation and treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

  2. Lung morphometry: the link between structure and function.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Ewald R

    2017-03-01

    The study of the structural basis of gas exchange function in the lung depends on the availability of quantitative information that concerns the structures establishing contact between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the alveolar capillaries, which can be entered into physiological equations for predicting oxygen uptake. This information is provided by morphometric studies involving stereological methods and allows estimates of the pulmonary diffusing capacity of the human lung that agree, in experimental studies, with the maximal oxygen consumption. The basis for this "machine lung" structure lies in the complex design of the cells building an extensive air-blood barrier with minimal cell mass.

  3. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways.

  4. Lung physiology during ECS resuscitation of DCD donors followed by in situ assessment of lung function.

    PubMed

    Reoma, Junewai L; Rojas, Alvaro; Krause, Eric M; Obeid, Nabeel R; Lafayette, Nathan G; Pohlmann, Joshua R; Padiyar, Niru P; Punch, Jeffery D; Cook, Keith E; Bartlett, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support (ECS) of donors after cardiac death (DCD) has been shown to improve abdominal organs for transplantation. This study assesses whether pulmonary congestion occurs during ECS with the heart arrested and describes an in vivo method to assess if lungs are suitable for transplantation from DCD donors after ECS resuscitation. Cardiac arrest was induced in 30 kg pigs, followed by 10 min of warm ischemia. Cannulae were placed into the right atrium (RA) and iliac artery, and veno-arterial ECS was initiated for 90 min with lungs inflated, group 1 (n = 5) or deflated, group 2 (n = 3). Left atrial pressures were measured as a marker for pulmonary congestion. After 90 min of ECS, lung function was evaluated. Cannulae were placed into the pulmonary artery (PA) and left ventricle (LV). A second pump was included, and ECS was converted to a bi-ventricular (bi-VAD) system. The RVAD drained from the RA and pumped into the PA, and the LVAD drained the LV and pumped into the iliac. This brought the lungs back into circulation for a 1-hr assessment period. The oxygenator was turned off, and ventilation was restarted. Flows, blood gases, PA and left atrial pressures, and compliance were recorded. In both the groups, LA pressure was <15 mm Hg during ECS. During the lung assessment period, PA flows were 1.4-2.2 L/min. PO2 was >300 mm Hg, with normal PCO2. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support resuscitation of DCD donors is feasible and allows for assessment of function before procurement. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support does not cause pulmonary congestion, and the lungs retain adequate function for transplantation. Compliance correlated with lung function.

  5. Hyperpolarized helium-3 mouse lung MRI: Studies of lung structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugas, Joseph Paul

    Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human and animal lungs has displayed promising and useful applications to studies of lung structure and function in both healthy and diseased lungs. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI allows the visualization of gas in the gas-exchange spaces of the lungs (as opposed to tissue) and has proven especially effective in studying diseases that are characterized by ventilation defects, such as emphysema. In particular, in-vivo measurements of the 3He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can quantify lung structure by measuring its restrictive effects on the motion of 3He spins. This allows for detection and longitudinal tracking of changes in micro-architecture that result from disease destruction of alveolar walls. Due, in part, to the difficulties inherent in administering and imaging hyperpolarized 3He within the small (0.5 cc volume) mouse lung, applications of hyperpolarized 3He MRI techniques to laboratory mice are scarce. We have been able to implement and improve the techniques of hyperpolarized 3He mouse lung MRI and subsequently apply them to studies of several mouse models of disease, including elastase-induced emphysema, smoking-induced emphysema, and lung cancer. Here we detail the design, development, and implementation of a versatile, electronically-controlled, small animal ventilator that is capable of delivering tiny volumes of hyperpolarized 3He, mixed with oxygen, to the mouse and is also compatible with both the easily depolarized 3He gas and the highly magnetic environment within and around an imaging magnet. Also described are NM techniques developed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of our images and effectively utilize the gas hyperpolarization. Applications of these technologies and techniques to small animal models of disease are presented wherein we have measured up to a 35% increase in 3He ADC in mice with elastase-induced emphysema as compared to healthy mice. We also demonstrate the potential

  6. Functions and mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenzi; Zhang, Chunfang; Duan, Chaojun

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and there is a lack of adequate biomarkers for diagnosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as an important set of molecules because of their roles in various key pathophysiological pathways, including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. We review the current knowledge of the lncRNAs in lung cancer. In-depth analyses of lncRNAs in lung cancer have increased the number of potential effective biomarkers, thus providing options to increase the therapeutic benefit. In this review, we summarize the functions, mechanisms, and regulatory networks of lncRNAs in lung cancer, providing a basis for further research in this field. PMID:27499635

  7. Effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on lung function: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bablekos, George D; Michaelides, Stylianos A; Analitis, Antonis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To present and integrate findings of studies investigating the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on various aspects of lung function. METHODS: We extensively reviewed literature of the past 24 years concerning the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison to the open procedure on many aspects of lung function including spirometric values, arterial blood gases, respiratory muscle performance and aspects of breathing control, by critically analyzing physiopathologic interpretations and clinically important conclusions. A total of thirty-four articles were used to extract information for the meta-analysis concerning the impact of the laparoscopic procedure on lung function and respiratory physiopathology. The quality of the literature reviewed was evaluated by the number of their citations and the total impact factor of the corresponding journals. A fixed and random effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled standardized mean difference of studied parameters for laparoscopic (LC) and open (OC) procedures. A crude comparison of the two methods using all available information was performed testing the postoperative values expressed as percentages of the preoperative ones using the Mann-Whitney two-sample test. RESULTS: Most of the relevant studies have investigated and compared changes in spirometric parameters.The median percentage and interquartile range (IQR) of preoperative values in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow (FEF) at 25%-75% of FVC (FEF25%-75%) expressed as percentage of their preoperative values 24 h after LC and OC were respectively as follows: [77.6 (73.0, 80.0) L vs 55.4 (50.0, 64.0) L, P < 0.001; 76.0 (72.3, 81.0) L vs 52.5 (50.0, 56.7) L, P < 0.001; and 78.8 (68.8, 80.9) L/s vs 60.0 (36.1, 66.1) L/s, P = 0.005]. Concerning arterial blood gases, partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2 (kPa)] at 24 or 48 h after surgical treatment showed reductions that were significantly

  8. Exploring Heart and Lung Function in Space: ARMS Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Andre; Cork, Michael; LeGouic, Marine

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System (ARMS) is a suite of monitoring instruments and supplies used to study the heart, lungs, and metabolism. Many experiments sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA) will be conducted using ARMS during STS-107. The near-weightless environment of space causes the body to undergo many physiological adaptations, and the regulation of blood pressure is no exception. Astronauts also experience a decrease in blood volume as an adaptation to microgravity. Reduced blood volume may not provide enough blood pressure to the head during entry or landing. As a result, astronauts often experience light-headedness, and sometimes even fainting, when they stand shortly after returning to Earth. To help regulate blood pressure and heart rate, baroreceptors, sensors located in artery walls in the neck and near the heart, control blood pressure by sending information to the brain and ensuring blood flow to organs. These mechanisms work properly in Earth's gravity but must adapt in the microgravity environment of space. However, upon return to Earth during entry and landing, the cardiovascular system must readjust itself to gravity, which can cause fluctuation in the control of blood pressure and heart rate. Although the system recovers in hours or days, these occurrences are not easily predicted or understood - a puzzle investigators will study with the ARMS equipment. In space, researchers can focus on aspects of the cardiovascular system normally masked by gravity. The STS-107 experiments using ARMS will provide data on how the heart and lungs function in space, as well as how the nervous system controls them. Exercise will also be combined with breath holding and straining (the Valsalva maneuver) to test how heart rate and blood pressure react to different stresses. This understanding will improve astronauts' cardiopulmonary function after return to Earth, and may well help Earthbound patients who experience similar effects after long

  9. [Assessment of respiratory function in the qualification for lung cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Franczuk, Monika; Wesołowski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the treatment of choice in patients with a diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A pivotal of eligibility for resection is the early stage of the disease and histopathological assessment. The performance status and comorbidities in population, predominated by elderly patients, also influence the therapeutic decisions. In some lung cancer patients COPD coexists, characterized by a decrease in lung function. Then the preoperative evaluation is particularly important, for both the risk of postoperative complications, lung function and quality of life postoperatively. Recently several recommendations for preoperative evaluation of patients being considered for surgery were published. The guidelines of BTS (2001, 2010), ACCP (2007, 2013) and joint recommendations of ERS and ESTS (2009) have been based on the currently available research results, and indicated the algorithms. The recommendations ERS/ESTS and ACCP distinguished cardiac risk estimation in all patients, which should precede the evaluation of lung function. According to the latest recommendations (ACCP 2013) the next step is spirometry, DLCO measurement and calculation of predicted postoperative values for both parameters. The low-technology exercise tests (stair climbing, shuttle walk test) were assigned as valuable to discriminate patients at low and intermediate perioperative risk. The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is recommended to be performed at the final qualification for surgery in patients with high risk. It was also stressed that therapeutic decisions should be taken multidisciplinary, allowing to estimate the risk of complications and to evaluate the expected quality of life in the postoperative time.

  10. Thyroid Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Irving T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

  11. Integrative pathway genomics of lung function and airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Sina A; Loth, Daan W; Soler Artigas, María; Birkland, Timothy P; Wilk, Jemma B; Wain, Louise V; Brody, Jennifer A; Obeidat, Ma'en; Hancock, Dana B; Tang, Wenbo; Rawal, Rajesh; Boezen, H Marike; Imboden, Medea; Huffman, Jennifer E; Lahousse, Lies; Alves, Alexessander C; Manichaikul, Ani; Hui, Jennie; Morrison, Alanna C; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Evans, David M; Strachan, David P; Deary, Ian J; Hofman, Albert; Gläser, Sven; Wilson, James F; North, Kari E; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heckbert, Susan R; Jarvis, Deborah L; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Barr, R Graham; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Connor, George T; Kähönen, Mika; Cassano, Patricia A; Hysi, Pirro G; Dupuis, Josée; Hayward, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Hall, Ian P; Parks, William C; Tobin, Martin D; London, Stephanie J

    2015-12-01

    Chronic respiratory disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of lung function measures have identified several trait-associated loci, but explain only a modest portion of the phenotypic variability. We postulated that integrating pathway-based methods with GWASs of pulmonary function and airflow obstruction would identify a broader repertoire of genes and processes influencing these traits. We performed two independent GWASs of lung function and applied gene set enrichment analysis to one of the studies and validated the results using the second GWAS. We identified 131 significantly enriched gene sets associated with lung function and clustered them into larger biological modules involved in diverse processes including development, immunity, cell signaling, proliferation and arachidonic acid. We found that enrichment of gene sets was not driven by GWAS-significant variants or loci, but instead by those with less stringent association P-values. Next, we applied pathway enrichment analysis to a meta-analyzed GWAS of airflow obstruction. We identified several biologic modules that functionally overlapped with those associated with pulmonary function. However, differences were also noted, including enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) processes specifically in the airflow obstruction study. Network analysis of the ECM module implicated a candidate gene, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), as a putative disease target. We used a knockout mouse model to functionally validate MMP10's role in influencing lung's susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. By integrating pathway analysis with population-based genomics, we unraveled biologic processes underlying pulmonary function traits and identified a candidate gene for obstructive lung disease.

  12. Integrative pathway genomics of lung function and airflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, María; Birkland, Timothy P.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Wain, Louise V.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Obeidat, Ma'en; Hancock, Dana B.; Tang, Wenbo; Rawal, Rajesh; Boezen, H. Marike; Imboden, Medea; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Lahousse, Lies; Alves, Alexessander C.; Manichaikul, Ani; Hui, Jennie; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Evans, David M.; Strachan, David P.; Deary, Ian J.; Hofman, Albert; Gläser, Sven; Wilson, James F.; North, Kari E.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heckbert, Susan R.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Barr, R. Graham; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Connor, George T.; Kähönen, Mika; Cassano, Patricia A.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Dupuis, Josée; Hayward, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hall, Ian P.; Parks, William C.; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic respiratory disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of lung function measures have identified several trait-associated loci, but explain only a modest portion of the phenotypic variability. We postulated that integrating pathway-based methods with GWASs of pulmonary function and airflow obstruction would identify a broader repertoire of genes and processes influencing these traits. We performed two independent GWASs of lung function and applied gene set enrichment analysis to one of the studies and validated the results using the second GWAS. We identified 131 significantly enriched gene sets associated with lung function and clustered them into larger biological modules involved in diverse processes including development, immunity, cell signaling, proliferation and arachidonic acid. We found that enrichment of gene sets was not driven by GWAS-significant variants or loci, but instead by those with less stringent association P-values. Next, we applied pathway enrichment analysis to a meta-analyzed GWAS of airflow obstruction. We identified several biologic modules that functionally overlapped with those associated with pulmonary function. However, differences were also noted, including enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) processes specifically in the airflow obstruction study. Network analysis of the ECM module implicated a candidate gene, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), as a putative disease target. We used a knockout mouse model to functionally validate MMP10's role in influencing lung's susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. By integrating pathway analysis with population-based genomics, we unraveled biologic processes underlying pulmonary function traits and identified a candidate gene for obstructive lung disease. PMID:26395457

  13. The potential for resident lung mesenchymal stem cells to promote functional tissue regeneration: understanding microenvironmental cues.

    PubMed

    Foronjy, Robert F; Majka, Susan M

    2012-12-01

    Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases.

  14. Lung function status of workers exposed to wood dust in timber markets in Calabar, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okwari, O O; Antai, A B; Owu, D U; Peters, E J; Osim, E E

    2005-06-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to dust from local woods such as ebony, achi, and iroko on lung function of timber market workers in Calabar - Nigeria, was studied. Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1 %), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were measured in 221 workers (aged 20-25 years) exposed to wood dust to assess their lung function and compared with 200 age- and sex- matched control subjects who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. The concentration of respirable dust was significantly higher in the test (P<0.001) than in control site. The mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1% and PEFR of the timber workers were significantly lower (P<0.01) than in control subjects. Respiratory symptoms such as cough, chest pain and nasal irritation had higher prevalence in the test group than in the control group. Non-respiratory symptoms (skin and eye irritation) were prevalent in the test group but not found in the control group. Workers exposed to wood dust had restrictive pattern of ventilatory function impairment. The lung function indices of the timber workers decreased with their length of service. Chronic exposure to wood dust impairs lung function.

  15. Assessing lung function and respiratory health in schoolchildren as a means to improve local environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Borsoi, Livia; Wallner, Peter; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    2009-07-01

    In response to the World Health Organization Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE), a town near Vienna initiated a health survey of schoolchildren. To create recommendations for the community's decision makers, the health survey tried to identify the environmental factors influencing the respiratory health of children. The survey consisted of a questionnaire and spirometry. For 186 of 207 children of first and second grade, parents consented to include their children and answered a questionnaire. Spirometry was performed in 177 children. Results of lung function testing revealed that lung function was significantly reduced in children with visible mould infestation at home and living on a street with frequent lorry traffic. Larger family size and living in a rural area had positive effects on lung function. Our study provides an example for a feasible strategy to provide local decision makers with recommendations based on scientific evidence and actual observations and to help them implement measures in accordance with CEHAPE.

  16. The effects of ambient NO[sub 2] on lung function in primary schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect

    Frischer, T.; Studnicka, M.; Beer, E.; Neumann, M. )

    1993-08-01

    The effect of ambient NO2 on lung function was investigated in a sample of 423 schoolchildren. At each of four locations NO2 was monitored continuously. Over a 6-month period from January to June 1990 two surveys were performed and spirometry recorded each time for each child. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of NO2 for different time intervals preceding lung function testing. A decrease of NO2 between surveys was significantly associated with a higher forced vital capacity (FVC) at the second survey. For each microgram/m3 NO2 decrease the model predicted an increase in FVC of 1.5 ml [for the 2-hr mean (P < 0.05)] and 3.1 ml [for the 12-hr mean (P < 0.01)]. We conclude that even at NO2 levels below current air-quality standards children demonstrate significant changes in lung function.

  17. Impact of Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging-Based Functional Avoidance for Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven; Berg, Jens von; Lorenz, Cristian; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) pulmonary ventilation imaging-based functional treatment planning that avoids high-functional lung regions. Methods and Materials: 4D-CT ventilation images were created from 15 non-small-cell lung cancer patients using deformable image registration and quantitative analysis of the resultant displacement vector field. For each patient, anatomic and functional plans were created for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Consistent beam angles and dose-volume constraints were used for all cases. The plans with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617-defined major deviations were modified until clinically acceptable. Functional planning spared the high-functional lung, and anatomic planning treated the lungs as uniformly functional. We quantified the impact of functional planning compared with anatomic planning using the two- or one-tailed t test. Results: Functional planning led to significant reductions in the high-functional lung dose, without significantly increasing other critical organ doses, but at the expense of significantly degraded the planning target volume (PTV) conformity and homogeneity. The average reduction in the high-functional lung mean dose was 1.8 Gy for IMRT (p < .001) and 2.0 Gy for VMAT (p < .001). Significantly larger changes occurred in the metrics for patients with a larger amount of high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV. Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated the impact of 4D-CT ventilation imaging-based functional planning for IMRT and VMAT for the first time. Our findings indicate the potential of functional planning in lung functional avoidance for both IMRT and VMAT, particularly for patients who have high-functional lung adjacent to the PTV.

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES) on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD]) and parents’ years completed at school were used as proxies of SES. Results Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents’ schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased 8.5 (0.4%) and 10.6 mL (0.4%), respectively (p <0.05) when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone. Conclusions Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age. PMID:26379144

  19. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  20. Effects of nanoparticles on the mechanical functioning of the lung.

    PubMed

    Arick, Davis Q; Choi, Yun Hwa; Kim, Hyun Chang; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-11-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field that has very promising applications that will improve industry, medicine, and consumer products. However, despite the growing widespread use of engineered nanoparticles in these areas, very little has been done to assess the potential health risks they may pose to high-risk areas of the body, particularly the lungs. In this review we first briefly discuss the structure of the lungs and establish that the pulmonary surfactant (PS), given its vulnerability and huge contribution to healthy lung function, is a mechanism of great concern when evaluating potential nanoparticle interactions within the lung. To warrant that these interactions can occur, studies on the transport of nanoaerols are reviewed to highlight that a plethora of factors contribute to a nanoparticle's ability to travel to the deep regions of the lung where PS resides. The focus of this review is to determine the extent that physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, hydrophobicity, and surface charge effect PS function. Numerous nanoparticle types are taken into consideration in order to effectively evaluate observed consistencies across numerous nanoparticle types and develop general trends that exist among the physicochemical characteristics of interest. Biological responses from other mechanisms/components of the lung are briefly discussed to provide further insights on how the toxicology of different nanoparticles is determined. We conclude by discussing general trends that summarize consistencies observed among the studies in regard to physicochemical properties and their effects on monolayer function, addressing current gaps in our understanding, and discussing the future outlook of this field of research.

  1. Decline in lung function rather than baseline lung function is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome: A six-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong-Ha; Jee, Jae Hwan; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether baseline lung function or change in lung function is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Koreans. We analyzed clinical and laboratory data from 3,768 Koreans aged 40–60 years who underwent medical check-ups over a six-year period between 2006 and 2012. We calculated the percent change in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) over the study period. We tested for an association between baseline lung function or lung function change during the follow-up period and the development of MS. The 533 subjects (14.1%) developed MS after the six-year follow-up. The baseline FVC and FEV1 were not different between the subjects who developed MS after six years and the subject without MS after six years. The percent change in FVC over six years in subjects who developed MS after six years was higher than that in subjects who did not develop MS (-5.75 [-10.19 –-1.17], -3.29 [-7.69–1.09], respectively, P = 0.001). The percent change in FVC over six years was associated with MS development after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), glucose, HDL, triglyceride, waist circumferences (WC), and systolic blood pressure. However, these association was not significant after adjusting for change of BMI and change of WC over six years (P = 0.306). The greater change in vital capacity over six years of follow-up was associated with MS development, predominantly due to obesity and abdominal obesity. The prospective study is needed to determine the relationship between lung function decline and MS. PMID:28346522

  2. Translating Lung Function Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) Findings: New Insights for Lung Biology.

    PubMed

    Kheirallah, A K; Miller, S; Hall, I P; Sayers, I

    2016-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases are a major cause of worldwide mortality and morbidity. Although hereditary severe deficiency of α1 antitrypsin (A1AD) has been established to cause emphysema, A1AD accounts for only ∼ 1% of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) cases. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful at detecting multiple loci harboring variants predicting the variation in lung function measures and risk of COPD. However, GWAS are incapable of distinguishing causal from noncausal variants. Several approaches can be used for functional translation of genetic findings. These approaches have the scope to identify underlying alleles and pathways that are important in lung function and COPD. Computational methods aim at effective functional variant prediction by combining experimentally generated regulatory information with associated region of the human genome. Classically, GWAS association follow-up concentrated on manipulation of a single gene. However association data has identified genetic variants in >50 loci predicting disease risk or lung function. Therefore there is a clear precedent for experiments that interrogate multiple candidate genes in parallel, which is now possible with genome editing technology. Gene expression profiling can be used for effective discovery of biological pathways underpinning gene function. This information may be used for informed decisions about cellular assays post genetic manipulation. Investigating respiratory phenotypes in human lung tissue and specific gene knockout mice is a valuable in vivo approach that can complement in vitro work. Herein, we review state-of-the-art in silico, in vivo, and in vitro approaches that may be used to accelerate functional translation of genetic findings.

  3. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances exposure with impaired lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Di; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Perret, Jennifer; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Rigdon, Steven E; Howard, Steven; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zhou, Yang; Li, Meng; Xu, Shu-Li; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Xiao, Xiang; Chen, Wen; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-02-04

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and asthma or asthma related-biomarkers. However, no studies have reported a possible relationship between PFASs exposure and lung function among children. The objective of the present study is to test the association between PFASs exposure and lung function in children from a high exposure area by using a cross-sectional case-control study, which included 132 asthmatic children and 168 non-asthmatic controls recruited from 2009 to 2010 in the Genetic and Biomarkers study for Childhood Asthma. Structured questionnaires were administered face-to-face. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of PFASs on lung function. The results showed that asthmatics in our study had significantly higher serum PFAS concentrations than healthy controls. Logistic regression models showed a positive association between PFASs and asthma, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-1.21) to 2.76 (95% CI: 1.82-4.17). Linear regression modeling showed serum PFASs levels were significantly negatively associated with three pulmonary function measurements (forced vital capacity: FVC; forced expiratory volume in 1s: FEV1; forced expiratory flow 25-75%: FEF25-75) among children with asthma, the adjusted coefficients between lung function and PFASs exposure ranged from -0.055 (95%CI: -0.100 to -0.010) for FVC and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to -0.223 (95%CI: -0.400 to -0.045) for FEF25-75 and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFASs were not, however, significantly associated with pulmonary function among children without asthma. In conclusion, this study suggests that serum PFASs are associated with decreased lung function among children with asthma.

  4. [Acute effect of ambient air pollution on small airway lung functions among school children in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L J; Guo, C Y; Xu, H H; Xu, D; Shen, X B; Du, X Y; Zhang, M H; Tan, J G; Zhang, J H; Dong, C Y; Qian, H L; Shi, Y W; Pan, M Z; Zhou, X D

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To study the acute effects of compound ambient air pollution on small airway lung functions among school children in Shanghai. Method: A longitudinal survey on lung functions was conducted among 233 school-children from three schools (A, B and C, located in innerring, mid-ring and outer-ring areas). Lung function test was performed once a week for 3 times respectively, among children in school A and B in Dec. 2013 and in school C in Dec. 2014. The fourth lung function test was tested in Jun. 2014 and May 2015 in the respective schools. Results: from the lung function would include items as: forced mid-expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity (MEF(25%)), mid-expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (MEF(50%)), mid-expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (MEF(75%)) and mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (FEF(25%-75%)). Data regarding the daily air quality real-time of PM(2.5), PM(10), SO(2) and NO(2) in Dec. 2013, Dec. 2014, Jun. 2014 and May. 2015 from the three environmental monitoring spots and meteorological data from the Shanghai Meteorological Service system which were physically close to the three schools, were collected simultaneously. Linear mixed effect model was used to examine the levels of correlation between lung function indicators and ambient air pollutants. Results When confounding factors on meteorology and individuals were controlled, the lag effects and accumulated lag effects were found to have existed between the internal quarter rang (IQR) concentration of PM(2.5) and PM(10) in lag2 day and lag02 days, IQR concentration of SO(2) in lag02 day and IQR concentration of NO(2) lag0 day, when small airway lung functions like MEF(25%), MEF(50%), MEF(75%) and FEF(25%-75%)(P<0.05) were inspected. Results from the two air pollutants model analysis showed that SO(2) and NO(2) presenting interactive effects with PM(2.5), PM(10) and lag effects more significant than the individual SO(2) and

  5. Platelet Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  6. The Functions of Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumin, Melvin M.

    1981-01-01

    Admissions testing and its consequences are looked upon as a reflection of the current debate occurring in Western capitalist democracies concerning the optimization of freedom, fairness, and wealth. In dealing with the competition and conflict of values and interests, there can be no factual but political resolution. (Author/AL)

  7. Deterioration in lung function following hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Maasilta, P. )

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-four patients receiving high-dose hemithorax irradiation as part of the treatment for pleural mesothelioma were studied with regard to changes in lung function following irradiation, and these changes were correlated with the radiologically-assessed lung injury. The latter was scored from 0 to 500 and found to be severe by 6 months (mean score 360), very severe by 9 months (mean score 430), and nearly total by 12 months (mean score 480) after treatment. Forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity both showed a significant decline at 1.5-2 months following the end of radiotherapy and thereafter up to the end of the 1 year follow-up period. Neither of these variables could be correlated consistently with the radiologically-assessed changes. Hypoxemia and pathological physiological shunting increased transiently 1-2 months after irradiation in 2 of the 6 patients monitored. The observed radiologically-assessed final effects of high-dose hemithorax irradiation are compatible with a total loss of lung function on the irradiated side. Before this form of treatment is used, lung function should be evaluated as for pneumonectomy.

  8. Shifting sources of functional limitation following extensive (70%) lung resection.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Connie C W; Dane, D Merrill; Estrera, Aaron S; Wagner, Harrieth E; Wagner, Peter D; Johnson, Robert L

    2008-04-01

    We previously found that, following surgical resection of approximately 58% of lung units by right pneumonectomy (PNX) in adult canines, oxygen-diffusing capacity (Dl(O(2))) fell sufficiently to become a major factor limiting exercise capacity, although the decline was mitigated by recruitment, remodeling, and growth of the remaining lung units. To determine whether an upper limit of compensation is reached following the loss of even more lung units, we measured pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamics, and ventilatory power requirements in adult canines during treadmill exercise following two-stage resection of approximately 70% of lung units in the presence or absence of mediastinal distortion. Results were compared with that in control animals following right PNX or thoracotomy without resection (Sham). Following 70% lung resection, peak O(2) uptake was 45% below normal. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch developed, and pulmonary arterial pressure and ventilatory power requirements became markedly elevated. In contrast, the relationship of Dl(O(2)) to cardiac output remained normal, indicating preservation of Dl(O(2))-to-cardiac output ratio and alveolar-capillary recruitment up to peak exercise. The impairment in airway and vascular function exceeded the impairment in gas exchange and imposed the major limitation to exercise following 70% resection. Mediastinal distortion further reduced air and blood flow conductance, resulting in CO(2) retention. Results suggest that adaptation of extra-acinar airways and blood vessels lagged behind that of acinar tissue. As more lung units were lost, functional compensation became limited by the disproportionately reduced convective conductance rather than by alveolar diffusion disequilibrium.

  9. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Lantz, R. Clark; González-Cortes, Tania; Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar; Froines, John R.; Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A.

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  10. Restrictive lung function and asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis. A quantitative approach.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, D A; Galvin, J R; Yagla, S J; Speakman, S B; Merchant, J A; Hunninghake, G W

    1993-01-01

    To assess further the clinical significance of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis, we used a computer algorithm to reconstruct images three dimensionally from the high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan of the chest in 60 asbestos-exposed subjects. Pulmonary function tests, chest radiographs, and HRCT scans were performed on all study subjects. The volume of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis was computed from the three-dimensional reconstruction of the HRCT scan. Among those with pleural fibrosis identified on the HRCT scan (n = 29), the volume of the pleural lesion varied from 0.01% (0.5 ml) and 7.11% (260.4 ml) of the total chest cavity. To investigate the relationship between asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function, we compared the computer-derived estimate of pleural fibrosis to the total lung capacity and found that these measures were inversely related (r = -0.40; P = 0.002). After controlling for age, height, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and the presence of interstitial fibrosis on the chest radiograph, the volume of pleural fibrosis identified on the three-dimensional reconstructed image from the HRCT scan was inversely associated with the total lung capacity (P = 0.03) and independently accounted for 9.5% of the variance of this measure of lung volume. These findings further extend the scientific data supporting an independent association between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. Images PMID:8514875

  11. Factors affecting the development of lung function in Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Y; Pariès, J; Harrabi, I; Zbidi, A; Tabka, Z; Richalet, J P; Buvry, A

    2008-01-01

    We undertook to evaluate the impacts of morphology at birth, physical activity, anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors on lung function in healthy Tunisian children. Pulmonary function parameters were measured with a Minato portable spirometer in a randomized population of 756 healthy children (388 males and 368 females) aged between 6 and 16. The morphology at birth, the gestational age, the physical activity, the socioeconomic status, the type of habitation, and the environmental factors were all assessed by a standard questionnaire. Using univariate analysis, we found that: (1) morphometric parameters (height, weight, maximal inspiratory, and expiratory perimeter), as well as sex were highly associated with pulmonary function parameters; (2) Height at birth showed strong significant relations with FVC, FEV(1), and FEV(1)/FVC; (3) lung function parameters were influenced by physical training of our children, socioeconomic status, indoor pollution, and passive smoking; and (4) we did not observe any association between the gestational age and the weight at their birth and lung function parameters. Using a general linear model analysis, morphometric parameters, age, sex, type of heating, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory perimeters had significant relation with respiratory parameters. In our population of healthy Tunisian children, the main predictive factors of the pulmonary development were the morphological factors such as height, weight, maximal inspiratory, and expiratory thoracic perimeter, sex and age, and the environmental conditions such as type of heating but not morphology at birth, physical activity, or socioeconomic status.

  12. How should we measure function in patients with chronic heart and lung disease?

    PubMed

    Guyatt, G H; Thompson, P J; Berman, L B; Sullivan, M J; Townsend, M; Jones, N L; Pugsley, S O

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate the characteristics of measures of function in patients with chronic heart failure and chronic lung disease we administered four functional status questionnaires, a 6-min walk test and a cycle ergometer exercise test, to 43 patients limited in their day to day activities as a result of their underlying heart or lung disease. Correlations between these measures were calculated using Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient. The walk test correlated well with the cycle ergometer (r = 0.579), and almost as well with the four functional status questionnaires (r = 0.473-0.590) as the questionnaires did with one another (0.423-0.729). On the other hand, correlations between cycle ergometer results and the questionnaires was in each case 0.295 or lower, and none of these correlations reached statistical significance. These results suggest that exercise capacity in the laboratory can be differentiated from functional exercise capacity (the ability to undertake physically demanding activities of daily living) and that the walk test provides a good measure of function in patients with heart and lung disease.

  13. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Lantz, R. Clark; González-Cortes, Tania; Alba, Cesar Gonzalez-De; Froines, John R.; Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero is associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms and diseases in adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero was associated with impairment in the lung function in children and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammatory response to the metalloid. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was designed in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their As levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsenic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. PMID:26048584

  14. Changes in Functional Lung Regions During the Course of Radiation Therapy and Their Potential Impact on Lung Dosimetry for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xue; Frey, Kirk; Matuszak, Martha; Paul, Stanton; Ten Haken, Randall; Yu, Jinming; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To study changes in functional activity on ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during radiation therapy (RT) and explore the impact of such changes on lung dosimetry in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen NSCLC patients with centrally located tumors were enrolled. All patients were treated with definitive RT dose of ≥60 Gy. V/Q SPECT-CT scans were performed prior to and after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated RT. SPECT images were used to define temporarily dysfunctional regions of lung caused by tumor or other potentially reversible conditions as B3. The functional lung (FL) was defined on SPECT by 2 separate approaches: FL1, a threshold of 30% of the maximum uptake of the patient's lung; and FL2, FL1 plus B3 region. The impact of changes in FL between initiation of RT and delivery of 45 Gy on lung dosimetry were analyzed. Results: Fourteen patients (93%) had larger FL2 volumes than FL1 pre-RT (P<.001). Dysfunctional lung became functional in 11 patients (73%) on V SPECT and in 10 patients (67%) on Q SPECT. The dosimetric parameters generated from CT-based anatomical lung had significantly lower values in FL1 than FL2, with a median reduction in the volume of lung receiving a dose of at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) of 3%, 5.6%, and mean lung dose of 0.95 and 1.55 on V and Q SPECT respectively. Conclusions: Regional ventilation and perfusion function improve significantly during RT in centrally located NSCLC. Lung dosimetry values vary notably between different definitions of functional lung.

  15. A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

  16. Measuring lung function using sound waves: role of the forced oscillation technique and impulse oscillometry system.

    PubMed

    Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

    2015-03-01

    Measuring lung function is an important component in the decision making process for patients with obstructive airways disease (OAD). Not only does it help in arriving at a specific diagnosis, but it also helps in evaluating severity so that appropriate pharmacotherapy can be instituted, it helps determine prognosis and it helps evaluate response to therapy. Spirometry is currently the most commonly performed lung function test in clinical practice and is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for asthma and COPD. However, spirometry is not an easy test to perform because the forceful expiratory and inspiratory manoeuvres require good patient co-operation. Children aged <5 years, elderly people and those with physical and cognitive limitations cannot perform spirometry easily.

  17. Association between lung function and airway wall density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, J. Ken; Zheng, Bin; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Tedrow, John; Park, Sang C.; Tan, Jun; Pu, Jiantao; Drescher, John M.; Gur, David; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) examination is often used to quantify the relation between lung function and airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this preliminary study, we examined the association between lung function and airway wall computed attenuation ("density") in 200 COPD screening subjects. Percent predicted FVC (FVC%), percent predicted FEV1 (FEV1%), and the ratio of FEV1 to FVC as a percentage (FEV1/FVC%) were measured post-bronchodilator. The apical bronchus of the right upper lobe was manually selected from CT examinations for evaluation. Total airway area, lumen area, wall area, lumen perimeter and wall area as fraction of the total airway area were computed. Mean HU (meanHU) and maximum HU (maxHU) values were computed across pixels assigned membership in the wall and with a HU value greater than -550. The Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) between FVC%, FEV1%, and FEV1/FVC% and meanHU were -0.221 (p = 0.002), -0.175 (p = 0.014), and -0.110 (p = 0.123), respectively. The PCCs for maxHU were only significant for FVC%. The correlations between lung function and the airway morphometry parameters were slightly stronger compared to airway wall density. MeanHU was significantly correlated with wall area (PCC = 0.720), airway area (0.498) and wall area percent (0.611). This preliminary work demonstrates that airway wall density is associated with lung function. Although the correlations in our study were weaker than a recent study, airway wall density initially appears to be an important parameter in quantitative CT analysis of COPD.

  18. Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Hu, Wei; Wei, Fusheng; Korn, Leo; Chapman, Robert S.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with deficits in lung function growth among children in Western countries. However, few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where PM levels are often substantially higher. Methods Children (n=3273) aged 6–12 years were recruited from eight schools in four cities. The lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were measured using computerized spirometers twice a year for up to three years (1993–1996). Dichotomous samplers placed in each schoolyard were used to measure PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10, respectively). Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between the quarterly average PM levels and lung function growth over the period of follow-up. Results Annual average PM2.5 and PM10 levels in the four cities ranged from 57 to 158 μg/m3 and 95 to 268 μg/m3, respectively. In multivariable models, an increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was associated with decreases of 2.7 ml FEV1 (95% confidence interval= −3.5 to −2.0), 3.5 ml FVC (−4.3 to −2.7), 1.4 ml/year FEV1 growth (−1.8 to −0.9), and 1.5 ml/year FVC growth (−2.0 to −1.0). Similar results were seen with PM10 exposure. Conclusions Exposure to ambient particulate matter was associated with decreased growth in lung function among Chinese children. PMID:22407138

  19. Lung function and radiographic change in chrysotile workers in Swaziland.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, M; Bevan, M M; Elmes, P C; Allardice, J T; Bradley, A C

    1982-01-01

    The effect on lung function and radiographic indices of exposure to chrysotile asbestos was investigated by cross-sectional studies in two groups of men at Havelock Mine, Swaziland. The first group consisted of 214 employees and ex-employees, mean age 52, who had been employed for at least 10 years, and whose dust exposure ranged from minimal for surface workers to very heavy for those in the grading and bagging sections of the mill. In this group 29% had category 1 or more simple pneumoconiosis and 4.5% category 2 or more. For surface and mine workers, the estimated annual deterioration in FEV1 and FVC and the increase in category of pneumoconiosis was similar to that due to age alone, while the heaviest exposure almost doubled the decline in lung function and trebled the rate of progression of pneumoconiosis. The second group consisted of 224 men, mean age 33, all currently working in the mill and having been employed there for at least a year. In this group 30% had category 1 or more simple pneumoconiosis, and 2.7% category 2. Exposure in the dustiest sections of the mill more than doubled the estimated annual decline in lung function and doubled the rate of progression of pneumoconiosis. PMID:6291579

  20. Rubberwood dust and lung function among Thai furniture factory workers.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Demers, Paul A; Thepaksorn, Phayong; Saowakhontha, Sastri; Keifer, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess factors affecting lung function among 685 workers in the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) furniture industry in the Chonburi and Rayung provinces of eastern Thailand. Study data were gathered using questionnaires, by sampling wood dust, and by spirometry. The mean wood dust exposure level in the factories was 4.08 mg/m3 (SD = 1.42, range: 1.15-11.17 mg/m3). The mean overall percent of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC values were 84 % (SD = 13.41), 86 % (SD = 14.40), and 99% (SD = 10.42), respectively. Significant negative correlations were found between mean dust exposure levels and FVC (p = 0.0008), and FEV1/FVC% (p < 0.001), but not FEV1 (p = 0.074). An association between decline in lung function and wood dust levels among wood workers suggests that rubberwood dust exposure negatively affects lung function.

  1. Aquaporin 5 Polymorphisms and Rate of Lung Function Decline in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Gao, Li; Gao, Peisong; Williams, Renaldo; Connett, John E.; Beaty, Terri H.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Wise, Robert A.; King, Landon S.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) can cause mucus overproduction and lower lung function. Genetic variants in the AQP5 gene might be associated with rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AQP5 were genotyped in 429 European American individuals with COPD randomly selected from the NHLBI Lung Health Study. Mean annual decline in FEV1 % predicted, assessed over five years, was calculated as a linear regression slope, adjusting for potential covariates and stratified by smoking status. Constructs containing the wildtype allele and risk allele of the coding SNP N228K were generated using site-directed mutagenesis, and transfected into HBE-16 (human bronchial epithelial cell line). AQP5 abundance and localization were assessed by immunoblots and confocal immunofluoresence under control, shear stress and cigarette smoke extract (CSE 10%) exposed conditions to test for differential expression or localization. Results Among continuous smokers, three of the five SNPs tested showed significant associations (0.02>P>0.004) with rate of lung function decline; no associations were observed among the group of intermittent or former smokers. Haplotype tests revealed multiple association signals (0.012>P>0.0008) consistent with the single-SNP results. In HBE16 cells, shear stress and CSE led to a decrease in AQP5 abundance in the wild-type, but not in the N228K AQP5 plasmid. Conclusions Polymorphisms in AQP5 were associated with rate of lung function decline in continuous smokers with COPD. A missense mutation modulates AQP-5 expression in response to cigarette smoke extract and shear stress. These results suggest that AQP5 may be an important candidate gene for COPD. PMID:21151978

  2. Normalization of Lung Function Following Treatment of Secondary Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hohberger, Laurie A; Montero-Arias, Felicia; Roden, Anja C; Vassallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and is associated with a poor prognosis and poor responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy. We present a case of a woman with steroid-responsive biopsy-proven UIP with significant and sustained improvement in pulmonary function. A female in her 40s presented following a one-year history of progressive dyspnea, a 20 lb weight loss, and fatigue. Imaging of the chest with computed tomography (CT) showed bibasilar subpleural reticular opacities and minimal peripheral honeycombing. Comprehensive connective tissue disease (CTD) antibody testing was negative. Pulmonary function testing showed moderate impairment with reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC, 69% predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 73% predicted), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO, 52% predicted). Surgical lung biopsy showed UIP with prominent inflammatory infiltrates. Following treatment with prednisone and azathioprine, the patient’s symptoms resolved, while objective pulmonary function testing showed normalization of lung function, which is sustained at >4 years of follow-up. Improvement in lung function following immunosuppressive therapy is distinctly uncommon in either idiopathic or secondary UIP. This report suggests that occasionally, patients with secondary UIP occurring in the context of otherwise undefinable autoimmune clinical syndromes may be responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25922588

  3. Relationship between birth weight and adult lung function: controlling for maternal factors

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Osman, L; Godden, D; Campbell, D; Douglas, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: In 2001 the cohort was assessed for current lung function, smoking status, and respiratory symptoms. Birth details obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank recorded birth weight, gestation, parity, and mother's age and height. Results: 381 subjects aged 45–50 years were traced and tested for lung function; 323 (85%) had birth details available. A significant linear trend (p<0.01) was observed between birth weight and current forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values (adjusted for height, age, sex, weight, deprivation category (Depcat), childhood group, and smoking status). This trend remained significant after adjusting birth weight for gestation, parity, sex, mother's height and weight (p = 0.01). The relationship between birth weight and FEV1 and FVC remained significant when adjusted for smoking history. There was no association between birth weight and current wheezing symptoms. Conclusion: There is a positive linear trend between birth weight, adjusted for maternal factors, and lung function in adulthood. The strength of this association supports the "fetal origins hypothesis" that impairment of fetal growth is a significant influence on adult lung function. PMID:14645976

  4. Discrepancies between lung function and asthma control: asthma perception and association with demographics and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Steele, Ashton M; Meuret, Alicia E; Millard, Mark W; Ritz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Understanding asthma symptom perception is necessary for reducing unnecessary costs both for asthma sufferers and society and will contribute to improving asthma management. The primary aim of this study was to develop and test a standardized method for classification of asthma perceiver categories into under-, normal, and overperceiver groups based on the comparison between self-report and lung function components of asthma control. Additionally, the degree to which demographic variables and anxiety contributed to the classification of patients into perceiver groups was examined. Patients underwent methacholine or reversibility testing to confirm asthma diagnosis. Next, participants completed lung function testing over 3 days before their next appointment. Finally, patients filled out demographic and self-report measures including the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Each self-report category of control assessed by the ACT (interference, shortness of breath, nighttime awakenings, rescue inhaler usage, and a composite total score) was compared with lung function measurements using a modified version of the asthma risk grid. Using the modified asthma risk grid to determine perceiver categorization, this sample included 14 underperceivers, 29 normal perceivers, and 36 overperceivers. A discriminant analysis was performed that indicated that a majority of underperceivers were characterized by being African American and having low asthma-specific anxiety. Normal perceivers in this sample tended to be older. Overperceivers tended to be female. Our findings encourage further research using the reported method of classifying asthma patients into perceiver categories.

  5. Genetic variation in HTR4 and lung function: GWAS follow-up in mouse.

    PubMed

    House, John S; Li, Huiling; DeGraff, Laura M; Flake, Gordon; Zeldin, Darryl C; London, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and pulmonary function. Proving that there is a causal relationship between GWAS SNPs, many of which are noncoding and without known functional impact, and these traits has been elusive. Furthermore, noncoding GWAS-identified SNPs may exert trans-regulatory effects rather than impact the proximal gene. Noncoding variants in 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 4 (HTR4) are associated with pulmonary function in human GWASs. To gain insight into whether this association is causal, we tested whether Htr4-null mice have altered pulmonary function. We found that HTR4-deficient mice have 12% higher baseline lung resistance and also increased methacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) as measured by lung resistance (27%), tissue resistance (48%), and tissue elastance (30%). Furthermore, Htr4-null mice were more sensitive to serotonin-induced AHR. In models of exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, bleomycin, and allergic airway inflammation induced by house dust mites, pulmonary function and cytokine profiles in Htr4-null mice differed little from their wild-type controls. The findings of altered baseline lung function and increased AHR in Htr4-null mice support a causal relationship between genetic variation in HTR4 and pulmonary function identified in human GWAS.

  6. Acute effects of volcanic ash from Mount Saint Helens on lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Buist, A S; Johnson, L R; Vollmer, W M; Sexton, G J; Kanarek, P H

    1983-06-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens on the lung function of children, we studied 101 children 8 to 13 yr of age who were attending a 2-wk summer camp for children with diabetes mellitus in an area where about 1.2 cm of ash had fallen after the June 12, 1980, eruption. The outcome variables used were forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, their ratio and mean transit time. Total and respirable dust levels were measured using personal sampling pumps. The children were tested on arrival and twice (early morning [A.M.] and late afternoon [P.M.]) every second or third day during the session. A within-day effect was measured by the P.M./A.M. ratio for the lung function variables; a between-day effect was measured by the change in the P.M. measurements over the 2 wk of camp. We found no strong evidence of either a within-day or a between-day effect on lung function, even in a subgroup of children who had preexisting lung disease or symptoms, despite daytime dust/ash levels that usually exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's significant harm level for particulate matter.

  7. Lung function, atopy, and chronic exposure to air pollution in schoolchildren living in two cities of different air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurzau, Eugen S.; Gurzau, Anca; Muresan, Marius; Bodor, Ecaterina; Zehan, Zoe; Radulescu, Nicolae

    1993-03-01

    The question of a causative interrelation between air pollution and respiratory status has received considerable attention by the mass media in our country. Schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 living in two communities with different levels of air pollution were studied. The parents of these children filled out a health questionnaire. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases was found to be significantly higher among children growing up in the polluted area (Tirnaveni) as compared with the low-pollution area (Dej). Lung function tests point out FEF25-75 disorders (and other lung disorders) at higher frequencies in schoolchildren living in the polluted area. Over 90% of schoolchildren living in the polluted area. Over 90% of schoolchildren with lung function disorders had a positive response to bronchodilatation. Of the schoolchildren with lung function disorders, 75.47% (p < 0,001) were atopic all of whom were sensitized to the down and house-dust.

  8. Functional imaging of the lungs with gas agents.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Stanley J; Nagle, Scott K; Couch, Marcus J; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Albert, Mitchell; Fain, Sean B

    2016-02-01

    This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of the three major classes of gas contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-hyperpolarized (HP) gas, molecular oxygen, and fluorinated gas--and their application to clinical pulmonary research. During the past several years there has been accelerated development of pulmonary MRI. This has been driven in part by concerns regarding ionizing radiation using multidetector computed tomography (CT). However, MRI also offers capabilities for fast multispectral and functional imaging using gas agents that are not technically feasible with CT. Recent improvements in gradient performance and radial acquisition methods using ultrashort echo time (UTE) have contributed to advances in these functional pulmonary MRI techniques. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the main functional imaging methods and gas agents are compared and applications to measures of ventilation, diffusion, and gas exchange are presented. Functional lung MRI methods using these gas agents are improving our understanding of a wide range of chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis in both adults and children.

  9. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  10. Paracrine Functions of Fibrocytes to Promote Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kleaveland, Kathryn R.; Moore, Bethany B.; Kim, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrocytes derive from the bone marrow and are found in the circulation. They can be recruited to sites of injury and contribute to repair/remodeling. In vitro evidence suggests that fibrocytes may differentiate into fibroblasts to promote lung fibrosis. However, in vivo evidence for this is sparse. This review summarizes recent literature which may suggest that fibrocytes function to promote fibrosis via paracrine actions. In this way, secretion of growth factors, proteases and matricellular proteins may strongly influence the actions of resident epithelial and mesenchymal cells to promote repair and resolution or to tip the scale towards pathologic remodeling. PMID:24451025

  11. Potentially Functional Polymorphisms in POU5F1 Gene Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Niu, Rui; Wang, Yuzhuo; Zhu, Meng; Wen, Yifan; Sun, Jie; Shen, Wei; Cheng, Yang; Zhang, Jiahui; Jin, Guangfu; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Dai, Juncheng

    2015-01-01

    POU5F1 is a key regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in embryonic stem cells and may be associated with initiation, promotion, and progression in cancer. We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 may play an important role in modifying the lung cancer risk. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to explore the association between 17 potentially functional SNPs in POU5F1 gene and the lung cancer risk in 1,341 incident lung cancer cases and 1,982 healthy controls in a Chinese population. We found that variant alleles of rs887468 and rs3130457 were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer after multiple comparison (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11-1.51, P fdr = 0.017 for rs887468; OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10-1.51, P fdr = 0.034 for rs3130457, resp.). In addition, we detected a significant interaction between rs887468 genotypes and smoking status on lung cancer risk (P = 0.017). Combined analysis of these 2 SNPs showed a significant allele-dosage association between the number of risk alleles and increased risk of lung cancer (P trend < 0.001). These findings indicate that potentially functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 gene may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population.

  12. Potentially Functional Polymorphisms in POU5F1 Gene Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Rui; Wang, Yuzhuo; Zhu, Meng; Wen, Yifan; Sun, Jie; Shen, Wei; Cheng, Yang; Zhang, Jiahui; Jin, Guangfu; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Dai, Juncheng

    2015-01-01

    POU5F1 is a key regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in embryonic stem cells and may be associated with initiation, promotion, and progression in cancer. We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 may play an important role in modifying the lung cancer risk. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to explore the association between 17 potentially functional SNPs in POU5F1 gene and the lung cancer risk in 1,341 incident lung cancer cases and 1,982 healthy controls in a Chinese population. We found that variant alleles of rs887468 and rs3130457 were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer after multiple comparison (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11–1.51, Pfdr = 0.017 for rs887468; OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10–1.51, Pfdr = 0.034 for rs3130457, resp.). In addition, we detected a significant interaction between rs887468 genotypes and smoking status on lung cancer risk (P = 0.017). Combined analysis of these 2 SNPs showed a significant allele-dosage association between the number of risk alleles and increased risk of lung cancer (Ptrend < 0.001). These findings indicate that potentially functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 gene may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. PMID:26824036

  13. Measurement of lung function using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) during mechanical ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebuya, Satoru; Koike, Tomotaka; Imai, Hiroshi; Noshiro, Makoto; Brown, Brian H.; Soma, Kazui

    2010-04-01

    The consistency of regional lung density measurements as estimated by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), in eleven patients supported by a mechanical ventilator, was validated to verify the feasibility of its use in intensive care medicine. There were significant differences in regional lung densities between the normal lung and diseased lungs associated with pneumonia, atelectasis and pleural effusion (Steel-Dwass test, p < 0.05). Temporal changes in regional lung density of patients with atelectasis were observed to be in good agreement with the results of clinical diagnosis. These results indicate that it is feasible to obtain a quantitative value for regional lung density using EIT.

  14. Functional tests for myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, J.R.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Functional tests for myocardial ischemia are numerous. Most depend upon a combination of either exercise or pharmacologic intervention with analysis of the electrocardiogram, of regional perfusion with radionuclide imaging, or of regional wall motion with radionuclide imaging or echocardiography. While each test has unique features, especially at the research level, they are generally quite similar in clinical practice, so the clinician is advised to concentrate on one or two in which local expertise is high.22 references.

  15. Relationship between exhaled NO, respiratory symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and blood eosinophilia in school children

    PubMed Central

    Steerenberg, P; Janssen, N; de Meer, G; Fischer, P; Nierkens, S; van Loveren, H; Opperhuizen, A; Brunekreef, B; van Amsterdam, J G C

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Levels of eNO in a sample of 450 children aged 7–12 years out of a total sample of 2504 school children living in different urban areas near motorways were determined. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between eNO, impairment of lung function (PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and blood eosinophilia in children with and without atopy as assessed by skin prick testing. Results: Regression analysis showed that wheezing and nasal discharge and conjunctivitis that had occurred during the previous 12 months were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.48 and 1.41, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. Similarly, BHR and the number of blood eosinophils per ml were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.55 and 2.29, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. The lung function indices PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF were not associated with eNO levels. Conclusions: In addition to conventional lung function tests and symptom questionnaires, eNO is a suitable measure of airway inflammation and its application may reinforce the power of epidemiological surveys on respiratory health. PMID:12612304

  16. [Pulmonary function testing before ablative methods].

    PubMed

    Ewert, R; Opitz, C

    2004-07-01

    Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and radiofrequency thermoablation (RFTA) are increasingly used for pulmonary interventions. Primarily patients with severe functional limitations precluding a surgical approach are selected for these procedures. In this patient group a valid preinterventional risk assessment is of paramount importance. The occurrence of a pneumothorax is one of the most important complications associated with these procedures. Therefore, the functional capacity and pulmonary reserve of these patients should allow for at least short periods of lung collapse. The periinterventional risk of these patients can be estimated from basic lung function studies when certain comorbidities are excluded.

  17. Heart rate slopes during 6-min walk test in pulmonary arterial hypertension, other lung diseases, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Adriano R; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Alkukhun, Laith; Zhang, Qi; Dweik, Raed A; Minai, Omar A

    2014-06-01

    Six-minute walk test (6MWT) continues to be a useful tool to determine the functional capacity in patients with vascular and other lung diseases; nevertheless, it has a limited ability to predict prognosis in this context. We tested whether the heart rate (HR) acceleration and decay slopes during the 6-m walk test are different in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), other lung diseases, and healthy controls. In addition, we assessed whether the HR slopes are associated with clinical worsening. Using a portable, signal-morphology-based, impedance cardiograph (PhysioFlow Enduro, Paris, France) with real-time wireless monitoring via a Bluetooth USB adapter we determined beat-by-beat HR. We included 50 subjects in this pilot study, 20 with PAH (all on PAH-specific treatment), 17 with other lung diseases (obstructive [n = 12, 71%] or restrictive lung diseases [5, 29%]), and 13 healthy controls. The beat-by-beat HR curves were significantly different among all three groups of subjects either during the activity or recovery of the 6MWT. HR curves were less steep in PAH than the other two groups (P < 0.001). HR acceleration rates were slower in patients with PAH or other lung diseases with progression of their disease (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the acceleration and decay slopes during 6MWT are different among patients with PAH, other lung diseases, and healthy controls. The HR slopes during 6MWT were steeper in patients without clinical worsening.

  18. Heart rate slopes during 6‐min walk test in pulmonary arterial hypertension, other lung diseases, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Adriano R.; Wang, Xiao‐Feng; Alkukhun, Laith; Zhang, Qi; Dweik, Raed A.; Minai, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Six‐minute walk test (6MWT) continues to be a useful tool to determine the functional capacity in patients with vascular and other lung diseases; nevertheless, it has a limited ability to predict prognosis in this context. We tested whether the heart rate (HR) acceleration and decay slopes during the 6‐m walk test are different in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), other lung diseases, and healthy controls. In addition, we assessed whether the HR slopes are associated with clinical worsening. Using a portable, signal‐morphology‐based, impedance cardiograph (PhysioFlow Enduro, Paris, France) with real‐time wireless monitoring via a Bluetooth USB adapter we determined beat‐by‐beat HR. We included 50 subjects in this pilot study, 20 with PAH (all on PAH‐specific treatment), 17 with other lung diseases (obstructive [n = 12, 71%] or restrictive lung diseases [5, 29%]), and 13 healthy controls. The beat‐by‐beat HR curves were significantly different among all three groups of subjects either during the activity or recovery of the 6MWT. HR curves were less steep in PAH than the other two groups (P < 0.001). HR acceleration rates were slower in patients with PAH or other lung diseases with progression of their disease (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the acceleration and decay slopes during 6MWT are different among patients with PAH, other lung diseases, and healthy controls. The HR slopes during 6MWT were steeper in patients without clinical worsening. PMID:24920122

  19. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Alexander; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Sly, Peter D; Baraldi, Eugenio; Piacentini, Giorgio; Pavord, Ian; Lex, Christiane; Saglani, Sejal

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases.

  20. Computer-Aided Tomographic Analysis of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Correlation with Pulmonary Physiologic Tests and Patient-Centred Measures of Perceived Dyspnea and Functional Disability

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Di Donato, Eleonora; Di Carlo, Marco; Ceccarelli, Luca; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed (a) to evaluate an improved quantitative lung fibrosis score based on a computer-aided diagnosis (CaM) system in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc),—related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), (b) to investigate the relationship between physiologic parameters (forced vital capacity [FVC] and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]), patient-centred measures of dyspnea and functional disability and CaM and visual reader-based (CoVR) methods, and (c) to identify potential surrogate measures from quantitative and visual HRCT measurement. Methods 126 patients with SSc underwent chest radiography, HRCT and PFTs. The following patient-centred measures were obtained: modified Borg Dyspnea Index (Borg score), VAS for breathing, and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). HRCT abnormalities were scored according to the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and by a CaM. The relationships among the HRCT scores, physiologic parameters (FVC and DLCO, % predicted) results and patient-centred measures, were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation. Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the predictor variables on severity of pulmonary fibrosis. Results Subjects with limited cutaneous SSc had lower HAQ-DI scores than subjects with diffuse cutaneous SSc (p <0.001). CaM and CoVR scores were similar in the 2 groups. In univariate analysis, a strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis the CaM and CoVR scores were predicted by DLco, FVC, Borg score and HAQ-DI. Age, sex, disease duration, anti-topoisomerase antibodies and mRSS were not significantly associated with severity of pulmonary fibrosis on CaM- and CoVR methods. Conclusions Although a close correlation between CaM score results and CoVR total score was found, CaM analysis showed a more significant correlation with DLco (more so than the FVC

  1. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M; Wu, Z; Du, Q; Petsonk, E; Peng, K; Li, Y; Li, S; Han, G; Atffield, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the early pattern of longitudinal change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) among new Chinese coal miners, and the relation between coal mine dust exposure and the decline of lung function. Methods: The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in FEV1 over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the groupxtime interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines. PMID:16234407

  2. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  3. SU-E-J-86: Lobar Lung Function Quantification by PET Galligas and CT Ventilation Imaging in Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Eslick, E; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Bailey, D; Bailey, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the lobar lung function using the novel PET Galligas ([68Ga]-carbon nanoparticle) ventilation imaging and the investigational CT ventilation imaging in lung cancer patients pre-treatment. Methods: We present results on our first three lung cancer patients (2 male, mean age 78 years) as part of an ongoing ethics approved study. For each patient a PET Galligas ventilation (PET-V) image and a pair of breath hold CT images (end-exhale and end-inhale tidal volumes) were acquired using a Siemens Biograph PET CT. CT-ventilation (CT-V) images were created from the pair of CT images using deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms and the Hounsfield Unit (HU) ventilation metric. A comparison of ventilation quantification from each modality was done on the lobar level and the voxel level. A Bland-Altman plot was used to assess the difference in mean percentage contribution of each lobe to the total lung function between the two modalities. For each patient, a voxel-wise Spearmans correlation was calculated for the whole lungs between the two modalities. Results: The Bland-Altman plot demonstrated strong agreement between PET-V and CT-V for assessment of lobar function (r=0.99, p<0.001; range mean difference: −5.5 to 3.0). The correlation between PET-V and CT-V at the voxel level was moderate(r=0.60, p<0.001). Conclusion: This preliminary study on the three patients data sets demonstrated strong agreement between PET and CT ventilation imaging for the assessment of pre-treatment lung function at the lobar level. Agreement was only moderate at the level of voxel correlations. These results indicate that CT ventilation imaging has potential for assessing pre-treatment lobar lung function in lung cancer patients.

  4. The respiratory health and lung function of Anglo-American children in a smelter town

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.

    1983-02-01

    Cooper smelters are large, usually isolated, sources of air pollution. Arizona has several such plants on the periphery of small communities. The smelters emit predominantly sulfur oxides and particulates, and the residents of these communities intermittently are exposed to high concentrations (24-h sulfur dioxide (SO2) . 250 to 500 micrograms/m3) of smelter smoke but little other pollution. This study compared the respiratory health of Anglo-American school children who lived in one smelter community with children living in another small community in Arizona that was free of smelter air pollution. The prevalence of cough, as determined by questionnaire, was 25.6% in the smelter town children and 14.3% in the nonsmelter town children (p less than 0.05). Pulmonary function at the study onset was equal in the two groups. Over the course of the 4 yr of study, lung function growth (measured as actual forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after 4 yr of study minus predicted FEV1) was also equal in the smelter town and nonsmelter town children. These results suggest that children in smelter communities have slightly more cough when compared with children living in other communities, but no differences in initial lung function or lung function at yearly testing over the period of the study.

  5. Gaps in Guideline-Concordant Use of Diagnostic Tests Among Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Meghan R.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Backhus, Leah M.; Wood, Douglas E.; Mulligan, Michael S.; Cheng, Aaron M.; Flum, David R.; Farjah, Farhood

    2016-01-01

    Background Practice guidelines recommend routine use of pulmonary function tests (PFTs), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) for the workup of resectable lung cancer patients. Little is known about the frequency of guideline concordance in routine practice. Methods A cohort study (2007 to 2013) of 15,951 lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy or pneumonectomy was conducted with MarketScan, a claims database of individuals with employer-provided health insurance. Guideline concordance was defined by claims for PFT within 180 days of resection and for CT and PET within 90 days of resection. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate temporal trends, patient characteristics, and costs associated with guideline-concordant care. Results Overall, 61% of patients received guideline-concordant care, increasing from 57% in 2007 to 66% in 2013 (p < 0.001). Compared with patients who received guideline-discordant care, patients with guideline-concordant care more frequently underwent repeat testing (PFT: 21% versus 12%, p < 0.001; CT: 46% versus 22%, p < 0.001; PET: 2.3% versus 1.1%, p < 0.001). Health plan–adjusted mean total test-related costs were higher among guideline-concordant patients who underwent repeat testing than patients who did not ($4,304 versus $3,454, p < 0.001). Conclusions Forty percent of lung cancer patients treated with surgical procedures did not receive recommended noninvasive cancer staging and physiologic assessment before resection. Guideline concordance was associated with repeat testing, and repeat testing was associated with higher costs. These findings support the need for quality improvement interventions that can increase guideline concordance while curbing potential excess use of diagnostic tests. PMID:26507425

  6. Variation in lung function is associated with worse clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Pinto, Leonardo Araujo; Marostica, Paulo José Cauduro; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the variation in lung function over one year is associated with worse clinical outcomes, as well as with a decline in lung function in the following years, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving CF patients (4-19 years of age), evaluated over a three-year period. We evaluated demographic characteristics, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, antibiotic use, hospitalization, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and lung function. The inclusion criterion was having undergone pulmonary function testing at least three times in the first year and at least once in each of the next two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 35 CF patients. The variation in FEV1 in the first year (ΔFEV1) was greater among those who, in the third year, showed reduced FEV1, had a below-average 6MWD, or were hospitalized than among those with normal FEV1, normal 6MWD, or no hospital admissions, in that same year (p < 0.05), although no such difference was found for antibiotic use in the third year. Subjects showing a ΔFEV1 ≥ 10% also showed a greater decline in FEV1 over the two subsequent years (p = 0.04). The ΔFEV1 also showed an inverse correlation with absolute FEV1 in the third year (r = −0.340, p = 0.04) and with the rate of FEV1 decline (r = −0.52, p = 0.001). Linear regression identified ΔFEV1 as a predictor of FEV1 decline (coefficient of determination, 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation in lung function over one year seems to be associated with a higher subsequent rate of FEV1 decline and worse clinical outcomes in CF patients. Short-term ΔFEV1 might prove useful as a predictor of CF progression in clinical practice. PMID:26785959

  7. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

  8. Gravity effects on regional lung ventilation determined by functional EIT during parabolic flights.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, I; Dudykevych, T; Hinz, J; Bodenstein, M; Hahn, G; Hellige, G

    2001-07-01

    Gravity-dependent changes of regional lung function were studied during normogravity, hypergravity, and microgravity induced by parabolic flights. Seven healthy subjects were followed in the right lateral and supine postures during tidal breathing, forced vital capacity, and slow expiratory vital capacity maneuvers. Regional 1) lung ventilation, 2) lung volumes, and 3) lung emptying behavior were studied in a transverse thoracic plane by functional electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The results showed gravity-dependent changes of regional lung ventilation parameters. A significant effect of gravity on regional functional residual capacity with a rapid lung volume redistribution during the gravity transition phases was established. The most homogeneous functional residual capacity distribution was found at microgravity. During vital capacity and forced vital capacity in the right lateral posture, the decrease in lung volume on expiration was larger in the right lung region at all gravity phases. During tidal breathing, the differences in ventilation magnitudes between the right and left lung regions were not significant in either posture or gravity phase. A significant nonlinearity of lung emptying was determined at normogravity and hypergravity. The pattern of lung emptying was homogeneous during microgravity.

  9. Thoracic dust exposure is associated with lung function decline in cement production workers

    PubMed Central

    Notø, Hilde; Eduard, Wijnand; Skogstad, Marit; Fell, Anne Kristin; Thomassen, Yngvar; Skare, Øivind; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Abderhalden, Rolf; Kongerud, Johny; Kjuus, Helge

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that exposure to workplace aerosols may lead to lung function impairment among cement production workers. Our study included 4966 workers in 24 cement production plants. Based on 6111 thoracic aerosol samples and information from questionnaires we estimated arithmetic mean exposure levels by plant and job type. Dynamic lung volumes were assessed by repeated spirometry testing during a mean follow-up time of 3.5 years (range 0.7–4.6 years). The outcomes considered were yearly change of dynamic lung volumes divided by the standing height squared or percentage of predicted values. Statistical modelling was performed using mixed model regression. Individual exposure was classified into quintile levels limited at 0.09, 0.89, 1.56, 2.25, 3.36, and 14.6 mg·m−3, using the lowest quintile as the reference. Employees that worked in administration were included as a second comparison group. Exposure was associated with a reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in 6 s and forced vital capacity. For FEV1 % predicted a yearly excess decline of 0.84 percentage points was found in the highest exposure quintile compared with the lowest. Exposure at the higher levels found in this study may lead to a decline in dynamic lung volumes. Exposure reduction is therefore warranted. PMID:27103386

  10. Lung function in retired coke oven plant workers.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Bertrand, J P; Guenzi, M; Mayer, L; Téculescu, D; Mur, J M; Patris, A; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1992-01-01

    Lung function was studied in 354 coke oven plant workers in the Lorraine collieries (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine, France) who retired between 1963 and 1982 and were still alive on 1 January 1988. A spirometric examination was performed on 68.4% of them in the occupational health service. Occupational exposure to respiratory hazards throughout their career was retraced for each subject. No adverse effect of occupational exposure on ventilatory function was found. Ventilatory function was, however negatively linked with smoking and with the presence of a respiratory symptom or discrete abnormalities visible on pulmonary x ray films. The functional values were mostly slightly lower than predicted values and the most reduced index was the mean expiratory flow, FEF25-75%. The decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was often parallel to that in forced vital capacity (FVC), but it was more pronounced for subjects who had worked underground, for smokers of more than 30 pack-years, and for subjects having a respiratory symptom. Pulmonary function indices were probably overestimated because of the exclusion of deceased subjects and the bias of the participants. PMID:1599869

  11. Association of Lung Function, Chest Radiographs and Clinical Features in Infants with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Farrell, Philip M.; Kloster, Margaret; Swanson, Jonathan O.; Vu, Thuy; Brumback, Lyndia; Acton, James D.; Castile, Robert G.; Colin, Andrew A.; Conrad, Carol K.; Hart, Meeghan A.; Kerby, Gwendolyn S.; Hiatt, Peter W.; Mogayzel, Peter J.; Johnson, Robin C.; Davis, Stephanie D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimal strategy for monitoring cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease in infancy remains unclear. Objective To describe longitudinal associations between infant pulmonary function tests (iPFTs), chest radiograph (CXR) scores and other characteristics. Methods CF patients ≤ 24 months old were enrolled in a 10-center study evaluating iPFTs 4 times over a year. CXRs ~1 year apart were scored with the Wisconsin and Brasfield systems. Associations of iPFT parameters with clinical characteristics were evaluated with mixed effects models. Results The 100 participants contributed 246 acceptable flow/volume (FEV0.5, FEF75) and 303 acceptable functional residual capacity (FRC) measurements and 171 CXRs. Both Brasfield and Wisconsin CXR scores worsened significantly over the 1 year interval. Worse Wisconsin CXR scores and S. aureus were both associated with hyperinflation (significantly increased FRC) but not with diminished FEV0.5 or FEF75. Parent-reported cough was associated with significantly diminished FEF75 but not with hyperinflation. Conclusions In this infant cohort in whom we previously reported worsening in average lung function, CXR scores also worsened over a year. The significant associations detected between both Wisconsin CXR score and S. aureus and hyperinflation, as well as between cough and diminished flows, reinforce the ability of iPFTs and CXRs to detect early CF lung disease. PMID:23722613

  12. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study.

  13. The influence of lung function on exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2010-03-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have impaired exercise capacity. While numerous factors are known to contribute to impaired exercise capacity, the role of lung function remains unclear. We conducted the present study to investigate the influence of lung function on exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was carried out in 31 male patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic complications or cardiopulmonary diseases. Patients with abnormal spirometry results such as a percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) < 80% and/or a ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to FVC (FEV1/FVC) < 70% were excluded from the study. We used the percentage of predicted maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max) as an index of exercise capacity. The correlations between %VO2max and lung function and other factors known to be associated with impaired exercise capacity were then assessed. Univariate analysis revealed %VO2max correlated significantly with percentage of predicted FEV1 (%FEV1), duration of type 2 diabetes, regular exercise habits, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In a multivariate analysis, %FEV1 and regular exercise habits were found to be independent determinants of %VO2max. A mild reduction in %FEV1, which may be a complication of diabetes, is associated with impaired exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. When evaluating spirometric values in patients with type 2 diabetes, a reduction in %FEV1 should be noted even when both %FVC and FEV1/FVC are within normal limits.

  14. Changes in lung function after working with the shotcrete lining method under compressed air conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, R; Redl, M; Mauermayer, R; Praml, G J

    1989-01-01

    Shotcrete techniques under compressed air are increasingly applied in the construction of tunnels. Up to now little is known about the influence of shotcrete dusts on the function of the lung. The lung function of 30 miners working with shotcrete under compressed air (before and after one shift) was measured. They carried personal air samplers to assess the total dust exposure. Long term effects were studied on a second group of 29 individuals exposed to shotcrete dusts and compressed air for two years. A significant increase of airway resistance and a significant decrease of some flow-volume parameters were found after one workshift. These changes partially correlate close to the dust exposure. After two years exposure a significant decrease of mean expiratory flow (MEF)50 and MEF25 was found. These results point to damage in the small airways and emphasise the major role of the lung function test--including the flow-volume manoeuvre for the medical examination of the workers. Additionally, they should carry filter masks. Images PMID:2923823

  15. Changes in lung function after working with the shotcrete lining method under compressed air conditions.

    PubMed

    Kessel, R; Redl, M; Mauermayer, R; Praml, G J

    1989-02-01

    Shotcrete techniques under compressed air are increasingly applied in the construction of tunnels. Up to now little is known about the influence of shotcrete dusts on the function of the lung. The lung function of 30 miners working with shotcrete under compressed air (before and after one shift) was measured. They carried personal air samplers to assess the total dust exposure. Long term effects were studied on a second group of 29 individuals exposed to shotcrete dusts and compressed air for two years. A significant increase of airway resistance and a significant decrease of some flow-volume parameters were found after one workshift. These changes partially correlate close to the dust exposure. After two years exposure a significant decrease of mean expiratory flow (MEF)50 and MEF25 was found. These results point to damage in the small airways and emphasise the major role of the lung function test--including the flow-volume manoeuvre for the medical examination of the workers. Additionally, they should carry filter masks.

  16. COPD Patients with Exertional Desaturation Are at a Higher Risk of Rapid Decline in Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Yong Bum; Park, So Young; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Park, Sang Myeon; Lee, Myung-Goo; Hyun, In-Gyu; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A recent study demonstrated that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the study was limited by its method used to detect exertional desaturation. The main purpose of this study was to explore whether exertional desaturation assessed using nadir oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) can predict rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 57 patients with moderate to very severe COPD who underwent the 6MWT. Exertional desaturation was defined as a nadir SpO2 of <90% during the 6MWT. Rapid decline was defined as an annual rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥50 mL. Patients were divided into rapid decliner (n=26) and non-rapid decliner (n=31) groups. Results A statistically significant difference in exertional desaturation was observed between rapid decliners and non-rapid decliners (17 vs. 8, p=0.003). No differences were found between the groups for age, smoking status, BODE index, and FEV1. Multivariate analysis showed that exertional desaturation was a significant independent predictor of rapid decline in patients with COPD (relative risk, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.8 to 25.4; p=0.004). Conclusion This study supports that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid lung function decline in male patients with COPD. PMID:24719141

  17. [Pulmonary diffusion test to NO and CO time course during thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer: the CONORT prospective study protocol].

    PubMed

    Zarza, V; Couraud, S; Hassouni, A; Prévost, C; Souquet, P-J; Letanche, G; Hammou, Y; Girard, N; Viart-Ferber, C; Mornex, F

    2014-10-01

    Thoracic radiotherapy is a usual treatment for lung cancer. Early-stages may be treated in stereotactic mode while locally advanced stages are usually treated with conventional radiotherapy mode. Pulmonary function tests show that thoracic irradiation has no impact on lung volume such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced vital capacity (FCV). However, some studies found that CO (carbon monoxide) diffusing capacity (TLCO) may be altered under thoracic radiotherapy. DLCO alteration is usually symptomatic of either a lesion in the alveolar membrane or a pulmonary capillary alteration. Pulmonary diffusion may be also appreciated by the NO (azote monoxide) diffusion capacity. Moreover, using a double measurement of NO and CO diffusing capacities permit to assess which lung compartment (capillary or membrane) is affected. CONORT is an observational prospective monocentric study, aiming to assess the CO and NO diffusing capacity (as well as other pulmonary function tests) during thoracic radiotherapy. Inclusion criteria are patients with lung cancer, treated by thoracic radiotherapy (conformational or stereotactic), who signed consent. Pulmonary function tests are performed before, during, at the end and six weeks and six months after thoracic irradiation. To estimate a difference of 15% in diffusing capacity test, we have to include 112 patients with a 90% power and a 5% alpha risk. Four months after beginning, 36 patients were included. Preliminary data will be presented at the SFRO meeting.

  18. GALACSI integration and functional tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, P.; Ströbele, S.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Fedrigo, E.; Gago, F.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Sedghi, B.; Suarez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Zampieri, S.

    2014-07-01

    GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) modules of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) that will correct the wavefront delivered to the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. It will sense with four 40×40 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors the AOF 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS), acting on the 1170 voice-coils actuators of the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM). GALACSI has two operating modes: in Wide Field Mode (WFM), with the four LGS at 64" off axis, the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel will be enhanced by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. The other mode, the Narrow Field Mode (NFM), provides an enhanced wavefront correction (Strehl Ratio (SR) of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm) but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5"), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), with the 4 LGS located closer, at 10" off axis. Before being shipped to Paranal, GALACSI will be first integrated and fully tested in stand-alone, and then moved to a dedicated AOF facility to be tested with the DSM in Europe. At present the module is fully assembled, its main functionalities have been implemented and verified, and AO system tests with the DSM are starting. We present here the main system features and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI.

  19. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  20. Respiratory symptoms and lung function among Danish woodworkers.

    PubMed

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Schaumburg, Inger; Taudorf, Ebbe; Mikkelsen, Anders B; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional study including 54 furniture factories and three control factories was conducted to survey lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among woodworkers. Spirometry was performed on 2423 persons. Questionnaires regarding respiratory symptoms and wood dust exposure were completed by 2033 woodworkers and 474 controls. Personal passive dust measurements were performed on 1579 persons. The arithmetic mean +/- SD for equivalent inhalable dust was relatively low (1.19 +/- 0.86 mg/m3). Woodworkers had increased frequency of coughing with negative interaction between dust exposure and smoking. A dose-response relationship was seen between dust exposure and asthma symptoms, and a positive interaction for asthma was seen between female gender and dust exposure. Increased frequency of wheezing and a cross-shift decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second among workers using pinewood was seen. In conclusion, wood dust exposure might cause respiratory symptoms, despite a relatively low exposure level.

  1. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Eduard J; van der Plas, Mart N; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P; Biemond, Bart J; Bresser, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age (interquartile range) of 26 (21-41) years underwent pulmonary function tests, CPET, chest x-ray, and echocardiography to further characterize exercise limitation in SCD. Peak oxygen uptake (V'O2 -peak), expressing maximum exercise capacity, was decreased in 83% of the studied patients. V'O2 -peak correlated with hemoglobin levels (R = 0.440, P = 0.005), forced vital capacity (FVC) (R = 0.717, P < 0.0001). Cardiothoracic ratio on chest x-ray inversely correlated with FVC (R = -0.637, P < 0.001). According to criteria for exercise limitation, the patients were limited in exercise capacity due to anemia (n = 17), cardiovascular dysfunction (n = 2), musculoskeletal function (n = 10), pulmonary ventilatory abnormalities (n = 1), pulmonary vascular exercise limitation (n = 1), and poor effort (n = 3). In the present study we demonstrate that anemia is the most important determinant of reduced exercise tolerance observed in SCD patients without signs of pulmonary hypertension. We found a strong correlation between various parameters of lung volume and cardiothoracic ratio and we hypothesize that cardiomegaly and relative small chest size may be important causes of the impairment in pulmonary function, that is, reduced long volumes and diffusion capacity, in SCD. Taking into account anthropomorphic differences between SCD patients and controls could help to interpret lung function studies in SCD better.

  2. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging.

  3. A Genetic Lung Cancer Susceptibility Test may have a Positive Effect on Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Kammin, Tammy; Fenton, Andrew K; Thirlaway, Kathryn

    2015-06-01

    Smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Genetic loci have been identified which could form the basis of a lung cancer susceptibility test; but little is known whether such a test would interest or motivate those trying to quit smoking. To address this, we investigated the attitudes of people trying to quit smoking towards genetic susceptibility testing for lung cancer. Participant's attitudes to topics associated with lung cancer susceptibility testing were assessed; were they interested in genetic testing? What impact would a hypothetical high- or low- risk result have on smoking cessation? 680 self-completion questionnaires were given to individuals attending National Health Service stop smoking clinics in three different areas of the United Kingdom between 2011 and 2012. 139 questionnaires were returned, giving a 20 % response rate. Participants expressed an interest in a genetic susceptibility test for lung cancer and almost all reported that a high-risk result would increase their motivation to stop smoking. However, many participants had a neutral attitude towards a low-risk result. Most participants agreed their smoking habit could lead to lung cancer. Lung cancer susceptibility testing may be a useful incentive to help people quit smoking. This study suggests the need for genetic services to work with smoking cessation teams if routine testing becomes available in the future.

  4. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingbo; Cao, Jianzhong; Yuan, Shuanghu; Arenberg, Douglas; Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  5. [Criteria of the molecular pathology testing of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Tímár, József

    2014-06-01

    From the aspect of the contemporary pathologic diagnostics of lung cancer the tissue obtained is a key issue since small biopsies and cytology still play a major role. In the non-small cell lung cancer era cytology is considered equal to biopsy however, in recent years it is unable to provide quality diagnosis and must be replaced by biopsy. Various molecular techniques can handle various different tissue samples which must be considered during molecular pathology diagnosis. Moreover, tumor cell-normal cell ratio in the obtained tissue, as well as the absolute tumor cell number have great significance, which information must be provided in the primary lung cancer diagnosis. Last but not least, for continuous sustainable molecular diagnostics of lung cancer rational algorithms, affordable technology and appropriate reimbursement are equally necessary.

  6. Particulate matter concentration in ambient air and its effects on lung functions among residents in the National Capital Region, India.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, C; Pangtey, B S; Bihari, V; Fareed, M; Pathak, M K; Srivastava, A K; Mathur, N

    2013-02-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that air pollution is responsible for 1.4 % of all deaths and 0.8 % of disability-adjusted life years. NOIDA, located at the National Capital Region, India, was declared as one of the critically air-polluted areas by the Central Pollution Control Board of the Government of India. Studies on the relationship of reduction in lung functions of residents living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air were inconclusive since the subjects of most of the studies are hospital admission cases. Very few studies, including one from India, have shown the relationship of PM concentration and its effects of lung functions in the same location. Hence, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the effect of particulate matter concentration in ambient air on the lung functions of residents living in a critically air-polluted area in India. PM concentrations in ambient air (PM(1,) PM(2.5)) were monitored at residential locations and identified locations with higher (NOIDA) and lower concentrations (Gurgaon). Lung function tests (FEV(1), PEFR) were conducted using a spirometer in 757 residents. Both air monitoring and lung function tests were conducted on the same day. Significant negative linear relationship exists between higher concentrations of PM(1) with reduced FEV(1) and increased concentrations of PM(2.5) with reduced PEFR and FEV(1). The study shows that reductions in lung functions (PEFR and FEV(1)) can be attributed to higher particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. Decline in airflow obstruction in subjects exposed to high PM concentrations can be attributed to the fibrogenic response and associated airway wall remodeling. The study suggests the intervention of policy makers and stake holders to take necessary steps to reduce the emissions of PM concentrations, especially PM(1,) PM(2.5), which can lead to serious respiratory health concerns in residents.

  7. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  8. The Lung Function Impairment in Non-Atopic Patients With Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linghao; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Fang, Xiao-Bi; Huang, Zhen-Xiao; Shi, Qing-Yuan; Wu, Li-Ping; Wu, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Liao, Zhi-Su

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is common disease in otorhinolaryngology and will lead to lower airway abnormality. However, the only lung function in CRS patients and associated factors have not been much studied. Methods One hundred patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP group), 40 patients with CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP group), and 100 patients without CRS were enrolled. The difference in lung function was compared. Meanwhile, CRSwNP and CRSsNP group were required to undergo a bronchial provocation or dilation test. Additionally, subjective and objective outcomes were measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS), 20-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20), Lund-Mackay score, Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score. The correlation and regression methods were used to analyze the relationship between their lung function and the above parameters. Results The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75) of CRSwNP group were significantly lower than other groups (P<0.05). On peak expiratory flow, there was no difference between three groups. In CRSwNP group, FEV1 was negatively correlated with peripheral blood eosinophil count (PBEC) and duration of disease (r=–0.348, P=0.013 and r=–0.344, P=0.014, respectively), FEF25-75 negatively with VAS, SNOT-20 (r=–0.490, P=0.028 and r=–0.478, P=0.033, respectively) in CRSsNP group. The incidence of positive bronchial provocation and dilation test was lower in CRSwNP group (10% and 0%, respectively), with both 0% in CRSsNP group. The multiple linear regression analysis indicated that change ratio of FEV1 before and after bronchial provocation or dilation test were correlated with PBEC in CRSwNP group (β=0.403, P=0.006). Conclusion CRS leading to impaired maximum ventilation and small airway is associated with the existence of nasal polyp. Lung function impairments can be reflected by PBEC, duration, VAS, and SNOT-20. In CRSw

  9. Diesel exhaust modulates ozone-induced lung function decrements in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min) intermittently on two consecutive days. Day 1 exposures were either to filtered air, DE (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.300 ppm), or the combination of both pollutants. On Day 2 all exposures were to O3 (0.300 ppm), and Day 3 served as a followup observation day. Lung function was assessed by spirometry just prior to, immediately after, and up to 4 hr post-exposure on each exposure day. Functional pulmonary responses to the pollutants were also characterized based on stratification by glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) genotype. On Day 1, exposure to air or DE did not change FEV1 or FVC in the subject population (n = 15). The co-exposure to O3 and DE decreased FEV1 (17.6%) to a greater extent than O3 alone (9.9%). To test for synergistic exposure effects, i.e., in a greater than additive fashion, FEV1 changes post individual O3 and DE exposures were summed together and compared to the combined DE and O3 exposure; the p value was 0.057. On Day 2, subjects who received DE exposure on Day 1 had a larger FEV1 decrement (14.7%) immediately after the O3 exposure than the individuals’ matched response following a Day 1 air exposure (10.9%). GSTM1 genotype did not affect the magnitude of lung function changes in a significant fashion. These data suggest that altered respiratory responses to the combination of O3 and DE exposure can be observed showing a greater than additive manner. In addition, O3-induced lung function decrements are greater with a prior exposure to DE compared to a prior exposure to filtered air. Based on the joint occurrence of these pollutants in the ambient environment, the potential exists for interactions in more than an additive fashion affecting lung physiological

  10. Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Lung Function in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with lower lung function. Few studies have examined whether these associations are detectable at relatively low levels of pollution within current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Objectives: To examine exposure to ambient air pollutants within EPA standards and lung function in a large cohort study. Methods: We included 3,262 participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts living within 40 km of the Harvard Supersite monitor in Boston, Massachusetts (5,358 examinations, 1995–2011) who were not current smokers, with previous-day pollutant levels in compliance with EPA standards. We compared lung function (FEV1 and FVC) after previous-day exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index to exposure in the “good” range. We also examined linear relationships between moving averages of pollutant concentrations 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days before spirometry and lung function. Measurements and Main Results: Exposure to pollutant concentrations in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index was associated with a 20.1-ml lower FEV1 for PM2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], −33.4, −6.9), a 30.6-ml lower FEV1 for NO2 (95% CI, −60.9, −0.2), and a 55.7-ml lower FEV1 for O3 (95% CI, −100.7, −10.8) compared with the “good” range. The 1- and 2-day moving averages of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 before testing were negatively associated with FEV1 and FVC. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 within current EPA standards was associated with lower lung function in this cohort of adults. PMID:24200465

  11. Long-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust induced lung function decline in a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Ping; Zhang, Xiao; Duan, Hua Wei; Meng, Tao; Niu, Yong; Huang, Chuan Feng; Gao, Wei Min; Yu, Shan Fa; Zheng, Yu Xin

    2017-02-07

    To clarify the effects of lung function following exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), we recruited 137 diesel engine testing workers exposed to DEE and 127 non-DEE-exposed workers as study subjects. We performed lung function tests and measured cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome index and levels of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites. There was a significant decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/ FVC), maximal mid expiratory flow curve (MMF), forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50%), and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75%) in the DEE-exposed workers than non-DEE-exposed workers (all p<0.05). Among all study subjects, the decreases of FEF75% were associated with the increasing levels of PAHs meta-bolites (p<0.05), and there were negative correlations between FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMF, FEF50%, and FEF75% with CBMN cytome index (all p<0.05). Our results show that long-term exposure to DEE can induce lung function decline which shows mainly obstructive changes and influence of small airways function. The decreased lung function is associated with internal dosage of DEE exposure, and accompany with the increasing CBMN cytome index.

  12. Long-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust induced lung function decline in a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Li Ping; ZHANG, Xiao; DUAN, Hua Wei; MENG, Tao; NIU, Yong; HUANG, Chuan Feng; GAO, Wei Min; YU, Shan Fa; ZHENG, Yu Xin

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the effects of lung function following exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), we recruited 137 diesel engine testing workers exposed to DEE and 127 non-DEE-exposed workers as study subjects. We performed lung function tests and measured cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome index and levels of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites. There was a significant decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/ FVC), maximal mid expiratory flow curve (MMF), forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50%), and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75%) in the DEE-exposed workers than non-DEE-exposed workers (all p<0.05). Among all study subjects, the decreases of FEF75% were associated with the increasing levels of PAHs metabolites (p<0.05), and there were negative correlations between FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMF, FEF50%, and FEF75% with CBMN cytome index (all p<0.05). Our results show that long-term exposure to DEE can induce lung function decline which shows mainly obstructive changes and influence of small airways function. The decreased lung function is associated with internal dosage of DEE exposure, and accompany with the increasing CBMN cytome index. PMID:27334424

  13. [The effect of lung diminishing interventions on immediate postoperative lung function and their modification by various forms of analgesia].

    PubMed

    Horch, R; Krönung, G; Westhofen, P; Giebel, G D

    1990-01-01

    The influence of different lung resection methods on pulmonary function was studied in 34 patients suffering from bronchial carcinoma. Daily measurements from the 1st to 10th postoperative day reveal the greatest losses of function after right upper lobectomy. Lower lobectomies or left upper lobectomy resulted in a less extensive loss of function. Recovery of function mainly occurs in the first 4 days after operation. Centrally acting analgetics are followed by a loss in pulmonary function whereas locally applied analgetics improve early postoperative function.

  14. The COPD Assessment Test as a Prognostic Marker in Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Someya, Fujiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Mugii, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT), which was developed to measure the health status of patients with COPD, was applied to patients with interstitial lung disease, aiming to examine the CAT as a predictor of outcome. Over a follow-up period of more than one year, 101 consecutive patients with interstitial lung disease were evaluated by the CAT. The CAT scores of 40 in total were categorized into four subsets according to the severity. Patients with higher (more severe) scores exhibited lower forced vital capacity and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. The survival rate was significantly lower in patients with higher scores (log-rank test, P = 0.0002), and the hazard ratios for death of the higher scores and lower lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide were independently significant. These findings suggest that CAT can indicate the risk of mortality in patients with interstitial lung disease. PMID:27812295

  15. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  16. Low levels of air pollution induce changes of lung function in a panel of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Moshammer, H; Hutter, H-P; Hauck, H; Neuberger, M

    2006-06-01

    In search of sensitive screening parameters for assessing acute effects of ambient air pollutants in young schoolchildren, the impact of 8-h average air pollution before lung function testing was investigated by oscillatory measurements of resistance and spirometry with flow-volume loops. At a central elementary school in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria, 163 children aged 7-10 yrs underwent repeated examinations at the same time of day during 1 school year, yielding a total of 11-12 lung function tests per child. Associations to mass concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) measured continuously at a nearby monitoring station were tested, applying the Generalised Estimating Equations model. Reductions per 10 microg.m(-3) (both for particles and for NO(2)) were in the magnitude of 1% for most lung function parameters. The most sensitive indicator for acute effects of combustion-related pollutants was a change in maximal expiratory flow in small airways. NO(2) at concentrations below current standards reduced (in the multipollutant model) the forced expiratory volume in one second by 1.01%, maximal instantaneous forced flow when 50% of the forced vital capacity remains to be exhaled (MEF(50%)) by 1.99% and MEF(25%) by 1.96%. Peripheral resistance increased by 1.03% per 10 microg.m(-3) of particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mum (PM(2.5)). Resistance is less influenced by the child's cooperation and should be utilised more often in environmental epidemiology when screening for early signs of small airway dysfunction from urban air pollution, but cannot replace the measurement of MEF(50%) and MEF(25%). In the basic model, the reduction of these parameters per 10 microg.m(-3) was highest for NO(2), followed by PM(1), PM(2.5) and PM(10), while exposure to coarse dust (PM(10)-PM(2.5)) did not change end-expiratory flow significantly. All acute effects of urban air pollution found on the lung function of healthy

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  18. Accuracy of forced oscillation technique to assess lung function in geriatric COPD population

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Hoi Nam; Tseng, Cee Zhung Steven; Wong, King Ying; Yee, Kwok Sang; Ng, Lai Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Performing lung function test in geriatric patients has never been an easy task. With well-established evidence indicating impaired small airway function and air trapping in patients with geriatric COPD, utilizing forced oscillation technique (FOT) as a supplementary tool may aid in the assessment of lung function in this population. Aims To study the use of FOT in the assessment of airflow limitation and air trapping in geriatric COPD patients. Study design A cross-sectional study in a public hospital in Hong Kong. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01553812. Methods Geriatric patients who had spirometry-diagnosed COPD were recruited, with both FOT and plethysmography performed. “Resistance” and “reactance” FOT parameters were compared to plethysmography for the assessment of air trapping and airflow limitation. Results In total, 158 COPD subjects with a mean age of 71.9±0.7 years and percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 53.4±1.7 L were recruited. FOT values had a good correlation (r=0.4–0.7) to spirometric data. In general, X values (reactance) were better than R values (resistance), showing a higher correlation with spirometric data in airflow limitation (r=0.07–0.49 vs 0.61–0.67), small airway (r=0.05–0.48 vs 0.56–0.65), and lung volume (r=0.12–0.29 vs 0.43–0.49). In addition, resonance frequency (Fres) and frequency dependence (FDep) could well identify the severe type (percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second <50%) of COPD with high sensitivity (0.76, 0.71) and specificity (0.72, 0.64) (area under the curve: 0.8 and 0.77, respectively). Moreover, X values could stratify different severities of air trapping, while R values could not. Conclusion FOT may act as a simple and accurate tool in the assessment of severity of airflow limitation, small and central airway function, and air trapping in patients with geriatric COPD who have difficulties performing conventional lung function test. Moreover, reactance

  19. Analysis of tidal breathing flow volume loops for automated lung-function diagnosis in infants.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Steffen; Ahrens, Peter; Kecman, Vojislav

    2010-08-01

    Lung-function analysis in the age group below 5 years has not yet found its way into clinical routine. One possible candidate for routine lung testing in this age group is the analysis of tidal breathing flow-volume (TBFV) loops, a technique that has not yet proven to be capable of detecting obstructive and other lung disorders at an early stage. We present a new set of mathematical features useful to analyze TBFV loops. These new features attempt to describe more complex properties of the loops, thus imitating medical judgment of the curves (e.g., "round," "triangular," etc.) in a "linguistic" manner. Furthermore, we introduce support vector machines (SVMs) as a method for automated classification of diseases. In a retrospective clinical trial on 195 spontaneously breathing infants aged 3 to 24 months, the discriminant power of individual features and the overall diagnostic performance of SVMs is investigated and compared with the results obtained with traditional Bayes' classifiers. We demonstrate that the proposed new features perform better in all examined disease groups and that depending on the disease, the classification error can be reduced by up to 50%. We conclude that TBFV loops may have a much stronger discriminant power than previously thought.

  20. Antihistamine medication may alleviate negative effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on lung function in children. Birth cohort prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Spengler, Jack; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Camman, David

    2015-05-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the depressed lung growth attributable to prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be modified by the intake of antihistamine medications. Individual prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in 176 children who were followed over nine years, in the course of which outdoor residential air monitoring, allergic skin tests for indoor allergens, lung function tests (FVC, FEV(1), FEV(05), and FEF(25-75)) were performed. The analysis with the General Estimated Equation (GEE) showed no association between prenatal PAH exposure and lung function in the group of children who were reported to be antihistamine users. However, in the group of antihistamine non-users all lung function tests except for FEF(25-75) were significantly and inversely associated with prenatal airborne PAH exposure. The results of the study suggest that the intake of antihistamine medications in early childhood may inhibit the negative effect of fetal PAH exposure on lung growth and provides additional indirect evidence for the hypothesis that lung alterations in young children resulting from PAH exposure may be caused by the allergic inflammation within lung.

  1. Exposure assessment and lung function in pig and poultry farmers

    PubMed Central

    Radon, K; Weber, C; Iversen, M; Danuser, B; Pedersen, S; Nowak, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the relation between spirometric findings and farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings. Farmers have traditionally been described as having one of the most dangerous occupations, so a large scale study on European farmers was carried out. This is the report of the second part of that study.
METHODS—40 pig farmers in Denmark and 36 poultry farmers in Switzerland were chosen randomly and were assessed over 1 working day.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) baseline spirometric results in pig farmers were higher than in poultry farmers (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (% of reference value) 108.3 (16.7) v 100.2 (14.2); p=0.04). Baseline lung function results were significantly associated with ventilation of the animal houses. Furthermore, temperature was related to spirometric findings in pig farmers.
CONCLUSIONS—Ventilation of the animal house and temperature might influence respiratory morbidity in farmers.


Keywords: ventilation; micro-organism; European multicentre study PMID:11351057

  2. Effects of air pollution on changes in lung function induced by exercise in children with chronic respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Timonen, K; Pekkanen, J; Tiittanen, P; Salonen, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how daily variations in ambient air pollution, especially in particles, during the cold of winter affect repeated measurements of baseline lung function and exercise induced bronchial responsiveness among primary school children with chronic respiratory symptoms. Methods: During alternate school weeks (mamimum five) from February to April 1994, 33 children took part in exercise challenge tests (n=141 tests). The exercise challenges were conducted outdoors in a school yard in the centre of Kuopio, Finland. Spirometric lung functions were measured indoors before the exercise, and 3 and 10 minutes after. Daily mean concentrations of PM10, black smoke (BS), NO2, CO, SO2, and particle size and numbers were monitored at a nearby fixed monitoring site. Results: Daily variations in ambient air pollution were not associated with enhanced bronchial responsiveness. However, increased concentrations of BS, PM10, particle numbers, NO2, and CO were consistently associated with an impairment of baseline lung functions. The reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively, for each 10 µg/m3 increase in BS (lag 2). Conclusion: Particles derived from combustion affect baseline lung function rather than bronchial responsiveness among children with chronic respiratory symptoms. PMID:11850557

  3. Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 Is a Determinant of Lung Function Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Timothy M.; Concel, Vincent J.; Upadhyay, Swapna; Bein, Kiflai; Brant, Kelly A.; George, Leema; Mitra, Ankita; Thimraj, Tania A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Vuga, Louis J.; Fattman, Cheryl; Kaminski, Naftali; Schulz, Holger; Leikauf, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1) is located within quantitative trait loci associated with lung function that was previously identified by contrasting C3H/HeJ and JF1/Msf mouse strains that have extremely divergent lung function. JF1/Msf mice with diminished lung function had reduced lung SPP1 transcript and protein during the peak stage of alveologenesis (postnatal day [P]14–P28) as compared with C3H/HeJ mice. In addition to a previously identified genetic variant that altered runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) binding in the Spp1 promoter, we identified another promoter variant in a putative RUNX2 binding site that increased the DNA protein binding. SPP1 induced dose-dependent mouse lung epithelial-15 cell proliferation. Spp1(−/−) mice have decreased specific total lung capacity/body weight, higher specific compliance, and increased mean airspace chord length (Lm) compared with Spp1(+/+) mice. Microarray analysis revealed enriched gene ontogeny categories, with numerous genes associated with lung development and/or respiratory disease. Insulin-like growth factor 1, Hedgehog-interacting protein, wingless-related mouse mammary tumor virus integration site 5A, and NOTCH1 transcripts decreased in the lung of P14 Spp1(−/−) mice as determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. SPP1 promotes pneumocyte growth, and mice lacking SPP1 have smaller, more compliant lungs with enlarged airspace (i.e., increased Lm). Microarray analysis suggests a dysregulation of key lung developmental transcripts in gene-targeted Spp1(−/−) mice, particularly during the peak phase of alveologenesis. In addition to its known roles in lung disease, this study supports SPP1 as a determinant of lung development in mice. PMID:24816281

  4. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  5. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  6. 14 CFR 35.40 - Functional test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functional test. 35.40 Section 35.40... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.40 Functional test. The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used...

  7. Diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and metabolic biomarkers in individuals with normal glucose tolerance are inversely associated with lung function: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Hickson, DeMarc A; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Liu, Jiankang; Petrini, Marcy F; Harrison, Kimystian; White, Wendy B; Sarpong, Daniel F

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes control and diabetes duration, and metabolic biomarkers in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) are inversely associated with spirometry-measured lung function. We conducted a cross-sectional observational cohort study that included nonsmoking African American adults (n = 2,945; mean age = 52.5 ± 12.6 years; 69.2% female), who were free of cardiovascular disease, from the Jackson Heart Study. The interventions were diabetes, metabolic biomarkers and lung function. We measured the associations of glycemia with forced expiratory volume (FEV) in 1 s, FEV in 6 s, and vital capacity. Multivariable adjusted mean lung function values were lower among adults with diabetes and IGT (in women only, but not after adjustment for waist circumference) than adults with NGT. Among adults with diabetes, no associations were observed between lung function and diabetes control or duration. In women with NGT, lower lung function was consistently associated with higher glucose levels and less consistently with higher insulin levels and insulin resistance. Lower lung function was consistently associated with higher insulin levels and insulin resistance and less consistently associated with insulin and hemoglobin A1c in men with NGT. Overall, our findings generally support the hypothesis that diabetes, IGT, and increased levels of metabolic biomarkers in individuals with NGT are inversely associated with lung function in African Americans, independent of adiposity.

  8. Lung function, atopy, specific hypersensitivity, and smoking of workers in the enzyme detergent industry over 11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Flood, D F; Blofeld, R E; Bruce, C F; Hewitt, J I; Juniper, C P; Roberts, D M

    1985-01-01

    A study of 2800 workers employed in three factories of the two major manufacturers of enzymatic products in the United Kingdom covering 11 years of operation from 1969 to 1980 showed that 2344 workers had sufficient lung function data to meet the operational criteria and these were analysed in three separate groups by factory locations. Spirometry and prick tests for specific skin reactions to standardised enzyme were performed at six monthly intervals for the first six years of the study and then annually. Factory enzyme dust and total dust measurements were made to determine the degree of dust exposure of the subjects. The lung function of the factory groups was analysed for the effects of working in the detergent industry, the degree of exposure to enzymes, skin prick test positivity to enzymes, atopicity, and smoking. The 4.5% of workers who had experienced respiratory effects from enzymes were analysed separately. Exposure to the enzyme allergen has had no significant long term effect on the lung function of the detergent workers. A higher proportion of atopics than non-atopics became skin test positive to the allergen and more smokers than non-smokers were sensitised. The overall lung function of detergent workers showed 39 ml/year loss in FEV1 on the 11 year longitudinal study and 51 ml/year loss on the lateral (cross sectional) analysis with better lung function in the south east than the north west of England. In the development of the methodology for the study several potential problems were discovered that could remain unrecognised in a cross sectional analysis performed in isolation. PMID:3871157

  9. Exposure to grass pollen--but not birch pollen--affects lung function in Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Gruzieva, O; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Melén, E; Hallberg, J; Bellander, T; Lõhmus, M

    2015-09-01

    Allergic response to pollen is increasing worldwide, leading to high medical and social costs. However, the effect of pollen exposure on lung function has rarely been investigated. Over 1800 children in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were lung-function- and IgE-tested at the age of 8 and 16 years old. Daily concentrations for 9 pollen types together with measurements for ozone, NO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 were estimated for the index day as well as up to 6 days before the testing. Exposure to grass pollen during the preceding day was associated with a reduced forced expiratory volume in 8-yr-olds; -32.4 ml; 95% CI: -50.6 to -14.2, for an increase in three pollen counts/m³. Associations appeared stronger in children sensitized to pollen allergens. As the grass species flower late in the pollen season, the allergy care routines might be weakened during this period. Therefore, allergy information may need to be updated to increase awareness among grass pollen-sensitized individuals.

  10. Functional characterization of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in lung development, injury, and tumorigenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are proposed to be the first specialized cell type to appear in the lung, but their ontogeny remains obscure. Although studies of PNECs have suggested their involvement in a number of lung functions, neither their in vivo significance nor the molecular mechanis...

  11. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-05

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Novel Urinary Biomarkers for Lung Function

    SciTech Connect

    MCClay, Joseph L.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Isern, Nancy G.; O'Connell, Thomas M.; Wooten, Jan B.; Zedler, Barbara K.; Dasika, Madhukar S.; Webb, B. T.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Murrelle, Edward L.; Leppert, Mark F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2010-06-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airflow limitation, is a serious and growing public health concern. The major environmental risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking, but the biological mechanisms underlying COPD are not well understood. In this study, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify metabolites associated with lung function in COPD. Plasma and urine were collected from 197 adults with COPD and from 195 adults without COPD. Samples were assayed using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer, and the resulting spectra were analyzed against quantitative spirometric measures of lung function. After correcting for false discoveries and adjusting for covariates (sex, age, smoking) several spectral regions in urine were found to be significantly associated with baseline lung function. These regions correspond to the metabolites trigonelline, hippurate and formate. Concentrations of each metabolite, standardized to urinary creatinine, were associated with baseline lung function (minimum p-value = 0.0002 for trigonelline). No significant associations were found with plasma metabolites. Two of the three urinary metabolites positively associated with baseline lung function, i.e. hippurate and formate, are often related to gut microflora. This suggests that the microbiome composition is variable between individuals with different lung function. Alternatively, the nature and origins of all three associated metabolites may reflect lifestyle differences affecting overall health. Our results will require replication and validation, but demonstrate the utility of NMR metabolomics as a screening tool for identifying novel biomarkers of lung disease or disease risk.

  13. [Effects of air pollution from coal combustion on lung function in children].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanzhang; Zhao, Chihong; Gu, Heng; Cheng, Yibin

    2003-03-01

    In order to observe effects of air pollution from burning coal on children's health, Four hundred fifty junior schoolers selected from three survey sites in Taiyuan city with different degrees air pollution were investigated using questionnairing survey and the lung function were tested. The results showed that children's pulmonary function in survey site A is lower than site B, and site B is lower than site C. The prevalence of ventilation disfunction were correlated to the types of heating, the separation of kitchen and bedroom and the pollutants concentration with logistic model. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that compared with site C, FVC and FEF50 in site A decreased by 65.80 +/- 33.35 ml and 119.27 +/- 78.74) ml respectively and, in site B, decreased (57.28 +/- 31.22) ml and (114.29 +/- 58.80) ml respectively (Model 1). FVC and FEF50 decreased by 69.10(31.50 ml and (119.79 +/- 86.82) ml respectively with one unit increase of Ln (SO2) (Model 2). FVC and FEF50 decreased by 193.50 +/- 65.55 ml and 171.69 +/- 87.11 ml respectively with one unit increase of Ln(PM10) (Model 3). It can be concluded that the air pollution from coal consumption in Taiyuan city had impact on the children's lung function.

  14. Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylendiisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R.; Hedenstierna, G.; Plato, N.; Kolmodin-Hedman, B.

    1987-11-01

    Individuals who paint cars often complain to doctors about respiratory problems. Car painters are exposed to isocyanates, especially hexamethylendiisocyanate (HDI), and biuret modified HDI (HDI-BT). The mean exposure to HDI-BT was 115 micrograms/m3 in the air (range 10-385 micrograms/m3), which exceeds the time-weighted Swedish threshold level of 90 micrograms/m3. Exposure to HDI was about 1.0 microgram/m3 with brief peaks. This study investigated the effect of HDI and HDI-BT on lung function and included two control groups: (1) car platers, exposed to the same solvents and grinding dust as car painters, but not to isocyanates, and (2) car mechanics (controls), not exposed to the mentioned agents. Car painters and car platers were compared to car mechanics on Monday before work. Acute effects of car painting were tested by comparing the lung function values on Monday morning with those on Friday afternoon. Pulmonary function was evaluated by means of spirometry and a single breath nitrogen washout. Spirometry in painters and platers did not differ from that in controls, i.e., car mechanics. Closing volume in relation to vital capacity (CV%) was increased in car painters, suggestive of a small airways disease on Monday before work and tended to increase during a work week. Car platers did not differ from controls.

  15. Radiological progression and lung function in silicosis: a ten year follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P; Chan, S L; Lam, K P

    1987-01-01

    Chest radiographs and spirometric tests were performed on 81 patients who had silicosis from two granite quarries in 1975, 73 of whom were followed up for two to 10 (mean 7.2) years. Each patient's initial and most recent chest radiographs were assessed independently by three experienced readers, and the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were estimated from two to four (mean 3.45) serial spirometric readings. Estimates of individual dust exposure were based on extensive historical data on hygiene. All but 11 patients were no longer exposed to dust by the start of follow up, but 24 (45%) of 53 patients who had simple silicosis and 11 (55%) of 20 who had the complicated disease showed radiological evidence of disease progression. In patients who had simple silicosis and showed no radiological progression the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were modest (64 ml/year and 59 ml/year, respectively), whereas significantly greater declines in lung function were seen in those who showed radiological evidence of progression (97 ml/year and 95 ml/year, respectively). In addition to radiological progression the previous average dust concentration to which patients had been exposed also influenced declines in both forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity after allowing for the effects of age, smoking, duration of exposure, history of tuberculosis, initial state of disease, and baseline lung function. The probability of radiological progression was most strongly influenced by the average dust concentration previously exposed to. The progression of simple silicosis is thus accompanied by appreciable declines in lung function and is strongly affected by previous levels of exposure to dust. PMID:3115361

  16. Elemental carbon exposure and lung function in school children from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Villarreal, A; Escamilla-Nuñez, M C; Hernández-Cadena, L; Texcalac-Sangrador, J L; Sienra-Monge, J J; Del Río-Navarro, B E; Cortez-Lugo, M; Sly, P D; Romieu, I

    2011-09-01

    Though exposure to air pollution has a detrimental effect on respiratory health, few studies have examined the association between elemental carbon exposure and lung function among schoolchildren. The aim of the present study was to present the association between short-term elemental carbon exposure and lung function in schoolchildren from Mexico City. 55 asthmatic and 40 non-asthmatic children were followed for an average of 22 weeks. A spirometry test was performed every 15 days during follow-up. Portable air samplers collected particulate matter onto Teflon filters. Gravimetric analysis was conducted and elemental carbon was quantified using transmission densitometry. The association between the main variables was analysed using linear mixed effects models. The mean ± sd of elemental carbon light absorption was 92.7 ± 54.7 Mm(-1). An increase of one interquartile range in the 24-h average of elemental carbon (100.93 Mm(-1)) was associated with a significant negative impact on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) (-62.0 (95% CI -123.3- -1.2) mL) and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEF(25-75%)) (-111 (95% CI -228.3- -4.1) mL) among asthmatic children, equal to 3.3% and 5.5%, respectively; and on FEV(1) (-95.0 (95% CI -182.3- -8.5) mL) and FVC (-105.0 (95% CI -197.0- -13.7) mL) among non-asthmatic children. Exposure to elemental carbon resulted in an important negative effect on lung function in atopic schoolchildren, regardless of asthma status.

  17. Identification of candidate genes for lung cancer somatic mutation test kits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Shi, Jian-Xin; Pan, Xu-Feng; Feng, Jian; Zhao, Heng

    2013-09-01

    Over the past three decades, mortality from lung cancer has sharply and continuously increased in China, ascending to the first cause of death among all types of cancer. The ability to identify the actual sequence of gene mutations may help doctors determine which mutations lead to precancerous lesions and which produce invasive carcinomas, especially using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. In this study, we analyzed the latest lung cancer data in the COSMIC database, in order to find genomic "hotspots" that are frequently mutated in human lung cancer genomes. The results revealed that the most frequently mutated lung cancer genes are EGFR, KRAS and TP53. In recent years, EGFR and KRAS lung cancer test kits have been utilized for detecting lung cancer patients, but they presented many disadvantages, as they proved to be of low sensitivity, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, we constructed a more complete catalogue of lung cancer mutation events including 145 mutated genes. With the genes of this list it may be feasible to develop a NGS kit for lung cancer mutation detection.

  18. The relative balance of GM-CSF and TGF-β1 regulates lung epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Christian E; Schlingmann, Barbara; Dorsainvil White, StevenClaude; Ward, Christina; Fan, Xian; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Brown, Lou Ann S; Guidot, David M; Koval, Michael

    2015-06-15

    Lung barrier dysfunction is a cardinal feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alcohol abuse, which increases the risk of ARDS two- to fourfold, induces transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which increases epithelial permeability and impairs granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent barrier integrity in experimental models. We hypothesized that the relative balance of GM-CSF and TGF-β1 signaling regulates lung epithelial barrier function. GM-CSF and TGF-β1 were tested separately and simultaneously for their effects on lung epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. TGF-β1 alone caused an ∼ 25% decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), increased paracellular flux, and was associated with projections perpendicular to tight junctions ("spikes") containing claudin-18 that colocalized with F-actin. In contrast, GM-CSF treatment induced an ∼ 20% increase in TER, decreased paracellular flux, and showed decreased colocalization of spike-associated claudin-18 with F-actin. When simultaneously administered to lung epithelial cells, GM-CSF antagonized the effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial barrier function in cultured cells. Given this, GM-CSF and TGF-β1 levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and correlated with markers for pulmonary edema and patient outcome. In patient BAL fluid, protein markers of lung barrier dysfunction, serum α2-macroglobulin, and IgM levels were increased at lower ratios of GM-CSF/TGF-β1. Critically, patients who survived had significantly higher GM-CSF/TGF-β1 ratios than nonsurviving patients. This study provides experimental and clinical evidence that the relative balance between GM-CSF and TGF-β1 signaling is a key regulator of lung epithelial barrier function. The GM-CSF/TGF-β1 ratio in BAL fluid may provide a concentration-independent biomarker that can predict patient outcomes in ARDS.

  19. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2 /FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40-84] vs. 39 [36-46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953).

  20. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca’ Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2/FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P < 0.05), had lower PaO2/FiO2 (264 ± 78 mmHg vs. 453 ± 119 mmHg, P < 0.05), and more chest X-ray abnormalities (P < 0.05). EVLP recipients were more often admitted to intensive care unit as urgent cases (57% vs. 18%, P = 0.05); lung allocation score at transplantation was higher (79 [40–84] vs. 39 [36–46], P < 0.05). After transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). PMID:24628890

  1. NFE2L2 pathway polymorphisms and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Andrew J; Malhotra, Deepti; Boezen, H Marike; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Postma, Dirkje S; Wong, Vivien; Akhabir, Loubna; He, Jian-Qing; Connett, John E; Anthonisen, Nicholas R; Paré, Peter D; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-08-01

    An oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the lung contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) is a critical molecule in the lung's defense mechanism against oxidants. We investigated whether polymorphisms in the NFE2L2 pathway affected the rate of decline of lung function in smokers from the Lung Health Study (LHS)(n = 547) and in a replication set, the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 533). We selected polymorphisms in NFE2L2 in genes that positively or negatively regulate NFE2L2 transcriptional activity and in genes that are regulated by NFE2L2. Polymorphisms in 11 genes were significantly associated with rate of lung function decline in the LHS. One of these polymorphisms, rs11085735 in the KEAP1 gene, was previously shown to be associated with the level of lung function in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort but not with decline of lung function. Of the 23 associated polymorphisms in the LHS, only rs634534 in the FOSL1 gene showed a significant association in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort with rate of lung function decline, but the direction of the association was not consistent with that in the LHS. In summary, despite finding several nominally significant polymorphisms in the LHS, none of these associations were replicated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort, indicating lack of effect of polymorphisms in the NFE2L2 pathway on the rate of decline of lung function.

  2. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  3. Asthma phenotypes modify the impact of environmetnal factors on lung function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have examined the role of childhood asthma phenotypes based on clinical history on asthma severity and symptom aggravation by environmental risk factors. The current study focuses on the associations between lung function in childhood and environmental factors an...

  4. Brain but not lung functions impaired after a chlorine incident.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2003-10-01

    A workplace bleach exposure incident was studied in 13 women to determine whether chlorine caused neurobehavioral and pulmonary functional effects. We compared neurophysiological and neuropsychological measurements in 13 chlorine-exposed women, 4.5 years after exposure, and 41 unexposed women. Reaction times, balance, blink reflex latency, color discrimination and several psychological tests were measured. Pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry. A profile of mood states and frequencies of 35 symptoms were obtained. Chlorine exposed women performed statistically significantly below unexposed women for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and eyes closed, color discrimination, grip strength, Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, trail making B and pegboard. Profile of mood states scores and frequency symptoms were elevated. Respiratory symptoms were elevated but pulmonary volumes and flows were not reduced. Chlorine bleach exposure was associated with impaired neurobehavioral functions and elevated POMS scores and symptom frequencies. Alternatives to chlorine should be used.

  5. Lung function in asbestos-exposed workers, a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A continuing controversy exists about whether, asbestos exposure is associated with significant lung function impairments when major radiological abnormalities are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to assess whether asbestos exposure is related to impairment of lung function parameters independently of the radiological findings. Methods MEDLINE was searched from its inception up to April 2010. We included studies that assessed lung function parameters in asbestos exposed workers and stratified subjects according to radiological findings. Estimates of VC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC with their dispersion measures were extracted and pooled. Results Our meta-analysis with data from 9,921 workers exposed to asbestos demonstrates a statistically significant reduction in VC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC, even in those workers without radiological changes. Less severe lung function impairments are detected if the diagnoses are based on (high resolution) computed tomography rather than the less sensitive X-ray images. The degree of lung function impairment was partly related to the proportion of smokers included in the studies. Conclusions Asbestos exposure is related to restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment. Even in the absence of radiological evidence of parenchymal or pleural diseases there is a trend for functional impairment. PMID:21791077

  6. Age and height dependence of lung clearance index and functional residual capacity.

    PubMed

    Lum, Sooky; Stocks, Janet; Stanojevic, Sanja; Wade, Angie; Robinson, Paul; Gustafsson, Per; Brown, Meghan; Aurora, Paul; Subbarao, Padmaja; Hoo, Ah-Fong; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) is more sensitive than spirometry in detecting abnormal lung function in children with cystic fibrosis. LCI is thought to be independent of age, but recent evidence suggests that the upper limit of normal is higher in infants and preschool children than in older subjects. This study examines whether LCI remains independent of body size throughout childhood. Multiple-breath washout data from healthy children and adolescents were collated from three centres using the mass spectrometer system and the inert gas sulfur hexafluoride. Reference equations for LCI and functional residual capacity (FRC) were constructed using the LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method. Data were available from 497 subjects (2 weeks to 19 years of age) tested on 659 occasions. LCI was dependent on body size, decreasing in a nonlinear pattern as height increased. Changes were particularly marked in the first 5 years of life. Height, age and sex were all independent predictors of FRC. Minimal between-centre differences allowed unified reference equations to be developed. LCI is not independent of body size. Although a constant upper normal limit would suffice for cross-sectional clinical assessments from 6 years of age, appropriate reference equations are essential for accurate interpretation of results during early childhood.

  7. Longitudinal Lung Function Growth of Mexican Children Compared with International Studies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to compare the longitudinal lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents with the collated spirometric reference proposed for international use and with that of Mexican-Americans from the National Health State Examination Survey III (NHANES) III study. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third year of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models separated by gender were fit for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children expressed as Z-scores of tested reference equations. Impact of adjustment by sitting height on differences with Mexican-American children was observed in a subsample of 1,987 children. Results At same gender, age, and height, Mexican children had increasingly higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) than the children from the collated reference study (mean Z-score, 0.68 for FEV1 and 0.51 for FVC) and than Mexican-American children (Z-score, 0.23 for FEV1 and 0.21 for FVC) respectively. Differences with Mexican-Americans were not reduced by adjusting by sitting height. Conclusions For reasons that remain unclear, the gender-, age-, and height-adjusted lung function of children from Mexico City is higher than that reported by several international studies. PMID:24143231

  8. Lung function in children in relation to ethnicity, physique and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angie; Cole, Tim J; Harding, Seeromanie; Wells, Jonathan C K; Griffiths, Chris; Treleaven, Philip; Bonner, Rachel; Kirkby, Jane; Lee, Simon; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Sears, Dave; Cottam, Philippa; Feyeraband, Colin; Stocks, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Can ethnic differences in spirometry be attributed to differences in physique and socioeconomic factors?Assessments were undertaken in 2171 London primary schoolchildren on two occasions 1 year apart, whenever possible, as part of the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study. Measurements included spirometry, detailed anthropometry, three-dimensional photonic scanning for regional body shape, body composition, information on ethnic ancestry, birth and respiratory history, socioeconomic circumstances, and tobacco smoke exposure.Technically acceptable spirometry was obtained from 1901 children (mean (range) age 8.3 (5.2-11.8) years, 46% boys, 35% White, 29% Black-African origin, 24% South-Asian, 12% Other/mixed) on 2767 test occasions. After adjusting for sex, age and height, forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 1.32, 0.89 and 0.51 z-score units lower in Black-African origin, South-Asian and Other/mixed ethnicity children, respectively, when compared with White children, with similar decrements for forced vital capacity (p<0.001 for all). Although further adjustment for sitting height and chest width reduced differences attributable to ethnicity by up to 16%, significant differences persisted after adjusting for all potential determinants, including socioeconomic circumstances.Ethnic differences in spirometric lung function persist despite adjusting for a wide range of potential determinants, including body physique and socioeconomic circumstances, emphasising the need to use ethnic-specific equations when interpreting results.

  9. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  10. Functional Assays for Neurotoxicity Testing*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral and pathological evaluations of the nervous system are complementary components of basic research and toxicity testing of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. While neuropathological assessments provide insight as to cellular changes in neurons, behavioral ...

  11. Scale dependence of structure-function relationship in the emphysematous mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Susumu; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Suki, Béla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the initial distribution of elastase in mouse lungs determines the time course of tissue destruction and how structural heterogeneity at different spatial scales influences lung function. We evaluated lung function and alveolar structure in normal and emphysematous C57BL/6 mice at 2 and 21 days following orotracheal treatment with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Initial distribution of elastase 1 h after treatment was assessed using red fluorescently labeled PPE (f-PPE) by laser scanning confocal microscopy. From measured input impedance of the respiratory system, the global lung compliance, and the variability of regional compliance were obtained. Lungs were fixed and equivalent airspace diameters were measured in four lobes of the right lung and three regions of the left lung. At day 2 and day 21, the mean airspace diameter of each region was significantly enlarged which was accompanied by an increased inter-regional heterogeneity. The deposition of f-PPE on day 0 was much more heterogeneous than the inter-regional diameters at both day 2 and day 21 and, at day 21, this reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). Microscale heterogeneity characterized by the overall variability of airspace diameters correlated significantly better with compliance than macroscale or inter-regional heterogeneity. Furthermore, while the spatial distribution of the inflammatory response does not seem to follow that of the elastase deposition, it correlates with the strongest regional determinant of lung function. These results may help interpret lung function decline in terms of structural deterioration in human patients with emphysema. PMID:26029115

  12. Scale dependence of structure-function relationship in the emphysematous mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Sato, Susumu; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Suki, Béla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the initial distribution of elastase in mouse lungs determines the time course of tissue destruction and how structural heterogeneity at different spatial scales influences lung function. We evaluated lung function and alveolar structure in normal and emphysematous C57BL/6 mice at 2 and 21 days following orotracheal treatment with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Initial distribution of elastase 1 h after treatment was assessed using red fluorescently labeled PPE (f-PPE) by laser scanning confocal microscopy. From measured input impedance of the respiratory system, the global lung compliance, and the variability of regional compliance were obtained. Lungs were fixed and equivalent airspace diameters were measured in four lobes of the right lung and three regions of the left lung. At day 2 and day 21, the mean airspace diameter of each region was significantly enlarged which was accompanied by an increased inter-regional heterogeneity. The deposition of f-PPE on day 0 was much more heterogeneous than the inter-regional diameters at both day 2 and day 21 and, at day 21, this reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). Microscale heterogeneity characterized by the overall variability of airspace diameters correlated significantly better with compliance than macroscale or inter-regional heterogeneity. Furthermore, while the spatial distribution of the inflammatory response does not seem to follow that of the elastase deposition, it correlates with the strongest regional determinant of lung function. These results may help interpret lung function decline in terms of structural deterioration in human patients with emphysema.

  13. Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Soon-Won; Lee, Kyoungho; Cho, Yong-Sung; Choi, Ji-Hee; Yang, Wonho; Kang, Tack-Shin; Park, Choonghee; Kim, Geun-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Son, Bu-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Spatial interpolation is employed to improve exposure estimates and to assess adverse health effects associated with environmental risk factors. Since various studies have reported that high ozone (O3) concentrations can give rise to adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function, we investigated the association between O3 levels and lung function using a variety of spatial interpolation techniques and evaluated how different methods for estimating exposure may influence health results for a cohort from an industrial complex (Gwangyang Bay) in South Korea in 2009. To estimate daily concentrations of O3 in each subject, four different methods were used, which include simple averaging, nearest neighbor, inverse distance weighting, and kriging. Also, to compare the association between O3 levels and lung function by age-groups, we explored ozone’s impacts on three age-related groups: children (9–14 years), adults (15–64 years), and the elderly (≥65 years). The overall change of effect size on lung function in each age group tended to show similar patterns for lag and methods for estimating exposure. A significant negative association was only observed between O3 levels and FVC and FEV1 for most of the lag and methods in children. The largest effect of O3 levels was found at the average for the lung function test day and last 2 days (0–2 days). In conclusions, the spatial interpolation methods may benefit in providing individual-level exposure with appropriate temporal resolution from ambient monitors. However, time-activity patterns of residents, monitoring site locations, methodological choices, and other factors should be considered to minimize exposure misclassification. PMID:27447653

  14. Non-invasive pulmonary function test on Morquio patients.

    PubMed

    Kubaski, Francyne; Tomatsu, Shunji; Patel, Pravin; Shimada, Tsutomu; Xie, Li; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary; Bober, Michael B; Oldham, Helen M; Orii, Tadao; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2015-08-01

    In clinical practice, respiratory function tests are difficult to perform in Morquio syndrome patients due to their characteristic skeletal dysplasia, small body size and lack of cooperation of young patients, where in some cases, conventional spirometry for pulmonary function is too challenging. To establish feasible clinical pulmonary endpoints and determine whether age impacts lung function in Morquio patients non-invasive pulmonary tests and conventional spirometry were evaluated. The non-invasive pulmonary tests: impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography in conjunction with conventional spirometry were evaluated in twenty-two Morquio patients (18 Morquio A and 4 Morquio B) (7 males), ranging from 3 to 40 years of age. Twenty-two patients were compliant with non-invasive tests (100%) with the exception of IOS (81.8%-18 patients). Seventeen patients (77.3%) were compliant with spirometry testing. All subjects had normal vital signs at rest including >95% oxygen saturation, end tidal CO2 (38-44 mmHg), and age-appropriate heart rate (mean=98.3, standard deviation=19) (two patients were deviated). All patients preserved normal values in the impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography, although predicted forced expiratory total (72.8±6.9 SE%) decreased with age and was below normal; phase angle (35.5±16.5°), %rib cage (41.6±12.7%), resonant frequency, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced expiratory volume total (110.0±3.2 SE%) were normal and not significantly impacted by age. The proposed non-invasive pulmonary function tests are able to cover a greater number of patients (young patients and/or wheel-chair bound), thus providing a new diagnostic approach for the assessment of lung function in Morquio syndrome which in many cases may be difficult to evaluate. Morquio patients studied herein demonstrated no clinical or functional signs of restrictive and

  15. Preoperative use of incentive spirometry does not affect postoperative lung function in bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Cattano, Davide; Altamirano, Alfonso; Vannucci, Andrea; Melnikov, Vladimir; Cone, Chelsea; Hagberg, Carin A

    2010-11-01

    Morbidly obese patients undergoing general anesthesia for laparoscopic bariatric surgery are considered at increased risk of a postoperative decrease in lung function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a systematic use of incentive spirometry (IS) prior to surgery could help patients to preserve their respiratory function better in the postoperative period. Forty-one morbidly obese (body mass index [BMI] > 40 kg/m²) candidates for laparoscopic bariatric surgery were consented in the study. All patients were taught how to use an incentive spirometer but then were randomized blindly into 2 groups. The control group was instructed to use the incentive spirometer for 3 breaths, once per day. The treatment group was requested to use the incentive spirometer for 10 breaths, 5 times per day. Twenty experimental (mean BMI of 48.9 ± 5.67 kg/m²) and 21 control patients (mean BMI of 48.3 ± 6.96 kg/m²) were studied. The initial mean inspiratory capacity (IC) was 2155 ± 650.08 (SD) cc and 2171 ± 762.98 cc in the experimental and control groups, respectively. On the day of surgery, the mean IC was 2275 ± 777.56 cc versus 2254.76 ± 808.84 cc, respectively. On postoperative day 1, both groups experienced a significant drop of their IC, with volumes of 1458 ± 613.87 cc (t test P < 0.001) and 1557.89 ± 814.67 cc (t test P < 0.010), respectively. Our results suggest that preoperative use of the IS does not lead to significant improvements of inspiratory capacity and that it is a not a useful resource to prevent postoperative decrease in lung function.

  16. Targeted Sequencing of Lung Function Loci in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Cases and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Wain, Louise V.; Shrine, Nick; McKeever, Tricia M.; Sayers, Ian; Hall, Ian P.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide; smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, but genetic factors are also relevant contributors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the lung function measures used in the diagnosis of COPD have identified a number of loci, however association signals are often broad and collectively these loci only explain a small proportion of the heritability. In order to examine the association with COPD risk of genetic variants down to low allele frequencies, to aid fine-mapping of association signals and to explain more of the missing heritability, we undertook a targeted sequencing study in 300 COPD cases and 300 smoking controls for 26 loci previously reported to be associated with lung function. We used a pooled sequencing approach, with 12 pools of 25 individuals each, enabling high depth (30x) coverage per sample to be achieved. This pooled design maximised sample size and therefore power, but led to challenges during variant-calling since sequencing error rates and minor allele frequencies for rare variants can be very similar. For this reason we employed a rigorous quality control pipeline for variant detection which included the use of 3 independent calling algorithms. In order to avoid false positive associations we also developed tests to detect variants with potential batch effects and removed them before undertaking association testing. We tested for the effects of single variants and the combined effect of rare variants within a locus. We followed up the top signals with data available (only 67% of collapsing methods signals) in 4,249 COPD cases and 11,916 smoking controls from UK Biobank. We provide suggestive evidence for the combined effect of rare variants on COPD risk in TNXB and in sliding windows within MECOM and upstream of HHIP. These findings can lead to an improved understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the development of COPD. PMID:28114305

  17. Targeted Sequencing of Lung Function Loci in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Cases and Controls.

    PubMed

    Artigas, María Soler; Wain, Louise V; Shrine, Nick; McKeever, Tricia M; Sayers, Ian; Hall, Ian P; Tobin, Martin D

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide; smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, but genetic factors are also relevant contributors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the lung function measures used in the diagnosis of COPD have identified a number of loci, however association signals are often broad and collectively these loci only explain a small proportion of the heritability. In order to examine the association with COPD risk of genetic variants down to low allele frequencies, to aid fine-mapping of association signals and to explain more of the missing heritability, we undertook a targeted sequencing study in 300 COPD cases and 300 smoking controls for 26 loci previously reported to be associated with lung function. We used a pooled sequencing approach, with 12 pools of 25 individuals each, enabling high depth (30x) coverage per sample to be achieved. This pooled design maximised sample size and therefore power, but led to challenges during variant-calling since sequencing error rates and minor allele frequencies for rare variants can be very similar. For this reason we employed a rigorous quality control pipeline for variant detection which included the use of 3 independent calling algorithms. In order to avoid false positive associations we also developed tests to detect variants with potential batch effects and removed them before undertaking association testing. We tested for the effects of single variants and the combined effect of rare variants within a locus. We followed up the top signals with data available (only 67% of collapsing methods signals) in 4,249 COPD cases and 11,916 smoking controls from UK Biobank. We provide suggestive evidence for the combined effect of rare variants on COPD risk in TNXB and in sliding windows within MECOM and upstream of HHIP. These findings can lead to an improved understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the development of COPD.

  18. Influence of Body Composition on Lung Function and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Children With Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Costa Junior, Dirceu; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana S.; Araujo, Poliane N.; Barbalho-Moulin, Marcela C.; Alves, Viviane C.; Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Costa, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity affects lung function and respiratory muscle strength. The aim of the present study was to assess lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children with obesity and determine the influence of body composition on these variables. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 75 children (40 with obesity and 35 within the ideal weight range) aged 6 - 10 years. Body mass index, z score, waist circumference, body composition (tetrapolar bioimpedance), respiratory muscle strength and lung function (spirometry) were evaluated. Results Children with obesity exhibited larger quantities of both lean and fat mass in comparison to those in the ideal weight range. No significant differences were found between groups regarding the respective reference values for respiratory muscle strength. Male children with obesity demonstrated significantly lower lung function values (forced expiratory volume in the first second % (FEV1%) and FEV1/forced vital capacity % (FVC%) : 93.76 ± 9.78 and 92.29 ± 3.8, respectively) in comparison to males in the ideal weight range (99.87 ± 9.72 and 96.31 ± 4.82, respectively). The regression models demonstrated that the spirometric variables were influenced by all body composition variables. Conclusion Children with obesity demonstrated a reduction in lung volume and capacity. Thus, anthropometric and body composition characteristics may be predictive factors for altered lung function. PMID:26767078

  19. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population: wine and resveratrol intake.

    PubMed

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-02-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT)1 activity. We assessed the impact of wine and resveratrol intake, and SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on lung function in the general population. Effects of red and white wine and resveratrol intake on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC were analysed in the population-based Doetinchem cohort (n=3,224). Associations of four tagging SIRT1 SNPs with lung function were analysed in the Doetinchem (n=1,152) and Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen (n=1,390) cohorts. Resveratrol intake was associated with higher FVC levels, and white wine intake with higher FEV(1) levels and lower risk of airway obstruction. SIRT1 SNPs were not significantly associated with level or course of lung function, either directly or indirectly via wine or resveratrol intake. This study shows a positive association of resveratrol intake with lung function in the general population, confirms the previously reported positive association of white wine intake with higher levels of FEV(1), and additionally shows an association with a higher FEV(1)/FVC ratio. These effects probably do not run via SNPs in SIRT1.

  20. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor in Rat Fetal Lung Development: Expression and Functional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Piairo, Paulina; Carvalho-Dias, Emanuel; Peixoto, Francisca O.; Moura, Rute S.; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Background Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are members of the family of the glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-type cytokines. These cytokines share gp130 as a common signal transducer, which explains why they show some functional redundancy. Recently, it was demonstrated that IL-6 promotes fetal lung branching. Additionally, LIF has been implicated in developmental processes of some branching organs. Thus, in this study LIF expression pattern and its effects on fetal rat lung morphogenesis were assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings LIF and its subunit receptor LIFRα expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot in fetal rat lungs of different gestational ages, ranging from 13.5 to 21.5 days post-conception. Throughout all gestational ages studied, LIF was constitutively expressed in pulmonary epithelium, whereas LIFRα was first mainly expressed in the mesenchyme, but after pseudoglandular stage it was also observed in epithelial cells. These results point to a LIF epithelium-mesenchyme cross-talk, which is known to be important for lung branching process. Regarding functional studies, fetal lung explants were cultured with increasing doses of LIF or LIF neutralizing antibodies during 4 days. MAPK, AKT, and STAT3 phosphorylation in the treated lung explants was analyzed. LIF supplementation significantly inhibited lung growth in spite of an increase in p44/42 phosphorylation. On the other hand, LIF inhibition significantly stimulated lung growth via p38 and Akt pathways. Conclusions/Significance The present study describes that LIF and its subunit receptor LIFRα are constitutively expressed during fetal lung development and that they have an inhibitory physiological role on fetal lung branching. PMID:22291973

  1. Changes in cystic fibrosis airway microbial community associated with a severe decline in lung function.

    PubMed

    Paganin, Patrizia; Fiscarelli, Ersilia Vita; Tuccio, Vanessa; Chiancianesi, Manuela; Bacci, Giovanni; Morelli, Patrizia; Dolce, Daniela; Dalmastri, Claudia; De Alessandri, Alessandra; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Taccetti, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease resulting in chronic polymicrobial infections of the airways and progressive decline in lung function. To gain insight into the underlying causes of severe lung diseases, we aimed at comparing the airway microbiota detected in sputum of CF patients with stable lung function (S) versus those with a substantial decline in lung function (SD). Microbiota composition was investigated by using culture-based and culture-independent methods, and by performing multivariate and statistical analyses. Culture-based methods identified some microbial species associated with a worse lung function, i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida albicans, but only the presence of S. pneumoniae and R. mucilaginosa was found to be associated with increased severe decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed a higher bacterial diversity than that detected by culture-based methods. Molecular signatures with a statistically significant odds ratio for SD status were detected, and classified as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Shewanella, while for other Terminal Restriction Fragments (T-RFs) no species assignation was achieved. The analysis of T-RFLP data using ecological biodiversity indices showed reduced Evenness in SD patients compared to S ones, suggesting an impaired ecology of the bacterial community in SD patients. Statistically significant differences of the ecological biodiversity indices among the three sub-groups of FEV1 (normal/mild vs moderate vs severe) were also found, suggesting that the patients with moderate lung disease experienced changes in the airway assembly of taxa. Overall, changes in CF airway microbial community associated with a severe lung function decline were detected, allowing us to define some discriminatory species as well as some discriminatory T-RFs that represent good candidates for the

  2. Testing Properties of Boolean Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    think of Pno as forming the argument multiset Sno by choosing ` = k − e random columns from Q 103 without replacement, and including an additional e...Rno) ≤ dTV(Syes, Sno ). (10.2) This inequality can be extremely lossy, depending on the function gcore. However, since Theorem 10.1 applies for an...absence of additional restrictions on the class of functions considered, there is no obvious way to bound dTV(Ryes, Rno) except by dTV(Syes, Sno

  3. Impact of video-assisted thoracoscopic major lung resection on immune function.

    PubMed

    Ng, Calvin S H; Wan, Innes Y P; Yim, Anthony P C

    2009-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic major lung resection for early stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma has been associated with less postoperative pain, better preserved pulmonary function, shorter hospital stay, and enhanced tolerance of adjuvant chemotherapy compared to thoracotomy. Initial concerns regarding safety, oncological clearance, and cost effectiveness were unfounded. Several recent trials have reported improved long-term survival in patients with early stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic major lung resection, compared to the open technique, although there are inconsistencies. Interestingly, the immune status and autologous tumor killing ability of lung cancer patients have previously been associated with long-term survival. Video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resection results in an attenuated postoperative inflammatory response, but more importantly, it better preserves postoperative immune function. Circulating natural killer and T-cell numbers, T-cell oxidative activity, and levels of immunochemokines such as insulin growth factor binding protein-3 are higher after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery than after thoracotomy. Recently, interest has developed in the role of the angiogenesis factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, after cancer surgery. Whether differences in immunological and biochemical mediators contribute towards improved long-term survival following video-assisted thoracoscopic major lung resection for cancer remains to be confirmed.

  4. Functional drug-gene interactions in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Smida, Michal; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2012-04-01

    Despite the dawn of the genomic information era, the challenges of cancer treatment remain formidable. Particularly for the most prevalent cancer types, including lung cancer, successful treatment of metastatic disease is rare and escalating costs for modern targeted drugs place an increasing strain on healthcare systems. Although powerful diagnostic tools to characterize individual tumor samples in great molecular detail are becoming rapidly available, the transformation of this information into therapy provides a major challenge. A fundamental difficulty is the molecular complexity of cancer cells that often causes drug resistance, but can also render tumors exquisitely sensitive to targeted agents. By using lung cancer as an example, we outline the principles that govern drug sensitivity and resistance from a genetic perspective and discuss how in vitro chemical-genetic screens can impact on patient stratification in the clinic.

  5. Diffusion of molecular diagnostic lung cancer tests: a survey of german oncologists.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Julius Alexander

    2014-03-21

    This study was aimed at examining the diffusion of diagnostic lung cancer tests in Germany. It was motivated by the high potential of detecting and targeting oncogenic drivers. Recognizing that the diffusion of diagnostic tests is a conditio sine qua non for the success of personalized lung cancer therapies, this study analyzed the diffusion of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tests in Germany. Qualitative and quantitative research strategies were combined in a mixed-method design. A literature review and subsequent Key Opinion Leader interviews identified a set of qualitative factors driving the diffusion process, which were then translated into an online survey. The survey was conducted among a sample of 961 oncologists (11.34% response rate). The responses were analyzed in a multiple linear regression which identified six statistically significant factors driving the diffusion of molecular diagnostic lung cancer tests: reimbursement, attitude towards R&D, information self-assessment, perceived attitudes of colleagues, age and test-pathway strategies. Besides the important role of adequate reimbursement and relevant guidelines, the results of this study suggest that an increasing usage of test-pathway strategies, especially in an office-based setting, can increase the diffusion of molecular diagnostic lung cancer tests in the future.

  6. Lung function measurements over 21 days shiftwork in steelworkers from a strandcasting department.

    PubMed Central

    Nemery, B; Van Leemputten, R; Goemaere, E; Veriter, C; Brasseur, L

    1985-01-01

    On the assumption that short term changes in lung function may reflect the potential for a long term decline the evolution of lung function indices in 25 steelworkers from a strandcasting department and in 11 comparable steelworkers not exposed to dust was investigated over an almost uninterrupted 21 day working period and over three different workshifts. The mean total dust level in the strandcasting department, assessed by personal sampling, was 11.8 mg/m3. All subjects were examined at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of their first (day 1) morning shift (0600 to 1400), their last (day 14) afternoon shift (1400 to 2200), and their last (day 21) night shift (2200 to 0600). Indices measured were vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and in three seconds (FEV3), forced expiratory flow over the middle half of the forced vital capacity (FEF25-75), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), the slope of the N2 plateau (delta N2) and the closing volume (CV) of the single breath oxygen test. Differences in indices between initial values (0600 on day 1) and final values (0500 on day 21) were not significant in the control group (except delta N2 which became lower); in the casting group there were significant (p less than 0.05) decreases in FEF25-75 and FEV3, but these decreases were not significantly greater than in the control group. Lung function changes were not significant in either group over the morning shift. During the afternoon there were significant decreases in spirometric indices in the casting group, with no significant decreases in the control group, but the interactions between exposure and time were generally not significant. During the night shift, however, the decreases in FEV1 and FEF25-75 observed in the strandcasting group were significantly more pronounced than in the control group. The single breath test, which many subjects failed to perform correctly on each occasion, showed no significant changes in closing

  7. Clinical assessment of speech correlates well with lung function during induced bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Tayler, Nicholas; Grainge, Christopher; Gove, Kerry; Howarth, Peter; Holloway, Judith

    2015-02-26

    Clinical assessment of asthma often includes a crude assessment of speech, for example whether the patient can speak in full sentences. To date, this statement, despite appearing in national asthma guidelines, has not been related to lung function testing in asthma exacerbation. Seven asthmatics underwent a bronchial challenge and were then recorded reading a standardised text for 1 min. The recordings were played to 88 healthcare professionals who were asked to estimate FEV1% predicted. Health care professionals' estimations showed moderate correlation to FEV1% predicted (rho=0.61 P<0.01). There were no significant differences between professionals grouped by seniority or speciality. Speech can intuitively be estimated by health care professionals with moderate accuracy. This gives an evidence basis for the assessment in speech in acute asthma and may provide a new avenue for monitoring.

  8. Exhaled Nitric Oxide, Lung Function, and Exacerbations in Wheezy Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Debley, Jason S.; Stamey, David C.; Cochrane, Elizabeth S.; Gama, Kim L.; Redding, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Background There are limited data assessing the relationship between fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and lung function or exacerbations in infants with recurrent wheezing. Objectives In a longitudinal pilot study of children < 2 years old we assessed whether baseline FENO was associated with lung function, bronchodilator responsiveness, changes in lung function, or subsequent exacerbations of wheezing. Methods Forced expiratory flows and volumes using the raised-volume rapid thoracic compression method were measured in 44 infants and toddlers (mean age 15.7 mos.) with recurrent wheezing. Single-breath exhaled nitric oxide (SB-eNO) was measured at 50 mL/sec. Lung function was again measured 6 months after enrollment. Results At enrollment FEV0.5, FEF25-75, and FEF75 z-scores for the cohort were significantly less than zero. There was no correlation between enrollment SB-eNO and enrollment lung function measures. SB-eNO was higher in infants with bronchodilator responsiveness (46.1 vs. 23.6 ppb, p<0.001), and was associated with a decline in FEV0.5 (r = -.54, P = 0.001), FEF25-75 (r = -0.6, P < 0.001), and FEF75 (r = -0.55, P = 0.001) over 6 months. A 10ppb increase in SB-eNO was associated with a 0.4 z-score decline in FEV0.5, a 0.4 z-score decline in FEF25-75, and a 0.42 z-score decline in FEF75. SB-eNO was superior to lung function and bronchodilator responsivenss in predicting subsequent wheezing treated with systemic steroids. Conclusions SB-eNO may predict changes in lung function and risk of future wheezing, and holds promise as a biomarker to predict asthma in wheezy infants and toddlers. PMID:20462633

  9. Test-Wiseness: A Cognitive Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Katheryn K.

    This paper reports the findings of an attempt to improve test-wiseness (TW) through direct instruction in selected test-taking strategies. TW was defined as "a cognitive function, subject to improvement through both general exposure to a wide variety of test items, and specific training in test-taking skills." The total investigation included:…

  10. [Role of functional imaging in the definition of target volumes for lung cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Hapdey, S; Vera, P

    2016-10-01

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is interesting to optimize lung radiotherapy planning, and probably to deliver a heterogeneous dose or adapt the radiation dose during treatment. Only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-computed tomography (CT) is validated for staging lung cancer and planning radiotherapy. The optimal segmentation methods remain to be defined as well as the interest of "dose painting" from pre-treatment PET (metabolism: FDG) or hypoxia (fluoromisonidazole: FMISO) and the interest of replanning based on pertherapeutic PET.

  11. Exogenous surfactant restores lung function but not peripheral immunosuppression in ventilated surfactant-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, Harriet A; Lachmann, Burkhard; Haitsma, Jack J; Zijlstra, Jitske; Heijnen, Cobi J; Jansen, Nicolaas J; van Vught, Adrianus J

    2006-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that mechanical ventilation can result in increased pulmonary inflammation and suppressed peripheral leukocyte function. In the present study the effect of surfactant therapy on pulmonary inflammation and peripheral immune function in ventilated surfactant-deficient rats was assessed. Surfactant deficiency was induced by repeated lung lavage, treated rats with surfactant or left them untreated, and ventilated the rats during 2 hours. Nonventilated rats served as healthy control group. Expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), interleukin (IL)-1beta, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were measured in total lung homogenates. Outside the lung phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation, interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production, and natural killer activity were measured in splenocytes. After 2 hours of mechanical ventilation, expression of MIP-2, IL-1beta, and HSP70 increased significantly in the lungs of surfactant-deficient rats. Outside the lung, mitogen-induced proliferation and production of IFN-gamma and IL-10 reduced significantly. Only natural killer cell activity remained unaffected. Surfactant treatment significantly improved lung function, but could not prevent increased pulmonary expression of MIP-2, IL-1beta, and HSP70 and decreased peripheral mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-10 production in vitro. In conclusion, 2 hours of mechanical ventilation resulted in increased lung inflammation and partial peripheral leukocyte suppression in surfactant-deficient rats. Surfactant therapy ameliorated lung function but could not prevent or restore peripheral immunosuppression. The authors postulate that peripheral immunosuppression may occur in ventilated surfactant deficient patients, which may enhance susceptibility for infections.

  12. Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12 μm and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 μm. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are

  13. VARA attenuates hyperoxia-induced impaired alveolar development and lung function in newborn mice

    PubMed Central

    James, Masheika L.; Ross, A. Catharine; Nicola, Teodora; Steele, Chad

    2013-01-01

    We have recently shown that a combination of vitamin A (VA) and retinoic acid (RA) in a 10:1 molar ratio (VARA) synergistically increases lung retinoid content in newborn rodents, more than either VA or RA alone in equimolar amounts. We hypothesized that the increase in lung retinoids would reduce oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in attenuation of alveolar simplification and abnormal lung function in hyperoxia-exposed newborn mice. Newborn C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 85% O2 (hyperoxia) or air (normoxia) for 7 or 14 days from birth and given vehicle or VARA every other day. Lung retinol content was measured by HPLC, function was assessed by flexiVent, and development was evaluated by radial alveolar counts, mean linear intercept, and secondary septal crest density. Mediators of oxidative stress, inflammation, and alveolar development were evaluated in lung homogenates. We observed that VARA increased lung retinol stores and attenuated hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplification while increasing lung compliance and lowering resistance. VARA attenuated hyperoxia-induced increases in DNA damage and protein oxidation accompanied with a reduction in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 protein but did not alter malondialdehyde adducts, nitrotyrosine, or myeloperoxidase concentrations. Interferon-γ and macrophage inflammatory protein-2α mRNA and protein increased with hyperoxia, and this increase was attenuated by VARA. Our study suggests that the VARA combination may be a potential therapeutic strategy in conditions characterized by VA deficiency and hyperoxia-induced lung injury during lung development, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. PMID:23585226

  14. Alveolar recruitment strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass does not improve postoperative gas exchange and lung function.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Mirela; Dettmer, Sebastian; Meininger, Dirk; Deschka, Heinz; Geyer, Galina; Regulla, Caroline; Moritz, Anton

    2009-03-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction with impairment of lung function and oxygenation is one of the most serious problems in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery. In this study we investigated the effect of alveolar recruitment strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass on postoperative gas exchange and lung function. This prospective randomized study included 32 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass. In 16 patients 5 cm H(2)O of positive end-expiratory pressure was applied after intubation and maintained until extubation (Group I). In the other 16 patients (group II) a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H(2)O was maintained as well but was increased to 14 cm H(2)O every 20 min for 2 min during cross clamp. Measurements were taken preoperatively, before skin incision, before and after (3, 24, 48 h) cardiopulmonary bypass and before discharge (6th postoperative day). Postoperative gas exchange, extravascular lung water and lung function showed no significant difference between the groups. Postoperative pulmonary function variables were lower in both groups compared to baseline values. In patients with normal preoperative pulmonary function, application of an alveolar recruitment strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass does not improve postoperative gas exchange and lung function after cardiac surgery.

  15. IMRT treatment plans and functional planning with functional lung imaging from 4D-CT for thoracic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Currently, the inhomogeneity of the pulmonary function is not considered when treatment plans are generated in thoracic cancer radiotherapy. This study evaluates the dose of treatment plans on highly-functional volumes and performs functional treatment planning by incorporation of ventilation data from 4D-CT. Materials and methods Eleven patients were included in this retrospective study. Ventilation was calculated using 4D-CT. Two treatment plans were generated for each case, the first one without the incorporation of the ventilation and the second with it. The dose of the first plans was overlapped with the ventilation and analyzed. Highly-functional regions were avoided in the second treatment plans. Results For small targets in the first plans (PTV < 400 cc, 6 cases), all V5, V20 and the mean lung dose values for the highly-functional regions were lower than that of the total lung. For large targets, two out of five cases had higher V5 and V20 values for the highly-functional regions. All the second plans were within constraints. Conclusion Radiation treatments affect functional lung more seriously in large tumor cases. With compromise of dose to other critical organs, functional treatment planning to reduce dose in highly-functional lung volumes can be achieved PMID:23281734

  16. Evaluation of glucocorticoid receptor function in COPD lung macrophages using beclomethasone-17-monopropionate.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Jonathan; Robinson, Laura; Lea, Simon; Banyard, Antonia; Blaikley, John; Ray, David; Bizzi, Andrea; Volpi, Giorgina; Facchinetti, Fabrizio; Singh, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in COPD lung macrophages have used dexamethasone to evaluate inhibition of cytokine production. We have now used the clinically relevant corticosteroid beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (17-BMP) to assess GR function in COPD lung macrophages, and investigated the transactivation of glucocorticoid sensitive genes and GR phosphorylation in addition to cytokine production. Lung macrophages were purified from surgically acquired lung tissue, from patients with COPD, smokers, and non-smokers. The transactivation of glucocorticoid sensitive genes (FKBP51 and GILZ) by 17-BMP were analysed by polymerase chain reaction. 17-BMP suppression of LPS-induced TNFα, IL-6 and CXCL8 was measured by ELISA and GR phosphorylation was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. 17-BMP reduced cytokine release in a concentration dependent manner, with >70% inhibition of all cytokines, and no difference between COPD patients and controls. Similarly, the transactivation of FKBP51 and GILZ, and GR phosphorylation was similar between COPD patients and controls. In this context, GR function in COPD lung macrophages is unaltered. 17-BMP effectively suppresses cytokine production in COPD lung macrophages.

  17. CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION BEFORE AND AFTER AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING IN PATIETNS WITH INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Keyser, Randall E.; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G.; Chin, Lisa M.K.; Nathan, Steven D.; Weir, Nargues A.; Connors, Gerilynn; Drinkard, Bart; Lamberti, James; Chan, Leighton

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To characterize the cardiorespiratory response to exercise before and after aerobic exercise training in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). METHODS We performed a clinical study, examining 13 patients (New York Heart Association/World Health Organization Functional Class II or III) before and after 10-weeks of supervised treadmill exercise walking, at 70–80% of heart rate reserve, 30–45 minutes per session, 3 times per week. Outcome variables included measures of cardiorespiratory function during a treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test (tCPET), with additional near infrared spectroscopy measurements of peripheral oxygen extraction and bioimpedance cardiography measurements of cardiac output. 6-minute walk test distance (6MWD) was also measured. RESULTS All subjects participated in at least 24 of their 30, scheduled exercise sessions with no significant adverse events. After training, the mean 6MWD increased by 52±48 meters (P=.001), peak tCPET time increased by 163±130 seconds (P=.001), and time to achieve gas exchange threshold increased by 145±37 seconds (P<.001). Despite a negligible increase in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) with no changes to cardiac output, the overall work rate/VO2 relationship was enhanced after training. Muscle oxygen extraction increased by 16% (P=.049) after training. CONCLUSION Clinically significant improvements in cardiorespiratory function were observed after aerobic exercise training in this group of subjects with ILD. These improvements appear to have been mediated by increases in the peripheral extraction of oxygen rather than changes in oxygen delivery. PMID:25313451

  18. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    den Reijer, Martijn; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Tümmler, Burkhard; Ellemunter, Helmut; Dübbers, Angelika; Küster, Peter; Ballmann, Manfred; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Große-Onnebrink, Jörg; Heuer, Eberhardt; Sextro, Wolfgang; Mainz, Jochen G.; Hammermann, Jutta; Riethmüller, Joachim; Graepler-Mainka, Ute; Staab, Doris; Wollschläger, Bettina; Szczepanski, Rüdiger; Schuster, Antje; Tegtmeyer, Friedrich-Karl; Sutharsan, Sivagurunathan; Wald, Alexandra; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; van Wamel, Willem; Becker, Karsten; Peters, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads. Methods Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-center study and assessed the association between lung function and S. aureus bacterial density in respiratory samples, co-infection with other CF-pathogens, nasal S. aureus carriage, clinical status, antibiotic therapy, IL-6- and IgG-levels against S. aureus virulence factors. Results 195 patients from 17 centers were followed; each patient had an average of 7 visits. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models. Our main hypothesis was only supported for patients providing throat specimens indicating that patients with higher density experienced a steeper lung function decline (p<0.001). Patients with exacerbations (n = 60), S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs, n = 84) and co-infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 44) had worse lung function (p = 0.0068; p = 0.0011; p = 0.0103). Patients with SCVs were older (p = 0.0066) and more often treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.0078). IL-6 levels positively correlated with decreased lung function (p<0.001), S. aureus density in sputa (p = 0.0016), SCVs (p = 0.0209), exacerbations (p = 0.0041) and co-infections with S. maltophilia (p = 0.0195) or A. fumigatus (p = 0.0496). Conclusions In CF-patients with chronic S. aureus cultures, independent risk factors for worse lung function are high bacterial density in throat cultures, exacerbations, elevated IL-6 levels, presence of S. aureus SCVs and co-infection with S. maltophilia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  19. Effect of endurance training on lung function: a one year study

    PubMed Central

    Kippelen, P; Caillaud, C; Robert, E; Connes, P; Godard, P; Prefaut, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify in a follow up study airway changes occurring during the course of a sport season in healthy endurance athletes training in a Mediterranean region. Methods: Respiratory pattern and function were analysed in 13 healthy endurance trained athletes, either during a maximal exercise test, or at rest and during recovery through respiratory manoeuvres (spirometry and closing volume tests). The exercise test was conducted on three different occasions: during basic endurance training and then during the precompetition and competitive periods. Results: During the competitive period, a slight but non-clinically significant decrease was found in forced vital capacity (–3.5%, p = 0.0001) and an increase in slope of phase III (+25%, p = 0.0029), both at rest and after exercise. No concomitant reduction in expiratory flow rates was noticed. During maximal exercise there was a tachypnoeic shift over the course of the year (mean (SEM) breathing frequency and tidal volume were respectively 50 (2) cycles/min and 3.13 (0.09) litres during basic endurance training v 55 (3) cycles/min and 2.98 (0.10) litres during the competitive period; p<0.05). Conclusions: This study does not provide significant evidence of lung function impairment in healthy Mediterranean athletes after one year of endurance training. PMID:16118298

  20. Sleep quality and daytime function in adults with cystic fibrosis and severe lung disease.

    PubMed

    Dancey, D R; Tullis, E D; Heslegrave, R; Thornley, K; Hanly, P J

    2002-03-01

    It was hypothesized that adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with severe lung disease have impaired daytime function related to nocturnal hypoxaemia and sleep disruption. Nineteen CF patients (forced expiratory volume in one second 28+/-7% predicted) and 10 healthy subjects completed sleep diaries, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and assessment of daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function. CF patients tended to report more awakenings (0.7+/-0.5 versus 0.3+/-0.2 x h(-1), p=0.08), and PSG revealed reduced sleep efficiency (71+/-25 versus 93+/-4%, p=0.004) and a higher frequency of awakenings (4.2+/-2.7 versus 2.4+/-1.4 x h(-1), p=0.06). Mean arterial oxygen saturation during sleep was lower in CF patients (84.4+/-6.8 versus 94.3+/-1.5%, p<0.0001) and was associated with reduced sleep efficiency (regression coefficient (r)=0.57, p=0.014). CF patients had short sleep latency on the multiple sleep latency test (6.7+/-3 min). The CF group reported lower levels of activation and happiness and greater levels of fatigue (p<0.01), which correlated with indices of sleep loss, such as sleep efficiency (r=0.47, p=10.05). Objective neurocognitive performance was also impaired in CF patients, reflected by lower throughput for simple addition/subtraction, serial reaction and colour-word conflict. The authors concluded that adult cystic fibrosis patients with severe lung disease have impaired neurocognitive function and daytime sleepiness, which is partly related to chronic sleep loss and nocturnal hypoxaemia.

  1. Relationship between the chest radiograph, regional lung function studies, exercise tolerance, and clinical condition in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, A L; Boyce, P; Shaw, D G; Godfrey, S; Mearns, M

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of the interpretation of the chest film in delineating localised abnormalities of ventilation and perfusion, as well as the overall severity of airways obstruction, exercise tolerance, and clinical condition in children with cystic fibrosis. Radiographic findings in various regions of the chest film were compared with the functional values obtained with regional lung function tests which evaluated the arrival and disappearance of boluses of radioactive nitrogen given by inhalation and infusion. While the more severely affected areas on the chest radiograph were found to correlate with similar regions on the lung function tests, as did overall scores, errors occurred in some cases if the x-ray film alone was used as a judge of regional physiological derangement. In addition the degree of airways obstruction, the exercise tolerance on a cycle ergometer, and clinical grading, each correlated significantly with the radiographic score. We conclude that the chest radiograph is a good indicator of the overall severity of the lung disease and that it correlates well with exercise tolerance and clinical condition in cystic fibrosis. PMID:7469460

  2. Plasma carbonyls do not correlate with lung function or computed tomography measures of lung density in older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Yeh, Chih-Ching; Austin, John H.M.; Dounel, Matthew; Powell, Charles A.; Reeves, Anthony; Santella, Regina M.; Stevenson, Lori; Yankelevitz, David; Barr, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A critical byproduct of oxidative damage is the introduction of carbonyl groups into amino acid residues. We hypothesize that plasma carbonyl content is inversely correlated with lung function and computed tomography (CT) measures of lung density among smokers and is elevated in COPD. Carbonyl was measured in plasma of participants aged 60 years and older by ELISA. Generalized linear and additive models were used to adjust for potential confounders. Among 541 participants (52% male, mean age 67 years, 41% current smokers), mean plasma carbonyl content was 17.9±2.9 nmol ml−1 and mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 80.7±20.9% of predicted. Plasma carbonyl content was inversely associated with FEV1, but this relationship was largely explained by age. Multivariate analyses ruled out clinically meaningful associations of plasma carbonyl content with FEV1, FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio, severity of airflow obstruction, and CT lung density. Plasma carbonyl content is a poor biomarker of oxidative stress in COPD and emphysema. PMID:18484356

  3. Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France): relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Benamghar, L; Pham, Q T; Teculescu, D; Rebstock, E; Mur, J M

    1993-01-01

    An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. A detailed analysis, however, was not possible due to the lack of data for survivors. In this study the cohort included 1178 workers selected at random from all the 5300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests, and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980, and 1985. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 389, p < 0.001) and of stomach cancer (SMR = 273, p < 0.05). There was no excess of lung cancer in non-smokers and moderate smokers (< 20 pack-years) or the miners who worked only at the surface or underground for less than 20 years. A significant excess (SMR = 349, p < 0.001) was found in moderate smokers when they worked underground for between 20 and 29 years. Heavy smokers (over 30 pack-years) or subjects who worked underground for more than 30 years experienced a high risk: SMR = 478 (p < 0.001) for moderate smokers who worked underground for over 30 years; 588 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for between 20 and 29 years; and 877 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for over 30 years. This showed an interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. The excess mortality from lung cancer was because there were some subjects who died young (from 45 years old). Comparison with the results of a previous study showed that additional hazards produced by diesel engines and explosives increased the mortality from lung cancer. The SMR was higher than 400 (p < 0.001) from 45 years old instead of from 56 years. A relation was found between a decrease in vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and of FEV1/VC and mortality from all causes and from lung cancer in heavy smokers or men who had worked

  4. What does airway resistance tell us about lung function?

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, David A

    2012-01-01

    Spirometry is considered the primary method to detect the air flow limitation associated with obstructive lung disease. However, air flow limitation is the end-result of many factors that contribute to obstructive lung disease. One of these factors is increased airway resistance. Airway resistance is traditionally measured by relating air flow and driving pressure using body plethysmography, thus deriving airway resistance (R(aw)), specific airway resistance (sR(aw)), and specific airway conductance (sG(aw)). Other methods to measure airway resistance include the forced oscillation technique (FOT), which allows calculation of respiratory system resistance (R(RS)) and reactance (X(RS)), and the interrupter technique, which allows calculation of interrupter resistance (R(int)). An advantage of these other methods is that they may be easier to perform than spirometry, making them particularly suited to patients who cannot perform spirometry, such as young children, patients with neuromuscular disorders, or patients on mechanical ventilation. Since spirometry also requires a deep inhalation, which can alter airway resistance, these alternative methods may provide more sensitive measures of airway resistance. Furthermore, the FOT provides unique information about lung mechanics that is not available from analysis using spirometry, body plethysmography, or the interrupter technique. However, it is unclear whether any of these measures of airway resistance contribute clinically important information to the traditional measures derived from spirometry (FEV(1), FVC, and FEV(1)/FVC). The purpose of this paper is to review the physiology and methodology of these measures of airway resistance, and then focus on their clinical utility in relation to each other and to spirometry.

  5. Impact of the Loss of Hoxa5 Function on Lung Alveogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Isabel; Aubin, Josée; LeBlanc, Michelle; Lalancette-Hébert, Mélanie; Janelle, Marie-France; Tremblay, Guy M.; Jeannotte, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    The involvement of genes controlling embryonic processes in the etiology of diseases often escapes attention because of the focus given to their inherent developmental role. Hoxa5 belongs to the Hox gene family encoding transcription factors known for their role in skeletal patterning. Hoxa5 is required for embryonic respiratory tract morphogenesis. We now show that the loss of Hoxa5 function has severe repercussions on postnatal lung development. Hoxa5−/− lungs present an emphysema-like morphology because of impaired alveogenesis. Chronic inflammation characteristics, including goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, and recruitment of inflammatory cells, were also observed. Altered cell specification during lung morphogenesis triggered goblet cell anomalies. In addition, the defective motility of alveolar myofibroblast precursors in the embryonic lung led to the mispositioning of the alveolar myofibroblasts and to abnormal elastin deposition postnatally. Both goblet cell hyperplasia and elastic fiber abnormalities contributed to the chronic physiopathological features of Hoxa5−/− lungs. They constituted an attractive stimulus to recruit activated macrophages that in turn generated a positive feedback loop that perpetuated macrophage accumulation in the lung. The present work corroborates the notion that altered Hox gene expression may predispose to lung pathologies. PMID:17003488

  6. The effects of in utero vitamin D deficiency on airway smooth muscle mass and lung function.

    PubMed

    Foong, Rachel E; Bosco, Anthony; Jones, Anya C; Gout, Alex; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H; Zosky, Graeme R

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and airway hyperresponsiveness in whole-life vitamin D-deficient female mice. In this study, we aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms contributing to altered lung structure and function. RNA was extracted from lung tissue of whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete female mice, and gene expression patterns were profiled by RNA sequencing. The data showed that genes involved in embryonic organ development, pattern formation, branching morphogenesis, Wingless/Int signaling, and inflammation were differentially expressed in vitamin D-deficient mice. Network analysis suggested that differentially expressed genes were connected by the hubs matrix metallopeptidase 9; NF-κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, α; epidermal growth factor receptor; and E1A binding protein p300. Given our findings that developmental pathways may be altered, we investigated if the timing of vitamin D exposure (in utero vs. postnatal) had an impact on lung health outcomes. Gene expression was measured in in utero or postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice, as well as whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete mice at 8 weeks of age. Baseline lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation were measured and lungs fixed for lung structure assessment using stereological methods and quantification of ASM mass. In utero vitamin D deficiency was sufficient to increase ASM mass and baseline airway resistance and alter lung structure. There were increased neutrophils but decreased lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. Expression of inflammatory molecules S100A9 and S100A8 was mainly increased in postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice. These observations suggest that in utero vitamin D deficiency can alter lung structure and function and increase inflammation, contributing to symptoms in chronic diseases, such as asthma.

  7. Effect of yoga regimen on lung functions including diffusion capacity in coronary artery disease patients: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Asha; Singh, Savita; Singh, KP; Pai, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung functions are found to be impaired in coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and after cardiac surgery. Diffusion capacity progressively worsens as the severity of CAD increases due to reduction in lung tissue participating in gas exchange. Aims and Objectives: Pranayama breathing exercises and yogic postures may play an impressive role in improving cardio-respiratory efficiency and facilitating gas diffusion at the alveolo-capillary membrane. This study was done to see the effect of yoga regimen on lung functions particularly diffusion capacity in CAD patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 stable CAD patients below 65 years of age of both sexes were selected and randomized into two groups of 40 each. Group I CAD patients were given yoga regimen for 3 months which consisted of yogic postures, pranayama breathing exercises, dietary modification, and holistic teaching along with their conventional medicine while Group II CAD patients were put only on conventional medicine. Lung functions including diffusion capacity were recorded thrice in both the groups: 0 day as baseline, 22nd day and on 90th day by using computerized MS medisoft Cardio-respiratory Instrument, HYP’AIR Compact model of cardio-respiratory testing machine was manufactured by P K Morgan, India. The recorded parameters were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both the groups. Cardiovascular parameters were also compared before and after intervention in both the groups. Results: Statistically significant improvements were seen in slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, and diffusion factor/ transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide after 3 months of yoga regimen in Group I. Forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), and FEV1 % also showed a trend toward improvement although not statistically significant. HR, SBP and DBP also

  8. Adolescent lung function associated with incense burning and other environmental exposures at home.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y C; Ho, W C; Yu, Y H

    2016-11-17

    Incense burning is a popular cultural and religious practice, but whether exposure to incense smoke has effects on lung function is unclear. We investigated association between lung function and incense burning exposure and other household exposures in adolescents who participated in a mass asthma-screening program. Information on asthmatic status and associated factors was obtained from parent-completed questionnaires and student-completed video questionnaires. Approximately 10% of students received lung function examinations. Valid lung function data of 5010 students aged 14-16 years in northern Taiwan were analyzed. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow in 1 second (FEV1 ) were compared by incense burning status and other types of exposures for adolescents. Overall, 70.6% of students were exposed to incense smoke at home. The mean FVC and FEV1 measures were lower among adolescents with daily exposure to incense burning than those without such exposure (P<.05). Sharing bedroom was also associated with decreased FVC and FEV1 . After controlling for confounding factors, multivariable linear regression analysis with generalized estimation equation showed that FVC was negatively associated with daily exposure to incense burning, sharing a bedroom, and living in a house adjacent to a traffic road. Such associations were also observed in FEV1 . Daily exposure to incense burning is associated with impaired adolescent lung function.

  9. Association between the Type of Workplace and Lung Function in Copper Miners

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyński, Leszek; Wojakowska, Anna; Ścieszka, Marek; Turczyn, Barbara; Schmidt, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the analysis was to retrospectively assess changes in lung function in copper miners depending on the type of workplace. In the groups of 225 operators, 188 welders, and 475 representatives of other jobs, spirometry was performed at the start of employment and subsequently after 10, 20, and 25 years of work. Spirometry Longitudinal Data Analysis software was used to estimate changes in group means for FEV1 and FVC. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess an association between workplace and lung function. Lung function assessed on the basis of calculation of longitudinal FEV1 (FVC) decline was similar in all studied groups. However, multiple linear regression model used in cross-sectional analysis revealed an association between workplace and lung function. In the group of welders, FEF75 was lower in comparison to operators and other miners as early as after 10 years of work. Simultaneously, in smoking welders, the FEV1/FVC ratio was lower than in nonsmokers (p < 0,05). The interactions between type of workplace and smoking (p < 0,05) in their effect on FVC, FEV1, PEF, and FEF50 were shown. Among underground working copper miners, the group of smoking welders is especially threatened by impairment of lung ventilatory function. PMID:27274987

  10. Oral iodinated activated charcoal improves lung function in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Skogvall, Staffan; Erjefält, Jonas S; Olin, Anders I; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif

    2014-06-01

    The effect of 8 weeks treatment with oral iodinated activated charcoal (IAC) on lung function of patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was examined in a double blind randomized placebo controlled parallel group study with 40 patients. In the IAC group, patients showed a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 baseline by 130 ml compared to placebo, corresponding to 8.2% improvement (p = 0.031*). Correlation statistics revealed that the improvement of FEV1 baseline was significantly correlated both to FEV1 post-bronchodilator (p = 0.0020**) and FEV1 post-exercise (0.033*) values. This demonstrates that the improved baseline lung function by IAC did not inhibit a further beta2-adrenoceptor relaxation, and thus that patients did not reach a limit for maximal improvement of the lung function after IAC treatment. Eight patients in the IAC group developed abnormal thyroid hormone levels transiently during the treatment. This side effect was not correlated to improvement of lung function (p = 0.82). No serious adverse effects directly related to the treatment were recorded. In summary, this study demonstrates that iodinated activated charcoal surprisingly and significantly improved lung function of patients with moderate COPD. The underlying mechanism of action is unclear, but is likely to be different from the drugs used today. The immediate conclusion is that further studies are now justified in order to determine clinical efficacy of IAC in COPD and explore possible mechanisms of action.

  11. Reliability and smallest real difference of the ankle lunge test post ankle fracture.

    PubMed

    Simondson, David; Brock, Kim; Cotton, Susan

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and the smallest real difference of the Ankle Lunge test in an ankle fracture patient population. In the post immobilisation stage of ankle fracture, ankle dorsiflexion is an important measure of progress and outcome. The Ankle Lunge test measures weight bearing dorsiflexion, resulting in negative scores (knee to wall distance) and positive scores (toe to wall distance), for which the latter has proven reliability in normal subjects only. A consecutive sample of ankle fracture patients with permission to commence weight bearing, were recruited to the study. Three measurements of the Ankle Lunge Test were performed each by two raters, one senior and one junior physiotherapist. These occurred prior to therapy sessions in the second week after plaster removal. A standardised testing station was utilised and allowed for both knee to wall distance and toe to wall distance measurement. Data was collected from 10 individuals with ankle fracture, with an average age of 36 years (SD 14.8). Seventy seven percent of observations were negative. Intra and inter-rater reliability yielded intra class correlations at or above 0.97, p < .001. There was a significant systematic bias towards improved scores during repeated measurement for one rater (p = .01). The smallest real difference was calculated as 13.8mm. The Ankle Lunge test is a practical and reliable tool for measuring weightbearing dorsiflexion post ankle fracture.

  12. Lung function decline rates according to GOLD group in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joohae; Yoon, Ho Il; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) groups A–D were introduced, the lung function changes according to group have been evaluated rarely. Objective We investigated the rate of decline in annual lung function in patients categorized according to the 2014 GOLD guidelines. Methods Patients with COPD included in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) prospective study, who underwent yearly postbronchodilator spirometry at least three times, were included. The main outcome was the annual decline in postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), which was analyzed by random-slope and random-intercept mixed linear regression. Results A total 175 participants were included. No significant postbronchodilator FEV1 decline was observed between the groups (−34.4±7.9 [group A]; −26.2±9.4 [group B]; −22.7±16.0 [group C]; and −24.0±8.7 mL/year [group D]) (P=0.79). The group with less symptoms (−32.3±7.2 vs −25.0±6.5 mL/year) (P=0.44) and the low risk group (−31.0±6.1 vs −23.6±7.7 mL/year) (P=0.44) at baseline showed a more rapid decline in the postbronchodilator FEV1, but the trends were not statistically significant. However, GOLD stages classified by FEV1 were significantly related to the annual lung function decline. Conclusion There was no significant difference in lung function decline rates according to the GOLD groups. Prior classification using postbronchodilator FEV1 predicts decline in lung function better than does the new classification. PMID:26379432

  13. Cumulative exposure to dust causes accelerated decline in lung function in tunnel workers

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, B; Bakke, B; Eduard, W; Kongerud, J; Lund, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine whether underground construction workers exposed to tunnelling pollutants over a follow up period of 8 years have an increased risk of decline in lung function and respiratory symptoms compared with reference subjects working outside the tunnel atmosphere, and relate the findings to job groups and cumulative exposure to dust and gases.
METHODS—96 Tunnel workers and a reference group of 249 other heavy construction workers were examined in 1991 and re-examined in 1999. Exposure measurements were carried out to estimate personal cumulative exposure to total dust, respirable dust, α-quartz, oil mist, and nitrogen dioxide. The subjects answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits, performed spirometry, and had chest radiographs taken. Radiological signs of silicosis were evaluated (International Labour Organisation (ILO) classification). Atopy was determined by a multiple radioallergosorbent test (RAST).
RESULTS—The mean exposure to respirable dust and α-quartz in tunnel workers varied from 1.2-3.6 mg/m3 (respirable dust) and 0.019-0.044 mg/m3 (α-quartz) depending on job task performed. Decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was associated with cumulative exposure to respirable dust (p<0.001) and α-quartz (p=0.02). The multiple regression model predicted that in a worker 40 years of age, the annual decrease in FEV1 would be 25 ml in a non-exposed non-smoker, 35 ml in a non-exposed smoker, and 50-63 ml in a non-smoking tunnel worker (depending on job). Compared with the reference group the odds ratio for the occurrence of new respiratory symptoms during the follow up period was increased in the tunnel workers and associated with cumulative exposure to respirable dust.
CONCLUSIONS—Cumulative exposures to respirable dust and α-quartz are the most important risk factors for airflow limitation in underground heavy construction workers, and cumulative exposure to respirable dust is the

  14. Ambient air pollution, lung function and airway responsiveness in children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Melly, Steve; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike; Vonk, Judith M.; Williams, Paul V.; Shapiro, Gail G.; McKone, Edward F.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Lumley, Thomas; Fuhlbrigge, Anne N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R

    2016-01-01

    Background Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy children, longitudinal analyses of pollution effects in asthma are lacking. Objective To investigate pollution effects in a longitudinal asthma study and effect modification by controller medications. Methods We examined associations of lung function and methacholine responsiveness (PC20) with ozone, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in 1,003 asthmatic children participating in a 4-year clinical trial. We further investigated whether budesonide and nedocromil modified pollution effects. Daily pollutant concentrations were linked to zip/postal code of residence. Linear mixed models tested associations of within-subject pollutant concentrations with FEV1 and FVC %predicted, FEV1/FVC and PC20, adjusting for seasonality and confounders. Results Same-day and 1-week average CO levels were negatively associated with post-bronchodilator %predicted FEV1 (change(95%CI) per IQR: −0.33(−0.49, −0.16), −0.41(−0.62, −0.21), respectively) and FVC (−0.19(−0.25, −0.07), −0.25(−0.43, −0.07)). Longer-term four-month averages of CO were negatively associated with prebronchodilator %predicted FEV1 and FVC (−0.36(−0.62, −0.10), −0.21(−0.42, −0.01)). Four-month averaged CO and ozone levels were negatively associated with FEV1/FVC (p<0.05). Increased four-month average NO2 levels were associated with reduced post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC %predicted. Long-term exposures to SO2 were associated with reduced PC20 (%change(95%CI) per IQR:-6(-11,-1.5)). Treatment augmented the negative short-term CO effect on PC20. Conclusions Air pollution adversely influences lung function and PC20 in asthmatic children. Treatment with controller medications may not protect but worsens the CO effects on PC20. This clinical trial design evaluates modification of pollution effects by treatment without confounding by indication. PMID

  15. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement–a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Dullin, C.; Markus, M. A.; Larsson, E.; Tromba, G.; Hülsmann, S.; Alves, F.

    2016-01-01

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy. PMID:27805632

  16. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement-a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models.

    PubMed

    Dullin, C; Markus, M A; Larsson, E; Tromba, G; Hülsmann, S; Alves, F

    2016-11-02

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy.

  17. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement–a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullin, C.; Markus, M. A.; Larsson, E.; Tromba, G.; Hülsmann, S.; Alves, F.

    2016-11-01

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy.

  18. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION DECREMENTS IN HUMANS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short duration exposure to ozone (<8 hr) is known to result in lung function decrements and respiratory symptoms in humans. The magnitudes of these responses are functions of ozone concentration (C), activity level measured by minute ventilation (Ve), duration of exposure (T), a...

  19. Nasal airway ion transport and lung function in young people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Helen L; Barker, Pierre M; Southern, Kevin W

    2003-09-01

    There is strong evidence that abnormal airway ion transport is the primary defect that initiates the pathophysiology of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). To examine the relationship between airway ion transport abnormality and severity of lung disease, we measured nasal potential difference in 51 young people with CF using a validated modified technique. There was no correlation between any component of the ion transport measurement and clinical condition (respiratory function, chest radiograph score, or Shwachman clinical score). Thirty subjects, homozygous for the DeltaF508 mutation, were divided into those above and those below average respiratory function for their age. There was no significant difference in any of the ion transport parameters between those with above and below average pulmonary function. Of the 51 subjects, 10 had significant hyperpolarization after perfusion with a zero Cl- solution (> 5 mV). This Cl- secretory capacity did not correlate with above average lung function. These data do not support the assertion that the extent of lung disease in CF reflects the degree of ion transport abnormality. We suggest that although an ion transport abnormality initiates lung disease, other factors (e.g., environmental and genetic modifiers) are more influential in determining disease severity.

  20. Benzo(a)pyrene induced structural and functional modifications in lung cystatin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Priyadarshini, Medha; Shah, Aaliya; Tabrez, Shams; Jagirdar, Haseeb; Alsenaidy, Abdulrahman M; Bano, Bilqees

    2013-10-01

    Cystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors ubiquitously present in the mammalian body. They serve a protective function to regulate the activities of endogenous proteinases, which may cause uncontrolled proteolysis and damage. In the present study, the effect of benzo(a)pyrene [BaP] on lung cystatin was studied to explore the hazardous effects of environmental pollutant on structural and functional integrity of the protein. The basic binding interaction was studied by UV-absorption, FT-IR, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The enhancement of total protein fluorescence with a red shift of 5 nm suggests structural scratch of lung cystatin by benzo(a)pyrene. Further, ANS binding studies reaffirm the unfolding of the thiol protease inhibitor (GLC-I) after treating with benzo(a)pyrene. The results of FT-IR spectroscopy reflect perturbation of the secondary conformation (alpha-helix to β-sheet) in goat lung cystatin on interaction with BaP. Finally, functional inactivation of cystatin on association with BaP was checked by its papain inhibitory activity. Benzo(a)pyrene (10 μM) caused complete inactivation of goat lung cystatin. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced loss of structure and function in the thiol protease inhibitor could provide a caution for lung injury caused by the pollutants and smokers.

  1. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation *

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Sanchez, Letícia; Watte, Guilherme; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Fassbind, Derrick Alexandre; Camargo, José Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF. PMID:26398749

  2. Air Pollution, Airway Inflammation, and Lung Function in a Cohort Study of Mexico City Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sunyer, Jordi; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Sienra-Monge, Juan Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Holguin, Fernando; Diaz-Sánchez, David; Olin, Anna Carin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. Objective In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. Methods We studied a cohort of 158 asthmatic and 50 nonasthmatic school-age children, followed an average of 22 weeks. We conducted spirometric tests, measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), interleukin-8 (IL-8) in nasal lavage, and pH of exhaled breath condensate every 15 days during follow-up. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Results An increase of 17.5 μg/m3 in the 8-hr moving average of PM2.5 levels (interquartile range) was associated with a 1.08-ppb increase in FeNO [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.16] and a 1.07-pg/mL increase in IL-8 (95% CI 0.98–1.19) in asthmatic children and a 1.16 pg/ml increase in IL-8 (95% CI, 1.00–1.36) in nonasthmatic children. The 5-day accumulated average of exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diamter (PM2.5) was significantly inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) (p = 0.048) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.012) in asthmatic children and with FVC (p = 0.021) in nonasthmatic children. FeNO and FEV1 were inversely associated (p = 0.005) in asthmatic children. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in acute airway inflammation and decrease in lung function in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. PMID:18560490

  3. Lung function, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Julliand, Sébastien; Boulé, Michèle; Baujat, Geneviève; Ramirez, Adriana; Couloigner, Vincent; Beydon, Nicole; Zerah, Michel; di Rocco, Federico; Lemerrer, Martine; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Children with achondroplasia are at risk of sleep-disordered breathing. The aim of the study was to evaluate lung function and sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia. An interview, clinical examination, lung function tests with blood gases, and a polygraphic sleep study were obtained as part of routine annual evaluation in consecutive children with achondroplasia. We included 30 children (median age 3.0 years, range: 0.4-17.1) over a period of 21 months. Habitual snoring and witnessed apneas were observed in 77% and 33% of the patients, respectively. Prior to the sleep study, 10/29 (34%) patients had undergone upper airway surgery and 5/29 (17%) craniocervical decompression operation. Arterial blood gases were abnormal in two (7%) patients. Sleep findings were abnormal in 28/30 (93%) patients. Eleven (37%) patients had an apnea index≥1 event/hr and 26 (87%) had an apnea-hypopnea index≥5 events/hr. The ≥3% desaturation index was >5/hr in 22 (73%) patients. Sixteen (53%) patients had a minimal pulse oximetry<90% but only two (7%) patients had a maximal transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure>50 mmHg during sleep. As a consequence, the following therapeutic interventions were performed: upper airway surgery in four patients and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in five other patients, resulting in an improvement in sleep studies in all nine patients. Systematic sleep studies are recommended in children with achondroplasia because of the high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing. Upper airway surgery and NPPV are effective treatments of sleep-disordered breathing.

  4. Lung Function before and after a Large Chlorine Gas Release in Graniteville, South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried J. J.; Mohr, Lawrence C.; Cai, Bo; Balte, Pallavi; Gibson, James J.; Ownby, Dennis; Lawson, Andrew B.; Vena, John E.; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: On January 6, 2005 a train derailment led to an estimated 54,915-kg release of chlorine at a local textile mill in Graniteville, South Carolina. Objectives: We used the employee health spirometry records of the textile to identify enduring effects of chlorine gas exposure resulting from the incident on the lung function of workers employed at the textile mill. Methods: Spirometry records from 1,807 mill workers (7,332 observations) were used from 4 years before and 18 months after the disaster. Longitudinal analysis using marginal regression models produced annual population mean estimates for FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ratio. Covariate adjustment was made for sex, age, smoking, height, season tested, technician, obesity, season × year interactions, and smoker × year interactions. The increased prevalence of mill workers having accelerated FEV1 decline was also evaluated after the chlorine spill. Measurements and Main Results: In the year of the accident, we observed a significant reduction in mean FEV1 (–4.2% predicted; P = 0.019) when compared with the year before the incident. In the second year, partial recovery in the mean FVC % predicted level was seen, but the cohort’s average FEV1/FVC ratio continued to decrease over time. Severe annual FEV1 decline was most prevalent in the year of the accident, and independent of mill worker smoking status. Conclusions: The Graniteville mill worker cohort revealed significant reductions in lung function immediately after the chlorine incident. Improvement was seen in the second year; but the proportion of mill workers experiencing accelerated FEV1 annual decline significantly increased in the 18 months after the chlorine incident. PMID:26695511

  5. Effects of physical activity on exercise tests and respiratory function

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y; Macera, C; Addy, C; Sy, F; Wieland, D; Blair, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Exercise is an important component of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic lung disease. Objective: To explore the role of physical activity in maintaining cardiac and respiratory function in healthy people. Methods: Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill test (MTT), and respiratory function was tested by spirometry. The cross sectional study included data from 24 536 healthy persons who were examined at the Cooper Clinic between 1971 and 1995; the longitudinal study included data from 5707 healthy persons who had an initial visit between 1971 and 1995 and a subsequent visit during the next five years. All participants were aged 25–55 years and completed a cardiorespiratory test and a medical questionnaire. Results: In the cross sectional study, after controlling for covariates, being active and not being a recent smoker were associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function in both men and women. In the follow up study, persons who remained or became active had better MTT than persons who remained or became sedentary. Men who remained active had higher forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) than the other groups. Smoking was related to lower cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function. Conclusions: Physical activity and non-smoking or smoking cessation is associated with maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. Change in physical activity habits is associated with change in cardiorespiratory fitness, but respiratory function contributed little to this association during a five year follow up. PMID:14665592

  6. Nano-enabled paper humidity sensor for mobile based point-of-care lung function monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Mitradip; Nemade, Harshal B; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2017-03-22

    The frequency of breathing and peak flow rate of exhaled air are necessary parameters to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) such as asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia. We developed a lung function monitoring point-of-care-testing device (LFM-POCT) consisting of mouthpiece, paper-based humidity sensor, micro-heater, and real-time monitoring unit. Fabrication of a mouthpiece of optimal length ensured that the exhaled air was focused on the humidity-sensor. The resistive relative humidity sensor was developed using a filter paper coated with nanoparticles, which could easily follow the frequency and peak flow rate of the human breathing. Adsorption followed by condensation of the water molecules of the humid air on the paper-sensor during the forced exhalation reduced the electrical resistance of the sensor, which was converted to an electrical signal for sensing. A micro-heater composed of a copper-coil embedded in a polymer matrix helped in maintaining an optimal temperature on the sensor surface. Thus, water condensed on the sensor surface only during forcible breathing and the sensor recovered rapidly after the exhalation was complete by rapid desorption of water molecules from the sensor surface. Two types of real-time monitoring units were integrated into the device based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and smart phones. The LED based unit displayed the diseased, critical, and fit conditions of the lungs by flashing LEDs of different colors. In comparison, for the mobile based monitoring unit, an application was developed employing an open source software, which established a wireless connectivity with the LFM-POCT device to perform the tests.

  7. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: Pulmonary function, prediction, and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vivek . E-mail: Vivek.Mehta@swedish.org

    2005-09-01

    Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in DL{sub CO}, the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.

  8. Effects of reduced tidal volume ventilation on pulmonary function in mice before and after acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Majumdar, Arnab; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the influence of load impedance on ventilator performance and the resulting effects of reduced tidal volume (Vt) on lung physiology during a 30-min ventilation of normal mice and 10 min of additional ventilation following lavage-induced injury at two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. Respiratory mechanics were regularly monitored, and the lavage fluid was tested for the soluble E-cadherin, an epithelial cell adhesion molecule, and surfactant protein (SP) B. The results showed that, due to the load dependence of the delivered Vt from the small-animal ventilator: 1) uncontrolled ventilation in normal mice resulted in a lower delivered Vt (6 ml/kg at 3-cmH(2)O PEEP and 7 ml/kg at 6-cmH(2)O PEEP) than the prescribed Vt (8 ml/kg); 2) at 3-cmH(2)O PEEP, uncontrolled ventilation in normal mice led to an increase in lung parenchymal functional heterogeneity, a reduction of SP-B, and an increase in E-cadherin; 3) at 6-cmH(2)O PEEP, ventilation mode had less influence on these parameters; and 4) in a lavage model of acute respiratory distress syndrome, delivered Vt decreased to 4 ml/kg from the prescribed 8 ml/kg, which resulted in severely compromised lung function characterized by increases in lung elastance, airway resistance, and alveolar tissue heterogeneity. Furthermore, the low Vt ventilation also resulted in poor survival rate independent of PEEP. These results highlight the importance of delivering appropriate Vt to both the normal and injured lungs. By leaving the Vt uncompensated, it can significantly alter physiological and biological responses in mice.

  9. In Vivo Testing of Extracorporeal Membrane Ventilators: iLA-Activve Versus Prototype I-Lung.

    PubMed

    Kischkel, Sabine; Bergt, Stefan; Brock, Beate; von Grönheim, Johan; Herbst, Anne; Epping, Marc-Jonas; Matheis, Georg; Novosel, Esther; Schneider, Joerg; Warnke, Philipp; Podbielski, Andreas; Roesner, Jan P; Lelkes, Peter I; Vollmar, Brigitte

    A side-by-side comparison of the decarboxylation efficacy of two pump-driven venovenous extracorporeal lung assist devices, i.e., a first prototype of the new miniaturized ambulatory extracorporeal membrane ventilator, I-lung versus the commercial system iLA-activve for more than a period of 72 hours in a large animal model. Fifteen German Landrace pigs were anesthetized and underwent mechanical hypoventilation to induce severe hypercapnia. Decarboxylation was accomplished by either the I-lung or the iLA-activve via a double lumen catheter in the jugular vein. Sham-operated pigs were not connected to extracorporeal devices. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic parameters were continuously monitored, combined with periodic arterial blood sampling for subsequent clinical blood diagnostics, such as gas exchange, hemolysis, coagulation parameters, and cytokine profiles. At the termination of the studies, lung tissue was harvested and examined histologically for pulmonary morphology and leukocyte tissue infiltration. Both extracorporeal devices showed high and comparable efficacy with respect to carbon dioxide elimination for more than 72 hours and were not associated with either bleeding events or clotting disorders. Pigs of both groups showed cardiovascular and hemodynamic stability without marked differences to sham-operated animals. Groups also did not differ in terms of inflammatory and metabolic parameters. We established a preclinical in vivo porcine model for comparative long-term testing of I-lung and iLA-activve. The I-lung prototype proved to be safe and feasible, providing adequate decarboxylation without any adverse events. Once translated into the clinical treatment, the new miniaturized and transportable I-lung device might represent a promising tool for treating awake and mobilized patients with decompensated pulmonary disorders.

  10. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, John P.; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L.; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key points Wearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT. Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  11. Reproducibility of the six-minute walk test and Glittre ADL-test in patients hospitalized for acute and exacerbated chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    José, Anderson; Dal Corso, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the Glittre ADL-test (GT) are used to assess functional capacity and exercise tolerance; however, the reproducibility of these tests needs further study in patients with acute lung diseases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of the 6MWT and GT performed in patients hospitalized for acute and exacerbated chronic lung diseases. Method: 48 h after hospitalization, 81 patients (50 males, age: 52±18 years, FEV1: 58±20% of the predicted value) performed two 6MWTs and two GTs in random order on different days. Results: There was no difference between the first and second 6MWT (median 349 m [284-419] and 363 m [288-432], respectively) (ICC: 0.97; P<0.0001). A difference between the first and second tests was found in GT (median 286 s [220-378] and 244 s [197-323] respectively; P<0.001) (ICC: 0.91; P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although both the 6MWT and GT were reproducible, the best results occurred in the second test, demonstrating a learning effect. These results indicate that at least two tests are necessary to obtain reliable assessments. PMID:26039036

  12. Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Shen, Jianliang; Reimer, David; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard is a vesicant that causes damage to the respiratory tract. In these studies, we characterized the acute effects of nitrogen mustard on lung structure, inflammatory mediator expression, and pulmonary function, with the goal of identifying mediators potentially involved in toxicity. Treatment of rats (male Wistar, 200-225 g) with nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, i.t., 0.25 mg/kg) resulted in marked histological changes in the respiratory tract, including necrotizing bronchiolitis, thickening of alveolar septa, and inflammation which was evident within 24 h. This was associated with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, confirming injury to alveolar epithelial regions of the lung. Nitrogen mustard administration also resulted in increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory proteins implicated in lung injury, in alveolar macrophages and alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediators regulating extracellular matrix turnover was also increased, suggesting that pathways leading to chronic lung disease are initiated early in the pathogenic process. Following nitrogen mustard exposure, alterations in lung mechanics and function were also observed. These included decreases in baseline static compliance, end-tidal volume and airway resistance, and a pronounced loss of methacholine responsiveness in resistance, tissue damping and elastance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nitrogen mustard induces rapid structural and inflammatory changes in the lung which are associated with altered lung functioning. Understanding the nature of the injury induced by nitrogen mustard and related analogs may aid in the development of efficacious therapies for treatment of pulmonary injury resulting from exposure to vesicants.

  13. Psychological functioning of pediatric lung transplant candidates/recipients: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Cheryl L

    2003-10-01

    Although lung transplants are performed in children, experience with the pediatric population remains limited. There is growing interest in studying the psychological functioning and quality of life in these patients following transplant. There is a body of literature about quality of life in adult lung transplant recipients, but little is known about how pediatric patients and their families function psychologically after transplant. The current article summarizes the pediatric literature with respect to psychological outcomes for transplant recipients and their parents and points to areas where additional research is needed.

  14. Lung function parameters improve prediction of VO2peak in an elderly population: The Generation 100 study

    PubMed Central

    Stensvold, Dorthe; Halvorsen, Thomas; Wisløff, Ulrik; Langhammer, Arnulf; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is an indicator of cardiovascular health and a useful tool for risk stratification. Direct measurement of VO2peak is resource-demanding and may be contraindicated. There exist several non-exercise models to estimate VO2peak that utilize easily obtainable health parameters, but none of them includes lung function measures or hemoglobin concentrations. We aimed to test whether addition of these parameters could improve prediction of VO2peak compared to an established model that includes age, waist circumference, self-reported physical activity and resting heart rate. We included 1431 subjects aged 69-77 years that completed a laboratory test of VO2peak, spirometry, and a gas diffusion test. Prediction models for VO2peak were developed with multiple linear regression, and goodness of fit was evaluated. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and blood hemoglobin concentration significantly improved the ability of the established model to predict VO2peak. The explained variance of the model increased from 31% to 48% for men and from 32% to 38% for women (p<0.001). FEV1, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and hemoglobin concentration substantially improved the accuracy of VO2peak prediction when added to an established model in an elderly population. PMID:28319189

  15. Pharmacological characterization of the late phase reduction in lung functions and correlations with microvascular leakage and lung edema in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Mauser, Peter J; House, Aileen; Jones, Howard; Correll, Craig; Boyce, Christopher; Chapman, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    Late phase airflow obstruction and reduction in forced vital capacity are characteristic features of human asthma. Airway microvascular leakage and lung edema are also present in the inflammatory phase of asthma, but the impact of this vascular response on lung functions has not been precisely defined. This study was designed to evaluate the role of increased lung microvascular leakage and edema on the late phase changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats using pharmacological inhibitors of the allergic inflammatory response. Rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin aerosol and forced expiratory lung functions (FVC, PEF) and wet and dry lung weights were measured 48 h after antigen challenge. Ovalbumin challenge reduced FVC (63% reduction) and PEF (33% reduction) and increased wet (65% increase) and dry (51% increase) lung weights. The antigen-induced reduction in FVC and PEF was completely inhibited by oral treatment with betamethasone and partially attenuated by inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism including indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), 7-TM and MK-7246 (CRTH2 antagonists) and montelukast (CysLT1 receptor antagonist). Antagonists of histamine H1 receptors (mepyramine) and 5-HT receptors (methysergide) had no significant effects indicating that these pre-formed mast cell mediators were not involved. There was a highly significant (P < 0.005) correlation for the inhibition of FVC reduction and increase in wet and dry lung weights by these pharmacological agents. These results strongly support the hypothesis that lung microvascular leakage and the associated lung edema contribute to the reduction in forced expiratory lung functions in antigen-challenged Brown Norway rats and identify an important role for the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism in these responses.

  16. Lung Cancer Classification Employing Proposed Real Coded Genetic Algorithm Based Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    A proposed real coded genetic algorithm based radial basis function neural network classifier is employed to perform effective classification of healthy and cancer affected lung images. Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is proposed to overcome the Hamming Cliff problem encountered with the Binary Coded Genetic Algorithm (BCGA). Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) classifier is chosen as a classifier model because of its Gaussian Kernel function and its effective learning process to avoid local and global minima problem and enable faster convergence. This paper specifically focused on tuning the weights and bias of RBFNN classifier employing the proposed RCGA. The operators used in RCGA enable the algorithm flow to compute weights and bias value so that minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is obtained. With both the lung healthy and cancer images from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database and Real time database, it is noted that the proposed RCGA based RBFNN classifier has performed effective classification of the healthy lung tissues and that of the cancer affected lung nodules. The classification accuracy computed using the proposed approach is noted to be higher in comparison with that of the classifiers proposed earlier in the literatures. PMID:28050198

  17. Determinants of restrictive lung function in asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.A.; Galvin, J.R.; Dayton, C.S.; Stanford, W.; Merchant, J.A.; Hunninghake, G.W. )

    1990-05-01

    We evaluated whether restrictive lung function among asbestos-exposed individuals with pleural fibrosis was caused by radiographically inapparent parenchymal inflammation and/or parenchymal fibrosis. All 24 study participants were sheet metal workers who were nonsmokers with normal parenchyma on posteroanterior chest radiograph. These subjects had either normal pleura (n = 7), circumscribed plaques (n = 9), or diffuse pleural thickening (n = 8). After controlling for age, years in the trade, and pack-years of smoking, we found that sheet metal workers with diffuse pleural thickening had a lower forced vital capacity (P less than 0.001), total lung capacity (P less than 0.01), and CO-diffusing capacity of the lung (P less than 0.05) than those with normal pleura. Similarly, sheet metal workers with circumscribed plaques were found to have a reduced forced vital capacity; however, because of the small number of study subjects, this difference (regression coefficient = -11.0) was only marginally significant (P = 0.06). Although circumscribed plaque and diffuse pleural thickening were both associated with a lymphocytic alveolitis and a higher prevalence of parenchymal fibrosis on high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan, neither a lymphocytic alveolitis nor the finding of parenchymal fibrosis on HRCT scan influenced the relationship between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. We conclude that pleural fibrosis is associated with restrictive lung function and abnormally low diffusion that appears to be independent of our measures of parenchymal injury (chest X-ray, bronchoalveolar lavage, and HRCT scan).

  18. Lung Cancer Classification Employing Proposed Real Coded Genetic Algorithm Based Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier.

    PubMed

    Selvakumari Jeya, I Jasmine; Deepa, S N

    2016-01-01

    A proposed real coded genetic algorithm based radial basis function neural network classifier is employed to perform effective classification of healthy and cancer affected lung images. Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is proposed to overcome the Hamming Cliff problem encountered with the Binary Coded Genetic Algorithm (BCGA). Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) classifier is chosen as a classifier model because of its Gaussian Kernel function and its effective learning process to avoid local and global minima problem and enable faster convergence. This paper specifically focused on tuning the weights and bias of RBFNN classifier employing the proposed RCGA. The operators used in RCGA enable the algorithm flow to compute weights and bias value so that minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is obtained. With both the lung healthy and cancer images from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database and Real time database, it is noted that the proposed RCGA based RBFNN classifier has performed effective classification of the healthy lung tissues and that of the cancer affected lung nodules. The classification accuracy computed using the proposed approach is noted to be higher in comparison with that of the classifiers proposed earlier in the literatures.

  19. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (< 1,500 g) with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) develop lung damage caused by mechanical ventilation and maturational arrest. We compared functional lung development after discharge from hospital between VLBW infants with and without BPD. Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]). Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks), birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g), and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%), differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth), maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC), or blood gas (pO2, pCO2) levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways) were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems. PMID

  20. Binomial test statistics using Psi functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2007-01-01

    For the negative binomial model (probability generating function (p + 1 - pt){sup -k}) a logarithmic derivative is the Psi function difference {psi}(k + x) - {psi}(k); this and its derivatives lead to a test statistic to decide on the validity of a specified model. The test statistic uses a data base so there exists a comparison available between theory and application. Note that the test function is not dominated by outliers. Applications to (i) Fisher's tick data, (ii) accidents data, (iii) Weldon's dice data are included.

  1. Airway hyperresponsiveness, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, and lung function in workers exposed to irritants.

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, A M; Pal, T M; Boleij, J S; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic fibre plants. Respiratory symptoms were recorded with a self administered Dutch version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, with additional questions on allergy. Airway responsiveness was measured by a 30 second tidal breathing histamine challenge test. On the basis of job titles and working department, the current state of exposure of all workers was characterised as (1) no exposure, reference group; (2) white collar workers; (3) SO2 HCl, SO4(2); (4) polyester vapour; (5) oil mist and vapour; (6) polyamide and polyester vapour; (7) multiple exposure. Workers exposed to airway irritants were not simultaneously exposed to airborne dust. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at < or = 32 mg/ml histamine, was present in 23% of the subjects. The association between exposure groups and prevalence of symptoms was estimated by means of multiple logistic regression; the association with level of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF)) was estimated by means of multiple linear regression. Both methods allow simultaneous adjustment for potential confounding factors. The exposure groups were associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lower prevalence of symptoms was found for workers exposed to SO2, HCl, and SO4(2-), most likely due to pre-employment selection procedures. Current smoking, AHR, and a history of allergy were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, independent of each other, and independent of irritant exposure. The association between exposure and prevalence of

  2. Airway hyperresponsiveness, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, and lung function in workers exposed to irritants.

    PubMed

    Kremer, A M; Pal, T M; Boleij, J S; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic fibre plants. Respiratory symptoms were recorded with a self administered Dutch version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, with additional questions on allergy. Airway responsiveness was measured by a 30 second tidal breathing histamine challenge test. On the basis of job titles and working department, the current state of exposure of all workers was characterised as (1) no exposure, reference group; (2) white collar workers; (3) SO2 HCl, SO4(2); (4) polyester vapour; (5) oil mist and vapour; (6) polyamide and polyester vapour; (7) multiple exposure. Workers exposed to airway irritants were not simultaneously exposed to airborne dust. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at < or = 32 mg/ml histamine, was present in 23% of the subjects. The association between exposure groups and prevalence of symptoms was estimated by means of multiple logistic regression; the association with level of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF)) was estimated by means of multiple linear regression. Both methods allow simultaneous adjustment for potential confounding factors. The exposure groups were associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lower prevalence of symptoms was found for workers exposed to SO2, HCl, and SO4(2-), most likely due to pre-employment selection procedures. Current smoking, AHR, and a history of allergy were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, independent of each other, and independent of irritant exposure. The association between exposure and prevalence of

  3. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  4. Physiologic assessment before video thoracoscopic resection for lung cancer in patients with abnormal pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Benattia, Amira; Debeaumont, David; Guyader, Vincent; Tardif, Catherine; Peillon, Christophe; Cuvelier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired respiratory function may prevent curative surgery for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) reduces postoperative morbility-mortality and could change preoperative assessment practices and therapeutic decisions. We evaluated the relation between preoperative pulmonary function tests and the occurrence of postoperative complications after VATS pulmonary resection in patients with abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We included 106 consecutive patients with ≤80% predicted value of presurgical expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and/or diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and who underwent VATS pulmonary resection for NSCLC from a prospective surgical database. Results Patients (64±9.5 years) had lobectomy (n=91), segmentectomy (n=7), bilobectomy (n=4), or pneumonectomy (n=4). FEV1 and DLCO preoperative averages were 68%±21% and 60%±18%. Operative mortality was 1.89%. Only FEV1 was predictive of postoperative complications [odds ratio (OR), 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.926–0.991, P=0.016], but there was no determinable threshold. Twenty-five patients underwent incremental exercise testing. Desaturations during exercise (OR, 0.462; 95% CI, 0.191–0.878, P=0.039) and heart rate (HR) response (OR, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.895–0.993, P=0.05) were associated with postoperative complications. Conclusions FEV1 but not DLCO was a significant predictor of pulmonary complications after VATS pulmonary resection despite a low rate of severe morbidity. Incremental exercise testing seems more discriminating. Further investigation is required in a larger patient population to change current pre-operative threshold in a new era of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:27293834

  5. COPD phenotypes on computed tomography and its correlation with selected lung function variables in severe patients

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Silvia Maria Doria; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Palhares, Luciana Campanatti; Pereira, Mônica Corso

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) phenotypic characterization helps in understanding the clinical diversity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but its clinical relevance and its relationship with functional features are not clarified. Volumetric capnography (VC) uses the principle of gas washout and analyzes the pattern of CO2 elimination as a function of expired volume. The main variables analyzed were end-tidal concentration of carbon dioxide (ETCO2), Slope of phase 2 (Slp2), and Slope of phase 3 (Slp3) of capnogram, the curve which represents the total amount of CO2 eliminated by the lungs during each breath. Objective To investigate, in a group of patients with severe COPD, if the phenotypic analysis by CT could identify different subsets of patients, and if there was an association of CT findings and functional variables. Subjects and methods Sixty-five patients with COPD Gold III–IV were admitted for clinical evaluation, high-resolution CT, and functional evaluation (spirometry, 6-minute walk test [6MWT], and VC). The presence and profusion of tomography findings were evaluated, and later, the patients were identified as having emphysema (EMP) or airway disease (AWD) phenotype. EMP and AWD groups were compared; tomography findings scores were evaluated versus spirometric, 6MWT, and VC variables. Results Bronchiectasis was found in 33.8% and peribronchial thickening in 69.2% of the 65 patients. Structural findings of airways had no significant correlation with spirometric variables. Air trapping and EMP were strongly correlated with VC variables, but in opposite directions. There was some overlap between the EMP and AWD groups, but EMP patients had signicantly lower body mass index, worse obstruction, and shorter walked distance on 6MWT. Concerning VC, EMP patients had signicantly lower ETCO2, Slp2 and Slp3. Increases in Slp3 characterize heterogeneous involvement of the distal air spaces, as in AWD. Conclusion Visual assessment and

  6. Systems for Lung Volume Standardization during Static and Dynamic MDCT-based Quantitative Assessment of Pulmonary Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuld, Matthew K.; Grout, Randall; Guo, Junfeng; Morgan, John H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Multidetector-row Computed Tomography (MDCT) has emerged as a tool for quantitative assessment of parenchymal destruction, air trapping (density metrics) and airway remodeling (metrics relating airway wall and lumen geometry) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Critical to the accuracy and interpretability of these MDCT-derived metrics is the assurance that the lungs are scanned during a breath-hold at a standardized volume. Materials and Methods A computer monitored turbine-based flow meter system was developed to control patient breath-holds and facilitate static imaging at fixed percentages of the vital capacity. Due to calibration challenges with gas density changes during multi-breath xenon-CT an alternative system was required. The design incorporated dual rolling seal pistons. Both systems were tested in a laboratory environment and human subject trials. Results The turbine-based system successfully controlled lung volumes in 32/37 subjects, having a linear relationship for CT measured air volume between repeated scans: for all scans, the mean and confidence interval of the differences (scan1-scan2) was −9 ml (−169, 151); for TLC alone 6 ml (−164, 177); for FRC alone, −23 ml (−172, 126). The dual-piston system successfully controlled lung volume in 31/41 subjects. Study failures related largely to subject non-compliance with verbal instruction and gas leaks around the mouthpiece. Conclusion We demonstrate the successful use of a turbine-based system for static lung volume control and demonstrate its inadequacies for dynamic xenon-CT studies. Implementation of a dual-rolling seal spirometer has been shown to adequately control lung volume for multi-breath wash-in xenon-CT studies. These systems coupled with proper patient coaching provide the tools for the use of CT to quantitate regional lung structure and function. The wash-in xenon-CT method for assessing regional lung function, while not

  7. Poor airway function in early infancy and lung function by age 22 years: a non-selective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Wright, Anne L.; Guerra, Stefano; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Together with smoking, the level of lung function attained in early adulthood is among the strongest predictors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Whether airway function measured shortly after birth is a determinant of this level is currently unknown. Methods Non-selected infants were enrolled at birth in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study in 1980-84. Infant maximal expiratory flows at functional residual capacity (V'maxFRC) were measured by the chest compression technique at 2 months (mean±SD: 2.3±1.9m); values were logarithmically transformed and adjusted for length. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75) were measured at ages 11, 16 and 22 years before and after 180μg of albuterol. Participant characteristics were determined at enrollment and at each time of testing. Findings Airway function was available for 123 participants in infancy and at least once at ages 11, 16 or 22 years. Using a random effects model, participants in the lowest quartile for infant V'maxFRC had persistently lower values for FEV1/FVC ratio (-5.2%, p<0.001), FEF25-75 (-663ml/s, p<0.001) and FEV1 (-233ml, p=0.001) through age 22 compared to the upper three quartiles, after adjusting for height, weight, age and sex. The magnitude and significance of the effect did not change appreciably after additionally adjusting for current wheeze, smoking, atopy and parental asthma. Interpretation Diminished airway function present shortly after birth is a risk factor for airflow obstruction in early adult life. PMID:17765525

  8. Expression profile, clinical significance, and biological function of insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA-binding proteins in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run; Yu, Xinnian; Wang, Yajing; Sun, Jing; Sun, Qi; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Wang, Anpeng; Gao, Zhaojia; Jiang, Feng; Xu, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA-binding proteins have been described to associate with malignant process in many cancers. However, the role of insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA-binding protein family has not been thoroughly elucidated in non-small cell lung cancer. This study was to investigate the expression profile, clinical significance, and biological function of insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA-binding proteins family in non-small cell lung cancer. The expression levels of IGF2BP1-IGF2BP3 in tumor and adjacent normal tissues were determined, and association with clinicopathological features and overall survival was investigated by analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas lung cancer database. Proliferation, migration, invasion assays, and flow-cytometry analysis were used to investigate the biological function in vitro. Insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA-binding protein expression levels were significantly increased in non-small cell lung cancer compared to adjacent normal lung tissues. Chi-square test indicated that IGF2BP1 and IGF2BP3 expressions correlated with some meaningful clinical characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high-level expression of IGF2BP1 or IGF2BP3 predicted poor overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed that high level of IGF2BP3 was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio = 1.616, p = 0.017). In vitro, knockdown of IGF2BP3 inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and undermined abilities of migration and invasion, and overexpression of IGF2BP3 could promote malignant phenotypes in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Our study revealed that expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA-binding proteins was widely upregulated and correlated with some certain clinicopathological features in non-small cell

  9. Acute ozone-induced lung injury in rats: Structural-functional relationships of developing alveolar edema

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.F.; Hammond, M.D.; Montgomery, M.R.; Sharp, J.T.; Farrier, S.E.; Balis, J.U. )

    1992-11-01

    As part of a study on the effects of acute ozone stress on the lung surfactant system, we correlated morphometric, biochemical, and functional indices of lung injury using male rats exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr. Evaluation of lung mechanics, using the Pulmonary Evaluation and Diagnostic Laboratory System, revealed a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance (ml/cmH[sub 2]O/kg) from a control value of 0.84 [plus minus] 0.02 (SEM) to 0.72 [plus minus] 0.04 and 0.57 [plus minus] 0.06 at 4 and 8 hr, respectively. At 2 hr there was a transient increase in PaO[sub 2] to 116 torr (control = 92 torr) followed by a decrease at 4 hr (65 torr) and 8 hr (55 torr). Morphometry of lung tissue, fixed by perfusion of fixative via the pulmonary artery at 12 cm H[sub 2]O airway distending pressure, demonstrated an increase in the area of the intravascular compartment at 8 hr, in association with a 65 and 39% replacement of the alveolar area by fluid in ventral and dorsal lung regions, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.966) between alveolar edema and transudated proteins in lavage fluid. A stepwise multiple regression model, with edema as the dependent variable, suggested that pulmonary vasodilatation, hypoxemia, and depletion of surfactant tubular myelin in lavage fluid were indices for predicting alveolar edema. In a second model, with lavage protein concentration as the dependent variable, decreasing dynamic compliance and hypoxemia were predictors of progressive, intraalveolar transudation of plasma proteins. The above structural-functional relationships support the concept that ozone-induced high-protein alveolar edema is pathogenetically linked to pulmonary hyperemia, deficiency of surfactant tubular myelin, and associated lung dysfunctions.

  10. Enhanced heme function and mitochondrial respiration promote the progression of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Jagmohan; Cadinu, Daniela; Alam, Md Maksudul; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M; Sullivan, Laura A; Brekken, Rolf; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and about 85% of the cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, recent advance in cancer research suggests that altering cancer cell bioenergetics can provide an effective way to target such advanced cancer cells that have acquired mutations in multiple cellular regulators. This study aims to identify bioenergetic alterations in lung cancer cells by directly measuring and comparing key metabolic activities in a pair of cell lines representing normal and NSCLC cells developed from the same patient. We found that the rates of oxygen consumption and heme biosynthesis were intensified in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the NSCLC cells exhibited substantially increased levels in an array of proteins promoting heme synthesis, uptake and function. These proteins include the rate-limiting heme biosynthetic enzyme ALAS, transporter proteins HRG1 and HCP1 that are involved in heme uptake, and various types of oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins such as cytoglobin and cytochromes. Several types of human tumor xenografts also displayed increased levels of such proteins. Furthermore, we found that lowering heme biosynthesis and uptake, like lowering mitochondrial respiration, effectively reduced oxygen consumption, cancer cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. In contrast, lowering heme degradation does not have an effect on lung cancer cells. These results show that increased heme flux and function are a key feature of NSCLC cells. Further, increased generation and supply of heme and oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins in cancer cells will lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy production by mitochondrial respiration, which would fuel cancer cell proliferation and progression. The results show that inhibiting heme and respiratory function can effectively arrest the progression of lung cancer cells. Hence, understanding heme function can positively impact on research in lung cancer

  11. Nuclear Factor-Kappa-B Signaling in Lung Development and Disease: One Pathway, Numerous Functions

    PubMed Central

    Alvira, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to other organs, the lung completes a significant portion of its development after term birth. During this stage of alveolarization, division of the alveolar ducts into alveolar sacs by secondary septation, and expansion of the pulmonary vasculature by means of angiogenesis markedly increase the gas exchange surface area of the lung. However, postnatal completion of growth renders the lung highly susceptible to environmental insults such as inflammation that disrupt this developmental program. This is particularly evident in the setting of preterm birth, where impairment of alveolarization causes bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a chronic lung disease associated with significant morbidity. The nuclear factor κ-B (NFκB) family of transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed, and function to regulate diverse cellular processes including proliferation, survival, and immunity. Extensive evidence suggests that activation of NFκB is important in the regulation of inflammation and in the control of angiogenesis. Therefore, NFκB-mediated downstream effects likely influence the lung response to injury and may also mediate normal alveolar development. This review summarizes the main biologic functions of NFκB, and highlights the regulatory mechanisms that allow for diversity and specificity in downstream gene activation. This is followed by a description of the pro and anti-inflammatory functions of NFκB in the lung, and of NFκB-mediated angiogenic effects. Finally, this review summarizes the clinical and experimental data that support a role for NFκB in mediating postnatal angiogenesis and alveolarization, and discusses the challenges that remain in developing therapies that can selectively block the detrimental functions of NFκB yet preserve the beneficial effects. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:202–216, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24639404

  12. Lung Function and Inflammatory responses in healthy young adults exposed to 0.06 ppm Ozone for 6.6 hours

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Exposure to ozone causes a decrease in spirometric lung function and an increase in airway inflammation in healthy young adults at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm close to the the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ground level ozone. Objectives: To test wheth...

  13. Relationship of lung function loss to level of initial function: correcting for measurement error using the reliability coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    Irwig, L; Groeneveld, H; Becklake, M

    1988-01-01

    The regression of lung function change on the initial lung function level is biased when the initial level is measured with random error. Several methods have been proposed to obtain unbiased estimates of regression coefficients in such circumstances. We apply these methods to examine the relationship between lung function loss over 11 years and its initial level in 433 men aged about 20 when first seen. On theoretical and practical grounds the best method is the correction of the regression coefficient using the reliability coefficient. This is defined as the ratio of the error free variance to the variance of the variable measured with error, and is easily estimated as the correlation between repeat measurements of the underlying level. In young men the loss of some lung functions (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced expiratory flow in the middle half of expiration, and the ratio FEV1/FVC) do not appear to be related to initial level. PMID:3256581

  14. Cardiac Effect of Interstitial Lung Disease Correlated with Spirometry and Six Minute Walk Test

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Mitali Bharat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The cardiac effect of different pulmonary functions, six minute walk distance, arterial blood gases and saturation in Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) is not much known. So this study, a tertiary care hospital experience that entails to know the various factors in Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) mentioned above causing PH and their correlation with PH. Aim To study the correlation of PH in patients with ILD with spirometry and six minute walk test (6MWT). Materials and Methods All consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of ILD taken over a period of 1½year in tertiary care hospital. 6MWT and spirometry were performed as per the American Thoracic Guidelines. Percent predicted 6 minute walk distance was calculated using Enright et al., and Indian reference equation. PH was diagnosed using 2-D echo. The spirometry variables and 6MWT were then correlated with the mean pulmonary artery pressure. Results There were 75 patients. About 66.66 % had PH on 2-D echo. The mean% predicted six minute walk distance as per the Indian reference equation, pre- and post- exercise PaO2 as well as desaturation had a significant correlation with PH. Spirometry variables Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) did not correlate with PH. Conclusion Thus, the 6MWT correlated significantly with PH while spirometry did not. PMID:28384908

  15. Loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking and its relation to disability and mortality in South African gold miners.

    PubMed Central

    Hnizdo, E

    1992-01-01

    The data from a lung function study on 2209 white 45-54 year old South African gold miners in 1968-71 and at a five year follow up examination, were analysed to establish the actual loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking. Ex-smokers were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 1625 subjects, 1249 had the five year follow up test of lung function. The estimated excess loss of lung function for a 50 year old gold miner, associated with 24 years of underground dust exposure of an average respirable dust concentration of 0.30 mg m-3 (14.4 ghm-3) was 236 ml of FEV1 (95% confidence interval (95% CI 134-337) and 217 ml of FVC (95% CI 110-324). By comparison, the effect of smoking one packet of cigarettes a day over 30 years was associated with an estimated loss of 552 ml of FEV1 (95% CI 461-644) and 335 ml of FVC (95% CI 170-500). The cumulative dust exposure was not associated with the longitudinal loss of FEV1 or FVC when the initial FEV1 and FVC were adjusted in the models. According to the predicted values, however, gold miners appear to have a greater loss of lung function from 50 to 55 years of age than that predicted for a general population. PMID:1322158

  16. Loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking and its relation to disability and mortality in South African gold miners.

    PubMed

    Hnizdo, E

    1992-07-01

    The data from a lung function study on 2209 white 45-54 year old South African gold miners in 1968-71 and at a five year follow up examination, were analysed to establish the actual loss of lung function associated with exposure to silica dust and with smoking. Ex-smokers were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 1625 subjects, 1249 had the five year follow up test of lung function. The estimated excess loss of lung function for a 50 year old gold miner, associated with 24 years of underground dust exposure of an average respirable dust concentration of 0.30 mg m-3 (14.4 ghm-3) was 236 ml of FEV1 (95% confidence interval (95% CI 134-337) and 217 ml of FVC (95% CI 110-324). By comparison, the effect of smoking one packet of cigarettes a day over 30 years was associated with an estimated loss of 552 ml of FEV1 (95% CI 461-644) and 335 ml of FVC (95% CI 170-500). The cumulative dust exposure was not associated with the longitudinal loss of FEV1 or FVC when the initial FEV1 and FVC were adjusted in the models. According to the predicted values, however, gold miners appear to have a greater loss of lung function from 50 to 55 years of age than that predicted for a general population.

  17. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  18. The Full Function Test Explosive Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Griffith, L V; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-12-13

    We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the Full Function Test (FFT). These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new US record for magnetic energy was obtained.

  19. An optimized disaggregation method for human lung tumors that preserves the phenotype and function of the immune cells.

    PubMed

    Quatromoni, Jon G; Singhal, Sunil; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik; Hancock, Wayne W; Albelda, Steven M; Eruslanov, Evgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Careful preparation of human tissues is the cornerstone of obtaining accurate data in immunologic studies. Despite the essential importance of tissue processing in tumor immunology and clinical medicine, current methods of tissue disaggregation have not been rigorously tested for data fidelity. Thus, we critically evaluated the current techniques available in the literature that are used to prepare human lung tumors for immunologic studies. We discovered that these approaches are successful at digesting cellular attachments and ECMs; however, these methods frequently alter the immune cell composition and/or expression of surface molecules. We thus developed a novel approach to prepare human lung tumors for immunologic studies by combining gentle mechanical manipulation with an optimized cocktail of enzymes used at low doses. This enzymatic digestion cocktail optimized cell yield and cell viability, retrieved all major tumor-associated cell populations, and maintained the expression of cell-surface markers for lineage definition and in vivo effector functions. To our knowledge, we present the first rigorously tested disaggregation method designed for human lung tumors.

  20. Long-Term Effects of Traffic Particles on Lung Function Decline in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Litonjua, Augusto A.; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Few studies have been performed on air pollution effects on lung function in the elderly, a vulnerable population with low reserve capacity, and even fewer have looked at changes in the rate of lung function decline. Objectives: We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to black carbon on levels and rates of decline in lung function in the elderly. Methods: FVC and FEV1 were measured one to six times during the period 1995–2011 in 858 men participating in the Normative Aging Study. Exposure to black carbon, a tracer of traffic emissions, was estimated by a spatiotemporal land use regression model. We investigated the effects of moving averages of black carbon of 1–5 years before the lung function measurement using linear mixed models. Measurements and Main Results: A 0.5 μg/m3 increase in long-term exposure to black carbon was associated with an additional rate of decline in FVC and FEV1 of between 0.5% and 0.9% per year, respectively, depending on the averaging time. In addition, black carbon exposure before the baseline visit was associated with lower levels of both FVC and FEV1, with effect estimates increasing up to 6–7% with a 5-year average exposure. Conclusions: Our results support adverse effects of long-term exposure to traffic particles on lung function level and rate of decline in the elderly and suggest that functionally significant differences in health and risk of disability occur below the annual Environmental Protection Agency National Air Quality Standards. PMID:25028775

  1. Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, B.H.; Henry, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

  2. Best lung function equations for the very elderly selected by survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Martin R; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Pedersen, Ole F; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated which equations best predicted the lung function of a cohort of nonagenarians based on which best accounted for subsequent survival. In 1998, we measured lung function, grip strength and dementia score (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)) in a population-based sample of 2262 Danes born in 1905. Mortality was registered to 2011 when only five (0.2%) subjects were alive. In half the cohort, we recorded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Complete data were available in 592 subjects with results expressed as standardised residuals (SR) using various prediction equations. Cox proportional hazard regression found lower FEV1SR was a predictor of mortality having controlled for MMSE, grip strength and sex. The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1999) equations gave a better spread of median survival by FEV1SR quartile: 3.94, 3.65, 3.51 and 2.61 years with a hazard ratio for death of 1, 1.16, 1.32 and 1.60 respectively, compared with equations derived with the inclusion of elderly subjects. We conclude that extrapolating from NHANES III equations to predict lung function in nonagenarians gave better survival predictions from spirometry than when employing equations derived using very elderly subjects with possible selection bias. These findings can help inform how future lung function equations for the elderly are derived.

  3. Effects of combinations of diesel exhaust and ozone exposure on lung function in human volunteers.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) exposure induces changes in human lung function, typically seen as a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Because people are usually exposed to other ambient air pollutants simultaneously with 03, there may be interact...

  4. Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Azizi, B H; Henry, R L

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

  5. Air pollution, airway inflammation and lung function in Mexico City school children

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. METHODS: We studied a cohort...

  6. Supine changes in lung function correlate with chronic respiratory failure in myotonic dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Poussel, Mathias; Kaminsky, Pierre; Renaud, Pierre; Laroppe, Julien; Pruna, Lelia; Chenuel, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Quality of life and prognosis of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) often depend on the degree of lung function impairment. This study was designed to assess the respective prevalence of ventilatory restriction, hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in MD1 patients and to determine whether postural changes in lung function could contribute to the early diagnosis of poor respiratory outcome. Fifty-eight patients (42.6±12.9 years) with MD1 were prospectively evaluated from April 2008 to June 2010 to determine their supine and upright lung function and arterial blood gases. The prevalence of ventilatory restriction was 36% and increased with the severity of muscular disability (from 7.7% to 70.6%). The prevalence of hypoxaemia and hypercapnia was 37.9% and 25.9%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the supine fall in FEV1 was the only variable associated with ventilatory restriction, hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. Our data indicate that supine evaluation of lung function could be helpful to predict poor respiratory outcome, which is closely correlated with hypoxaemia and/or hypercapnia.

  7. Lung function, respiratory symptoms and venous thromboembolism risk: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Y; London, S J; Cushman, M; Chamberlain, A M; Rosamond, W D; Heckbert, S R; Zakai, N; Folsom, A R

    2016-12-01

    Essentials The association of lung function with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patterns were associated with a higher risk of VTE. Symptoms were also associated with a higher risk of VTE, but a restrictive pattern was not. COPD may increase the risk of VTE and respiratory symptoms may be a novel risk marker for VTE.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES, LUNG FUNCTION, AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN RURAL LAO PDR

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jaime R; Somsamouth, Khamphithoune; Mounivong, Boualoy; Sinclair, Ryan; Soret, Sam; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2014-01-01

    Although the individual contributions of smoked tobacco and indoor air pollution have been identified, there are very few studies that have characterized and measured the effects of inhaled particles from a wide range of personal, household, and community practices common in rural Asia. The objective of our study was to examine the association between environmental inhaled exposures and lung function among rural males of Lao PDR. In a sample of 92 males from rural Lao PDR, study subjects completed a survey on household exposures, a physical exam, and the following measures of lung function: FEV1, FVC, and the ratio of FEV1/FVC. Our findings were as follows: a) > 80% of the subjects were exposed to indoor cooking fires (wood fuel), animal handling, dust and dirt; b) 57.6% of subjects were in the impaired range (FEV1/FVC < 0.7); and c) animal handling was negatively associated (p<0.03) with FEV1 and FVC. Among males in rural Lao PDR, we found a high prevalence of chronic exposure to inhaled particles (animal handling, dust/dirt, smoke) and a high prevalence of impaired lung function. Findings from this pilot study indicate that associations between exposure to multiple sources of particulate matter common in rural areas and lung function need further investigation. PMID:24964671

  9. Lung function in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Minozzo, Fábio Carderelli; Sousa, Bolivar Saldanha; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Quadros, Abrahão Augusto Juviniano; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare lung function between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and those with sequelae of paralytic poliomyelitis (without any signs or symptoms of post-poliomyelitis syndrome), as well as between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine male participants were assigned to one of three groups: control; poliomyelitis (comprising patients who had had paralytic poliomyelitis but had not developed post-poliomyelitis syndrome); and post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Volunteers underwent lung function measurements (spirometry and respiratory muscle strength assessment). RESULTS: The results of the spirometric assessment revealed no significant differences among the groups except for an approximately 27% lower mean maximal voluntary ventilation in the post-poliomyelitis syndrome group when compared with the control group (p = 0.0127). Nevertheless, the maximal voluntary ventilation values for the post-poliomyelitis group were compared with those for the Brazilian population and were found to be normal. No significant differences were observed in respiratory muscle strength among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of lower maximal voluntary ventilation, there was no significant lung function impairment in outpatients diagnosed with post-poliomyelitis syndrome when compared with healthy subjects and with patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis without post-poliomyelitis syndrome. This is an important clinical finding because it shows that patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome can have preserved lung function. PMID:24068267

  10. Effects of Exposure to Welding Fume on Lung Function: Results from the German WELDOX Study.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, M; Hoffmeyer, F; Gawrych, K; Lotz, A; Heinze, E; Berresheim, H; Merget, R; Harth, V; Van Gelder, R; Hahn, J-U; Hartwig, A; Weiß, T; Pesch, B; Brüning, T

    2015-01-01

    The association between exposure to welding fume and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been insufficiently clarified. In this study we assessed the influence of exposure to welding fume on lung function parameters. We investigated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and expiratory flow rates in 219 welders. We measured current exposure to respirable particles and estimated a worker's lifetime exposure considering welding techniques, working conditions and protective measures at current and former workplaces. Multiple regression models were applied to estimate the influence of exposure to welding fume, age, and smoking on lung function. We additionally investigated the duration of working as a welder and the predominant welding technique. The findings were that age- and smoking-adjusted lung function parameters showed no decline with increasing duration, current exposure level, and lifetime exposure to welding fume. However, 15% of the welders had FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal, but we could not substantiate the presence of an association with the measures of exposure. Adverse effects of cigarette smoking were confirmed. In conclusion, the study did not support the notion of a possible detrimental effect of exposure to welding fume on lung function in welders.

  11. Environmental exposures, lung function, and respiratory health in rural Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jaime R; Somsamouth, Khamphithoune; Mounivong, Boualoy; Sinclair, Ryan; Soret, Sam; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2014-01-01

    Although the individual contributions of smoked tobacco and indoor air pollution have been identified, there are very few studies that have characterized and measured the effects of inhaled particles from a wide range of personal, household, and community practices common in rural Asia. The objective of our study was to examine the association between environmental inhaled exposures and lung function among rural males of Lao PDR. In a sample of 92 males from rural Lao PDR, study subjects completed a survey on household exposures, a physical exam, and the following measures of lung function: FEV1, FVC, and the ratio of FEV1/FVC. Our findings were as follows: a) > 80% of the subjects were exposed to indoor cooking fires (wood fuel), animal handling, dust and dirt; b) 57.6% of subjects were in the impaired range (FEV1/FVC < 0.7); and c) animal handling was negatively associated (p < 0.03) with FEV1 and FVC. Among males in rural Lao PDR, we found a high prevalence of chronic exposure to inhaled particles (animal handling, dust/dirt, smoke) and a high prevalence of impaired lung function. Findings from this pilot study indicate that associations between exposure to multiple sources of particulate matter common in rural areas and lung function need further investigation.

  12. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  13. CCD Multi-Function Processor Test Bed.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    AD-A111 335 MITRE CORP BEDFORDMA F/6 9/5 CCD MULTIFUNCTION PROCESSOR TEST BED.(U) JAN 82 M W PACZAN. S M WALOSTEIN F19628-81-C-OO01 UNCLASSIFIED MTR...HAIAf III 4 ESD-TR-81-394 MTR-8417 CCD MULTI-FUNCTION PROCESSOR TEST BED By M. W. Paczan and S. M. Waldstein JANUARY 1982 Prepared for DEPUTY FOR...TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CCD MULTI-FUNCTION PROCESSOR TEST BED 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER MTR-8417 7 AUT-OR(s) S

  14. Deficits in lung alveolarization and function after systemic maternal inflammation and neonatal hyperoxia exposure.

    PubMed

    Velten, Markus; Heyob, Kathryn M; Rogers, Lynette K; Welty, Stephen E

    2010-05-01

    Systemic maternal inflammation contributes to preterm birth and is associated with development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Infants with BPD exhibit decreased alveolarization, diffuse interstitial fibrosis with thickened alveolar septa, and impaired pulmonary function. We tested the hypothesis that systemic prenatal LPS administration to pregnant mice followed by postnatal hyperoxia exposure is associated with prolonged alterations in pulmonary structure and function after return to room air (RA) that are more severe than hyperoxia exposure alone. Timed-pregnant C3H/HeN mice were dosed with LPS (80 microg/kg) or saline on gestation day 16. Newborn pups were exposed to RA or 85% O2 for 14 days and then to RA for an additional 14 days. Data were collected and analyzed on postnatal days 14 and 28. The combination of prenatal LPS and postnatal hyperoxia exposure generated a phenotype with more inflammation (measured as no. of macrophages per high-power field) than either insult alone at day 28. The combined exposures were associated with a diffuse fibrotic response [measured as hydroxyproline content (microg)] but did not induce a more severe developmental arrest than hyperoxia alone. Pulmonary function tests indicated that hyperoxia, independent of maternal exposure, induced compliance decreases on day 14 that did not persist after RA recovery. Either treatment alone or combined induced an increase in resistance on day 14, but the increase persisted on day 28 only in pups receiving the combined treatment. In conclusion, the combination of systemic maternal inflammation and neonatal hyperoxia induced a prolonged phenotype of arrested alveolarization, diffuse fibrosis, and impaired lung mechanics that mimics human BPD. This new model should be useful in designing studies of specific mechanisms and interventions that could ultimately be utilized to define therapies to prevent BPD in premature infants.

  15. TU-F-17A-09: Four-Dimensional Cone Beam CT Ventilation Imaging Can Detect Interfraction Lung Function Variations for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Hugo, G; Weiss, E; Williamson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI) is a novel functional lung imaging modality requiring validation. We hypothesize that 4D-CBCT VI satisfies a necessary condition for validity: that intrafraction variations (e.g. due to poor 4D-CBCT image quality) are substantially different to interfraction variations (e.g. due to changes in underlying function). We perform the first comparison of intrafraction (pre/post fraction) and interfraction (week-to-week) 4D-CBCT VIs for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: A total of 215 4D-CBCT scans were acquired for 19 LA NSCLC patients over 4-6 weeks of radiation therapy, including 75 pairs of pre-/post-fraction scans on the same day. 4D-CBCT VIs were obtained by applying state-of-the-art, B-spline deformable image registration to obtain the Jacobian determinant of deformation between the end-exhale and end-inhale phases. All VIs were deformably registered to the corresponding first day scan, normalized between the 10th and 90th percentile values and cropped to the ipsilateral lung only. Intrafraction variations were assessed by computing the mean and standard deviation of voxel-wise differences between all same-day pairs of pre-/post-fraction VIs. Interfraction differences were computed between first-day VIs and treatment weeks 2, 4 and 6 for all 19 patients. We tested the hypothesis by comparing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of intrafraction and interfraction ventilation differences using two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Results: The (mean ± std. dev.) of intrafraction differences was (−0.007 ± 0.079). Interfraction differences for weeks 2, 4 and 6 were (−0.035 ± 0.103), (−0.006 ± 0.094) and (−0.019 ± 0.127) respectively. For week 2, the changes in CDFs for intrafraction and interfraction differences approached statistical significance (p=0.099). Conclusion: We have shown that 4D-CBCT VI

  16. Investigation of Lung Structure-Function Relationships Using Hyperpolarized Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomen, Robert P.

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an application of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon to non-invasively generate 3D tomographic images. MRI is an emerging modality for the lung, but it suffers from low sensitivity due to inherent low tissue density and short T(*/2) . Hyperpolarization is a process by which the nuclear contribution to NMR signal is greatly enhanced to more than 100,000 times that of samples in thermal equilibrium. The noble gases 3He and 129Xe are most often hyperpolarized by transfer of light angular momentum through the electron of a vaporized alkali metal to the noble gas nucleus (called Spin Exchange Optical Pumping). The enhancement in NMR signal is so great that the gas itself can be imaged via MRI, and because noble gases are chemically inert, they can be safely inhaled by a subject, and the gas distribution within the interior of the lung can be imaged. The mechanics of respiration is an elegant physical process by which air is is brought into the distal airspaces of the lungs for oxygen/carbon dioxide gas exchange with blood. Therefore proper description of lung function is intricately related to its physical structure , and the basic mechanical operation of healthy lungs -- from pressure driven airflow, to alveolar airspace gas kinetics, to gas exchange by blood/gas concentration gradients, to elastic contraction of parenchymal tissue -- is a process decidedly governed by the laws of physics. This dissertation will describe experiments investigating the relationship of lung structure and function using hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas MRI. In particular HP gases will be applied to the study of several pulmonary diseases each of which demonstrates unique structure-function abnormalities: asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Successful implementation of an HP gas acquisition protocol for pulmonary studies is an involved and stratified undertaking which requires a solid theoretical foundation in NMR

  17. Functional Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    growth suppression, we prepared RNA-sequencing libraries and sequenced biological triplicates of both control BFP and RBM10-expressing samples on...in one or more patient samples , as reported in the COSMIC database. The majority of ERBB2 mutations found in cancer cell lines have proven to be...oncogenic in NIH-3T3 cells ( sample data: Figure 6, left panel). We have completed testing of these mutants in batches, and will re- test all 18

  18. Impact of hydrogel nanoparticle size and functionalization on in vivo behavior for lung imaging and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongjian; Ibricevic-Richardson, Aida; Cohen, Joel A.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Gunsten, Sean P.; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Walter, Michael J.; Welch, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer chemistry offers the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional nanoparticles which incorporate moieties that enhance diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of cargo delivery to the lung. However, since rules for predicting particle behavior following modification are not well defined, it is essential that probes for tracking fate in vivo are also included. Accordingly, we designed polyacrylamide-based hydrogel particles of differing sizes, functionalized with a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (Arg9), and labeled with imaging components to assess lung retention and cellular uptake after intratracheal administration. Radiolabeled microparticles (1–5 µm diameter) and nanoparticles (20–40 nm diameter) without and with Arg9 showed diffuse airspace distribution by positron emission tomography imaging. Biodistribution studies revealed that particle clearance and extrapulmonary distribution was, in part, size dependent. Microparticles were rapidly cleared by mucociliary routes but unexpectedly, also through the circulation. In contrast, nanoparticles had prolonged lung retention enhanced by Arg9 and were significantly restricted to the lung. For all particle types, uptake was predominant in alveolar macrophages, and, to a lesser extent, lung epithelial cells. In general, particles did not induce local inflammatory responses, with the exception of microparticles bearing Arg9. Whereas microparticles may be advantageous for short-term applications, nano-sized particles constitute an efficient high-retention and non-inflammatory vehicle for the delivery of diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutics to lung airspaces and alveolar macrophages that can be enhanced by Arg9. Importantly, our results show that minor particle modifications may significantly impact in vivo behavior within the complex environments of the lung, underscoring the need for animal modeling. PMID:19852512

  19. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  20. Reproducibility of incremental maximal cycle ergometer testing in patients with restrictive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Marciniuk, D. D.; Watts, R. E.; Gallagher, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Exercise testing has become an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of restrictive lung disease. The reproducibility of variables measured during exercise testing was examined in subjects with stable restrictive lung disease. METHODS--Six subjects, who had never previously undergone exercise testing, each underwent three maximal incremental exercise studies on a bicycle ergometer conducted during a 28 day period. RESULTS--Data collected at rest, before exercise, were not significantly different during the three study days. Comparison of results at the end of the exercise tests from the three studies also revealed no evidence of a significant learning effect. Reproducibility of exercise performance by subjects was assessed by the coefficient of variation. The mean within subject coefficient of variation at the end of the exercise tests was 5.6% for work rate, 7.9% for exercise duration, and 9.5% for dyspnoea. The mean within subject coefficient of variation obtained at the end of the exercise tests was 5.3% for oxygen uptake (VO2), 2.5% for oxygen saturation (SaO2), 4.0% for heart rate (HR), 5.5% for minute ventilation (VE), 5.8% for respiratory frequency (f), and 4.6% for tidal volume (VT). The mean within subject coefficient of variation at 40% and 70% of maximal work rates for VO2 was 5.7% and 5.6% respectively, for SaO2 1.3% and 1.5%, for HR 4.8% and 4.0%, for VE 6.3% and 6.6%, for f 10.1% and 7.8%, and for VT 6.0% and 4.5%. CONCLUSIONS--Variables measured during clinical exercise testing in subjects with restrictive lung disease are highly reproducible. No significant learning effect was found on repeated testing in subjects who had never previously undergone exercise testing. PMID:8236071

  1. Dual bronchodilation in COPD: lung function and patient-reported outcomes - a review.

    PubMed

    Price, David; Østrem, Anders; Thomas, Mike; Welte, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Several fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of long-acting bronchodilators (a long-acting muscarinic antagonist [LAMA] plus a long-acting β2-agonist [LABA]) are available for the treatment of COPD. Studies of these FDCs have demonstrated substantial improvements in lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) in comparison with their respective constituent monocomponents. Improvements in patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as symptoms and health status, as well as exacerbation rates, have been reported compared with a LABA or LAMA alone, but results are less consistent. The inconsistencies may in part be owing to differences in study design, methods used to assess study end points, and patient populations. Nevertheless, these observations tend to support an association between improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and improvements in symptom-based outcomes. In order to assess the effects of FDCs on PROs and evaluate relationships between PROs and changes in lung function, we performed a systematic literature search of publications reporting randomized controlled trials of FDCs. Results of this literature search were independently assessed by two reviewers, with a third reviewer resolving any conflicting results. In total, 22 Phase III randomized controlled trials of FDC bronchodilators in COPD were identified, with an additional study including a post-literature search (ten for indacaterol-glycopyrronium once daily, eight for umeclidinium-vilanterol once daily, three for tiotropium-olodaterol once daily, and two for aclidinium-formoterol twice daily). Results from these studies demonstrated that the LAMA-LABA FDCs significantly improved lung function compared with their component monotherapies or other single-agent treatments. Furthermore, LABA-LAMA combinations also generally improved symptoms and health status versus monotherapies, although some discrepancies between lung function and PROs were observed. Overall, the safety profiles of the

  2. Indoor nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms and lung function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, D; Leaderer, B; Chinn, S; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important pollutant of indoor and outdoor air, but epidemiological studies show inconsistent health effects. These inconsistencies may be due to failure to account for the health effects of nitrous acid (HONO) which is generated directly from gas combustion and indirectly from NO2. Methods: Two hundred and seventy six adults provided information on respiratory symptoms and lung function and had home levels of NO2 and HONO measured as well as outdoor levels of NO2. The association of indoor HONO levels with symptoms and lung function was examined. Results: The median indoor HONO level was 3.10 ppb (IQR 2.05–5.09), with higher levels in homes with gas hobs, gas ovens, and in those measured during the winter months. Non-significant increases in respiratory symptoms were observed in those living in homes with higher HONO levels. An increase of 1 ppb in indoor HONO was associated with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage predicted (–0.96%; 95% CI –0.09 to –1.82) and a decrease in percentage FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (–0.45%; 95% CI –0.06 to –0.83) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Measures of indoor NO2 were correlated with HONO (r = 0.77), but no significant association of indoor NO2 with symptoms or lung function was observed. After adjustment for NO2 measures, the association of HONO with low lung function persisted. Conclusion: Indoor HONO levels are associated with decrements in lung function and possibly with more respiratory symptoms. Inconsistencies between studies examining health effects of NO2 and use of gas appliances may be related to failure to account for this association. PMID:15923247

  3. Dual bronchodilation in COPD: lung function and patient-reported outcomes – a review

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Østrem, Anders; Thomas, Mike; Welte, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Several fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of long-acting bronchodilators (a long-acting muscarinic antagonist [LAMA] plus a long-acting β2-agonist [LABA]) are available for the treatment of COPD. Studies of these FDCs have demonstrated substantial improvements in lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) in comparison with their respective constituent monocomponents. Improvements in patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as symptoms and health status, as well as exacerbation rates, have been reported compared with a LABA or LAMA alone, but results are less consistent. The inconsistencies may in part be owing to differences in study design, methods used to assess study end points, and patient populations. Nevertheless, these observations tend to support an association between improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and improvements in symptom-based outcomes. In order to assess the effects of FDCs on PROs and evaluate relationships between PROs and changes in lung function, we performed a systematic literature search of publications reporting randomized controlled trials of FDCs. Results of this literature search were independently assessed by two reviewers, with a third reviewer resolving any conflicting results. In total, 22 Phase III randomized controlled trials of FDC bronchodilators in COPD were identified, with an additional study including a post-literature search (ten for indacaterol–glycopyrronium once daily, eight for umeclidinium–vilanterol once daily, three for tiotropium–olodaterol once daily, and two for aclidinium–formoterol twice daily). Results from these studies demonstrated that the LAMA–LABA FDCs significantly improved lung function compared with their component monotherapies or other single-agent treatments. Furthermore, LABA–LAMA combinations also generally improved symptoms and health status versus monotherapies, although some discrepancies between lung function and PROs were observed. Overall, the safety

  4. Lung Function in Wheezing Infants after Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Its Association with Respiratory Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Gao-Li; Wang, Li-Bo; Wan, Cheng-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Li-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wheezing is common in early childhood and remains an important health concern. The aim of this study was to assess the lung function of wheezing infants and to investigate the relationship between lung function and respiratory outcome. Methods: Infants <2 years of age with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) who had undergone lung function tests were included in the study. They were assigned to wheeze or no wheeze group based on physical examination. Infants without any respiratory diseases were enrolled as controls. Lung function was measured during the acute phase and 3 months after ALRTI. One-year follow-up for infants with ALRTI was achieved. Results: A total of 252 infants with ALRTI who had acceptable data regarding tidal breathing were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control and the no wheeze groups, infants in the wheeze group had significantly decreased time to peak tidal expiratory flow as a percentage of total expiratory time (TPTEF/TE) (20.1 ± 6.4% vs. 34.4 ± 6.2% and 26.4 ± 8.3%, respectively, P < 0.0001) and significantly increased peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF) (90.7 ± 26.3 ml/s vs. 79.3 ± 18.4 ml/s and 86.1 ± 28.0 ml/s, respectively, P < 0.01), sReff and Reff. The infants in the wheeze group still had lower TPTEF/TE and volume to peak tidal expiratory flow as a percentage of total expiratory volume (VPTEF/VE) than the no wheeze infants 3 months after the ALRTI. Moreover, there was a significant inverse relationship between TPTEF/TE, VPTEF/VE, and the recurrence of wheezing and pneumonia. Conclusions: Impaired lung function was present in wheezing infants with ALRTI and the deficits persisted. In addition, the lower level of TPTEF/TE and VPTEF/VE was a risk factor for poor respiratory outcome. PMID:28051016

  5. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luis IG; Ind, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    As cannabis use increases, physicians need to be familiar with the effects of both cannabis and tobacco on the lungs. However, there have been very few long-term studies of cannabis smoking, mostly due to legality issues and the confounding effects of tobacco. It was previously thought that cannabis and tobacco had similar long-term effects as both cause chronic bronchitis. However, recent large studies have shown that, instead of reducing forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), marijuana smoking is associated with increased FVC. The cause of this is unclear, but acute bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis may be relevant. Bullous lung disease, barotrauma and cannabis smoking have been recognised in case reports and small series. More work is needed to address the effects of cannabis on lung function, imaging and histological changes. PMID:27763599

  6. Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function.

    PubMed

    Soler Artigas, María; Loth, Daan W; Wain, Louise V; Gharib, Sina A; Obeidat, Ma'en; Tang, Wenbo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhao, Jing Hua; Smith, Albert Vernon; Huffman, Jennifer E; Albrecht, Eva; Jackson, Catherine M; Evans, David M; Cadby, Gemma; Fornage, Myriam; Manichaikul, Ani; Lopez, Lorna M; Johnson, Toby; Aldrich, Melinda C; Aspelund, Thor; Barroso, Inês; Campbell, Harry; Cassano, Patricia A; Couper, David J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Grkovic, Ivica; Hammond, Christopher J; Hancock, Dana B; Harris, Tamara B; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Heckbert, Susan R; Heliövaara, Markku; Homuth, Georg; Hysi, Pirro G; James, Alan L; Jankovic, Stipan; Joubert, Bonnie R; Karrasch, Stefan; Klopp, Norman; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore J; Liu, Yongmei; Loehr, Laura R; Lohman, Kurt; Loos, Ruth J F; Lumley, Thomas; Al Balushi, Khalid A; Ang, Wei Q; Barr, R Graham; Beilby, John; Blakey, John D; Boban, Mladen; Boraska, Vesna; Brisman, Jonas; Britton, John R; Brusselle, Guy G; Cooper, Cyrus; Curjuric, Ivan; Dahgam, Santosh; Deary, Ian J; Ebrahim, Shah; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Francks, Clyde; Gaysina, Darya; Granell, Raquel; Gu, Xiangjun; Hankinson, John L; Hardy, Rebecca; Harris, Sarah E; Henderson, John; Henry, Amanda; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Holt, Patrick G; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, Michael L; Imboden, Medea; Jameson, Karen A; Kerr, Shona M; Kolcic, Ivana; Kronenberg, Florian; Liu, Jason Z; Marchini, Jonathan; McKeever, Tricia; Morris, Andrew D; Olin, Anna-Carin; Porteous, David J; Postma, Dirkje S; Rich, Stephen S; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rochat, Thierry; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Sayers, Ian; Sly, Peter D; Smith, George Davey; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M; Uitterlinden, André G; Vonk, Judith M; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Wijmenga, Cisca; Williams, O Dale; Wong, Andrew; Mangino, Massimo; Marciante, Kristin D; McArdle, Wendy L; Meibohm, Bernd; Morrison, Alanna C; North, Kari E; Omenaas, Ernst; Palmer, Lyle J; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pin, Isabelle; Pola Sbreve Ek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Psaty, Bruce M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Rantanen, Taina; Ripatti, Samuli; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Schulz, Holger; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Warrington, Nicole M; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wild, Sarah H; Wilk, Jemma B; Wjst, Matthias; Wright, Alan F; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Pennell, Craig E; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Holloway, John W; Boezen, H Marike; Lawlor, Debbie A; Morris, Richard W; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F; Hayward, Caroline; Kähönen, Mika; Heinrich, Joachim; Musk, Arthur W; Jarvis, Deborah L; Gläser, Sven; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ch Stricker, Bruno H; Elliott, Paul; O'Connor, George T; Strachan, David P; London, Stephanie J; Hall, Ian P; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tobin, Martin D

    2011-09-25

    Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry with follow up of the top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P < 5 × 10(-8)) with pulmonary function in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (also known as EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1 and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.

  7. Genome-wide association and large scale follow-up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function

    PubMed Central

    Artigas, María Soler; Loth, Daan W; Wain, Louise V; Gharib, Sina A; Obeidat, Ma’en; Tang, Wenbo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhao, Jing Hua; Smith, Albert Vernon; Huffman, Jennifer E; Albrecht, Eva; Jackson, Catherine M; Evans, David M; Cadby, Gemma; Fornage, Myriam; Manichaikul, Ani; Lopez, Lorna M; Johnson, Toby; Aldrich, Melinda C; Aspelund, Thor; Barroso, Inês; Campbell, Harry; Cassano, Patricia A; Couper, David J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Grkovic, Ivica; Hammond, Christopher J; Hancock, Dana B; Harris, Tamara B; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Heckbert, Susan R; Heliövaara, Markku; Homuth, Georg; Hysi, Pirro G; James, Alan L; Jankovic, Stipan; Joubert, Bonnie R; Karrasch, Stefan; Klopp, Norman; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore J; Liu, Yongmei; Loehr, Laura R; Lohman, Kurt; Loos, Ruth JF; Lumley, Thomas; Al Balushi, Khalid A; Ang, Wei Q; Barr, R Graham; Beilby, John; Blakey, John D; Boban, Mladen; Boraska, Vesna; Brisman, Jonas; Britton, John R; Brusselle, Guy G; Cooper, Cyrus; Curjuric, Ivan; Dahgam, Santosh; Deary, Ian J; Ebrahim, Shah; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Francks, Clyde; Gaysina, Darya; Granell, Raquel; Gu, Xiangjun; Hankinson, John L; Hardy, Rebecca; Harris, Sarah E; Henderson, John; Henry, Amanda; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Holt, Patrick G; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, Michael L; Imboden, Medea; Jameson, Karen A; Kerr, Shona M; Kolcic, Ivana; Kronenberg, Florian; Liu, Jason Z; Marchini, Jonathan; McKeever, Tricia; Morris, Andrew D; Olin, Anna-Carin; Porteous, David J; Postma, Dirkje S; Rich, Stephen S; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rochat, Thierry; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Sayers, Ian; Sly, Peter D; Smith, George Davey; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M; Uitterlinden, André G; Vonk, Judith M; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Wijmenga, Cisca; Williams, O Dale; Wong, Andrew; Mangino, Massimo; Marciante, Kristin D; McArdle, Wendy L; Meibohm, Bernd; Morrison, Alanna C; North, Kari E; Omenaas, Ernst; Palmer, Lyle J; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pin, Isabelle; Polašek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Psaty, Bruce M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Rantanen, Taina; Ripatti, Samuli; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Schulz, Holger; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Warrington, Nicole M; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wild, Sarah H; Wilk, Jemma B; Wjst, Matthias; Wright, Alan F; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Pennell, Craig E; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Holloway, John W; Boezen, H Marike; Lawlor, Debbie A; Morris, Richard W; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F; Hayward, Caroline; Kähönen, Mika; Heinrich, Joachim; Musk, Arthur W; Jarvis, Deborah L; Gläser, Sven; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Elliott, Paul; O’Connor, George T; Strachan, David P; London, Stephanie J; Hall, Ian P; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tobin, Martin D

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and predict mortality, and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry, with follow-up of top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P<5×10−8) with pulmonary function, in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1, and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function. PMID:21946350

  8. Birth weight at term and lung function in adolescence: no evidence for a programmed effect.

    PubMed Central

    Matthes, J W; Lewis, P A; Davies, D P; Bethel, J A

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that factors which influence low birth weight at term may be associated with reduced lung function in later life. This hypothesis was investigated in a comparative (retrospective) cohort study of 164 matched pairs of subjects where the observers responsible for tracing and studying the subjects were unaware of their case or control status. The subjects, born in Cardiff between 1975 and 1977, were of mean age 15.7 years. Cases (low birth weight (< 2500 g) at term) were matched with controls (normal birth weight (3000-3800 g) at term) for sex, parity, place of birth, date of birth, and gestation. Lung function was measured using a portable spirometer. The corrected mean differences (95% confidence interval) in forced vital capacity (FVC) and flow when 50% or 25% of the FVC remains in the lungs between the cases and controls were respectively -41 ml (-140 to 58), -82 ml/sec (-286 to 122), and -83 ml/sec (-250 to 83). None of these differences were statistically significant. These results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that low birth weight at term is associated with reduced lung function in adolescence. PMID:7492161

  9. Compatible solutes: ectoine and hydroxyectoine improve functional nanostructures in artificial lung surfactants.

    PubMed

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Sachan, Amit Kumar; Kerth, Andreas; Lentzen, Georg; Neuhaus, Thorsten; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2011-12-01

    Ectoine and hydroxyectoine belong to the family of compatible solutes and are among the most abundant osmolytes in nature. These compatible solutes protect biomolecules from extreme conditions and maintain their native function. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of ectoine and hydroxyectoine on the domain structures of artificial lung surfactant films consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and the lung surfactant specific surfactant protein C (SP-C) in a molar ratio of 80:20:0.4. The pressure-area isotherms are found to be almost unchanged by both compatible solutes. The topology of the fluid domains shown by scanning force microscopy, which is thought to be responsible for the biophysical behavior under compression, however, is modified giving rise to the assumption that ectoine and hydroxyectoine are favorable for a proper lung surfactant function. This is further evidenced by the analysis of the insertion kinetics of lipid vesicles into the lipid-peptide monolayer, which is clearly enhanced in the presence of both compatible solutes. Thus, we could show that ectoine and hydroxyectoine enhance the function of lung surfactant in a simple model system, which might provide an additional rationale to inhalative therapy.

  10. Fetal corticosteroid and T4 treatment effects on lung function of surfactant-treated preterm lambs.

    PubMed

    Chen, C M; Ikegami, M; Ueda, T; Polk, D H; Jobe, A H

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of sheep fetuses at 125 or 126 d gestational age randomly received a single ultrasound-guided intramuscular injection of saline, 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone, or 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone plus 50 micrograms/kg thyroxine (T4). Forty-eight hours later the fetuses were delivered, treated with a pulmonary surfactant preparation, and ventilated for 3 h. Corticosteroids alone and in combination with T4 increased FRC, compliance, and lung volumes, and decreased the protein leak into the airspace. Saturated phosphatidylcholine pool sizes recovered by alveolar washing were not changed after hormone treatment. To evaluate the function of surfactant recovered from the lambs in vivo, we treated preterm rabbits at 27 d gestational age with the large-aggregate surfactant from alveolar washes. Large-aggregate surfactants and the pulmonary surfactant preparation increased compliances and maximal lung volumes relative to those in untreated preterm rabbits. Large-aggregate surfactants improved compliance more than did the pulmonary surfactant preparation. We conclude that ultrasound-guided single fetal corticosteroid treatment followed by postnatal surfactant improved postnatal lung function in preterm lambs. Addition of T4 did not augment corticosteroid effects. The function of the exogenous surfactant was improved in premature lamb lungs independently of the fetal treatment modality.

  11. Predicting Structure-Function Relations and Survival following Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Treatment of Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Mondoñedo, Jarred R.

    2017-01-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (bLVR) are palliative treatments aimed at reducing hyperinflation in advanced emphysema. Previous work has evaluated functional improvements and survival advantage for these techniques, although their effects on the micromechanical environment in the lung have yet to be determined. Here, we introduce a computational model to simulate a force-based destruction of elastic networks representing emphysema progression, which we use to track the response to lung volume reduction via LVRS and bLVR. We find that (1) LVRS efficacy can be predicted based on pre-surgical network structure; (2) macroscopic functional improvements following bLVR are related to microscopic changes in mechanical force heterogeneity; and (3) both techniques improve aspects of survival and quality of life influenced by lung compliance, albeit while accelerating disease progression. Our model predictions yield unique insights into the microscopic origins underlying emphysema progression before and after lung volume reduction. PMID:28182686

  12. Predicting Structure-Function Relations and Survival following Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Treatment of Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Mondoñedo, Jarred R; Suki, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (bLVR) are palliative treatments aimed at reducing hyperinflation in advanced emphysema. Previous work has evaluated functional improvements and survival advantage for these techniques, although their effects on the micromechanical environment in the lung have yet to be determined. Here, we introduce a computational model to simulate a force-based destruction of elastic networks representing emphysema progression, which we use to track the response to lung volume reduction via LVRS and bLVR. We find that (1) LVRS efficacy can be predicted based on pre-surgical network structure; (2) macroscopic functional improvements following bLVR are related to microscopic changes in mechanical force heterogeneity; and (3) both techniques improve aspects of survival and quality of life influenced by lung compliance, albeit while accelerating disease progression. Our model predictions yield unique insights into the microscopic origins underlying emphysema progression before and after lung volume reduction.

  13. Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção, Silvana Neves Ferraz; Daltro, Carla Hilário da Cunha; Boa Sorte, Ney Christian; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Queiroz, Cleriston Farias; Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. RESULTS: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated. PMID:24831397

  14. Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Akihiro Hiraki, Takao; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

  15. MUSCULOSKELETAL SCREENING AND FUNCTIONAL TESTING: CONSIDERATIONS FOR BASKETBALL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Markwick, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks. Thus, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the existing literature elucidating pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance tests that can be used as a framework for rehabilitation professionals in assessing basketball athletes’ readiness to safely perform the movement demands of their sport. Methods Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2016 using the search terms ‘musculoskeletal screening’, ‘functional testing’, ‘youth athletes’, and ‘basketball’ were identified using MEDLINE. From a basketball-specific perspective, several relevant musculoskeletal assessments were identified, including: the Functional Hop Test Combination, the Landing Error Scoring System, the Tuck Jump Assessment, the Weight-Bearing Lunge Test, and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Each of these assessments creates movement demands that allow for easy identification of inefficient and/or compensatory movement tendencies. A basic understanding of musculoskeletal deficits including bilateral strength and flexibility imbalances, lower crossed syndrome, and dominance-related factors are key components in determination of injury risk. Discussion Assessment of sport-specific movement demands through

  16. An automated system for pulmonary function testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to quantitate pulmonary function was accepted for the space shuttle concept verification test. The single breath maneuver and the nitrogen washout are combined to reduce the test time. Parameters are defined from the forced vital capacity maneuvers. A spirometer measures the breath volume and a magnetic section mass spectrometer provides definition of gas composition. Mass spectrometer and spirometer data are analyzed by a PDP-81 digital computer.

  17. [Pulmonary function testing in Japan: present status and new developments].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Naoko

    2012-09-01

    In 2004, the Japanese Respiratory Society issued an initial set of recommendations on the standardized measurement of the most frequently used tests for pulmonary function, i.e., tests to assess slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. This statement has not been updated, and the prediction equations for pulmonary function testing are not fully established. Thus, the guidelines will need to be periodically updated in accordance with new developments in this rapidly evolving field. Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognized as a biological mediator in animals and humans. The human lung produces NO and exhales it in breath. The fractional nitric oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled breath (FE(NO)) can be quantitatively measured by a simple, safe, and noninvasive procedure as a complementary tool for assessing airway inflammation in airway diseases such as asthma. While the measurement of exhaled NO is standardized for clinical use, FE(NO) measurement is not approved or covered under the public health insurance system in Japan.

  18. Serum p53 antibody detection in patients with impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TP53 gene mutations can lead to the expression of a dysfunctional protein that in turn may enable genetically unstable cells to survive and change into malignant cells. Mutant p53 accumulates early in cells and can precociously induce circulating anti-p53 antibodies (p53Abs); in fact, p53 overexpression has been observed in pre-neoplastic lesions, such as bronchial dysplasia, and p53Abs have been found in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, before the diagnosis of lung and other tobacco-related tumors. Methods A large prospective study was carried out, enrolling non-smokers, ex-smokers and smokers with or without the impairment of lung function, to analyze the incidence of serum p53Abs and the correlation with clinicopathologic features, in particular smoking habits and impairment of lung function, in order to investigate their possible role as early markers of the onset of lung cancer or other cancers. The p53Ab levels were evaluated by a specific ELISA in 675 subjects. Results Data showed that significant levels of serum p53Abs were present in 35 subjects (5.2%); no difference was observed in the presence of p53Abs with regard to age and gender, while p53Abs correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and packs-year. Furthermore, serum p53Abs were associated with the worst lung function impairment. The median p53Ab level in positive subjects was 3.5 units/ml (range 1.2 to 65.3 units/ml). Only fifteen positive subjects participated in the follow-up, again resulting positive for serum p53Abs, and no evidence of cancer was found in these patients. Conclusion The presence of serum p53Abs was found to be associated with smoking level and lung function impairment, both risk factors of cancer development. However, in our study we have not observed the occurrence of lung cancer or other cancers in the follow-up of positive subjects, therefore we cannot directly correlate the presence of serum p53Abs with cancer risk. PMID:23384026

  19. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Tager, I.B.; Balmes, J.R.; Harrison, R.J. )

    1992-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of smoke on forced expiratory volumes and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters during a season of active fire fighting. Sixty-three seasonal and full-time wildland fire fighters from five U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS) Hotshot crews in Northern California and Montana completed questionnaires, spirometry, and methacholine challenge testing before and after an active season of fire fighting in 1989. There were significant mean individual declines of 0.09, 0.15, and 0.44 L/s in postseason values of FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75, respectively, compared with preseason values. There were no consistent significant relationships between mean individual declines of the spirometric parameters and the covariates: sex, smoking history, history of asthma or allergies, years as a fire fighter, upper/lower respiratory symptoms, or membership in a particular Hotshot crew. There was a statistically significant increase in airway responsiveness when comparing preseason methacholine dose-response slopes (DRS) with postseason dose-response slopes (p = 0.02). The increase in airway responsiveness appeared to be greatest in fire fighters with a history of lower respiratory symptoms or asthma, but it was not related to smoking history. These data suggest that wildland fire fighting is associated with decreases in lung function and increases in airway responsiveness independent of a history of cigarette smoking. Our findings are consistent with the results of previous studies of municipal fire fighters.

  20. Changes in lung function after exposure to vanadium compounds in fuel oil ash

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R E M

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT Seventeen men were studied during the cleaning of bottom ash from the boiler of an oil-fired electricity generating station. The men were exposed to a time weighted average respirable dust (<10 μ) of 523 μg/m3, containing 15·3% vanadium. Sixteen of the men wore respirators, subsequently found to have peak leakages of up to 9%, while one volunteer had a one-hour exposure wearing only a compressed paper oronasal mask. Symptoms experienced by the men were recorded, urine samples were collected for assessment of vanadium concentration 24 hours after the first exposure, and spirometry was performed daily for four days and on the eight day. Pronounced reductions in forced vital capacity (mean 0·5 l), forced expiratory volume (mean 0·5 l), and forced mid-expiratory flow (mean 1·16 l/s) had occurred within 24 hours of first exposure to the dust, and had not returned to pre-exposure levels by the eight day. Four weeks after exposure no residual deficits were present. A urinary vanadium concentration of 280 μg/l was found in the volunteer, but none of the others had concentrations above the test-threshold of 40 μg/l. Symptoms and signs of airway irritation were noted. The timing, duration, and quality of changes in lung function, however, indicated that the response could not be attributed solely to a reflex bronchial reaction to irritation by an inert dust. PMID:7426476

  1. Lung function and left ventricular hypertrophy in morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Paulo de Tarso; Domingos, Hamilton; Patusco, Luiz Armando Pereira; Rapello, Gabriel Victor Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To look for correlations between lung function and cardiac dimension variables in morbidly obese patients, in order to test the hypothesis that the relative size of the small airways is independently correlated with left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 192 medical records containing a clinical protocol employed in candidates for bariatric surgery between January of 2006 and December of 2010. Results: Of the 192 patients evaluated, 39 (10 males and 29 females) met the inclusion criteria. The mean BMI of the patients was 49.2 ± 7.6 kg/m2, and the mean age was 35.5 ± 7.7 years. The FEF25-75/FVC, % correlated significantly with left ventricular posterior wall thickness and relative left ventricular posterior wall thickness, those correlations remaining statistically significant (r = −0.355 and r = −0.349, respectively) after adjustment for weight, gender, and history of systemic arterial hypertension. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis showed that FVC and FEV1 were the major determinants of left ventricular mass (in grams or indexed to body surface area). Conclusions: A reduction in the relative size of the small airways appears to be independently correlated with obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy, regardless of factors affecting respiratory mechanics (BMI and weight), gender, or history of systemic arterial hypertension. However, FEV1 and FVC might be important predictors of left ventricular mass in morbidly obese individuals. PMID:26578134

  2. Lung radiology and pulmonary function of children chronically exposed to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A; Chung, Charles J; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C; Gomez-del Campo, Alberto; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J; Reed, William

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters lung function tests based on predicted values. These findings are consistent with bronchiolar, peribronchiolar, and/or alveolar duct inflammation, possibly caused by ozone, PM, and lipopolysaccharide exposure. The epidemiologic implications of these findings are important for children residing in polluted environments, because bronchiolar disease could lead to chronic pulmonary disease later in life.

  3. SUSD2 is frequently downregulated and functions as a tumor suppressor in RCC and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yingying; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Pingzhang; Li, Ting; Hu, Fengzhan; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jun; Xu, Tao; Han, Wenling

    2016-07-01

    Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) is type I membrane protein containing domains inherent to adhesion molecules. There have been few reported studies on SUSD2, and they have mainly focused on breast cancer, colon cancer, and HeLa cells. However, the expression and function of SUSD2 in other cancers remain unclear. In the present study, we conducted an integrated bioinformatics analysis based on the array data from the GEO database and found a significant downregulation of SUSD2 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and lung cancer. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed that SUSD2 was frequently decreased in RCC and lung cancer tissues compared with the corresponding levels in normal adjacent tissues. The restoration of SUSD2 expression inhibited the proliferation and clonogenicity of RCC and lung cancer cells, whereas the knockdown of SUSD2 promoted A549 cell growth. Our findings suggested that SUSD2 functions as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in RCC and lung cancer.

  4. Cardiopulmonary function and morphologic changes in beagle dogs after multiple lung lavages

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Halliwell, W.H.; Slauson, D.O.

    1980-03-01

    This study evaluated the long-term biomedical risks of multiple, massive saline lung lavage using dogs. Risks were assessed using clinical examinations of cardiopulmonary function, thoracic radiographs, auscultation of the chest, body temperature, and hematologic values. Thirty-six dogs given 10 lavages over a 49-day period had no gross lesions at time of necropsy 7 days after the last lavage. Six dogs, followed with clinical examinations after each of 10 lung lavages, had no detectable effects from the lavage except for elevated body temperature and bronchial breathing at 24 hr after some procedures. No gross lesions were found at sacrifice 28 days after the last lavage. The only histologic lesions found were those also found in unlavaged control dogs. Six dogs that were lavaged 10 or more times had normal pulmonary function values for 4 yr after the last lung lavage. No chronic sequelae were found in healthy beagle dogs given 10 or more lung lavages suggesting a minimal long-term risk associated with these procedures.

  5. Decreased lung function associated with occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin and the modification effects of glutathione s-transferase polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Kuo, Hsen-Wen; Chang, Ming J W

    2004-03-01

    Epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3,-epoxypropane; ECH) is a strong irritant of the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin. Because the toxic effect of various chemicals can be modified by metabolic traits, in this study, we also investigated the influence of the glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1) and (GSTT1) genes on the toxic effect of ECH. In the GSTM1 null genotype workers, there is a dose-response of lung function tests (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMEF) for ECH exposure, but not in the GSTM1 non-null genotype workers. The ECH exposure was found to be significantly associated with a decreased FEV1 value (P = 0.09) and a decreased MMEF value (P = 0.053) after adjusting for other factors. The GSTM1 null genotype was found to be significantly associated with a decreased FEV1 value (P = 0.038), decreased FEV1/FVC value (P = 0.056), and decreased MMEF value (P = 0.012) after adjusting for other factors. This study indicates that obstructive lung abnormalities and small airway lung damage are associated with ECH exposure, and ECH workers with GSTM1 null-type are also associated with increased respiratory damage.

  6. Clinical Relevance of Foam Rolling on Hip Extension Angle in a Functional Lunge Position.

    PubMed

    Bushell, Jennifer E; Dawson, Sierra M; Webster, Margaret M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the duration of effectiveness of foam rolling on hip extension angles in a dynamic lunge position. Thirty-one subjects were assigned to control (n = 15) or intervention (n = 16) group. All the subjects followed the same testing timeline; 3 testing sessions, with 2 lunges in each session. The intervention group performed foam rolling between each lunge in sessions 1 and 2, and 5 times in 7 days between sessions 1 and 2. They did not foam roll during the week between sessions 2 and 3 or in session 3. The control group did not foam roll at all. Hip extension angles were recorded using Dartfish software and subjects filled out a global perceived effect scale rating the feeling of the second lunge and the intervention for each session. A 6 × 2 mixed-effects analysis of variance was run with post hoc t-tests revealing significant gains in hip extension within session 2 for the intervention group (p ≤ 0.05). Hip extension angles returned to baseline values after subject's ceased foam rolling for 1 week. Global perceived effect scores were higher for the intervention group and 29 of 32 words of descriptive feedback included positive words regarding foam rolling. We concluded that consistent foam rolling produced increases in hip extension during a dynamic lunge, but these effects are not seen within the first exposure. Foam rolling received positive reception and perceived improvements in hip extension. The findings indicate that repeated foam rolling is beneficial, both objectively and subjectively, for increasing range of motion immediately preceding a dynamic activity.

  7. Molecular Testing Guideline for Selection of Lung Cancer Patients for EGFR and ALK Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Neal I.; Cagle, Philip T.; Beasley, Mary Beth; Chitale, Dhananjay Arun; Dacic, Sanja; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Jenkins, Robert Brian; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Squire, Jeremy; Thunnissen, Erik; Ladanyi, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish evidence-based recommendations for the molecular analysis of lung cancers that are that are required to guide EGFR- and ALK-directed therapies, addressing which patients and samples should be tested, and when and how testing should be performed. Participants Three cochairs without conflicts of interest were selected, one from each of the 3 sponsoring professional societies: College of American Pathologists, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Association for Molecular Pathology. Writing and advisory panels were constituted from additional experts from these societies. Evidence Three unbiased literature searches of electronic databases were performed to capture articles published published from January 2004 through February 2012, yielding 1533 articles whose abstracts were screened to identify 521 pertinent articles that were then reviewed in detail for their relevance to the recommendations. Evidence was formally graded for each recommendation. Consensus Process Initial recommendations were formulated by the cochairs and panel members at a public meeting. Each guideline section was assigned to at least 2 panelists. Drafts were circulated to the writing panel (version 1), advisory panel (version 2), and the public (version 3) before submission (version 4). Conclusions The 37 guideline items address 14 subjects, including 15 recommendations (evidence grade A/B). The major recommendations are to use testing for EGFR mutations and ALK fusions to guide patient selection for therapy with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, respectively, in all patients with advanced-stage adenocarcinoma, regardless of sex, race, smoking history, or other clinical risk factors, and to prioritize EGFR and ALK testing over other molecular predictive tests. As scientific discoveries and clinical practice outpace the completion of randomized clinical trials, evidence-based guidelines developed

  8. Lung function and respiratory symptoms among female hairdressers in Palestine: a 5-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nemer, Maysaa; Kristensen, Petter; Nijem, Khaldoun; Bjertness, Espen; Skare, Øivind; Skogstad, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hairdressers are exposed to chemicals at the workplace which are known to cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. This study aimed to examine changes in self-reported respiratory symptoms over 5 years, as well as to examine the lung function decline and determine whether it is within the expected range, to assess the dropout rate and reasons for leaving the profession, and to examine the associations between occupational factors and lung function changes at follow-up. Design Prospective study. Setting Female hairdressing salons in Hebron city, Palestine. Participants 170 female hairdressers who participated in a baseline survey in 2008 were followed up in 2013. A total of 161 participants participated in 2013. Outcome measures Change in reported respiratory symptoms and change in lung function over follow-up. Dropout from the profession and reasons for it. Differences between current and former hairdressers in respiratory symptoms and lung function at follow-up. Ambient air ammonia levels in 13 salons. Results Current hairdressers reported more respiratory symptoms in 2013 compared with baseline. Former hairdressers reported fewer symptoms at follow-up. At follow-up, current hairdressers showed a significant decrease in forced vital capacity of 35 mL/year (95% CI 26 to 44 mL/year) and of 31 mL/year (95% CI 25 to 36 mL/year) for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). 28 (16%) of the hairdressers quit the job during the 5-year follow-up, 8 (28%) because of health problems. Hairdressers who had been working for 4 years or more at baseline showed a stronger decline in FEV1 compared with those who worked less than 4 years (difference 13, 95% CI 1 to 25). Conclusions Current hairdressers developed more respiratory symptoms and larger lung function decline than former hairdressers during follow-up. Few hairdressers left their profession because of respiratory health problems. Working for more years is associated with lung function decline among

  9. Early Changes in Clinical, Functional, and Laboratory Biomarkers in Workers at Risk of Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Virji, M. Abbas; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Healey, Terrance; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Occupational exposure to indium compounds, including indium–tin oxide, can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. However, the early effects of exposure on the lungs are not well understood. Objectives To determine the relationship between short-term occupational exposures to indium compounds and the development of early lung abnormalities. Methods Among indium–tin oxide production and reclamation facility workers, we measured plasma indium, respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, chest computed tomography, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. Relationships between plasma indium concentration and health outcome variables were evaluated using restricted cubic spline and linear regression models. Measurements and Main Results Eighty-seven (93%) of 94 indium–tin oxide facility workers (median tenure, 2 yr; median plasma indium, 1.0 μg/l) participated in the study. Spirometric abnormalities were not increased compared with the general population, and few subjects had radiographic evidence of alveolar proteinosis (n = 0), fibrosis (n = 2), or emphysema (n = 4). However, in internal comparisons, participants with plasma indium concentrations ≥1.0 μg/l had more dyspnea, lower mean FEV1 and FVC, and higher median serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein-D levels. Spline regression demonstrated nonlinear exposure response, with significant differences occurring at plasma indium concentrations as low as 1.0 μg/l compared with the reference. Associations between health outcomes and the natural log of plasma indium concentration were evident in linear regression models. Associations were not explained by age, smoking status, facility tenure, or prior occupational exposures. Conclusions In indium–tin oxide facility workers with short-term, low-level exposure, plasma indium concentrations lower than previously reported were associated with lung symptoms, decreased spirometric parameters, and increased serum biomarkers of lung

  10. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  11. [The results of experimental study of six-hour heart-lung preservation by autoperfusion method--its evaluation of optimal conditions and lung function after preservation].

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, M; Makino, S; Hattori, R; Imura, M; Higashi, K; Morimoto, T; Yada, I; Namikawa, S; Yuasa, H; Kusagawa, M

    1989-04-01

    Up to date, it has been reported that the maintenance of ideal function of the preserved lungs were much more difficult than that of the hearts in heart-lung preservation. In this communication the authors have reported the results of experimental study for optimal conditions for preserving better function of the lungs by autoperfusion method by means of heart-lung preparation using 43 dogs. In this study the conditions of the preservation were fixed as following: perfusing blood temperature 29 degrees C, blood flow 30 ml/kg/min., FiO2 30%, FiCO2 5%, tidal volume 15 ml/kg, ventilation rate 10/min., and PEEP 5 cmH2O. Glucose-Insulin-Potassium (0.03 gm., 0.05 U., 0.02 mEq/kg/hr. respectively) were administered continuously by an infusion pump. The results showed that extravascular lung water contents after 6 hours of preservation was 0.79 (mean) +/- 0.01 (SD), which was increased only 1% over than the control group: 0.78 +/- 0.01. There was no significant difference of static lung compliance in two groups: the preserved group was 0.47 +/- 0.02 ml/gm.cmH2O compared to 0.51 +/- 0.06 in the control group. These results suggest that the autoperfusion method on our preserving conditions seems to be very promising and very effective to keep much better condition of the lungs in heart-lung preservation.

  12. Modifications of the Test Information Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Two modification formulas are presented for the test information function in order to provide better measures of local accuracies of the estimation of "theta" when maximum likelihood estimation is used to provide the estimate of ability "theta." A minimum bound of any estimator, biased or unbiased, is considered; and Formula 1…

  13. Measuring interfraction and intrafraction lung function changes during radiation therapy using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kipritidis, John Keall, Paul J.; Hugo, Geoffrey; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Adaptive ventilation guided radiation therapy could minimize the irradiation of healthy lung based on repeat lung ventilation imaging (VI) during treatment. However the efficacy of adaptive ventilation guidance requires that interfraction (e.g., week-to-week), ventilation changes are not washed out by intrafraction (e.g., pre- and postfraction) changes, for example, due to patient breathing variability. The authors hypothesize that patients undergoing lung cancer radiation therapy exhibit larger interfraction ventilation changes compared to intrafraction function changes. To test this, the authors perform the first comparison of interfraction and intrafraction lung VI pairs using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI), a novel technique for functional lung imaging. Methods: The authors analyzed a total of 215 4D-CBCT scans acquired for 19 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients over 4–6 weeks of radiation therapy. This set of 215 scans was sorted into 56 interfraction pairs (including first day scans and each of treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6) and 78 intrafraction pairs (including pre/postfraction scans on the same-day), with some scans appearing in both sets. VIs were obtained from the Jacobian determinant of the transform between the 4D-CBCT end-exhale and end-inhale images after deformable image registration. All VIs were deformably registered to their corresponding planning CT and normalized to account for differences in breathing effort, thus facilitating image comparison in terms of (i) voxelwise Spearman correlations, (ii) mean image differences, and (iii) gamma pass rates for all interfraction and intrafraction VI pairs. For the side of the lung ipsilateral to the tumor, we applied two-sided t-tests to determine whether interfraction VI pairs were more different than intrafraction VI pairs. Results: The (mean ± standard deviation) Spearman correlation for interfraction VI pairs was r{sup -}{sub Inter

  14. Dust exposure, respiratory symptoms, and longitudinal decline of lung function in young coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Carta, P; Aru, G; Barbieri, M T; Avataneo, G; Casula, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the role of dust exposure on incidence of respiratory symptoms and decline of lung function in young coal miners. METHODS: The loss of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow (MEF), carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO)) with time and the incidence of respiratory symptoms in 909 Sardinian coal miners (followed up between 1983 and 1993 with seven separate surveys) has been compared with the past and current individual exposures to respirable mixed coal dust. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used simultaneously controlling for age, smoking, past occupational exposures, and other relevant covariates. RESULTS: According to the relatively low dust exposures experienced during the follow up few abnormal chest x ray films were detected. In the cross sectional analysis of initial data, significant associations between individual cumulative exposure to dust, decrements in FEV1 and MEFs, and increasing prevalence of respiratory symptoms were detected after allowing for the covariates included in the model. The yearly decline of FVC, FEV1, and single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO/VA) was still significantly related to the individual exposure to dust experienced during the follow up, even after allowing for age, smoking, initial cumulative exposure to dust, and initial level of each functional variable. In logistic models, dust exposure was a significant predictor of the onset of respiratory symptoms besides age and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that even moderate exposures to mixed coal dust, as in our study, significantly affect lung function and incidence of symptoms of underground miners. Although the frequency of chest x ray examination might be fixed at every three or four years, yearly measurements of lung function (spirometry, MEFs, and TLCO) are recommended for evaluation of the respiratory risk from the coal mine environment to

  15. Relation of fetal growth to adult lung function in south India

    PubMed Central

    Stein, C. E.; Kumaran, K.; Fall, C. H.; Shaheen, S. O.; Osmond, C.; Barker, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Follow up studies in Britain have shown that low rates of fetal growth are followed by reduced lung function in adult life, independent of smoking and social class. It is suggested that fetal adaptations to undernutrition in utero result in permanent changes in lung structure, which in turn lead to chronic airflow obstruction. India has high rates of intrauterine growth retardation, but no study has examined the association between fetal growth and adult lung function in Indian people. We have related size at birth to lung function in an urban Indian population aged 38-59 years. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty six men and women born in one hospital in Mysore City, South India, during 1934-1953 were traced by a house-to-house survey of the city. Their mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured using a turbine spirometer. These measurements were linked to their size at birth, recorded at the time. RESULTS: In both men and women mean FEV1 fell with decreasing birthweight. Adjusted for age and height, it fell by 0.09 litres with each pound (454 g) decrease in birthweight in men (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.16) and by 0.06 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.13) in women. Likewise, mean FVC fell by 0.11 litres (95% CI 0.02 to 0.19) with each pound decrease in birthweight in men, and by 0.08 litres (95% CI 0.002 to 0.16) in women. FEV1 and FVC were lower in men who smoked, but the associations with size at birth were independent of smoking. Small head circumference at birth was associated with a low FEV1/FVC ratio in men which may reflect restriction in airway growth in early gestation. CONCLUSION: This is further evidence that adult lung function is "programmed" in fetal life. Smoking may be particularly detrimental to the lung function of populations already disadvantaged by poor rates of fetal growth. 


 PMID:9404378

  16. Use of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography-Based Ventilation Imaging to Correlate Lung Dose and Function With Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao, Zhongxing; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based ventilation is an emerging imaging modality that can be used in the thoracic treatment planning process. The clinical benefit of using ventilation images in radiation treatment plans remains to be tested. The purpose of the current work was to test the potential benefit of using ventilation in treatment planning by evaluating whether dose to highly ventilated regions of the lung resulted in increased incidence of clinical toxicity. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment 4DCT data were used to compute pretreatment ventilation images for 96 lung cancer patients. Ventilation images were calculated using 4DCT data, deformable image registration, and a density-change based algorithm. Dose–volume and ventilation-based dose function metrics were computed for each patient. The ability of the dose–volume and ventilation-based dose–function metrics to predict for severe (grade 3+) radiation pneumonitis was assessed using logistic regression analysis, area under the curve (AUC) metrics, and bootstrap methods. Results: A specific patient example is presented that demonstrates how incorporating ventilation-based functional information can help separate patients with and without toxicity. The logistic regression significance values were all lower for the dose–function metrics (range P=.093-.250) than for their dose–volume equivalents (range, P=.331-.580). The AUC values were all greater for the dose–function metrics (range, 0.569-0.620) than for their dose–volume equivalents (range, 0.500-0.544). Bootstrap results revealed an improvement in model fit using dose–function metrics compared to dose–volume metrics that approached significance (range, P=.118-.155). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to correlate lung dose and 4DCT ventilation-based function to thoracic toxicity after radiation therapy. Although the results were not significant at the .05 level, our data suggests

  17. Impact of Cytological Sampling on EGFR Mutation Testing in Stage III-IV Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christian; Edwards, Gwenllian; Butler, Rachel; Parry, Diane; Lester, Jason Francis

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. There have been advances in the identification and understanding of molecular subsets of lung cancer, defined by specific oncogenic aberrations. A number of actionable genetic alterations have been identified, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. We aimed to establish the reasons why patients were not undergoing EGFR mutation testing at the time of histological diagnosis. Methods. The records of 70 patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung managed through a single multidisciplinary team at a single institution were reviewed. Data were collected on method of tumour sample collection, whether this was sent for EGFR testing, and the result. Results. Seventy patients were identified. In 21/25 (84%) cases, cytological sampling was sufficient for EGFR mutation analysis, compared with 40/45 (89%) cases with histological sampling. EGFR mutation testing was not carried out in 22/70 (31.4%) patients. There was insufficient tumour sample for EGFR testing in 9/22 (40.9%) patients. Other reasons for not testing included poor patient fitness and problems in the diagnostic pathway. Conclusions. In this series, cytological tumour sampling was not the predominant reason why cancers failed to have EGFR mutation status established. PMID:28367333

  18. Changes in respiratory elastance after deep inspirations reflect surface film functionality in mice with acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ayuko; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Majumdar, Arnab; Suki, Béla

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant reduces surface tension in the lung and prevents alveolar collapse. Following a deep inspiration (DI), respiratory elastance first drops then gradually increases due to surface film and tissue viscoelasticity. In acute lung injury (ALI), this increase is faster and governed by alveolar collapse due to increased surface tension. We hypothesized that the rate of increase in elastance reflects the deficiency of surfactant in the lung. To test this, mice were ventilated before (baseline) and after saline lavage obtained by injecting 0.8 ml and withdrawing 0.7 ml fluid (severe ALI) or injecting 0.1 ml (mild ALI). After two DIs, elastance was tracked for 10 min followed by a full lavage to assess surfactant proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) content. Following 2 DIs, the increases in elastance during 10 min ventilation (ΔH) were 3.60 ± 0.61, 5.35 ± 1.04, and 8.33 ± 0.84 cmH2O/ml in baseline mice and mice with mild and severe ALI, respectively (P < 0.0001). SP-B and SP-C in the lavage fluid dropped by 32.4% and 24.9% in the mild and 50.4% and 39.6% in the severe ALI, respectively. Furthermore, ΔH showed a strong negative correlation with both SP-B (r(2) = 0.801) and SP-C (r(2) = 0.810) content. The ΔH was, however, much smaller when the lavage fluid also contained exogeneous SP-B and SP-C. Thus ΔH can be interpreted as an organ level measure of surface film functionality in lavage-induced ALI in mice. This method could prove useful in clinical situations such as diagnosing surfactant problems, monitoring recovery from lung injury or the effectiveness of surfactant therapy.

  19. Changes in respiratory elastance after deep inspirations reflect surface film functionality in mice with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ayuko; Majumdar, Arnab; Suki, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant reduces surface tension in the lung and prevents alveolar collapse. Following a deep inspiration (DI), respiratory elastance first drops then gradually increases due to surface film and tissue viscoelasticity. In acute lung injury (ALI), this increase is faster and governed by alveolar collapse due to increased surface tension. We hypothesized that the rate of increase in elastance reflects the deficiency of surfactant in the lung. To test this, mice were ventilated before (baseline) and after saline lavage obtained by injecting 0.8 ml and withdrawing 0.7 ml fluid (severe ALI) or injecting 0.1 ml (mild ALI). After two DIs, elastance was tracked for 10 min followed by a full lavage to assess surfactant proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) content. Following 2 DIs, the increases in elastance during 10 min ventilation (ΔH) were 3.60 ± 0.61, 5.35 ± 1.04, and 8.33 ± 0.84 cmH2O/ml in baseline mice and mice with mild and severe ALI, respectively (P < 0.0001). SP-B and SP-C in the lavage fluid dropped by 32.4% and 24.9% in the mild and 50.4% and 39.6% in the severe ALI, respectively. Furthermore, ΔH showed a strong negative correlation with both SP-B (r2 = 0.801) and SP-C (r2 = 0.810) content. The ΔH was, however, much smaller when the lavage fluid also contained exogeneous SP-B and SP-C. Thus ΔH can be interpreted as an organ level measure of surface film functionality in lavage-induced ALI in mice. This method could prove useful in clinical situations such as diagnosing surfactant problems, monitoring recovery from lung injury or the effectiveness of surfactant therapy. PMID:26066828

  20. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction.

  1. Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with long-term disease-free survival

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, Gerben R.; Jaeger, Katrien de; Belderbos, Jose; Burgers, Sjaak A.; Lebesque, Joos V. . E-mail: j.lebesque@nki.nl

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary function after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with a long-term disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function was measured in 34 patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer before RT and at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirteen of these patients had a pulmonary function test (PFT) 36 months after RT. The pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1}], diffusion capacity [T{sub lcoc}], forced vital capacity, and alveolar volume) were expressed as a percentage of normal values. Changes were expressed as relative to the pre-RT value. We evaluated the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, radiation pneumonitis, mean lung dose, and PFT results before RT on the changes in pulmonary function. Results: At 3, 18, and 36 months, a significant decrease was observed for the T{sub lcoc} (9.5%, 14.6%, and 22.0%, respectively) and the alveolar volume (5.8%, 6.6%, and 15.8%, respectively). The decrease in FEV{sub 1} was significant at 18 and 36 months (8.8% and 13.4%, respectively). No recovery of any of the parameters was observed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was an important risk factor for larger PFT decreases. FEV{sub 1} and T{sub lcoc} decreases were dependent on the mean lung dose. Conclusion: A significant decrease in pulmonary function was observed 3 months after RT. No recovery in pulmonary function was seen at 18 and 36 months after RT. The decrease in pulmonary function was dependent on the mean lung dose, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had larger reductions in the PFTs.

  2. Divergent Functions of Toll-like Receptors during Bacterial Lung Infections

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Pankaj; Batra, Sanjay; Zemans, Rachel L.; Downey, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections caused by bacteria are a major cause of death in humans irrespective of sex, race, or geography. Indeed, accumulated data indicate greater mortality and morbidity due to these infections than cancer, malaria, or HIV infection. Successful recognition of, followed by an appropriate response to, bacterial pathogens in the lungs is crucial for effective pulmonary host defense. Although the early recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the lungs is key in the response against invading microbial pathogens, other sentinels, such as alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and CD4+ T cells, also contribute to the elimination of the bacterial burden. Pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors, are important for recognizing and responding to microbes during pulmonary infections. However, bacterial pathogens have acquired crafty evasive strategies to circumvent the pattern recognition receptor response and thus establish infection. Increased understanding of the function of TLRs and evasive mechanisms used by pathogens during pulmonary infection will deepen our knowledge of immunopathogenesis and is crucial for developing effective therapeutic and/or prophylactic measures. This review summarizes current knowledge of the multiple roles of TLRs in bacterial lung infections and highlights the mechanisms used by pathogens to modulate or interfere with TLR signaling in the lungs. PMID:25033332

  3. Divergent functions of Toll-like receptors during bacterial lung infections.

    PubMed

    Baral, Pankaj; Batra, Sanjay; Zemans, Rachel L; Downey, Gregory P; Jeyaseelan, Samithamby

    2014-10-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections caused by bacteria are a major cause of death in humans irrespective of sex, race, or geography. Indeed, accumulated data indicate greater mortality and morbidity due to these infections than cancer, malaria, or HIV infection. Successful recognition of, followed by an appropriate response to, bacterial pathogens in the lungs is crucial for effective pulmonary host defense. Although the early recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the lungs is key in the response against invading microbial pathogens, other sentinels, such as alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and CD4(+) T cells, also contribute to the elimination of the bacterial burden. Pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, are important for recognizing and responding to microbes during pulmonary infections. However, bacterial pathogens have acquired crafty evasive strategies to circumvent the pattern recognition receptor response and thus establish infection. Increased understanding of the function of TLRs and evasive mechanisms used by pathogens during pulmonary infection will deepen our knowledge of immunopathogenesis and is crucial for developing effective therapeutic and/or prophylactic measures. This review summarizes current knowledge of the multiple roles of TLRs in bacterial lung infections and highlights the mechanisms used by pathogens to modulate or interfere with TLR signaling in the lungs.

  4. Platelet function tests: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Liotta, Agatina Alessandrello; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation - adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation - have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered.

  5. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Alessandrello Liotta, Agatina; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered. PMID:25733843

  6. Influence of PM1 and PM2.5 on lung function parameters in healthy schoolchildren-a panel study.

    PubMed

    Zwozdziak, A; Sówka, I; Willak-Janc, E; Zwozdziak, J; Kwiecińska, K; Balińska-Miśkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate lung function responses to short-term indoor PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations, we conducted a panel study of healthy schoolchildren aged 13-14 years. The following lung function parameters FVC, FEV1, PEF, and mid expiratory flows MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75 were measured in 141 schoolchildren of the secondary school in Wroclaw, Poland in years 2009-2010. On days when spirometry tests were conducted, simultaneously, PM1 and PM2.5 samples were collected inside the school premises. Information about differentiating factors for children including smoking parents, sex, living close to busy streets, dust, mold, and pollen allergies were collected by means of questionnaires. To account for repeated measurements, the method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used. The GEE models for the entire group of children revealed the adverse effects (p < 0.05) of PM1 and PM2.5. Small differences in effects estimates per interquartile range (IQR) of PM1 and PM2.5 on MEF25 (5.1 and 4.8 %), MEF50 (3.7 and 3.9 %), MEF75 (3.5 and 3.6 %) and FEV1 (1.3 and 1.0 %) imply that PM1 was likely the component of PM2.5 that might have a principal health effect on these lung function parameters. However, the reduction of FVC and PEF per IQR for PM2.5 (2.1 and 5.2 %, respectively) was higher than for PM1 (1.0 and 4.4 %, respectively). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the unadjusted analysis.

  7. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and assessment of lung function in schoolchildren born with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Zainal, Nik; Rahardja, Andy; Irfan, Che Yusoff Faris; Nasir, Ariffin; Pauzi, Wan Ibrahim Wan; Ikram, Ilias Mohamad; Rostenberghe, Hans Van

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms among schoolchildren with low birth weight (LBW), and to compare the lung function of these children with that of children with normal birth weight. METHODS This was a comparative cross-sectional study. We recruited children aged 8–11 years from eight primary schools in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. The children were divided into two groups: those with LBW (< 2,500 g) and those with normal birth weight (≥ 2,500 g). Parents of the enrolled children were asked to complete a translated version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Lung function tests, done using a MicroLoop Spirometer, were performed for the children in both groups by a single investigator who was blinded to the children’s birth weight. RESULTS The prevalence of ‘ever wheezed’ among the children with LBW was 12.9%. This value was significantly higher than that of the children with normal birth weight (7.8%). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second, and forced expiratory flow when 50% and 75% of the FVC had been exhaled were significantly lower among the children with LBW as compared to the children with normal birth weight. CONCLUSION LBW is associated with an increased prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and impaired lung function indices later in life. Children born with LBW may need additional follow-up so that future respiratory problems can be detected early. PMID:26805669

  8. Common SIRT1 variants modify the effect of abdominal adipose tissue on aging-related lung function decline.

    PubMed

    Curjuric, Ivan; Imboden, Medea; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Gerbase, Margaret W; Haun, Margot; Keidel, Dirk; Kumar, Ashish; Pons, Marco; Rochat, Thierry; Schikowski, Tamara; Schindler, Christian; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kronenberg, Florian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2016-06-01

    Lung function is an independent predictor of mortality and serves as an aging marker in never smokers. The protein sirtuin-1 of gene SIRT1 has profound anti-inflammatory effects and regulates metabolic pathways. Its suggested longevity effects on lower organisms remain poorly studied in humans. In 1132 never smokers of the population-based SAPALDIA cohort, we investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs730821, rs10997868, rs10823116) of SIRT1 and aging-related lung function decline over 11 years in terms of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 % of FVC (FEF25-75) using multiple linear regression models. Interactions between the SIRT1 SNPs and adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI), its change and weight gain) were tested by including multiplicative interaction terms into the models. SIRT1 polymorphisms exhibited no main effects, but modified the association between obesity measures and FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 decline (p = 0.009-0.046). Per risk allele, FEV1/FVC decline was accelerated up to -0.5 % (95 % CI -1.0 to 0 %) and -0.7 % (-1.3 to -0.2 %) over interquartile range increases in BMI (2.4 kg/m(2)) or weight (6.5 kg), respectively. For FEF25-75 decline, corresponding estimates were -57 mL/s (-117 to 4 mL/s) and -76 mL/s (-1429 to -9 mL/s). Interactions were not present in participants with genetically lowered C-reactive protein concentrations. Genetic variation in SIRT1 might therefore affect lung function and human longevity by modifying subclinical inflammation arising from abdominal adipose tissue.

  9. Birth weight, childhood lower respiratory tract infection, and adult lung function

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S; Sterne, J; Tucker, J; Florey, C

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Historical cohort studies in England have found that impaired fetal growth and lower respiratory tract infections in early childhood are associated with lower levels of lung function in late adult life. These relations are investigated in a similar study in Scotland.
METHODS—In 1985-86 a follow up study was carried out of 1070 children who had been born in St Andrew's from 1921 to 1935 and followed from birth to 14 years of age by the Mackenzie Institute for Medical Research. Recorded information included birth weight and respiratory illnesses. The lung function of 239 of these individuals was measured.
RESULTS—There was no association between birth weight and lung function. Pneumonia before two years of age was associated with a difference in mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of −0.39 litres (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.67, −0.11; p = 0.007) and in mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of −0.60 litres (95% CI −0.92, −0.28; p<0.001), after controlling for age, sex, height, smoking, type of spirometer, and other illnesses before two years. Similar reductions were seen in men and women. Bronchitis before two years was associated with smaller deficits in FEV1 and FVC. Asthma or wheeze at two years and older and cough after five years were also associated with a reduction in FEV1.
CONCLUSIONS—The relation between impaired fetal growth and lower lung function in late adult life seen in previous studies was not confirmed in this cohort. The deficits in FEV1 and FVC associated with pneumonia and bronchitis in the first two years of life are consistent with a causal relation.

 PMID:9797752

  10. Lung function changes in coke oven workers during 12 years of follow up

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Griffiths, D; Kreis, I; Darling, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of exposure to coke oven emissions on the lung function of coke oven workers. Methods: The study population, followed from 1978 and 1990, was 580 male workers with at least two sets of lung function measurements (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25–75%). An annual rate of change (time slope) for age and height adjusted lung function index was estimated for each subject. This "time slope" was then treated as the response variable in a weighted multiple regression analysis with selected predictors. Results: For all 580 subjects, each year of working in the "operation" group (the most exposed) was found to increase the FVC decline by around 0.7 ml/year (95% CI 0.1 to 1.3 ml/year). After the exclusion of 111 subjects without detailed work history, the above finding was confirmed and each year of exposure in "operation" was also found to increase the FEV1 decline by around 0.8 ml/year (95% CI 0.1 to 1.4 ml/year). Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the results of previous cross-sectional studies. Work duration in the most exposed position in the coke ovens was associated with increased annual decline for FVC and FEV1. The estimated effect of one year of work exposure in "operation" is equivalent, in terms of the reduction in lung function, to an estimated 2.1 pack-years of smoking for FVC and 1.2 pack-years of smoking for FEV1. PMID:15258275

  11. Associations between antioxidants and all-cause mortality among US adults with obstructive lung function

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.; Li, Chaoyang; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Croft, Janet B.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterised by oxidative stress, but little is known about the associations between antioxidant status and all-cause mortality in adults with this disease. The objective of the present study was to examine the prospective associations between concentrations of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, Se, vitamin C and α-tocopherol and all-cause mortality among US adults with obstructive lung function. Data collected from 1492 adults aged 20–79 years with obstructive lung function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988–94) were used. Through 2006, 629 deaths were identified during a median follow-up period of 14 years. After adjustment for demographic variables, the concentrations of the following antioxidants modelled as continuous variables were found to be inversely associated with all-cause mortality among adults with obstructive lung function: α-carotene (P=0.037); β-carotene (P=0.022); cryptoxanthin (P=0.022); lutein/zeaxanthin (P=0.004); total carotenoids (P=0.001); vitamin C (P<0.001). In maximally adjusted models, only the concentrations of lycopene (P=0.013) and vitamin C (P=0.046) were found to be significantly and inversely associated with all-cause mortality. No effect modification by sex was detected, but the association between lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations and all-cause mortality varied by smoking status (Pinteraction = 0.048). The concentrations of lycopene and vitamin C were inversely associated with all-cause mortality in this cohort of adults with obstructive lung function. PMID:25315508

  12. CDH13 gene-by-PM10 interaction effect on lung function decline in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Seo, Yong-Seok; Sung, Joohon; Yun, Jae Moon; Kwon, Hyuktae; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jong-Il

    2017-02-01

    Lung function can be influenced by genetic factors, which may explain individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of air pollution. This study investigated whether the effect of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) on lung function is modified by Cadherin 13 (CDH13) genetic variants in Korean men. This study included a total of 1827 men who were recruited from two health check-up centers, and the annual average PM10 concentrations were used. A total of 200 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CDH13 gene were selected for this study. We found that a SNP in CHD13 intron, rs1862830, had the strongest associations with both forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (pint = 1.90 × 10(-4)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (pint = 1.88 × 10(-3)) by interacting with PM10 in a recessive model. A stratified association analysis according to this SNP showed that PM10 in the AG or GG genotype group was not significantly associated with either FEV1 or FVC, whereas in homozygous risk-allele carriers (AA), FEV1 and FVC decreased significantly (by 3.8% and 3.1%, respectively) per 10 μg/m(3) of increase in PM10 concentration. This pattern was also reproducible in the independent subgroups that were classified according to recruitment site. The present study replicated the CDH13 gene-by-PM10 interaction effect on lung function at the gene level, revealing that a genetic variant of CDH13 modified the relationship between PM10 and lung function decline in Korean men.

  13. A step test to assess exercise-related oxygen desaturation in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Dal Corso, S; Duarte, S R; Neder, J A; Malaguti, C; de Fuccio, M B; de Castro Pereira, C A; Nery, L E

    2007-02-01

    A 6-min step test (6MST) may constitute a practical method for routinely assessing effort tolerance and exercise-related oxyhaemoglobin desaturation (ERD) in the primary care of patients with interstitial lung disease. In total, 31 patients (19 males) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 25) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia were submitted, on different days, to two 6MSTs. Physiological responses were compared with those found on maximal and submaximal cycle ergometer tests at the same oxygen uptake (V'(O(2))). Chronic breathlessness was also determined, as measured by the baseline dyspnoea index (BDI). Responses to 6MST were highly reproducible: 1.3+/-2.0 steps x min(-1), +/-5 beats x min(-1) (cardiac frequency), +/-50 mL x min(-1) (V'(O(2))), +/-7 L x min(-1) (minute ventilation) and +/-2% (arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (S(p,O(2)))). The number of steps climbed in 6 min was correlated to peak V'(O(2)) and the BDI. There were significant associations among the tests in relation to presence (change in S(p,O(2)) between rest and exercise > or = 4%) and severity (S(p,O(2)) <88%) of ERD. Four patients, however, presented ERD only in response to 6MST. Resting diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference were the independent predictors of the number of steps climbed. A single-stage, self-paced 6-min step test provided reliable and reproducible estimates of exercise capacity and exercise-related oxyhaemoglobin desaturation in interstitial lung disease patients.

  14. Correlation of chest computed tomography findings with dyspnea and lung functions in post-tubercular sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananya; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Sharma, Raju; Mohan, Anant; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Kalaimannan, Umasankar; Upadhyay, Ashish Dutt

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study the correlation between dyspnea, radiological findings, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Materials and Methods: Clinical history, chest computed tomography (CT), and PFT of patients with post-TB sequelae were recorded. Dyspnea was graded according to the Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale. CT scans were analyzed for fibrosis, cavitation, bronchiectasis, consolidation, nodules, and aspergilloma. Semi-quantitative analysis was done for these abnormalities. Scores were added to obtain a total morphological score (TMS). The lungs were also divided into three zones and scores added to obtain the total lung score (TLS). Spirometry was done for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC. Results: Dyspnea was present in 58/101 patients. A total of 22/58 patients had mMRC Grade 1, and 17/58 patients had Grades 2 and 3 dyspnea each. There was a significant difference in median fibrosis, bronchiectasis, nodules (P < 0.01) scores, TMS, and TLS (P < 0.0001) between dyspnea and nondyspnea groups. Significant correlations were obtained between grades of dyspnea and fibrosis (r = 0.34, P = 0.006), bronchiectasis (r = 0.35, P = 0.004), nodule (r = 0.24, P = 0.016) scores, TMS (r = 0.398, P = 0.000), and TLS (r = 0.35, P = 0.0003). PFTs were impaired in 78/101 (77.2%) patients. Restrictive defect was most common in 39.6% followed by mixed in 34.7%. There was a negative but statistically insignificant trend between PFT and fibrosis, bronchiectasis, nodule scores, TMS, and TLS. However, there were significant differences in median fibrosis, cavitation, and bronchiectasis scores in patients with normal, mild to moderate, and severe respiratory defects. No difference was seen in TMS and TLS according to the severity of the respiratory defect. Conclusion: Both fibrosis and bronchiectasis correlated with dyspnea and with PFT. However, this correlation was not

  15. Functional Performance Testing for Power and Return to Sports

    PubMed Central

    Manske, Robert; Reiman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Context: Functional performance testing of athletes can determine physical limitations that may affect sporting activities. Optimal functional performance testing simulates the athlete’s activity. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1960 to 2012 was implemented with the keywords functional testing, functional impairment testing, and functional performance testing in the English language. Each author also undertook independent searches of article references. Conclusion: Functional performance tests can bridge the gap between general physical tests and full, unrestricted athletic activity. PMID:24427396

  16. Preclinical anatomical, molecular, and functional imaging of the lung with multiple modalities.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Seth T; Foje, Nathan; Brewer, Elizabeth M; Owers, Elizabeth; Downs, Charles A; Budde, Matthew D; Leevy, W Matthew; Helms, My N

    2014-05-15

    In vivo imaging is an important tool for preclinical studies of lung function and disease. The widespread availability of multimodal animal imaging systems and the rapid rate of diagnostic contrast agent development have empowered researchers to noninvasively study lung function and pulmonary disorders. Investigators can identify, track, and quantify biological processes over time. In this review, we highlight the fundamental principles of bioluminescence, fluorescence, planar X-ray, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear imaging modalities (such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography) that have been successfully employed for the study of lung function and pulmonary disorders in a preclinical setting. The major principles, benefits, and applications of each imaging modality and technology are reviewed. Limitations and the future prospective of multimodal imaging in pulmonary physiology are also discussed. In vivo imaging bridges molecular biological studies, drug design and discovery, and the imaging field with modern medical practice, and, as such, will continue to be a mainstay in biomedical research.

  17. Lung Function, Airway Inflammation, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure in Mexican Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Schilmann, Astrid; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Sjödin, Andreas; Del Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Díaz-Sanchez, David; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Sly, Peter; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with lung function and pH of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in Mexican schoolchildren. Methods A pilot study was performed in a subsample of 64 schoolchildren from Mexico City. Lung function and pH of EBC were measured and metabolites of PAHs in urine samples were determined. The association was analyzed using robust regression models. Results A 10% increase in the concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene was significantly negatively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (−11.2 mL, 95% CI: −22.2 to −0.02), forced vital capacity (−11.6 mL, 95% CI: −22.9 to −0.2), and pH of EBC (−0.035, 95% CI: −0.066 to −0.005). Conclusion Biomarkers of PAHs exposure were inversely associated with lung function and decrease of ph of EBC as a marker of airway inflammation in Mexican schoolchildren. PMID:24500378

  18. Western red cedar dust exposure and lung function: a dose-response relationship.

    PubMed

    Noertjojo, H K; Dimich-Ward, H; Peelen, S; Dittrick, M; Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between levels of cumulative red cedar dust exposure and decline in lung function was explored in an 11-yr follow-up study of 243 sawmill workers who participated in at least two occasions. We also studied 140 office workers in a similar manner as control subjects. Workers with asthma were excluded from the analysis. During the period of the study, 916 personal and 216 area samples of dust were collected from the sawmill. Cumulative wood dust exposure was calculated for each sawmill worker according to the duration and exposure in each job, based on the geometric mean of all dust measurements for that job. Average daily dust exposure was calculated by dividing the total cumulative exposure by the number of days of work. Workers were divided into low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups with mean daily level of exposure of < 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, and > 0.4 mg/m3, respectively. Sawmill workers had significantly greater declines in FEV1 and FVC compared with office workers adjusted for age, smoking, and initial lung function. A dose-response relationship was observed between the level of exposure and the annual decline in FVC. We conclude that exposure to Western red cedar dust is associated with a greater decline in lung function which may lead to development of chronic airflow limitation.

  19. Air Pollution–Associated Changes in Lung Function among Asthmatic Children in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Toby C.; Robins, Thomas G.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Keeler, Gerald J.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Lin, Xihong; Parker, Edith A.; Israel, Barbara A.; Gonzalez, Linda; Hill, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    In a longitudinal cohort study of primary-school–age children with asthma in Detroit, Michigan, we examined relationships between lung function and ambient levels of particulate matter ≤ 10 μm and ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM10 and PM2.5) and ozone at varying lag intervals using generalized estimating equations. Models considered effect modification by maintenance corticosteroid (CS) use and by the presence of an upper respiratory infection (URI) as recorded in a daily diary among 86 children who participated in six 2-week seasonal assessments from winter 2001 through spring 2002. Participants were predominantly African American from families with low income, and > 75% were categorized as having persistent asthma. In both single-pollutant and two-pollutant models, many regressions demonstrated associations between higher exposure to ambient pollutants and poorer lung function (increased diurnal variability and decreased lowest daily values for forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) among children using CSs but not among those not using CSs, and among children reporting URI symptoms but not among those who did not report URIs. Our findings suggest that levels of air pollutants in Detroit, which are above the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards, adversely affect lung function of susceptible asthmatic children. PMID:16079081

  20. Air pollution and fuel vapour induced changes in lung functions: are fuel handlers safe?

    PubMed

    Chawla, Anuj; Lavania, A K

    2008-01-01

    Automobile exhaust derived air pollutants have become a major health hazard. Coupled with the inhalation of fuel vapour, as occurs in petrol station workers, this may lead to significant impairment of lung function. Spirometric lung functions were studied in 58 petrol station workers to examine this possibility. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (FEF25-75) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were recorded and analysed separately for smokers and non-smokers. The workers were divided into 5 groups for analysis of data based on the number of years of work in the petrol pumps. Outdoor air analysis was also carried out. The FVC, FEV1 and PEF declined significantly with increasing years of work in petrol stations in both smokers and non-smokers. Smoking as an independent variable was found to affect the FEV1 significantly but not FVC or PEF. The FEF25-75 was found to be the most affected spirometric value with a significant reduction with increasing years of work. Smoking as such did not affect it. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) in outdoor air were higher than the national ambient air quality standards. Exposure to automobile exhaust and fuel vapour impairs lung function in a time-dependent manner. Cigarette smoking appears to accelerate the decline.

  1. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and Tests of Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Frederick; Hall, Reginald

    1970-01-01

    The effect of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) on thyroid function was examined in 14 euthyroid patients who required the drug for psychiatric reasons and in six patients with clinically mild thyrotoxicosis. There was no significant difference in results from tests of thyroid iodide trapping (thyroid radioiodine uptake, thyroid clearance, and absolute iodine uptake) or of thyroid hormone release (protein-bound iodine, T3 resin uptake, and free thyroxine index) carried out before and during treatment with the drug over a four-week period. It is suggested that chlordiazepoxide need not be withdrawn before thyroid status and function are assessed in any patient taking the drug. PMID:4192645

  2. [Cardiology. Platelet function testing for clinicians].

    PubMed

    Pellaton, Cyril; Eeckhout, Eric; Silvain, Johanne; Montalescot, Gilles; Collet, Jean-Phillipe

    2014-01-15

    Platelet P2YI2 receptor inhibition with clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor plays a key role to prevent recurrent ischaemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes or elective settings. The degree of platelet inhibition depends on the antiplatelet medication used and is influenced by clinical and genetic factors. A concept of therapeutic window exists. On one side, efficient anti-aggregation is required in order to reduce cardio-vascular events. On the other side, an excessive platelet inhibition represents a risk of bleeding complications. This article describes the current knowledge about some platelet function tests and genetic tests and summarises their role in the clinical practice.

  3. Pulmonary function testing in asthma: nursing applications.

    PubMed

    Conner, Brenda; Meng, Anne

    2003-12-01

    Spirometry has become the most widely used assessment of pulmonary function for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This article reviews the indications for spirometry in persons who have asthma, the parameters measured, acceptable testing techniques, acceptability, quality assurance criteria, and basic interpretation of results in evaluating the person who has asthma. Understanding basic spirometry is an invaluable aid to the nurse and nurse practitioner who provide care to children and adults who have asthma.

  4. Leptin Matures Aspects of Lung Structure and Function in the Ovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Miles J; Boije, Maria; Kempster, Sarah L; Smith, Gordon C S; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Denyer, Alice; Hughes, Alexandra; Wooding, F B Peter; Blache, Dominique; Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    In human and ovine fetuses, glucocorticoids stimulate leptin secretion, although the extent to which leptin mediates the maturational effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary development is unclear. This study investigated the effects of leptin administration on indices of lung structure and function before birth. Chronically catheterized singleton sheep fetuses were infused iv for 5 days with either saline or recombinant ovine leptin (0.5 mg/kg · d leptin (LEP), 0.5 LEP or 1.0 mg/kg · d, 1.0 LEP) from 125 days of gestation (term ∼145 d). Over the infusion, leptin administration increased plasma leptin, but not cortisol, concentrations. On the fifth day of infusion, 0.5 LEP reduced alveolar wall thickness and increased the volume at closing pressure of the pressure-volume deflation curve, interalveolar septal elastin content, secondary septal crest density, and the mRNA abundance of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and surfactant protein (SP) B. Neither treatment influenced static lung compliance, maximal lung volume at 40 cmH2O, lung compartment volumes, alveolar surface area, pulmonary glycogen, protein content of the long form signaling Ob-Rb or phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription-3, or mRNA levels of SP-A, C, or D, elastin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Leptin administration in the ovine fetus during late gestation promotes aspects of lung maturation, including up-regulation of SP-B.

  5. Targeted Type 2 Alveolar Cell Depletion. A Dynamic Functional Model for Lung Injury Repair

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Orquidea; Hiatt, Michael J.; Lundin, Amber; Lee, Jooeun; Reddy, Raghava; Navarro, Sonia; Kikuchi, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) are regarded as the progenitor population of the alveolus responsible for injury repair and homeostatic maintenance. Depletion of this population is hypothesized to underlie various lung pathologies. Current models of lung injury rely on either uncontrolled, nonspecific destruction of alveolar epithelia or on targeted, nontitratable levels of fixed AEC2 ablation. We hypothesized that discrete levels of AEC2 ablation would trigger stereotypical and informative patterns of repair. To this end, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the surfactant protein-C promoter drives expression of a mutant SR39TK herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase specifically in AEC2. Because of the sensitivity of SR39TK, low doses of ganciclovir can be administered to these animals to induce dose-dependent AEC2 depletion ranging from mild (50%) to lethal (82%) levels. We demonstrate that specific levels of AEC2 depletion cause altered expression patterns of apoptosis and repair proteins in surviving AEC2 as well as distinct changes in distal lung morphology, pulmonary function, collagen deposition, and expression of remodeling proteins in whole lung that persist for up to 60 days. We believe SPCTK mice demonstrate the utility of cell-specific expression of the SR39TK transgene for exerting fine control of target cell depletion. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that specific levels of type 2 alveolar epithelial cell depletion produce characteristic injury repair outcomes. Most importantly, use of these mice will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AEC2 in the initiation of, and response to, lung injury. PMID:26203800

  6. Individualized prediction of lung-function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Zafari, Zafar; Sin, Don D.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Vonk, Judith; Bryan, Stirling; Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, C. Martin; Khakban, Rahman; Man, S.F. Paul; Tashkin, Donald; Wise, Robert A.; Connett, John E.; McManus, Bruce; Ng, Raymond; Hollander, Zsuszanna; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rate of lung-function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies substantially among individuals. We sought to develop and validate an individualized prediction model for forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) in current smokers with mild-to-moderate COPD. Methods: Using data from a large long-term clinical trial (the Lung Health Study), we derived mixed-effects regression models to predict future FEV1 values over 11 years according to clinical traits. We modelled heterogeneity by allowing regression coefficients to vary across individuals. Two independent cohorts with COPD were used for validating the equations. Results: We used data from 5594 patients (mean age 48.4 yr, 63% men, mean baseline FEV1 2.75 L) to create the individualized prediction equations. There was significant between-individual variability in the rate of FEV1 decline, with the interval for the annual rate of decline that contained 95% of individuals being −124 to −15 mL/yr for smokers and −83 to 15 mL/yr for sustained quitters. Clinical variables in the final model explained 88% of variation around follow-up FEV1. The C statistic for predicting severity grades was 0.90. Prediction equations performed robustly in the 2 external data sets. Interpretation: A substantial part of individual variation in FEV1 decline can be explained by easily measured clinical variables. The model developed in this work can be used for prediction of future lung health in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. Trial registration: Lung Health Study — ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00000568; Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study — ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00751660 PMID:27486205

  7. Continued artificial selection for running endurance in rats is associated with improved lung function.

    PubMed

    Kirkton, Scott D; Howlett, Richard A; Gonzalez, Norberto C; Giuliano, Patrick G; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Wagner, Harrieth E; Wagner, Peter D

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies found that selection for endurance running in untrained rats produced distinct high (HCR) and low (LCR) capacity runners. Furthermore, despite weighing 14% less, 7th generation HCR rats achieved the same absolute maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) as LCR due to muscle adaptations that improved oxygen extraction and use. However, there were no differences in cardiopulmonary function after seven generations of selection. If selection for increased endurance capacity continued, we hypothesized that due to the serial nature of oxygen delivery enhanced cardiopulmonary function would be required. In the present study, generation 15 rats selected for high and low endurance running capacity showed differences in pulmonary function. HCR, now 25% lighter than LCR, reached a 12% higher absolute Vo(2max) than LCR, P < 0.05 (49% higher Vo(2max)/kg). Despite the 25% difference in body size, both lung volume (at 20 cmH(2)O airway pressure) and exercise diffusing capacity were similar in HCR and LCR. Lung volume of LCR lay on published mammalian allometrical relationships while that of HCR lay above that line. Alveolar ventilation at Vo(2max) was 30% higher, P < 0.05 (78% higher, per kg), arterial Pco(2) was 4.5 mmHg (17%) lower, P < 0.05, while total pulmonary vascular resistance was (insignificantly) 5% lower (30% lower, per kg) in HCR. The smaller mass of HCR animals was due mostly to a smaller body frame rather than to a lower fat mass. These findings show that by generation 15, lung size in smaller HCR rats is not reduced in concert with their smaller body size, but has remained similar to that of LCR, supporting the hypothesis that continued selection for increased endurance capacity requires relatively larger lungs, supporting greater ventilation, gas exchange, and pulmonary vascular conductance.

  8. Calf Lung Surfactant Recovers Surface Functionality After Exposure to Aerosols Containing Polymeric Particles

    PubMed Central

    Farnoud, Amir M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent studies have shown that colloidal particles can disrupt the interfacial properties of lung surfactant and thus key functional abilities of lung surfactant. However, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between aerosols and surfactant films remain poorly understood, as our ability to expose films to particles via the aerosol route has been limited. The aim of this study was to develop a method to reproducibly apply aerosols with a quantifiable particle dose on lung surfactant films and investigate particle-induced changes to the interfacial properties of the surfactant under conditions that more closely mimic those in vivo. Methods: Films of DPPC and Infasurf® were exposed to aerosols containing polystyrene particles generated using a Dry Powder Insufflator™. The dose of particles deposited on surfactant films was determined via light absorbance. The interfacial properties of the surfactant were studied using a Langmuir-Wilhelmy balance during surfactant compression to film collapse and cycles of surface compression and expansion at a fast cycling rate within a small surface area range. Results: Exposure of surfactant films to aerosols led to reproducible dosing of particles on the films. In film collapse experiments, particle deposition led to slight changes in collapse surface pressure and surface area of both surfactants. However, longer interaction times between particles and Infasurf® films resulted in time-dependent inhibition of surfactant function. When limited to lung relevant surface pressures, particles reduced the maximum surface pressure that could be achieved. This inhibitory effect persisted for all compression-expansion cycles in DPPC, but normal surfactant behavior was restored in Infasurf® films after five cycles. Conclusions: The observation that Infasurf® was able to quickly restore its function after exposure to aerosols under conditions that better mimicked those in vivo suggests that particle

  9. Non-small cell lung cancer cell survival crucially depends on functional insulin receptors.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Carolin Maria; Zimmermann, Katrin; Zilleßen, Pia; Pfeifer, Alexander; Racké, Kurt; Mayer, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Insulin plays an important role as a growth factor and its contribution to tumor proliferation is intensely discussed. It acts via the cognate insulin receptor (IR) but can also activate the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). Apart from increasing proliferation, insulin might have additional effects in lung cancer. Therefore, we investigated insulin action and effects of IR knockdown (KD) in three (NCI-H292, NCI-H226 and NCI-H460) independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. All lung cancer lines studied were found to express IR, albeit with marked differences in the ratio of the two variants IR-A and IR-B. Insulin activated the classical signaling pathway with IR autophosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, activation of MAPK was observed in H292 cells, accompanied by enhanced proliferation. Lentiviral shRNA IR KD caused strong decrease in survival of all three lines, indicating that the effects of insulin in lung cancer go beyond enhancing proliferation. Unspecific effects were ruled out by employing further shRNAs and different insulin-responsive cells (human pre-adipocytes) for comparison. Caspase assays demonstrated that IR KD strongly induced apoptosis in these lung cancer cells, providing the physiological basis of the rapid cell loss. In search for the underlying mechanism, we analyzed alterations in the gene expression profile in response to IR KD. A strong induction of certain cytokines (e.g. IL20 and tumour necrosis factor) became obvious and it turned out that these cytokines trigger apoptosis in the NSCLC cells tested. This indicates a novel role of IR in tumor cell survival via suppression of pro-apoptotic cytokines.

  10. Comparison of normal and dusty day impacts on fractional exhaled nitric oxide and lung function in healthy children in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Neisi, Abdolkazem; Vosoughi, Mehdi; Idani, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Takdastan, Afshin; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Ankali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Hazrati, Sadegh; Shoshtari, Maryam Haddadzadeh; Mirr, Iman; Maleki, Heidar

    2017-03-29

    Children are the vulnerable group at risk of adverse health effects related to air pollution due to dust storm in Ahvaz. The purpose of this study was to compare the values of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and lung functions as parameters of adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) in dusty and normal (non-dusty) days in elementary schoolchildren. The study was conducted among elementary school students in Ahvaz. The healthy elementary schoolchildren (N = 105) were selected from different districts for FENO and lung function sampling during the dusty and normal days. The values of PM10 and PM2.5 during dusty days were higher than during normal days. Mean values of FENO during the normal and dusty days were 14.23 and 20.3 ppb, respectively, and the difference between these values was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Lung function results showed a statistically significant difference between the mean values of forced vital capacity during the dusty and normal days (p < 0.05). The results revealed a significant difference both in the values of inflammatory biomarker and in the lung function tests in dusty and normal days. Based on our results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide could be a useful short-term biomarker of particulate pollution effect coupled with spirometry.

  11. Lung function, biological monitoring, and biological effect monitoring of gemstone cutters exposed to beryls

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, R.; Heinrich-Ramm, R.; Nowak, D.; Olma, K.; Poschadel, B.; Szadkowski, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Gemstone cutters are potentially exposed to various carcinogenic and fibrogenic metals such as chromium, nickel, aluminium, and beryllium, as well as to lead. Increased beryllium concentrations had been reported in the air of workplaces of beryl cutters in Idar-Oberstein, Germany. The aim of the survey was to study the excretion of beryllium in cutters and grinders with occupational exposure to beryls—for example, aquamarines and emeralds—to examine the prevalence of beryllium sensitisation with the beryllium lymphocyte transformation test (BeLT), to examine the prevalence of lung disease induced by beryllium, to describe the internal load of the respective metals relative to work process, and to screen for genotoxic effects in this particular profession.
METHODS—In a cross sectional investigation, 57 out of 100 gemstone cutters working in 12 factories in Idar-Oberstein with occupational exposure to beryls underwent medical examinations, a chest radiograph, lung function testing (spirometry, airway resistance with the interrupter technique), and biological monitoring, including measurements of aluminium, chromium, and nickel in urine as well as lead in blood. Beryllium in urine was measured with a newly developed direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy technique with a measurement limit of 0.06 µg/l. Also, cytogenetic tests (rates of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange), and a BeLT were performed. Airborne concentrations of beryllium were measured in three factories. As no adequate local control group was available, the cutters were categorised into those with an exposure to beryls of >4 hours/week (group A) and ⩽4 hours/week (group B).
RESULTS—Clinical, radiological, or spirometric abnormalities indicating pneumoconiosis were detected in none of the gemstone cutters. Metal concentrations in biological material were far below the respective biological limit values, and beryllium in urine was only measurable in

  12. Exhaled nitric oxide levels and lung function changes of underground coal miners in Newcastle, Australia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Salter, Amy; Thomas, Paul; Leigh, James; Wang, He

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in combination with lung function as a marker of airway inflammation produced by coal mining exposure was determined presuming that workers exposed to airborne hazards would possess different concentrations of eNO and decreased lung function indices, relative to control subjects recruited from the same area. The effect of smoking was also considered. A study (exposed) group comprising 186 male subjects (aged 19-58 yr) was recruited from Newcastle coal mining companies with 86 male subjects (aged 20-64 yr) from the same area, but working outside of the coal mining location, serving as controls. The parameters examined were eNO, lung function, and variables derived from an interview-administered questionnaire survey. After adjustment for age, body weight, and smoking status, no significant differences between exposed coal mining workers and controls were found for various lung function parameters. However, the exposed group was shown to have significantly lower concentrations of eNO. In the exposed group, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV(1) (%) predicted were found to be significantly different between nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of eNO were not significantly different between smoking and nonsmokers within the exposed group. The consideration of nonsmokers alone showed that eNO was significantly lower in the exposed group compared to the control group. The consideration of smokers alone found that eNO was significantly lower in exposed subjects. In the exposed group, no significant association was detected between eNO levels and underground work duration but a significant negative association was shown between eNO and age. Data suggest that exposure to airborne hazards in coal mining is not significantly associated with lung function changes but is correlated with decreased eNO concentrations in exposed workers. While underground work duration was not found to

  13. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    Functional disorders of platelets can involve any aspect of platelet physiology, with many different effects or outcomes. These include platelet numbers (thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia); changes in platelet production or destruction, or capture to the liver (Ashwell receptor); altered adhesion to vascular injury sites and/or influence on hemostasis and wound healing; and altered activation or receptor functions, shape change, spreading and release reactions, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Procoagulant membrane alterations, and generation of thrombin and fibrin, also affect platelet aggregation. The above parameters can all be studied, but standardization and quality control of assay methods have been limited despite several efforts. Only after a comprehensive clinical bleeding assessment, including family history, information on drug use affecting platelets, and exclusion of coagulation factor, and tissue deficits, should platelet function testing be undertaken to confirm an abnormality. Current diagnostic tools include blood cell counts, platelet characteristics according to the cell counter parameters, peripheral blood smear, exclusion of pseudothrombocytopenia, whole blood aggregometry (WBA) or light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma, luminescence, platelet function analysis (PFA-100) for platelet adhesion and deposition to collagen cartridges under blood flow, and finally transmission electron microscopy to exclude rare structural defects leading to functional deficits. The most validated test panels are included in WBA, LTA, and PFA. Because platelets are isolated from their natural environment, many simplifications occur, as circulating blood and interaction with vascular wall are omitted in these assays. The target to reach a highly specific platelet disorder diagnosis in routine clinical management can be exhaustive, unless needed for genetic counseling. The elective overall assessment of platelet function disorder

  14. Photoacoustic sensor for VOCs: first step towards a lung cancer breath test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Dressler, Matthias; Harde, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Specifically, the optical analysis of breath is an extraordinarily promising technique. Spectroscopic sensors for the non-invasive 13C-breath tests (the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is most prominent) are meanwhile well established. However, recent research and development go beyond gastroenterological applications. Sensitive and selective detection of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a patient's breath, could enable the diagnosis of diseases that are very difficult to diagnose with contemporary techniques. For instance, an appropriate VOC biomarker for early-stage bronchial carcinoma (lung cancer) is n-butane (C4H10). We present a new optical detection scheme for VOCs that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. Employing a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive and selective measurements on butane. A detection limit for butane in air in the ppb range was achieved. In subsequent research the sensitivity will be successively improved to match the requirements of the medical application. Upon optimization, our photoacoustic sensor has the potential to enable future breath tests for early-stage lung cancer diagnostics.

  15. Effects of etomidate and propofol on immune function in patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiapeng; Dong, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Liang; Zhan, Long; Shi, Yifei; Han, Jiange

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of etomidate and propofol on immune function in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Sixty patients who were scheduled for lung cancer surgery under general anesthesia were studied. The patients were randomly divided into an etomidate total intravenous anesthesia group (group E) and a propofol total intravenous anesthesia group (group P), with 30 cases in each group. Results: Within group comparison: The percentage of CD4+ in the two groups was significantly reduced at 24 hours post-operation (T2) compared with the percentage before surgery, whereas the percentage of CD8+ was higher at T2. Between group comparison: The CD4+ percentage of group E was higher than that of group P (P < 0.05) at T2, whereas the CD8+ percentage was lower than that of group P (P < 0.05) at T1. Conclusion: Using etomidate for anesthesia has less of an effect on immune function in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28078046

  16. Plasma gelsolin improves lung host defense against pneumonia by enhancing macrophage NOS3 function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiping; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Stossel, Thomas P; Kobzik, Lester

    2015-07-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) functions as part of the "extracellular actin-scavenging system," but its potential to improve host defense against infection has not been studied. In a mouse model of primary pneumococcal pneumonia, recombinant human pGSN (rhu-pGSN) caused enhanced bacterial clearance, reduced acute inflammation, and improved survival. In vitro, rhu-pGSN rapidly improved lung macrophage uptake and killing of bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Francisella tularensis). pGSN triggers activating phosphorylation (Ser(1177)) of macrophage nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS3), an enzyme with important bactericidal functions in lung macrophages. rhu-pGSN failed to enhance bacterial killing by NOS3(-/-) macrophages in vitro or bacterial clearance in NOS3(-/-) mice in vivo. Prophylaxis with immunomodulators may be especially relevant for patients at risk for secondary bacterial pneumonia, e.g., after influenza. Treatment of mice with pGSN challenged with pneumococci on postinfluenza day 7 (the peak of enhanced susceptibility to secondary infection) caused a ∼15-fold improvement in bacterial clearance, reduced acute neutrophilic inflammation, and markedly improved survival, even without antibiotic therapy. pGSN is a potential immunomodulator for improving lung host defense against primary and secondary bacterial pneumonia.

  17. Functional and cytometric examination of different human lung epithelial cell types as drug transport barriers

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R.; Kim, Chong-Kook; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    To develop inhaled medications, various cell culture models have been used to examine the transcellular transport or cellular uptake properties of small molecules. For the reproducible high throughput screening of the inhaled drug candidates, a further verification of cell architectures as drug transport barriers can contribute to establishing appropriate in vitro cell models. In the present study, side-by-side experiments were performed to compare the structure and transport function of three lung epithelial cells (Calu-3, normal human bronchial primary cells (NHBE), and NL-20). The cells were cultured on the nucleopore membranes in the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture conditions, with cell culture medium in the basolateral side only, starting from day 1. In transport assays, paracellular transport across all three types of cells appeared to be markedly different with the NHBE or Calu-3 cells, showing low paracellular permeability and high TEER values, while the NL-20 cells showed high paracellular permeability and low TEER. Quantitative image analysis of the confocal microscope sections further confirmed that the Calu-3 cells formed intact cell monolayers in contrast to the NHBE and NL-20 cells with multilayers. Among three lung epithelial cell types, the Calu-3 cell cultures under the ALI condition showed optimal cytometric features for mimicking the biophysical characteristics of in vivo airway epithelium. Therefore, the Calu-3 cell monolayers could be used as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeted drug transport studies. PMID:26746641

  18. Lung function impact from working in the pre-revolution Libyan quarry industry.

    PubMed

    Draid, Marwan M; Ben-Elhaj, Khaled M; Ali, Ashraf M; Schmid, Ke