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  1. [Initiation, promotion, initiation experiments with radon and cigarette smoke: Lung tumors in rats]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Moolgavkar, S.H.

    1994-10-01

    During the past several years, the authors have made considerable progress in modeling carcinogenesis in general, and in modeling radiation carcinogenesis, in particular. They present an overview of their progress in developing stochastic carcinogenesis models and applying them to experimental and epidemiologic data sets. Traditionally, cancer models have been used for the analysis of incidence (or prevalence) data in epidemiology and time to tumor data in experimental studies. The relevant quantities for the analysis of these data are the hazard function and the probability of tumor. The derivation of these quantities is briefly described here. More recently, the authors began to use these models for the analysis of data on intermediate lesions on the pathway to cancer. Such data are available in experimental carcinogenesis studies, in particular in initiation and promotion studies on the mouse skin and the rat liver. If however, quantitative information on intermediate lesions on the pathway to lung cancer were to be come available at some future date, the methods that they have developed for the analysis of initiation-promotion experiments could easily be applied to the analysis of these lesions. The mathematical derivations here are couched in terms of a particular two-mutation model of carcinogenesis. Extension to models postulating more than two mutations is not always straightforward.

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinase-10 Is Required for Lung Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance, Tumor Initiation and Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, I-Chu; Walsh, Michael P.; Batra, Jyotica; Radisky, Evette S.; Murray, Nicole R.; Fields, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) stimulate tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the extracellular matrix. Here we reveal an unexpected role for Mmp10 (stromelysin 2) in the maintenance and tumorigenicity of mouse lung cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Mmp10 is highly expressed in oncosphere cultures enriched in CSCs and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mmp10 leads to a loss of stem cell marker gene expression and inhibition of oncosphere growth, clonal expansion, and transformed growth in vitro. Interestingly, clonal expansion of Mmp10 deficient oncospheres can be restored by addition of exogenous Mmp10 protein to the culture medium, demonstrating a direct role for Mmp10 in the proliferation of these cells. Oncospheres exhibit enhanced tumor-initiating and metastatic activity when injected orthotopically into syngeneic mice, whereas Mmp10-deficient cultures show a severe defect in tumor initiation. Conversely, oncospheres implanted into syngeneic non-transgenic or Mmp10−/− mice show no significant difference in tumor initiation, growth or metastasis, demonstrating the importance of Mmp10 produced by cancer cells rather than the tumor microenvironment in lung tumor initiation and maintenance. Analysis of gene expression data from human cancers reveals a strong positive correlation between tumor Mmp10 expression and metastatic behavior in many human tumor types. Thus, Mmp10 is required for maintenance of a highly tumorigenic, cancer-initiating, metastatic stem-like cell population in lung cancer. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Mmp10 is a critical lung cancer stem cell gene and novel therapeutic target for lung cancer stem cells. PMID:22545096

  3. MR imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy for lung tumors: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shangang; Ren, Ruimei; Liu, Ming; Lv, Yubo; Li, Bin; Li, Chengli

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate prospectively the initial clinical experience of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy of lung tumors. MR imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy was performed in 21 patients with biopsy-proven lung tumors (12 men, 9 women; age range, 39-79 y). Follow-up consisted of contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) scan performed at 3-month intervals to assess tumor control; CT scanning was carried out for 12 months or until death. Cryotherapy procedures were successfully completed in all 21 patients. Pneumothorax occurred in 7 (33.3%) of 21 patients. Chest tube placement was required in one (4.8%) case. Hemoptysis was exhibited by 11 (52.4%) patients, and pleural effusion occurred in 6 (28.6%) patients. Other complications were observed in 14 (66.7%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 10.5 months (range, 9-12 mo) in patients who died. At month 12 of follow-up, 7 (33.3%) patients had a complete response to therapy, and 10 (47.6%) patients showed a partial response. In addition, two patients had stable disease, and two patients developed progressive disease; one patient developed a tumor in the liver, and the other developed a tumor in the brain. The 1-year local control rate was 81%, and 1-year survival rate was 90.5%. MR imaging-guided percutaneous cryotherapy appears feasible, effective, and minimally invasive for lung tumors. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carcinoid Tumor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors? Lung carcinoid tumors (also known as ... lungs, as well as the neuroendocrine system. The lungs The lungs are 2 sponge-like organs in ...

  5. KLF4 regulates adult lung tumor-initiating cells and represses K-Ras-mediated lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Chen, X; Zhang, W; Liu, J; Avdiushko, R; Napier, D L; Liu, A X; Neltner, J M; Wang, C; Cohen, D; Liu, C

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. To identify novel factors that contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis, we analyzed a lung cancer database from The Cancer Genome Atlas and found that Krüppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) expression is significantly lower in patients' lung cancer tissue than in normal lung tissue. In addition, we identified seven missense mutations in the KLF4 gene. KLF4 is a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the self-renewal of stem cells. To understand the role of KLF4 in the lung, we generated a tamoxifen-induced Klf4 knockout mouse model. We found that KLF4 inhibits lung cancer cell growth and that depletion of Klf4 altered the differentiation pattern in the developing lung. To understand how KLF4 functions during lung tumorigenesis, we generated the K-ras(LSL-G12D/+);Klf4(fl/fl) mouse model, and we used adenovirus-expressed Cre to induce K-ras activation and Klf4 depletion in the lung. Although Klf4 deletion alone or K-ras mutation alone can trigger lung tumor formation, Klf4 deletion combined with K-ras mutation significantly enhanced lung tumor formation. We also found that Klf4 deletion in conjunction with K-ras activation caused lung inflammation. To understand the mechanism whereby KLF4 is regulated during lung tumorigenesis, we analyzed KLF4 promoter methylation and the profiles of epigenetic factors. We found that Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and that HDAC inhibitors induced expression of KLF4 and inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, suggesting that KLF4 is probably repressed by histone acetylation and that HDACs are valuable drug targets for lung cancer treatment.

  6. Evidence for self-renewing lung cancer stem cells and their implications in tumor initiation, progression, and targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, James P.; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of rare tumor cells with stem cell features first in leukemia and later in solid tumors has emerged as an important area in cancer research. It has been determined that these stem-like tumor cells, termed cancer stem cells, are the primary cellular component within a tumor that drives disease progression and metastasis. In addition to their stem-like ability to self-renew and differentiate, cancer stem cells are also enriched in cells resistant to conventional radiation therapy and to chemotherapy. The immediate implications of this new tumor growth paradigm not only require a re-evaluation of how tumors are initiated, but also on how tumors should be monitored and treated. However, despite the relatively rapid pace of cancer stem cell research in solid tumors such as breast, brain, and colon cancers, similar progress in lung cancer remains hampered in part due to an incomplete understanding of lung epithelial stem cell hierarchy and the complex heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we provide a critical summary of what is known about the role of normal and malignant lung stem cells in tumor development, the progress in characterizing lung cancer stem cells and the potential for therapeutically targeting pathways of lung cancer stem cell self-renewal. PMID:20094757

  7. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC.

  8. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC. PMID:26486080

  9. Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression in transgenic mice for Cre-inducible overexpression of Cul4A gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Zhidong; Mao, Jian -Hua; Hung, Ming -Szu; Hsieh, David; Au, Alfred; Jablons, David M.; You, Liang

    2015-06-08

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Although the available lung cancer animal models have been informative and further propel our understanding of human lung cancer, they still do not fully recapitulate the complexities of human lung cancer. The pathogenesis of lung cancer remains highly elusive because of its aggressive biologic nature and considerable heterogeneity, compared to other cancers. The association of Cul4A amplification with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis has been suggested. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied. Methods: Viral delivery approaches have been used extensively to model cancer in mouse models. In our experiments, we used Cre-recombinase induced overexpression of the Cul4A gene in transgenic mice to study the role of Cul4A on lung tumor initiation and progression and have developed a new model of lung tumor development in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A. Results: Here we show that the use of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (“AdenoCre”) to induce Cul4A overexpression in the lungs of mice allows controls of the timing and multiplicity of tumor initiation. Following our mouse models, we are able to study the potential role of Cul4A in the development and progression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma as well. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.

  10. Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression in transgenic mice for Cre-inducible overexpression of Cul4A gene

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Zhidong; Mao, Jian -Hua; ...

    2015-06-08

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Although the available lung cancer animal models have been informative and further propel our understanding of human lung cancer, they still do not fully recapitulate the complexities of human lung cancer. The pathogenesis of lung cancer remains highly elusive because of its aggressive biologic nature and considerable heterogeneity, compared to other cancers. The association of Cul4A amplification with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis has been suggested. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied. Methods:more » Viral delivery approaches have been used extensively to model cancer in mouse models. In our experiments, we used Cre-recombinase induced overexpression of the Cul4A gene in transgenic mice to study the role of Cul4A on lung tumor initiation and progression and have developed a new model of lung tumor development in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A. Results: Here we show that the use of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (“AdenoCre”) to induce Cul4A overexpression in the lungs of mice allows controls of the timing and multiplicity of tumor initiation. Following our mouse models, we are able to study the potential role of Cul4A in the development and progression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma as well. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.« less

  11. Delineation of a cellular hierarchy in lung cancer reveals an oncofetal antigen expressed on tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Damelin, Marc; Geles, Kenneth G; Follettie, Maximillian T; Yuan, Ping; Baxter, Michelle; Golas, Jonathon; DiJoseph, John F; Karnoub, Maha; Huang, Shuguang; Diesl, Veronica; Behrens, Carmen; Choe, Sung E; Rios, Carol; Gruzas, Janet; Sridharan, Latha; Dougher, Maureen; Kunz, Arthur; Hamann, Philip R; Evans, Deborah; Armellino, Douglas; Khandke, Kiran; Marquette, Kimberly; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Boghaert, Erwin R; Abraham, Robert T; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Zhou, Bin-Bing S

    2011-06-15

    Poorly differentiated tumors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been associated with shorter patient survival and shorter time to recurrence following treatment. Here, we integrate multiple experimental models with clinicopathologic analysis of patient tumors to delineate a cellular hierarchy in NSCLC. We show that the oncofetal protein 5T4 is expressed on tumor-initiating cells and associated with worse clinical outcome in NSCLC. Coexpression of 5T4 and factors involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were observed in undifferentiated but not in differentiated tumor cells. Despite heterogeneous expression of 5T4 in NSCLC patient-derived xenografts, treatment with an anti-5T4 antibody-drug conjugate resulted in complete and sustained tumor regression. Thus, the aggressive growth of heterogeneous solid tumors can be blocked by therapeutic agents that target a subpopulation of cells near the top of the cellular hierarchy.

  12. Radio-Photothermal Therapy Mediated by a Single Compartment Nanoplatform Depletes Tumor Initiating Cells and Reduces Lung Metastasis in Orthotopic 4T1 Breast Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and has demonstrated promising application in clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs is suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy. PMID:26376843

  13. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-12-14

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([(64)Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [(64)Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy.

  14. Image guided respiratory gated hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (H-SBRT) for liver and lung tumors: Initial experience.

    PubMed

    Wurm, R E; Gum, F; Erbel, S; Schlenger, L; Scheffler, D; Agaoglu, D; Schild, R; Gebauer, B; Rogalla, P; Plotkin, M; Ocran, K; Budach, V

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate our initial experience with image guided respiratory gated H-SBRT for liver and lung tumors. The system combines a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system (ExacTrac X-Ray 6D) with a dedicated conformal stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy linear accelerator (Novalis) and ExacTrac Adaptive Gating for dynamic adaptive treatment. Moving targets are located and tracked by x-ray imaging of implanted fiducial markers defined in the treatment planning computed tomography (CT). The marker position is compared with the position in verification stereoscopic x-ray images, using fully automated marker detection software. The required shift for a correct, gated set-up is calculated and automatically applied. We present our acceptance testing and initial experience in patients with liver and lung tumors. For treatment planning CT and Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) taken at free breathing and expiration breath hold with internal and external fiducials present were used. Patients were treated with 8-11 consecutive fractions to a dose of 74.8-79.2 Gy. Phantom tests demonstrated targeting accuracy with a moving target to within +/-1 mm. Inter- and intrafractional patient set-up displacements, as corrected by the gated set-up and not detectable by a conventional set-up, were up to 30 mm. Verification imaging to determine target location during treatment showed an average marker position deviation from the expected position of up to 4 mm on real patients. This initial evaluation shows the accuracy of the system and feasibility of image guided real-time respiratory gated H-SBRT for liver and lung tumors.

  15. Lung cancer tumorigenicity and drug resistance are maintained through ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xiao, Zhijie; Wong, Sunny Kit-Man; Tin, Vicky Pui-Chi; Ho, Ka-Yan; Wang, Junwen; Sham, Mai-Har; Wong, Maria Pik

    2013-10-01

    Limited improvement in long term survival of lung cancer patients has been achieved by conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. To explore the potentials of tumor initiating cells (TIC)-directed therapy, it is essential to identify the cell targets and understand their maintenance mechanisms. We have analyzed the performance of ALDH/CD44 co-expression as TIC markers and treatment targets of lung cancer using well-validated in vitro and in vivo analyses in multiple established and patient-derived lung cancer cells. The ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset showed the highest enhancement of stem cell phenotypic properties compared to ALDH(hi)CD44(lo), ALDH(lo)CD44(hi), ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) cells and unsorted controls. They showed higher invasion capacities, pluripotency genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors expression, lower intercellular adhesion protein expression and higher G2/M phase cell cycle fraction. In immunosuppressed mice, the ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)xenografts showed the highest tumor induction frequency, serial transplantability, shortest latency, largest volume and highest growth rates. Inhibition of sonic Hedgehog and Notch developmental pathways reduced ALDH+CD44+ compartment. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy resulted in higher AALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset viability and ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) subset apoptosis fraction. ALDH inhibition and CD44 knockdown led to reduced stemness gene expression and sensitization to drug treatment. In accordance, clinical lung cancers containing a higher abundance of ALDH and CD44-coexpressing cells was associated with lower recurrence-free survival. Together, results suggested theALDH(hi)CD44(hi)compartment was the cellular mediator of tumorigenicity and drug resistance. Further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)TIC maintenance would be beneficial for the development of long term lung cancer control.

  16. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy.Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress

  17. How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Staged? The stage of a cancer ... Your Doctor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  18. How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Diagnosed? Certain signs and symptoms might ... Your Doctor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  19. Microenvironment-Modulated Metastatic CD133+/CXCR4+/EpCAM- Lung Cancer-Initiating Cells Sustain Tumor Dissemination and Correlate with Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giulia; D'Amico, Lucia; Moro, Massimo; Landoni, Elena; Perego, Paola; Miceli, Rosalba; Gatti, Laura; Andriani, Francesca; Wong, Donald; Caserini, Roberto; Tortoreto, Monica; Milione, Massimo; Ferracini, Riccardo; Mariani, Luigi; Pastorino, Ugo; Roato, Ilaria; Sozzi, Gabriella; Roz, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for lung cancer-related mortality, but little is known about specific determinants of successful dissemination from primary tumors and metastasis initiation. Here, we show that CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) cancer-initiating cells (CIC) directly isolated from patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of non-small cell lung cancer are endowed with superior ability to seed and initiate metastasis at distant organs. We additionally report that CXCR4 inhibition successfully prevents the increase of cisplatin-resistant CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) cells in residual tumors and their metastatization. Immunophenotypic analysis of lung tumor cells intravenously injected or spontaneously disseminated to murine lungs demonstrated the survival advantage and increased colonization ability of a specific subset of CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) with reduced expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM(-)), which also shows the greatest in vitro invasive potential. We next prove that recovered disseminated cells from lungs of PDX-bearing mice enriched for CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/EpCAM(-) CICs are highly tumorigenic and metastatic. Importantly, microenvironment stimuli eliciting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, including signals from cancer-associated fibroblasts, are able to increase the dissemination potential of lung cancer cells through the generation of the CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/EpCAM(-) subset. These findings also have correlates in patient samples where disseminating CICs are enriched in metastatic lymph nodes (20-fold, P = 0.006) and their detection in primary tumors is correlated with poor clinical outcome (disease-free survival: P = 0.03; overall survival: P = 0.05). Overall, these results highlight the importance of specific cellular subsets in the metastatic process, the need for in-depth characterization of disseminating tumor cells, and the potential of therapeutic strategies targeting both primary tumor and tumor-microenvironment interactions.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-α plays an initiating role in extracorporeal circulation-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Luo, Nanfu; Du, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Gong, Lina; Jiang, Nenggang

    2013-04-01

    Despite advances in critical care, the mortality rate for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) remains high. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an initiating role in the onset of extracorporeal circulation (ECC)-induced ALI. Eight New Zealand rabbits subjected to 1 h of ECC and 40 min of observation after termination of ECC were used for monitoring pulmonary nociceptor activity. Fifty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that received 2 h of ECC and 4 h of rest were used to measure the pulmonary function and inflammatory cytokines release, including total cells, neutrophils, and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophils in blood. An additional 40 SD rats were randomized to pretreatment with inhalation of phosphate buffer solution (control group), IgG (IgG inh group), or TNF-α antibody (anti-TNF-α inh group) and venous injection of TNF-α antibody (anti-TNF-α iv group). After 2 h of ECC and 4 h of rest, the arterial blood and BAL fluid were collected for measurement of arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) and inflammatory cytokines release. The left-lower-lung tissues of animals were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). The results demonstrated that the activities of airway nociceptor and TNF-α release were similarly upregulated at the early stage and in a time-related manner in ECC-induced ALI. Pretreatment with TNF-α antibody inhalation, but not venous injection, improved pulmonary function, inhibited pulmonary inflammation, and attenuated pulmonary histopathological changes after ECC. We concluded that TNF-α played an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI and acted as an initiating cytokine at the early stage of ECC-induced ALI.

  1. Promotion of lung tumors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    Several elements of two-stage carcinogenesis apply to the development of lung tumors in mice. At least three agents, identified as promoters, will also enhance tumor formation in lung: phorbol, saccharin, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The antioxidant BHT is effective only if animals are treated after exposure to an initiating agent. Administration can be delayed up to 5 months after urethan treatment and still enhance tumor formation. BHT enhances lung tumor formation regardless of its route of administration. The lowest dose required to produce an effect has not yet been determined. In at least one mouse strain, BHT also enhances tumor formation in animals initiated with 3-methylcholanthren or diethylnitrosaine. No evidence is available yet to show that BHT would enhance tumor development in animals treated with subcarcinogenic doses of an initiating compound. Nor has it been possible to produce more tumors with BHT in mouse strains which have a low spontaneous tumor incidence and respond poorly to urethan. Neveretheless, the data collected on the effects of BHT on mouse lung tumor development have broadened the concept of two-stage carcinogenesis and complement the evidence for initiation-promotion available for other epithelial tissues. (ERB)

  2. Presence of a putative tumor-initiating progenitor cell population predicts poor prognosis in smokers with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Aik T.; Mah, Vei; Nickerson, Derek W.; Gilbert, Jennifer L.; Ha, Vi Luan; Hegab, Ahmed E.; Horvath, Steve; Alavi, Mohammad; Maresh, Erin L.; Chia, David; Gower, Adam C.; Lenburg, Marc E.; Spira, Avrum; Solis, Luisa M.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Walser, Tonya C.; Wallace, William D.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Goodglick, Lee; Gomperts, Brigitte N.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is the most important known risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Tobacco exposure results in chronic inflammation, tissue injury and repair. A recent hypothesis argues for a stem/progenitor cell involved in airway epithelial repair that may be a tumor-initiating cell in lung cancer, and which may be associated with recurrence and metastasis. We used immunostaining, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blots and lung cancer tissue microarrays to identify subpopulations of airway epithelial stem/progenitor cells under steady state conditions, normal repair, aberrant repair with premalignant lesions and lung cancer and their correlation with injury and prognosis. We identified a population of keratin 14 (K14)-expressing progenitor epithelial cells that was involved in repair after injury. Dysregulated repair resulted in persistence of K14+ cells in the airway epithelium in premalignant lesions. The presence of K14+ cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples predicted poorer outcomes. This was especially true in smokers where the presence of K14+ cells in NSCLC was predictive of metastasis. The presence of K14+ progenitor airway epithelial cells in NSCLC predicted a poor prognosis and this predictive value was strongest in smokers, where it also correlated with metastasis. This suggests that reparative K14+ progenitor cells may be tumor-initiating cells in this subgroup of smokers with NSCLC. PMID:20710044

  3. What's New in Lung Carcinoid Tumor Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors What’s New in Lung Carcinoid Tumor Research and Treatment? Many medical centers ... Lung Carcinoid Tumor Research and Treatment? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  4. Whole-tumor perfusion CT in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma treated with conventional and antiangiogenetic chemotherapy: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Fraioli, Francesco; Anzidei, Michele; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Mennini, Maria Luisa; Serra, Goffredo; Gori, Bruno; Longo, Flavia; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether wide-volume perfusion computed tomography (CT) performed with a new generation scanner can allow evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy combined with antiangiogenetic treatment on the whole tumor mass in patients with locally advanced lung adenocarcinoma and to determine if changes in CT numbers correlate with the response to therapy as assessed by conventional response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). Forty-five patients with unresectable lung adenocarcinoma underwent perfusion CT before and 40 and 90 days after chemotherapy and antiangiogenetic treatment. RECIST measurements and calculations of blood flow, blood volume, time to peak, and permeability were performed by two independent blinded radiologists. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between baseline CT numbers. Baseline and follow-up perfusion parameters of the neoplastic lesions were tested overall for statistically significant differences by using the repeated-measures analysis of variance and then were also compared on the basis of the therapy response assessed according to the RECIST criteria. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between baseline values of blood flow and blood volume (ρ = 0.48; P = .001), time to peak and permeability (ρ = 0.31; P = .04), time to peak and blood flow (ρ = -0.66; P < .001), and time to peak and blood volume (ρ = -0.39; P = .007). Blood flow, blood volume, and permeability values were higher in responding patients than in the other patients, with a significant difference at second follow-up for blood flow (P = .0001), blood volume (P = .02), and permeability (P = .0001); time to peak was higher in nonresponding patients (P = .012). Perfusion CT imaging may allow evaluation of lung cancer angiogenesis demonstrating alterations in vascularity following treatment. RSNA, 2011

  5. What Happens after Treatment for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Lung Carcinoid Tumors? For many people with carcinoid tumors, ... Lung Carcinoid Tumor Treatment Stops Working More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  6. NRAS destines tumor cells to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Giannou, Anastasios D; Marazioti, Antonia; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Giopanou, Ioanna; Lilis, Ioannis; Zazara, Dimitra E; Ntaliarda, Giannoula; Kati, Danai; Armenis, Vasileios; Giotopoulou, Georgia A; Krontira, Anthi C; Lianou, Marina; Agalioti, Theodora; Vreka, Malamati; Papageorgopoulou, Maria; Fouzas, Sotirios; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Psallidas, Ioannis; Spella, Magda; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2017-05-01

    The lungs are frequently affected by cancer metastasis. Although NRAS mutations have been associated with metastatic potential, their exact role in lung homing is incompletely understood. We cross-examined the genotype of various tumor cells with their ability for automatic pulmonary dissemination, modulated NRAS expression using RNA interference and NRAS overexpression, identified NRAS signaling partners by microarray, and validated them using Cxcr1- and Cxcr2-deficient mice. Mouse models of spontaneous lung metastasis revealed that mutant or overexpressed NRAS promotes lung colonization by regulating interleukin-8-related chemokine expression, thereby initiating interactions between tumor cells, the pulmonary vasculature, and myeloid cells. Our results support a model where NRAS-mutant, chemokine-expressing circulating tumor cells target the CXCR1-expressing lung vasculature and recruit CXCR2-expressing myeloid cells to initiate metastasis. We further describe a clinically relevant approach to prevent NRAS-driven pulmonary metastasis by inhibiting chemokine signaling. In conclusion, NRAS promotes the colonization of the lungs by various tumor types in mouse models. IL-8-related chemokines, NRAS signaling partners in this process, may constitute an important therapeutic target against pulmonary involvement by cancers of other organs. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Translation initiation factor eIF3b expression in human cancer and its role in tumor growth and lung colonization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Ru, Yuanbin; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Wang, Xuejiao; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Theodorescu, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Discovery transcriptomic analyses suggest eukaryotic initiation factor 3b (eIF3b) is elevated in human bladder and prostate cancer, yet its role as a prognostic factor or its requirement in the maintenance or progression of human cancer is not established. Here, we determine the therapeutic potential of eIF3b by examining the clinical relevance of its expression in human cancer tissues and its role in experimental tumor models. We examined mRNA expression of eIF3b in bladder (N = 317) and prostate (N = 566) tissue samples and protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 143 bladder tumor samples as a function of clinicopathologic features. The impact of eIF3b depletion by siRNA in human cancer lines was evaluated in regard to in vitro cell growth, cell cycle, migration, in vivo subcutaneous tumor growth, and lung colonization. eIF3b mRNA expression correlated to tumor grade, stage, and survival in human bladder and prostate cancer. eIF3b protein expression stratified survival in human bladder cancer. eIF3b depletion reduced in vitro cancer cell growth; inhibited G1-S cell-cycle transition by changing protein but not RNA expression of cyclin A, E, Rb, and p27Kip1; inhibited migration; and disrupted actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions. These changes were associated with decreased protein expression of integrin α5. Integrin α5 depletion phenocopied effects observed with eIF3b. eIF3b-depleted bladder cancer cells formed fewer subcutaneous tumors that grew more slowly and had reduced lung colonization. eIF3b expression relates to human bladder and prostate cancer prognosis, is required for tumor growth, and thus a candidate therapeutic target. ©2013 AACR

  8. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sleeve above and below the stain and sewing the cuff back onto the shortened sleeve. A ... because it requires a great deal of technical skill. Possible risks and side effects of lung surgery ...

  9. What Are the Key Statistics for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carcinoid Tumors What Are the Key Statistics About Lung Carcinoid Tumors? About 1% to 2% of all ... Lung Carcinoid Tumor Research and Treatment? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  10. Targeting lactate dehydrogenase-A inhibits tumorigenesis and tumor progression in mouse models of lung cancer and impacts tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Han; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Ren, Jian-Guo; Kats, Lev; Burgess, Kerri; Bhargava, Parul; Signoretti, Sabina; Billiard, Julia; Duffy, Kevin J.; Grant, Aaron; Wang, Xiaoen; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K.; Schatzman, Sabrina; Bousamra, Michael; Lane, Andrew N.; Higashi, Richard M.; Fan, Teresa W.M.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Seth, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Summary The lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) enzyme catalyzes the inter-conversion of pyruvate and lactate, is upregulated in human cancers and is associated with aggressive tumor outcomes. Here we use a novel inducible murine model and demonstrate that inactivation of LDH-A in mouse models of NSCLC driven by oncogenic K-RAS or EGFR leads to decreased tumorigenesis and disease regression in established tumors. We also show that abrogation of LDH-A results in reprogramming of pyruvate metabolism, with decreased lactic fermentation in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This was accompanied by re-activation of mitochondrial function in vitro but not in vivo or ex vivo. Finally, using a specific small molecule LDH-A inhibitor, we demonstrated that LDH-A is essential for cancer initiating cell survival and proliferation. Thus, LDH-A can be a viable therapeutic target for NSCLC including cancer stem cell-dependent drug resistant tumors. PMID:24726384

  11. Deep-inspiration breath-hold kilovoltage cone-beam CT for setup of stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumors: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Dennis M; Ding, George X; Coffey, Charles W; Kirby, Wyndee; Hallahan, Dennis E; Malcolm, Arnold; Lu, Bo

    2007-04-01

    We report our initial experience with deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) cone-beam CT (CBCT) on the treatment table, using the kilovoltage imager integrated into our linear accelerator, for setting up patients for DIBH stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Nine patients with non-small cell lung cancer (seven stage I), were given 60Gy in three fractions. All nine patients could perform a DIBH for 35s. For each patient we used a diagnostic reference CT volume image acquired during a DIBH to design an SBRT plan consisting of 7-10 noncoplanar conformal beams. Four patients were setup by registering DIBH kilovoltage projection radiographs or megavoltage portal images on the treatment table to digitally reconstructed radiographs from the reference CT. Each of the last 14 fractions out of a total of 27 was setup by acquiring a CBCT volume image on the treatment table in three breath-holds. The CBCT and reference CT volume images were directly registered and the shift was calculated from the registration. The CBCT volume images contained excellent detail on soft tissue and bony anatomy for matching to the reference CT. Most importantly, the tumor was always clearly visible in the CBCT images, even when it was difficult or impossible to see in the radiographs or portal images. The accuracy of the CBCT method was confirmed by DIBH megavoltage portal imaging and each treatment beam was delivered during a DIBH. CBCT acquisition typically required five more minutes than radiograph acquisition but the overall setup time was often shorter using CBCT because repeat imaging was minimized. We conclude that for setting up SBRT treatments of lung tumors, DIBH CBCT is feasible, fast and may result in less variation among observers than using bony anatomy in orthogonal radiographs.

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors? A risk factor is anything that ... Can Lung Carcinoid Tumors Be Prevented? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  13. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staging What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors? It is important to have honest, ... Your Doctor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors? More In Lung Carcinoid Tumors About Lung Carcinoid Tumors Causes, Risk ...

  14. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Demes, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. PMID:24213466

  15. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for reirradiation of locally recurrent lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Trakul, Nicholas; Harris, Jeremy P; Le, Quynh-Thu; Hara, Wendy Y; Maxim, Peter G; Loo, Billy W; Diehn, Maximilian

    2012-09-01

    Patients with thoracic tumors that recur after irradiation currently have limited therapeutic options. Retreatment using stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is appealing for these patients because of its high conformity but has not been studied extensively. Here we report our experience with SABR for lung tumors in previously irradiated regions. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with primary lung cancer or metastatic lung tumors treated with SABR. We identified 17 such tumors in 15 patients and compared their outcomes with those of a cohort of 135 previously unirradiated lung tumors treated with SABR during the same time period. Twelve-month local control (LC) for retreated tumors was 65.5%, compared with 92.1% for tumors receiving SABR as initial treatment. Twelve-month LC was significantly worse for reirradiated tumors in which the time interval between treatments was 16 months or less (46.7%), compared with those with longer intertreatment intervals (87.5%). SABR reirradiation did not lead to significant increases in treatment-related toxicity. SABR for locally recurrent lung tumors arising in previously irradiated fields seems to be feasible and safe for appropriately selected patients. LC of retreated lesions was significantly lower, likely owing to the lower doses used for retreatment. Shorter time to retreatment was associated with increased risk of local failure, suggesting that these tumors may be particularly radioresistant. Our findings suggest that dose escalation may improve LC while maintaining acceptable levels of toxicity for these patients.

  16. Atypical endocrine tumors of the lung.

    PubMed

    McDowell, E M; Wilson, T S; Trump, B F

    1981-01-01

    Seven malignant peripheral lung tumors that were diagnosed using light microscopy as large-cell carcinomas or as epidermoid or adenocarcinomas were studied by light and electron microscopic histochemistry. All tumors contained numerous dense-core granules. The cells were joined by desmosomes and contained well-developed tonofilament bundles. Serotonin was demonstrated in six of seven tumors and argyrophilic granules were demonstrated in five of six tumors tested. Four tumors produced mucus. All tumors extended to the visceral pleura and two invaded the chest wall. The existence of lung tumors that contain serotonin and bear argyrophilic putative endocrine granules, but that do not have a light-microscopic histology characteristic of either carcinoid or oat-cell carcinomas, is confirmed. The presumptive endocrine nature of such tumors usually passes unrecognized because they lack criteria to allow diagnosis by routine methods.

  17. Assessment of lung tumor response by perfusion CT.

    PubMed

    Coche, E

    2013-01-01

    Perfusion CT permits evaluation of lung cancer angiogenesis and response to therapy by demonstrating alterations in lung tumor vascularity. It is advocated that perfusion CT performed shortly after initiating therapy may provide a better evaluation of physiological changes rather than the conventional size assessment obtained with RECIST. The radiation dose,the volume of contrast medium delivered to the patient and the reproducibility of blood flow parameters remain an issue for this type of investigation.

  18. Cutaneous metastasis of primitive neuroectodermal lung tumor.

    PubMed

    Garcia Romero, Diana; Hilara Sanchez, Yolanda; Perez Alvarez, Javier; Ramirez Garcia, Jose Ramon; De Pable Martin, Maria Pilar

    2013-06-15

    Primary sarcomas of the chest are rare. Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) usually develops in the chest wall, it has been described as a primary pulmonary tumor. We present an unusual case of PNET arising in the lung of an 89-year-old man.

  19. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saladi, Swetha; Patolia, Setu; Stoeckel, David

    2017-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncologic complication caused by the lysis of a vast number of malignant cells resulting in metabolic derangements and organ dysfunction. TLS can occur spontaneously before initiation of any therapies often referred to as spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome (STLS), or shortly after the induction of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or cytolytic antibody therapy. TLS is vastly seen in patients with hematological malignancies with high rapid cell turnover rates such as Burkitt lymphoma, acute myelogenous leukemia, and acute lymphocytic leukemia, and is rarely observed in solid tumors. However, TLS can occur in solid tumors, and there are multiple reports in the literature on the occurrence of TLS in various solid tumors. In this article, we report a case of STLS in small cell lung cancer followed by a brief review of the occurrence of TLS and STLS in small cell lung cancer. PMID:28344911

  20. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Norihisa, Yoshiki; Nagata, Yasushi Takayama, Kenji; Matsuo, Yukinori; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masato; Mizowaki, Takashi; Yano, Shinsuke; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: Since 1998, we have treated primary and oligometastatic lung tumors with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The term 'oligometastasis' is used to indicate a small number of metastases limited to an organ. We evaluated our clinical experience of SBRT for oligometastatic lung tumors. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 patients with oligometastatic lung tumors were included in this study. The primary involved organs were the lung (n = 15), colorectum (n = 9), head and neck (n = 5), kidney (n = 3), breast (n = 1), and bone (n = 1). Five to seven, noncoplanar, static 6-MV photon beams were used to deliver 48 Gy (n = 18) or 60 Gy (n = 16) at the isocenter, with 12 Gy/fraction within 4-18 days (median, 12 days). Results: The overall survival rate, local relapse-free rate, and progression-free rate at 2 years was 84.3%, 90.0%, and 34.8%, respectively. No local progression was observed in tumors irradiated with 60 Gy. SBRT-related pulmonary toxicities were observed in 4 (12%) Grade 2 cases and 1 (3%) Grade 3 case. Patients with a longer disease-free interval had a greater overall survival rate. Conclusion: The clinical result of SBRT for oligometastatic lung tumors in our institute was comparable to that after surgical metastasectomy; thus, SBRT could be an effective treatment of pulmonary oligometastases.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may need to be admitted overnight for observation. What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung ... performed on an outpatient basis or with overnight observation in the hospital with general anesthesia. For the ...

  2. Metabolic heterogeneity in human lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Christopher T.; Faubert, Brandon; Yuan, Qing; Lev-Cohain, Naama; Jin, Eunsook; Kim, Jiyeon; Jiang, Lei; Ko, Bookyung; Skelton, Rachael; Loudat, Laurin; Wodzak, Michelle; Klimko, Claire; McMillan, Elizabeth; Butt, Yasmeen; Ni, Min; Oliver, Dwight; Torrealba, Jose; Malloy, Craig R.; Kernstine, Kemp; Lenkinski, Robert E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in the genetic and environmental parameters that influence cell metabolism in culture. Here, we assessed the impact of these factors on human NSCLC metabolism in vivo using intra-operative 13C-glucose infusions in nine NSCLC patients to compare metabolism between tumors and benign lung. While enhanced glycolysis and glucose oxidation were common among these tumors, we observed evidence for oxidation of multiple nutrients in each of them, including lactate as a potential carbon source. Moreover, metabolically heterogeneous regions were identified within and between tumors, and surprisingly, our data suggested potential contributions of non-glucose nutrients in well-perfused tumor areas. Our findings not only demonstrate the heterogeneity in tumor metabolism in vivo but also highlight the strong influence of the microenvironment on this feature. PMID:26853473

  3. Interleukin-6 Prevents the Initiation but Enhances the Progression of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhaoxia; Sun, Fan; Zhou, Jingjiao; Li, Liwen; Shapiro, Steven D; Xiao, Gutian

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies suggest that high expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL6 is associated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. Accordingly, IL6 has been a target of great interest for lung cancer therapy. However, the role of IL6 in lung cancer has not been determined yet. Here, we demonstrate that IL6 plays opposite roles in the initiation and growth of lung cancer in a mouse model of lung cancer induced by the K-Ras oncogene. We find that compared with wild-type mice, IL6-deficient mice developed much more lung tumors after an activating mutant of K-Ras was induced in the lungs. However, lung tumors developed in IL6-deficient mice were significantly smaller. Notably, both the lung tumor-suppressing and -promoting functions of IL6 involve its ability in activating the transcription factor STAT3. IL6/STAT3 signaling suppressed lung cancer initiation through maintaining lung homeostasis, regulating lung macrophages, and activating cytotoxic CD8 T cells under K-Ras oncogenic stress, whereas it promoted lung cancer cell growth through inducing the cell proliferation regulator cyclin D1. These studies reveal a previously unexplored role of IL6/STAT3 signaling in maintaining lung homeostasis and suppressing lung cancer induction. These studies also significantly improve our understanding of lung cancer and provide a molecular basis for designing IL6/STAT3-targeted therapies for this deadliest human cancer.

  4. Interleukin-6 prevents the initiation but enhances the progression of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhaoxia; Sun, Fan; Zhou, Jingjiao; Li, Liwen; Shapiro, Steven D.; Xiao, Gutian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. Accordingly, IL-6 has been a target of great interest for lung cancer therapy. However, the role of IL-6 in lung cancer has not been determined yet. Here, we demonstrate that IL-6 plays opposite roles in the initiation and growth of lung cancer in a mouse model of lung cancer induced by the K-Ras oncogene. We find that compared to wild type mice, IL-6 deficient mice developed much more lung tumors after an activating mutant of K-Ras was induced in the lungs. However, lung tumors developed in IL-6 deficient mice were significantly smaller. Notably, both the lung tumor-suppressing and -promoting functions of IL-6 involve its ability in activating the transcription factor STAT3. IL-6/STAT3 signaling suppressed lung cancer initiation through maintaining lung homeostasis, regulating lung macrophages and activating cytotoxic CD8 T cells under K-Ras oncogenic stress, whereas it promoted lung cancer cell growth through inducing the cell proliferation regulator Cyclin D1. These studies reveal a previously unexplored role of IL-6/STAT3 signaling in maintaining lung homeostasis and suppressing lung cancer induction. These studies also significantly improve our understanding of lung cancer and provide a molecular basis for designing IL-6/STAT3-targeted therapies for this deadliest human cancer. PMID:26122841

  5. Lung tumor tracking in fluoroscopic video based on optical flow.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianyi; Hamilton, Russell J; Schowengerdt, Robert A; Alexander, Brian; Jiang, Steve B

    2008-12-01

    Respiratory gating and tumor tracking for dynamic multileaf collimator delivery require accurate and real-time localization of the lung tumor position during treatment. Deriving tumor position from external surrogates such as abdominal surface motion may have large uncertainties due to the intra- and interfraction variations of the correlation between the external surrogates and internal tumor motion. Implanted fiducial markers can be used to track tumors fluoroscopically in real time with sufficient accuracy. However, it may not be a practical procedure when implanting fiducials bronchoscopically. In this work, a method is presented to track the lung tumor mass or relevant anatomic features projected in fluoroscopic images without implanted fiducial markers based on an optical flow algorithm. The algorithm generates the centroid position of the tracked target and ignores shape changes of the tumor mass shadow. The tracking starts with a segmented tumor projection in an initial image frame. Then, the optical flow between this and all incoming frames acquired during treatment delivery is computed as initial estimations of tumor centroid displacements. The tumor contour in the initial frame is transferred to the incoming frames based on the average of the motion vectors, and its positions in the incoming frames are determined by fine-tuning the contour positions using a template matching algorithm with a small search range. The tracking results were validated by comparing with clinician determined contours on each frame. The position difference in 95% of the frames was found to be less than 1.4 pixels (approximately 0.7 mm) in the best case and 2.8 pixels (approximately 1.4 mm) in the worst case for the five patients studied.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Cos Escuín, Julio

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (PNT) encompass a broad spectrum of tumors including typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical (AC) tumors, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Although no variety can be considered benign, AC and TC have a much lower metastatic potential, are usually diagnosed in early stages, and most are candidates for surgical treatment. Several chemotherapy (CT) regimens are available in the case of recurrence or in advanced stages, although scientific evidence is insufficient. LCNEC, which is currently classified alongside large-cell carcinomas, have molecular features, biological behavior and CT sensitivity profile closely resembling SCLC. Pathological diagnosis is often difficult, despite the availability of immunohistochemical techniques, and surgical specimens may be necessary. The diagnostic tests used are similar to those used in other lung tumors, with some differences in the optimal tracer in positron emission tomography. The new TNM classification is useful for staging these tumors. Carcinoid syndrome, very rare in PNT, may cause symptoms that are difficult to control and requires special therapy with somatostatin analogs and other drugs. Overall, with the exception of SCLC, new trials are needed to provide a response to the many questions arising with regard to the best treatment in each lineage and each stage. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. [Role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G in tumor].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Huang, Nan; Pan, Xia; Zang, Jing-Lei; Guan, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Liu-Cheng; Lei, Xiao-Yong

    2016-04-25

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) is a scaffold component of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex, which takes principal part in the initiating of protein synthesis. Both two subtypes (eIF4G1 and eIF4G2) of eIF4G were found to be closely related with various tumors. The eIF4G1 expression is significantly up-regulated in breast cancer, cervical cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, prostatic carcinoma and other malignant tumors, compared with those in adjacent tissues; and the eIF4G2 is obviously over-expressed in diffuse large B cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia, but low-expressed in bladder transitional cell carcinoma. This paper reviews the progress in the study of the role of eIF4G in tumor genesis, development, diagnosis and prognosis.

  8. Lung tumor promotion by chromium-containing welding particulate matter in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Meighan, Terence G; Erdely, Aaron; Battelli, Lori A; Kashon, Michael L; Keane, Michael; Antonini, James M

    2013-09-05

    Epidemiology suggests that occupational exposure to welding particulate matter (PM) may increase lung cancer risk. However, animal studies are lacking to conclusively link welding with an increased risk. PM derived from stainless steel (SS) welding contains carcinogenic metals such as hexavalent chromium and nickel. We hypothesized that welding PM may act as a tumor promoter and increase lung tumor multiplicity in vivo. Therefore, the capacity of chromium-containing gas metal arc (GMA)-SS welding PM to promote lung tumors was evaluated using a two-stage (initiation-promotion) model in lung tumor susceptible A/J mice. Male mice (n = 28-30/group) were treated either with the initiator 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA;10 μg/g; IP) or vehicle (corn oil) followed by 5 weekly pharyngeal aspirations of GMA-SS (340 or 680 μg/exposure) or PBS. Lung tumors were enumerated at 30 weeks post-initiation. MCA initiation followed by GMA-SS welding PM exposure promoted tumor multiplicity in both the low (12.1 ± 1.5 tumors/mouse) and high (14.0 ± 1.8 tumors/mouse) exposure groups significantly above MCA/sham (4.77 ± 0.7 tumors/mouse; p = 0.0001). Multiplicity was also highly significant (p < 0.004) across all individual lung regions of GMA-SS-exposed mice. No exposure effects were found in the corn oil groups at 30 weeks. Histopathology confirmed the gross findings and revealed increased inflammation and a greater number of malignant lesions in the MCA/welding PM-exposed groups. GMA-SS welding PM acts as a lung tumor promoter in vivo. Thus, this study provides animal evidence to support the epidemiological data that show welders have an increased lung cancer risk.

  9. Lung tumor promotion by chromium-containing welding particulate matter in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiology suggests that occupational exposure to welding particulate matter (PM) may increase lung cancer risk. However, animal studies are lacking to conclusively link welding with an increased risk. PM derived from stainless steel (SS) welding contains carcinogenic metals such as hexavalent chromium and nickel. We hypothesized that welding PM may act as a tumor promoter and increase lung tumor multiplicity in vivo. Therefore, the capacity of chromium-containing gas metal arc (GMA)-SS welding PM to promote lung tumors was evaluated using a two-stage (initiation-promotion) model in lung tumor susceptible A/J mice. Methods Male mice (n = 28-30/group) were treated either with the initiator 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA;10 μg/g; IP) or vehicle (corn oil) followed by 5 weekly pharyngeal aspirations of GMA-SS (340 or 680 μg/exposure) or PBS. Lung tumors were enumerated at 30 weeks post-initiation. Results MCA initiation followed by GMA-SS welding PM exposure promoted tumor multiplicity in both the low (12.1 ± 1.5 tumors/mouse) and high (14.0 ± 1.8 tumors/mouse) exposure groups significantly above MCA/sham (4.77 ± 0.7 tumors/mouse; p = 0.0001). Multiplicity was also highly significant (p < 0.004) across all individual lung regions of GMA-SS-exposed mice. No exposure effects were found in the corn oil groups at 30 weeks. Histopathology confirmed the gross findings and revealed increased inflammation and a greater number of malignant lesions in the MCA/welding PM-exposed groups. Conclusions GMA-SS welding PM acts as a lung tumor promoter in vivo. Thus, this study provides animal evidence to support the epidemiological data that show welders have an increased lung cancer risk. PMID:24107379

  10. Quantitative analysis of tumor burden in mouse lung via MRI.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Vanessa K; Garbow, Joel R; Krupnick, Alexander S; Engelbach, John A; Nehorai, Arye

    2012-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Despite recent advances in screening protocols, the majority of patients still present with advanced or disseminated disease. Preclinical rodent models provide a unique opportunity to test novel therapeutic drugs for targeting lung cancer. Respiratory-gated MRI is a key tool for quantitatively measuring lung-tumor burden and monitoring the time-course progression of individual tumors in mouse models of primary and metastatic lung cancer. However, quantitative analysis of lung-tumor burden in mice by MRI presents significant challenges. Herein, a method for measuring tumor burden based upon average lung-image intensity is described and validated. The method requires accurate lung segmentation; its efficiency and throughput would be greatly aided by the ability to automatically segment the lungs. A technique for automated lung segmentation in the presence of varying tumor burden levels is presented. The method includes development of a new, two-dimensional parametric model of the mouse lungs and a multi-faceted cost function to optimally fit the model parameters to each image. Results demonstrate a strong correlation (0.93), comparable with that of fully manual expert segmentation, between the automated method's tumor-burden metric and the tumor burden measured by lung weight.

  11. Patrolling monocytes control tumor metastasis to the lung.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Richard N; Cekic, Caglar; Sag, Duygu; Tacke, Robert; Thomas, Graham D; Nowyhed, Heba; Herrley, Erica; Rasquinha, Nicole; McArdle, Sara; Wu, Runpei; Peluso, Esther; Metzger, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Shaked, Iftach; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Biswas, Subhra K; Hedrick, Catherine C

    2015-11-20

    The immune system plays an important role in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. Classical monocytes promote tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis, but how nonclassical "patrolling" monocytes (PMo) interact with tumors is unknown. Here we show that PMo are enriched in the microvasculature of the lung and reduce tumor metastasis to lung in multiple mouse metastatic tumor models. Nr4a1-deficient mice, which specifically lack PMo, showed increased lung metastasis in vivo. Transfer of Nr4a1-proficient PMo into Nr4a1-deficient mice prevented tumor invasion in the lung. PMo established early interactions with metastasizing tumor cells, scavenged tumor material from the lung vasculature, and promoted natural killer cell recruitment and activation. Thus, PMo contribute to cancer immunosurveillance and may be targets for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Patrolling Monocytes Control Tumor Metastasis to the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Richard N.; Cekic, Caglar; Sag, Duygu; Tacke, Robert; Thomas, Graham D.; Nowyhed, Heba; Herrley, Erica; Rasquinha, Nicole; McArdle, Sara; Wu, Runpei; Peluso, Esther; Metzger, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Shaked, Iftach; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Biswas, Subhra K.; Hedrick, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. For example, classical monocytes promote tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis; however, how nonclassical “patrolling” monocytes interact with tumors is unknown. Here we show that patrolling monocytes are enriched in the microvasculature of the lung and reduce tumor metastasis to lung in multiple mouse metastatic tumor models. Nr4a1-deficient mice, which specifically lack patrolling monocytes, showed increased lung metastasis in vivo. Transfer of Nr4a1-proficient patrolling monocytes into Nr4a1-deficient mice prevented tumor invasion in lung. Patrolling monocytes established early interactions with metastasizing tumor cells, scavenged tumor material from the lung vasculature and promoted natural killer cell recruitment and activation. Thus, patrolling monocytes contribute to cancer immunosurveillance and may be targets for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26494174

  13. Foxm1 Transcription Factor is required for Macrophage Migration during Lung Inflammation and Tumor Formation

    PubMed Central

    Balli, David; Ren, Xiaomeng; Chou, Fu-Sheng; Cross, Emily; Zhang, Yufang; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.; Kalin, Tanya V.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in tumor-associated pulmonary inflammation that supports proliferation of tumor cells and promotes lung tumor growth. Although increased numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are linked to poor prognosis in lung cancer patients, little is known regarding the transcriptional mechanisms controlling recruitment of macrophages during lung tumorigenesis. Forkhead Box m1 (Foxm1) transcription factor is induced in multiple cell types within tumor lesions and its increased expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinomas. To determine the role of Foxm1 in recruitment of TAM, a mouse line with macrophage-specific Foxm1 deletion was generated (macFoxm1−/−). Lung tumorigenesis was induced using a MCA/BHT tumor initiation/promotion protocol. Ablation of Foxm1 in macrophages reduced the number and size of lung tumors in macFoxm1−/− mice. Decreased tumorigenesis was associated with diminished proliferation of tumor cells and decreased recruitment of macrophages during the early stages of tumor formation. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory genes iNOS, Cox-2, IL-1b and IL-6, as well as migration related genes MIP-1α, MIP-2 and MMP-12, were decreased in macrophages isolated from macFoxm1−/− mice. Migration of Foxm1-deficient macrophages was reduced in vitro. The chemokine receptors responsible for monocyte recruitment to the lung, CX3CR1 and CXCR4, were decreased in Foxm1-deficient monocytes. In co-transfection experiments, Foxm1 directly bound to and transcriptionally activated CX3CR1 promoter. Adoptive transfer of wild type monocytes to macFoxm1−/− mice restored BHT-induced pulmonary inflammation to the levels observed in control mice. Expression of Foxm1 in macrophages is required for pulmonary inflammation, recruitment of macrophages into tumor sites and lung tumor growth. PMID:22139074

  14. Residual Tumor Cells That Drive Disease Relapse after Chemotherapy Do Not Have Enhanced Tumor Initiating Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Ganapati V.; de la Cruz, Cecile; Eastham-Anderson, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yanyan; Sweet-Cordero, E. Alejandro; Jackson, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    Although chemotherapy is used to treat most advanced solid tumors, recurrent disease is still the major cause of cancer-related mortality. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been the focus of intense research in recent years because they provide a possible explanation for disease relapse. However, the precise role of CSCs in recurrent disease remains poorly understood and surprisingly little attention has been focused on studying the cells responsible for re-initiating tumor growth within the original host after chemotherapy treatment. We utilized both xenograft and genetically engineered mouse models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to characterize the residual tumor cells that survive chemotherapy treatment and go on to cause tumor regrowth, which we refer to as tumor re-initiating cells (TRICs). We set out to determine whether TRICs display characteristics of CSCs, and whether assays used to define CSCs also provide an accurate readout of a cell’s ability to cause tumor recurrence. We did not find consistent enrichment of CSC marker positive cells or enhanced tumor initiating potential in TRICs. However, TRICs from all models do appear to be in EMT, a state that has been linked to chemoresistance in numerous types of cancer. Thus, the standard CSC assays may not accurately reflect a cell’s ability to drive disease recurrence. PMID:23115623

  15. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis from lung cancer: a clinicopathological postmortem study.

    PubMed

    Matsukuma, Susumu; Kono, Takako; Takeo, Hiroaki; Hamakawa, Yusuke; Sato, Kimiya

    2013-10-01

    This study examined 47 cases of lung cancer concomitant with other tumors and found eight cases (17 %) with nine foci of tumor-to-tumor metastasis, defined as metastasis of lung cancer into another tumor. Donor lung cancers were four adenocarcinomas, two squamous cell carcinomas, and two small cell carcinomas. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis was found in five of six renal cell carcinomas (83 %), one of eight thyroid papillary carcinomas (13 %), one of three adrenocortical adenomas (33 %), one of three pancreatic endocrine microadenomas (33 %), and another lung cancer (one of six cases of multiple lung cancers, 17 %). The higher recipient incidence in renal cell carcinoma was statistically significant compared with prostatic carcinoma (0/16, P < 0.001), colorectal carcinoma (0/7, P = 0.005), and gastric carcinoma (0/5, P = 0.015). Generalized metastases were found in 88 % of the tumor-to-tumor metastasis cases. The total clinical course of patients with tumor-to-tumor metastasis was shorter than that of the patients without tumor-to-tumor metastasis (mean, 5.4 versus 18.8 months; P = 0.046). Tumor-to-tumor metastasis sometimes mimicked undifferentiated recipient tumor cells. Immunostains for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and CK5/6 were useful to confirm tumor-to-tumor metastasis. However, TTF-1-, Napsin A-, and/or CK7-negative lung adenocarcinoma components metastasized to renal cell carcinoma in three cases, and recipient renal cell carcinomas were focally Napsin A+ (two cases) or CK7+ (two cases). Tumor-to-tumor metastasis can occur as a result of metastasis from lung cancer with more aggressive behavior. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis should be carefully distinguished from undifferentiated recipient tumor cells.

  16. Tumor Seeding Following Lung Radiofrequency Ablation: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakado, Koichiro Akeboshi, Masao; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Takao, Motoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroyasu; Taguchi, Osamu; Takeda, Kan

    2005-05-15

    Lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation was performed for the treatment of a primary lung cancer measuring 2.5 cm in maximum diameter in a 78-year-old man. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) study performed 3 months after RF ablation showed incomplete ablation of the lung tumor and the appearance of a chest wall tumor 4.0 cm in maximum diameter that was considered to be the result of needle-tract seeding. RF ablation was performed for the treatment of both the lung and the chest wall tumors. Although tumor enhancement was eradicated in both of the treated tumors, follow-up CT studies revealed diffuse intra-pulmonary metastases in both lungs 2 months after the second RF session. He is currently receiving systemic chemotherapy.

  17. Enhanced tumor growth in the remaining lung after major lung resection.

    PubMed

    Sano, Fumiho; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Junichi; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-05-01

    Pneumonectomy induces active growth of the remaining lung in order to compensate for lost lung tissue. We hypothesized that tumor progression is enhanced in the activated local environment. We examined the effects of mechanical strain on the activation of lung growth and tumor progression in mice. The mechanical strain imposed on the right lung after left pneumonectomy was neutralized by filling the empty space that remained after pneumonectomy with a polypropylene prosthesis. The neutralization of the strain prevented active lung growth. According to an angiogenesis array, stronger monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was found in the strain-induced growing lung. The neutralization of the strain attenuated the release of MCP-1 from the lung cells. The intravenous injection of Lewis lung cancer cells resulted in the enhanced development of metastatic foci in the strain-induced growing lung, but the enhanced development was canceled by the neutralization of the strain. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed the prominent accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages in tumors arising in the strain-induced growing lung, and that there was a relationship between the accumulation and the MCP-1 expression status. Our results suggested that mechanical lung strain, induced by pulmonary resection, triggers active lung growth, thereby creating a tumor-friendly environment. The modification of that environment, as well as the minimizing of surgical stress, may be a meaningful strategy to improve the therapeutic outcome after lung cancer surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pten Inactivation Accelerates Oncogenic K-ras-Initiated Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Yang, Yanan; Raso, Maria Gabriela; Ma, Lijiang; Hanna, Amy E.; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Moghaddam, Seyed; Evans, Christopher M.; Li, Huaiguang; Cai, Wei-Wen; Sato, Mitsuo; Minna, John D.; Wu, Hong; Creighton, Chad J.; Demayo, Francesco J.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (Pten) is expressed aberrantly in non-small cell lung cancer cells, but the role of Pten in lung neoplasia has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we used a genetic approach to inactivate Pten in the bronchial epithelium of mice. Although, by itself, Pten inactivation had no discernible effect on bronchial epithelial histology, it accelerated lung tumorigenesis initiated by oncogenic K-ras, causing more rapid lethality than that induced by oncogenic K-ras alone (8 weeks versus 24 weeks of median duration of survival, respectively). Lung tumors arose in K-ras mutant, Pten-deficient mice that rapidly obstructed bronchial lumina and replaced alveolar spaces. Relative to K-ras mutant tumors, the K-ras mutant, Pten-deficient tumors exhibited more advanced histologic severity and more prominent inflammation and vascularity. Thus, Pten inactivation cooperated with oncogenic K-ras in promoting lung tumorigenesis. PMID:18281487

  19. Lung Metastasis of Primary Alveolar Soft-Part Sarcoma Occurring 20 Years after Initial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Falkenstern-Ge, R. F.; Kimmich, M.; Wohlleber, M.; Grabner, A.; Friedel, G.; Ott, G.; Leuschner, I.; Kohlhäufl, M.

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year old woman was referred to our center because of suspicion of a primary lung tumor of the right upper lobe. Histological examination of the lung lesion revealed lung metastasis of a previously treated alveolar soft part sarcoma of the musculus vastus medialis of the right femur, which was resected 20 years ago. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor that occurs most often in the soft tissue of lower limbs. It is a slow-growing malignant soft tissue tumor arising in muscle tissue, usually in young adults. Due to pleural and extensive mediastinal infiltration with bilateral lung metastases, a systemic treatment with chemotherapy doxorubicin and ifosfamide was initiated. Late metastases from previously treated alveolar part sarcoma should be considered in patients with suspicious lung lesions even if surgical treatment was performed a long time ago. PMID:24379977

  20. The Role of Neutrophil Myeloperoxidase in Models of Lung Tumor Development

    PubMed Central

    Rymaszewski, Amy L.; Tate, Everett; Yimbesalu, Joannes P.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Jarzembowski, Jason A.; Zhang, Hao; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Vikis, Haris G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a key tumor-promoting role in lung cancer. Our previous studies in mice demonstrated that neutrophils are critical mediators of tumor promotion in methylcholanthrene (MCA)-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-promoted lung carcinogenesis. In the present study we investigated the role of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in this inflammation promoted model. Increased levels of MPO protein and activity were present in the lungs of mice administered BHT. Treatment of mice with N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide (KYC), a novel tripeptide inhibitor of MPO, during the inflammatory stage reduced tumor burden. In a separate tumor model, KYC treatment of a Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumor graft in mice had no effect on tumor growth, however, mice genetically deficient in MPO had significantly reduced LLC tumor growth. Our observations suggest that MPO catalytic activity is critical during the early stages of tumor development. However, during the later stages of tumor progression, MPO expression independent of catalytic activity appears to be required. Our studies advocate for the use of MPO inhibitors in a lung cancer prevention setting. PMID:24821130

  1. Neutrophils Are Required for 3-Methylcholanthrene-Initiated, Butylated Hydroxytoluene-Promoted Lung Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vikis, Haris G.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Franklin, Andrew; Stein, Lauren; Rymaszewski, Amy; Zhu, Jihong; Liu, Pengyuan; Tichelaar, Jay W.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; You, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown a link between chronic inflammation and lung tumorigenesis. Inbred mouse strains vary in their susceptibility to methylcholanthrene (MCA)-initiated butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-promoted lung carcinogenesis. In the present study we investigated whether neutrophils play a role in strain dependent differences in susceptibility to lung tumor promotion. We observed a significant elevation in homeostatic levels of neutrophils in the lungs of tumor-susceptible BALB/cByJ (BALB) mice compared to tumor-resistant C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Additionally, BHT treatment further elevated neutrophil numbers as well as neutrophil chemoattractant keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC)/chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (Cxcl1) levels in BALB lung airways. Lung CD11c+ cells were a major source of KC expression and depletion of neutrophils in BALB mice resulted in a 71% decrease in tumor multiplicity. However, tumor multiplicity did not depend on the presence of T cells, despite the accumulation of T cells following BHT treatment. These data demonstrate that neutrophils are essential to promote tumor growth in the MCA/BHT two-step lung carcinogenesis model. PMID:22006501

  2. Effect of Audio Coaching on Correlation of Abdominal Displacement With Lung Tumor Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of audio coaching on the time-dependent behavior of the correlation between abdominal motion and lung tumor motion and the corresponding lung tumor position mismatches. Methods and Materials: Six patients who had a lung tumor with a motion range >8 mm were enrolled in the present study. Breathing-synchronized fluoroscopy was performed initially without audio coaching, followed by fluoroscopy with recorded audio coaching for multiple days. Two different measurements, anteroposterior abdominal displacement using the real-time positioning management system and superoinferior (SI) lung tumor motion by X-ray fluoroscopy, were performed simultaneously. Their sequential images were recorded using one display system. The lung tumor position was automatically detected with a template matching technique. The relationship between the abdominal and lung tumor motion was analyzed with and without audio coaching. Results: The mean SI tumor displacement was 10.4 mm without audio coaching and increased to 23.0 mm with audio coaching (p < .01). The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 with free breathing. Applying audio coaching, the correlation coefficients improved significantly (range, 0.93-0.99; p < .01), and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became larger in 75% of all sessions. Conclusion: Audio coaching served to increase the degree of correlation and make it more reproducible. In addition, the phase shifts between tumor motion and abdominal displacement were improved; however, all patients breathed more deeply, and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became slightly larger with audio coaching than without audio coaching.

  3. [Pulmonary Metastasis from a Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast Developing Sixteen Years after Initial Surgery].

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung-Soo; Nakano, Takayuki; Okamoto, Taku; Takabatake, Daisuke

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of solitary pulmonary metastasis from a phyllodes tumor of the breast appearing 16 years after initial surgery. The patient was a 56-year-old woman who had undergone surgical extirpation of a left breast tumor diagnosed as phyllodes tumor (borderline malignancy) in 1998, and a right breast tumor diagnosed as fibromatosis in 2000. Sixteen years after the initial operation, she consulted our hospital because of a chest X-ray abnormality detected at a screening examination. Chest computed tomography revealed a well defined nodular shadow in the left upper lobe of the lung. Surgery was done since primary lung cancer was suspected. However, pathological diagnosis was a pulmonary metastasis from the phyllodes tumor of the left breast. Right breast tumor was also diagnosed as a metastasis from the left breast tumor by histopathological re-evaluation.

  4. SU-E-J-267: Change in Mean CT Intensity of Lung Tumors During Radiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahon, R; Tennyson, N; Weiss, E; Hugo, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate CT intensity change of lung tumors during radiation therapy. Methods: Repeated 4D CT images were acquired on a CT simulator during the course of therapy for 27 lung cancer patients on IRB approved protocols. All subjects received definitive radiation treatment ± chemotherapy. CT scans were completed prior to treatment, and 2–7 times during the treatment course. Primary tumor was delineated by an experienced Radiation Oncologist. Contours were thresholded between −100 HU and 200 HU to remove airways and bone. Correlations between the change in the mean tumor intensity and initial tumor intensity, SUVmax, and tumor volume change rate were investigated. Reproducibility was assessed by evaluating the variation in mean intensity over all phases in 4DCT, for a subgroup of 19 subjects. Results: Reproducibility of tumor intensity between phases as characterized by the root mean square of standard deviation across 19 subjects was 1.8 HU. Subjects had a mean initial tumor intensity of 16.5 ± 11.6 HU and an overall reduction in HU by 10.3 ± 8.5 HU. Evaluation of the changes in tumor intensity during treatment showed a decrease of 0.3 ± 0.3 HU/day for all subjects, except three. No significant correlation was found between change in HU/day and initial HU intensity (p=0.53), initial PET SUVmax (p=0.69), or initial tumor volume (p=0.70). The rate of tumor volume change was weakly correlated (R{sup 2}=0.05) with HU change (p=0.01). Conclusion: Most lung cancer subjects showed a marked trend of decreasing mean tumor CT intensity throughout radiotherapy, including early in the treatment course. Change in HU/day is not correlated with other potential early predictors for response, such as SUV and tumor volume change. This Result supports future studies to evaluate change in tumor intensity on CT as an early predictor of response.

  5. Chemically-induced Mouse Lung Tumors: Applications to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state-of-the-science workshop on chemically-induced mouse lung tumors was conducted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to better understand the mouse lung tumor data’s role in human health assessments. Three environmental chemicals - naphthalene, styrene, and ethylbenzene were chosen for the analysis due to the commonality of mouse lung tumors in all three chemicals. The goals of the workshop were to: identify the evidence, from multiple scientific disciplines, regarding formation of chemically-induced lung tumors in mice; discuss analysis and interpretation of the evidence; discuss how such evidence informs human health assessments; and identify commonalities, linkages, or differences between the evidence from various disciplines and across the chemicals. Evidence informing the association between occupational exposure to styrene, ethylbenzene, or naphthalene and lung cancer; comparative biology of mouse lung tumors, associated pathologic effects, issues related to tissue and species concordance; mode of action analysis and biological mechanisms including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; and evidence from cellular, genetic and molecular toxicity was discussed. In summary, although consensus was not sought, the panelists agreed that available mouse lung tumor data should be considered for human health risk evaluation on an individual chemical basis. Key data gaps were identified that would assist in further understanding the mechanism and relevan

  6. Chemically-induced mouse lung tumors: applications to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state-of-the-science workshop on chemically-induced mouse lung tumors was conducted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to discuss issues related to the use of mouse lung tumor data in human health assessments. Naphthalene, styrene, and ethylbenzene were chosen for the analysis due to the commonality of mouse lung tumors in all these three environmental chemicals. The goals of the workshop were to: identify the evidence, from multiple scientific disciplines, regarding formation of chemically-induced lung tumors in mice; discuss analysis and interpretation of the evidence; discuss how such evidence informs human health assessments; and identify commonalities, linkages, or differences between the evidence from various disciplines and across the chemicals. Evidence informing the association between occupational exposure to styrene, ethylbenzene, or naphthalene and lung cancer; comparative biology of mouse lung tumors, associated pathologic effects, issues related to tissue and species concordance; mode of action analysis and biological mechanisms including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; and evidence from cellular, genetic and molecular toxicity was discussed. In summary, although consensus was not sought, the panelists agreed that data showing mouse lung tumors with chemical exposures can be relevant for human health risk evaluation on an individual chemical basis. Key data gaps were identified that would assist in further understanding the mechanism

  7. Chemically-induced Mouse Lung Tumors: Applications to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state-of-the-science workshop on chemically-induced mouse lung tumors was conducted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to better understand the mouse lung tumor data’s role in human health assessments. Three environmental chemicals - naphthalene, styrene, and ethylbenzene were chosen for the analysis due to the commonality of mouse lung tumors in all three chemicals. The goals of the workshop were to: identify the evidence, from multiple scientific disciplines, regarding formation of chemically-induced lung tumors in mice; discuss analysis and interpretation of the evidence; discuss how such evidence informs human health assessments; and identify commonalities, linkages, or differences between the evidence from various disciplines and across the chemicals. Evidence informing the association between occupational exposure to styrene, ethylbenzene, or naphthalene and lung cancer; comparative biology of mouse lung tumors, associated pathologic effects, issues related to tissue and species concordance; mode of action analysis and biological mechanisms including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; and evidence from cellular, genetic and molecular toxicity was discussed. In summary, although consensus was not sought, the panelists agreed that available mouse lung tumor data should be considered for human health risk evaluation on an individual chemical basis. Key data gaps were identified that would assist in further understanding the mechanism and relevan

  8. High-dose, conventionally fractionated thoracic reirradiation for lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Gwendolyn H M J; Dahele, Max; de Haan, Patricia F; van de Ven, Peter M; Slotman, Ben J; Senan, Suresh

    2014-03-01

    Loco-regional recurrences and second primary lung tumors are not uncommon after high-dose thoracic radiotherapy. The availability of improved radiotherapy techniques increases options for reirradiation. We describe a single-institutional experience with high-dose conventional thoracic reirradiation for both loco-regional recurrences and new primary tumors. Retrospective chart review of patients undergoing reirradiation between February 2004 and February 2013. Of 24 patients identified, 54% had a loco-regional recurrence, and 46% a new primary tumor. The majority (63%) had stage III NSCLC at both initial and second treatment; median interval between treatments was 51 months (5-189), median follow-up after reirradiation was 19.3 months (95% CI: 2.8-35.9). Median overall survival (OS) after reirradiation was 13.5 months, with 1-year survival 51%. Median event-free survival (EFS) was 8.4 months. Median time between reirradiation and local progression (n=8) or distant progression (n=8) was 6.7 and 11.8 months, respectively. Three patients died with possible grade 5 bleeding. Other toxicities were uncommon. Planning target volume (PTV) at reirradiation was the most important prognostic factor; PTV <300 versus ≥300cc was significantly associated with median OS (17.4 vs 8.2 months, p=0.03) and EFS (14.1 vs 5.5 months, p=0.03). Magnitude of overlap between the initial and subsequent PTVs, and between dose distributions, did not influence survival. Thoracic reirradiation with high dose conventional radiotherapy appears to deliver a meaningful survival benefit in low volume new primary or recurrent lung cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings, and to establish reliable normal tissue tolerance doses for reirradiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential Transcriptomic Analysis of Spontaneous Lung Tumors in B6C3F1 Mice: Comparison to Human Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pandiri, Arun R.; Sills, Robert C.; Ziglioli, Vincent; Ton, Thai-Vu T.; Hong, Hue–Hua L.; Lahousse, Stephanie A.; Gerrish, Kevin E.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Shockley, Keith R.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in people and is mainly due to environmental factors such as smoking and radon. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) tests various chemicals and mixtures for their carcinogenic hazard potential. In the NTP chronic bioassay using B6C3F1 mice, the incidence of lung tumors in treated and control animals is second only to the liver tumors. In order to study the molecular mechanisms of chemically induced lung tumors, an understanding of the genetic changes that occur in spontaneous lung (SL) tumors from untreated control animals is needed. The authors have evaluated the differential transcriptomic changes within SL tumors compared to normal lungs from untreated age-matched animals. Within SL tumors, several canonical pathways associated with cancer (eukaryotic initiation factor 2 signaling, RhoA signaling, PTEN signaling, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling), metabolism (Inositol phosphate metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and purine and pyramidine metabolism), and immune responses (FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, interleukin 8 signaling, and CXCR4 signaling) were altered. Meta-analysis of murine SL tumors and human non–small cell lung cancer transcriptomic data sets revealed a high concordance. These data provide important information on the differential transcriptomic changes in murine SL tumors that will be critical to our understanding of chemically induced lung tumors and will aid in hazard analysis in the NTP 2-year carcinogenicity bioassays. PMID:22688403

  10. [The new TNM classification for lung tumors : Changes and the assessment of multiple tumor foci].

    PubMed

    Harms, A; Kriegsmann, M; Fink, L; Länger, F; Warth, A

    2017-02-01

    Recently a new TNM classification for tumors of the lung was published, encompassing some relevant changes, for example how to deal with multiple lung tumors. This article comprehensively describes respective changes. Furthermore, background information on how the new TNM classification was built and what should be done in the future to further improve prognosis and outcome prediction is reviewed.

  11. Differential roles of STAT3 in the initiation and growth of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Qu, Z; Yan, S; Sun, F; Whitsett, J A; Shapiro, S D; Xiao, G

    2015-07-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is linked to multiple cancers, including pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, the role of STAT3 in lung cancer pathogenesis has not been determined. Using lung epithelial-specific inducible knockout strategies, we demonstrate that STAT3 has contrasting roles in the initiation and growth of both chemically and genetically induced lung cancers. Selective deletion of lung epithelial STAT3 in mice before cancer induction by the smoke carcinogen, urethane, resulted in increased lung tissue damage and inflammation, K-Ras oncogenic mutations and tumorigenesis. Deletion of lung epithelial STAT3 after establishment of lung cancer inhibited cancer cell proliferation. Simultaneous deletion of STAT3 and expression of oncogenic K-Ras in mouse lung elevated pulmonary injury, inflammation and tumorigenesis, but reduced tumor growth. These studies indicate that STAT3 prevents lung cancer initiation by maintaining pulmonary homeostasis under oncogenic stress, whereas it facilitates lung cancer progression by promoting cancer cell growth. These studies also provide a mechanistic basis for targeting STAT3 to lung cancer therapy.

  12. Fluoroscopic tumor tracking for image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Cerviño, Laura I.; Tang, Xiaoli; Vasconcelos, Nuno; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate lung tumor tracking in real time is a keystone to image-guided radiotherapy of lung cancers. Existing lung tumor tracking approaches can be roughly grouped into three categories: (1) deriving tumor position from external surrogates; (2) tracking implanted fiducial markers fluoroscopically or electromagnetically; (3) fluoroscopically tracking lung tumor without implanted fiducial markers. The first approach suffers from insufficient accuracy, while the second may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previous studies in fluoroscopic markerless tracking are mainly based on template matching methods, which may fail when the tumor boundary is unclear in fluoroscopic images. In this paper we propose a novel markerless tumor tracking algorithm, which employs the correlation between the tumor position and surrogate anatomic features in the image. The positions of the surrogate features are not directly tracked; instead, we use principal component analysis of regions of interest containing them to obtain parametric representations of their motion patterns. Then, the tumor position can be predicted from the parametric representations of surrogates through regression. Four regression methods were tested in this study: linear and two-degree polynomial regression, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The experimental results based on fluoroscopic sequences of ten lung cancer patients demonstrate a mean tracking error of 2.1 pixels and a maximum error at a 95% confidence level of 4.6 pixels (pixel size is about 0.5 mm) for the proposed tracking algorithm.

  13. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The majority of the tumors (13 of 17) arose in patients with pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tumor oncogenotypes and lung cancer stem cell identity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James P; Minna, John D

    2010-07-02

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Curtis et. al. (2010) reveal that the identities of lung cancer stem cell populations differ depending on the specific tumor oncogenotype in three murine lung adenocarcinoma models. These findings highlight the importance of determining the cancer stem cell oncogenotype for genotypically diverse malignancies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tumor Oncogenotypes and Lung Cancer Stem Cell Identity

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, James P.; Minna, John D.

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Curtis et. al. (2010) reveal that the identities of lung cancer stem cell populations differ depending on the specific tumor oncogenotype in three murine lung adenocarcinoma models. These findings highlight the importance of determining the cancer stem cell oncogenotype for genotypically diverse malignancies. PMID:20621039

  16. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor.

    PubMed

    Raj, Prince; Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management.

  17. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  18. miR-494-3p is a novel tumor driver of lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Faversani, Alice; Amatori, Stefano; Augello, Claudia; Colombo, Federico; Porretti, Laura; Fanelli, Mirco; Ferrero, Stefano; Palleschi, Alessandro; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Belloni, Elena; Ercoli, Giulia; Degrassi, Anna; Baccarin, Marco; Altieri, Dario C; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano

    2017-01-31

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of tumor-related death worldwide and more efforts are needed to elucidate lung carcinogenesis. Here we investigated the expression of 641 miRNAs in lung tumorigenesis in a K-Ras(+/LSLG12Vgeo);RERTn(ert/ert) mouse model and 113 human tumors. The conserved miRNA cluster on chromosome 12qF1 was significantly and progressively upregulated during murine lung carcinogenesis. In particular, miR-494-3p expression was correlated with lung cancer progression in mice and with worse survival in lung cancer patients. Mechanistically, ectopic expression of miR-494-3p in A549 lung cancer cells boosted the tumor-initiating population, enhanced cancer cell motility, and increased the expression of stem cell-related genes. Importantly, miR-494-3p improved the ability of A549 cells to grow and metastasize in vivo, modulating NOTCH1 and PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling.Overall, these data identify miR-494-3p as a key factor in lung cancer onset and progression and possible therapeutic target.

  19. [Kartagener syndrome with lung cancer and mediastinal tumor].

    PubMed

    Horie, Masafumi; Arai, Hidenori; Noguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio; Oka, Teruaki

    2010-05-01

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to Kanto Central Hospital with hemoptysis. He had had chronic sinusitis and deafness since childhood. Situs inversus, bronchiectasia, and diffuse panbronchiolitis had been also diagnosed at the age of 59. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a 5-cm mass in the anterior mediastinum as well as a 4-cm mass in the upper lobe of the right lung. A transbronchial lung biopsy of the right lung tumor revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Electron microscopic examination of the bronchial epithelial cilia revealed a total defect of both inner and outer dynein arms, leading to a diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Biopsy of the mediastinal tumor was not performed. After concurrent chemoradiation therapy, the lung cancer decreased in size partial remission (PR) and the mediastinal tumor disappeared complete remission (CR). Later, a cavity formed in the tumor, where a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection occurred. He died 1 year after the diagnosis of lung cancer was established. There have been 5 reported cases of Kartagener syndrome complicated with lung cancer, but to the best of our knowledge there have been no reports of Kartagener syndrome with mediastinal tumor.

  20. NNK-Induced Lung Tumors: A Review of Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hua-Chuan; Takano, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of lung adenocarcinoma has been remarkably increasing in recent years due to the introduction of filter cigarettes and secondary-hand smoking because the people are more exposed to higher amounts of nitrogen oxides, especially 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK), which is widely applied in animal model of lung tumors. In NNK-induced lung tumors, genetic mutation, chromosome instability, gene methylation, and activation of oncogenes have been found so as to disrupt the expression profiles of some proteins or enzymes in various cellular signal pathways. Transgenic animal with specific alteration of lung cancer-related molecules have also been introduced to clarify the molecular mechanisms of NNK in the pathogenesis and development of lung tumors. Based on these animal models, many antioxidant ingredients and antitumor chemotherapeutic agents have been proved to suppress the NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis. In the future, it is necessary to delineate the most potent biomarkers of NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis, and to develop efficient methods to fight against NNK-associated lung cancer using animal models. PMID:21559252

  1. Molecular features in arsenic-induced lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen, which potentially affects ~160 million people worldwide via exposure to unsafe levels in drinking water. Lungs are one of the main target organs for arsenic-related carcinogenesis. These tumors exhibit particular features, such as squamous cell-type specificity and high incidence among never smokers. Arsenic-induced malignant transformation is mainly related to the biotransformation process intended for the metabolic clearing of the carcinogen, which results in specific genetic and epigenetic alterations that ultimately affect key pathways in lung carcinogenesis. Based on this, lung tumors induced by arsenic exposure could be considered an additional subtype of lung cancer, especially in the case of never-smokers, where arsenic is a known etiological agent. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the various mechanisms of arsenic carcinogenicity and the specific roles of this metalloid in signaling pathways leading to lung cancer. PMID:23510327

  2. Automated localization and segmentation of lung tumor from PET-CT thorax volumes based on image feature analysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hui; Wang, Xiuying; Feng, Dagan

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET-CT) plays an essential role in early tumor detection, diagnosis, staging and treatment. Automated and more accurate lung tumor detection and delineation from PET-CT is challenging. In this paper, on the basis of quantitative analysis of contrast feature of PET volume in SUV (standardized uptake value), our method firstly automatically localized the lung tumor. Then based on analysing the surrounding CT features of the initial tumor definition, our decision strategy determines the tumor segmentation from CT or from PET. The algorithm has been validated on 20 PET-CT studies involving non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Experimental results demonstrated that our method was able to segment the tumor when adjacent to mediastinum or chest wall, and the algorithm outperformed the other five lung segmentation methods in terms of overlapping measure.

  3. Mouse lung-tumor assay: a final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Witschi, H.P.

    1983-05-01

    The objective was to validate a lung tumor assay. Agents evaluated included 5 complex mixtures from modern synfuel processes, 8 nitrated toluenes and 30 compounds which had been tested previously in a standard 2-year NCI-type carcinogenesis bioassay. Male A/Jax mice were injected 3 times a week, for eight consecutive weeks, with different test substances. After the last injection, the animals were left undisturbed for another 4 months, and then they were killed. The carcinogenic potential of the substances was evaluated by counting the number of visible tumors on the lung surface. The average number of tumors per lung was calculated for each group (tumor multiplicity). Tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity for each treatment group was compared to appropriate vehicle control groups. Statistical tests used were Chi-square for tumor incidence and Student's t-test for tumor multiplicity; a p value of 0.05 or less was considered to be significant. Very few of the substances tested were found to give an unequivocally positive response. Shale oil and two of its derivatives and two tar mixtures from a coal gasifier were clearly positive. No positives were found in a series of nitrated toluenes. Out of 18 compounds known with certainty to be animal or human carcinogens, the lung tumor assay correctly identified only 5 as having carcinogenic potential. In view of these data we concluded that the lung tumor assay, as developed and advocated (Advances in Cancer Research 21, 1 to 58, 1975), was not sensitive or accurate enough to serve as a short-term in vivo screening procedure for carcinogens.

  4. Comparison between CT tumor size and pathological tumor size in frozen section examinations of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Tetsuya; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Naoko; Watanabe, Masato; Imai, Kentaro; Nishii, Teppei; Woo, Tetsukan; Yamada, Kouzo; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Masuda, Munetaka

    2014-07-01

    We examined the appropriate measurement for pathological tumor size by comparing radiological and pathological tumor size of resected lung adenocarcinoma in FSE. We reviewed records of 59 resected specimens of lung adenocarcinoma for FSE from January to December 2008. Specimens were well-inflated with saline by using an injector before cutting into segments. After selecting the tumor segment of maximal diameter, we compared three ways of measuring pathological tumor size by using paired t-test: (I) macroscopic tumor size (MTS), measured with a metal straight ruler, (II) microscopic frozen section tumor size (FSTS), and (III) microscopic paraffin section tumor size (PSTS). We compared each discrepancy rate (DR) [DR=(CT tumor size-pathological tumor size)/CT tumor size×100] (%) between tumors that were air-containing type and solid-density type on CT scans, and also compared the tumors with lepidic component rates (LCR) ≥50% and LCR <50%, by using Mann-Whitney U-tests. FSE could diagnose malignancy with 100% accuracy. The mean CT tumor size was 18.36mm, and the mean pathological tumor sizes (MTS, FSTS, and PSTS) were 17.81, 14.29, and 14.23mm, respectively. FSTS and PSTS were significantly smaller than CT tumor size (p<0.001). The DR calculated with PSTS was significantly larger in air-containing than in solid-density tumors, and also larger in LCR ≥50% than in LCR <50% tumors. FSE with the inflation method diagnosed malignancy with 100% accuracy. The lung specimen must be sufficiently inflated to prevent tissue shrinking, and we propose MTS as the definition for pathological tumor size in FSE. The greater discordance observed between CT tumor size and microscopic tumor size was assumed to be due to shrinkage of the lepidic component in the tumor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves reduced DNA-PK/ATM activation and diminished cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, L; Hååg, P; Zong, D; Juntti, T; Mörk, B; Lewensohn, R; Viktorsson, K

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells, are partly responsible for resistance to DNA-damaging treatment. Here we addressed if such a phenotype may contribute to radio- and cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23) possess sphere-forming capacity when cultured in stem cell media and three of these display elevated levels of CD133. Indeed, sphere-forming NSCLC cells, hereafter called TICs, showed a reduced apoptotic response and increased survival after irradiation (IR), as compared with the corresponding bulk cell population. Decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic signaling manifested by diminished poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase 3 activity was also evident in TICs after cisplatin treatment. Neither radiation nor cisplatin resistance was due to quiescence as H125 TICs proliferated at a rate comparable to bulk cells. However, TICs displayed less pronounced G2 cell cycle arrest and S/G2-phase block after IR and cisplatin, respectively. Additionally, we confirmed a cisplatin-refractory phenotype of H125 TICs in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. We further examined TICs for altered expression or activation of DNA damage repair proteins as a way to explain their increased radio- and/or chemotherapy resistance. Indeed, we found that TICs exhibited increased basal γH2AX (H2A histone family, member X) expression and diminished DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), Krüppel-associated protein 1 (KAP1) and monoubiquitination of Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2 (FANCD2). As a proof of principle, ATM inhibition in bulk cells increased their cisplatin resistance, as demonstrated by reduced PARP cleavage. In conclusion, we show that reduced apoptotic response, altered DNA repair signaling and cell cycle perturbations in NSCLC

  6. Transplantation of initially rejected donor lungs after ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Wallinder, Andreas; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Hansson, Christoffer; Riise, Gerdt C; Silverborn, Martin; Liden, Hans; Olausson, Michael; Dellgren, Göran

    2012-11-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion has the potential to increase the number of patients treated with lung transplantation. Our initial clinical experience with ex vivo lung perfusion is reviewed as well as early clinical outcome in patients transplanted with reconditioned lungs. Six pairs of donor lungs deemed unsuitable for transplantation underwent ex vivo lung perfusion with Steen solution mixed with red blood cells to a hematocrit of 10% to 15%. After reconditioning, lung function was evaluated and acceptable lungs were transplanted. Technical experience with ex vivo lung perfusion as well as clinical outcome for patients transplanted with ex vivo lung perfusion-treated lungs were evaluated. Donor lungs initially rejected either as a result of an inferior partial pressure of arterial oxygen/ fraction of inspired oxygen (n = 5; mean, 20.5 kPa; range, 9.1-29.9 kPa) or infiltrate on chest radiograph (n = 1) improved their oxygenation capacity to a mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen of 57 ± 10 kPa during the ex vivo lung perfusion (mean improvement, 33.6 kPa; range, 21-51 kPa; P < .01). During evaluation, hemodynamic (flow, vascular resistance, pressure) and respiratory (peak airway pressure, compliance) parameters were stable. Two single lungs were not used for lung transplantation because of subpleural hematoma or edema. Six recipients from the regular waiting list underwent single (n = 2) or double (n = 4) lung transplantation. One patient had primary graft dysfunction grade 2 at 72 hours. Median time to extubation was 7 hours. All patients survived 30 days and were discharged in good condition from the hospital. The use of ex vivo lung perfusion seems safe and indicates that some lungs otherwise refused for lung transplantation can be recovered and transplanted with acceptable short-term results. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic co-segmentation of lung tumor based on random forest in PET-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xueqing; Xiang, Dehui; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Weifang; Shi, Fei; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a fully automatic method is proposed to segment the lung tumor in clinical 3D PET-CT images. The proposed method effectively combines PET and CT information to make full use of the high contrast of PET images and superior spatial resolution of CT images. Our approach consists of three main parts: (1) initial segmentation, in which spines are removed in CT images and initial connected regions achieved by thresholding based segmentation in PET images; (2) coarse segmentation, in which monotonic downhill function is applied to rule out structures which have similar standardized uptake values (SUV) to the lung tumor but do not satisfy a monotonic property in PET images; (3) fine segmentation, random forests method is applied to accurately segment the lung tumor by extracting effective features from PET and CT images simultaneously. We validated our algorithm on a dataset which consists of 24 3D PET-CT images from different patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The average TPVF, FPVF and accuracy rate (ACC) were 83.65%, 0.05% and 99.93%, respectively. The correlation analysis shows our segmented lung tumor volumes has strong correlation ( average 0.985) with the ground truth 1 and ground truth 2 labeled by a clinical expert.

  8. Research results on biomagnetic imaging of the lung tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillerud, Laurel O.; Popa, Sorin G.; Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Sheltraw, Daniel; Kuethe, Dean; Adolphi, Natalie

    2005-04-01

    Recent results on the development and implementation of a novel technology for lung tumor detection and imaging is presented. This technology offers high-sensitivity imaging of magnetic nanoparticles to provide specific diagnostic images of early lung tumors and potential distant metastases. Recent developments in giant magnetostrictive (GMS) or magnetic shape memory (MSM) materials have led to the possibility of developing small, low-cost, room-temperature, portable, high-sensitivity, fiber-optic sensors capable of robustly detecting magnetic nanoparticles, without direct contact with the skin. Magnetic nanoparticles are conjugated with antibodies, which target them to lung tumors. A prototype fiber-optic biomagnetic sensor, based on giant magnetostrictive or magnetic shape memory materials, with the requisite sensitivity to image the magnetic signals generated by antibody-labeled magnetic nanoparticles in lung tumors has been built and calibrated. The uniqueness of the biomagnetic sensor lies in the fact that it offers high sensitivity at room temperature, and is not a SQUID-based system. The results obtained during the process of choosing the right magnetostrictive materials are presented. Then, for the construction of an accurate image of the lung tumor, the optimum spatial distribution of one-channel sensors and nanoparticle polarization has been analyzed.

  9. Successful and not so successful chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Witschi, H

    2000-12-01

    Strain A/J mice underwent whole body exposure for 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, for 5 months to a mixture of cigarette sidestream and mainstream smoke (89%-11%; total suspended particulates 80-150 mg/m3), then were kept for another 4 months in air before being killed for scoring of lung tumors. In 7 independent experiments, lung tumor multiplicity was significantly increased in all 7 trials and lung tumor incidence in 5. When animals were kept for 9 months in smoke, lung tumor multiplicity was not significantly higher than in controls, although lung tumor incidence was. The following chemopreventive agents were evaluated: green tea, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), p-XSC (1,4-phenylenebis[methylene]selenocyanate), d-limonene (DL), and a mixture of PEITC and BITC (benzyl isothiocyanate). In animals exposed to tobacco smoke, none of these agents reduced lung tumor multiplicity or incidence. As a control, the effects of the same agents were examined in A/J mice initiated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) or urethane. In mice injected with NNK, green tea and ASA did not reduce lung tumor multiplicities and NAC had no effect on urethane-induced lung tumors, whereas PEITC, p-XSC and DL reduced NNK-induced tumor multiplicities to 20% to 50% of control values. On the other hand, dietary mixture of myoinositol and dexamethasone was not only highly protective against NNK, but reduced lung tumor multiplicities and incidence in smoke-exposed animals to control values. This effect was also seen when the animals were fed the myo-inositol-dexamethasone mixture once they were removed from smoke. It is concluded that in animal studies it might be preferable to evaluate the effectiveness of putative chemopreventive agents against full tobacco smoke rather than against selected model compounds. The observations made with myo-inositol-dexamethasone suggest that people who have recently quit smoking might

  10. Photodynamic induced uptake of liposomal doxorubicin to rat lung tumors parallels tumor vascular density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yabo; Gonzalez, Michel; Cheng, Cai; Haouala, Amina; Krueger, Thorsten; Peters, Solange; Decosterd, Laurent-Arthur; van den Bergh, Hubert; Perentes, Jean Y; Ris, Hans-Beat; Letovanec, Igor; Debefve, Elodie

    2012-04-01

    Visudyne®-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) at low drug/light conditions has shown to selectively enhance the uptake of liposomal doxorubicin in subpleural localized sarcoma tumors grown on rodent lungs without causing morphological alterations of the lung. The present experiments explore the impact of low-dose PDT on liposomal doxorubicin (Liporubicin™) uptake to different tumor types grown on rodent lungs. Three groups of Fischer rats underwent subpleural generation of sarcoma, mesothelioma, or adenocarcinoma tumors on the left lung. At least five animals of each group (sarcoma, n = 5; mesothelioma, n = 7; adenocarcinoma, n = 5) underwent intraoperative low-dose (10 J/cm(2) at 35 mW/cm(2) ) PDT with 0.0625 mg/kg Visudyne® of the tumor and the lower lobe. This was followed by intravenous (IV) administration of 400 µg Liporubicin™. After a circulation time of 60 min, the tumor-bearing lung was processed for HPLC analyses. At least five animals per group underwent the same procedure but without PDT (sarcoma, n = 5; mesothelioma, n = 5; adenocarcinoma, n = 6). Five untreated animals per group underwent CD31 immunostaining of their tumors with histomorphometrical assessment of the tumor vascularization. Low-dose PDT significantly enhanced Liporubicin™ uptake to all tumor types (sarcoma, P = 0.0007; mesothelioma, P = 0.001; adenocarcinoma, P = 0.02) but not to normal lung tissue compared to IV drug administration alone. PDT led to a significantly increased ratio of tumor to lung tissue drug uptake for all three tumor types (P < 0.05). However, the tumor drug uptake varied between tumor types and paralleled tumor vascular density. The vascular density was significantly higher in sarcoma than in adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001) and mesothelioma (P < 0.001), whereas there was no significant difference between adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma. Low-dose Visudyne®-mediated PDT selectively enhances the uptake of

  11. [A rare tumor of the lung in childhood--inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor].

    PubMed

    Zganjer, Mirko; Nikolić, Igor; Cizmić, Ante; Mesić, Marko; Zupancić, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare benign neoplasm, mainly involving the lungs of the children. It represents 0.7% of all lung tumors. It was first described by Brunn in 1939.2 Diagnosis is very difficult and often only possible after resection of the tumor. We would like to present a case of pulmonary IMT in a 13-year-old girl who presented with symptoms like cough, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort. Chest X ray and computed tomography revealed the presence of a right lower lobe lung mass. Its clinical and radiological findings were diverse and non specific. The mass was removed in toto, histopathology confirmed the inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung. Intraoperative and postoperative courses were uneventful. The patient has been without any signs of relapse 2 years after the surgery.

  12. Adaptation and applications of a realistic digital phantom based on patient lung tumor trajectories.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pankaj; St James, Sara; Segars, W Paul; Berbeco, Ross I; Lewis, John H

    2012-06-07

    Digital phantoms continue to play a significant role in modeling and characterizing medical imaging. The currently available XCAT phantom incorporates both the flexibility of mathematical phantoms and the realistic nature of voxelized phantoms. This phantom generates images based on a regular breathing pattern and can include arbitrary lung tumor trajectories. In this work, we present an algorithm that modifies the current XCAT phantom to generate 4D imaging data based on irregular breathing. First, a parameter is added to the existing XCAT phantom to include any arbitrary tumor motion. This modification introduces the desired tumor motion but, comes at the cost of decoupled diaphragm, chest wall and lung motion. To remedy this problem diaphragm and chest wall motion is first modified based on initial tumor location and then input to the XCAT phantom. This generates a phantom with synchronized respiratory motion. Mapping of tumor motion trajectories to diaphragm and chest wall motion is done by adaptively calculating a scale factor based on tumor to lung contour distance. The distance is calculated by projecting the initial tumor location to lung edge contours characterized by quadratic polynomials. Data from ten patients were used to evaluate the accuracy between actual independent tumor location and the location obtained from the modified XCAT phantom. The RMSE and standard deviations for ten patients in x, y, and z directions are: (0.29 ± 0.04, 0.54 ± 0.17, and0.39 ± 0.06) mm. To demonstrate the utility of the phantom, we use the new phantom to simulate a 4DCT acquisition as well as a recently published method for phase sorting. The modified XCAT phantom can be used to generate more realistic imaging data for enhanced testing of algorithms for CT reconstruction, tumor tracking, and dose reconstruction.

  13. Adaptation and applications of a realistic digital phantom based on patient lung tumor trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pankaj; St. James, Sara; Segars, W Paul; Berbeco, Ross I; Lewis, John H

    2012-01-01

    Digital phantoms continue to play a significant role in modeling and characterizing medical imaging. The currently available XCAT phantom incorporates both the flexibility of mathematical phantoms and the realistic nature of voxelized phantoms. This phantom generates images based on a regular breathing pattern and can include arbitrary lung tumor trajectories. In this work, we present an algorithm that modifies the current XCAT phantom to generate 4D imaging data based on irregular breathing. First, a parameter is added to the existing XCAT phantom to include any arbitrary tumor motion. This modification introduces the desired tumor motion but, comes at the cost of decoupled diaphragm, chest wall and lung motion. To remedy this problem diaphragm and chest wall motion is first modified based on initial tumor location and then input to the XCAT phantom. This generates a phantom with synchronized respiratory motion. Mapping of tumor motion trajectories to diaphragm and chest wall motion is done by adaptively calculating a scale factor based on tumor to lung contour distance. The distance is calculated by projecting the initial tumor location to lung edge contours characterized by quadratic polynomials. Data from 10 patients were used to evaluate the accuracy between actual independent tumor location and the location obtained from the modified XCAT phantom. The rmse and standard deviations for 10 patients in x, y, and z directions are: (0.29 ± 0.04, 0.54 ± 0.17, and 0.39 ± 0.06) mm. To demonstrate the utility of the phantom, we use the new phantom to simulate a 4DCT acquisition as well as a recently published method for phase sorting. The modified XCAT phantom can be used to generate more realistic imaging data for enhanced testing of algorithms for CT reconstruction, tumor tracking, and dose reconstruction. PMID:22595980

  14. Inhibition Effect of a Custom Peptide on Lung Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Yu; Huang, Hsuan-Yu; Forrest, Michael D.; Pan, Yun-Ru; Wu, Wei-Jen; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2014-01-01

    Cecropin B is a natural antimicrobial peptide and CB1a is a custom, engineered modification of it. In vitro, CB1a can kill lung cancer cells at concentrations that do not kill normal lung cells. Furthermore, in vitro, CB1a can disrupt cancer cells from adhering together to form tumor-like spheroids. Mice were xenografted with human lung cancer cells; CB1a could significantly inhibit the growth of tumors in this in vivo model. Docetaxel is a drug in present clinical use against lung cancers; it can have serious side effects because its toxicity is not sufficiently limited to cancer cells. In our studies in mice: CB1a is more toxic to cancer cells than docetaxel, but dramatically less toxic to healthy cells. PMID:25310698

  15. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care.

    PubMed

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David; Beckett, Paul; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gaga, Mina; Gamarra, Fernando; Grigoriu, Bogdan; Hansen, Niels C G; Hubbard, Richard; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Jovanovic, Dragana; Konsoulova, Assia; Kollmeier, Jens; Massard, Gilbert; McPhelim, John; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Milroy, Robert; Paesmans, Marianne; Peake, Mick; Putora, Paul-Martin; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Sitter, Helmut; Skaug, Knut; Spiro, Stephen; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Taright, Samya; Thomas, Michael; van Schil, Paul E; Vansteenkiste, Johan F; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe. The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe.

  16. Lung tumor segmentation in PET images using graph cuts.

    PubMed

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Fulham, Michael; Eberl, Stefan; Feng, David Dagan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of segmentation of tumor regions in positron emission tomography (PET) is to provide more accurate measurements of tumor size and extension into adjacent structures, than is possible with visual assessment alone and hence improve patient management decisions. We propose a segmentation energy function for the graph cuts technique to improve lung tumor segmentation with PET. Our segmentation energy is based on an analysis of the tumor voxels in PET images combined with a standardized uptake value (SUV) cost function and a monotonic downhill SUV feature. The monotonic downhill feature avoids segmentation leakage into surrounding tissues with similar or higher PET tracer uptake than the tumor and the SUV cost function improves the boundary definition and also addresses situations where the lung tumor is heterogeneous. We evaluated the method in 42 clinical PET volumes from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our method improves segmentation and performs better than region growing approaches, the watershed technique, fuzzy-c-means, region-based active contour and tumor customized downhill.

  17. Identification of DOK family genes as lung tumor suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alice H.; Niki, Masaru; Morotti, Alessandro; Taylor, Barry S.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Viale, Agnes; Brennan, Cameron; Szoke, Janos; Motoi, Noriko; Rothman, Paul B.; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Gerald, William L.; Ladanyi, Marc; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses in human lung adenocarcinoma have identified regions of consistent copy number gain or loss, but in many cases the oncogenes and tumor suppressors presumed to reside in these loci remain to be determined. Here we identify the “Downstream of tyrosine kinase” (Dok) family members Dok1, Dok2 and Dok3 as lung tumor suppressors. Single, double, or triple compound loss of these genes in the mouse results in lung cancer with penetrance and latency dependent on the number of lost Dok alleles, and which is associated with an aberrant expansion and signaling profile of alveolar type II cells and bronchioalveolar stem cells. In human lung adenocarcinoma, we identify DOK2 as a target of copy number loss and mRNA downregulation and find that DOK2 suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Given the genomic localization of DOK2, we propose it as an 8p21.3 haploinsufficient human lung tumor suppressor. PMID:20139980

  18. Activated protooncogenes in human lung tumors from smokers.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S H; Anna, C K; Brown, K C; Wiest, J S; Beattie, E J; Pero, R W; Iglehart, J D; Anderson, M W

    1991-02-15

    Fourteen primary human lung tumor DNAs from smokers were analyzed for transforming activity by two DNA transfection assays. Activated protooncogenes were detected in 3 of 11 tumor DNAs by the NIH 3T3 focus assay, whereas activated protooncogenes were detected in 11 of 13 tumor DNAs by the NIH 3T3 cotransfection-nude mouse tumorigenicity assay. K- or NRAS genes activated by point mutation at codons 12 or 61 were detected in a large cell carcinoma, a squamous cell carcinoma, and 5 adenocarcinomas. An HRAS oncogene activated by a different mechanism was detected in an epidermoid carcinoma. One adenocarcinoma was found to contain an activated RAF gene. Two unidentified transforming genes were detected in a squamous cell carcinoma DNA and two adenocarcinoma DNAs. Eight of 10 lung adenocarcinomas that had formed metastases at the time of surgery were found to contain RAS oncogenes. No significant increase in metastasis was observed in the lung adenocarcinomas that contained one or more 6-kilobase EcoRI alleles of the LMYC gene. Overall, 12 of 14 (86%) of the lung tumor DNAs from smokers were found to contain activated protooncogenes. RAS oncogenes appear to play a role in the development of metastases in lung adenocarcinomas.

  19. Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Trakul, Nicholas; Chang, Christine N.; Harris, Jeremy; Chapman, Christopher; Rao, Aarti; Shen, John; Quinlan-Davidson, Sean; Filion, Edith J.; Wakelee, Heather A.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Whyte, Richard I.; and others

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18-25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume {>=}12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED {>=}100 Gy (total dose, 50-60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2). Results: The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

  20. Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm Related to Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Jun Mimura, Hidefumi; Gobara, Hideo; Hiraki, Takao; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2010-04-15

    We describe a case of pulmonary artery (PA) pseudoaneurysm related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung tumor. We performed RFA for a pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma directly adjacent to a branch of the PA. Seventeen days later, the patient complained of hemoptysis. A chest CT image revealed PA pseudoaneurysm. Transcatheter coil embolization was performed 59 days after RFA. Although PA pseudoaneurysm is rare, with an incidence of 0.2% (1/538 sessions) at our institution, it should be recognized as a risk when treating lung tumors adjacent to a branch of the PA.

  1. [Huge benign lung tumor in a female smoker].

    PubMed

    Smati, B; Ismail, O; Boudaya, M S; Baccari, S; Djilani, H; Mestiri, T; El Mezni, F; Gharbi, L; Kilani, T

    2005-12-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is a rare, slow-growing, benign tumor. Its potential for progression and its histiogenesis remains controversial. A routine chest X-ray revealed a right abdominal mass in 41-year-old woman. Search for a cause was negative. The patient underwent posterolateral thoracotomy for tumorectomy. Intraoperative pathology analysis revealed the benign nature of the tumor. No complication was observed postoperatively. The final pathological conclusion was sclerosing hemangioma of the lung. Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is a parenchymal tumor of the lung. The latest immunohistochemical studies of this lesion suggest a pneumocyte origin. Prognosis is good, but extension to lymph nodes may occur. Surgery is always required for cure, and must be associated with lymph node dissection for large tumors.

  2. Quantitative Monitoring of Murine Lung Tumors by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krupnick, Alexander Sasha; Tidwell, Vanessa K.; Engelbach, John A.; Alli, Vamsi V.; Nehorai, Arye; You, Ming; Vikis, Haris G.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Kreisel, Daniel; Garbow, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    Primary lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world and the lung is a common site for recurrence of extra-thoracic malignancies. Small-animal (rodent) models of cancer can play a very valuable role in the development of improved therapeutic strategies. However, detection of murine pulmonary tumors and their subsequent response to therapy, in situ, is challenging. We have recently described magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a reliable, reproducible, and non-destructive modality for the detection and serial monitoring of pulmonary tumors. Combining respiratory-gated data acquisition methods with manual and automated segmentation algorithms described by our laboratory, pulmonary tumor burden can be quantitatively measured in approximately one hour (data acquisition plus analysis) per mouse. Quantitative, analytic methods are described for measuring tumor burden in both primary (discrete tumors) and metastatic (diffuse tumors) disease. Thus, small-animal MRI represents a novel and unique research tool for preclinical investigation of therapeutic strategies for treatment of pulmonary malignancies and may be valuable in evaluating new compounds targeting lung cancer in vivo. PMID:22222788

  3. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Mañon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still necessary

  4. GATA2 is epigenetically repressed in human and mouse lung tumors and is not requisite for survival of KRAS mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Mathewos; Yingling, Christin M.; Snider, Amanda M.; Do, Kieu; Juri, Daniel E.; Picchi, Maria A.; Zhang, Xiequn; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Tellez, Carmen S.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction GATA2 was recently described as a critical survival factor and therapeutic target for KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, whether this role is affected by epigenetic repression of GATA2 in lung cancer is unclear. Methods GATA2 expression and promoter CpG island methylation were evaluated using human and mouse NSCLC cell lines and tumor-normal pairs. In vitro assays were used to study GATA2 repression on cell survival and during tobacco carcinogen-induced transformation. Results GATA2 expression in KRAS wild-type (n=15) and mutant (n=10) NSCLC cell lines and primary lung tumors (n=24) was significantly lower, 1.3–33.6-fold (p=2.2×10−9), compared to corresponding normal lung. GATA2 promoter was unmethylated in normal lung (0/10) but frequently methylated in lung tumors (96%, 159/165) and NSCLC cell lines (97%, 30/31). This highly prevalent aberrant methylation was independently validated using TCGA data for 369 NSCLC tumor-normal pairs. In vitro studies using an established carcinogen-induced pre-malignancy model revealed that GATA2 expression was initially repressed by chromatin remodeling followed by cytosine methylation during transformation. Similarly, expression of Gata2 in NNK-induced mouse lung tumors (n=6) and cell lines (n=5) was 5-fold and 100-fold lower, respectively, than normal mouse lung. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of GATA2 in KRAS mutant [human (n=4) and murine (n=5)] and wild-type [human (n=4)] NSCLC cell lines showed that further reduction of expression (up to 95%) does not induce cell death. Conclusion GATA2 is epigenetically repressed in human and mouse lung tumors and its further inhibition is not a valid therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant lung cancer. PMID:24807155

  5. Radiographic characterization of primary lung tumors in 74 dogs.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Laura E; Pollard, Rachel E; Zwingenberger, Allison; Zierenberg-Ripoll, Alexandra; Skorupski, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    Primary pulmonary neoplasia is well recognized in dogs and prognosis depends upon the tumor type. The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize the radiographic appearance of different primary lung tumors with the goal of establishing imaging criteria to separate the different types. Three-view thoracic radiographs of 74 dogs with histologically confirmed pulmonary anaplastic carcinoma (n = 2), adenocarcinoma (n = 31), bronchioalveolar carcinoma (n = 19), histiocytic sarcoma (n = 21), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1) were evaluated. Radiographs were assessed for tumor volume, affected lobe, location within lobe, overall pulmonary pattern, presence of cavitation, mineralization, air bronchograms, lymphadenomegaly, and pleural fluid. Histiocytic sarcomas were significantly larger than other tumor types (271 cm(3); P = 0.009) and most likely to be found in the left cranial (38%; 8/21) and right middle (43%; 9/21) lung lobes, whereas adenocarcinomas were most likely to be found in the left caudal (29%; 9/31) lung lobe. Fifty-seven percent (12/21) of histiocytic sarcomas had an internal air bronchogram. Findings indicate that a large mass in the periphery or affecting the whole lobe of the right middle or left cranial lung lobe with an internal air bronchogram is likely to be an histiocytic sarcoma.

  6. Capnocytophaga Lung Abscess in a Patient with Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Thirumala, Raghu; Babady, N. Esther; Kamboj, Mini; Chawla, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Capnocytophaga species are known commensals of the oral cavity of humans and animals (mainly dogs and cats) and are a rare cause of respiratory tract infections. We report a case of cavitary lung abscess caused by a Capnocytophaga species in a patient with a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor. PMID:22075586

  7. Lung Tumor Radiofrequency Ablation: Where Do We Stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Baere, Thierry de

    2011-04-15

    Today, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of primary and metastatic lung tumor is increasingly used. Because RFA is most often used with curative intent, preablation workup must be a preoperative workup. General anesthesia provides higher feasibility than conscious sedation. The electrode positioning must be performed under computed tomography for sake of accuracy. The delivery of RFA must be adapted to tumor location, with different impedances used when treating tumors with or without pleural contact. The estimated rate of incomplete local treatment at 18 months was 7% (95% confidence interval, 3-14) per tumor, with incomplete treatment depicted at 4 months (n = 1), 6 months (n = 2), 9 months (n = 2), and 12 months (n = 2). Overall survival and lung disease-free survival at 18 months were, respectively, 71 and 34%. Size is a key point for tumor selection because large size is predictive of incomplete local treatment and poor survival. The ratio of ablation volume relative to tumor volume is predictive of complete ablation. Follow-up computed tomography that relies on the size of the ablation zone demonstrates the presence of incomplete ablation. Positron emission tomography might be an interesting option. Chest tube placement for pneumothorax is reported in 8 to 12%. Alveolar hemorrhage and postprocedure hemoptysis occurred in approximately 10% of procedures and rarely required specific treatment. Death was mostly related to single-lung patients and hilar tumors. No modification of forced expiratory volume in the first second between pre- and post-RFA at 2 months was found. RFA in the lung provides a high local efficacy rate. The use of RFA as a palliative tool in combination with chemotherapy remains to be explored.

  8. High resolution computed tomography and MRI for monitoring lung tumor growth in mice undergoing radioimmunotherapy: Correlation with histology

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, Stephen J.; Davis, Ila A.; Branning, John; Pan, Hongjun; Kabalka, George W.; Paulus, Michael J.

    2000-05-01

    A model lung tumor system has been developed in mice for the evaluation of vascular targeted radioimmunotherapy. In this model, EMT-6 mammary carcinoma tumors growing in the lung are treated with {sup 213}Bi, an alpha particle emitter, which is targeted to lung blood vessels using a monoclonal antibody. Smaller tumors (<100 {mu}m in diameter) are cured, but larger tumors undergo a period of regression and then regrow and ultimately prove lethal. The goal of this work was to determine if external imaging with MRI or CT could be used routinely to monitor the growth/ regression of lung tumors in live mice. To attempt to evaluate individual tumors in vivo, animals were initially imaged with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). High resolution MRI images could be obtained only after sacrifice when lungs were not moving. In contrast, high resolution computed tomography (CT) produced evaluable images from anesthetized animals. Serial CT images (up to 5/animal) were collected over a 17 day period of tumor growth and treatment. When tumored animals became moribund, animals were sacrificed and lungs were inflated with fixative, embedded in paraffin, and then sectioned serially to compare the detection of tumors by high resolution CT with detection by histology. CT proved most useful in detecting lung tumors located in the hilar area and least useful in detecting serosal surface and anterior lobe tumor foci. Overall, CT images of live animals revealed tumors in {approx}2/3 of cases detected in histologic serial sections when relatively few tumors were present per lung. Detection of lesions and their resolution post therapy were complicated due to residual hemorrhagic, regressing tumor nodules and the development of lung edema both of which appeared as high density areas in the CT scans. We conclude that the microCT method used could identify some lung tumors as small as 100 {mu}m in diameter; however, no concrete evaluation of therapy induced regression of the tumors could be

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  10. Tumor-propagating cells and Yap/Taz activity contribute to lung tumor progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Allison N; Curtis, Stephen J; Fillmore, Christine M; Rowbotham, Samuel P; Mohseni, Morvarid; Wagner, Darcy E; Beede, Alexander M; Montoro, Daniel T; Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Walton, Zandra E; Barrios, Juliana; Weiss, Daniel J; Camargo, Fernando D; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Kim, Carla F

    2014-03-03

    Metastasis is the leading cause of morbidity for lung cancer patients. Here we demonstrate that murine tumor propagating cells (TPCs) with the markers Sca1 and CD24 are enriched for metastatic potential in orthotopic transplantation assays. CD24 knockdown decreased the metastatic potential of lung cancer cell lines resembling TPCs. In lung cancer patient data sets, metastatic spread and patient survival could be stratified with a murine lung TPC gene signature. The TPC signature was enriched for genes in the Hippo signaling pathway. Knockdown of the Hippo mediators Yap1 or Taz decreased in vitro cellular migration and transplantation of metastatic disease. Furthermore, constitutively active Yap was sufficient to drive lung tumor progression in vivo. These results demonstrate functional roles for two different pathways, CD24-dependent and Yap/Taz-dependent pathways, in lung tumor propagation and metastasis. This study demonstrates the utility of TPCs for identifying molecules contributing to metastatic lung cancer, potentially enabling the therapeutic targeting of this devastating disease.

  11. Relevance of particle-induced rat lung tumors for assessing lung carcinogenic hazard and human lung cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Mauderly, J L

    1997-01-01

    Rats and other rodents are exposed by inhalation to identify agents that might present hazards for lung cancer in humans exposed by inhalation. In some cases, the results are used in attempts to develop quantitative estimates of human lung cancer risk. This report reviews evidence for the usefulness of the rat for evaluation of lung cancer hazards from inhaled particles. With the exception of nickel sulfate, particulate agents thought to be human lung carcinogens cause lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation. The rat is more sensitive to carcinogenesis from nonfibrous particles than mice or Syrian hamsters, which have both produced false negatives. However, rats differ from mice and nonhuman primates in both the pattern of particle retention in the lung and alveolar epithelial hyperplastic responses to chronic particle exposure. Present evidence warrants caution in extrapolation from the lung tumor response of rats to inhaled particles to human lung cancer hazard, and there is considerable uncertainty in estimating unit risks for humans from rat data. It seems appropriate to continue using rats in inhalation carcinogenesis assays of inhaled particles, but the upper limit of exposure concentrations must be set carefully to avoid false-positive results. A positive finding in both rats and mice would give greater confidence that an agent presents a carcinogenic hazard to man, and both rats and mice should be used if the agent is a gas or vapor. There is little justification for including Syrian hamsters in assays of the intrapulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled agents. PMID:9400748

  12. Tumor Necrosis Factor–α Overexpression in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Lennart K. A.; Thompson-Figueroa, John; Leclair, Timothy; Sullivan, Michael J.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Irvin, Charles G.; Bates, Jason H. T.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) has been implicated as a key cytokine in many inflammatory lung diseases. These effects are currently unclear, because a transgenic mouse overexpressing TNF-α in the lung has been shown in separate studies to produce elements of both emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis. Objectives: We sought to elucidate the phenotypic effects of TNF-α overexpression in a mouse model. Measurements: We established the phenotype by measuring lung impedance and thoracic gas volume, and using micro–computed tomography and histology. Main Results: We found that airways resistance in this mouse was not different to control mice, but that lung tissue dampening, elastance, and hysteresivity were significantly elevated. Major heterogeneous abnormalities of the parenchyma were also apparent in histologic sections and in micro–computed tomography images of the lung. These changes included airspace enlargement, loss of small airspaces, increased collagen, and thickened pleural septa. We also found significant increases in lung and chest cavity volumes in the TNF-α–overexpressing mice. Conclusions: We conclude that TNF-α overexpression causes pathologic changes consistent with both emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis combined with a general lung inflammation, and consequently does not model any single human disease. Our study thus confirms the pleiotropic effects of TNF-α, which has been implicated in multiple inflammatory disorders, and underscores the necessity of using a wide range of investigative techniques to link gene expression and phenotype in animal models of disease. PMID:15805183

  13. Circulating Tumor Cells as an Indicator of Postoperative Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kuwata, Taiji; Yoneda, Kazue; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Oyama, Rintarou; Matumiya, Hiroki; Shinohara, Shuichi; Takenaka, Masaru; Oka, Soichi; Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Inanishi, Naoko; Kuroda, Koji; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 50 Final Diagnosis: Lung cancer Symptoms: None Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgery and chemotherapy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are shed from primary tumors and circulate in the peripheral blood. CTCs, as a surrogate of micro-metastasis, can be a useful clinical marker, but their clinical significance remains unclear in lung cancer. We now report a case of lung cancer in which the count of CTCs was useful in monitoring postoperative recurrence. Case Report: A 50-year-old man had undergone right upper lobectomy for lung cancer (pT1bN2M0, stage IIIA adenocarcinoma), followed by cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. After the patient’s operation, we initiated monitoring of CTCs using CellSearch, and documented the change in the CTC count along with the development of cancer recurrence and response or progression to chemotherapy given for recurrent disease. Conclusions: The CTC count may be useful in monitoring blood of patients with lung cancer. PMID:27629545

  14. Genetic and molecular coordinates of neuroendocrine lung tumors, with emphasis on small-cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Koutsami, Marilena K.; Doussis-Anagnostopoulou, Ipatia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G.; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the advances in our understanding of the progression of tumorigenesis in neuroendocrine lung tumors. Current information on established and putative diagnostic and prognostic markers of neuroendocrine tumors are evaluated, with a special reference to small-cell lung carcinoma, due to its higher incidence and aggressive behavior. The genetic and molecular changes that accompany these neoplasms are highlighted, and factors that influence cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, drug resistance, and escape from immune surveillance are critically assessed. PMID:12435853

  15. Sirt3 is a tumor suppressor in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kui; Jiang, Jiehan; Wang, Wei; Cao, Shan; Zhu, Liming; Zeng, Huihui; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Sirt3, a member of the mammalian sirtuin family protein that is localized to mitochondria, is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase and plays an important role in the control of metabolic activity. Recently, several studies have shown the potential role of Sirt3 in certain types of tumors such as breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role of Sirt3 in lung adenocarcinoma has never been studied. In the present study, we found that Sirt3 protein expression was downregulated in human lung adenocarcinoma tissue when compared with that in adjacent normal tissue. Overexpression of Sirt3 using adenovirus significantly inhibited the growth of the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. In this cell line, overexpression of Sirt3 induced apoptosis, which was evidenced by Annexin V + PI assay and cleaved caspase-3 immunoblotting. Furthermore, overexpression of Sirt3 increased the bax/bcl-2 and bad/bcl-x/L ratios, and promoted AIF translocation to the nucleus. Finally, Sirt3 overexpression upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels, and decreased intracellular ROS levels. Collectively, our data suggest that Sirt3 is a tumor suppressor in lung adenocarcinoma development and progression and may be a promising therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma.

  16. [Trends in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors].

    PubMed

    García-Yuste, Mariano; Molins, Laureano; Matilla, José M; González-Aragoneses, Federico; López-Pujol, Javier; Ramos, Guillermo; de la Torre, Mercedes

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends in a variety of prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung carcinomas through analysis of 2 groups of surgically treated patients. Group A contained the first 361 patients, treated between 1980 and 1997. That group was analyzed retrospectively and contained 261 patients with typical carcinoid tumors, 43 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 22 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 35 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Group B contained 404 patients enrolled prospectively between 1998 and 2002: 308 with typical carcinoid tumors, 49 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 18 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 29 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The following clinical variables were considered: sex, mean age, tumor site, tumor size, lymph node involvement, stage, metastasis, and local recurrence. The 1997 TNM classification was used for staging of lung cancer and survival analysis was performed along with assessment of factors influencing survival. Statistical analysis of the data involved univariate and multivariate analysis. In both groups, significant differences were observed between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors in terms of mean age, tumor size, node involvement, and recurrence. In group A, female sex, node involvement, and recurrence differed between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; the same was true for group B, with the exception of lymph node involvement. Node involvement differed between patients with small-cell versus large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in group A but not group B. Both groups displayed significant differences in overall survival and survival of patients with lymph node involvement between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors and between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; no differences were observed between patients with large

  17. Initial experience with heart and lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reichenspurner, H; Odell, J A; Cooper, D K; Novitzky, D; Rose, A G; Klinner, W; Reichart, B

    1988-01-01

    Between February 1983 and July 1987, twelve patients underwent heart-lung transplantation at the University of Cape Town and the University of Munich. The patients included eight men and four women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 49 years (mean, 27 years). The underlying pathologic condition was idiopathic primary pulmonary hypertension in five cases, Eisenmenger's syndrome in four cases, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in one case, diffuse fibrosing alveolitis in one case, and chronic emphysema in one case. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG) during the first 2 postoperative weeks; RATG was subsequently replaced by methylprednisolone. Pulmonary rejection frequently occurred in the absence of cardiac rejection; in one case, however, this situation was reversed. Two patients required retransplantation, which was undertaken for caseating pulmonary tuberculosis with obliterative bronchiolitis after 1 year in one case and for early pulmonary insufficiency after 2 days in the other case. There were no operative deaths, but three early deaths occurred, owing to respiratory insufficiency of unknown origin (10 days postoperatively), multiorgan failure (10 days postoperatively), and acute liver dystrophy (11 days postoperatively). Five weeks after operation, a fourth patient died of multi-organ failure. There were five late deaths, all of which resulted from infectious complications. Three patients, including one who underwent retransplantation, remain alive and well, 10 to 36 months postoperatively.

  18. Initial Experience with Heart and Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Reichenspurner, Hermann; Odell, John A.; Cooper, David K.C.; Novitzky, Dimitri; Rose, Alan G.; Klinner, Werner; Reichart, Bruno

    1988-01-01

    Between February 1983 and July 1987, twelve patients underwent heart-lung transplantation at the University of Cape Town and the University of Munich. The patients included eight men and four women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 49 years (mean, 27 years). The underlying pathologic condition was idiopathic primary pulmonary hypertension in five cases, Eisenmenger's syndrome in four cases, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in one case, diffuse fibrosing alveolitis in one case, and chronic emphysema in one case. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG) during the first 2 postoperative weeks; RATG was subsequently replaced by methylprednisolone. Pulmonary rejection frequently occurred in the absence of cardiac rejection; in one case, however, this situation was reversed. Two patients required retransplantation, which was undertaken for caseating pulmonary tuberculosis with obliterative bronchiolitis after 1 year in one case and for early pulmonary insufficiency after 2 days in the other case. There were no operative deaths, but three early deaths occurred, owing to respiratory insufficiency of unknown origin (10 days postoperatively), multiorgan failure (10 days postoperatively), and acute liver dystrophy (11 days postoperatively). Five weeks after operation, a fourth patient died of multi-organ failure. There were five late deaths, all of which resulted from infectious complications. Three patients, including one who underwent retransplantation, remain alive and well, 10 to 36 months postoperatively. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988; 15:3-6) Images PMID:15227270

  19. Radiogenomics predicting tumor responses to radiotherapy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit K; Bell, Marcus H; Nirodi, Chaitanya S; Story, Michael D; Minna, John D

    2010-07-01

    The recently developed ability to interrogate genome-wide data arrays has provided invaluable insights into the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer. These data have also provided information for developing targeted therapy in lung cancer patients based on the identification of cancer-specific vulnerabilities and set the stage for molecular biomarkers that provide information on clinical outcome and response to treatment. In addition, there are now large panels of lung cancer cell lines, both non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer, that have distinct chemotherapy and radiation response phenotypes. We anticipate that the integration of molecular data with therapy response data will allow for the generation of biomarker signatures that predict response to therapy. These signatures will need to be validated in clinical studies, at first retrospective analyses and then prospective clinical trials, to show that the use of these biomarkers can aid in predicting patient outcomes (eg, in the case of radiation therapy for local control and survival). This review highlights recent advances in molecular profiling of tumor responses to radiotherapy and identifies challenges and opportunities in developing molecular biomarker signatures for predicting radiation response for individual patients with lung cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiogenomics- predicting tumor responses to radiotherapy in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amit K.; Bell, Marcus H.; Nirodi, Chaitanya S.; Story, Michael D.; Minna, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed ability to interrogate genome wide data arrays has provided invaluable insights into the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer. These data have also provided information for developing targeted therapy in lung cancer patients based upon identification of cancer specific vulnerabilities and set the stage for molecular biomarkers that provide information on clinical outcome and response to treatment. In addition, there are now large panels of lung cancer cell lines, both non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which have distinct chemotherapy and radiation response phenotypes. We anticipate that the integration of molecular data with therapy response data will allow for the generation of biomarker signatures that predict response to therapy. These signatures will need to be validated in clinical studies, at first retrospective analyses and then prospective clinical trials to show that the use of these biomarkers can aid in predicting patient outcomes (e.g. in the case of radiation therapy for local control and survival). This review highlights recent advances in molecular profiling of tumor responses to radiotherapy and identifies challenges and opportunities in developing molecular biomarker signatures for predicting radiation response for individual patients with lung cancer. PMID:20685577

  1. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the lung.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Takashi; Shimamura, Mie; Furuichi, Motohiko; Nishii, Tatsuhiko; Takeshita, Shinji; Shiono, Motomi

    2010-12-01

    We report a rare case of desmoplastic small round cell tumor, which arose from the left lung. A 25-year-old man was found to have an abnormal shadow during a routine physical examination and was admitted to our hospital. A thoracoscopic tumor biopsy was performed under general anesthesia. According to the histopathologic findings of permanent sections, the tumor was composed of sharply outlined nests, clusters, and trabeculae of small round to oval cells separated by a spindle-shaped desmoplastic stroma. A gene analysis revealed chimera genes of Ewing's sarcoma and Wilms' tumor by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 is a key factor for lung cancer-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Noto, A; Raffa, S; De Vitis, C; Roscilli, G; Malpicci, D; Coluccia, P; Di Napoli, A; Ricci, A; Giovagnoli, M R; Aurisicchio, L; Torrisi, M R; Ciliberto, G; Mancini, R

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, studies of cancer development and recurrence have been influenced by the cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) hypothesis. According to this, cancer is sustained by highly positioned, chemoresistant cells with extensive capacity of self renewal, which are responsible for disease relapse after chemotherapy. Growth of cancer cells as three-dimensional non-adherent spheroids is regarded as a useful methodology to enrich for cells endowed with CSC-like features. We have recently reported that cell cultures derived from malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) of patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung are able to efficiently form spheroids in non-adherent conditions supplemented with growth factors. By expression profiling, we were able to identify a set of genes whose expression is significantly upregulated in lung tumor spheroids versus adherent cultures. One of the most strongly upregulated gene was stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1), the main enzyme responsible for the conversion of saturated into monounsaturated fatty acids. In the present study, we show both by RNA interference and through the use of a small molecule inhibitor that SCD1 is required for lung cancer spheroids propagation both in stable cell lines and in MPE-derived primary tumor cultures. Morphological examination and image analysis of the tumor spheroids formed in the presence of SCD1 inhibitors showed a different pattern of growth characterized by irregular cell aggregates. Electron microscopy revealed that the treated spheroids displayed several features of cellular damage and immunofluorescence analysis on optical serial sections showed apoptotic cells positive for the M30 marker, most of them positive also for the stemness marker ALDH1A1, thus suggesting that the SCD1 inhibitor is selectively killing cells with stem-like properties. Furthermore, SCD1-inhibited lung cancer cells were strongly impaired in their in vivo tumorigenicity and ALDH1A1 expression. These

  3. Unilateral Pulmonary Hilar Tumor Mass: Is It Always Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Claudia Lucia; DUMITRACHE-RUJINSKI, Stefan; BELACONI, Ionela Nicoleta; PARASCHIV, Bianca; ALEXE, Mihai; SERBESCU, Aneta; LEONTE, Diana; BOGDAN, Miron Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, characterized by noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas. In sarcoidosis, the most common radiological findings are mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement. We present a case of sarcoidosis with a rare radiological aspect of pulmonary hilar tumor mass. A 54-year-old female patient, active smoker (40 packs/year), with a history of cutaneous lupus, was admitted in our institute for progressive dyspnea and dry cough. At admission physical examination and laboratory tests were normal. Pulmonary function tests diagnosed an obstructive syndrome. Chest X-ray showed a tumor mass of the right pulmonary hilum. Transbronchial biopsy was nondiagnostic. HRCT-scan showed a tumor mass in the right hilum, which raised the suspicion of a lung cancer. PET-CT scan revealed a high metabolic activity of the tumor mass and of a paratracheal right lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy by mediastinoscopy showed noncaseating epithelioid-cell granulomas, sustaining the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The outcome was favorable, with spontaneous remission without treatment, but with a relapse that responded after systemic corticotherapy. In conclusion, even if a tumor mass in the pulmonary hilum is highly suggestive of lung cancer, a positive diagnosis should be made only after histological examination, because other benign conditions, like sarcoidosis, could have such an aspect. PMID:24023595

  4. Inter-Fraction Tumor Volume Response during Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Correlated to Patient Variables.

    PubMed

    Salamekh, Samer; Rong, Yi; Ayan, Ahmet S; Mo, Xiaokui; Williams, Terence M; Mayr, Nina A; Grecula, John C; Chakravarti, Arnab; Xu-Welliver, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Analyze inter-fraction volumetric changes of lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and determine if the volume changes during treatment can be predicted and thus considered in treatment planning. Kilo-voltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) images obtained immediately prior to each fraction were used to monitor inter-fraction volumetric changes of 15 consecutive patients (18 lung nodules) treated with lung SBRT at our institution (45-54 Gy in 3-5 fractions) in the year of 2011-2012. Spearman's (ρ) correlation and Spearman's partial correlation analysis was performed with respect to patient/tumor and treatment characteristics. Multiple hypothesis correction was performed using False Discovery Rate (FDR) and q-values were reported. All tumors studied experienced volume change during treatment. Tumor increased in volume by an average of 15% and regressed by an average of 11%. The overall volume increase during treatment is contained within the planning target volume (PTV) for all tumors. Larger tumors increased in volume more than smaller tumors during treatment (q = 0.0029). The volume increase on CBCT was correlated to the treatment planning gross target volume (GTV) as well as internal target volumes (ITV) (q = 0.0085 and q = 0.0039 respectively) and could be predicted for tumors with a GTV less than 22 mL. The volume increase was correlated to the integral dose (ID) in the ITV at every fraction (q = 0.0049). The peak inter-fraction volume occurred at an earlier fraction in younger patients (q = 0.0122). We introduced a new analysis method to follow inter-fraction tumor volume changes and determined that the observed changes during lung SBRT treatment are correlated to the initial tumor volume, integral dose (ID), and patient age. Furthermore, the volume increase during treatment of tumors less than 22mL can be predicted during treatment planning. The volume increase remained significantly less than the overall PTV expansion, and radiation re

  5. Neural-network based autocontouring algorithm for intrafractional lung-tumor tracking using Linac-MR.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jihyun; Yip, Eugene; Gabos, Zsolt; Wachowicz, Keith; Rathee, Satyapal; Fallone, B G

    2015-05-01

    To develop a neural-network based autocontouring algorithm for intrafractional lung-tumor tracking using Linac-MR and evaluate its performance with phantom and in-vivo MR images. An autocontouring algorithm was developed to determine both the shape and position of a lung tumor from each intrafractional MR image. A pulse-coupled neural network was implemented in the algorithm for contrast improvement of the tumor region. Prior to treatment, to initiate the algorithm, an expert user needs to contour the tumor and its maximum anticipated range of motion in pretreatment MR images. During treatment, however, the algorithm processes each intrafractional MR image and automatically generates a tumor contour without further user input. The algorithm is designed to produce a tumor contour that is the most similar to the expert's manual one. To evaluate the autocontouring algorithm in the author's Linac-MR environment which utilizes a 0.5 T MRI, a motion phantom and four lung cancer patients were imaged with 3 T MRI during normal breathing, and the image noise was degraded to reflect the image noise at 0.5 T. Each of the pseudo-0.5 T images was autocontoured using the author's algorithm. In each test image, the Dice similarity index (DSI) and Hausdorff distance (HD) between the expert's manual contour and the algorithm generated contour were calculated, and their centroid positions were compared (Δd centroid). The algorithm successfully contoured the shape of a moving tumor from dynamic MR images acquired every 275 ms. From the phantom study, mean DSI of 0.95-0.96, mean HD of 2.61-2.82 mm, and mean Δd centroid of 0.68-0.93 mm were achieved. From the in-vivo study, the author's algorithm achieved mean DSI of 0.87-0.92, mean HD of 3.12-4.35 mm, as well as Δd centroid of 1.03-1.35 mm. Autocontouring speed was less than 20 ms for each image. The authors have developed and evaluated a lung tumor autocontouring algorithm for intrafractional tumor tracking using Linac-MR. The

  6. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen.

  7. Lung Tumors Treated With Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation: Computed Tomography Imaging Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Palussiere, Jean Marcet, Benjamin; Descat, Edouard; Deschamps, Frederic; Rao, Pramod; Ravaud, Alain; Brouste, Veronique; Baere, Thierry de

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To describe the morphologic evolution of lung tumors treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) by way of computed tomography (CT) images and to investigate patterns of incomplete RFA at the site of ablation. Materials and Methods: One hundred eighty-nine patients with 350 lung tumors treated with RFA underwent CT imaging at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. CT findings were interpreted separately by two reviewers with consensus. Five different radiologic patterns were predefined: fibrosis, cavitation, nodule, atelectasis, and disappearance. The appearance of the treated area was evaluated at each follow-up CT using the predefined patterns. Results: At 1 year after treatment, the most common evolutions were fibrosis (50.5%) or nodules (44.8%). Differences were noted depending on the initial size of the tumor, with fibrosis occurring more frequently for tumors <2 cm (58.6% vs. 22.9%, P = 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}). Cavitation and atelectasis were less frequent patterns (2.4% and 1.4%, respectively, at 1 year). Tumor location (intraparenchymatous, with pleural contact <50% or >50%) was not significantly correlated with follow-up image pattern. Local tumor progressions were observed with each type of evolution. At 1 year, 12 local recurrences were noted: 2 cavitations, which represented 40% of the cavitations noted at 1 year; 2 fibroses (1.9%); 7 nodules (7.4%); and 1 atelectasis (33.3%). Conclusion: After RFA of lung tumors, follow-up CT scans show that the shape of the treatment zone can evolve in five different patterns. None of these patterns, however, can confirm the absence of further local tumor progression at subsequent follow-up.

  8. Time-dependent cell disintegration kinetics in lung tumors after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chvetsov, Alexei V; Palta, Jatinder J; Nagata, Yasushi

    2008-05-07

    We study the time-dependent disintegration kinetics of tumor cells that did not survive radiotherapy treatment. To evaluate the cell disintegration rate after irradiation, we studied the volume changes of solitary lung tumors after stereotactic radiotherapy. The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of the total cell number in the tumor and (2) the cell disintegration rate is governed by the exponential decay with constant risk, which is defined by the initial cell number and a half-life T(1/2). The half-life T(1/2) is determined using the least-squares fit to the clinical data on lung tumor size variation with time after stereotactic radiotherapy. We show that the tumor volume variation after stereotactic radiotherapy of solitary lung tumors can be approximated by an exponential function. A small constant component in the volume variation does not change with time; however, this component may be the residual irregular density due to radiation fibrosis and was, therefore, subtracted from the total volume variation in our computations. Using computerized fitting of the exponent function to the clinical data for selected patients, we have determined that the average half-life T(1/2) of cell disintegration is 28.2 days for squamous cell carcinoma and 72.4 days for adenocarcinoma. This model is needed for simulating the tumor volume variation during radiotherapy, which may be important for time-dependent treatment planning of proton therapy that is sensitive to density variations.

  9. Time-dependent cell disintegration kinetics in lung tumors after irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V.; Palta, Jatinder J.; Nagata, Yasushi

    2008-05-01

    We study the time-dependent disintegration kinetics of tumor cells that did not survive radiotherapy treatment. To evaluate the cell disintegration rate after irradiation, we studied the volume changes of solitary lung tumors after stereotactic radiotherapy. The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of the total cell number in the tumor and (2) the cell disintegration rate is governed by the exponential decay with constant risk, which is defined by the initial cell number and a half-life T1/2. The half-life T1/2 is determined using the least-squares fit to the clinical data on lung tumor size variation with time after stereotactic radiotherapy. We show that the tumor volume variation after stereotactic radiotherapy of solitary lung tumors can be approximated by an exponential function. A small constant component in the volume variation does not change with time; however, this component may be the residual irregular density due to radiation fibrosis and was, therefore, subtracted from the total volume variation in our computations. Using computerized fitting of the exponent function to the clinical data for selected patients, we have determined that the average half-life T1/2 of cell disintegration is 28.2 days for squamous cell carcinoma and 72.4 days for adenocarcinoma. This model is needed for simulating the tumor volume variation during radiotherapy, which may be important for time-dependent treatment planning of proton therapy that is sensitive to density variations.

  10. Incidence of brain metastasis at initial presentation of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villano, J. Lee; Durbin, Eric B.; Normandeau, Chris; Thakkar, Jigisha P.; Moirangthem, Valentina; Davis, Faith G.

    2015-01-01

    Background No reliable estimates are available on the incidence of brain metastasis (BM) in cancer patients. This information is valuable for planning patient care and developing measures that may prevent or decrease the likelihood of metastatic brain disease. Methods We report the first population-based analysis on BM incidence at cancer diagnosis using the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). All cancer cases with BM were identified from KCR and ACR, with subsequent focus on metastases from lung primaries; the annual number of BMs at initial presentation was derived. Comparisons were made between Kentucky and Alberta for the stage and site of organ involvement of lung cancer. Results Low incidence of BM was observed in the United States until mandatory reporting began in 2010. Both the KCR and ACR recorded the highest incidence of BM from lung cancer, with total BM cases at initial presentation occurring at 88% and 77%, respectively. For lung cancer, stage IV was the most common stage at presentation for both registries and ranged from 45.9% to 57.2%. When BM from lung was identified, the most common synchronous organ site of metastasis was osseous, occurring at 28.4%. Conclusion Our analysis from the Kentucky and Alberta cancer registries similarly demonstrated the aggressive nature of lung cancer and its propensity for BM at initial presentation. Besides widespread organ involvement, no synchronous organ site predicted BM in lung cancer. BM is a common and important clinical outcome, and use of registry data is becoming more available. PMID:24891450

  11. Feasibility of Pathology-Correlated Lung Imaging for Accurate Target Definition of Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Stroom, Joep Blaauwgeers, Hans; Baardwijk, Angela van; Boersma, Liesbeth; Lebesque, Joos; Theuws, Jacqueline; Suylen, Robert-Jan van; Klomp, Houke; Liesker, Koen; Pel, Renee van; Siedschlag, Christian; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To accurately define the gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (GTV plus microscopic disease spread) for radiotherapy, the pretreatment imaging findings should be correlated with the histopathologic findings. In this pilot study, we investigated the feasibility of pathology-correlated imaging for lung tumors, taking into account lung deformations after surgery. Methods and Materials: High-resolution multislice computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans were obtained for 5 patients who had non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) before lobectomy. At the pathologic examination, the involved lung lobes were inflated with formalin, sectioned in parallel slices, and photographed, and microscopic sections were obtained. The GTVs were delineated for CT and autocontoured at the 42% PET level, and both were compared with the histopathologic volumes. The CT data were subsequently reformatted in the direction of the macroscopic sections, and the corresponding fiducial points in both images were compared. Hence, the lung deformations were determined to correct the distances of microscopic spread. Results: In 4 of 5 patients, the GTV{sub CT} was, on average, 4 cm{sup 3} ({approx}53%) too large. In contrast, for 1 patient (with lymphangitis carcinomatosa), the GTV{sub CT} was 16 cm{sup 3} ({approx}40%) too small. The GTV{sub PET} was too small for the same patient. Regarding deformations, the volume of the well-inflated lung lobes on pathologic examination was still, on average, only 50% of the lobe volume on CT. Consequently, the observed average maximal distance of microscopic spread (5 mm) might, in vivo, be as large as 9 mm. Conclusions: Our results have shown that pathology-correlated lung imaging is feasible and can be used to improve target definition. Ignoring deformations of the lung might result in underestimation of the microscopic spread.

  12. Temporal Lung Tumor Volume Changes in Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Don; Rathee, Satyapal; Robinson, Don; Murray, Brad

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Small-cell lung cancer is considered to be relatively chemosensitive and radiosensitive. Small-cell tumor volume changes during concurrent chemoradiotherapy have not been quantified. The purpose of this work is to quantify small-cell lung tumor volume variations in limited-stage patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had pathologically confirmed limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and signed study-specific consent forms. Patients underwent serial chest computed tomography (CT) scans on a CT simulator with images acquired at the same phase of patients' respiratory cycle. Computed tomography scans were obtained at the time of planning CT scan and 3 times a week during radiotherapy (RT). Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured on each CT scan. Gross tumor volumes defined on each CT scan were analyzed for volume changes relative to pre-RT scans. Results: We obtained 104 CT scans (median, 11.5 scans per patient). The median tumor dose was 50 Gy. The median pre-RT GTV was 98.9 cm{sup 3} (range, 57.8-412.4 cm{sup 3}). The median GTV at the final serial CT scan was 10.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 4.2-81.6 cm{sup 3}). The mean GTV relative to pre-RT volume at the end of each RT week was 53.0% for Week 1, 29.8% for Week 2, 22.9% for Week 3, 19.5% for Week 4, and 12.4% for Week 5. Conclusions: Dramatic shrinkage of small-cell lung tumors occurred in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy in this trial. Most of the observed GTV shrinkage occurred during the first week of RT.

  13. Lung Metastases in Neuroblastoma at Initial Diagnosis: A Report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Project

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Steven G.; London, Wendy B.; Zhang, Yang; Matthay, Katherine K.; Monclair, Tom; Ambros, Peter F.; Cohn, Susan L.; Pearson, Andrew; Diller, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid cancer. Lung metastasis is rarely detected in children with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. We aimed to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis using a large international database. Procedure The subset of patients from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma and known data regarding lung metastasis at diagnosis was selected for analysis. Clinical and biological characteristics were compared between patients with and without lung metastasis. Survival for patients with and without lung metastasis was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to determine the independent prognostic value of lung metastasis at diagnosis. Results Of the 2,808 patients with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2002, 100 patients (3.6%) were reported to have lung metastasis at diagnosis. Lung metastasis was more common among patients with MYCN amplified tumors, adrenal primary tumors, or elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (p < 0.02 in each case). Five-year overall survival ± standard error for patients with lung metastasis was 34.5% ± 6.8% compared to 44.7% ± 1.3% for patients without lung metastasis (p=0.0002). However, in multivariable analysis, the presence of lung metastasis was not independently predictive of outcome. Conclusions Lung metastasis at initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma is associated with MYCN amplification and elevated LDH levels. Although lung metastasis at diagnosis was not independently predictive of outcome in this analysis, it remains a useful prognostic marker of unfavorable outcome. PMID:18649370

  14. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes intratracheally instilled into the rat lung induce development of pleural malignant mesothelioma and lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzui, Masumi; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Numano, Takamasa; Abdelgied, Mohamed; Takahashi, Satoru; Ohnishi, Makoto; Omori, Toyonori; Tsuruoka, Shuji; Hirose, Akihiko; Kanno, Jun; Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Alexander, David B; Alexander, William T; Jiegou, Xu; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have a fibrous structure and physical properties similar to asbestos and have been shown to induce malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum after injection into the scrotum or peritoneal cavity in rats and mice. For human cancer risk assessment, however, data after administration of MWCNT via the airway, the exposure route that is most relevant to humans, is required. The present study was undertaken to investigate the carcinogenicity of MWCNT-N (NIKKISO) after administration to the rat lung. MWCNT-N was fractionated by passing it through a sieve with a pore size of 25 μm. The average lengths of the MWCNT were 4.2 μm before filtration and 2.6 μm in the flow-through fraction; the length of the retained MWCNT could not be determined. For the present study, 10-week-old F344/Crj male rats were divided into five groups: no treatment, vehicle control, MWCNT-N before filtration, MWCNT-N flow-through and MWCNT-N retained groups. Administration was by the trans-tracheal intrapulmonary spraying (TIPS) method. Rats were administered a total of 1 mg/rat during the initial 2 weeks of the experiment and then observed up to 109 weeks. The incidences of malignant mesothelioma and lung tumors (bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas) were 6/38 and 14/38, respectively, in the three groups administered MWCNT and 0/28 and 0/28, respectively, in the control groups. All malignant mesotheliomas were localized in the pericardial pleural cavity. The sieve fractions did not have a significant effect on tumor incidence. In conclusion, administration of MWCNT to the lung in the rat induces malignant mesothelioma and lung tumors.

  15. Carcinogenesis of nitrated toluenes and benzenes, skin and lung tumor assays in mice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slaga, T.J.; Triplett, L.L.; Smith, L.H.; Witschi, H.P.

    1985-05-01

    A series of nitrated toluenes and benzene were tested for their capability to act as initiators, promoters or complete carcinogens in mouse skin. 2,6- dinitrotoluenes and 2-nitrotoluene were found to have weak skin tumor initiating activity. 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluenes and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene produced histological changes in skin which usually are produced by promoting agents; this finding suggests that the three compounds could have skin tumor promoting activity. However, a firm conclusion can only be reached following appropriate in vivo tests. In the lung tumor assay, none of the chemicals tested gave an unequivocal positive response. A borderline positive result for unpurified 2,6-dinitrotoluene could not be repeated when the purified compound was reassayed in the same assay. 19 refs., 9 tabs.

  16. Activation of proto-oncogenes in human and mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Anderson, M.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in several nations. Epidemiological studies have indicated that 85% of all lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths in the US are associated with tobacco smoking. Various chemicals in tobacco smoke are thought to react with DNA and to ultimately yield heritable mutations. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung tumorigenesis, the authors have analyzed proto-oncogene activation in a series of human lung tumors from smokers and spontaneously occurring and chemically induced lung tumors in mice. Approximately 86% of the human lung tumors and > 90% of the mouse lung tumors were found to contain activated oncogenes. ras Oncogenes activated by point mutations were detected in many of the human lung adenocarcinomas and virtually all of the mouse lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The mutation profiles of the activated K-ras genes detected in the chemically induced mouse lung tumors suggest that the observed mutations result from genotoxic effects of the chemicals. Comparison of the K-ras mutations observed in the human lung adenocarcinomas with mutation profiles observed in the mouse lung tumors suggest that bulky hydrophobic DNA adducts may be responsible for the majority of the mutations observed in the activated human K-ras genes. Other data indicate that approximately 20% of human lung tumors contain potentially novel transforming genes that may also be targets for mutagens in cigarette smoke.

  17. Circulating tumor cells versus circulating tumor DNA in lung cancer—which one will win?

    PubMed Central

    Calabuig-Fariñas, Silvia; Jantus-Lewintre, Eloísa; Herreros-Pomares, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Liquid biopsies appear to be a reliable alternative to conventional biopsies that can provide both precise molecular data useful for improving the clinical management of lung cancer patients as well as a less invasive way of monitoring tumor behavior. These advances are supported by important biotechnological developments in the fields of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Analysis of CTCs and ctDNA may be useful in treatment selection, for response monitoring, and in studying resistance mechanisms. This review focuses on the most recent technological achievements and the most relevant clinical applications for lung cancer patients in the CTC and ctDNA fields, highlighting those that are already (or are close to) being implemented in daily clinical practice. PMID:27826528

  18. SGI-110 and entinostat therapy reduces lung tumor burden and reprograms the epigenome.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Carmen S; Grimes, Marcie J; Picchi, Maria A; Liu, Yushi; March, Thomas H; Reed, Matthew D; Oganesian, Aram; Taverna, Pietro; Belinsky, Steven A

    2014-11-01

    The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor vidaza (5-Azacytidine) in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat has shown promise in treating lung cancer and this has been replicated in our orthotopic lung cancer model. However, the effectiveness of DNMT inhibitors against solid tumors is likely impacted by their limited stability and rapid inactivation by cytidine deaminase (CDA) in the liver. These studies were initiated to test the efficacy of SGI-110, a dinucleotide containing decitabine that is resistant to deamination by CDA, as a single agent and in combination with entinostat. Evaluation of in vivo plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic properties of SGI-110 showed rapid conversion to decitabine and a plasma half-life of 4 hr. SGI-110 alone or in combination with entinostat reduced tumor burden of a K-ras/p53 mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell line (Calu6) engrafted orthotopically in nude rats by 35% and 56%, respectively. SGI-110 caused widespread demethylation of more than 300 gene promoters and microarray analysis revealed expression changes for 212 and 592 genes with SGI-110 alone or in combination with entinostat. Epigenetic therapy also induced demethylation and expression of cancer testis antigen genes that could sensitize tumor cells to subsequent immunotherapy. In the orthotopically growing tumors, highly significant gene expression changes were seen in key cancer regulatory pathways including induction of p21 and the apoptotic gene BIK. Moreover, SGI-110 in combination with entinostat caused widespread epigenetic reprogramming of EZH2-target genes. These preclinical in vivo findings demonstrate the clinical potential of SGI-110 for reducing lung tumor burden through reprogramming the epigenome.

  19. Primary Tumor and MEF Cell Isolation to Study Lung Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengli; Maziveyi, Mazvita; Alahari, Suresh K

    2015-05-20

    In breast tumorigenesis, the metastatic stage of the disease poses the greatest threat to the affected individual. Normal breast cells with altered genotypes now possess the ability to invade and survive in other tissues. In this protocol, mouse mammary tumors are removed and primary cells are prepared from tumors. The cells isolated from this procedure are then available for gene profiling experiments. For successful metastasis, these cells must be able to intravasate, survive in circulation, extravasate to distant organs, and survive in that new organ system. The lungs are the typical target of breast cancer metastasis. A set of genes have been discovered that mediates the selectivity of metastasis to the lung. Here we describe a method of studying lung metastasis from a genetically engineered mouse model.. Furthermore, another protocol for analyzing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from the mouse embryo is included. MEF cells from the same animal type provide a clue of non-cancer cell gene expression. Together, these techniques are useful in studying mouse mammary tumorigenesis, its associated signaling mechanisms and pathways of the abnormalities in embryos.

  20. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α promotes primary tumor growth and tumor-initiating cell activity in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Luciana P; Peacock, Danielle L; Majumdar, Debeshi; Ingels, Jesse F; Jensen, Laura C; Smith, Keisha D; Cushing, Richard C; Seagroves, Tiffany N

    2012-01-07

    Overexpression of the oxygen-responsive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The mouse mammary tumor virus polyoma virus middle T (MMTV-PyMT) mouse is a widely utilized preclinical mouse model that resembles human luminal breast cancer and is highly metastatic. Prior studies in which the PyMT model was used demonstrated that HIF-1α is essential to promoting carcinoma onset and lung metastasis, although no differences in primary tumor end point size were observed. Using a refined model system, we investigated whether HIF-1α is directly implicated in the regulation of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in breast cancer. Mammary tumor epithelial cells were created from MMTV-PyMT mice harboring conditional alleles of Hif1a, followed by transduction ex vivo with either adenovirus β-galactosidase or adenovirus Cre to generate wild-type (WT) and HIF-1α-null (KO) cells, respectively. The impact of HIF-1α deletion on tumor-initiating potential was investigated using tumorsphere assays, limiting dilution transplantation and gene expression analysis. Efficient deletion of HIF-1α reduced primary tumor growth and suppressed lung metastases, prolonging survival. Loss of HIF-1α led to reduced expression of markers of the basal lineage (K5/K14) in cells and tumors and of multiple genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. HIF-1α also enhanced tumorsphere formation at normoxia and hypoxia. Decreased expression of several genes in the Notch pathway as well as Vegf and Prominin-1 (CD133)was observed in response to Hif1a deletion. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that CD133 expression was reduced in KO cells and in tumorspheres. Tumorsphere formation was enhanced in CD133hi versus CD133neg cells sorted from PyMT tumors. Limiting dilution transplantation of WT and KO tumor cells into immunocompetent recipients revealed > 30-fold enrichment of TICs in WT cells. These results demonstrate

  1. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α promotes primary tumor growth and tumor-initiating cell activity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Overexpression of the oxygen-responsive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The mouse mammary tumor virus polyoma virus middle T (MMTV-PyMT) mouse is a widely utilized preclinical mouse model that resembles human luminal breast cancer and is highly metastatic. Prior studies in which the PyMT model was used demonstrated that HIF-1α is essential to promoting carcinoma onset and lung metastasis, although no differences in primary tumor end point size were observed. Using a refined model system, we investigated whether HIF-1α is directly implicated in the regulation of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in breast cancer. Methods Mammary tumor epithelial cells were created from MMTV-PyMT mice harboring conditional alleles of Hif1a, followed by transduction ex vivo with either adenovirus β-galactosidase or adenovirus Cre to generate wild-type (WT) and HIF-1α-null (KO) cells, respectively. The impact of HIF-1α deletion on tumor-initiating potential was investigated using tumorsphere assays, limiting dilution transplantation and gene expression analysis. Results Efficient deletion of HIF-1α reduced primary tumor growth and suppressed lung metastases, prolonging survival. Loss of HIF-1α led to reduced expression of markers of the basal lineage (K5/K14) in cells and tumors and of multiple genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. HIF-1α also enhanced tumorsphere formation at normoxia and hypoxia. Decreased expression of several genes in the Notch pathway as well as Vegf and Prominin-1 (CD133)was observed in response to Hif1a deletion. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that CD133 expression was reduced in KO cells and in tumorspheres. Tumorsphere formation was enhanced in CD133hi versus CD133neg cells sorted from PyMT tumors. Limiting dilution transplantation of WT and KO tumor cells into immunocompetent recipients revealed > 30-fold enrichment of TICs in WT cells

  2. Lung transplantation from initially rejected donors after ex vivo lung reconditioning: the French experience.

    PubMed

    Sage, Edouard; Mussot, Sacha; Trebbia, Grégoire; Puyo, Philippe; Stern, Marc; Dartevelle, Philippe; Chapelier, Alain; Fischler, Marc

    2014-11-01

    Only 15% of brain death donors are considered suitable for lung transplantation (LTx). The normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion technique is used to potentially increase the availability of high-risk lung donors. We report our experience of LTx with initially rejected donors after ex vivo lung reconditioning (EVLR). From April 2011 to May 2013, we performed EVLR for 32 pairs of donor lungs deemed unsuitable for transplantation and rejected by the 11 French lung transplant teams. After EVLR, lungs with acceptable function were transplanted. During the same period, 81 double-lung transplantations (DLTx) were used as controls. During EVLR, 31 of 32 donor lungs recovered physiological function with a median PO2/FiO2 ratio increasing from 274 (range 162-404) mmHg to 511 (378-668) mmHg at the end of EVLR (P < 0.0001). Thirty-one DLTx were performed. The incidence of primary graft dysfunction 72 h after LTx was 9.5% in the EVLR group and 8.5% in the control group (P = 1). The median time of extubation, intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay were 1, 9 and 37 days in the EVLR group and 1 (P = 0.17), 6 (P = 0.06) and 28 days (P = 0.09) in the control group, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rates were 3.3% (n = 1) in the EVLR group and 3.7% (n = 3) in the control group (P = 0.69). One-year survival rates were 93% in the EVLR group and 91% in the control group. EVLR is a reliable and repeatable technique that offers a significant increase of available donors. The results of LTx with EVLR lungs are similar to those obtained with conventional donors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a Prognostic Marker for Lung Cancer Using Analysis of Tumor Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0243 TITLE: Development of a Prognostic Marker for Lung Cancer Using Analysis of Tumor Evolution PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of a Prognostic Marker for Lung Cancer Using Analysis of Tumor Evolution 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...reconstruct tumor cell evolution in tumors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NSCLC; tumor evolution ; whole exome sequencing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  4. Targeting Tumor Oct4 to Deplete Prostate Tumor and Metastasis Initiating Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0461 TITLE: Targeting Tumor Oct4 to Deplete Prostate Tumor- and Metastasis-Initiating Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daotai...29 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTILE Targeting Tumor Oct4 to Deplete Prostate Tumor- and Metastasis-Initiating Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...the c-MYC oncogene. POU5F1B is a pseudogene of embryonic Oct4 (POU5F1). A recent study found that tumor Oct4 found in prostate cancer cells is due

  5. Tumor Initiation in Human Malignant Melanoma and Potential Cancer Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, have been identified in several human malignancies, including human malignant melanoma. The frequency of malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs), which are identified by their expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member ABCB5, correlates with disease progression in human patients. Furthermore, targeted MMIC ablation through ABCB5 inhibits tumor initiation and growth in preclinical xenotransplantation models, pointing to potential therapeutic promise of the CSC concept. Recent advances also show that CSCs can exert pro-angiogenic roles in tumor growth and serve immunomodulatory functions related to the evasion of host anti-tumor immunity. Thus, MMICs might initiate and sustain tumorigenic growth not only as a result of CSC-intrinsic self-renewal, differentiation and proliferative capacity, but also based on pro-tumorigenic interactions with the host environment. PMID:20184545

  6. Tumor initiation in human malignant melanoma and potential cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H

    2010-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, have been identified in several human malignancies, including human malignant melanoma. The frequency of malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs), which are identified by their expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member ABCB5, correlates with disease progression in human patients. Furthermore, targeted MMIC ablation through ABCB5 inhibits tumor initiation and growth in preclinical xenotransplantation models, pointing to potential therapeutic promise of the CSC concept. Recent advances also show that CSCs can exert pro-angiogenic roles in tumor growth and serve immunomodulatory functions related to the evasion of host anti-tumor immunity. Thus, MMICs might initiate and sustain tumorigenic growth not only as a result of CSC-intrinsic self-renewal, differentiation and proliferative capacity, but also based on pro-tumorigenic interactions with the host environment.

  7. Circulating Tumor Cell and Cell-free Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Zaini, Jamal; Putra, Andika Chandra; Andarini, Sita; Hudoyo, Achmad; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are separated from the primary site or metastatic lesion and disseminate in blood circulation. CTCs are considered to be part of the long process of cancer metastasis. As a 'liquid biopsy', CTC molecular examination and investigation of single cancer cells create an important opportunity for providing an understanding of cancer biology and the process of metastasis. In the last decade, we have seen dramatic development in defining the role of CTCs in lung cancer in terms of diagnosis, genomic alteration determination, treatment response and, finally, prognosis prediction. The aims of this review are to understand the basic biology and to review methods of detection of CTCs that apply to the various types of solid tumor. Furthermore, we explored clinical applications, including treatment monitoring to anticipate therapy resistance as well as biomarker analysis, in the context of lung cancer. We also explored the potential use of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the genomic alteration analysis of lung cancer.

  8. Circulating Tumor Cell and Cell-free Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaini, Jamal; Putra, Andika Chandra; Andarini, Sita; Hudoyo, Achmad; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are separated from the primary site or metastatic lesion and disseminate in blood circulation. CTCs are considered to be part of the long process of cancer metastasis. As a 'liquid biopsy', CTC molecular examination and investigation of single cancer cells create an important opportunity for providing an understanding of cancer biology and the process of metastasis. In the last decade, we have seen dramatic development in defining the role of CTCs in lung cancer in terms of diagnosis, genomic alteration determination, treatment response and, finally, prognosis prediction. The aims of this review are to understand the basic biology and to review methods of detection of CTCs that apply to the various types of solid tumor. Furthermore, we explored clinical applications, including treatment monitoring to anticipate therapy resistance as well as biomarker analysis, in the context of lung cancer. We also explored the potential use of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the genomic alteration analysis of lung cancer. PMID:27689025

  9. Markerless tracking of small lung tumors for stereotactic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    van Sörnsen de Koste, John R; Dahele, Max; Mostafavi, Hassan; Sloutsky, Alex; Senan, Suresh; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2015-04-01

    (1) To validate retrospective markerless tracking software for small lung tumors by comparing tracked motion in 4-dimensional planning computed tomography (4DCT) derived kV projection images and known tumor motion in the same 4DCT. (2) To evaluate variability of tumor motion using kV projection images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired on different days. Nonclinical tumor tracking software (TTS) used a normalized cross correlation algorithm to track the tumor on enhanced kV projection images (e.g., from a CBCT scan). The reference dataset consisted of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from one phase of a planning 4DCT. TTS matches two in-plane coordinates and obtains the out-of-plane coordinate by triangulating with match results from other projections. (1) To validate TTS, tracking results were compared with known 4DCT tumor motion for two patients (A and B). Projection images (1 image/1°) were digitally reconstructed for each 4DCT phase. From these, kV projection series were composed simulating full breathing cycles every 20° of gantry rotation [breathing period = 20°/(6°/s) = 3.33 s]. Reference templates were 360 "tumor enhanced" DRRs from the 4DCT expiration phase. TTS-derived tumor motion was compared to known tumor motion on 4DCT. (2) For five patients, TTS-assessed motion during clinical CBCT acquisition was compared with motion on the planning 4DCT, and the motion component in the Y (cranio-caudal)-direction was compared with the motion of an external marker box (RPM, real-time position management). (1) Validation results: TTS for case A (tumor 6.2 cm(3), 32 mm axial diameter) over 360° showed mean motion X (medial-lateral) = 3.4, Y = 11.5, and Z (ventral-dorsal) = 4.9 mm (1 SD < 1.0 mm). Corresponding 4DCT motion was X = 3.1, Y = 11.3, and Z = 5.1 mm. Correlation coefficients between TTS tumor motion and displacement of the tumor's center of mass (CoM) on 4DCT were 0.64, 0.96, and 0.82 (X, Y, and Z, respectively). For

  10. Markerless tracking of small lung tumors for stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sörnsen de Koste, John R. van Dahele, Max; Senan, Suresh; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F. A. R.; Mostafavi, Hassan; Sloutsky, Alex

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: (1) To validate retrospective markerless tracking software for small lung tumors by comparing tracked motion in 4-dimensional planning computed tomography (4DCT) derived kV projection images and known tumor motion in the same 4DCT. (2) To evaluate variability of tumor motion using kV projection images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired on different days. Methods: Nonclinical tumor tracking software (TTS) used a normalized cross correlation algorithm to track the tumor on enhanced kV projection images (e.g., from a CBCT scan). The reference dataset consisted of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from one phase of a planning 4DCT. TTS matches two in-plane coordinates and obtains the out-of-plane coordinate by triangulating with match results from other projections. (1) To validate TTS, tracking results were compared with known 4DCT tumor motion for two patients (A and B). Projection images (1 image/1°) were digitally reconstructed for each 4DCT phase. From these, kV projection series were composed simulating full breathing cycles every 20° of gantry rotation [breathing period = 20°/(6°/s) = 3.33 s]. Reference templates were 360 “tumor enhanced” DRRs from the 4DCT expiration phase. TTS-derived tumor motion was compared to known tumor motion on 4DCT. (2) For five patients, TTS-assessed motion during clinical CBCT acquisition was compared with motion on the planning 4DCT, and the motion component in the Y (cranio–caudal)-direction was compared with the motion of an external marker box (RPM, real-time position management). Results: (1) Validation results: TTS for case A (tumor 6.2 cm{sup 3}, 32 mm axial diameter) over 360° showed mean motion X (medial–lateral) = 3.4, Y = 11.5, and Z (ventral–dorsal) = 4.9 mm (1 SD < 1.0 mm). Corresponding 4DCT motion was X = 3.1, Y = 11.3, and Z = 5.1 mm. Correlation coefficients between TTS tumor motion and displacement of the tumor’s center of mass (CoM) on 4DCT were 0.64, 0

  11. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis in a tumor-bearing mouse model is associated with enhanced Type-2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yacheng; Mei, Zijie; Zhang, Shimin; Yang, Jie; Li, Xin; Yao, Ye; Xie, Conghua

    2016-03-01

    Lung fibrosis may be associated with Type-2 polarized inflammation. Herein, we aim to investigate whether radiation can initiate a Type-2 immune response and contribute to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis in tumor-bearing animals. We developed a tumor-bearing mouse model with Lewis lung cancer to receive either radiation therapy alone or radiation combined with Th1 immunomodulator unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN). The Type-2 immune phenotype in tumors and the histological grade of lung fibrosis were evaluated in mice sacrificed three weeks after irradiation. Mouse lung tissues were analyzed for hydroxyproline and the expression of Type-1/Type-2 key transcription factors (T-bet/GATA-3). The concentration of Type-1/Type-2 cytokines in serum was measured by cytometric bead array. Lung fibrosis was observed to be more serious in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice post-irradiation. The fibrosis score in irradiated tumor-bearing mice on Day 21 was 4.33 ± 0.82, which was higher than that of normal mice (2.00 ± 0.63; P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline and GATA-3 expression were increased in the lung tissues of tumor-bearing mice following irradiation. CpG-ODN attenuated fibrosis by markedly decreasing GATA-3 expression. Serum IL-13 and IL-5 were elevated, whereas INF-γ and IL-12 expression were decreased in irradiated tumor-bearing mice. These changes were reversed after CpG-ODN treatment. Thus, Type-2 immunity in tumors appeared to affect the outcome of radiation damage and might be of interest for future studies on developing approaches in which Type-1-related immunotherapy and radiotherapy are used in combination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma in non-small cell lung carcinoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Morales, José Manuel; Cano-García, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The use of targeted therapies, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in specific groups of patients has dramatically improved the prognosis of this disease, although inevitably some patients will develop resistance to these drugs during active treatment. The most common cancer-associated acquired mutation is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Thr790Met (T790M) mutation. During active treatment with targeted therapies, histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) can occur in 3–15% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors. By definition, SCLC is a high-grade tumor with specific histological and genetic characteristics. In the majority of cases, a good-quality hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is enough to establish a diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other neoplasia such as sarcomatoid carcinomas, large-cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma, chronic inflammation, malignant melanoma, metastatic carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. A loss of the tumor-suppressor protein retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) is found in 100% of human SCLC tumors; therefore, it has an essential role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Other genetic pathways probably involved in the histopathological transformation include neurogenic locus notch homolog (NOTCH) and achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1). Histological transformation to SCLC can be suspected in NSCLC patients who clinically deteriorate during active treatment. Biopsy of any new lesion in this clinical setting is highly recommended to rule out a SCLC transformation. New studies are trying to assess this histological transformation by noninvasive measures such as measuring the concentration of serum neuron-specific enolase. PMID:27652204

  13. Tumor-Induced CD8+ T-Cell Dysfunction in Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and one of the most common types of cancers. The limited success of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimes have highlighted the need to develop new therapies like antitumor immunotherapy. CD8+ T-cells represent a major arm of the cell-mediated anti-tumor response and a promising target for developing T-cell-based immunotherapies against lung cancer. Lung tumors, however, have been considered to possess poor immunogenicity; even so, lung tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell clones can be established that possess cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells. This paper will focus on the alterations induced in CD8+ T-cells by lung cancer. Although memory CD8+ T-cells infiltrate lung tumors, in both tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and malignant pleural effusions, these cells are dysfunctional and the effector subset is reduced. We propose that chronic presence of lung tumors induces dysfunctions in CD8+ T-cells and sensitizes them to activation-induced cell death, which may be associated with the poor clinical responses observed in immunotherapeutic trials. Getting a deeper knowledge of the evasion mechanisms lung cancer induce in CD8+ T-cells should lead to further understanding of lung cancer biology, overcome tumor evasion mechanisms, and design improved immunotherapeutic treatments for lung cancer. PMID:23118782

  14. Tumor-induced CD8+ T-cell dysfunction in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and one of the most common types of cancers. The limited success of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimes have highlighted the need to develop new therapies like antitumor immunotherapy. CD8+ T-cells represent a major arm of the cell-mediated anti-tumor response and a promising target for developing T-cell-based immunotherapies against lung cancer. Lung tumors, however, have been considered to possess poor immunogenicity; even so, lung tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell clones can be established that possess cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells. This paper will focus on the alterations induced in CD8+ T-cells by lung cancer. Although memory CD8+ T-cells infiltrate lung tumors, in both tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and malignant pleural effusions, these cells are dysfunctional and the effector subset is reduced. We propose that chronic presence of lung tumors induces dysfunctions in CD8+ T-cells and sensitizes them to activation-induced cell death, which may be associated with the poor clinical responses observed in immunotherapeutic trials. Getting a deeper knowledge of the evasion mechanisms lung cancer induce in CD8+ T-cells should lead to further understanding of lung cancer biology, overcome tumor evasion mechanisms, and design improved immunotherapeutic treatments for lung cancer.

  15. Culture and isolation of brain tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Lenkiewicz, Monika; Li, Na; Singh, Sheila K

    2009-10-01

    This unit describes protocols for the culture and isolation of brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC). The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that tumors are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells that have stem cell properties. We applied culture conditions and assays originally used for normal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro to a variety of brain tumors. The BTIC were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting for the neural precursor cell surface marker CD133. Only the CD133(+) brain tumor fraction contains cells capable of sphere formation and sustained self-renewal in vitro, and tumor initiation in NOD-SCID mouse brains. Therefore, CD133(+) BTICs satisfy the definition of cancer stem cells in that they are able to generate a replica of the patient's tumor and they exhibit self-renewal ability through serial retransplantation. This established that only a rare subset of brain tumor cells with stem cell properties are tumor-initiating, and, in this unit, we describe their culture and isolation.

  16. Dosimetric impact of a frame-based strategy in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Waldeland, Einar; Ramberg, Christina; Arnesen, Marius Røthe; Helland, Aslaug; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-05-01

    Technological innovations have taken stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) from frame-based strategies to image-guided strategies. In this study, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired prior to SBRT of patients with lung tumors was used to study the dosimetric impact of a pure frame-based strategy. Thirty patients with inoperable lung tumors were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had received CBCT-guided SBRT with 3 fractions of 15 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) margin including immobilization in a stereotactic body frame (SBF). Using the set-up corrections from the co-registration of the CBCT with the planning CT, all individual dose plans were recalculated with an isocenter position equal to the initial set-up position. Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters of the recalculated dose plans were then analyzed. The simulated plans showed that 88% of all fractions resulted in minimum 14.5 Gy to the internal target volume (ITV). For the simulated summed treatment (3 fractions per patient), 83% of the patients would minimum receive the prescription dose (45 Gy) to 100% of the ITV and all except one would receive the prescription dose to more than 90% of the ITV. SBRT including SBF, but without image guidance, results in appropriate dose coverage in most cases, using the current margins. With image guidance, margins for SBRT of lung tumors could possibly be reduced.

  17. Human Organotypic Lung Tumor Models: Suitable For Preclinical 18F-FDG PET-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fecher, David; Hofmann, Elisabeth; Buck, Andreas; Bundschuh, Ralph; Nietzer, Sarah; Dandekar, Gudrun; Walles, Thorsten; Walles, Heike; Lückerath, Katharina; Steinke, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Development of predictable in vitro tumor models is a challenging task due to the enormous complexity of tumors in vivo. The closer the resemblance of these models to human tumor characteristics, the more suitable they are for drug-development and –testing. In the present study, we generated a complex 3D lung tumor test system based on acellular rat lungs. A decellularization protocol was established preserving the architecture, important ECM components and the basement membrane of the lung. Human lung tumor cells cultured on the scaffold formed cluster and exhibited an up-regulation of the carcinoma-associated marker mucin1 as well as a reduced proliferation rate compared to respective 2D culture. Additionally, employing functional imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) these tumor cell cluster could be detected and tracked over time. This approach allowed monitoring of a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in the in vitro lung tumor model non-destructively. Surprisingly, FDG-PET assessment of single tumor cell cluster on the same scaffold exhibited differences in their response to therapy, indicating heterogeneity in the lung tumor model. In conclusion, our complex lung tumor test system features important characteristics of tumors and its microenvironment and allows monitoring of tumor growth and -metabolism in combination with functional imaging. In longitudinal studies, new therapeutic approaches and their long-term effects can be evaluated to adapt treatment regimes in future. PMID:27501455

  18. Expression of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in rodent lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Swafford, D.S.; Tesfaigzi, J.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Aberrations on the short arm of chromosome 9 are among the earliest genetic changes in human cancer. p16{sup INK4a} is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that lies within human 9p21, a chromosome region associated with frequent loss of heterozygosity in human lung tumors. The p16{sup INK4a} protein functions as an inhibitor of cyclin D{sub 1}-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene product enabling cell-cycle progression. Thus, overexpression of cyclin D{sub 1}, mutation of cyclin-dependent kinase genes, or loss of p16{sup INK4a} function, can all result in functional inactivation of Rb. Inactivation of Rb by mutation or deletion can result in an increase in p16{sup INK4a} transcription, suggesting that an increased p16{sup INK4a} expression in a tumor cell signals dysfunction of the pathway. The p16{sup (INK4a)} gene, unlike some tumor suppressor genes, is rarely inactivated by mutation. Instead, the expression of this gene is suppressed in some human cancers by hypermethylation of the CpG island within the first exon or by homozygous deletion: 686. Chromosome losses have been observed at 9p21 syntenic loci in tumors of the mouse and rat, two species often used as animal models for pulmonary carcinogenesis. Expression of p16{sup INK4a} is lost in some mouse tumor cell lines, often due to homozygous deletion. These observations indicate that p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction may play a role in the development of neoplasia in rodents as well as humans. The purpose of the current investigation was to define the extent to which p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction contributes to the development of rodent lung tumors and to determine the mechanism of inactivation of the gene. There is no evidence to suggest a loss of function of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in these primary murine lung tumors by mutation, deletion, or methylation.

  19. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for the initiation of lung tumorigenesis by oncogenic Kras(G12D.).

    PubMed

    Wang, I-C; Ustiyan, V; Zhang, Y; Cai, Y; Kalin, T V; Kalinichenko, V V

    2014-11-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths in cancer patients in the United States. Identification of new molecular targets is clearly needed to improve therapeutic outcomes of this devastating human disease. Activating mutations in K-Ras oncogene and increased expression of FOXM1 protein are associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Transgenic expression of activated Kras(G12D) in mouse respiratory epithelium is sufficient to induce lung adenocarcinomas; however, transcriptional mechanisms regulated by K-Ras during the initiation of lung cancer remain poorly understood. Foxm1 transcription factor, a downstream target of K-Ras, stimulates cellular proliferation during embryogenesis, organ repair and tumor growth, but its role in tumor initiation is unknown. In the present study, we used transgenic mice expressing Kras(G12D) under control of Sftpc promoter to demonstrate that Foxm1 was induced in type II epithelial cells before the formation of lung tumors. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from Kras(G12D)-expressing respiratory epithelium prevented the initiation of lung tumors in vivo. The loss of Foxm1 inhibited expression of K-Ras target genes critical for the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, including Ikbkb, Nfkb1, Nfkb2, Rela, Jnk1, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a. Transgenic overexpression of activated FOXM1 mutant was sufficient to induce expression of these genes in alveolar type II cells. FOXM1 directly bound to promoter regions of Ikbkb, Nfkb2, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a, indicating that these genes are direct FOXM1 targets. FOXM1 is required for K-Ras-mediated lung tumorigenesis by activating genes critical for the NF-κB and JNK pathways.

  20. Automated segmentation of murine lung tumors in x-ray micro-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swee, Joshua K. Y.; Sheridan, Clare; de Bruin, Elza; Downward, Julian; Lassailly, Francois; Pizarro, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen micro-CT emerge as a means of providing imaging analysis in pre-clinical study, with in-vivo micro-CT having been shown to be particularly applicable to the examination of murine lung tumors. Despite this, existing studies have involved substantial human intervention during the image analysis process, with the use of fully-automated aids found to be almost non-existent. We present a new approach to automate the segmentation of murine lung tumors designed specifically for in-vivo micro-CT-based pre-clinical lung cancer studies that addresses the specific requirements of such study, as well as the limitations human-centric segmentation approaches experience when applied to such micro-CT data. Our approach consists of three distinct stages, and begins by utilizing edge enhancing and vessel enhancing non-linear anisotropic diffusion filters to extract anatomy masks (lung/vessel structure) in a pre-processing stage. Initial candidate detection is then performed through ROI reduction utilizing obtained masks and a two-step automated segmentation approach that aims to extract all disconnected objects within the ROI, and consists of Otsu thresholding, mathematical morphology and marker-driven watershed. False positive reduction is finally performed on initial candidates through random-forest-driven classification using the shape, intensity, and spatial features of candidates. We provide validation of our approach using data from an associated lung cancer study, showing favorable results both in terms of detection (sensitivity=86%, specificity=89%) and structural recovery (Dice Similarity=0.88) when compared against manual specialist annotation.

  1. Dynamic Lung Tumor Tracking for Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kunos, Charles A.; Fabien, Jeffrey M.; Shanahan, John P.; Collen, Christine; Gevaert, Thierry; Poels, Kenneth; Van den Begin, Robbe; Engels, Benedikt; De Ridder, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Physicians considering stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of extracranial cancer targets must be aware of the sizeable risks for normal tissue injury and the hazards of physical tumor miss. A first-of-its-kind SBRT platform achieves high-precision ablative radiation treatment through a combination of versatile real-time imaging solutions and sophisticated tumor tracking capabilities. It uses dual-diagnostic kV x-ray units for stereoscopic open-loop feedback of cancer target intrafraction movement occurring as a consequence of respiratory motions and heartbeat. Image-guided feedback drives a gimbaled radiation accelerator (maximum 15 x 15 cm field size) capable of real-time ±4 cm pan-and-tilt action. Robot-driven ±60° pivots of an integrated ±185° rotational gantry allow for coplanar and non-coplanar accelerator beam set-up angles, ultimately permitting unique treatment degrees of freedom. State-of-the-art software aids real-time six dimensional positioning, ensuring irradiation of cancer targets with sub-millimeter accuracy (0.4 mm at isocenter). Use of these features enables treating physicians to steer radiation dose to cancer tumor targets while simultaneously reducing radiation dose to normal tissues. By adding respiration correlated computed tomography (CT) and 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-ᴅ-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images into the planning system for enhanced tumor target contouring, the likelihood of physical tumor miss becomes substantially less1. In this article, we describe new radiation plans for the treatment of moving lung tumors. PMID:26131774

  2. Metformin selectively affects human glioblastoma tumor-initiating cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Würth, Roberto; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Gatti, Monica; Bajetto, Adirana; Corsaro, Alessandro; Parodi, Alessia; Sirito, Rodolfo; Massollo, Michela; Marini, Cecilia; Zona, Gianluigi; Fenoglio, Daniela; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Filaci, Gilberto; Daga, Antonio; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cell theory postulates that a small population of tumor-initiating cells is responsible for the development, progression and recurrence of several malignancies, including glioblastoma. In this perspective, tumor-initiating cells represent the most relevant target to obtain effective cancer treatment. Metformin, a first-line drug for type II diabetes, was reported to possess anticancer properties affecting the survival of cancer stem cells in breast cancer models. We report that metformin treatment reduced the proliferation rate of tumor-initiating cell-enriched cultures isolated from four human glioblastomas. Metformin also impairs tumor-initiating cell spherogenesis, indicating a direct effect on self-renewal mechanisms. Interestingly, analyzing by FACS the antiproliferative effects of metformin on CD133-expressing subpopulation, a component of glioblastoma cancer stem cells, a higher reduction of proliferation was observed as compared with CD133-negative cells, suggesting a certain degree of cancer stem cell selectivity in its effects. In fact, glioblastoma cell differentiation strongly reduced sensitivity to metformin treatment. Metformin effects in tumor-initiating cell-enriched cultures were associated with a powerful inhibition of Akt-dependent cell survival pathway, while this pathway was not affected in differentiated cells. The specificity of metformin antiproliferative effects toward glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells was confirmed by the lack of significant inhibition of normal human stem cells (umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells) in vitro proliferation after metformin exposure. Altogether, these data clearly suggest that metformin exerts antiproliferative activity on glioblastoma cells, showing a higher specificity toward tumor-initiating cells, and that the inhibition of Akt pathway may represent a possible intracellular target of this effect. PMID:23255107

  3. Evaluation and comparison of New 4DCT based strategies for proton treatment planning for lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Patyal, Baldev; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Bush, David

    2013-03-25

    To evaluate different strategies for proton lung treatment planning based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans. Twelve cases, involving only gross tumor volumes (GTV), were evaluated. Single image sets of (1) maximum intensity projection (MIP3) of end inhale (EI), middle exhale (ME) and end exhale (EE) images; (2) average intensity projection (AVG) of all phase images; and (3) EE images from 4DCT scans were selected as primary images for proton treatment planning. Internal target volumes (ITVs) outlined by a clinician were imported into MIP3, AVG, and EE images as planning targets. Initially, treatment uncertainties were not included in planning. Each plan was imported into phase images of 4DCT scans. Relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and mean ipsilateral lung dose of a phase image obtained by averaging the dose in inspiration and expiration phases were used to evaluate the quality of a plan for a particular case. For comparing different planning strategies, the mean of the averaged relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and its standard deviation for each planning strategy for all cases were used. Then, treatment uncertainties were included in planning. Each plan was recalculated in phase images of 4DCT scans. Same strategies were used for plan evaluation except dose-volume histograms of the planning target volumes (PTVs) instead of GTVs were used and the mean and standard deviation of the relative volumes of PTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and the ipsilateral lung dose were used to compare different planning strategies. MIP3 plans without treatment uncertainties yielded 96.7% of the mean relative GTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 5.7% for all cases). With treatment uncertainties, MIP3 plans yielded 99.5% of mean relative PTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 0.7%). Inclusion of treatment uncertainties improved PTV dose coverage but also increased the ipsilateral

  4. Tumor-Derived Tissue Factor Aberrantly Activates Complement and Facilitates Lung Tumor Progression via Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Zha, Haoran; Yang, Fei; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The initiator of extrinsic coagulation, tissue factor (TF), and its non-coagulant isoform alternatively spliced TF (asTF) are closely associated with tumor development. In the tumor microenvironment, the role of TF-induced coagulation in tumor progression remains to be fully elucidated. Using TF-knockdown lung tumor cells, we showed that TF is the dominant component of procoagulant activity but is dispensable in the cellular biology of tumor cells. In a xenograft model, using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry analysis of the tumor microenvironment, we demonstrated that TF-induced fibrin deposition, which is correlated with complement activation and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment, is positively associated with tumor progression. C5aR antagonism blunted the effect of TF on tumor progression and decreased MDSC recruitment. In conclusion, our data suggested that in tumor microenvironment, TF-induced coagulation activated the complement system and subsequently recruited myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth, which brings new insights into the coagulation-induced complement activation within the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. PMID:28106852

  5. Tumor-Derived Tissue Factor Aberrantly Activates Complement and Facilitates Lung Tumor Progression via Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Zha, Haoran; Yang, Fei; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2017-01-19

    The initiator of extrinsic coagulation, tissue factor (TF), and its non-coagulant isoform alternatively spliced TF (asTF) are closely associated with tumor development. In the tumor microenvironment, the role of TF-induced coagulation in tumor progression remains to be fully elucidated. Using TF-knockdown lung tumor cells, we showed that TF is the dominant component of procoagulant activity but is dispensable in the cellular biology of tumor cells. In a xenograft model, using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry analysis of the tumor microenvironment, we demonstrated that TF-induced fibrin deposition, which is correlated with complement activation and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment, is positively associated with tumor progression. C5aR antagonism blunted the effect of TF on tumor progression and decreased MDSC recruitment. In conclusion, our data suggested that in tumor microenvironment, TF-induced coagulation activated the complement system and subsequently recruited myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth, which brings new insights into the coagulation-induced complement activation within the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression.

  6. [Interstitial lung disease as an initial manifestation of dermatomyositis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Gong, Yulin; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun; Tang, Fulin

    2014-11-25

    To explore the clinical features and prognosis of dermatomyositis patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) as an initial manifestation. Medical records of 184 dermatomyositis inpatients complicated with ILD, admitted into Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1999 to January 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical features, biochemical parameters, positive rates of autoantibodies, radiology, pulmonary function tests, pathology, treatments and prognosis were compared between two subgroups of ILD-initial and non-ILD-initial dermatomyositis. The incidence of ILD of dermatomyositis inpatients was 17%. The average age was 48 ± 12 years and the gender ratio of male-to-female was 63: 121. Eighty eight (47.8%) dermatomyositis patients had ILD as an initial manifestation, including (n = 42, 22.8%) of ILD concomitant dermatomyositis (within 1 month) and (n = 46, 25.0%) of ILD before dermatomyositis with an average ahead time of (11 ± 3) months. Patients of ILD-initial dermatomyositis had a higher incidence of dyspnea on exertion, cough and lung crackles, but there were lower incidences of heliotrope rash, chest V area rash, shawl sign and joint involvement than non-ILD-initial dermatomyositis (P < 0.05). The positive rate of anti-Jo-1 antibodies of ILD-initial dermatomyositis group was 13.6%. The main performances of ILD-initial dermatomyositis on pulmonary function tests were diffusing and restrictive ventilation impairment. And there was a lower diffusing rate of carbon monoxide than non-ILD-initial dermatomyositis group (P < 0.01). Organic and non-specific interstitial pneumonias were the major clinical pathology types of ILD-initial dermatomyositis. The mortality rate of ILD-initial dermatomyositis patients was 19.3% and there was no significant difference from non-ILD-initial dermatomyositis (P > 0.05). The main course of ILD-initial dermatomyositis was respiratory failure due to progressive ILD (n = 13, 76.5%). ILD as an initial

  7. High rates of chromosome missegregation suppress tumor progression but do not inhibit tumor initiation

    PubMed Central

    Zasadil, Lauren M.; Britigan, Eric M. C.; Ryan, Sean D.; Kaur, Charanjeet; Guckenberger, David J.; Beebe, David J.; Moser, Amy R.; Weaver, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy, an abnormal chromosome number that deviates from a multiple of the haploid, has been recognized as a common feature of cancers for >100 yr. Previously, we showed that the rate of chromosome missegregation/chromosomal instability (CIN) determines the effect of aneuploidy on tumors; whereas low rates of CIN are weakly tumor promoting, higher rates of CIN cause cell death and tumor suppression. However, whether high CIN inhibits tumor initiation or suppresses the growth and progression of already initiated tumors remained unclear. We tested this using the ApcMin/+ mouse intestinal tumor model, in which effects on tumor initiation versus progression can be discriminated. ApcMin/+ cells exhibit low CIN, and we generated high CIN by reducing expression of the kinesin-like mitotic motor protein CENP-E. CENP-E+/−;ApcMin/+ doubly heterozygous cells had higher rates of chromosome missegregation than singly heterozygous cells, resulting in increased cell death and a substantial reduction in tumor progression compared with ApcMin/+ animals. Intestinal organoid studies confirmed that high CIN does not inhibit tumor cell initiation but does inhibit subsequent cell growth. These findings support the conclusion that increasing the rate of chromosome missegregation could serve as a successful chemotherapeutic strategy. PMID:27146113

  8. MRI-guided tumor tracking in lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerviño, Laura I.; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-07-01

    Precise tracking of lung tumor motion during treatment delivery still represents a challenge in radiation therapy. Prototypes of MRI-linac hybrid systems are being created which have the potential of ionization-free real-time imaging of the tumor. This study evaluates the performance of lung tumor tracking algorithms in cine-MRI sagittal images from five healthy volunteers. Visible vascular structures were used as targets. Volunteers performed several series of regular and irregular breathing. Two tracking algorithms were implemented and evaluated: a template matching (TM) algorithm in combination with surrogate tracking using the diaphragm (surrogate was used when the maximum correlation between the template and the image in the search window was less than specified), and an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the principal components of a region of interest that encompasses the target motion. The mean tracking error ē and the error at 95% confidence level e95 were evaluated for each model. The ANN model led to ē = 1.5 mm and e95 = 4.2 mm, while TM led to ē = 0.6 mm and e95 = 1.0 mm. An extra series was considered separately to evaluate the benefit of using surrogate tracking in combination with TM when target out-of-plane motion occurs. For this series, the mean error was 7.2 mm using only TM and 1.7 mm when the surrogate was used in combination with TM. Results show that, as opposed to tracking with other imaging modalities, ANN does not perform well in MR-guided tracking. TM, however, leads to highly accurate tracking. Out-of-plane motion could be addressed by surrogate tracking using the diaphragm, which can be easily identified in the images.

  9. MRI-guided tumor tracking in lung cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cerviño, Laura I; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-07-07

    Precise tracking of lung tumor motion during treatment delivery still represents a challenge in radiation therapy. Prototypes of MRI-linac hybrid systems are being created which have the potential of ionization-free real-time imaging of the tumor. This study evaluates the performance of lung tumor tracking algorithms in cine-MRI sagittal images from five healthy volunteers. Visible vascular structures were used as targets. Volunteers performed several series of regular and irregular breathing. Two tracking algorithms were implemented and evaluated: a template matching (TM) algorithm in combination with surrogate tracking using the diaphragm (surrogate was used when the maximum correlation between the template and the image in the search window was less than specified), and an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the principal components of a region of interest that encompasses the target motion. The mean tracking error ē and the error at 95% confidence level e(95) were evaluated for each model. The ANN model led to ē = 1.5 mm and e(95) = 4.2 mm, while TM led to ē = 0.6 mm and e(95) = 1.0 mm. An extra series was considered separately to evaluate the benefit of using surrogate tracking in combination with TM when target out-of-plane motion occurs. For this series, the mean error was 7.2 mm using only TM and 1.7 mm when the surrogate was used in combination with TM. Results show that, as opposed to tracking with other imaging modalities, ANN does not perform well in MR-guided tracking. TM, however, leads to highly accurate tracking. Out-of-plane motion could be addressed by surrogate tracking using the diaphragm, which can be easily identified in the images.

  10. Interfraction variation in lung tumor position with abdominal compression during stereotactic body radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Ueki, Nami; Iizuka, Yusuke; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Yano, Shinsuke

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the effect of abdominal compression on the interfraction variation in tumor position in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a larger series of patients with large tumor motion amplitude.Methods: Thirty patients with lung tumor motion exceeding 8 mm who underwent SBRT were included in this study. After translational and rotational initial setup error was corrected based on bone anatomy, CBCT images were acquired for each fraction. The residual interfraction variation was defined as the difference between the centroid position of the visualized target in three dimensions derived from CBCT scans and those derived from averaged intensity projection images. The authors compared the magnitude of the interfraction variation in tumor position between patients treated with [n= 16 (76 fractions)] and without [n= 14 (76 fractions)] abdominal compression.Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of the motion amplitude in the longitudinal direction before abdominal compression was 19.9 ± 7.3 (range, 10–40) mm and was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced to 12.4 ± 5.8 (range, 5–30) mm with compression. The greatest variance of the interfraction variation with abdominal compression was observed in the longitudinal direction, with a mean ± SD of 0.79 ± 3.05 mm, compared to −0.60 ± 2.10 mm without abdominal compression. The absolute values of the 95th percentile of the interfraction variation for one side in each direction were 3.97/6.21 mm (posterior/anterior), 4.16/3.76 mm (caudal/cranial), and 2.90/2.32 mm (right/left) without abdominal compression, and 2.14/5.03 mm (posterior/anterior), 3.93/9.23 mm (caudal/cranial), and 2.37/5.45 mm (right/left) with abdominal compression. An absolute interfraction variation greater than 5 mm was observed in six (9.2%) fractions without and 13 (17.1%) fractions with abdominal compression.Conclusions: Abdominal compression was effective for reducing the amplitude

  11. Diminished WNT → β-catenin → c-MYC signaling is a barrier for malignant progression of BRAFV600E-induced lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Joseph; Muraguchi, Teruyuki; Iezza, Gioia; Sears, Rosalie C.; McMahon, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is proposed as a cellular defense mechanism that restrains malignant progression of oncogene-expressing, initiated tumor cells. Consistent with this, expression of BRAFV600E in the mouse lung epithelium elicits benign tumors that fail to progress to cancer due to an apparent senescence-like proliferative arrest. Here we demonstrate that nuclear β-catenin → c-MYC signaling is essential for early stage proliferation of BRAFV600E-induced lung tumors and is inactivated in the subsequent senescence-like state. Furthermore, either β-catenin silencing or pharmacological blockade of Porcupine, an acyl-transferase essential for WNT ligand secretion and activity, significantly inhibited BRAFV600E-initiated lung tumorigenesis. Conversely, sustained activity of β-catenin or c-MYC significantly enhanced BRAFV600E-induced lung tumorigenesis and rescued the anti-tumor effects of Porcupine blockade. These data indicate that early stage BRAFV600E-induced lung tumors are WNT-dependent and suggest that inactivation of WNT → β-catenin → c-MYC signaling is a trigger for the senescence-like proliferative arrest that constrains the expansion and malignant progression of BRAFV600E-initiated lung tumors. Moreover, these data further suggest that the trigger for OIS in initiated BRAFV600E-expressing lung tumor cells is not simply a surfeit of signals from oncogenic BRAF but an insufficiency of WNT → β-catenin → c-MYC signaling. These data have implications for understanding how genetic abnormalities cooperate to initiate and promote lung carcinogenesis. PMID:24589553

  12. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jia-lei; Lu, Fan-zhen; Shen, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Li-ting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells.

  13. The roles of viruses in brain tumor initiation and oncomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Kofman, Alexander; Marcinkiewicz, Lucasz; Dupart, Evan; Lyshchev, Anton; Martynov, Boris; Ryndin, Anatolii; Kotelevskaya, Elena; Brown, Jay; Schiff, David

    2012-01-01

    While some avian retroviruses have been shown to induce gliomas in animal models, human herpesviruses, specifically, the most extensively studied cytomegalovirus, and the much less studied roseolovirus HHV-6, and Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, currently attract more and more attention as possible contributing or initiating factors in the development of human brain tumors. The aim of this review is to summarize and highlight the most provoking findings indicating a potential causative link between brain tumors, specifically malignant gliomas, and viruses in the context of the concepts of viral oncomodulation and the tumor stem cell origin. PMID:21720806

  14. Culture and Isolation of Brain Tumor Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Vora, Parvez; Venugopal, Chitra; McFarlane, Nicole; Singh, Sheila K

    2015-08-03

    Brain tumors are typically composed of heterogeneous cells that exhibit distinct phenotypic characteristics and proliferative potentials. Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), possess an ability to differentiate along multiple lineages, self-renew, and initiate tumors in vivo. This unit describes protocols for the culture and isolation BTICs. We applied culture conditions and assays originally used for normal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro to a variety of brain tumors. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting for the neural precursor cell surface marker CD133/CD15, BTICs can be isolated and studied prospectively. Isolation of BTICs from GBM bulk tumor will enable examination of dissimilar morphologies, self-renewal capacities, tumorigenicity, and therapeutic sensitivities. As cancer is also considered a disease of unregulated self-renewal and differentiation, an understanding of BTICs is fundamental to understanding tumor growth. Ultimately, it will lead to novel drug discovery approaches that strategically target the functionally relevant BTIC population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Icotinib as initial treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian‐ping; Liu, Xiao‐yan; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Chang‐gong; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity of icotinib as initial treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastases. Methods Twenty‐one patients with histologically or pathologically documented brain metastatic lung cancer were administered icotinib as initial treatment from 2011 to 2015 at the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Chemotherapy response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and toxicity was evaluated according to National Cancer Institute‐Common Toxicity Criteria. Icotinib was administered three times per day at a dose of 125mg. Results The median overall and progression‐free survival rates were 15.2 (1.2–31.5 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6–23.7 months) and 8.9 months (0.6–30.5 months, 95% CI 3.4–14.3 months), respectively. The overall response and disease control rates were 61.9% and 90.5%, respectively. Icotinib was well tolerated, and no grade 3/4 adverse events were observed. The most common grade 1/2 adverse events included acneiform eruptions (38.1%), diarrhea (19.0%), and stomatitis (9.5%). Conclusion Icotinib is effective and well tolerated as initial treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastases. PMID:27385986

  16. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Neelakkantan, Harini; Ruddy, Bari H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  17. Systematic In Vivo Inactivation of Chromatin-Regulating Enzymes Identifies Setd2 as a Potent Tumor Suppressor in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Walter, David M; Venancio, Olivia S; Buza, Elizabeth L; Tobias, John W; Deshpande, Charuhas; Gudiel, A Andrea; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Cicchini, Michelle; Yates, Travis J; Feldser, David M

    2017-04-01

    Chromatin-modifying genes are frequently mutated in human lung adenocarcinoma, but the functional impact of these mutations on disease initiation and progression is not well understood. Using a CRISPR-based approach, we systematically inactivated three of the most commonly mutated chromatin regulatory genes in two Kras(G12D)-driven mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma to characterize the impact of their loss. Targeted inactivation of SWI/SNF nucleosome-remodeling complex members Smarca4 (Brg1) or Arid1a had complex effects on lung adenocarcinoma initiation and progression. Loss of either Brg1 or Arid1a were selected against in early-stage tumors, but Brg1 loss continued to limit disease progression over time, whereas loss of Arid1a eventually promoted development of higher grade lesions. In contrast to these stage-specific effects, loss of the histone methyltransferase Setd2 had robust tumor-promoting consequences. Despite disparate impacts of Setd2 and Arid1a loss on tumor development, each resulted in a gene expression profile with significant overlap. Setd2 inactivation and subsequent loss of H3K36me3 led to the swift expansion and accelerated progression of both early- and late-stage tumors. However, Setd2 loss per se was insufficient to overcome a p53-regulated barrier to malignant progression, nor establish the prometastatic cellular states that stochastically evolve during lung adenocarcinoma progression. Our study uncovers differential and context-dependent effects of SWI/SNF complex member loss, identifies Setd2 as a potent tumor suppressor in lung adenocarcinoma, and establishes model systems to facilitate further study of chromatin deregulation in lung cancer. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1719-29. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Loss of Mig6 accelerates initiation and progression of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor-driven lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Tapan K.; Venugopalan, Abhilash; Linnoila, Ilona; Cultraro, Constance M.; Giannakou, Andreas; Nemati, Roxanne; Zhang, Xu; Webster, Joshua D.; Ritt, Daniel; Ghosal, Sarani; Hoschuetzky, Heinz; Simpson, R. Mark; Biswas, Romi; Politi, Katerina; Morrison, Deborah K.; Varmus, Harold E.; Guha, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain drive lung adenocarcinoma. We have previously identified MIG6, an inhibitor of ERBB signaling and a potential tumor suppressor, as a target for phosphorylation by mutant EGFRs. Here we demonstrate that Mig6 is a tumor suppressor for the initiation and progression of mutant EGFR-driven lung adenocarcinoma in mouse models. Mutant EGFR-induced lung tumor formation was accelerated in Mig6-deficient mice, even with Mig6 haploinsufficiency. We demonstrate that constitutive phosphorylation of MIG6 at Y394/395 in EGFR-mutant human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines is associated with an increased interaction of MIG6 with mutant EGFR, which may stabilize EGFR protein. MIG6 also fails to promote mutant EGFR degradation. We propose a model whereby increased tyrosine phosphorylation of MIG6 decreases its capacity to inhibit mutant EGFR. Nonetheless, the residual inhibition is sufficient for Mig6 to delay mutant EGFR-driven tumor initiation and progression in mouse models. PMID:25735773

  19. Depletion of tumor-associated macrophages slows the growth of chemically induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jason M; Tennis, Meredith A; Orlicky, David J; Lin, Hao; Ju, Cynthia; Redente, Elizabeth F; Choo, Kevin S; Staab, Taylor A; Bouchard, Ronald J; Merrick, Daniel T; Malkinson, Alvin M; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for lung cancer, and low-dose aspirin intake reduces lung cancer risk. However, the roles that specific inflammatory cells and their products play in lung carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. In mice, alveolar macrophage numbers increase as lung tumors progress, and pulmonary macrophage programing changes within 2 weeks of carcinogen exposure. To examine how macrophages specifically affect lung tumor progression, they were depleted in mice bearing urethane-induced lung tumors using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes. Alveolar macrophage populations decreased to ≤50% of control levels after 4-6 weeks of liposomal clodronate treatment. Tumor burden decreased by 50% compared to vehicle treated mice, and tumor cell proliferation, as measured by Ki67 staining, was also attenuated. Pulmonary fluid levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, CXCL1, IL-6, and CCL2 diminished with clodronate liposome treatment. Tumor-associated macrophages expressed markers of both M1 and M2 programing in vehicle and clodronate liposome-treated mice. Mice lacking CCR2 (the receptor for macrophage chemotactic factor CCL2) had comparable numbers of alveolar macrophages and showed no difference in tumor growth rates when compared to similarly treated wild-type mice suggesting that while CCL2 may recruit macrophages to lung tumor microenvironments, redundant pathways can compensate when CCL2/CCR2 signaling is inactivated. Depletion of pulmonary macrophages rather than inhibition of their recruitment may be an advantageous strategy for attenuating lung cancer progression.

  20. Coagulation activation by MC28 fibrosarcoma cells facilitates lung tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, M; Francis, J L

    1995-01-01

    Tumor cells interact with the hemostatic system in various ways and may thus influence malignant growth and spread. MC28 fibrosarcoma cells possess a potent procoagulant activity (PCA) and form lung tumors following intravenous injection. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between PCA, intravascular coagulation and lung seeding in the MC28 model. MC28 cells were injected into control, warfarinized and heparinized hooded Lister rats. Coagulation changes were monitored by thromboelastography (TEG) and Sonoclot analysis (SA), lung fibrin formation by light and electron microscopy, tumor seeding by macroscopic counting and tumor cell and platelet deposition in the lungs by radiolabelling. PCA was measured by chromogenic assay. MC28 PCA was characterized as a tissue factor-factor VIIa complex that probably arose during cell culture or disaggregation of solid tumors. Injection of tumor cells caused marked coagulopathy and was rapidly (within 30 min) followed by fibrin deposition in the lungs and accumulation of radiolabelled platelets. Heparin and warfarin significantly reduced lung seeding (p < 0.001) and reduced retention of radiolabelled tumor cells in the pulmonary circulation (p < 0.01). Inhibition of cellular PCA by prior treatment with concanavalin A markedly reduced intravascular coagulation and lung seeding. We conclude that MC28 cells cause intravascular coagulation as a direct result of their procoagulant activity. The data suggest that tumor cells form complexes with platelets and fibrin which are retained in the lungs long enough for extravasation and seeding to occur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, Michael S.; Shrager, Joseph B.; Leung, Ann N.; Popat, Rita; Trakul, Nicholas; Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel; Maxim, Peter G.; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  2. Sphere Culture of Murine Lung Cancer Cell Lines Are Enriched with Cancer Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer initiating cells (CICs) represent a unique cell population essential for the maintenance and growth of tumors. Most in vivo studies of CICs utilize human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. These models provide limited information on the interaction of CICs with the host immune system and are of limited value in assessing therapies targeting CICs, especially immune-based therapies. To assess this, a syngeneic cancer model is needed. We examined the sphere-forming capacity of thirteen murine lung cancer cell lines and identified TC-1 and a metastatic subclone of Lewis lung carcinoma (HM-LLC) as cell lines that readily formed and maintained spheres over multiple passages. TC-1 tumorspheres were not enriched for expression of CD133 or CD44, putative CIC markers, nor did they demonstrate Hoechst 33342 side population staining or Aldefluor activity compared to adherent TC-1 cells. However, in tumorsphere culture, these cells exhibited self-renewal and long-term symmetric division capacity and expressed more Oct-4 compared to adherent cells. HM-LLC sphere-derived cells exhibited increased Oct-4, CD133, and CD44 expression, demonstrated a Hoechst 33342 side population and Aldefluor activity compared to adherent cells or a low metastatic subclone of LLC (LM-LLC). In syngeneic mice, HM-LLC sphere-derived cells required fewer cells to initiate tumorigenesis compared to adherent or LM-LLC cells. Similarly TC-1 sphere-derived cells were more tumorigenic than adherent cells in syngeneic mice. In contrast, in immunocompromised mice, less than 500 sphere or adherent TC-1 cells and less than 1,000 sphere or adherent LLC cells were required to initiate a tumor. We suggest that no single phenotypic marker can identify CICs in murine lung cancer cell lines. Tumorsphere culture may provide an alternative approach to identify and enrich for murine lung CICs. Furthermore, we propose that assessing tumorigenicity of murine lung CICs in syngeneic mice better models the

  3. Automatic block-matching registration to improve lung tumor localization during image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Scott Patrick

    To improve relatively poor outcomes for locally-advanced lung cancer patients, many current efforts are dedicated to minimizing uncertainties in radiotherapy. This enables the isotoxic delivery of escalated tumor doses, leading to better local tumor control. The current dissertation specifically addresses inter-fractional uncertainties resulting from patient setup variability. An automatic block-matching registration (BMR) algorithm is implemented and evaluated for the purpose of directly localizing advanced-stage lung tumors during image-guided radiation therapy. In this algorithm, small image sub-volumes, termed "blocks", are automatically identified on the tumor surface in an initial planning computed tomography (CT) image. Each block is independently and automatically registered to daily images acquired immediately prior to each treatment fraction. To improve the accuracy and robustness of BMR, this algorithm incorporates multi-resolution pyramid registration, regularization with a median filter, and a new multiple-candidate-registrations technique. The result of block-matching is a sparse displacement vector field that models local tissue deformations near the tumor surface. The distribution of displacement vectors is aggregated to obtain the final tumor registration, corresponding to the treatment couch shift for patient setup correction. Compared to existing rigid and deformable registration algorithms, the final BMR algorithm significantly improves the overlap between target volumes from the planning CT and registered daily images. Furthermore, BMR results in the smallest treatment margins for the given study population. However, despite these improvements, large residual target localization errors were noted, indicating that purely rigid couch shifts cannot correct for all sources of inter-fractional variability. Further reductions in treatment uncertainties may require the combination of high-quality target localization and adaptive radiotherapy.

  4. Evaluation of 225Ac for vascular targeted radioimmunotherapy of lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Kennel, S J; Chappell, L L; Dadachova, K; Brechbiel, M W; Lankford, T K; Davis, I A; Stabin, M; Mirzadeh, S

    2000-06-01

    Several alpha particle emitting radioisotopes have been studied for use in radioimmunotherapy. Ac-225 has the potential advantages of a relatively long half life of 10 days, and a yield of 4 alpha emissions in its decay chain with a total energy release of approximately 28 MeV. A new, 12 coordination site chelating ligand, HEHA, has been chemically modified for coupling to targeting proteins without loss of chelating ability. HEHA was coupled with MAb 201B which binds to thrombomodulin and accumulates efficiently in murine lung. Ac-225 was bound to the HEHA-MAb 201B conjugate and injected into BALB/c mice bearing lung tumor colonies of EMT-6 mammary carcinoma. Biodistribution data at 1 and 4 h postinjection indicated that, as expected, 225Ac was delivered to lung efficiently (> 300% ID/g). The 225Ac was slowly released from the lung with an initial t1/2 = 49 h, and the released 225Ac accumulated in the liver. Injection of free HEHA was only partially successful in scavenging free 225Ac. In addition to the slow release of 225Ac from the chelate, data indicated that decay daughters of 225Ac were also released from the lung. Immediately after organ harvest, the level of 213Bi, the third alpha-decay daughter, was found to be deficient in the lungs and to be in excess in the kidney, relative to equilibrium values. Injected doses of 225Ac MAb 201B of 1.0 microCi, delivering a minimum calculated absorbed dose of about 6 Gy to the lungs, was effective in killing lung tumors, but also proved acutely radiotoxic. Animals treated with 1.0 microCi or more of the 225Ac radioconjugate died of a wasting syndrome within days with a dose dependent relationship. We conclude that the potential for 225Ac as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent is compromised not only by the slow release of 225Ac from the HEHA chelator, but most importantly by the radiotoxicity associated with decay daughter radioisotopes released from the target organ.

  5. Micro FT-IR Characterization Of Human Lung Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Enzo; Teodori, L.; Vergamini, Piergiorgio; Trinca, M. L.; Mauro, F.; Salvati, F.; Spremolla, Giuliano

    1989-12-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has opened up a new approach to the analytical study of cell transformation. Investigations carried out in normal and leukemic lymphocytes have evidenced an increase in DNA with respect to proteic components in neoplastic cells.(1) The evaluation of the ratio of the integrated areas(A) of the bands at 1080 cm-1 (mainly DNA) and at 1540 cm-1 (proteic components) has allowed us to establish a parameter which indicates, for values above 1.5, the neoplastic nature of cells. Recently, this approach has been applied to the study of human lung tumor cells. Several monocellular suspension procedures of the tissue fragment (mechanical and/or chemical) were tested to obtain reproducible and reliable spectra able to differentiate clearly between normal and patological cells. Chemical treatment (EDTA, Pepsin, Collagenase, etc.) produced additional bands in the spectra of the cells causing distortion of the profiles of some absorptions, and as a result, mechanical treatment was preferred. The normal and neoplastic cells homogeneously distributed by cytospin preparation on BaF2 windows were examined by means of FT-IR microscopy. An examination of several microareas of each sample yielded reproducible spectra, with values of the A 1080 cm-1 / A 1540 cm-1 parameter within a very narrow range for each sample, even if certain differences still remained among the different cases, in good agreement with the results obtained for leukemic cells.(1) The value of this parameter was found to be lower for cells isolated from the normal area of lung, than in the case of those corresponding to the tumoral area, meaning that an increase occurs in DNA with respect to the proteic components. These insights, which provide a basis to obtain indications at the molecular level, can open up new possibilities in clinical practice, in order to obtain diagnosis confirmation, to detect early stages of disease and to offer additional indications in cases of dubious interpretation.

  6. Ablating all three retinoblastoma family members in mouse lung leads to neuroendocrine tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro, Sara; Pérez-Crespo, Miriam; Enguita, Ana Belén; Hernández, Pilar; Martínez-Palacio, Jesús; Oteo, Marta; Sage, Julien; Paramio, Jesús M.; Santos, Mirentxu

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a deadly disease with increasing cases diagnosed worldwide and still a very poor prognosis. While mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor have been reported in lung cancer, mainly in small cell lung carcinoma, the tumor suppressive role of its relatives p107 and p130 is still a matter of debate. To begin to investigate the role of these two Rb family proteins in lung tumorigenesis, we have generated a conditional triple knockout mouse model (TKO) in which the three Rb family members can be inactivated in adult mice. We found that ablation of all three family members in the lung of mice induces tumorlets, benign neuroendocrine tumors that are remarkably similar to their human counterparts. Upon chemical carcinogenesis, DHPN and urethane accelerate tumor development; the TKO model displays increased sensitivity to DHPN, and urethane increases malignancy of tumors. All the tumors developing in TKO mice (spontaneous and chemically induced) have neuroendocrine features but do not progress to fully malignant tumors. Thus, loss of Rb and its family members confers partial tumor susceptibility in neuroendocrine lineages in the lungs of mice. Our data also imply the requirement of other oncogenic signaling pathways to achieve full transformation in neuroendocrine lung lesions mutant for the Rb family. PMID:27966456

  7. Tumor-Initiating Cells and Methods of Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlatky, Lynn (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided herein are an isolated or enriched population of tumor initiating cells derived from normal cells, cells susceptible to neoplasia, or neoplastic cells. Methods of use of the cells for screening for anti-hyperproliferative agents, and use of the cells for animal models of hyperproliferative disorders including metastatic cancer, diagnostic methods, and therapeutic methods are provided.

  8. Pigment epithelium-derived factor enhances tumor response to radiation through vasculature normalization in allografted lung cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Dong, Y; Peng, F; Yu, Z; Zuo, Y; Dai, Z; Chen, Y; Wang, J; Hu, X; Zhou, Q; Ma, H; Bao, Y; Gao, G; Chen, M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of the combination of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and radiation on lung cancer. The Lewis lung cancer (LLC) allografts in nude mice were treated with radiation, PEDF and PEDF combined with radiation. The morphologic changes of tumor vasculature and the hypoxic fraction of tumor tissues were evaluated. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed when radiation was applied between the 3rd and 7th day (the vasculature normalization window) after the initiation of PEDF treatment. During the vasculature normalization window, the tumor blood vessels in PEDF-treated mice were less tortuous and more uniform than those in the LLC allograft tumor treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Meanwhile, the thickness of the basement membrane was remarkably reduced and pericyte coverage was significantly increased with the PEDF treatment. We also found that tumor hypoxic fraction decreased during the 3rd to the 7th day after PEDF treatment, suggesting improved intratumoral oxygenation. Taken together, our results show that PEDF improved the effects of radiation therapy on LLC allografts by inducing a vascular normalization window from the 3rd to the 7th day after PEDF treatment. Our findings provide a basis for treating lung cancer with the combination of PEDF and radiation.

  9. The Hedgehog Signaling Networks in Lung Cancer: The Mechanisms and Roles in Tumor Progression and Implications for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is classified into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several gene mutations that contribute to aberrant cell proliferation have been identified in lung adenocarcinoma, a part of NSCLC. Various anticancer drugs that target these mutated molecules have been developed for NSCLC treatment. However, although molecularly targeted drugs are initially effective for patients, the 5-year survival rate remains low because of tumor relapse. Therefore, more effective drugs for lung cancer treatment should be developed. The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway contributes to organ development and stem cell maintenance, and aberrant activation of this signaling pathway is observed in various cancers including lung cancer. In lung cancer, HH signaling pathway upregulates cancer cell proliferation and maintains cancer stem cells as well as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Furthermore, physical contact between CAFs and NSCLC cells induces HH signaling pathway activation in NSCLC cells to enhance their metastatic potential. Therefore, HH signaling pathway inhibitors could be a useful option for lung cancer therapy. PMID:28105432

  10. [Autopsy case of von Recklinghausen's disease associated with lung cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Miki; Wakabayashi, Osamu; Araya, Yoshikazu; Jinushi, Eisei; Yoshida, Fumiaki

    2009-09-01

    A 58-year-old man with von Recklinghausen's disease was admitted for further investigation of right chest pain. Chest X-ray revealed multiple emphysematous bullae in both lungs and a tumor shadow in the right upper lobe. Bronchofiberscopy was performed, but an adequate specimen was not obtained. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-small-cell lung cancer with direct invasion to the adjacent rib. Although chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in decrease in tumor size, the tumor subsequently increased in size and the patient died 14 months after the first admission. Autopsy revealed multiple emphysematous bullae, poorly differentiated adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the lung, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor. This case suggests the possibility that von Recklinghausen's disease associated with emphysematous bullae is a risk factor for lung cancer. It has also been suggested that the genetic abnormality responsible for von Recklinghausen's disease increases the risk for various types of malignancy. Although von Recklinghausen's disease is reportedly associated with various malignant tumors, it is quite rare for von Recklinghausen's disease to be associated with triple non-neurogenic tumors. Careful observation is mandatory for patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.

  11. Association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and epidermal growth factor receptor gene status in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yosuke; Masago, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Daichi; Sakamori, Yuichi; Nagai, Hiroki; Kim, Young Hak; Togashi, Kaori; Mishima, Michiaki

    2012-12-01

    Mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR mutation) is a very important marker in the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer. Since signaling from this receptor induces tumor-associated angiogenesis, we hypothesized that lung cancers with EGFR mutations tend to develop locally with increased angiogenesis. Thus, the association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and EGFR status was retrospectively investigated in advanced lung adenocarcinomas. To assess vascular-poor area, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans taken before initial treatment for lung cancer were analyzed, together with primary tumor location (peripheral or central) and size. We analyzed 178 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutations were detected in 95 of the 178 patients (53.4 %). EGFR mutation was found to be significantly related to women (P = 0.0070), never-smokers (P < 0.0001), and tumors without vascular-poor area (P < 0.0001). Based on a multivariate analysis, presence of EGFR mutations was independently associated with never-smokers (P = 0.0046), lack of vascular-poor area (P = 0.0001), and tumor size >30 mm (P = 0.0080). EGFR mutations were found in 41 of 51 never-smokers without vascular-poor area (80.4 %), 19 of 36 never-smokers with vascular-poor area (52.8 %), 19 of 37 current or former-smokers without vascular-poor area (51.4 %), and 16 of 54 current or former-smokers with vascular-poor area (29.6 %). This study showed an association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and EGFR status. As a consequence, evaluation using a combination of smoking status and vascular-poor area allows us to predict presence of EGFR mutations at a high frequency.

  12. Differential Effects of Drugs Targeting Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) and Non-CSC Populations on Lung Primary Tumors and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Larzabal, Leyre; El-Nikhely, Nefertiti; Redrado, Miriam; Seeger, Werner; Savai, Rajkumar; Calvo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and recurrence after chemotherapy. Targeting CSCs and non-CSCs with specific compounds may be an effective approach to reduce lung cancer growth and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salinomycin, a selective inhibitor of CSCs, with or without combination with paclitaxel, in a metastatic model. To evaluate the effect of these drugs in metastasis and tumor microenvironment we took advantage of the immunocompetent and highly metastatic LLC mouse model. Aldefluor assays were used to analyze the ALDH+/− populations in murine LLC and human H460 and H1299 lung cancer cells. Salinomycin reduced the proportion of ALDH+ CSCs in LLC cells, whereas paclitaxel increased such population. The same effect was observed for the H460 and H1299 cell lines. Salinomycin reduced the tumorsphere formation capacity of LLC by more than 7-fold, but paclitaxel showed no effect. In in vivo experiments, paclitaxel reduced primary tumor volume but increased the number of metastatic nodules (p<0.05), whereas salinomycin had no effect on primary tumors but reduced lung metastasis (p<0.05). Combination of both drugs did not improve the effect of single therapies. ALDH1A1, SOX2, CXCR4 and SDF-1 mRNA levels were higher in metastatic lesions than in primary tumors, and were significantly elevated in both locations by paclitaxel treatment. On the contrary, such levels were reduced (or in some cases did not change) when mice were administered with salinomycin. The number of F4/80+ and CD11b+ cells was also reduced upon administration of both drugs, but particularly in metastasis. These results show that salinomycin targets ALDH+ lung CSCs, which has important therapeutic effects in vivo by reducing metastatic lesions. In contrast, paclitaxel (although reducing primary tumor growth) promotes the selection of ALDH+ cells that likely modify the lung microenvironment to foster metastasis. PMID

  13. A Gaussian mixture model for definition of lung tumor volumes in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Penney, Bill C; Martel, Mary K; Pelizzari, Charles A

    2007-11-01

    The increased interest in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in radiation treatment planning in the past five years necessitated the independent and accurate segmentation of gross tumor volume (GTV) from FDG-PET scans. In some studies the radiation oncologist contours the GTV based on a computed tomography scan, while incorporating pertinent data from the PET images. Alternatively, a simple threshold, typically 40% of the maximum intensity, has been employed to differentiate tumor from normal tissue, while other researchers have developed algorithms to aid the PET based GTV definition. None of these methods, however, results in reliable PET tumor segmentation that can be used for more sophisticated treatment plans. For this reason, we developed a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based segmentation technique on selected PET tumor regions from non-small cell lung cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a GMM-based tumor volume definition in a robust, reliable and reproducible way. A GMM relies on the idea that any distribution, in our case a distribution of image intensities, can be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian densities representing different classes. According to our implementation, each class belongs to one of three regions in the image; the background (B), the uncertain (U) and the target (T), and from these regions we can obtain the tumor volume. User interaction in the implementation is required, but is limited to the initialization of the model parameters and the selection of an "analysis region" to which the modeling is restricted. The segmentation was developed on three and tested on another four clinical cases to ensure robustness against differences observed in the clinic. It also compared favorably with thresholding at 40% of the maximum intensity and a threshold determination function based on tumor to background image intensities proposed in a recent paper. The parts of the

  14. A Gaussian mixture model for definition of lung tumor volumes in positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Penney, Bill C.; Martel, Mary K.; Pelizzari, Charles A.

    2007-11-15

    The increased interest in {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in radiation treatment planning in the past five years necessitated the independent and accurate segmentation of gross tumor volume (GTV) from FDG-PET scans. In some studies the radiation oncologist contours the GTV based on a computed tomography scan, while incorporating pertinent data from the PET images. Alternatively, a simple threshold, typically 40% of the maximum intensity, has been employed to differentiate tumor from normal tissue, while other researchers have developed algorithms to aid the PET based GTV definition. None of these methods, however, results in reliable PET tumor segmentation that can be used for more sophisticated treatment plans. For this reason, we developed a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based segmentation technique on selected PET tumor regions from non-small cell lung cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a GMM-based tumor volume definition in a robust, reliable and reproducible way. A GMM relies on the idea that any distribution, in our case a distribution of image intensities, can be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian densities representing different classes. According to our implementation, each class belongs to one of three regions in the image; the background (B), the uncertain (U) and the target (T), and from these regions we can obtain the tumor volume. User interaction in the implementation is required, but is limited to the initialization of the model parameters and the selection of an 'analysis region' to which the modeling is restricted. The segmentation was developed on three and tested on another four clinical cases to ensure robustness against differences observed in the clinic. It also compared favorably with thresholding at 40% of the maximum intensity and a threshold determination function based on tumor to background image intensities proposed in a recent paper. The parts of

  15. Mitochondrial control by DRP1 in brain tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Horbinski, Craig M; Flavahan, William A; Yang, Kailin; Zhou, Wenchao; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Huang, Zhi; Fang, Xiaoguang; Shi, Yu; Ferguson, Ashley N; Kashatus, David F; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N

    2015-04-01

    Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) co-opt the neuronal high affinity glucose transporter, GLUT3, to withstand metabolic stress. We investigated another mechanism critical to brain metabolism, mitochondrial morphology, in BTICs. BTIC mitochondria were fragmented relative to non-BTIC tumor cell mitochondria, suggesting that BTICs increase mitochondrial fission. The essential mediator of mitochondrial fission, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), showed activating phosphorylation in BTICs and inhibitory phosphorylation in non-BTIC tumor cells. Targeting DRP1 using RNA interference or pharmacologic inhibition induced BTIC apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth. Downstream, DRP1 activity regulated the essential metabolic stress sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and targeting AMPK rescued the effects of DRP1 disruption. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) phosphorylated DRP1 to increase its activity in BTICs, whereas Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CAMK2) inhibited DRP1 in non-BTIC tumor cells, suggesting that tumor cell differentiation induces a regulatory switch in mitochondrial morphology. DRP1 activation correlated with poor prognosis in glioblastoma, suggesting that mitochondrial dynamics may represent a therapeutic target for BTICs.

  16. [Therapeutic management of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine lung tumors and neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system].

    PubMed

    Pellat, Anna; Wislez, Marie; Svrcek, Magali; Hammel, Pascal; Afchain, Pauline; André, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors are rare but their incidence is rising. High-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors, including small-cell lung cancer, are part of this group. Outside of the lung, they most often arise within the gastrointestinal tract (oesophagus, guts and pancreas) and are called neuroendocrine carcinomas. Due to their rarity, very little is known about neuroendocrine carcinomas of the pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract and few studies have been done. Therefore, most therapeutic recommendations are issued from studies on small-cell lung cancers. Histological scores have grown more accurate these past few years: poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors regroup various entities such as small-cells, large-cells and mix tumors, which seem to have different prognosis. They are diagnosed at a metastatic state in more than 50 % of cases. In localised disease, surgery is performed on selected patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy is administered in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the lung and is an option in neuroendocrine carcinomas, without proof of efficacy. If not operable, radiochemotherapy is done for tumors of the lung, rectum, and eosophagus. If the disease is diagnosed at a metastatic state, chemotherapy is administered with a combination of platin salts (cisplatin or carboplatin) and etoposide. In poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, prophylactic cranial irradiation is performed in localized disease if there is a good response to chemotherapy. Even if these therapies have improved the overall survival, no improvement has been made during the past four decades and the prognosis remains low.

  17. Evaluation of the results of surgery treatment in patients with benign lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Reza; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri; Nasiri, Zakiyeh; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung tumors are among the common tumors and can be benign or malignant. Benign lung tumors are less common compared to the malignant types. Recognition of the clinical symptoms, types of tumors, paraclinical findings, and treatment approaches can bring better therapeutic results. The present study aims to evaluate the characteristics, diagnosis methods, and therapeutic approaches of different benign lung tumors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 32 patients with a diagnosis of benign lung tumor, who had been referred to the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 1981 and 2009, were studied. Some of the studied variables were symptoms, the pulmonary location involved, surgery technique, pathology findings, recurrence, and surgery complications. Data were analyzed by SPSS package version 16. Results: The average age of the patients was 51.69 ± 20.5 years. Prevalence of benign lung tumors was equal in both genders. The most common symptom was cough (31.2%); right lung involvement was more common (71.9%), and the most common sampling technique was transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) (62.5%); 53.1% of the patients were operated on by thoracotomy and the wedge resection technique. In 78.1% of the patients, no complications occurred after surgery. There was no recurrence. Most operations were performed in one month after the start of the symptoms (68.8%). Conclusions: Benign lung tumors are commonly diagnosed by routine radiography because most of them are asymptomatic. The most common finding in radiography is the presence of mass in the lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy is a valuable technique to be used for diagnosis. We chose thoracotomy and wedge resection for the treatment of patients. We recommend this approach as a useful method. PMID:25624593

  18. Single Unpurified Breast Tumor-Initiating Cells from Multiple Mouse Models Efficiently Elicit Tumors in Immune-Competent Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Kurpios, Natasza A.; Girgis-Gabardo, Adele; Hallett, Robin M.; Rogers, Stephen; Gludish, David W.; Kockeritz, Lisa; Woodgett, James; Cardiff, Robert; Hassell, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequency of bulk tumor cell populations is one of the criteria used to distinguish malignancies that follow the cancer stem cell model from those that do not. However, tumor-initiating cell frequencies may be influenced by experimental conditions and the extent to which tumors have progressed, parameters that are not always addressed in studies of these cells. We employed limiting dilution cell transplantation of minimally manipulated tumor cells from mammary tumors of several transgenic mouse models to determine their tumor-initiating cell frequency. We determined whether the tumors that formed following tumor cell transplantation phenocopied the primary tumors from which they were isolated and whether they could be serially transplanted. Finally we investigated whether propagating primary tumor cells in different tissue culture conditions affected their resident tumor-initiating cell frequency. We found that tumor-initiating cells comprised between 15% and 50% of the bulk tumor cell population in multiple independent mammary tumors from three different transgenic mouse models of breast cancer. Culture of primary mammary tumor cells in chemically-defined, serum-free medium as non-adherent tumorspheres preserved TIC frequency to levels similar to that of the primary tumors from which they were established. By contrast, propagating the primary tumor cells in serum-containing medium as adherent populations resulted in a several thousand-fold reduction in their tumor-initiating cell fraction. Our findings suggest that experimental conditions, including the sensitivity of the transplantation assay, can dramatically affect estimates of tumor initiating cell frequency. Moreover, conditional on cell culture conditions, the tumor-initiating cell fraction of bulk mouse mammary tumor cell preparations can either be maintained at high or low frequency in vitro thus permitting comparative studies of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cancer cells

  19. Single unpurified breast tumor-initiating cells from multiple mouse models efficiently elicit tumors in immune-competent hosts.

    PubMed

    Kurpios, Natasza A; Girgis-Gabardo, Adele; Hallett, Robin M; Rogers, Stephen; Gludish, David W; Kockeritz, Lisa; Woodgett, James; Cardiff, Robert; Hassell, John A

    2013-01-01

    The tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequency of bulk tumor cell populations is one of the criteria used to distinguish malignancies that follow the cancer stem cell model from those that do not. However, tumor-initiating cell frequencies may be influenced by experimental conditions and the extent to which tumors have progressed, parameters that are not always addressed in studies of these cells. We employed limiting dilution cell transplantation of minimally manipulated tumor cells from mammary tumors of several transgenic mouse models to determine their tumor-initiating cell frequency. We determined whether the tumors that formed following tumor cell transplantation phenocopied the primary tumors from which they were isolated and whether they could be serially transplanted. Finally we investigated whether propagating primary tumor cells in different tissue culture conditions affected their resident tumor-initiating cell frequency. We found that tumor-initiating cells comprised between 15% and 50% of the bulk tumor cell population in multiple independent mammary tumors from three different transgenic mouse models of breast cancer. Culture of primary mammary tumor cells in chemically-defined, serum-free medium as non-adherent tumorspheres preserved TIC frequency to levels similar to that of the primary tumors from which they were established. By contrast, propagating the primary tumor cells in serum-containing medium as adherent populations resulted in a several thousand-fold reduction in their tumor-initiating cell fraction. Our findings suggest that experimental conditions, including the sensitivity of the transplantation assay, can dramatically affect estimates of tumor initiating cell frequency. Moreover, conditional on cell culture conditions, the tumor-initiating cell fraction of bulk mouse mammary tumor cell preparations can either be maintained at high or low frequency in vitro thus permitting comparative studies of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cancer cells.

  20. Multiple fields may offer better esophagus sparing without increased probability of lung toxicity in optimized IMRT of lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Fraass, Benedick A.; Haken, Randall K. ten . E-mail: rth@umich.edu

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether increasing numbers of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields enhance lung-tumor dose without additional predicted toxicity for difficult planning geometries. Methods and Materials: Data from 8 previous three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) patients with tumors located in various regions of each lung, but with planning target volumes (PTVs) overlapping part of the esophagus, were used as input. Four optimized-beamlet IMRT plans (1 plan that used the 3D-CRT beam arrangement and 3 plans with 3, 5, or 7 axial, but predominantly one-sided, fields) were compared. For IMRT, the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) in the whole PTV was optimized simultaneously with that in a reduced PTV exclusive of the esophagus. Normal-tissue complication probability-based costlets were used for the esophagus, heart, and lung. Results: Overall, IMRT plans (optimized by use of EUD to judiciously allow relaxed PTV dose homogeneity) result in better minimum PTV isodose surface coverage and better average EUD values than does conformal planning; dose generally increases with the number of fields. Even 7-field plans do not significantly alter normal-lung mean-dose values or lung volumes that receive more than 13, 20, or 30 Gy. Conclusion: Optimized many-field IMRT plans can lead to escalated lung-tumor dose in the special case of esophagus overlapping PTV, without unacceptable alteration in the dose distribution to normal lung.

  1. SOX30, a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor, promotes tumor cell apoptosis by transcriptional activating p53 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, F; Liu, W; Jiang, X; Shi, X; Yin, L; Ao, L; Cui, Z; Li, Y; Huang, C; Cao, J; Liu, J

    2015-01-01

    Although members of SOX family have been well documented for their essential roles in embryonic development, cell proliferation and disease, the functional role and molecular mechanism of SOX30 in cancer are largely unexplored. Here, we first identified SRY-box containing gene 30 (SOX30) as a novel preferentially methylated gene using genome-wide methylation screening. SOX30 hypermethylation was detected in 100% of lung cancer cell lines (9/9) and 70.83% (85/120) of primary lung tumor tissues compared with none (0/20) of normal and 8.0% (2/25) of peri-tumoral lung tissues (P<0.01). SOX30 was expressed in normal and peri-tumoral lung tissues in which SOX30 was unmethylated, but was silenced or downregulated in lung cancer cell lines and primary lung tumor tissues harboring a hypermethylated SOX30. De-methylation experiments further confirmed that silence of SOX30 was regulated by its hypermethylation. Ectopic expression of SOX30 induces cancer cell apoptosis with inhibiting proliferation in vitro and represses tumor formation in vivo, whereas knockdown of SOX30 demonstrates a reversed effect both in vitro and in vivo. At the molecular level, the antitumorigenic effect of SOX30 is mediated by directly binding to CACTTTG (+115 to +121) of p53 promoter region and activating p53 transcription, suggesting that SOX30 is a novel transcriptional activating factor of p53. Indeed, blockade of p53 attenuates the tumor inhibition of SOX30. Overall, these findings demonstrate that SOX30 is a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor acting through direct regulation of p53 transcription and expression. This study provides novel insights on the mechanism of tumorigenesis in lung cancer. PMID:25435374

  2. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism, genotoxicity, and tumor-initiating activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, E.L.C.; Daniel, F.B.; Herren-Freund, S.L.; Pereira, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    Haloacetonitriles (HAN) are drinking water contaminants produced during chlorine disinfection. This paper evaluates metabolism, genotoxicity, and tumor-initiating activity of these chemicals. The alkylating potential of the HAN to react with the electrophile-trapping agent, 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine, followed the order dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) > bromochloroacetonitrile (BCAN) > chloroacetonitrile (CAN) > dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) > trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN). When administered orally to rats, the HAN were metabolized to cyanide and excreted in the urine as thiocyanate. The extent of thiocyanate excretion was CAN > BCAN > DCAN > DDAN >> TCAN. Haloacetonitriles inhibited in vitro microsomal dimethylnitrosamine demethylase (DMN-DM) activity. The most potent inhibitors were DBAN and BCAN. The HAN produced DNA strand breaks in cultured human lymphoblastic (CCRF-CEM) cells. TCAN was the most potent DNA strand breaker. DCAN reacted with polyadenylic acid and DNA to form adducts in a cell-free system. None of the HAN initiated ..gamma..-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) foci when assayed for tumor-initiating activity in rat liver foci bioassay. In summary, the HAN were demonstrated to possess alkylating activity and genotoxicity in vitro and appeared after oral administration to possess biological activity as indicated by the inhibition of DMN-DM by TCAN but appeared to lack genotoxic and tumor-initiating activity in rat liver. It is proposed that if the HAN found in drinking water pose a carcinogenic hazard it would be limited to the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. STAT3 pathway regulates lung-derived brain metastasis initiating cell capacity through miR-21 activation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohini; Garg, Neha; Venugopal, Chitra; Hallett, Robin; Tokar, Tomas; McFarlane, Nicole; Mahendram, Sujeivan; Bakhshinyan, David; Manoranjan, Branavan; Vora, Parvez; Qazi, Maleeha; Arpin, Carolynn C; Page, Brent; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A; Lai, Ping-Shan; Gómez-Biagi, Rodolfo F; Ali, Ahmed M; Lewis, Andrew; Geletu, Mulu; Murty, Naresh K; Hassell, John A; Jurisica, Igor; Gunning, Patrick T; Singh, Sheila K

    2015-09-29

    Brain metastases (BM) represent the most common tumor to affect the adult central nervous system. Despite the increasing incidence of BM, likely due to consistently improving treatment of primary cancers, BM remain severely understudied. In this study, we utilized patient-derived stem cell lines from lung-to-brain metastases to examine the regulatory role of STAT3 in brain metastasis initiating cells (BMICs). Annotation of our previously described BMIC regulatory genes with protein-protein interaction network mapping identified STAT3 as a novel protein interactor. STAT3 knockdown showed a reduction in BMIC self-renewal and migration, and decreased tumor size in vivo. Screening of BMIC lines with a library of STAT3 inhibitors identified one inhibitor to significantly reduce tumor formation. Meta-analysis identified the oncomir microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a target of STAT3 activity. Inhibition of miR-21 displayed similar reductions in BMIC self-renewal and migration as STAT3 knockdown. Knockdown of STAT3 also reduced expression of known downstream targets of miR-21. Our studies have thus identified STAT3 and miR-21 as cooperative regulators of stemness, migration and tumor initiation in lung-derived BM. Therefore, STAT3 represents a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of lung-to-brain metastases.

  4. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung: a rare cause of atelectasis in children.

    PubMed

    Dhouib, Amira; Barrazzone, Constance; Reverdin, Alexandra; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Hanquinet, Sylviane

    2013-03-01

    Although rare, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is the most common primary lung mass in children. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy investigated for persistent cough and dyspnea with complete left lung atelectasis mimicking pneumonia. CT and MRI showed an endobronchial mass of the left main bronchus. The boy underwent endoscopic resection of the tumor and histology was in favor of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung. This diagnosis should be suspected in children with recurrent pneumonia. The prognosis is good after complete resection.

  5. Preservation of the lung after 4-year compression by fibrous tumors of pleura.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hironori; Takahashi, Ken; Kumazawa, Sachiko; Okubo, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a neoplasm arising from mesenchymal tissue, which may cause dyspnea and cough. Computed tomography in a 72-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a 3-cm mass in the left upper lung 24 years previously, identified 15- and 10-cm tumors, with complete collapse of the lingula and lower lobe. The tumors were successfully excised with partial lung resection, and the collapsed lung was preserved. There was no recurrence or atelectasis at 4 years postoperatively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Epigenetic modifications of histone h4 in lung neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Faqian; Ye, Bo; Hong, Longsheng; Xu, Haodong; Fishbein, Michael C

    2011-10-01

    Global profiling of histone changes in some human cancers demonstrated that loss of histone H4 acetylation at lysine16 (H4KA16) and trimethylation at lysine 20 (H4KM20) was a common hallmark of cancer. It is not clear whether these epigenetic changes also exist in neuroendocrine carcinomas. We semiquantitatively analyzed 32 cases of lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNETs) immunohistochemically stained with H4KA16, H4KM20, and Ki67 antibodies by calculating cumulative scores based on the sum of the product of nuclear stain intensity (1-3) and percentages of positive cells in each category. H4KA16 and H4KM20 levels were compared among typical carcinoid (TC, 11), atypical carcinoid (AC, 6), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC, 8), and small cell lung cancer (SCLC, 7) and correlated with histologic types and Ki67 labeling. Data were presented as mean±standard error of the mean and statistically analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak method. Normal bronchiolar epithelium had relatively uniform and strong +3 positivity of H4KM20 and H4KA16, which was considered as internal positive controls. This uniformity, however, was gradually lost from low to high grades of LNETs. Semiquantitative analysis revealed that there were significant differences in cumulative scores of H4KA16 (TC, 2.36±0.03; AC, 2.04±0.08; LCNEC, 1.58±0.07; SCLC 1.32±0.05) among LNETs. For H4KM20, significant differences were only observed between low grade (TC, 2.49±0.05 and AC, 2.24±0.09) and high grade (LCNEC, 1.58±0.10 and SCLC 1.68±0.11) LNETs, but not within low or high grade LNETs. The Ki67 cumulative scores (TC, 0.06±0.02; AC, 0.41±0.08; LCNEC, 1.29±0.09; SCLC 1.83±0.06) were inversely correlated with both cumulative H4KA16 and H4KM20 scores by Pearson correlation. We conclude that progressive loss of H4KA16 and H4KM20 from low to high grade LNETs reflects the degree of differentiation and proliferative activity. These histone modifications may serve as tumor biomarkers

  7. Alternating electric fields (TTFields) inhibit metastatic spread of solid tumors to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Kirson, Eilon D; Giladi, Moshe; Gurvich, Zoya; Itzhaki, Aviran; Mordechovich, Daniel; Schneiderman, Rosa S; Wasserman, Yoram; Ryffel, Bernhard; Goldsher, Dorit; Palti, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are low intensity, intermediate frequency, alternating electric fields used to treat cancerous tumors. This novel treatment modality effectively inhibits the growth of solid tumors in vivo and has shown promise in pilot clinical trials in patients with advanced stage solid tumors. TTFields were tested for their potential to inhibit metastatic spread of solid tumors to the lungs in two animal models: (1) Mice injected with malignant melanoma cells (B16F10) into the tail vein, (2) New Zealand White rabbits implanted with VX-2 tumors within the kidney capsule. Mice and rabbits were treated using two-directional TTFields at 100-200 kHz. Animals were either monitored for survival, or sacrificed for pathological and histological analysis of the lungs. The total number of lung surface metastases and the absolute weight of the lungs were both significantly lower in TTFields treated mice then in sham control mice. TTFields treated rabbits survived longer than sham control animals. This extension in survival was found to be due to an inhibition of metastatic spread, seeding or growth in the lungs of TTFields treated rabbits compared to controls. Histologically, extensive peri- and intra-tumoral immune cell infiltration was seen in TTFields treated rabbits only. These results raise the possibility that in addition to their proven inhibitory effect on the growth of solid tumors, TTFields may also have clinical benefit in the prevention of metastatic spread from primary tumors.

  8. Epigenetic states of cells of origin and tumor evolution drive tumor-initiating cell phenotype and tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Shin, Dong-Mi; Jenkins, Molly H; Miller, Emily E; Shih, David J; Choi, Seungbum; Low, Benjamin E; Philip, Vivek; Rybinski, Brad; Bronson, Roderick T; Taylor, Michael D; Yun, Kyuson

    2014-09-01

    A central confounding factor in the development of targeted therapies is tumor cell heterogeneity, particularly in tumor-initiating cells (TIC), within clinically identical tumors. Here, we show how activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in neural stem and progenitor cells creates a foundation for tumor cell evolution to heterogeneous states that are histologically indistinguishable but molecularly distinct. In spontaneous medulloblastomas that arise in Patched (Ptch)(+/-) mice, we identified three distinct tumor subtypes. Through cell type-specific activation of the SHH pathway in vivo, we determined that different cells of origin evolved in unique ways to generate these subtypes. Moreover, TICs in each subtype had distinct molecular and cellular phenotypes. At the bulk tumor level, the three tumor subtypes could be distinguished by a 465-gene signature and by differential activation levels of the ERK and AKT pathways. Notably, TICs from different subtypes were differentially sensitive to SHH or AKT pathway inhibitors, highlighting new mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. In summary, our results show how evolutionary processes act on distinct cells of origin to contribute to tumoral heterogeneity, at both bulk tumor and TIC levels.

  9. Impact of Audio-Coaching on the Position of Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A. Spoelstra, Femke; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: Respiration-induced organ motion is a major source of positional, or geometric, uncertainty in thoracic radiotherapy. Interventions to mitigate the impact of motion include audio-coached respiration-gated radiotherapy (RGRT). To assess the impact of coaching on average tumor position during gating, we analyzed four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans performed both with and without audio-coaching. Methods and Materials: Our RGRT protocol requires that an audio-coached 4DCT scan is performed when the initial free-breathing 4DCT indicates a potential benefit with gating. We retrospectively analyzed 22 such paired scans in patients with well-circumscribed tumors. Changes in lung volume and position of internal target volumes (ITV) generated in three consecutive respiratory phases at both end-inspiration and end-expiration were analyzed. Results: Audio-coaching increased end-inspiration lung volumes by a mean of 10.2% (range, -13% to +43%) when compared with free breathing (p = 0.001). The mean three-dimensional displacement of the center of ITV was 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5; range, 0.3-9.6mm), mainly caused by displacement in the craniocaudal direction. Displacement of ITV caused by coaching was more than 5 mm in 5 patients, all of whom were in the subgroup of 9 patients showing total tumor motion of 10 mm or more during both coached and uncoached breathing. Comparable ITV displacements were observed at end-expiration phases of the 4DCT. Conclusions: Differences in ITV position exceeding 5 mm between coached and uncoached 4DCT scans were detected in up to 56% of mobile tumors. Both end-inspiration and end-expiration RGRT were susceptible to displacements. This indicates that the method of audio-coaching should remain unchanged throughout the course of treatment.

  10. A block matching-based registration algorithm for localization of locally advanced lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate a block matching-based registration (BMR) algorithm for locally advanced lung tumor localization during image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: Small (1 cm{sup 3}), nonoverlapping image subvolumes (“blocks”) were automatically identified on the planning image to cover the tumor surface using a measure of the local intensity gradient. Blocks were independently and automatically registered to the on-treatment image using a rigid transform. To improve speed and robustness, registrations were performed iteratively from coarse to fine image resolution. At each resolution, all block displacements having a near-maximum similarity score were stored. From this list, a single displacement vector for each block was iteratively selected which maximized the consistency of displacement vectors across immediately neighboring blocks. These selected displacements were regularized using a median filter before proceeding to registrations at finer image resolutions. After evaluating all image resolutions, the global rigid transform of the on-treatment image was computed using a Procrustes analysis, providing the couch shift for patient setup correction. This algorithm was evaluated for 18 locally advanced lung cancer patients, each with 4–7 weekly on-treatment computed tomography scans having physician-delineated gross tumor volumes. Volume overlap (VO) and border displacement errors (BDE) were calculated relative to the nominal physician-identified targets to establish residual error after registration. Results: Implementation of multiresolution registration improved block matching accuracy by 39% compared to registration using only the full resolution images. By also considering multiple potential displacements per block, initial errors were reduced by 65%. Using the final implementation of the BMR algorithm, VO was significantly improved from 77% ± 21% (range: 0%–100%) in the initial bony alignment to 91% ± 8% (range: 56%–100%;p < 0

  11. Failure of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to enhance lung tumor development in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.; Breider, M.A.; Schuller, H.M. )

    1993-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the two common oxidant air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, modulate the development of respiratory tract tumors in Syrian golden hamsters. The animals received subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (20 mg/kg) twice a week while being exposed continuously to an atmosphere of 0.8 parts per million (ppm)* of ozone or 15 ppm of nitrogen dioxide. Animals were killed 16 weeks or 24 to 32 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Ozone delayed the appearance of tracheal tumors and reduced the incidence of tumors in the lung periphery. A suspected neuroendocrine differentiation of those lung tumors could not be established by immunocytochemistry due to overfixation of tissues. On the other hand, ozone seemed to mitigate development of hepatotoxic lesions mediated by diethylnitrosamine. In animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and exposed to nitrogen dioxide, fewer tracheal tumors and no lung tumors were found. Only a few lung tumors were produced in animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in an atmosphere of 65% oxygen. The previously observed neuroendocrine nature of tumors induced by simultaneous exposure to diethylnitrosamine and hyperoxia could not be established because the long fixation of tissues precluded immunocytochemical stains. Animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in filtered air while being housed in wire-mesh cages developed fewer lung tumors than animals given the same treatment and kept on conventional bedding in shoebox cages. Although all inhalants tested are known to produce substantial cell proliferation in the respiratory tract, it was not possible to document whether this would enhance lung tumor development. The role of the two common air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, as possible additional risks in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in animals continues to remain uncertain.

  12. Indole-3-carbinol inhibited tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung adenocarcinoma in A/J mice when administered during the post-initiation or progression phase of lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xuemin; Melkamu, Tamene; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Kassie, Fekadu

    2011-01-01

    We studied the chemopreventive efficacy of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables, to inhibit tobacco carcinogen-induced lung adenocarcinoma in A/J mice when given following post-initiation or progression protocol. Moreover, we assessed the potential mechanisms responsible for the anticancer effects of I3C. Post-initiation administration of I3C decreased the multiplicity of surface tumors as well as all forms of histopathological lesions, including adenocarcinoma, whereas administration of the compound during tumor progression failed to decrease the multiplicity of surface tumors and early forms of microscopic lesions but reduced the frequency of adenocarcinoma. Mechanistic studies in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells indicated that the lung cancer preventive effects of I3C are mediated, at least in part, via modulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:21767909

  13. SU-E-J-269: Tracking of Tumor Regression for Stage III Lung Cancer Using CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, K; Biswas, T; Podder, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study is to evaluate the tumor regression over the course of EBRT treatment and to determine the difference of tumor reduction for stage III lung squamous cell cancer (SCC) and adenocarcinoma using CBCT. Methods: Twenty three stage III lung cancer patients treated in our clinic who had daily cone beam CT (CBCT) were selected for this study (16 adenocarcinoma and 7 SCC cases). Patients received prescription dose in the range of 50Gy–71.4Gy (mean =60.3Gy, median =50Gy) at 1.8Gy or 2Gy per fraction. Treatments spanned over a minimum of five weeks. Initial mean volume of the gross tumor volume (GTV) was 123cc (range = 14.7cc–353.3cc). For this study, we choose six sets of CBCTs at an interval of one week, starting from the first fraction of treatment. Daily CBCTs from treatment linac computer were transferred to MIM Software version 6.0. An experienced physician contoured the primary GTV on each slices of the CBCT for these patients. Results: A consistent regression of the GTVs was observed in all patients, except in one patient (adeno case) where GTV did not change. Weekly volumetric reduction was in the range of 11.2%–16.6%. Maximum reductions were noticed in the first two weeks of the treatment cycle; mean overall (for adeno+SCC) reductions were 16.6%, 14.2% in week-1 and week-2, respectively. Mean reduction over five weeks of treatment was 49.8% (range = 0.1%–75.5%). Higher reduction was observed in SCC patients as compare to adenocarcinoma cases (54.9% vs. 47.6%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Large regression of tumors over the course of EBRT for stage III lung cancer patients was observed. Both SCC and adenocarcinoma responded well; overall reduction for SCC cases was higher. A future study is warranted for determining the co-relation between tumor volume reduction and treatment outcome.

  14. GLI pathogenesis-related 1 functions as a tumor-suppressor in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiumei; Bowen, Nathan; Wang, Zhengxin

    2016-03-18

    GLI pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1) was originally identified in glioblastomas and its expression was also found to be down-regulated in prostate cancer. Functional studies revealed both growth suppression and proapoptotic activities for GLIPR1 in multiple cancer cell lines. GLIPR1's role in lung cancer has not been investigated. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a protein arginine methyltransferase and forms a stoichiometric complex with the WD repeat domain 77 (WDR77) protein. Both PRMT5 and WDR77 are essential for growth of lung epithelial and cancer cells. But additional gene products that interact genetically or biochemichally with PRMT5 and WDR77 in the control of lung cancer cell growth are not characterized. DNA microarray and immunostaining were used to detect GLIPR1 expression during lung development and lung tumorigenesis. GLIPR1 expression was also analyzed in the TCGA lung cancer cohort. The consequence of GLIPR1 on growth of lung cancer cells in the tissue culture and lung tumor xenografts in the nude mice was observed. We found that GLIPR1 expression is negatively associated with PRMT5/WDR77. GLIPR1 is absent in growing epithelial cells at the early stages of mouse lung development and highly expressed in the adult lung. Expression of GLIPR1 was down-regulated during lung tumorigenesis and its expression suppressed growth of lung cancer cells in the tissue culture and lung tumor xenografts in mice. GLIPR1 regulates lung cancer growth through the V-Erb-B avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ErbB3). This study reveals a novel pathway that PRMT5/WDR77 regulates GLIPR1 expression to control lung cancer cell growth and GLIPR1 as a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  15. Pulmonary Embolism as the Initial Manifestation of Large Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Kook; Lee, Sang Moo; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Uh, Sootaek; Chung, Yeontae; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choonsik; Jin, So Young; Lee, Dong Hwa

    1992-01-01

    Lung cancer is known as a risk factor of pulmonary embolism. We experienced a case of pulmonary embolism combined with pleural effusion and pleuritic chest pain as the initial manifestation of large cell lung cancer, which is a relatively rare cell type of lung cancer in Korea. We report it with a review of the literature. PMID:1339079

  16. Low-dose nicotine does not promote lung tumors in mouse models

    Cancer.gov

    Experiments in mice show that low levels of exposure to nicotine, equivalent to those in humans who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to help them quit smoking, did not promote lung tumor growth.

  17. A biomechanical approach for in vivo lung tumor motion prediction during external beam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Elham; Gaede, Stewart; Lee, Ting-Yim; Samani, Abbas

    2015-03-01

    Lung Cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Among various treatment methods currently being used in the clinic, External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is used widely not only as the primary treatment method, but also in combination with chemotherapy and surgery. However, this method may lack desirable dosimetric accuracy because of respiration induced tumor motion. Recently, biomechanical modeling of the respiratory system has become a popular approach for tumor motion prediction and compensation. This approach requires reasonably accurate data pertaining to thoracic pressure variation, diaphragm position and biomechanical properties of the lung tissue in order to predict the lung tissue deformation and tumor motion. In this paper, we present preliminary results of an in vivo study obtained from a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the lung developed to predict tumor motion during respiration.

  18. Tumor-derived osteopontin isoforms cooperate with TRP53 and CCL2 to promote lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Giopanou, Ioanna; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Agalioti, Theodora; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Spella, Magda; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2017-01-01

    The lungs are ubiquitous receptacles of metastases originating from various bodily tumors. Although osteopontin (SPP1) has been associated with tumor dissemination, the role of its isoforms in lung-directed metastasis is incompletely understood. We employed syngeneic mouse models of spontaneous and induced lung-targeted metastasis in C57BL/6 mice competent and deficient in both Spp1 alleles. Tumor-derived osteopontin expression was modulated using either stable anti-Spp1 RNA interference, or forced overexpression of intracellular and secreted Spp1 isoforms. Identified osteopontin's downstream partners were validated using lung adenocarcinoma cells conditionally lacking the Trp53 gene and Ccr2-deficient mice. We determined that host-derived osteopontin was dispensable for pulmonary colonization by different tumor types. Oppositely, tumor-originated intracellular osteopontin promoted tumor cell survival by preventing tumor-related protein 53-mediated apoptosis, while the secretory osteopontin functioned in a paracrine mode to accelerate lung metastasis by enhancing tumor-derived C-C-motif chemokine ligand 2 signaling to cognate host receptors. As new ways to target osteopontin signaling are becoming available, the cytokine may constitute an important therapeutic target against pulmonary involvement by cancers of other organs.

  19. Multispectral single-scan lung imaging system: initial feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Guy M.; Crocker, Kenneth E.

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes a system for multi-spectral single-scan lung imaging. The proposed approach relies on a low noise detector sampled at a high rate. The proposed method overcomes limitations of CCD time-and-delay integration slot-scanning systems. The system design and preliminary specifications are described. The results of initial spectral and system simulations in support of system feasibility per the outlined specifications are described. Initial investigations support the potential of the proposed approach to alleviate four shortcomings of the current digital flat-panel approach to chest radiography: (i) by enabling dynamic multi-spectral imaging in a single scan, the approach reduces the time delay between exposures, thus reducing sensitivity to motion; (ii) the approach enables dynamic technique feedback and technique adaptation, eliminating the need for a pre-exposures and reducing the likelihood of poor x-ray techniques in local image areas; (iii) by enabling direct measurement of the scatter field, the proposed method allows further scatter correction resulting in image quality improvements; (iv) finally, full-frame sampling of a digital detector allows imaging of the beam penumbra, thereby reclaiming the detection quantum efficiency loss due to over-collimation in current TDI slot-scanning approach; the resulting DQE potentially exceeds that of flat-panel detectors by a factor up to two.

  20. Sensitivity of Tumor Motion Simulation Accuracy to Lung Biomechanical Modeling Approaches and Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the Neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation. PMID:26531324

  1. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-21

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.

  2. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.

  3. MicroRNA-383 is a tumor suppressor in human lung cancer by targeting endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongjing; Liu, Bin; Wang, Shuoying; Liu, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest of all human cancers worldwide. The role of microRNA (miR)-383 has been controversial in the initiation and progression of different cancers. We aimed to investigate the function of miR-383 in human lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. MicroRNA-383 levels were analyzed in noncancerous versus cancerous human lung tissues and in normal versus lung cancer cell lines. Effect of miR-383 on cell migration and invasion was examined in vitro and on tumor growth by using a xenograft mouse model in vivo. Potential mRNA target of miR-383 was predicted, and underlying mechanism was explored as well. MicroRNA-383 was downregulated in lung cancer tissue and cell lines. Expression of miR-383 inhibited migration and invasion of human lung cancer cell lines in vitro and tumorigenesis of lung cancer xenografts in vivo. MicroRNA-383 directly targeted 3' untranslated region of endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 (EPAS1) messenger RNA and inhibited both its mRNA and protein expressions. Reintroduction of EPAS1 could bypass the inhibition by miR-383 on tumorigenesis of human lung cancer cell lines. MicroRNA-383 is a tumor suppressor in human lung cancer by inhibiting EPAS1, both of which could serve as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of lung cancer. MicroRNA-383 is a tumor suppressor in human lung cancer, which functions to inhibit tumorigenesis of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. This inhibitory effect is mediated by direct targeting of EPAS1 mRNA and subsequent repressing of its expression. Both microRNA-383 and EPAS1 could serve as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The role of the tumor-microenvironment in lung cancer-metastasis and its relationship to potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Wood, Steven L; Pernemalm, Maria; Crosbie, Philip A; Whetton, Anthony D

    2014-05-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for >80% of lung cancer cases and currently has an overall five-year survival rate of only 15%. Patients presenting with advanced stage NSCLC die within 18-months of diagnosis. Metastatic spread accounts for >70% of these deaths. Thus elucidation of the mechanistic basis of NSCLC-metastasis has potential to impact on patient quality of life and survival. Research on NSCLC metastasis has recently expanded to include non-cancer cell components of tumors-the stromal cellular compartment and extra-cellular matrix components comprising the tumor-microenvironment. Metastasis (from initial primary tumor growth through angiogenesis, intravasation, survival in the bloodstream, extravasation and metastatic growth) is an inefficient process and few released cancer cells complete the entire process. Micro-environmental interactions assist each of these steps and discovery of the mechanisms by which tumor cells co-operate with the micro-environment are uncovering key molecules providing either biomarkers or potential drug targets. The major sites of NSCLC metastasis are brain, bone, adrenal gland and the liver. The mechanistic basis of this tissue-tropism is beginning to be elucidated offering the potential to target stromal components of these tissues thus targeting therapy to the tissues affected. This review covers the principal steps involved in tumor metastasis. The role of cell-cell interactions, ECM remodeling and autocrine/paracrine signaling interactions between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma is discussed. The mechanistic basis of lung cancer metastasis to specific organs is also described. The signaling mechanisms outlined have potential to act as future drug targets minimizing lung cancer metastatic spread and morbidity.

  5. Proteolysis-a characteristic of tumor-initiating cells in murine metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Larissa E; Bengsch, Fee; Hochrein, Jochen; Hülsdünker, Jan; Bender, Julia; Follo, Marie; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Reinheckel, Thomas

    2016-09-06

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) have been identified and functionally characterized in hematological malignancies as well as in solid tumors such as breast cancer. In addition to their high tumor-initiating potential, TICs are founder cells for metastasis formation and are involved in chemotherapy resistance. In this study we explored molecular pathways which enable this tumor initiating potential for a cancer cell subset of the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mouse model for metastasizing breast cancer. The cell population, characterized by the marker profile CD24+CD90+CD45-, showed a high tumorigenicity compared to non-CD24+CD90+CD45- cancer cells in colony formation assays, as well as upon orthotopic transplantation into the mammary fat pad of mice. In addition, these orthotopically grown CD24+CD90+CD45- TICs metastasized to the lungs. The transcriptome of TICs freshly isolated from primary tumors by cell sorting was compared with that of sorted non-CD24+CD90+CD45- cancer cells by RNA-seq. In addition to more established TIC signatures, such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition or mitogen signaling, an upregulated gene set comprising several classes of proteolytic enzymes was uncovered in the TICs. Accordingly, TICs showed high intra- and extracellular proteolytic activity. Application of a broad range of protease inhibitors to TICs in a colony formation assay reduced anchorage independent growth and had an impact on colony morphology in 3D cell culture assays. We conclude that CD24+CD90+CD45- cells of the MMTV- PyMT mouse model possess an upregulated proteolytic signature which could very well represent a functional hallmark of metastatic TICs from mammary carcinomas.

  6. Proteolysis-a characteristic of tumor-initiating cells in murine metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hillebrand, Larissa E.; Bengsch, Fee; Hochrein, Jochen; Hülsdünker, Jan; Bender, Julia; Follo, Marie; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Reinheckel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) have been identified and functionally characterized in hematological malignancies as well as in solid tumors such as breast cancer. In addition to their high tumor-initiating potential, TICs are founder cells for metastasis formation and are involved in chemotherapy resistance. In this study we explored molecular pathways which enable this tumor initiating potential for a cancer cell subset of the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mouse model for metastasizing breast cancer. The cell population, characterized by the marker profile CD24+CD90+CD45−, showed a high tumorigenicity compared to non-CD24+CD90+CD45− cancer cells in colony formation assays, as well as upon orthotopic transplantation into the mammary fat pad of mice. In addition, these orthotopically grown CD24+CD90+CD45− TICs metastasized to the lungs. The transcriptome of TICs freshly isolated from primary tumors by cell sorting was compared with that of sorted non-CD24+CD90+CD45− cancer cells by RNA-seq. In addition to more established TIC signatures, such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition or mitogen signaling, an upregulated gene set comprising several classes of proteolytic enzymes was uncovered in the TICs. Accordingly, TICs showed high intra- and extracellular proteolytic activity. Application of a broad range of protease inhibitors to TICs in a colony formation assay reduced anchorage independent growth and had an impact on colony morphology in 3D cell culture assays. We conclude that CD24+CD90+CD45− cells of the MMTV- PyMT mouse model possess an upregulated proteolytic signature which could very well represent a functional hallmark of metastatic TICs from mammary carcinomas. PMID:27542270

  7. Isolation of melanoma tumor-initiating cells from surgical tissues.

    PubMed

    Boiko, Alexander D

    2013-01-01

    A new model of cancer progression has been put forward that predicts existence of tumor stem cells (TSCs) in the heterogeneous bulk tumor mass that self-renew, are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies, and sustain tumor growth during the course of its progression or relapse (Ailles and Weissman, Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:460-466, 2007; Chan et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:14016-14021, 2009; D'Angelo and Wicha, Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 95:113-158, 2010; O'Brien, Semin Radiat Oncol 19:71-77, 2009; Park et al., Mol Ther 17:219-230, 2009). Using most advanced methods of cell purification and transplantation, our laboratory and another independent study identified melanoma stem cells as CD271(NFGR/p75)+ cells from surgical human specimens (Boiko et al., Nature 466:133-137, 2010; Civenni et al., Cancer Res 71:3098-3109, 2011). Here we describe in great detail an approach for isolating tumor-initiating cells from freshly resected melanomas (Boiko et al., Nature 466:133-137, 2010).

  8. Model-based risk assessment for motion effects in 3D radiotherapy of lung tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, René; Ehrhardt, Jan; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Handels, Heinz

    2012-02-01

    Although 4D CT imaging becomes available in an increasing number of radiotherapy facilities, 3D imaging and planning is still standard in current clinical practice. In particular for lung tumors, respiratory motion is a known source of uncertainty and should be accounted for during radiotherapy planning - which is difficult by using only a 3D planning CT. In this contribution, we propose applying a statistical lung motion model to predict patients' motion patterns and to estimate dosimetric motion effects in lung tumor radiotherapy if only 3D images are available. Being generated based on 4D CT images of patients with unimpaired lung motion, the model tends to overestimate lung tumor motion. It therefore promises conservative risk assessment regarding tumor dose coverage. This is exemplarily evaluated using treatment plans of lung tumor patients with different tumor motion patterns and for two treatment modalities (conventional 3D conformal radiotherapy and step-&- shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy). For the test cases, 4D CT images are available. Thus, also a standard registration-based 4D dose calculation is performed, which serves as reference to judge plausibility of the modelbased 4D dose calculation. It will be shown that, if combined with an additional simple patient-specific breathing surrogate measurement (here: spirometry), the model-based dose calculation provides reasonable risk assessment of respiratory motion effects.

  9. A deformable lung tumor tracking method in fluoroscopic video using active shape models: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianyi; Hamilton, Russell J; Schowengerdt, Robert A; Jiang, Steve B

    2007-09-07

    A dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) can be used to track a moving target during radiotherapy. One of the major benefits for DMLC tumor tracking is that, in addition to the compensation for tumor translational motion, DMLC can also change the aperture shape to conform to a deforming tumor projection in the beam's eye view. This paper presents a method that can track a deforming lung tumor in fluoroscopic video using active shape models (ASM) (Cootes et al 1995 Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 61 38-59). The method was evaluated by comparing tracking results against tumor projection contours manually edited by an expert observer. The evaluation shows the feasibility of using this method for precise tracking of lung tumors with deformation, which is important for DMLC-based real-time tumor tracking.

  10. Intraoperative Molecular Imaging of Lung Adenocarcinoma Can Identify Residual Tumor Cells at the Surgical Margins.

    PubMed

    Keating, Jane J; Okusanya, Olugbenga T; De Jesus, Elizabeth; Judy, Ryan; Jiang, Jack; Deshpande, Charuhas; Nie, Shuming; Low, Philip; Singhal, Sunil

    2016-04-01

    During lung surgery, identification of surgical margins is challenging. We hypothesized that molecular imaging with a fluorescent probe to pulmonary adenocarcinomas could enhance residual tumor during resection. Mice with flank tumors received a contrast agent targeting folate receptor alpha. Optimal dose and time of injection was established. Margin detection was compared using traditional methods versus molecular imaging. A pilot study was then performed in three humans with lung adenocarcinoma. The peak tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) of murine tumors was 3.9. Fluorescence peaked at 2 h and was not improved beyond 0.1 mg/kg. Traditional inspection identified 30% of mice with positive margins. Molecular imaging identified an additional 50% of residual tumor deposits (p < 0.05). The fluorescent probe visually enhanced all human tumors with a mean TBR of 3.5. Molecular imaging is an important adjunct to traditional inspection to identify surgical margins after tumor resection.

  11. Evaluation and comparison of New 4DCT based strategies for proton treatment planning for lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate different strategies for proton lung treatment planning based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans. Methods and Materials Twelve cases, involving only gross tumor volumes (GTV), were evaluated. Single image sets of (1) maximum intensity projection (MIP3) of end inhale (EI), middle exhale (ME) and end exhale (EE) images; (2) average intensity projection (AVG) of all phase images; and (3) EE images from 4DCT scans were selected as primary images for proton treatment planning. Internal target volumes (ITVs) outlined by a clinician were imported into MIP3, AVG, and EE images as planning targets. Initially, treatment uncertainties were not included in planning. Each plan was imported into phase images of 4DCT scans. Relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and mean ipsilateral lung dose of a phase image obtained by averaging the dose in inspiration and expiration phases were used to evaluate the quality of a plan for a particular case. For comparing different planning strategies, the mean of the averaged relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and its standard deviation for each planning strategy for all cases were used. Then, treatment uncertainties were included in planning. Each plan was recalculated in phase images of 4DCT scans. Same strategies were used for plan evaluation except dose-volume histograms of the planning target volumes (PTVs) instead of GTVs were used and the mean and standard deviation of the relative volumes of PTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and the ipsilateral lung dose were used to compare different planning strategies. Results MIP3 plans without treatment uncertainties yielded 96.7% of the mean relative GTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 5.7% for all cases). With treatment uncertainties, MIP3 plans yielded 99.5% of mean relative PTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 0.7%). Inclusion of treatment uncertainties improved PTV dose

  12. Epigenetic modulation of endogenous tumor suppressor expression in lung cancer xenografts suppresses tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Joshua P; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Rao, Atul S; Druck, Teresa; Semba, Shuho; Han, Shuang-Yin; McCorkell, Kelly A; Lakshman, Thiru V; Collins, Joshua E; Wachsberger, Phyllis; Friedberg, Joseph S; Huebner, Kay

    2007-01-01

    Epigenetic changes involved in cancer development, unlike genetic changes, are reversible. DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors show antiproliferative effects in vitro, through tumor suppressor reactivation and induction of apoptosis. Such inhibitors have shown activity in the treatment of hematologic disorders but there is little data concerning their effectiveness in treatment of solid tumors. FHIT, WWOX and other tumor suppressor genes are frequently epigenetically inactivated in lung cancers. Lung cancer cell clones carrying conditional FHIT or WWOX transgenes showed significant suppression of xenograft tumor growth after induction of expression of the FHIT or WWOX transgene, suggesting that treatments to restore endogenous Fhit and Wwox expression in lung cancers would result in decreased tumorigenicity. H1299 lung cancer cells, lacking Fhit, Wwox, p16(INK4a) and Rassf1a expression due to epigenetic modifications, were used to assess efficacy of epigenetically targeted protocols in suppressing growth of lung tumors, by injection of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (AZA) and trichostatin A (TSA) in nude mice with established H1299 tumors. High doses of intraperitoneal AZA/TSA suppressed growth of small tumors but did not affect large tumors (200 mm(3)); lower AZA doses, administered intraperitoneally or intratumorally, suppressed growth of small tumors without apparent toxicity. Responding tumors showed restoration of Fhit, Wwox, p16(INKa), Rassf1a expression, low mitotic activity, high apoptotic fraction and activation of caspase 3. These preclinical studies show the therapeutic potential of restoration of tumor suppressor expression through epigenetic modulation and the promise of re-expressed tumor suppressors as markers and effectors of the responses.

  13. Iron deficiency anemia as initial presentation of a non-small cell lung carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Linsen, Philip V.M.; Linsen, Victor M.J.; Buunk, Gerba; Arnold, Dorothee E.; Aerts, Joachim G.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal metastases secondary to lung cancer are very rare and most of the time asymptomatic. When symptomatic they usually present with bowel obstruction or perforation. We here describe the case of a 68 year-old man with a solitary metastasis in the duodenum from a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The patient presented with reduced exercise tolerance and iron deficiency anemia without clinical gastrointestinal blood loss. Further investigation showed a tumor in the left upper lung lobe and a duodenal metastasis for which he received chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of iron deficiency anemia as initial presentation of a duodenal metastasis from a NSCLC. PMID:26744672

  14. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  15. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.

  16. Mechanical phenotyping of cells and extracellular matrix as grade and stage markers of lung tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Panzetta, Valeria; Musella, Ida; Rapa, Ida; Volante, Marco; Netti, Paolo A; Fusco, Sabato

    2017-07-15

    The mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) regulates the properties, functions and healthiness of the tissues. When this is disturbed it changes the mechanical state of the tissue components, singularly or together, and cancer, along with other diseases, may start and progress. However, the bi-univocal mechanical interplay between cells and the ECM is still not properly understood. In this study we show how a microrheology technique gives us the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. The mechanical phenotyping was performed on the surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung. A correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Our findings suggest a sort of asymmetric modification of the mechanical properties of the cells and the extra-cellular matrix in the tumor, being the more compliant cell even though it resides in a stiffer matrix. Overall, the simultaneous mechanical characterization of the tissues constituents (cells and ECM) provided new support for diagnosis and offered alternative points of analysis for cancer mechanobiology. When the integrity of the mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix is disturbed cancer, along with other diseases, may initiate and progress. Here, we show how a new technique gives the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. It was applied on surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung and a correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated framework for estimation of lung tumor locations in kV-CBCT images for tumor-based patient positioning in stereotactic lung body radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshidome, Satoshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Terashima, Koutarou; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Hirose, Taka-aki; Fukunaga, Junichi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Recently, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems using kilovolt cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) images have become more common for highly accurate patient positioning in stereotactic lung body radiotherapy (SLBRT). However, current IGRT procedures are based on bone structures and subjective correction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the proposed framework for automated estimation of lung tumor locations in kV-CBCT images for tumor-based patient positioning in SLBRT. Twenty clinical cases are considered, involving solid, pure ground-glass opacity (GGO), mixed GGO, solitary, and non-solitary tumor types. The proposed framework consists of four steps: (1) determination of a search region for tumor location detection in a kV-CBCT image; (2) extraction of a tumor template from a planning CT image; (3) preprocessing for tumor region enhancement (edge and tumor enhancement using a Sobel filter and a blob structure enhancement (BSE) filter, respectively); and (4) tumor location estimation based on a template-matching technique. The location errors in the original, edge-, and tumor-enhanced images were found to be 1.2 ± 0.7 mm, 4.2 ± 8.0 mm, and 2.7 ± 4.6 mm, respectively. The location errors in the original images of solid, pure GGO, mixed GGO, solitary, and non-solitary types of tumors were 1.2 ± 0.7 mm, 1.3 ± 0.9 mm, 0.4 ± 0.6 mm, 1.1 ± 0.8 mm and 1.0 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. These results suggest that the proposed framework is robust as regards automatic estimation of several types of tumor locations in kV-CBCT images for tumor-based patient positioning in SLBRT.

  18. Effects of moderate exercise and oat beta-glucan on lung tumor metastases and macrophage antitumor cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E A; Davis, J M; Brown, A S; Carmichael, M D; Mayer, E P; Ghaffar, A

    2004-09-01

    Both moderate exercise and the soluble fiber beta-glucan can have beneficial effects on the initiation and growth of tumors, but the data are limited, and there is no information on their combined effects. This study tested the independent and combined effects of short-term moderate-exercise training and the soluble oat fiber beta-glucan (ObetaG) on the metatastic spread of injected tumor cells and macrophage antitumor cytotoxicity. Male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of four groups: exercise (Ex)-H2O, Ex-ObetaG, control (Con)-H2O, or Con-ObetaG. ObetaG was fed in the drinking water for 10 days before tumor administration and death. Exercise consisted of treadmill running (1 h/day) for 6 days. After rest or exercise on the last day of training, syngeneic B16 melanoma cells (2 x 10(5)) were administered via intravenous injection (n = 8-11 per group). Lungs were removed 14 days later, and tumor foci were counted. Additional mice (n = 8 per group) were killed, and peritoneal macrophages were assayed for cytotoxicity against the same mouse tumor cell line at various effector-to-target ratios. Both moderate exercise and ObetaG decreased lung tumor foci and increased macrophage cytotoxicity. However, there were no differences in lung tumor foci and macrophage cytotoxicity between Ex-ObetaG and either Ex-H2O or Con-ObetaG. These data suggest that, although not additive in their effects, both short-term moderate-exercise training and consumption of the soluble ObetaG can decrease the metatastic spread of injected B16 melanoma cells, and these effects may be mediated in part by an increase in macrophage cytotoxicity to B16 melanoma.

  19. Towards intelligent tumor tracking and setup verification in radiation therapy for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qianyi

    Lung cancer is the most deadly cancer in the United States. Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation with high energy to destroy lung tumor cells by damaging their genetic material, preventing those cells from reproducing. The most challenging aspect of modern radiation therapy for lung cancer is the motion of lung tumors caused by patient breathing during treatment. Most gating based radiotherapy derives the tumor motion from external surrogates and generates a respiratory signal to trigger the beam. We propose a method that monitors internal diaphragm motion, which can provide a respiratory signal that is more highly correlated to lung tumor motion compared to the external surrogates. We also investigate direct tracking of the tumor in fluoroscopic video imagery. We tracked fixed tumor contours in fluoroscopic videos for 5 patients. The predominant tumor displacements are well tracked based on optical flow. Some tumors or nearby anatomy features exhibit severe nonrigid deformation, especially in the supradiaphragmatic region. By combining Active Shape Models and the respiratory signal, the deformed contours are tracked within a range defined in the training period. All the tracking results are validated by a human expert and the proposed methods are promising for applications in radiotherapy. Another important aspect of lung patient treatment is patient setup verification, which is needed to reduce inter- and intra-fractions geometry uncertainties and ensure precise dose delivery. Currently, there is no universally accepted method for lung patient verification. We propose to register 4DCT and 2D x-ray images taken before treatment to derive the couch shifts necessary for precise radiotherapy. The proposed technique leads to improved patient care.

  20. Quantification of tryptophan transport and metabolism in lung tumors using PET.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Csaba; Muzik, Otto; Lu, Xin; Jahania, M Salik; Soubani, Ayman O; Khalaf, Majid; Peng, Fangyu; Mangner, Thomas J; Chakraborty, Pulak K; Chugani, Diane C

    2009-03-01

    Abnormal tryptophan metabolism catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase may play a prominent role in tumor immunoresistance in many tumor types, including lung tumors. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vivo kinetics of alpha-(11)C-methyl-l-tryptophan (AMT), a PET tracer for tryptophan metabolism, in human lung tumors. Tracer transport and metabolic rates were evaluated in 18 lesions of 10 patients using dynamic PET/CT with AMT. The kinetic values were compared between tumors and unaffected lung tissue, tested against a simplified analytic approach requiring no arterial blood sampling, and correlated with standardized uptake values (SUVs) obtained from (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. Most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) showed prolonged retention of AMT, but 3 other lesions (2 benign lesions and a rectal cancer metastasis) and unaffected lung tissue showed no such retention. Transport and metabolic rates of AMT were substantially higher in NSCLCs than in the other tumors and unaffected lung tissue. A simplified analytic approach provided an excellent estimate of transport rates but only suboptimal approximation of tryptophan metabolic rates. (18)F-FDG SUVs showed a positive correlation with AMT uptake, suggesting higher tryptophan transport and metabolism in tumors with higher proliferation rates. Prolonged retention of AMT in NSCLCs suggests high metabolic rates of tryptophan in these tumors. AMT PET/CT may be a clinically useful molecular imaging method for personalized cancer treatment by identifying and monitoring patients who have increased tumor tryptophan metabolism and are potentially sensitive to immunopharmacotherapy with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors.

  1. Circulating Cell Free Tumor DNA Detection as a Routine Tool for Lung Cancer Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, Julie A.; Mau-Them, Frédéric Tran; Béganton, Benoît; Godreuil, Sylvain; Coopman, Peter; Solassol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumoral DNA (ctDNA), commonly named “liquid biopsy”, has emerged as a new promising noninvasive tool to detect biomarker in several cancers including lung cancer. Applications involving molecular analysis of ctDNA in lung cancer have increased and encompass diagnosis, response to treatment, acquired resistance and prognosis prediction, while bypassing the problem of tumor heterogeneity. ctDNA may then help perform dynamic genetic surveillance in the era of precision medicine through indirect tumoral genomic information determination. The aims of this review were to examine the recent technical developments that allowed the detection of genetic alterations of ctDNA in lung cancer. Furthermore, we explored clinical applications in patients with lung cancer including treatment efficiency monitoring, acquired therapy resistance mechanisms and prognosis value. PMID:28146051

  2. Butylated hydroxyanisole and lung tumor development in A/J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.R.; Doherty, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A diet containing 0.75% butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) did not enhance the development of lung tumors in A/J mice if fed for 8 weeks after administration of urethane, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), or dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Prefeeding animals with BHA partially protected animals against the tumorigenic effect of urethane and B(a)P. Partial protection was also seen in animals given B(a)P and then exposed to BHA in the diet. The two isomers of BHA 3-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 2-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole) were synthesized and injected ip. They failed to enhance lung tumor development. It is concluded that BHA is not a promoting agent as is butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) for lung tumors in mice. One possible explanation is that BHA in the diet does not produce the extensive cell proliferation seen in the lungs of mice fed BHT. 19 references, 5 tables.

  3. Circulating tumor cells in lung cancer: detection methods and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Na; Zhou, Jia; Cui, Fang; Tang, Xiaokui

    2015-04-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that have disseminated from primary and metastatic sites, and circulate in the bloodstream. Advanced immunological and molecular-based methods can be used to detect and analyze the cells with the characteristics of tumor cells, and can be detected and analyzed in the blood of cancer patients. The most commonly used methods in lung cancer combine the processes of immunomagnetic enrichment and immunocytochemical detection, morphology-based enrichment coupled with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and RT-PCR alone. CTC analysis is considered a liquid biopsy approach for early diagnosis, risk stratification, evaluation of curative efficacy, and early detection of lung cancer relapse. In this review, we discuss the present techniques for analyzing CTCs, and the restrictions of using these methods in lung cancer. We also review the clinical studies in lung cancer and discuss the underlying associations between these studies and their future applications to this disease.

  4. Conditions for NIR fluorescence-guided tumor resectioning in preclinical lung cancer model (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minji; Quan, Yuhua; Choi, Byeong Hyun; Choi, Yeonho; Kim, Hyun Koo; Kim, Beop-Min

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary nodule could be identified by intraoperative fluorescence imaging system from systemic injection of indocyanine green (ICG) which achieves enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects. This study was performed to evaluate optimal injection time of ICG for detecting cancer during surgery in rabbit lung cancer model. VX2 carcinoma cell was injected in rabbit lung under fluoroscopic computed tomography-guidance. Solitary lung cancer was confirmed on positron emitting tomography with CT (PET/CT) 2 weeks after inoculation. ICG was administered intravenously and fluorescent intensity of lung tumor was measured using the custom-built intraoperative color and fluorescence merged imaging system (ICFIS) for 15 hours. Solitary lung cancer was resected through thoracoscopic version of ICFIS. ICG was observed in all animals. Because Lung has fast blood pulmonary circulation, Fluorescent signal showed maximum intensity earlier than previous studies in other organs. Fluorescent intensity showed maximum intensity within 6-9 hours in rabbit lung cancer. Overall, Fluorescent intensity decreased with increasing time, however, all tumors were detectable using fluorescent images until 12 hours. In conclusion, while there had been studies in other organs showed that optimal injection time was at least 24 hours before operation, this study showed shorter optimal injection time at lung cancer. Since fluorescent signal showed the maximum intensity within 6-9 hours, cancer resection could be performed during this time. This data informed us that optimal injection time of ICG should be evaluated in each different solid organ tumor for fluorescent image guided surgery.

  5. SU-E-J-185: Gated CBCT Imaging for Positioning Moving Lung Tumor in Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Burton, S; Karlovits, B; Clump, D; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung stereo-tactic body radiotherapy(SBRT) treatment requires high accuracy of lung tumor positioning during treatment, which is usually accomplished by free breathing Cone-Beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan. However, respiratory motion induced image artifacts in free breathing CBCT may degrade such positioning accuracy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of gated CBCT imaging for lung SBRT treatment. Methods: Six Lung SBRT patients were selected for this study. The respiratory motion of the tumors ranged from 1.2cm to 3.5cm, and the gating windows for all patients were set between 35% and 65% of the respiratory phases. Each Lung SBRT patient underwent free-breathing CBCT scan using half-fan scan technique. The acquired projection images were transferred out for off-line analyses. An In-house semi-automatic algorithm was developed to trace the diaphragm movement from those projection images to acquire a patient's specific respiratory motion curve, which was used to correlate respiratory phases with each projection image. Afterwards, a filtered back-projection algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the gated CBCT images based on the projection images only within the gating window. Results: Target volumes determined by free breathing CBCT images were 71.9%±72% bigger than the volume shown in gated CBCT image. On the contrary, the target volume differences between gated CBCT and planning CT images at exhale stage were 5.8%±2.4%. The center to center distance of the targets shown in free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT images were 9.2±8.1mm. For one particular case, the superior boundary of the target was shifted 15mm between free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT. Conclusion: Gated CBCT imaging provides better representation of the moving lung tumor with less motion artifacts, and has the potential to improve the positioning accuracy in lung SBRT treatment.

  6. Tumor-initiating cell frequency is relevant for glioblastoma aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Richichi, Cristina; Osti, Daniela; Del Bene, Massimiliano; Fornasari, Lorenzo; Patanè, Monica; Pollo, Bianca; DiMeco, Francesco; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is maintained by a small subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells (TICs). The arduous assessment of TIC frequencies challenges the prognostic role of TICs in predicting the clinical outcome in GBM patients. We estimated the TIC frequency in human GBM injecting intracerebrally in mice dissociated cells without any passage in culture. All GBMs contained rare TICsand were tumorigenic in vivo but only 54% of them grew in vitro as neurospheres. We demonstrated that neurosphere formation in vitro did not foretell tumorigenic ability in vivo and frequencies calculated in vitro overestimated the TIC content. Our findings assert the pathological significance of GBM TICs. TIC number correlated positively with tumor incidence and inversely with survival of tumor-bearing mice. Stratification of GBM patients according to TIC content revealed that patients with low TIC frequency experienced a trend towards a longer progression free survival. The expression of either putative stem-cell markers or markers associated with different GBM molecular subtypes did not associate with either TIC content or neurosphere formation underlying the limitations of TIC identification based on the expression of some putative stem cell-markers. PMID:27582543

  7. Ovarian tumor-initiating cells display a flexible metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Angela S.; Roberts, Paul C.; Frisard, Madlyn I.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Schmelz, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    An altered metabolism during ovarian cancer progression allows for increased macromolecular synthesis and unrestrained growth. However, the metabolic phenotype of cancer stem or tumor-initiating cells, small tumor cell populations that are able to recapitulate the original tumor, has not been well characterized. In the present study, we compared the metabolic phenotype of the stem cell enriched cell variant, MOSE-LFFLv (TIC), derived from mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, to their parental (MOSE-L) and benign precursor (MOSE-E) cells. TICs exhibit a decrease in glucose and fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in lactate secretion. In contrast to MOSE-L cells, TICs can increase their rate of glycolysis to overcome the inhibition of ATP synthase by oligomycin and can increase their oxygen consumption rate to maintain proton motive force when uncoupled, similar to the benign MOSE-E cells. TICs have an increased survival rate under limiting conditions as well as an increased survival rate when treated with AICAR, but exhibit a higher sensitivity to metformin than MOSE-E and MOSE-L cells. Together, our data show that TICs have a distinct metabolic profile that may render them flexible to adapt to the specific conditions of their microenvironment. By better understanding their metabolic phenotype and external environmental conditions that support their survival, treatment interventions can be designed to extend current therapy regimens to eradicate TICs. PMID:25172556

  8. Mitochondrial Control by DRP1 in Brain Tumor Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Horbinski, Craig M.; Flavahan, William A.; Yang, Kailin; Zhou, Wenchao; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Huang, Zhi; Fang, Xiaoguang; Shi, Yu; Ferguson, Ashley N.; Kashatus, David F.; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) coopt the neuronal high affinity GLUT3 glucose transporter to withstand metabolic stress. Here, we investigated another mechanism critical to brain metabolism, mitochondrial morphology. BTICs displayed mitochondrial fragmentation relative to non-BTICs, suggesting that BTICs have increased mitochondrial fission. The essential mediator of mitochondrial fission, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), was activated in BTICs and inhibited in non-BTICs. Targeting DRP1 using RNA interference or pharmacologic inhibition induced BTIC apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth. Downstream, DRP1 activity regulated the essential metabolic stress sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and AMPK targeting rescued the effects of DRP1 disruption. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) phosphorylated DRP1 to increase its activity in BTICs, whereas Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CAMK2) inhibited DRP1 in non-BTICs, suggesting tumor cell differentiation induces a regulatory switch in mitochondrial morphology. DRP1 activation correlates with poor prognosis in glioblastoma, suggesting mitochondrial dynamics may represent a therapeutic target for BTICs. PMID:25730670

  9. DNA repair: the culprit for tumor-initiating cell survival?

    PubMed

    Mathews, Lesley A; Cabarcas, Stephanie M; Farrar, William L

    2011-06-01

    The existence of "tumor-initiating cells" (TICs) has been a topic of heated debate for the last few years within the field of cancer biology. Their continuous characterization in a variety of solid tumors has led to an abundance of evidence supporting their existence. TICs are believed to be responsible for resistance against conventional treatment regimes of chemotherapy and radiation, ultimately leading to metastasis and patient demise. This review summarizes DNA repair mechanism(s) and their role in the maintenance and regulation of stem cells. There is evidence supporting the hypothesis that TICs, similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), display an increase in their ability to survive genotoxic stress and injury. Mechanistically, the ability of ES cells, HSCs and TICs to survive under stressful conditions can be attributed to an increase in the efficiency at which these cells undergo DNA repair. Furthermore, the data presented in this review summarize the results found by our lab and others demonstrating that TICs have an increase in their genomic stability, which can allow for TIC survival under conditions such as anticancer treatments, while the bulk population of tumor cells dies. We believe that these data will greatly impact the development and design of future therapies being engineered to target and eradicate this highly aggressive cancer cell population. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  10. Tumor-initiating cell frequency is relevant for glioblastoma aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Richichi, Cristina; Osti, Daniela; Del Bene, Massimiliano; Fornasari, Lorenzo; Patanè, Monica; Pollo, Bianca; DiMeco, Francesco; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2016-11-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is maintained by a small subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells (TICs). The arduous assessment of TIC frequencies challenges the prognostic role of TICs in predicting the clinical outcome in GBM patients. We estimated the TIC frequency in human GBM injecting intracerebrally in mice dissociated cells without any passage in culture.All GBMs contained rare TICsand were tumorigenic in vivo but only 54% of them grew in vitro as neurospheres. We demonstrated that neurosphere formation in vitro did not foretell tumorigenic ability in vivo and frequencies calculated in vitro overestimated the TIC content.Our findings assert the pathological significance of GBM TICs. TIC number correlated positively with tumor incidence and inversely with survival of tumor-bearing mice. Stratification of GBM patients according to TIC content revealed that patients with low TIC frequency experienced a trend towards a longer progression free survival. The expression of either putative stem-cell markers or markers associated with different GBM molecular subtypes did not associate with either TIC content or neurosphere formation underlying the limitations of TIC identification based on the expression of some putative stem cell-markers.

  11. IL-1α and IL-1β-producing macrophages populate lung tumor lesions in mice

    PubMed Central

    Terlizzi, Michela; Colarusso, Chiara; Popolo, Ada; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Rosalinda

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages highly populate tumour microenvironment and are referred to as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex responsible of IL-1 like cytokines release, which biology has been widely studied by using bone-marrow-derived macrophages to mimic a physiological and/or host defense condition. To understand the role of this complex in lung tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), we isolated and cultured broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL)-derived cells of lung tumor-bearing mice. The stimulation of lung TAMs with LPS+ATP increased the release of IL-1β. The inhibition of NLRP3 by means of glybenclamide significantly reduced IL-1β release. Similarly, C3H-derived, caspase-1 ko and caspase-11 ko TAMs released significantly reduced levels of IL-1β. Moreover, the stimulation of lung TAMs with the sole LPS induced a significant release of IL-1α, which was significantly reduced after caspase-1 pharmacological inhibition, and in TAMs genetically lacking caspase-1 and caspase-11. The inhibition of calpain I/II by means of MDL28170 did not alter IL-1α release after LPS treatment of lung TAMs. To note, the inoculation of LPS-treated bone marrow-derived macrophages into carcinogen-exposed mice increased lung tumor formation. In contrast, the depletion of TAMs by means of clodronate liposomes reduced lung tumorigenesis, associated to lower in vivo release of IL-1α and IL-1β. In conclusion, our data imply lung tumor lesions are populated by macrophages which pro-tumor activity is regulated by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome that leads to the release of IL-1α and IL-1β in a caspase-11/caspase-1-dependent manner. PMID:27528423

  12. Loss of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-3 enhances cell migration in rat lung tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Mai; Okabe, Kyoko; Yamawaki, Yasuna; Teranishi, Miki; Honoki, Kanya; Mori, Toshio; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Loss of the Lpar3 expression due to aberrant DNA methylation occurred in rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 inhibited cell migration of rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 may act as a negative regulator of rat lung tumor cells. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) indicates several biological effects, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. LPA interacts with G protein-coupled transmembrane LPA receptors. In our previous report, we detected that loss of the LPA receptor-1 (Lpar1) expression is due to its aberrant DNA methylation in rat tumor cell lines. In this study, to assess an involvement of the other LPA receptor, Lpar3, in the pathogenesis of rat lung tumor cells, we measured the expression levels of the Lpar3 gene and its DNA methylation status by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing analyses, respectively. RLCNR lung adenocarcinoma cells showed reduced expression of the Lpar3, compared with normal lung tissues. In the 5' upstream region of the Lpar3, normal lung tissues were unmethylated. By contrast, RLCNR cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expressions of the Lpar3. Based on these results, we generated the Lpar3-expressing RLCNR-a3 cells and measured the cell migration ability. Interestingly, the cell migration of RLCNR-a3 cells was significantly lower than that of RLCNR cells. This study suggests that loss of the Lpar3 due to aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in the progression of rat lung tumor cells.

  13. IL-1α and IL-1β-producing macrophages populate lung tumor lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Michela; Colarusso, Chiara; Popolo, Ada; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Rosalinda

    2016-09-06

    Macrophages highly populate tumour microenvironment and are referred to as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex responsible of IL-1 like cytokines release, which biology has been widely studied by using bone-marrow-derived macrophages to mimic a physiological and/or host defense condition. To understand the role of this complex in lung tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), we isolated and cultured broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL)-derived cells of lung tumor-bearing mice. The stimulation of lung TAMs with LPS+ATP increased the release of IL-1β. The inhibition of NLRP3 by means of glybenclamide significantly reduced IL-1β release. Similarly, C3H-derived, caspase-1 ko and caspase-11 ko TAMs released significantly reduced levels of IL-1β. Moreover, the stimulation of lung TAMs with the sole LPS induced a significant release of IL-1α, which was significantly reduced after caspase-1 pharmacological inhibition, and in TAMs genetically lacking caspase-1 and caspase-11. The inhibition of calpain I/II by means of MDL28170 did not alter IL-1α release after LPS treatment of lung TAMs. To note, the inoculation of LPS-treated bone marrow-derived macrophages into carcinogen-exposed mice increased lung tumor formation. In contrast, the depletion of TAMs by means of clodronate liposomes reduced lung tumorigenesis, associated to lower in vivo release of IL-1α and IL-1β.In conclusion, our data imply lung tumor lesions are populated by macrophages which pro-tumor activity is regulated by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome that leads to the release of IL-1α and IL-1β in a caspase-11/caspase-1-dependent manner.

  14. Long-term outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors originating from lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bir, Shyamal C.; Ambekar, Sudheer; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has emerged as an important treatment option for metastasis brain tumors (MBTs). However, the long-term outcome of GKRS on MBTs originating from lung carcinoma is not well understood. The treatment of MBTs derived from lung cancer with GKRS at our institution is reviewed. Methods: We performed a retrospective review (2000-2013) of 173 patients with MBTs from lung cancer who received GKRS. Out of 173 patients, 38 patients had recurrent tumors after microsurgical resection and whole brain radiotherapy (WBT). Results: GKRS in MBTs metastasized from lung carcinoma showed significant variations in tumor growth control (decreased in 79 [45.7%] patients, arrested growth in 54 [31.2%] patients, and increased tumor size in 40 [23.1%] patients). The median survival in the study population was 14 months. Overall survival after 3 years was 25%, whereas progression-free survival after 3 years was 45%. The predictive factors for improving survival in the patients with MBTs were recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class I (P = 0.005), absence of hydrocephalus (P = 0.001), Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) >70 (P = 0.007), age ≤65 (P = 0.041), tumor size ≤3 cm (P = 0.023), controlled primary tumor (P = 0.049), and single number of MBTS (P = 0.044). Conclusion: Long-term follow-up revealed that GKRS offers a high rate of tumor control and good overall survival period in both new and recurrent patients with MBTs originating from lung carcinoma. Thus, GKRS is an effective treatment option for new patients with MBTs from lung cancer, as well as an adjuvant therapy in patients with recurrent MBTs derived from lung cancer. PMID:25289169

  15. Deletion and differential expression of p16{sup INK4a} in mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Swafford, D.S.; Middleton, S.K.; Kennedy, C.H.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1997-12-31

    Recent allelotyping of chemical-induced lung tumors in hybrid mice has detected loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 4 in a region involving the interferon-{alpha} (IFN-{alpha}) gene cluster that is syntenic to human chromosome 9p21-22, the location of the p16{sup INK4a}(p16) and (p15) tumor suppressor genes. The purpose of the current investigation was to characterize the expression of p16 and p15 in lung tumors and tumor-derived cell lines induced in Ad mice by exposure to the tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Expression of p16 and p15 was detected in all primary lung tumors; however, levels of expression of p16 differed by up to 15-fold between tumors. This is the first study to note a marked difference in the expression of the p16 gene in primary lung tumors. The apparent low levels of expression seen in approximately half of the tumors was not attributed to deletion, mutation or methylation of the p16 gene. Conversely, the high levels of p16 expression were not the result of effects on the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) or cyclin D1 proteins but most likely in response to a dysfunction elsewhere within this pathway. In contrast to the detection of p16 expression in primary tumors, this gene was deleted in all four cell lines. Three of four cell lines also showed loss of the p15 gene. Mapping of these homozygous deletions on chromosome 4 revealed that the p16 gene resides near the D4MIT77 marker, which is located approximately 12 cM proximal to the IFN-{alpha} gene cluster, thereby implicating the p16 gene as one of the targets within the allelic deletions detected previously in primary lung tumors from hybrid mice.

  16. Chemoprevention with acetylsalicylic acid, vitamin D and calcium reduces risk of carcinogen-induced lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, J; Raskov, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor. A total of 60 A/J mice were randomized to a normal diet, a diet with low calcium, or a chemoprevention diet with acetylsalicylic acid, 1-α 25(0H)2-vitamin D3 and calcium. In addition to the diet, mice received carcinogens by oral gavage for ten weeks. The chemoprevention diet significantly reduced the number of animals with tumors [1 vs. 13, (p<0.001)] and the median number (range) of tumors [0 (0-1) vs. 1 (0-4), (p<0.001)] compared to controls. No signs of toxicity in relation to the diets were observed. The chemoprevention diet had a protective effect against tumor development in the mouse lungs.

  17. Toward in vivo lung's tissue incompressibility characterization for tumor motion modeling in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzadi, Zahra; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Samani, Abbas

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to characterize lung tissue incompressibility variation during respiration. Estimating lung tissue incompressibility parameter variations resulting from air content variation throughout respiration is critical for computer assisted tumor motion tracking. Continuous tumor motion is a major challenge in lung cancer radiotherapy, especially with external beam radiotherapy. If not accounted for, this motion may lead to areas of radiation overdosage for normal tissue. Given the unavailability of imaging modality that can be used effectively for real-time lung tumor tracking, computer assisted approach based on tissue deformation estimation can be a good alternative. This approach involves lung biomechanical model where its fidelity depends on input tissue properties. This investigation shows that considering variable tissue incompressibility parameter is very important for predicting tumor motion accurately, hence improving the lung radiotherapy outcome. Methods: First, an in silico lung phantom study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of employing variable Poisson's ratio for tumor motion predication. After it was established that modeling this variability is critical for accurate tumor motion prediction, an optimization based technique was developed to estimate lung tissue Poisson's ratio as a function of respiration cycle time. In this technique, the Poisson's ratio and lung pressure value were varied systematically until optimal values were obtained, leading to maximum similarity between acquired and simulated 4D CT lung images. This technique was applied in an ex vivo porcine lung study where simulated images were constructed using the end exhale CT image and deformation fields obtained from the lung's FE modeling of each respiration time increment. To model the tissue, linear elastic and Marlow hyperelastic material models in conjunction with variable Poisson's ratio were used. Results: The phantom study showed that

  18. Systematic evaluation of lung tumor motion using four-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sarudis, Sebastian; Karlsson Hauer, Anna; Nyman, Jan; Bäck, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory-induced lung tumor motion may decrease robustness and outcome of radiation therapy (RT) if not accounted for. This study provides detailed information on the motion distribution of lung tumors for a group of 126 patients treated with stereotactic body RT. Four-dimensional computed tomography scans were reviewed to assess lung tumor motion. The tumor motion was determined by the center of mass shift based on a rigid registration of the breathing phases containing the largest positional differences in the inferior-superior (IS), left-right (LR), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. The patients were divided into subgroups depending on tumor diameter (φ < 2.0 cm, 2.0 ≤ φ ≤ 5.0 cm, φ > 5.0 cm) and tumor location within the lung (upper, middle, or lower lobe). The observed motion distributions were evaluated for each group separately to assess the dependence on tumor size and location. For each tumor size, the motion pattern in each direction (IS, LR, and AP) was analyzed for every tumor moving >5 mm. Sinusoidal trigonometric functions were fitted to the measured data using the least mean square method to determine which type of function best describes the motion pattern. Tumor volumes between 1.6 and 52.3 cm(3) were evaluated. Mann-Whitney statistical tests were used for statistical analyses. The mean amplitude for the tumors in this study was 1.5 mm (LR), 2.5 mm (AP), and 6.9 mm (IS) while the maximum amplitude was 11.0 mm (LR), 9.0 mm (AP), and 53.0 mm (IS). In total, 95% of the tumors moved ≤20 mm in the IS direction, ≤3 mm in the LR direction, and ≤6 mm in the AP direction. The observed motion distributions showed no statistically significant correlation with tumor size or location within the lung except for motion in the IS direction, where the mean and maximum amplitudes significantly increased for tumors located in the middle and lower parts of the lung. The motion pattern of a tumor in

  19. Lung metastases of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yasuto; Sakaguchi, Shinobu; Mikubo, Masashi; Naito, Masahito; Shiomi, Kazu; Ohbu, Makoto; Satoh, Yukitoshi

    2017-09-04

    Uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex-cord tumor (UTROSCT) is a rare type of uterine neoplasm. We present an extremely rare case of lung metastases from a UTROSCT focusing on the cytologic features. A 69-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination and treatment for abnormal shadows in the right lung field. She had a history of total hysterectomy for UTROSCT. Moreover, she underwent wedge resection of the right middle lobe for lung metastasis of UTROSCT in 2011. Enhanced chest computed tomography scan revealed a solid nodule 8 mm in diameter in the right upper lobe and a well-demarcated 33-mm mass or nodule in the lower lobe. Under the diagnosis of metastatic tumors from UTROSCT, she underwent wedge resection of the right upper lobe and segmentectomy of the right S8. Cytologically, the stump smear from the resected tumors revealed round to short spindle-shaped neoplastic small cells arranged in sheets with poor cohesion and no cluster formation. The nuclei were irregular in shape, and the chromatin was finely granular, uniform, and increased. Mitotic figures were not observed. Necrosis was absent in the background. Histologically, the final diagnosis was UTROSCT group II. This is an unusual case of metastatic UTROSCT to the lung in which the cytologic features are described. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pulmonary mucinous cystadenoma: a rare benign tumor of the lung.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Yuji; Miwa, Ken; Adachi, Yoshin; Fujioka, Shinji

    2010-06-01

    Pulmonary mucinous cystadenoma (PMCA) is rare, with few reported cases. This tumor is histologically characterized by a benign proliferation of mucin-producing epithelial cells and bulky mucin inside the tumor. We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with increasing mass shadow on chest radiography who underwent tumor resection by video-assisted thoracic surgery. The tumor was diagnosed histologically as PMCA.

  1. Tumor senescence and radioresistant tumor-initiating cells (TICs): let sleeping dogs lie!

    PubMed

    Zafarana, Gaetano; Bristow, Robert G

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical data from cell lines and experimental tumors support the concept that breast cancer-derived tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are relatively resistant to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. This could be a major determinant of tumor recurrence following treatment. Increased clonogenic survival is observed in CD24-/low/CD44+ TICs derived from mammosphere cultures and is associated with (a) reduced production of reactive oxygen species, (b) attenuated activation of γH2AX and CHK2-p53 DNA damage signaling pathways, (c) reduced propensity for ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, and (d) altered DNA double-strand or DNA single-strand break repair. However, recent data have shed further light on TIC radioresistance as irradiated TICs are resistant to tumor cell senescence following DNA damage. Taken together, the cumulative data support a model in which DNA damage signaling and repair pathways are altered in TICs and lead to an altered mode of cell death with unique consequences for long-term clonogen survival. The study of TIC senescence lays the foundation for future experiments in isogenic models designed to directly test the capacity for senescence and local control (that is, not solely local regression) and spontaneous metastases following treatment in vivo. The study also supports the targeting of tumor cell senescence pathways to increase TIC clonogen kill if the targeting also maintains the therapeutic ratio.

  2. Automated tumor analysis for molecular profiling in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Clinton; James, Jacqueline A.; Loughrey, Maurice B.; Hougton, Joseph P.; Boyle, David P.; Kelly, Paul; Maxwell, Perry; McCleary, David; Diamond, James; McArt, Darragh G.; Tunstall, Jonathon; Bankhead, Peter; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and clinical application of molecular biomarkers in solid tumors, increasingly relies on nucleic acid extraction from FFPE tissue sections and subsequent molecular profiling. This in turn requires the pathological review of haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stained slides, to ensure sample quality, tumor DNA sufficiency by visually estimating the percentage tumor nuclei and tumor annotation for manual macrodissection. In this study on NSCLC, we demonstrate considerable variation in tumor nuclei percentage between pathologists, potentially undermining the precision of NSCLC molecular evaluation and emphasising the need for quantitative tumor evaluation. We subsequently describe the development and validation of a system called TissueMark for automated tumor annotation and percentage tumor nuclei measurement in NSCLC using computerized image analysis. Evaluation of 245 NSCLC slides showed precise automated tumor annotation of cases using Tissuemark, strong concordance with manually drawn boundaries and identical EGFR mutational status, following manual macrodissection from the image analysis generated tumor boundaries. Automated analysis of cell counts for % tumor measurements by Tissuemark showed reduced variability and significant correlation (p < 0.001) with benchmark tumor cell counts. This study demonstrates a robust image analysis technology that can facilitate the automated quantitative analysis of tissue samples for molecular profiling in discovery and diagnostics. PMID:26317646

  3. The relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Xu, Mei; Guo, Jian; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Jinming

    2017-06-20

    Tumor markers (TMs) and D-Dimer are both hallmarks of severity and prognosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers could be related to pulmonary embolism (PE) in lung cancer. The number of abnormal tumor markers of lung cancer patients with pulmonary embolism (3.9 ± 1.1vs1.6 ± 0.6,P 0.005) was more than that in patients without pulmonary embolism. TMs panel (P trend < 0.001), CEA (R2 0.735, P0.003) and CYFRA21-1 (R2 0.718, P0.005) were positively correlated with D-Dimer in patients with pulmonary embolism. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, for tumor markers, TMs panel (OR5.98, P < 0.001) had the strongest correlation with pulmonary embolism. The AUC (area under curve) of TMs panel and CEA were 0.82 [95%CI (0.71-0.95), P < 0.001] and 0.71 [95%CI (0.62-0.84), P 0.002] by ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis, respectively. Tumor markers were compared between lung cancer patients complicated with pulmonary embolism and those without pulmonary embolism Then the correlation between each tumor marker as well as panel of combined TMs and D-Dimer as well as pulmonary embolism were analyzed for patients with pulmonary embolism. There is a relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in patients with lung cancer. The panel of combined tumor markers is a valuable diagnostic marker for pulmonary embolism in lung cancer.

  4. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor Presenting in Bone, Brain, Lungs, and Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric D.; Gulbahce, Evin; McNally, Joseph; Buys, Saundra S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast which are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Malignant PTs account for <1% of malignant breast tumors, and borderline tumors have potential to progress to malignant tumors. Metastatic recurrences are most commonly documented in bone and lungs. We report an extremely rare presentation of recurrent malignant PTs involving the brain, lung, lymph nodes, and bone. Case A 66-year-old female presented with a large breast mass. Biopsy identified malignant PT, treated by mastectomy. One year later she presented with acute back pain; imaging showed pathological L4 spinal compression fracture. Core biopsy confirmed PT. Staging identified additional metastases in the lymph nodes, brain, and lung. Discussion PTs are rare and fast-growing tumors that originate from periductal stromal tissues and are composed of both epithelial and stromal components. Histologically, they are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. The prognosis of the malignant type is poorly defined, with local recurrence occurring in 10–40% and metastases in 10%. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective in this tumor type. The most common metastatic sites for malignant cases are the lung and bones, but in rare instances, PTs may metastasize elsewhere. Conclusion We report a rare presentation of recurrent malignant PT presenting as pathological fracture of the lumbar spine with impingement on the spinal column, along with cerebellar, nodal, and pulmonary metastases. Only 1 similar case has been previously reported. PMID:28203179

  5. IL-6 blockade reprograms the lung tumor microenvironment to limit the development and progression of K-ras mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Mauricio S.; Zhang, Huiyuan; Cumpian, Amber M.; Gong, Lei; Unver, Nese; Ostrin, Edwin J.; Daliri, Soudabeh; Chang, Seon Hee; Ochoa, Cesar E.; Hanash, Samir; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Sternberg, Cinthya; Kadara, Humam; Ferreira, Carlos Gil; Watowich, Stephanie S.; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    Activating mutations of K-ras are the most common oncogenic alterations found in lung cancer. Unfortunately, attempts to target K-ras mutant lung tumors have thus far failed, clearly indicating the need for new approaches in patients with this molecular profile. We have previously shown NF-κB activation, release of IL-6, and activation of its responsive transcription factor STAT3 in K-ras mutant lung tumors, which was further amplified by the tumor enhancing effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-type airway inflammation. These findings suggest an essential role for this inflammatory pathway in K-ras mutant lung tumorigenesis and its enhancement by COPD. Therefore, here we blocked IL-6 using a monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody in a K-ras mutant mouse model of lung cancer in the absence or presence of COPD-type airway inflammation. IL-6 blockade significantly inhibited lung cancer promotion, tumor cell intrinsic STAT3 activation, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenesis markers. Moreover, IL-6 inhibition reduced expression of pro-tumor type 2 molecules (Arginase 1, Fizz 1, Mgl, and IDO), number of M2 type macrophages and G-MDSCs, and pro-tumor T-regulatory/T helper 17 cell responses. This was accompanied by increased expression of anti-tumor type 1 molecule (Nos2), and anti-tumor T helper 1/CD8 T cell responses. Our study demonstrates that IL-6 blockade not only has direct intrinsic inhibitory effect on tumor cells, but also re-educates the lung microenvironment toward an anti-tumor phenotype by altering the relative proportion between pro-tumor and anti-tumor immune cells. This information introduces IL-6 as a potential druggable target for prevention and treatment of K-ras mutant lung tumors. PMID:27197187

  6. Circulating tumor cells correlate with recurrence in stage III small-cell lung cancer after systemic chemoradiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lei; Liu, Fang; Fu, Hui; Liu, Liqing; Yuan, Shuanghu; Gao, Yongsheng; Fu, Zheng; Yu, Jinming

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the correlation between circulating tumor cells and the incidence of brain metastases as a first site of recurrence among patients with small-cell lung cancer after systemic chemoradiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation. In addition, we assessed the contribution of circulating tumor cells for planning the appropriate total dose of prophylactic cranial irradiation for small-cell lung cancer. Patients (n = 112) with diagnosed Stage III small-cell lung cancer were treated with four cycles of platinum-based regimen and concurrent chest irradiation, and then prophylactic cranial irradiation. Blood samples for circulating tumor cell analysis were obtained before the initiation of chemotherapy and after the first and fourth cycle of chemotherapy. Circulating tumor cells after the first cycle of chemotherapy correlated with tumor response after completion of chemotherapy (P = 0.012). Patients with brain as the first site suffered a higher rate of further metastases to other organs, and local recurrence, compared with those whose first site was the other organs (P < 0.001), and their survival rates were worse. Circulating tumor cells at baseline were the sole independent prognostic factor for specific progression-free survival. Receiver operating characteristic curves based on median specific progression-free survival revealed a circulating tumor cell cutoff at baseline of 218, and circulating tumor cells ≤218 at baseline correlated with significantly higher progression-free survival (P = 0.007), specific progression-free survival (P = 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.001). Circulating tumor cells prior to the initiation of chemotherapy are a valuable predictor of specific progression-free survival in Stage III small-cell lung cancer. For patients with circulating tumor cells >218, prophylactic cranial irradiation at a total dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions is insufficient. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  7. Lung Cancer Signatures in Plasma Based on Proteome Profiling of Mouse Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Ayumu; Politi, Katerina; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Lockwood, William W.; Faça, Vitor M.; Kelly-Spratt, Karen; Wong, Chee-Hong; Zhang, Qing; Chin, Alice; Park, Kwon-Sik; Goodman, Gary; Gazdar, Adi F.; Sage, Julien; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Kucherlapati, Raju; DePinho, Ronald A.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Varmus, Harold E.; Hanash, Samir M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We investigated the potential of in-depth quantitative proteomics to reveal plasma protein signatures that reflect lung tumor biology. We compared plasma protein profiles of four mouse models of lung cancer with profiles of models of pancreatic, ovarian, colon, prostate, and breast cancer and two models of inflammation. A protein signature for Titf1/Nkx2-1, a known lineage-survival oncogene in lung cancer, was found in plasmas of mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. An EGFR signature was found in plasma of an EGFR mutant model, and a distinct plasma signature related to neuroendocrine development was uncovered in the small-cell lung cancer model. We demonstrate relevance to human lung cancer of the protein signatures identified on the basis of mouse models. PMID:21907921

  8. [Using 3.0 T MR to dynamically observe ablated lung tumors after percutaneous cryotherapy therapy].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Qu, J R; Zhang, H K; Xiao, J C; Jiang, L N; Zhao, Y; Li, H L

    2016-09-20

    Objective: To initially explore MRI features and its changing trends including of lung tumors after Argon-Helium cryoablation therapy, and enhance the recognition of MR findings of lung tumors postcryoablation. Methods: Twenty-three cases of patients with twenty six nodules of pulmonary malignance who received Argon-Helium cryoablation therapy in Henan Cancer Hospital from July 2014 to January 2016 were enrolled.All patients underwent unenhanced and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans at pre-and 1-day, 1-week, 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month postcryoablation. Two radiologists independently reviewed MRI images, signal intensity in the ablated zone on T1WI and T2WI were assessed by a 5-point scale.The changing trends of size and signal intensity with time were showed by time-maximum diameter and time-score curve.Time-signal intensity curves based on dynamic enhanced sequence were also performed. Results: Typical MRI findings includes: heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1WI and T2WI at 1-day postcryoablation(26/26, 100%). Hyper-intense on T1WI(22/26, 84.6%) and T2WI(17/26, 65.4%) with a hypo-intense rim at 1-week postcryoablation.Decreasing signal intensity on T1WI(17/26, 65.4%) and increasing signal intensity on T2WI(22/26, 84.6%) at 1-month.Signal intensity declined to the level of muscle on both T1WI(18/26, 69.2%) and T2WI(19/26, 73.1%) at 3-month, nineteen ablated zone turned into patchy shape(19/26, 73.1%). The maximum diameter was largest at 1-day and gradually shrunk with time. The mean score value toped at 1-week and gradually decreased. A straight line type without definite enhancement was found from 1-day to 1-month postcryoablation, an inflow curve with a mild delayed enhancement was seen from 3- to 12- month. Totally 4 recurrence (4/26, 15.4%) all occurred at 3-month and were lack of a complete hypo-intense rim at 1-week postcryoablation. Conclusion: MRI findings of lung tumors postcryoablation are characteristic, a complete hypo-intense rim at 1-week is helpful

  9. Early results in transplantation of initially rejected donor lungs after ex vivo lung perfusion: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wallinder, Andreas; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Silverborn, Martin; Hansson, Christoffer; Riise, Gerdt C; Liden, Hans; Jeppsson, Anders; Dellgren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have shown that ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is safe and that rejected donor lungs can be resuscitated and used for lung transplantation (LTx). Early clinical outcomes in patients transplanted with reconditioned lungs at our centre were reviewed and compared with those of contemporary non-EVLP controls. During 18 months starting January 2011, 11 pairs of donor lungs initially deemed unsuitable for transplantation underwent EVLP. Haemodynamic (pulmonary flow, vascular resistance and artery pressure) and respiratory (peak airway pressure and compliance) parameters were analysed during evaluation. Lungs that improved (n = 11) to meet International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria were transplanted and compared with patients transplanted with non-EVLP lungs (n = 47) during the same time period. Donor lungs were initially rejected due to either inferior PaO2/FiO2 ratio (n = 9), bilateral infiltrate on chest X-ray (n = 1) or ongoing extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 1). The donor lungs improved from a mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 27.9 kPa in the donor to a mean of 59.6 kPa at the end of the EVLP (median improvement 28.4 kPa, range 21.0-50.7 kPa). Two single lungs were deemed unsuitable and not used for LTx. Eleven recipients from the regular waiting list underwent either single (n = 3) LTx or double (n = 8) LTx with EVLP-treated lungs. The median time to extubation (12 (range, 3-912) vs 6 (range, 2-1296) h) and median intensive care unit (ICU) stay (152 (range, 40-625) vs 48 (range, 22-1632) h) were longer in the EVLP group (P = 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). There were no differences in length of hospital stay (median 28 (range 25-93) vs 28 (18-209), P = 0.21). Two patients in the EVLP group and 6 in the control group had primary graft dysfunction >Grade 1 at 72 h postoperatively. Three patients in the control group died before discharge. All recipients of EVLP lungs were discharged alive from hospital. The use of

  10. Breast cancer cells form primary tumors on ex vivo four-dimensional lung model.

    PubMed

    Pence, Kristi A; Mishra, Dhruva K; Thrall, Michael; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Kim, Min P

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer mortality is most common in cancer in women, and there are no ex vivo models that can capture the primary growth of tumor with fidelity to the in vivo tumor growth. In this study, we grew human breast cancer cell lines in an acellular lung matrix of the ex vivo four-dimensional lung model to determine if they form primary tumor and the extent to which they mimic the histology and characteristics of the human tumors. Rat lungs were harvested, decellularized, and placed in a bioreactor. To study the primary tumor growth, we seeded the lung via the trachea with human breast cancer cells SUM159, MCF7, or MDMB231 and perfused the pulmonary artery with oxygenated media. Lobectomies were performed and processed for hematoxylin and eosin, Ki-67, caspase-3, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor antibodies. All three cell lines grew in the ex vivo four-dimensional model and formed perfusable tumor nodules with similar histology and morphology as the primary tumors. SUM159 and MDAMB231 showed higher proliferation and apoptotic indices than MCF7. In addition, MCF7 retained its estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positivity, whereas SUM159 and MDAMB 231 did not have any staining. Overall, our study showed that human breast cancer cells can be grown on the ex vivo four-dimensional lung model, which then form primary tumor nodules that mimic the morphology and histology of the original tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current understanding and approach to well differentiated lung neuroendocrine tumors: an update on classification and management

    PubMed Central

    Hilal, Talal

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms that can arise from any tissue. They are classified based on embryonic gut derivative (i.e. foregut, midgut and hindgut) with midgut tumors being the most common (e.g. gastrointestinal NET). The second most common category of NETs is that which arises from the lung. In fact, 25% of primary lung cancers are NETs, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which comprises 20% of all lung cancers. The remaining 5% are large cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC, 3%), typical carcinoids (TCs, 1.8%), and atypical carcinoids (ACs, 0.2%). The less common TCs/ACs are well differentiated lung NETs. Their incidence has been increasing in more recent years and although these tumors are slow growing, advanced disease is associated with poor survival. There have been advances in classification of lung NETs that have allowed for more appropriate management upfront. They are cured by surgical resection when disease is limited. However, advanced and metastatic disease requires medical therapy that is ever changing and expanding. In this review, the aim is to summarize the current understanding and classification of well differentiated lung NETs (i.e. TCs and ACs), and focus on recent updates in medical management of advanced disease, along with a brief discussion on potential future discoveries. PMID:28344664

  12. The management of tumor motions in the stereotactic irradiation to lung cancer under the use of Abches to control active breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Tarohda, Tohru I.; Ishiguro, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Kouhei; Kohda, Yukihiko; Onishi, Hiroaki; Aoki, Tetsuya; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Breathing control is crucial to ensuring the accuracy of stereotactic irradiation for lung cancer. This study monitored respiration in patients with inoperable nonsmall-cell lung cancer using a respiration-monitoring apparatus, Abches, and investigated the reproducibility of tumor position in these patients. Methods: Subjects comprised 32 patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer who were administered stereotactic radiotherapy under breath-holding conditions monitored by Abches. Computed tomography (CT) was performed under breath-holding conditions using Abches (Abches scan) for treatment planning. A free-breathing scan was performed to determine the range of tumor motions in a given position. After the free-breathing scan, Abches scan was repeated and the tumor position thus defined was taken as the intrafraction tumor position. Abches scan was also performed just before treatment, and the tumor position thus defined was taken as the interfraction tumor position. To calculate the errors, tumor positions were compared based on Abches scan for the initial treatment plan. The error in tumor position was measured using the BrainSCAN treatment-planning device, then compared for each lung lobe. Results: Displacements in tumor position were calculated in three dimensions (i.e., superior-inferior (S-I), left-right (L-R), and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimensions) and recorded as absolute values. For the whole lung, average intrafraction tumor displacement was 1.1 mm (L-R), 1.9 mm (A-P), and 2.0 mm (S-I); the average interfraction tumor displacement was 1.1 mm (L-R), 2.1 mm (A-P), and 2.0 mm (S-I); and the average free-breathing tumor displacement was 2.3 mm (L-R), 3.5 mm (A-P), and 7.9 mm (S-I). The difference between using Abches and free breathing could be reduced from approximately 20 mm at the maximum to approximately 3 mm in the S-I direction for both intrafraction and interfraction positions in the lower lobe. In addition, maximum intrafraction tumor

  13. High grade neuroendocrine lung tumors: pathological characteristics, surgical management and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Grand, Bertrand; Cazes, Aurélie; Mordant, Pierre; Foucault, Christophe; Dujon, Antoine; Guillevin, Elizabeth Fabre; Barthes, Françoise Le Pimpec; Riquet, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Among non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), large cell carcinoma (LCC) is credited of significant adverse prognosis. Its neuroendocrine subtype has even a poorer diagnosis, with long-term survival similar to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Our purpose was to review the surgical characteristics of those tumors. The clinical records of patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer in two French centers from 1980 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We more particularly focused on patients with LCC or with high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors. High grade neuroendocrine tumors were classified as pure large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (pure LCNEC), NSCLC combined with LCNEC (combined LCNEC), and SCLC combined with LCNEC (combined SCLC). There were 470 LCC and 155 high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors, with no difference concerning gender, mean age, smoking habits. There were significantly more exploratory thoracotomies in LCC, and more frequent postoperative complications in high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors. Pathologic TNM and 5-year survival rates were similar, with 5-year ranging from 34.3% to 37.6% for high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors and LCC, respectively. Induction and adjuvant therapy were not associated with an improved prognosis. The subgroups of LCNEC (pure NE, combined NE) and combined SCLC behaved similarly, except visceral pleura invasion, which proved more frequent in combined NE and less frequent in combined SCLC. Survival analysis showed a trend toward a lower 5-year survival in case of combined SCLC. Therefore, LCC, LCNEC and combined SCLC share the same poor prognosis, but surgical resection is associated with long-term survival in about one third of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The feasibility and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy for centrally-located lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Wataru; Yamashita, Hideomi; Omori, Mami; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Shibata-Kobayashi, Shino; Sakumi, Akira; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the toxicity and outcome of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for centrally-located lung tumors. A retrospective review was conducted in 45 consecutive patients with centrally-located lung tumors who underwent SBRT. The incidence rate of adverse events (AEs) and outcome after SBRT for primary (32 patients), metastatic and recurrent (13 patients) lung tumors were evaluated. The median follow-up period was 21.2 months. Except for one patient who had grade 4 gastrointestinal toxicity, no patient exhibited any grade 4-5 AE. The 2-year overall survival of patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was significantly better than that of those with metastatic and recurrent tumors of 69.4% vs. 46.9% (p=0.04). The local control rates at two years, for patients in the NSCLC and the metastatic/recurrent groups were 70.9% and 100%, respectively (p=0.98). SBRT provided effective treatment for centrally-located lung tumors with tolerable toxicity.

  15. A DLL3-targeted antibody-drug conjugate eradicates high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor-initiating cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Laura R.; Bankovich, Alexander J.; Anderson, Wade C.; Aujay, Monette A.; Bheddah, Sheila; Black, KristenAnn; Desai, Radhika; Escarpe, Paul A.; Hampl, Johannes; Laysang, Amy; Liu, David; Lopez-Molina, Javier; Milton, Milly; Park, Albert; Pysz, Marybeth A.; Shao, Hui; Slingerland, Brian; Torgov, Michael; Williams, Samuel A.; Foord, Orit; Howard, Philip; Jassem, Jacek; Badzio, Andrzej; Czapiewski, Piotr; Harpole, David H.; Dowlati, Afshin; Massion, Pierre P.; Travis, William D.; Pietanza, M. Catherine; Poirier, J. T.; Rudin, Charles M.; Stull, Robert A.; Dylla, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    The high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), remain among the most deadly malignancies. Therapies that effectively target and kill tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in these cancers should translate to improved patient survival. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors serve as excellent models to study tumor biology and characterize TICs. Increased expression of delta-like 3 (DLL3) was discovered in SCLC and LCNEC PDX tumors and confirmed in primary SCLC and LCNEC tumors. DLL3 protein is expressed on the surface of tumor cells but not in normal adult tissues. A DLL3-targeted antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), SC16LD6.5, comprised of a humanized anti-DLL3 monoclonal antibody conjugated to a DNA-damaging pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer toxin, induced durable tumor regression in vivo across multiple PDX models. Serial transplantation experiments executed with limiting dilutions of cells provided functional evidence confirming that the lack of tumor recurrence after SC16LD6.5 exposure resulted from effective targeting of DLL3-expressing TICs. In vivo efficacy correlated with DLL3 expression, and responses were observed in PDX models initiated from patients with both limited and extensive-stage disease and were independent of their sensitivity to standard-of-care chemotherapy regimens. SC16LD6.5 effectively targets and eradicates DLL3-expressing TICs in SCLC and LCNEC PDX tumors and is a promising first-in-class ADC for the treatment of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:26311731

  16. A DLL3-targeted antibody-drug conjugate eradicates high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor-initiating cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Laura R; Bankovich, Alexander J; Anderson, Wade C; Aujay, Monette A; Bheddah, Sheila; Black, KristenAnn; Desai, Radhika; Escarpe, Paul A; Hampl, Johannes; Laysang, Amy; Liu, David; Lopez-Molina, Javier; Milton, Milly; Park, Albert; Pysz, Marybeth A; Shao, Hui; Slingerland, Brian; Torgov, Michael; Williams, Samuel A; Foord, Orit; Howard, Philip; Jassem, Jacek; Badzio, Andrzej; Czapiewski, Piotr; Harpole, David H; Dowlati, Afshin; Massion, Pierre P; Travis, William D; Pietanza, M Catherine; Poirier, J T; Rudin, Charles M; Stull, Robert A; Dylla, Scott J

    2015-08-26

    The high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), remain among the most deadly malignancies. Therapies that effectively target and kill tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in these cancers should translate to improved patient survival. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors serve as excellent models to study tumor biology and characterize TICs. Increased expression of delta-like 3 (DLL3) was discovered in SCLC and LCNEC PDX tumors and confirmed in primary SCLC and LCNEC tumors. DLL3 protein is expressed on the surface of tumor cells but not in normal adult tissues. A DLL3-targeted antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), SC16LD6.5, comprised of a humanized anti-DLL3 monoclonal antibody conjugated to a DNA-damaging pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer toxin, induced durable tumor regression in vivo across multiple PDX models. Serial transplantation experiments executed with limiting dilutions of cells provided functional evidence confirming that the lack of tumor recurrence after SC16LD6.5 exposure resulted from effective targeting of DLL3-expressing TICs. In vivo efficacy correlated with DLL3 expression, and responses were observed in PDX models initiated from patients with both limited and extensive-stage disease and were independent of their sensitivity to standard-of-care chemotherapy regimens. SC16LD6.5 effectively targets and eradicates DLL3-expressing TICs in SCLC and LCNEC PDX tumors and is a promising first-in-class ADC for the treatment of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.

  17. Anti-tumor immune response in early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): implications for adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Butts, Charles A

    2013-10-01

    The demonstration that systemic chemotherapy improves survival in patients who have had resection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents a significant advance. The absolute benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting is small with an overall survival improvement of 5%. In addition, there are many patients who have contraindications to cisplatin-based adjuvant therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is intended to target systemic micrometastases that remain after primary resection. The observation that cancers can relapse months or years after initial surgery implies that the residual micrometastases exist in a latent or dormant state. The concept of tumor dormancy offers therapeutic potential through induction or maintenance of the dormant state in disseminated tumor cells or through eradication of these dormant cells. Cancer dormancy is a complex process with multiple potential mechanisms. This review will focus on some of the evidence for immune related tumor dormancy and the potential for immune therapies to improve outcomes in the adjuvant setting in NSCLC.

  18. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2/MnSOD)/catalase and SOD2/GPx1 ratios as biomarkers for tumor progression and metastasis in prostate, colon, and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miar, Ana; Hevia, David; Muñoz-Cimadevilla, Henar; Astudillo, Aurora; Velasco, Julio; Sainz, Rosa M; Mayo, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    The role of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD2/MnSOD) during tumor progression has been studied for several decades with controversial results. While SOD2 downregulation was initially associated with tumor initiation and was proposed as a tumor suppressor gene, recent studies have reported that SOD2 might favor tumor progression and dissemination. To our knowledge this is the first time that changes in SOD2 expression in three different types of tumors, i.e., prostate, lung, and colon cancer, are studied by analyzing both SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in a total of 246 patients' samples. In prostate samples, SOD2 protein levels were also increased, especially in middle stage tumors. In the case of colon and lung tumors both mRNA and protein SOD2 levels were increased in malignant tissues compared to those in nontumor samples. More importantly, all metastases analyzed showed increased levels of SOD2 when compared to those of normal primary tissue and healthy adjacent tissue. Together, these results suggest that a common redox imbalance in these three types of tumor occurs at intermediate stages which then might favor migration and invasion, leading to a more aggressive cancer type. Consequently, the ratios SOD2/catalase and SOD2/Gpx1 could be considered as potential markers during progression from tumor growth to metastasis.

  19. Gum Arabic-encapsulated gold nanoparticles for a non-invasive photothermal ablation of lung tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moustafa, Dina; El-Daly, Sherien M; Abo-Zeid, Mona A M; Saleh, Samira; Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kavita; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kattesh V

    2017-05-01

    In our previous work, we have extensively evaluated the physiochemical characteristics of Gum Arabic-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (GA-AuNPs; 15-18nm) and reported their effectiveness in stopping the tumor initiation via inhibiting the pre-neoplastic lesions in liver. The rationale of this study is to detect the efficiency of using GA-AuNPs in photothermal application as a non-invasive technique against lung tumor. We investigated the cytotoxicity of GA-AuNPs on A549 cells, and then studied their apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, lipid peroxidation and anti-neovascular effect in in vivo model using a chemically-induced lung cancer in mice. The histopathological changes due to GA-AuNPs were investigated. In the presence of laser irradiation, GA-AuNPs had a considerable cytotoxicity against A549 cells. The treatment of lung tumor-bearing mice with GA-AuNPs followed by laser exposure enhanced the apoptotic pathway and this was obvious from the histopathological investigations and the elevations in cytochrome-c, death receptor 5 and the subsequent upregulation of caspase-3, we also reported a significant reduction in the levels of the inflammatory mediator TNF-α and the angiogenesis inducer VEGF. An induction of lipid peroxidation was also reported upon treatment with either GA or GA-AuNPs. GA-AuNPs showed no cytotoxicity in the absence of light, however the combination of GA-AuNPs with laser induced cell death in lung tumor tissues with a reduction in the inflammation and angiogenesis together with an elevation in lipid peroxidation, suggesting the potential use of these functionalized nanoparticles as a promising photothermal non-invasive treatment modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Local Efficacy and Survival after Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors: A Retrospective Study in 183 Patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aimin; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xia; Huang, Guanghui; Gai, Yonghao

    2016-12-01

    To retrospectively evaluate local efficacy and survival after microwave (MW) ablation of lung tumors and identify predictors of prognosis. Data from 183 consecutive patients (67 women; mean age, 61.5 y ± 13.4) with lung tumors who had undergone 203 lung MW ablation sessions from January 2011 to May 2013 were assessed. The χ(2) test, independent-samples t test, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox regression model analysis were used to estimate survival rates and evaluate significance of factors affecting rates of incomplete ablation, local progression, remote progression-free survival (RPFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Technical success rate was 100%. Incomplete ablation rate after 183 first MW ablations was 14.2% (26 of 183); maximum diameter of target tumors (P = .00001) was associated with incomplete ablation on univariate analysis. The local progression rate was 19.1% (35 of 183); emphysema (P = .020) and maximum diameter of target tumor (P = .000003) were associated with local progression. Median and 4-year RPFS were 15.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.1-18.9 mo) and 23.8%, respectively. Tumor stage (P < .01) and incomplete ablation (P = .002) were independent predictors of RPFS. Median and 4-year CSS were 24.9 months (95% CI, 19.9-29.9 mo) and 31.1%, respectively. Median and 4-year overall survival were 23.7 months (95% CI, 20.6-26.8 mo) and 29.6%, respectively. Tumor stage (P < .01) and maximum diameter (P = .009) were independent risk factors for CSS. MW ablation is effective for lung tumors, especially small lesions of early-stage primary lung cancer and solitary lung metastasis. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Gene Expression Subtypes Demonstrate Significant Differences in Tumor Immune Landscape.

    PubMed

    Faruki, Hawazin; Mayhew, Gregory M; Serody, Jonathan S; Hayes, D Neil; Perou, Charles M; Lai-Goldman, Myla

    2017-06-01

    Molecular subtyping of lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) reveal biologically diverse tumors that vary in their genomic and clinical attributes. Published immune cell signatures and several lung AD and SCC gene expression data sets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, were used to examine immune response in relation to AD and SCC expression subtypes. Expression of immune cell populations and other immune related genes, including CD274 molecule gene (CD274) (programmed death ligand 1), was investigated in the tumor microenvironment relative to the expression subtypes of the AD (terminal respiratory unit, proximal proliferative, and proximal inflammatory) and SCC (primitive, classical, secretory, and basal) subtypes. Lung AD and SCC expression subtypes demonstrated significant differences in tumor immune landscape. The proximal proliferative subtype of AD demonstrated low immune cell expression among ADs whereas the secretory subtype showed elevated immune cell expression among SCCs. Tumor expression subtype was a better predictor of immune cell expression than CD274 (programmed death ligand 1) in SCC tumors but was a comparable predictor in AD tumors. Nonsilent mutation burden was not correlated with immune cell expression across subtypes; however, major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression was highly correlated with immune cell expression. Increased immune and major histocompatibility complex II gene expression was associated with improved survival in the terminal respiratory unit and proximal inflammatory subtypes of AD and in the primitive subtype of SCC. Molecular expression subtypes of lung AD and SCC demonstrate key and reproducible differences in immune host response. Evaluation of tumor expression subtypes as potential biomarkers for immunotherapy should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A case of bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for cerebello pontine angle tumor excision: Anesthetic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, C; Kurian, GP; Mariappan, R

    2016-01-01

    The main goals of neuroanesthesia are the maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure, avoidance of hypercarbia, hypoxemia, and to provide better brain relaxation. Providing anesthesia for a patient with bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for craniotomy can be challenging. A 56-year-old male patient, case of right lung bronchiectasis with a right cerebello pontine angle tumor underwent excision in the left lateral position. Since he had severe bronchiectasis of the right lung, we had isolated the right lung using right-sided double lumen tube to avoid spillage. Intraoperative split lung test was performed to assess the right lung contribution on carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination and found that there was a significant contribution from the right lung. Hence, both lungs were ventilated to control CO2. The importance of lung isolation to prevent spillage and avoidance of one lung ventilation to control the arterial CO2 are highlighted in this case report. By providing a balanced anesthetic keeping both, the neurosurgical and thoracic concerns are important for better postoperative outcome. PMID:27375400

  3. Initial treatment patterns over time for anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Panageas, Katherine S.; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Rivera, Andreana L.; Eichler, April F.; Louis, David N.; Paleologos, Nina A.; Fisher, Barbara J.; Ashby, Lynn S.; Cairncross, J. Gregory; Roldán Urgoiti, Gloria B.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Ligon, Keith L.; Schiff, David; Robins, H. Ian; Rocque, Brandon G.; Chamberlain, Marc C.; Mason, Warren P.; Weaver, Susan A.; Green, Richard M.; Kamar, Francois G.; Abrey, Lauren E.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Jhanwar, Suresh C.; Rosenblum, Marc K.; Lassman, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors are rare neoplasms with no standard approach to treatment. We sought to determine patterns of treatment delivered over time and identify clinical correlates of specific strategies using an international retrospective cohort of 1013 patients diagnosed from 1981–2007. Prior to 1990, most patients received radiotherapy (RT) alone as initial postoperative treatment. After 1990, approximately 50% of patients received both RT and chemotherapy (CT) sequentially and/or concurrently. Treatment with RT alone became significantly less common (67% in 1980–1984 vs 5% in 2005–2007, P < .0001). CT alone was more frequently administered in later years (0% in 1980–1984 vs 38% in 2005–2007; P < .0001), especially in patients with 1p19q codeleted tumors (57% of codeleted vs 4% with no deletion in 2005–2007; P < .0001). Temozolomide replaced the combination of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) among patients who received CT alone or with RT (87% vs 2% in 2005–2007). In the most recent time period, patients with 1p19q codeleted tumors were significantly more likely to receive CT alone (with temozolomide), whereas RT with temozolomide was a significantly more common treatment strategy than either CT or RT alone in cases with no deletion (P < .0001). In a multivariate polytomous logistic regression model, the following were significantly associated with type of treatment delivered: date (5-year interval) of diagnosis (P < .0001), 1p19q codeletion (P < .0001), pure anaplastic oligodendroglioma histology (P < .01), and frontal lobe predominance (P < .05). Limited level 1 evidence is currently available to guide treatment decisions, and ongoing phase III trials will be critical to understanding the optimal therapy. PMID:22661585

  4. Ovarian tumor-initiating cells display a flexible metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Angela S.; Roberts, Paul C.; Frisard, Madlyn I.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Schmelz, Eva M.

    2014-10-15

    An altered metabolism during ovarian cancer progression allows for increased macromolecular synthesis and unrestrained growth. However, the metabolic phenotype of cancer stem or tumor-initiating cells, small tumor cell populations that are able to recapitulate the original tumor, has not been well characterized. In the present study, we compared the metabolic phenotype of the stem cell enriched cell variant, MOSE-L{sub FFLv} (TIC), derived from mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, to their parental (MOSE-L) and benign precursor (MOSE-E) cells. TICs exhibit a decrease in glucose and fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in lactate secretion. In contrast to MOSE-L cells, TICs can increase their rate of glycolysis to overcome the inhibition of ATP synthase by oligomycin and can increase their oxygen consumption rate to maintain proton motive force when uncoupled, similar to the benign MOSE-E cells. TICs have an increased survival rate under limiting conditions as well as an increased survival rate when treated with AICAR, but exhibit a higher sensitivity to metformin than MOSE-E and MOSE-L cells. Together, our data show that TICs have a distinct metabolic profile that may render them flexible to adapt to the specific conditions of their microenvironment. By better understanding their metabolic phenotype and external environmental conditions that support their survival, treatment interventions can be designed to extend current therapy regimens to eradicate TICs. - Highlights: • Ovarian cancer TICs exhibit a decreased glucose and fatty acid oxidation. • TICs are more glycolytic and have highly active mitochondria. • TICs are more resistant to AICAR but not metformin. • A flexible metabolism allows TICs to adapt to their microenvironment. • This flexibility requires development of specific drugs targeting TIC-specific changes to prevent recurrent TIC outgrowth.

  5. On the nature of the tumor-initiating cell.

    PubMed

    Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Caceres-Cortes, Julio Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Certain aspects of tumors that may influence areas of basic biology and medicine are reviewed. The hypothesis that malignant stem cells evolve from normal stem cells, is considered. Information is being accumulated on the possibility that certain cell populations that can be propagated as cell lines in vitro can produce cells with features of differentiated cells in addition to others that maintain the line and, in some cases may also initiate tumor formation in vivo. Up to the present time, there is evidence to show that cancer stem cells persist in many cell lines. Tyrosine kinase inhibition produces combinations of autophagy and apoptosis in the human erythroleukemia cell line TF-1 hinting at a heterotypic aggregation of cells containing cancer stem cells. Finally, the mechanisms of cancer development, invasion and metastasis are operatively defined. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the salient features of cancer stem cells in support of the proposal that research in neoplasia be increased. Rather than presenting details of various studies, we have attempted to indicate general areas in which work has been done or is in progress. It is hoped that this survey of the subject will demonstrate a variety of opportunities for additional research in human neoplasia.

  6. Kinetics of MDR Transport in Tumor-Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koshkin, Vasilij; Yang, Burton B.; Krylov, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) driven by ABC (ATP binding cassette) membrane transporters is one of the major causes of treatment failure in human malignancy. MDR capacity is thought to be unevenly distributed among tumor cells, with higher capacity residing in tumor-initiating cells (TIC) (though opposite finding are occasionally reported). Functional evidence for enhanced MDR of TICs was previously provided using a “side population” assay. This assay estimates MDR capacity by a single parameter - cell’s ability to retain fluorescent MDR substrate, so that cells with high MDR capacity (“side population”) demonstrate low substrate retention. In the present work MDR in TICs was investigated in greater detail using a kinetic approach, which monitors MDR efflux from single cells. Analysis of kinetic traces obtained allowed for the estimation of both the velocity (Vmax) and affinity (KM) of MDR transport in single cells. In this way it was shown that activation of MDR in TICs occurs in two ways: through the increase of Vmax in one fraction of cells, and through decrease of KM in another fraction. In addition, kinetic data showed that heterogeneity of MDR parameters in TICs significantly exceeds that of bulk cells. Potential consequences of these findings for chemotherapy are discussed. PMID:24223908

  7. Tumor-Initiating Cells: Emerging Biophysical Methods of Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cermeño, Efraín A.; García, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and subsequent isolation of tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a small population of highly tumorigenic and drug-resistant cancer cells also called cancer stem cells (CSCs), have revolutionized our understanding of cancer. TICs are isolated using various methodologies, including selection of surface marker expression, ALDH activity, suspension culture, and chemotherapy/drug resistance. These methods have several drawbacks, including their variability, lack of robustness and scalability, and low specificity. Alternative methods of purification take advantage of biophysical properties of TICs including their adhesion and stiffness. This review will provide a brief overview of TIC biology as well as review the most important methods of TIC isolation with a focus on biophysical methods of TIC purification. PMID:27141429

  8. Incidence and risk factors of development of lung tumors after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, C; Marqués, E; Manrique, A; Loinaz, C; Gómez, R; Meneu, J C; Abradelo, M; Pérez, B; Moreno, A; García, I; Moreno, E

    2005-11-01

    Lung tumors have been related to tobacco and alcohol. The incidence increases after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) especially when it is performed because of alcoholic cirrhosis. We analyzed the incidence and risk factors for de novo lung tumors among 701 patients who underwent OLT between April 1986 and July 2004, after exclusion of pediatric recipients and adults who died within 2 months after OLT. The incidence of de novo lung tumors was 15 patients (2.1%), including 12 (4.3%) who underwent OLT for alcoholic cirrhosis and 3 (0.7%) for nonalcoholic diseases. There were 14 men and 1 woman of mean age at OLT of 50.8 +/- 9.6 years. Mean time from OLT to lung tumor was 83 +/- 43 months (range, 10-184 months). Thirteen patients (86.6%) were heavy smokers before OLT and 8 (61.5%) continued after OLT; 12 patients (80%) were heavy drinkers before OLT. Ten patients were immunosuppressed with CyA and 5 with tacrolimus. Acute rejection episodes before tumor diagnosis occurred in 6 patients (40%). Two patients underwent thoracotomy, but only one was resected. The remaining 13 patients were unresectable because of locally advanced tumor or metastatic disease. Two unresectable patients received palliative chemotherapy. All patients died with a mean survival from tumor diagnosis, of 5.3 months (range, 3 days to 33 months). A significantly higher incidence of lung tumors was observed among patients who underwent OLT for alcoholic cirrhosis, usually diagnosed in advanced stages of poor prognosis and low survival.

  9. WE-AB-303-08: Direct Lung Tumor Tracking Using Short Imaging Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, C; Huang, C; Keall, P; Feain, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Most current tumor tracking technologies rely on implanted markers, which suffer from potential toxicity of marker placement and mis-targeting due to marker migration. Several markerless tracking methods have been proposed: these are either indirect methods or have difficulties tracking lung tumors in most clinical cases due to overlapping anatomies in 2D projection images. We propose a direct lung tumor tracking algorithm robust to overlapping anatomies using short imaging arcs. Methods: The proposed algorithm tracks the tumor based on kV projections acquired within the latest six-degree imaging arc. To account for respiratory motion, an external motion surrogate is used to select projections of the same phase within the latest arc. For each arc, the pre-treatment 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) with tumor contours are used to estimate and remove the contribution to the integral attenuation from surrounding anatomies. The position of the tumor model extracted from 4D CBCT of the same phase is then optimized to match the processed projections using the conjugate gradient method. The algorithm was retrospectively validated on two kV scans of a lung cancer patient with implanted fiducial markers. This patient was selected as the tumor is attached to the mediastinum, representing a challenging case for markerless tracking methods. The tracking results were converted to expected marker positions and compared with marker trajectories obtained via direct marker segmentation (ground truth). Results: The root-mean-squared-errors of tracking were 0.8 mm and 0.9 mm in the superior-inferior direction for the two scans. Tracking error was found to be below 2 and 3 mm for 90% and 98% of the time, respectively. Conclusions: A direct lung tumor tracking algorithm robust to overlapping anatomies was proposed and validated on two scans of a lung cancer patient. Sub-millimeter tracking accuracy was observed, indicating the potential of this algorithm for real-time guidance

  10. Lung tumors in strain A mice as a bioassay for carcinogenicity of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, G.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This report describes the protocol for the strain A mouse lung tumor bioassay and summarizes results on selected chemicals that have been tested for carcinogenicity in the assay. The assay is of 6 months duration and can distinguish 2-fold differences in carcinogenic potential of compounds from several chemical classes. Specifically, the assay is sensitive to polycyclic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines and nitrosoureas, carbamates, aflatoxin, certain metals, hydrazines, and others, but is relatively insensitive to aromatic amines, aliphatic halides, and other compounds that are carcinogenic in the rodent liver and/or bladder. Recommendations are made for future studies on the: (1) distribution and metabolism of chemicals in strain A mouse lung tissue and in specific lung cell types; (2) ability of the lung tumor bioassay to detect inhibitors and promoters of carcinogenesis; and (3) use of the assay for testing mixtures of chemicals for carcinogenic activity.

  11. Automatic segmentation of tumor-laden lung volumes from the LIDC database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Walter G.

    2012-03-01

    The segmentation of the lung parenchyma is often a critical pre-processing step prior to application of computer-aided detection of lung nodules. Segmentation of the lung volume can dramatically decrease computation time and reduce the number of false positive detections by excluding from consideration extra-pulmonary tissue. However, while many algorithms are capable of adequately segmenting the healthy lung, none have been demonstrated to work reliably well on tumor-laden lungs. Of particular challenge is to preserve tumorous masses attached to the chest wall, mediastinum or major vessels. In this role, lung volume segmentation comprises an important computational step that can adversely affect the performance of the overall CAD algorithm. An automated lung volume segmentation algorithm has been developed with the goals to maximally exclude extra-pulmonary tissue while retaining all true nodules. The algorithm comprises a series of tasks including intensity thresholding, 2-D and 3-D morphological operations, 2-D and 3-D floodfilling, and snake-based clipping of nodules attached to the chest wall. It features the ability to (1) exclude trachea and bowels, (2) snip large attached nodules using snakes, (3) snip small attached nodules using dilation, (4) preserve large masses fully internal to lung volume, (5) account for basal aspects of the lung where in a 2-D slice the lower sections appear to be disconnected from main lung, and (6) achieve separation of the right and left hemi-lungs. The algorithm was developed and trained to on the first 100 datasets of the LIDC image database.

  12. Cyclin D expression in plutonium-induced lung tumors in F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.

    1995-12-01

    The genetic mechanisms responsible for {alpha}-radiation-induced lung cancer in rats following inhalation of {sup 239}Pu is an ongoing area of research in our laboratory. Previous studies have examined the status of the p53 gene by immunohistochemistry. Only two tumors (2/26 squamous cell carcinomas) exhibited detectable levels of p53 products. Both were the result of mutations in codons 280 and 283. More recent studies of X-ray-induced lung tumors in rats showed a similar lack of involvement of p53. In conclusion, we found that {alpha}-radiation-induced rat lung tumors have a high incidence (31 of 39) of cyclin D{sub 1} overexpression.

  13. Rapid tumor regression in an Asian lung cancer patient following personalized neo-epitope peptide vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fenge; Chen, Caixia; Ju, Tao; Gao, Junqin; Yan, Jun; Wang, Peng; Xu, Qiang; Hwu, Patrick; Du, Xueming; Lizée, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Personalized immunotherapy targeting tumor-specific mutations represents a highly promising approach to cancer treatment. Here, we describe an Asian lung squamous cell carcinoma patient demonstrating frank disease progression following chemotherapy and EGFR inhibitor treatment. Based on tumor mutational profiling and HLA typing, a saline-based multi-epitope peptide vaccine was designed and administered along with topical imiquimod as an adjuvant. Weekly neo-epitope peptide vaccination was followed by a rapid and dramatic regression of multiple lung tumor nodules, while a much larger liver metastasis remained refractory to treatment. Peripheral blood immune monitoring showed that specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced primarily against peptide targets encompassing the widely shared EGFR L858R mutation, particularly one restricted to HLA-A*3101. Immunological targeting of this driver mutation may be of particular benefit to Asian lung cancer patients due to its relatively high prevalence within this patient population. PMID:28123873

  14. Extracorporeal Lung Support as a Bridge to Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tumor Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Halloran, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Bridging to diagnosis is an emerging technique used in end-stage cardiorespiratory failure that prolongs a patient's life using various modalities of extracorporeal lung support (ECLS) to achieve antemortem diagnosis. Pulmonary tumor embolism occurs when cell clusters travel from primary malignancies through venous circulation to the lungs, causing respiratory failure through inflammatory and venoocclusive pathways. Due to its nonspecific symptomatology, pulmonary tumor embolism remains an elusive diagnosis antemortem. Herein, we bridge a patient who presented in acute respiratory failure to the diagnosis of pulmonary tumor embolism from a gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma using ECLS modalities including venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and centrally cannulated Novalung pumpless extracorporeal lung assist. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in diagnostically uncertain cases in unstable patients who are potentially acceptable ECLS and transplant candidates. PMID:28070437

  15. Automated detection and delineation of lung tumors in PET-CT volumes using a lung atlas and iterative mean-SUV threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2009-02-01

    Automated segmentation for the delineation of lung tumors with PET-CT is a challenging task. In PET images, primary lung tumors can have varying degrees of tracer uptake, which sometimes does not differ markedly from normal adjacent structures such as the mediastinum, heart and liver. In addition, separation of tumor from adjacent soft tissues and bone in the chest wall is problematic due to limited resolution. For CT, the tumor soft tissue density can be similar to that in the blood vessels and the chest wall; and although CT provides better boundary definition, exact tumor delineation is also difficult when the tumor density is similar to adjacent structures. We propose an innovative automated adaptive method to delineate lung tumors in PET-CT images in conjunction with a lung atlas in which an iterative mean-SUV (Standardized Uptake Value) threshold is used to gradually define the tumor region in PET. Tumor delineation in the CT data is performed using region growing and seeds obtained autonomously from the PET tumor regions. We evaluated our approach in 13 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and found it could delineate tumors of different size, shape and location, even when when the NSCLC involved the chest wall.

  16. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the lung: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fole-Vázquez, David; Casan, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, aggressive and malignant tumor that is characterized by nests of small tumor cells surrounded by a cellular and vascular collagenous stroma and predominantly affects young adolescent males. This tumor most commonly originates in the abdomen; however, in rare cases, DSRCT can originate in other body regions. The main manifestations of DSRCT are chest pain and respiratory symptoms, and patients' average survival after diagnosis is less than two years. In this report, we describe a case involving DSRCT of the lung that proved to be difficult to diagnose, and we conduct a literature review. PMID:26744673

  17. siRNA delivery to lung-metastasized tumor by systemic injection with cationic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ayako; Arai, Shohei; Kawano, Kumi; Maitani, Yoshie; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2015-01-01

    Cationic liposomes can efficiently deliver siRNA to the lung by intravenous injection of cationic liposome/siRNA complexes (lipoplexes). The aim of this study was to examine a formulation of cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery to lung metastasis of breast tumor. For the preparation of cationic liposomes, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) or dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB) as a cationic lipid and cholesterol (Chol) or 1,2-dioleoyl-L-α-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) as a neutral lipid were used. In vitro and in vivo gene silencing effects by cationic lipoplexes were evaluated after transfection into stably luciferase-expressing human breast tumor MCF-7-Luc cells and after intravenous injection into mice with lung MCF-7-Luc metastasis, respectively. Intracellular localization of siRNA after transfection into MCF-7 cells by cationic lipoplexes and biodistribution of siRNA after intravenous injection of cationic lipoplexes into the mice with lung metastasis were examined by confocal and fluorescent microscopy analyses, respectively. In in vitro transfection, DOTAP/DOPE and DDAB/DOPE lipoplexes of luciferase siRNA strongly suppressed luciferase activity in MCF-7-Luc cells, but DOTAP/Chol and DDAB/Chol lipoplexes did not, although DOTAP/Chol and DDAB/Chol lipoplexes exhibited higher cellular uptake than DOTAP/DOPE and DDAB/DOPE lipoplexes. When their cationic lipoplexes were intravenously injected into mice with lung MCF-7-Luc metastasis, siRNAs were mainly accumulated in the lungs; however, the reduced luciferase activities in the lung-metastasized tumors were observed only by injections of DOTAP/Chol and DOTAP/DOPE lipoplexes, but not by DDAB/Chol and DDAB/DOPE lipoplexes. DOTAP-based liposomes might be useful as an in vivo siRNA delivery carrier that can induce gene silencing in lung-metastasized tumors.

  18. Aberrant DNA methylation of some tumor suppressor genes in lung cancers from workers with chromate exposure.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdellah H K; Kondo, Kazuya; Namura, Toshiaki; Senba, Yoshitaka; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Toba, Hiroaki; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Sakiyama, Shoji; Tangoku, Akira

    2011-02-01

    Our previous studies revealed a variety of genetic changes in lung cancers from chromate-exposed workers (chromate lung cancer). In the present study, we examined epigenetic changes in chromate lung cancers. Nested-methylation-specific PCR was employed in studying the methylation of CpG islands in the APC, MGMT, hMLH1 genes in 36 chromate lung cancers and 25 nonchromate lung cancers. Methylation in chromate lung cancers was detected at 86% for APC, 20% for MGMT, and 28% for hMLH1. Whereas, it occurred at lower frequencies in nonchromate lung cancers, particularly in APC (44%) and hMLH1 (0%) genes. Our previous study showed that methylation of p16 gene in chromate lung cancer and nonchromate lung cancer was 33% and 26%, respectively. The mean methylation index (MI), a reflection of the overall methylation status, was significantly higher in chromate lung cancers than nonchromate lung cancers (0.41 vs. 0.21, P=0.001). Methylation of multiple genes (particularly hMLH1, p16, and APC genes) had experienced more than 15 yr of chromate exposure in chromate lung cancer (MI: <15 yr; 0.19, ≥ 15 yr, 0.42). There is a significant correlation of p16 and hMLH1 methylation with the expressional decrease or loss of the corresponding gene products (P=0.037 and 0.024) respectively, and an inverse correlation between APC and MGMT methylation (P = 0.014). This study provides a novel evidence for the chromium carcinogenesis that chromate lung cancer is linked to the progressive methylation of some tumor suppressor genes, which may be related to genomic instability.

  19. The effect of artificial neural network model combined with six tumor markers in auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feifei; Wu, Yiming; Wu, Yongjun; Nie, Guangjin; Ni, Ran

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the diagnosis potential of artificial neural network (ANN) model combined with six tumor markers in auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer, to differentiate lung cancer from lung benign disease, normal control, and gastrointestinal cancers. Serum carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), gastrin, neurone specific enolase (NSE), sialic acid (SA), Cu/Zn, Ca were measured through different experimental procedures in 117 lung cancer patients, 93 lung benign disease patients, 111 normal control, 47 gastric cancer patients, 50 patients with colon cancer and 50 esophagus cancer patients, 19 parameters of basic information were surveyed among lung cancer, lung benign disease and normal control, then developed and evaluated ANN models to distinguish lung cancer. Using the ANN model with the six serum tumor markers and 19 parameters to distinguish lung cancer from benign lung disease and healthy people, the sensitivity was 98.3%, the specificity was 99.5% and the accuracy was 96.9%. Another three ANN models with the six serum tumor markers were employed to differentiate lung cancer from three gastrointestinal cancers, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of distinguishing lung cancer from gastric cancer by the ANN model of lung cancer-gastric cancer were 100%, 83.3% and 93.5%, respectively; The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of discriminating lung cancer by lung cancer-colon cancer ANN model were 90.0%, 90.0%, and 90.0%; And which were 86.7%, 84.6%, and 86.0%, respectively, by lung cancer-esophagus cancer ANN model. ANN model built with the six serum tumor markers could distinguish lung cancer, not only from lung benign disease and normal people, but also from three common gastrointestinal cancers. And our evidence indicates the ANN model maybe is an excellent and intelligent system to discriminate lung cancer.

  20. Disulfiram modulates stemness and metabolism of brain tumor initiating cells in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ah; Choi, Jung Won; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Park, Kyung Duk; Eum, Dayoung; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2015-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are among the most malignant pediatric brain tumors. Cells from brain tumors with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity have a number of characteristics that are similar to brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ALDH inhibition using disulfiram (DSF) against BTICs from AT/RT. Primary cultured BTICs from AT/RT were stained with Aldefluor and isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting. The therapeutic effect of DSF against BTICs from AT/RT was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. AT/RT cells displayed a high expression of ALDH. DSF demonstrated a more potent cytotoxic effect on ALDH(+) AT/RT cells compared with standard anticancer agents. Notably, treatment with DSF did not have a considerable effect on normal neural stem cells or fibroblasts. DSF significantly inhibited the ALDH enzyme activity of AT/RT cells. DSF decreased self-renewal ability, cell viability, and proliferation potential and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in ALDH(+) AT/RT cells. Importantly, DSF reduced the metabolism of ALDH(+) AT/RT cells by increasing the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ratio of NAD(+)/NADH and regulating Silent mating type Information Regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor-kappaB, Lin28A/B, and miRNA let-7g. Animals in the DSF-treated group demonstrated a reduction of tumor volume (P < .05) and a significant survival benefit (P = .02). Our study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of DSF against BTICs from AT/RT and suggested the possibility of ALDH inhibition for clinical application. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Disulfiram modulates stemness and metabolism of brain tumor initiating cells in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Ah; Choi, Jung Won; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Park, Kyung Duk; Eum, Dayoung; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Background Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are among the most malignant pediatric brain tumors. Cells from brain tumors with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity have a number of characteristics that are similar to brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ALDH inhibition using disulfiram (DSF) against BTICs from AT/RT. Methods Primary cultured BTICs from AT/RT were stained with Aldefluor and isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting. The therapeutic effect of DSF against BTICs from AT/RT was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Results AT/RT cells displayed a high expression of ALDH. DSF demonstrated a more potent cytotoxic effect on ALDH+ AT/RT cells compared with standard anticancer agents. Notably, treatment with DSF did not have a considerable effect on normal neural stem cells or fibroblasts. DSF significantly inhibited the ALDH enzyme activity of AT/RT cells. DSF decreased self-renewal ability, cell viability, and proliferation potential and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in ALDH+ AT/RT cells. Importantly, DSF reduced the metabolism of ALDH+ AT/RT cells by increasing the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ratio of NAD+/NADH and regulating Silent mating type Information Regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor-kappaB, Lin28A/B, and miRNA let-7g. Animals in the DSF-treated group demonstrated a reduction of tumor volume (P < .05) and a significant survival benefit (P = .02). Conclusion Our study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of DSF against BTICs from AT/RT and suggested the possibility of ALDH inhibition for clinical application. PMID:25378634

  2. Regional Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Stuhr, Kelly; Miften, Moyed

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To describe regional lung tissue density changes in normal lung tissue of patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 179 post-SBRT follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 62 patients who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009 were studied. Median prescription dose was 54 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3 to 5 fractions. SBRT-induced lung density changes on post-SBRT follow-up CT were evaluated at approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after treatment. Dose-response curves (DRC) were generated for SBRT-induced lung damage by averaging CT number (HU) changes for regions of the lungs receiving the same dose at 5-Gy intervals. Results: For all follow-up interval periods, CT numbers linearly increased with dose until 35 Gy and were constant thereafter. For 3, 18, 24, and 30 months, the rate of relative electron density increase with dose was approximately 0.24% per Gy. At 6 months, the rate was also similar below 20 Gy but then rose to 0.6% per Gy above this threshold. After 6 months, DRCs were mostly time-independent. When split between patients treated with 3 fractions of 12 to 20 Gy (median, 20 Gy; average tumor volume, 12 {+-} 16 cm{sup 3}) and with >3 fractions of 6 to 12.5 Gy (median, 9 Gy; average tumor volume, 30 {+-} 40 cm{sup 3}), DRCs differed significantly. In both cases, CT changes at 3, 18, 24, and 30 months were identical to those of the population DRC; however, patients who received >3 fractions showed 6-month CT changes that were more than twice those for the group that received 3 fractions. Conclusions: This analysis of SBRT-induced normal lung density changes indicates that lung normal tissue has more pronounced self-limited acute effects than late effects. Differences in acute CT changes following treatments in 3 fractions were considerably less than for treatments in >3 fractions.

  3. Assessment of interpatient heterogeneity in tumor radiosensitivity for nonsmall cell lung cancer using tumor-volume variation data

    SciTech Connect

    Chvetsov, Alexei V. Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Mayr, Nina; Yartsev, Slav

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous work, the authors showed that a distribution of cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients could be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. In this research study, the authors show that this algorithm can be applied to other tumors, specifically in nonsmall cell lung cancer. This new application includes larger patient volumes and includes comparison of data sets obtained at independent institutions. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage computed tomography. Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} and clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T{sub 1/2} have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population model of tumor response and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Nonsmall cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} for nonsmall cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Conclusions: The data obtained

  4. BOK displays cell death-independent tumor suppressor activity in non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moravcikova, Erika; Krepela, Evzen; Donnenberg, Vera S; Donnenberg, Albert D; Benkova, Kamila; Rabachini, Tatiana; Fernandez-Marrero, Yuniel; Bachmann, Daniel; Kaufmann, Thomas

    2017-11-15

    As the genomic region containing the Bcl-2-related ovarian killer (BOK) locus is frequently deleted in certain human cancers, BOK is hypothesized to have a tumor suppressor function. In the present study, we analyzed primary non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors and matched lung tissues from 102 surgically treated patients. We show that BOK protein levels are significantly downregulated in NSCLC tumors as compared to lung tissues (p < 0.001). In particular, we found BOK downregulation in NSCLC tumors of grades two (p = 0.004, n = 35) and three (p = 0.031, n = 39) as well as in tumors with metastases to hilar (pN1) (p = 0.047, n = 31) and mediastinal/subcarinal lymph nodes (pN2) (p = 0.021, n = 18) as opposed to grade one tumors (p = 0.688, n = 7) and tumors without lymph node metastases (p = 0.112, n = 51). Importantly, in lymph node-positive patients, BOK expression greater than the median value was associated with longer survival (p = 0.002, Mantel test). Using in vitro approaches, we provide evidence that BOK overexpression is inefficient in inducing apoptosis but that it inhibits TGFβ-induced migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung adenocarcinoma-derived A549 cells. We have identified epigenetic mechanisms, in particular BOK promoter methylation, as an important means to silence BOK expression in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our data point toward a novel mechanism by which BOK acts as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC by inhibiting EMT. Consequently, the restoration of BOK levels in low-BOK-expressing tumors might favor the overall survival of NSCLC patients. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Tumor Board Participation Among Physicians Caring for Patients With Lung or Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kehl, Kenneth L.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Kahn, Katherine L.; Gray, Stacy W.; Chen, Aileen B.; Keating, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Multidisciplinary tumor board meetings are common in cancer care, but limited evidence is available about their benefits. We assessed the associations of tumor board participation and structure with care delivery and patient outcomes. Methods: As part of the CanCORS study, we surveyed 1,601 oncologists and surgeons about participation in tumor boards and specific tumor board features. Among 4,620 patients with lung or colorectal cancer diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 and seen by 1,198 of these physicians, we assessed associations of tumor board participation with patient survival, clinical trial enrollment, guideline-recommended care, and patient-reported quality, adjusting for patient and physician characteristics. Results: Weekly physician tumor board participation (v participation less often or never) was not associated with patient survival, although in exploratory subgroup analyses, weekly participation was associated with lower mortality for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer and stage IV colorectal cancer. Patients treated by the 54% of physicians participating in tumor boards weekly (v less often or never) were more likely to enroll onto clinical trials (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.2). Patients with stage I to II non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose physicians participated in tumor boards weekly were more likely to undergo curative-intent surgery (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.8), although those with stage I to II NSCLC whose physicians' meetings reviewed > one cancer site were less likely to undergo curative-intent surgery (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.4). Conclusion: Among patients with lung or colorectal cancer, frequent physician tumor board engagement was associated with patient clinical trial participation and higher rates of curative-intent surgery for stage I to II NSCLC but not with overall survival. PMID:25922221

  6. Effect of bevacizumab combined with boron neutron capture therapy on local tumor response and lung metastasis

    PubMed Central

    MASUNAGA, SHIN-ICHIRO; SAKURAI, YOSHINORI; TANO, KEIZO; TANAKA, HIROKI; SUZUKI, MINORU; KONDO, NATSUKO; NARABAYASHI, MASARU; WATANABE, TSUBASA; NAKAGAWA, YOSUKE; MARUHASHI, AKIRA; ONO, KOJI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bevacizumab on local tumor response and lung metastatic potential during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and in particular, the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously administered bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) tumor cells. The tumors were irradiated with thermal neutron beams following the administration of a 10B-carrier [L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-10B (BSH)], with or without the administration of bevacizumab. This was further combined with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH, 40°C for 60 min). Immediately following the irradiation, cells from certain tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q cells and the total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days following irradiation, lung metastases were enumerated. Three days following bevacizumab administration, the sensitivity of the total tumor cell population following BPA-BNCT had increased more than that following BSH-BNCT. The combination with MTH, but not with nicotinamide, further enhanced total tumor cell population sensitivity. Regardless of the presence of a 10B-carrier, MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the Q cell population. Regardless of irradiation, the administration of bevacizumab, as well as nicotinamide treatment, demonstrated certain potential in reducing the number of lung metastases especially in BPA-BNCT compared with BSH-BNCT. Thus, the current study revealed that BNCT combined with bevacizumab has the potential to sensitize total tumor cells and cause a reduction in the number of lung metastases to a similar level as nicotinamide. PMID:24944637

  7. Neutrophil Chemokines Secreted by Tumor Cells Mount a Lung Antimetastatic Response during Renal Cell Carcinoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    López-Lago, Miguel A.; Posner, Shai; Thodima, Venkata J.; Molina, Ana M.; Motzer, Robert J.; Chaganti, RSK

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism by which renal cell carcinoma (RCC) colonizes the lung microenvironment during metastasis remains largely unknown. To investigate this process, we grafted human RCC cells with varying lung metastatic potential in mice. Gene expression profiling of the mouse lung stromal compartment revealed a signature enriched for neutrophil-specific functions that was induced preferentially by poorly metastatic cells. Analysis of the gene expression signatures of tumor cell lines showed an inverse correlation between metastatic activity and the levels of a number of chemokines, including CXCL5 and IL8. Enforced depletion of CXCL5 and IL8 in these cell lines enabled us to establish a functional link between lung neutrophil infiltration, secretion of chemokines by cancer cells, and metastatic activity. We further show that human neutrophils display a higher cytotoxic activity against poorly metastatic cells compared to highly metastatic cells. Together, these results support a model in which neutrophils recruited to the lung by tumor-secreted chemokines build an antimetastatic barrier with loss of neutrophil chemokines in tumor cells acting as a critical rate-limiting step during lung metastatic seeding. PMID:22665059

  8. Immunohistochemical analysis of beta-defensin-2 expression in human lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, T; Zhuravel, E; Bolgova, L; Zaitsev, S; Efanova, O; Soldatkina, M; Pogrebnoy, P

    2010-12-01

    The present research was directed on analysis of the expression patterns of human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) in human lung tumors. Specimens of surgically resected human lung tumors (n = 31) of different histological type (1 case of small cell lung cancer, and 30 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (1 case of clear cell carcinoma, 9 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 20 cases of adenocarcinoma (AC)) were analyzed for expression of hBD-2 with the use of immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis has revealed that all lung tumor samples independently on their histological type express hBD-2 peptide, however at different levels (from < 5% to 100% cells). According to our observations, low-differentiated AC differs from moderately differentiated AC by significantly lower hBD-2 expression levels (p < 0.05). No correlation between hBD-2 expression patterns and PCNA or Bcl-2 expression has been found. Human beta-defensin-2 expression levels may depend on differentiation grade of lung adenocarcinoma.

  9. Predictive and prognostic value of preoperative serum tumor markers in resectable adenosqamous lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Dongsheng; Li, Kai; Jiang, Richeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of lung cancer. The prognostic and predictive value of preoperative serum tumor markers and frequency of EGFR mutations in adenosquamous lung carcinoma are unclear. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data and samples collected from 106 radically resected adenosquamous lung carcinoma patients with pathological stage I-IIIA between 2008 and 2013. Correlations between serum tumor marker levels and EGFR mutations as well as survival parameters were analyzed and prognostic factors were identified. Results Of the 106 adenosquamous lung carcinoma patients, 29 (27.4%) harbored EGFR mutations. By univariate analysis, advanced clinical stage (P = 0.009 for disease-free survival [DFS]; P = 0.046 for overall survival [OS]), larger tumor size (P = 0.001 for DFS; P = 0.002 for OS), regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.024 for DFS; P = 0.030 for OS), higher NSE level (P = 0.002 for DFS; P < 0.001 for OS), and higher TMI (tumor marker index) (P = 0.009 for OS) were significantly correlated with a worse prognosis. By multivariate analysis, NSE (P = 0.014) was confirmed as independent predictor for DFS, while NSE (P = 0.001) and TMI (P = 0.038) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion Adenosquamous lung carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with relatively high EGFR mutation frequency. Elevated preoperative NSE level and TMI are adverse predictive and prognostic indicators. PMID:27623437

  10. Differences in Redox Regulatory Systems in Human Lung and Liver Tumors Suggest Different Avenues for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Ryuta; Carlson, Bradley A.; Tsuji, Petra A.; Lee, Byeong Jae; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2015-01-01

    A common characteristic of many cancer cells is that they suffer from oxidative stress. They, therefore, require effective redox regulatory systems to combat the higher levels of reactive oxygen species that accompany accelerated growth compared to the normal cells of origin. An elevated dependence on these systems in cancers suggests that targeting these systems may provide an avenue for retarding the malignancy process. Herein, we examined the redox regulatory systems in human liver and lung cancers by comparing human lung adenocarcinoma and liver carcinoma to their respective surrounding normal tissues. Significant differences were found in the two major redox systems, the thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Thioredoxin reductase 1 levels were elevated in both malignancies, but thioredoxin was highly upregulated in lung tumor and only slightly upregulated in liver tumor, while peroxiredoxin 1 was highly elevated in lung tumor, but downregulated in liver tumor. There were also major differences within the glutathione system between the malignancies and their normal tissues. The data suggest a greater dependence of liver on either the thioredoxin or glutathione system to drive the malignancy, while lung cancer appeared to depend primarily on the thioredoxin system. PMID:26569310

  11. Skeletal muscle metastases as the initial manifestation of an unknown primary lung cancer detected on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Navneet; Harisankar, Chidambaram Natarajan Balasubramanian; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis as the initial presentation of the unknown primary lung cancer is unusual. A 65-year-old male patient presented with pain and swelling of the right forearm. Fine needle aspiration of the swelling revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent whole body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to identify the site of the primary malignancy. The authors present PET/CT images showing FDG-avid metastases to the skeletal muscles along with a previously unknown primary tumor in the right lung, in a patient presenting with initial muscular symptoms without any pulmonary manifestations.

  12. Four-dimensional multislice computed tomography for determination of respiratory lung tumor motion in conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Leter, Edward M. . E-mail: emleter@hotmail.com; Cademartiri, Filippo; Levendag, Peter C.; Flohr, Thomas; Stam, Henk; Nowak, Peter J.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: We used four-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) to determine respiratory lung-tumor motion and compared this strategy to common clinical practice in conformal radiotherapy treatment-planning imaging. Methods and Materials: The entire lung volume of 10 consecutive patients with 14 lung metastases were scanned by a 16-slice MSCT. During the scans, patients were instructed to breathe through a spirometer that was connected to a laptop computer. For each patient, 10 stacks of 1.5-mm slices, equally distributed throughout the respiratory cycle, were reconstructed from the acquired MSCT data. The lung tumors were manually contoured in each data set. For each patient, the tumor-volume contours of all data sets were copied to 1 data set, which allowed determination of the volume that encompassed all 10 lung-tumor positions (i.e., the tumor-traversed volume [TTV]) during the respiratory cycle. The TTV was compared with the 10 tumor volumes contoured for each patient, to which an empiric respiratory-motion margin was added. The latter target volumes were designated internal-motion included tumor volume (IMITV). Results: The TTV measurements were significantly smaller than the reference IMITV measurements (5.2 {+-} 10.2 cm{sup 3} and 10.1 {+-} 13.7 cm{sup 3}, respectively). All 10 IMITVs for 2 of the 4 tumors in 1 subject completely encompassed the TTV. All 10 IMITVs for 3 tumors in 2 patients did not show overlap with up to 35% of the corresponding TTV. The 10 IMITVs for the remaining tumors either completely encompassed the corresponding TTV or did not show overlap with up to 26% of the corresponding TTV. Conclusions: We found that individualized determination of respiratory lung-tumor motion by four-dimensional respiratory-gated MSCT represents a better and simple strategy to incorporate periodic physiologic motion compared with a generalized approach. The former strategy can, therefore, improve common and state-of-the-art clinical practice

  13. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with extensive squamous dedifferentiation metastatic to the lung: BRAF mutational analysis as a useful tool to rule out tumor to tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Andres M; Pins, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Tumors containing elements of both papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are rare but well documented. When they present initially as metastatic disease in an organ that can harbor a primary SCC, the possibility of a tumor to tumor metastasis (TTM) must be considered. The aim of this case study is to illustrate how BRAF mutational analysis can be used to help differentiate between these two diagnoses. We report a 63-year-old male with a longstanding history of PTC metastatic to the brain and lymph nodes who presented to our institution with a right lower lobe lung mass after a 2-year recurrence-free interval. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a composite neoplasm with distinct elements of both PTC and SCC. We performed BRAF (V600E) (c.1799 T > A) mutational analysis to help elucidate the origin of each component. This is the first time that BRAF sequencing has been used to discriminate between dedifferentiated PTC and TTM, to the best of our knowledge. In the context of metastatic PTC with SCC dedifferentiation, the presence of the identical BRAF (V600E) (c.1799 T > A) mutation in both components might help rule out tumor to tumor metastasis.

  14. MicroRNA-31 initiates lung tumorigenesis and promotes mutant KRAS-driven lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Mick D.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Moyo, Tamara; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Duszynski, Robert; Arrate, Maria Pia; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Zhongming; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Andl, Thomas; Eischen, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miR) are important regulators of gene expression, and aberrant miR expression has been linked to oncogenesis; however, little is understood about their contribution to lung tumorigenesis. Here, we determined that miR-31 is overexpressed in human lung adenocarcinoma and this overexpression independently correlates with decreased patient survival. We developed a transgenic mouse model that allows for lung-specific expression of miR-31 to test the oncogenic potential of miR-31 in the lung. Using this model, we observed that miR-31 induction results in lung hyperplasia, followed by adenoma formation and later adenocarcinoma development. Moreover, induced expression of miR-31 in mice cooperated with mutant KRAS to accelerate lung tumorigenesis. We determined that miR-31 regulates lung epithelial cell growth and identified 6 negative regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling as direct targets of miR-31. Our study distinguishes miR-31 as a driver of lung tumorigenesis that promotes mutant KRAS-mediated oncogenesis and reveals that miR-31 directly targets and reduces expression of negative regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling. PMID:26657862

  15. Overdiagnosis of a typical carcinoid tumor as an adenocarcinoma of the lung: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overdiagnosis of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors together with overtreatment can cause serious postoperative consequences for the patient. We report of a patient with a typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor, which was initially misdiagnosed and treated as an adenocarcinoma of the lung. GnrH receptors and the associated Raf-1/MEK/ERK-1/2-pathway are potential targets for analogs in cancer treatment. We suspected a correlation between the lack of tumor growth, application of leuprolide and the Raf-1/MEK/ERK-1/2-pathway. Therefore, we examined GnrH receptor status in the examined specimen. Case presentation In 2010 a 77 year-old male patient was shown to have a tumor mass of about 1.7 cm diameter in the inferior lobe of the left lung. Since 2005, this tumor had hitherto been known and showed no progression in size. The patient suffered from prostate cancer 4 years ago and was treated with TUR-P, radiation therapy and the application of leuprolide. We conducted an explorative thoracotomy with atypical segment resection. The first histological diagnosis was a metastasis of prostate cancer with lymphangiosis carcinomatosa. After several immunohistochemical stainings, the diagnosis was changed to adenocarcinoma of the lung. We conducted a re-thoracotomy with lobectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy 12 days later. The tumor stage was pT1 N0 MX G2 L1 V0 R0. Further immunohistochemical studies were performed. We received the results 15 days after the last operation. The diagnosis was ultimately changed to typical carcinoid tumor without any signs of lymphatic vessel invasion. The patient recovered well from surgery, but still suffers from dyspnea and lack of physical performance. Lung function testing revealed no evidence of impairment. Conclusion The use of several immunohistochemical markers, careful evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin sections and the Ki-67 labelling index are important tools in discriminating between carcinoids and other bronchopulmonary

  16. Malignant ameloblastoma (metastatic ameloblastoma) in the lung: 3 cases of misdiagnosis as primary lung tumor with a unique growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui; Shen, Lei; Zhu, Xiongzeng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2015-07-25

    Malignant ameloblastoma (metastatic ameloblastoma, MA) is currently defined as a distinct pathologic entity, MA, despite its histologically benign appearance. According to the new criteria, the histological and clinical features of MA are more homogenous. Here, we report three cases of histologically confirmed pulmonary MA. Two of the three patients complained of chest pain as the primary symptom, and the other case was detected upon the evaluation of pulmonary nodules found during a health examination after a local recurrence of mandible ameloblastoma. All three patients were female with an average age of 48 years. The intervals between the primary ameloblastoma and metastasis to the lung were 14 years, 19 years and 10 years, averaging 14.3 years. Prior to metastasis to the lung, only one patient experienced local recurrences, at 5 and 19 years after the primary tumor resection, while the other two patients both remained disease-free. Computed tomography (CT) or X-ray evaluation demonstrated multiple bilateral lung nodules ranging in size from several millimeters up to 2 cm. Histologically, the pulmonary metastatic tumors showed a unique growth pattern: the tumor cells grew among the interstitial alveoli but did not appear to destructively infiltrate the surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemically, the MA cells expressed squamous differentiation markers, such as CK10/13 and p63, while the alveolar epithelial cells stained for TTF1 and PE10. In this paper, we discuss the clinical behavior, differential diagnosis and unique growth pattern of pulmonary MA.

  17. [Neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs. From small cell lung carcinoma to diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Schnabel, P A; Junker, K

    2014-11-01

    The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification announced for 2015 will for the first time present all neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the lungs in one single section. In this classification high grade small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) will be discriminated from intermediate grade atypical carcinoid (AC) and low grade typical carcinoid as well as from the preinvasive lesion diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH). The LCNEC was previously listed under the section of large cell carcinomas. The LCNEC could previously be diagnosed according to the current WHO classification from 2004 which is designed for resection specimens. According to this the main diagnostic criteria are a neuroendocrine growth pattern which can be difficult or impossible to detect in biopsy material, non-small cell cytological features, more than 10 mitoses per 2 mm(2) (mean 70-80 per 2 mm(2)), tumor cell necrosis, and an immunohistochemical positivity for at least one neuroendocrine marker other than neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The presentation of all neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs in one section allows a more direct comparison and a better differential diagnostic discrimination of the different entities.

  18. Maraviroc decreases CCL8-mediated migration of CCR5(+) regulatory T cells and reduces metastatic tumor growth in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, E C; Hamilton, M J; Young, A; Wadsworth, B J; LePard, N E; Lee, H N; Firmino, N; Collier, J L; Bennewith, K L

    2016-06-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial physiological role in the regulation of immune homeostasis, although recent data suggest Tregs can contribute to primary tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immune responses. Tregs may also influence the development of tumor metastases, although there is a paucity of information regarding the phenotype and function of Tregs in metastatic target organs. Herein, we demonstrate that orthotopically implanted metastatic mammary tumors induce significant Treg accumulation in the lungs, which is a site of mammary tumor metastasis. Tregs in the primary tumor and metastatic lungs express high levels of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) relative to Tregs in the mammary fat pad and lungs of tumor-free mice, and Tregs in the metastatic lungs are enriched for CCR5 expression in comparison to other immune cell populations. We also identify that C-C chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8), an endogenous ligand of CCR5, is produced by F4/80(+) macrophages in the lungs of mice with metastatic primary tumors. Migration of Tregs toward CCL8 ex vivo is reduced in the presence of the CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc. Importantly, treatment of mice with Maraviroc (MVC) reduces the level of CCR5(+) Tregs and metastatic tumor burden in the lungs. This work provides evidence of a CCL8/CCR5 signaling axis driving Treg recruitment to the lungs of mice bearing metastatic primary tumors, representing a potential therapeutic target to decrease Treg accumulation and metastatic tumor growth.

  19. Maraviroc decreases CCL8-mediated migration of CCR5+ regulatory T cells and reduces metastatic tumor growth in the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, E. C.; Hamilton, M. J.; Young, A.; Wadsworth, B. J.; LePard, N. E.; Lee, H. N.; Firmino, N.; Collier, J. L.; Bennewith, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial physiological role in the regulation of immune homeostasis, although recent data suggest Tregs can contribute to primary tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immune responses. Tregs may also influence the development of tumor metastases, although there is a paucity of information regarding the phenotype and function of Tregs in metastatic target organs. Herein, we demonstrate that orthotopically implanted metastatic mammary tumors induce significant Treg accumulation in the lungs, which is a site of mammary tumor metastasis. Tregs in the primary tumor and metastatic lungs express high levels of C–C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) relative to Tregs in the mammary fat pad and lungs of tumor-free mice, and Tregs in the metastatic lungs are enriched for CCR5 expression in comparison to other immune cell populations. We also identify that C–C chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8), an endogenous ligand of CCR5, is produced by F4/80+ macrophages in the lungs of mice with metastatic primary tumors. Migration of Tregs toward CCL8 ex vivo is reduced in the presence of the CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc. Importantly, treatment of mice with Maraviroc (MVC) reduces the level of CCR5+ Tregs and metastatic tumor burden in the lungs. This work provides evidence of a CCL8/CCR5 signaling axis driving Treg recruitment to the lungs of mice bearing metastatic primary tumors, representing a potential therapeutic target to decrease Treg accumulation and metastatic tumor growth. PMID:27471618

  20. Automatic Lung Tumor Segmentation on PET/CT Images Using Fuzzy Markov Random Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Sun, Jian; Lin, Wang; Sa, Yu; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF) model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum. PMID:24987451

  1. Targeted delivery of CX3CL1 to multiple lung tumors by mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hong; Kanehira, Masahiko; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takao; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Saijo, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    MSCs are nonhematopoietic stem cells capable of differentiating into various mesoderm-type cells. MSCs have been considered to be a potential vehicle for cell-based gene therapy because MSCs are relatively easily expanded in vitro and have the propensity to migrate to and proliferate in the tumor tissue after systemic administration. Here, we demonstrated the tropism of mouse MSCs to tumor cells in vitro and multiple tumor tissues in the lung after i.v. injection of green fluorescent protein-positive MSCs in vivo. We transduced CX3CL1 (fractalkine), an immunostimulatory chemokine, to the mouse MSCs ex vivo using an adenoviral vector with the Arg-Gly-Asp-4C peptide in the fiber knob. Intravenous injection of CX3CL1-expressing MSCs to the mice bearing lung metastases of C26 and B16F10 cells strongly inhibited the development of lung metastases and thus prolonged the survival of these tumor-bearing mice. This antitumor effect depended on both innate and adaptive immunity. These results suggest that MSCs can be used as a vehicle for introducing biological agents into multiple lung tumor tissues. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  2. Automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images using fuzzy Markov random field model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Wang; Sa, Yu; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF) model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum.

  3. Aptamers Selected to Postoperative Lung Adenocarcinoma Detect Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Zamay, Galina S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Zamay, Tatiana N; Glazyrin, Yury E; Krat, Alexey V; Zubkova, Olga; Spivak, Ekaterina; Wehbe, Mohammed; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Komarova, Mariia; Grigorieva, Valentina; Savchenko, Andrey; Modestov, Andrey A; Berezovski, Maxim V; Zamay, Anna S

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells and valuable clinical markers of prognosis of metastasis formation and prediction of patient survival. Most CTC analyses are based on the antibody-based detection of a few epithelial markers; therefore miss an important portion of mesenchymal cancer cells circulating in blood. In this work, we selected and identified DNA aptamers as specific affinity probes that bind to lung adenocarcinoma cells derived from postoperative tissues. The unique feature of our selection strategy is that aptamers are produced for lung cancer cell biomarkers in their native state and conformation without previous knowledge of the biomarkers. The aptamers did not bind to normal lung cells and lymphocytes, and had very low affinity to A549 lung adenocarcinoma culture. We applied these aptamers to detect CTCs, apoptotic bodies, and microemboli in clinical samples of peripheral blood of lung cancer and metastatic lung cancer patients. We identified aptamer-associated protein biomarkers for lung cancer such as vimentin, annexin A2, annexin A5, histone 2B, neutrophil defensin, and clusterin. Tumor-specific aptamers can be produced for individual patients and synthesized many times during anticancer therapy, thereby opening up the possibility of personalized diagnostics. PMID:26061649

  4. The CTC-chip: an exciting new tool to detect circulating tumor cells in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sequist, Lecia V; Nagrath, Sunitha; Toner, Mehmet; Haber, Daniel A; Lynch, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells that originate from a malignancy and circulate freely in the peripheral blood. The ability to capture and study CTCs is an emerging field with implications for early detection, diagnosis, determining prognosis and monitoring of cancer, as well as for understanding the fundamental biology of the process of metastasis. Here, we review the development and initial clinical studies with a novel microfluidic platform for isolating these cells, the CTC-chip, and discuss its potential uses in the study of lung cancer.

  5. Six Degrees-of-Freedom Prostate and Lung Tumor Motion Measurements Using Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Ng, Jin Aun; Booth, Jeremy; Keall, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Tumor positional uncertainty has been identified as a major issue that deteriorates the efficacy of radiation therapy. Tumor rotational movement, which is not well understood, can result in significant geometric and dosimetric inaccuracies. The objective of this study was to measure 6 degrees-of-freedom (6 DoF) prostate and lung tumor motion, focusing on the more novel rotation, using kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM). Methods and Materials: Continuous kilovoltage (kV) projections of tumors with gold fiducial markers were acquired during radiation therapy for 267 fractions from 10 prostate cancer patients and immediately before or after radiation therapy for 50 fractions from 3 lung cancer patients. The 6 DoF motion measurements were determined from the individual 3-dimensional (3D) marker positions, after using methods to reject spurious and smooth noisy data, using an iterative closest point algorithm. Results: There were large variations in the magnitude of the tumor rotation among different fractions and patients. Various rotational patterns were observed. The average prostate rotation angles around the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.0 ± 5.0°, 0.6 ± 3.3°, and 0.3 ± 2.0°, respectively. For 35% of the time, the prostate rotated more than 5° about the LR axis, indicating the need for intrafractional adaptation during radiation delivery. For lung patients, the average LR, SI, and AP rotation angles were 0.8 ± 4.2°, −0.8 ± 4.5°, and 1.7 ± 3.1°, respectively. For about 30% of the time, the lung tumors rotated more than 5° around the SI axis. Respiration-induced rotation was detected in 2 of the 3 lung patients. Conclusions: The prostate and lung tumors were found to undergo rotations of more than 5° for about a third of the time. The lung tumor data represent the first 6 DoF tumor motion measured by kV images. The 6 DoF KIM method can enable rotational and translational

  6. Myo9b is a key player in SLIT/ROBO-mediated lung tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ruirui; Yi, Fengshuang; Wen, Pushuai; Liu, Jianghong; Chen, Xiaoping; Ren, Jinqi; Li, Xiaofei; Shang, Yulong; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Zhu, Li; Feng, Wei; Wu, Jane Y

    2015-11-03

    Emerging evidence indicates that the neuronal guidance molecule SLIT plays a role in tumor suppression, as SLIT-encoding genes are inactivated in several types of cancer, including lung cancer; however, it is not clear how SLIT functions in lung cancer. Here, our data show that SLIT inhibits cancer cell migration by activating RhoA and that myosin 9b (Myo9b) is a ROBO-interacting protein that suppresses RhoA activity in lung cancer cells. Structural analyses revealed that the RhoGAP domain of Myo9b contains a unique patch that specifically recognizes RhoA. We also determined that the ROBO intracellular domain interacts with the Myo9b RhoGAP domain and inhibits its activity; therefore, SLIT-dependent activation of RhoA is mediated by ROBO inhibition of Myo9b. In a murine model, compared with control lung cancer cells, SLIT-expressing cells had a decreased capacity for tumor formation and lung metastasis. Evaluation of human lung cancer and adjacent nontumor tissues revealed that Myo9b is upregulated in the cancer tissue. Moreover, elevated Myo9b expression was associated with lung cancer progression and poor prognosis. Together, our data identify Myo9b as a key player in lung cancer and as a ROBO-interacting protein in what is, to the best of our knowledge, a newly defined SLIT/ROBO/Myo9b/RhoA signaling pathway that restricts lung cancer progression and metastasis. Additionally, our work suggests that targeting the SLIT/ROBO/Myo9b/RhoA pathway has potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for lung cancer.

  7. Detection of chaotic determinism in lung cancer patients' breathing patterns and tracking of lung tumors using dMLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewatia, Dinesh Kumar

    The aim of the thesis is to investigate two techniques for tracking moving lung tumors, develop a model for numerical phantom for moving tumors and analyze breathing pattern of lung cancer patients using nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. The clinical implementation will require an electronic interface to radiation delivery machines to trigger the beam ON and hold OFF the beam once tumor goes out of the threshold window. A breathing synchronized delivery (BSD) was developed using Eclipse TM treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems). Delivered dose calculation on 50% (maximum exhalation) phase and using shaperTM application was performed to superimpose the instantaneous average tumor displacement on the dynamic Multileaf collimator position at corresponding phase. BSD technique assumed a constant dose rate and patient is guided to reproduce the breathing pattern that was acquired during 4D CT acquisition. As BSD technique cannot directly be adapted to moving tumors in case of volumetric modulated arc therapy, we have developed a novel technique for arc-based treatments. We have demonstrated the implementation of this technique on the ADAC Pinnacle3 TM (Philips Medical Systems) treatment planning system. This technique does not require breath-hold or breath synchronization and has nearly 100% duty cycle without major hardware changes. The variation in dose accumulation due to changes in breathing pattern was studied on numerical phantom. Stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment was investigated to see the effect of changes in breathing patterns on five days of the treatment. If variation in breathing pattern is not substantial, then the total accumulated dose on that treatment day would not be significantly different from the planned dose distribution. If breathing pattern on a given day changes beyond some threshold we may partially miss the target on that day. Lung tumor motion is mainly due to breathing. No matter how robust the tumor tracking

  8. Evaluation of lung tumor response to therapy: Current and emerging techniques.

    PubMed

    Coche, E

    2016-10-01

    Lung tumor response to therapy may be evaluated in most instances by morphological criteria such as RECIST 1.1 on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, those criteria are limited because they are based on tumoral dimensional changes and do not take into account other morphologic criteria such as density evaluation, functional or metabolic changes that may occur following conventional or targeted chemotherapy. New techniques such as dual-energy CT, PET-CT, MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI has to be considered into the new technical armamentarium for tumor response evaluation. Integration of all informations provided by the different imaging modalities has to be integrated and represents probably the future goal of tumor response evaluation. The aim of the present paper is to review the current and emerging imaging criteria used to evaluate the response of therapy in the field of lung cancer.

  9. Squamous cell lung cancer: from tumor genomics to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gandara, David R; Hammerman, Peter S; Sos, Martin L; Lara, Primo N; Hirsch, Fred R

    2015-05-15

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) represents an area of unmet need in lung cancer research. For the past several years, therapeutic progress in SCC has lagged behind the now more common non-small cell lung cancer histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. However, recent efforts to define the complex biology underlying SCC have begun to bear fruit in a multitude of ways, including characterization of previously unknown genomic and signaling pathways, delineation of new, potentially actionable molecular targets, and subsequent development of a large number of agents directed against unique SCC-associated molecular abnormalities. For the first time, SCC-specific prognostic gene signatures and predictive biomarkers of new therapeutic agents are emerging. In addition, recent and ongoing clinical trials, including the Lung-MAP master protocol, have been designed to facilitate approval of targeted therapy-biomarker combinations. In this comprehensive review, we describe the current status of SCC therapeutics, recent advances in the understanding of SCC biology and prognostic gene signatures, and the development of innovative new clinical trials, all of which offer new hope for patients with advanced SCC.

  10. CUL4A overexpression enhances lung tumor growth and sensitizes lung cancer cells to Erlotinib via transcriptional regulation of EGFR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yunshan; Zhang, Pengju; Liu, Ziming; Wang, Qin; Wen, Mingxin; Wang, Yuli; Yuan, Hongtu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Wei, Guangwei

    2014-11-21

    CUL4A has been proposed as oncogene in several types of human cancer, but its clinical significance and functional role in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. Expression level of CUL4A was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Forced expression of CUL4A was mediated by retroviruses, and CUL4A silencing by shRNAs expressing lentiviruses. Growth capacity of lung cancer cells was measured by MTT in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, respectively. We found that CUL4A was highly expressed in human lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines, and this elevated expression positively correlated with disease progression and prognosis. Overexpression of CUL4A in human lung cancer cell lines increased cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and subsequently conferred resistance to chemotherapy. On other hand, silencing CUL4A expression in NSCLC cells reduced proliferation, promoted apoptosis and resulted in tumor growth inhibition in cancer xenograft model. Mechanistically, we revealed CUL4A regulated EGFR transcriptional expression and activation, and subsequently activated AKT. Targeted inhibition of EGFR activity blocked these CUL4A induced oncogenic activities. In conclusion, our results highlight the significance of CUL4A in NSCLC and suggest that CUL4A could be a promising therapy target and a potential biomarker for prognosis and EGFR target therapy in NSCLC patients.

  11. CUL4A overexpression enhances lung tumor growth and sensitizes lung cancer cells to Erlotinib via transcriptional regulation of EGFR

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yunshan; Zhang, Pengju; Liu, Ziming; ...

    2014-11-21

    CUL4A has been proposed as oncogene in several types of human cancer, but its clinical significance and functional role in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. Expression level of CUL4A was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Forced expression of CUL4A was mediated by retroviruses, and CUL4A silencing by shRNAs expressing lentiviruses. Growth capacity of lung cancer cells was measured by MTT in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, respectively. We found that CUL4A was highly expressed in human lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines, and this elevated expression positively correlated with disease progression and prognosis. Overexpressionmore » of CUL4A in human lung cancer cell lines increased cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and subsequently conferred resistance to chemotherapy. On other hand, silencing CUL4A expression in NSCLC cells reduced proliferation, promoted apoptosis and resulted in tumor growth inhibition in cancer xenograft model. Mechanistically, we revealed CUL4A regulated EGFR transcriptional expression and activation, and subsequently activated AKT. Targeted inhibition of EGFR activity blocked these CUL4A induced oncogenic activities. In conclusion, our results highlight the significance of CUL4A in NSCLC and suggest that CUL4A could be a promising therapy target and a potential biomarker for prognosis and EGFR target therapy in NSCLC patients.« less

  12. Oral and gastrointestinal symptomatic metastases as initial presentation of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeba, Jenifer; Backianathan, Selvamani; Ishitha, Gunadala; Singh, Ashish

    2016-11-18

    Metastasis to the tongue, duodenum or pancreas from primary lung cancer is uncommon. Primary lung cancer presenting with symptoms related to metastases at these sites, at initial presentation is extremely rare. We report a 45-year-old man with disseminated lung malignancy who presented with dyspepsia, melena, symptoms due to anaemia and swelling in the tongue. Oral examination revealed a hard submucosal anterior tongue lesion. Biopsies from the tongue lesion and the duodenal ulcer seen on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were suggestive of metastasis from lung primary. CT revealed lung primary with disseminated metastasis to lung, liver, adrenals, kidneys, head and body of pancreas, duodenum and intra-abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with palliative chemotherapy. The unusual presentation and diagnostic details are discussed.

  13. A hybrid approach for fusing 4D-MRI temporal information with 3D-CT for the study of lung and lung tumor motion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y. X.; Van Reeth, E.; Poh, C. L.; Teo, S.-K.; Tan, C. H.; Tham, I. W. K.

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Accurate visualization of lung motion is important in many clinical applications, such as radiotherapy of lung cancer. Advancement in imaging modalities [e.g., computed tomography (CT) and MRI] has allowed dynamic imaging of lung and lung tumor motion. However, each imaging modality has its advantages and disadvantages. The study presented in this paper aims at generating synthetic 4D-CT dataset for lung cancer patients by combining both continuous three-dimensional (3D) motion captured by 4D-MRI and the high spatial resolution captured by CT using the authors’ proposed approach. Methods: A novel hybrid approach based on deformable image registration (DIR) and finite element method simulation was developed to fuse a static 3D-CT volume (acquired under breath-hold) and the 3D motion information extracted from 4D-MRI dataset, creating a synthetic 4D-CT dataset. Results: The study focuses on imaging of lung and lung tumor. Comparing the synthetic 4D-CT dataset with the acquired 4D-CT dataset of six lung cancer patients based on 420 landmarks, accurate results (average error <2 mm) were achieved using the authors’ proposed approach. Their hybrid approach achieved a 40% error reduction (based on landmarks assessment) over using only DIR techniques. Conclusions: The synthetic 4D-CT dataset generated has high spatial resolution, has excellent lung details, and is able to show movement of lung and lung tumor over multiple breathing cycles.

  14. A hybrid approach for fusing 4D-MRI temporal information with 3D-CT for the study of lung and lung tumor motion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y X; Teo, S-K; Van Reeth, E; Tan, C H; Tham, I W K; Poh, C L

    2015-08-01

    Accurate visualization of lung motion is important in many clinical applications, such as radiotherapy of lung cancer. Advancement in imaging modalities [e.g., computed tomography (CT) and MRI] has allowed dynamic imaging of lung and lung tumor motion. However, each imaging modality has its advantages and disadvantages. The study presented in this paper aims at generating synthetic 4D-CT dataset for lung cancer patients by combining both continuous three-dimensional (3D) motion captured by 4D-MRI and the high spatial resolution captured by CT using the authors' proposed approach. A novel hybrid approach based on deformable image registration (DIR) and finite element method simulation was developed to fuse a static 3D-CT volume (acquired under breath-hold) and the 3D motion information extracted from 4D-MRI dataset, creating a synthetic 4D-CT dataset. The study focuses on imaging of lung and lung tumor. Comparing the synthetic 4D-CT dataset with the acquired 4D-CT dataset of six lung cancer patients based on 420 landmarks, accurate results (average error <2 mm) were achieved using the authors' proposed approach. Their hybrid approach achieved a 40% error reduction (based on landmarks assessment) over using only DIR techniques. The synthetic 4D-CT dataset generated has high spatial resolution, has excellent lung details, and is able to show movement of lung and lung tumor over multiple breathing cycles.

  15. Investigating the Radioresistant Properties of Lung Cancer Stem Cells in the Context of the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ryan; Sethi, Pallavi; Jyoti, Amar; McGarry, Ronald; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~85% of all lung cancer. While recent research has shown that cancer stem cells (CSC) exhibit radioresistant and chemoresistant properties, current cancer therapy targets the bulk of the tumor burden without accounting for the CSC and the contribution of the tumor microenvironment. CSC interaction with the stroma enhances NSCLC survival, thus limiting the efficacy of treatment. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of CSC and the microenvironment in conferring radio- or chemoresistance in an in vitro tumor model for NSCLC. The novel in vitro three-dimensional (3D) NSCLC model of color-coded tumor tissue analogs (TTA) that we have developed is comprised of human lung adenocarcinoma cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and NSCLC cancer stem cells maintained in low oxygen conditions (5% O2) to recapitulate the physiologic conditions in tumors. Using this model, we demonstrate that a single 5 Gy radiation dose does not inhibit growth of TTA containing CSC and results in elevated expression of cytokines (TGF-α, RANTES, ENA-78) and factors (vimentin, MMP and TIMP), indicative of an invasive and aggressive phenotype. However, combined treatment of single dose or fractionated doses with cisplatin was found to either attenuate or decrease the proliferative effect that radiation exposure alone had on TTA containing CSC maintained in hypoxic conditions. In summary, we utilized a 3D NSCLC model, which had characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and tumor cell heterogeneity, to elucidate the multifactorial nature of radioresistance in tumors. PMID:26836231

  16. CAR mediates efficient tumor engraftment of mesenchymal type lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Veena, Mysore S; Qin, Min; Andersson, Asa; Sharma, Sherven; Batra, Raj K

    2009-08-01

    The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a developmentally regulated intercellular adhesion molecule that was previously observed to be required for efficient tumor formation. To confirm that observation, we compared the tumorigenicity of clonally derived test and control cell subsets that were genetically modified for CAR. Silencing CAR in lung cancer cells with high constitutive expression reduced engraftment efficiency. Conversely, overexpressing CAR in lung cancer cells with low constitutive expression did not affect tumor formation or growth kinetics. A blocking antibody to the extracellular domain of CAR inhibited tumor engraftment, implicating that domain as being important to this process. However, differences in adhesion properties attributable to this domain (barrier function and aggregation) could not be distinguished in the test groups in vitro, and the mechanisms underlying CAR's contribution to tumor engraftment remain elusive. Because high CAR cells displayed a spindle-shaped morphology at baseline, we considered whether this expression was an accompaniment of other mesenchymal features in these lung cancer cells. Molecular correlates of CAR were compared in model epithelial and mesenchymal type lung cancer cells. CAR expression is associated with an absence of E-cadherin, diminished expression of alpha- and gamma-catenin, and increased Zeb1, Snail, and vimentin expression in lung cancer cells. In contrast, epithelial type (NCI-H292, Calu3) lung cancer cells show comparatively low CAR expression. These data suggest that if the mesenchymal cell phenotype is an accurate measure of an undifferentiated and invasive state, then CAR expression may be more closely aligned with this phenotype of lung cancer cells.

  17. SU-E-J-29: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Tumor Motion Consistency for Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Makhija, K; Keall, P; Greer, P; Arm, J; Hunter, P; Kim, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the breathing-guidance system: audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. This will minimize respiratory-induced tumor motion variations across cancer imaging and radiotherapy procedues. This is the first study to investigate the impact of respiratory guidance on tumor motion. Methods: Tumor motion consistency was investigated with five lung cancer patients (age: 55 to 64), who underwent a training session to get familiarized with AV biofeedback, followed by two MRI sessions across different dates (pre and mid treatment). During the training session in a CT room, two patient specific breathing patterns were obtained before (Breathing-Pattern-1) and after (Breathing-Pattern-2) training with AV biofeedback. In each MRI session, four MRI scans were performed to obtain 2D coronal and sagittal image datasets in free breathing (FB), and with AV biofeedback utilizing Breathing-Pattern-2. Image pixel values of 2D images after the normalization of 2D images per dataset and Gaussian filter per image were used to extract tumor motion using image pixel values. The tumor motion consistency of the superior-inferior (SI) direction was evaluated in terms of an average tumor motion range and period. Results: Audiovisual biofeedback improved tumor motion consistency by 60% (p value = 0.019) from 1.0±0.6 mm (FB) to 0.4±0.4 mm (AV) in SI motion range, and by 86% (p value < 0.001) from 0.7±0.6 s (FB) to 0.1±0.2 s (AV) in period. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves both breathing pattern and tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential for facilitating reproducible tumor motion towards achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  18. STRAIN-SPECIFIC SENSITIVITY TO INDUCTION OF MURINE LUNG TUMORS FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously demonstrated that different strains of fetal mice were more sensitive to lung tumor induction by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) than were adults. Offspring from either a D2 x B6D2F1 backcross or from parental Balb/c mice exhibited a similar high incidence of lung tumors ...

  19. STRAIN-SPECIFIC SENSITIVITY TO INDUCTION OF MURINE LUNG TUMORS FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously demonstrated that different strains of fetal mice were more sensitive to lung tumor induction by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) than were adults. Offspring from either a D2 x B6D2F1 backcross or from parental Balb/c mice exhibited a similar high incidence of lung tumors ...

  20. A chance-constrained programming level set method for longitudinal segmentation of lung tumors in CT.

    PubMed

    Rouchdy, Youssef; Bloch, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stochastic level set method for the longitudinal tracking of lung tumors in computed tomography (CT). The proposed model addresses the limitations of registration based and segmentation based methods for longitudinal tumor tracking. It combines the advantages of each approach using a new probabilistic framework, namely Chance-Constrained Programming (CCP). Lung tumors can shrink or grow over time, which can be reflected in large changes of shape, appearance and volume in CT images. Traditional level set methods with a priori knowledge about shape are not suitable since the tumors are undergoing random and large changes in shape. Our CCP level set model allows to introduce a flexible prior to track structures with a highly variable shape by permitting a constraint violation of the prior up to a specified probability level. The chance constraints are computed from two given points by the user or from segmented tumors from a reference image. The reference image can be one of the images studied or an external template. We present a numerical scheme to approximate the solution of the proposed model and apply it to track lung tumors in CT. Finally, we compare our approach with a Bayesian level set. The CCP level set model gives the best results: it is more coherent with the manual segmentation.

  1. [Unilateral hyperlucent lung induced by a carcinoid tumor: comments on the differential diagnosis and mechanisms of hypoperfusion].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, N; Bugnet, A-S; Demian, M; Massard, G; De Blay, F; Pauli, G

    2005-04-01

    We report the case of a 35-year-old woman in whom a systematic thoracic x-ray led to the diagnosis of unilateral hyperlucent lung due to a carcinoid tumor obstructing the main left bronchus almost completely. Injected computed tomography permitted diagnosis of left lung hypoperfusion and visualization of the tumor. After enlarged inferior left lobar resection, normal perfusion was observed six months later on the isotopic lung perfusion scan. Other reported causes of unilateral hyperlucent lung are discussed as well as pathophysiological mechanisms of lung hypoperfusion and hypoxic vasoconstriction.

  2. Requirement for Interaction of PI3-Kinase p110α with RAS in Lung Tumor Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Esther; Sheridan, Clare; Thin, May Zaw; Nye, Emma; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Moore, Christopher; Kumar, Madhu S.; Murillo, Miguel M.; Grönroos, Eva; Lassailly, Francois; Stamp, Gordon; Downward, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Summary RAS proteins directly activate PI3-kinases. Mice bearing a germline mutation in the RAS binding domain of the p110α subunit of PI3-kinse are resistant to the development of RAS-driven tumors. However, it is unknown whether interaction of RAS with PI3-kinase is required in established tumors. The need for RAS interaction with p110α in the maintenance of mutant Kras-driven lung tumors was explored using an inducible mouse model. In established tumors, removal of the ability of p110α to interact with RAS causes long-term tumor stasis and partial regression. This is a tumor cell-autonomous effect, which is improved significantly by combination with MEK inhibition. Total removal of p110α expression or activity has comparable effects, albeit with greater toxicities. PMID:24229709

  3. Heterotypic paracrine signaling drives fibroblast senescence and tumor progression of large cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Roberto; Gabasa, Marta; Andriani, Francesca; Puig, Marta; Facchinetti, Federica; Ramírez, Josep; Gómez-Caro, Abel; Pastorino, Ugo; Fuster, Gemma; Almendros, Isaac; Gascón, Pere; Davalos, Albert; Reguart, Noemí; Roz, Luca; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Senescence in cancer cells acts as a tumor suppressor, whereas in fibroblasts enhances tumor growth. Senescence has been reported in tumor associated fibroblasts (TAFs) from a growing list of cancer subtypes. However, the presence of senescent TAFs in lung cancer remains undefined. We examined senescence in TAFs from primary lung cancer and paired control fibroblasts from unaffected tissue in three major histologic subtypes: adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and large cell carcinoma (LCC). Three independent senescence markers (senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, permanent growth arrest and spreading) were consistently observed in cultured LCC-TAFs only, revealing a selective premature senescence. Intriguingly, SCC-TAFs exhibited a poor growth response in the absence of senescence markers, indicating a dysfunctional phenotype rather than senescence. Co-culturing normal fibroblasts with LCC (but not ADC or SCC) cancer cells was sufficient to render fibroblasts senescent through oxidative stress, indicating that senescence in LCC-TAFs is driven by heterotypic signaling. In addition, senescent fibroblasts provided selective growth and invasive advantages to LCC cells in culture compared to normal fibroblasts. Likewise, senescent fibroblasts enhanced tumor growth and lung dissemination of tumor cells when co-injected with LCC cells in nude mice beyond the effects induced by control fibroblasts. These results define the subtype-specific aberrant phenotypes of lung TAFs, thereby challenging the common assumption that lung TAFs are a heterogeneous myofibroblast-like cell population regardless of their subtype. Importantly, because LCC often distinguishes itself in the clinic by its aggressive nature, we argue that senescent TAFs may contribute to the selective aggressive behavior of LCC tumors. PMID:27384989

  4. Heterotypic paracrine signaling drives fibroblast senescence and tumor progression of large cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Roberto; Gabasa, Marta; Andriani, Francesca; Puig, Marta; Facchinetti, Federica; Ramírez, Josep; Gómez-Caro, Abel; Pastorino, Ugo; Fuster, Gemma; Almendros, Isaac; Gascón, Pere; Davalos, Albert; Reguart, Noemí; Roz, Luca; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2016-12-13

    Senescence in cancer cells acts as a tumor suppressor, whereas in fibroblasts enhances tumor growth. Senescence has been reported in tumor associated fibroblasts (TAFs) from a growing list of cancer subtypes. However, the presence of senescent TAFs in lung cancer remains undefined. We examined senescence in TAFs from primary lung cancer and paired control fibroblasts from unaffected tissue in three major histologic subtypes: adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and large cell carcinoma (LCC). Three independent senescence markers (senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, permanent growth arrest and spreading) were consistently observed in cultured LCC-TAFs only, revealing a selective premature senescence. Intriguingly, SCC-TAFs exhibited a poor growth response in the absence of senescence markers, indicating a dysfunctional phenotype rather than senescence. Co-culturing normal fibroblasts with LCC (but not ADC or SCC) cancer cells was sufficient to render fibroblasts senescent through oxidative stress, indicating that senescence in LCC-TAFs is driven by heterotypic signaling. In addition, senescent fibroblasts provided selective growth and invasive advantages to LCC cells in culture compared to normal fibroblasts. Likewise, senescent fibroblasts enhanced tumor growth and lung dissemination of tumor cells when co-injected with LCC cells in nude mice beyond the effects induced by control fibroblasts. These results define the subtype-specific aberrant phenotypes of lung TAFs, thereby challenging the common assumption that lung TAFs are a heterogeneous myofibroblast-like cell population regardless of their subtype. Importantly, because LCC often distinguishes itself in the clinic by its aggressive nature, we argue that senescent TAFs may contribute to the selective aggressive behavior of LCC tumors.

  5. Targeting vascular pericytes in hypoxic tumors increases lung metastasis via angiopoietin-2

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Doruk; Kim, Jiha; Cooke, Vesselina G.; Wu, Chia-Chin; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Gu, Chenghua; De Palma, Michele; Kalluri, Raghu; LeBleu, Valerie S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Strategies to target angiogenesis include inhibition of the vessel-stabilizing properties of vascular pericytes. Pericyte depletion in early-stage non-hypoxic tumors suppressed nascent angiogenesis, tumor growth and lung metastasis. In contrast, pericyte depletion in advanced-stage hypoxic tumors with pre-established vasculature resulted in enhanced intra-tumoral hypoxia, decreased tumor growth and increased lung metastasis. Further, depletion of pericytes in post-natal retinal blood vessels resulted in abnormal and leaky vasculature. Tumor transcriptome profiling and biological validation revealed that angiopoietin signaling is a key regulatory pathway associated with pericyte targeting. Indeed, pericyte targeting in established mouse tumors increased angiopoietin-2 (ANG2/Angpt2) expression. Depletion of pericytes, coupled with targeting of ANG2 signaling, restored vascular stability in multiple model systems and decreased tumor growth and metastasis. Importantly, ANGPT2 expression correlated with poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. These results emphasize the potential utility of therapeutic regimens that target pericytes and ANG2 signaling in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25704811

  6. A geometric atlas to predict lung tumor shrinkage for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Rimner, Andreas; Yorke, Ellen; Hu, Yu-Chi; Kuo, Licheng; Apte, Aditya; Lockney, Natalie; Jackson, Andrew; Mageras, Gig; Deasy, Joseph O

    2017-01-10

    To develop a geometric atlas that can predict tumor shrinkage and guide treatment planning for non-small-cell lung cancer. To evaluate the impact of the shrinkage atlas on the ability of tumor dose escalation. The creation of a geometric atlas included twelve patients with lung cancer who underwent both planning CT and weekly CBCT for radiotherapy planning and delivery. The shrinkage pattern from the original pretreatment to the residual posttreatment tumor was modeled using a principal component analysis, and used for predicting the spatial distribution of the residual tumor. A predictive map was generated by unifying predictions from each individual patient in the atlas, followed by correction for the tumor's surrounding tissue distribution. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the predictive model for classifying voxels inside the original gross tumor volume were evaluated. In addition, a retrospective study of predictive treatment planning (PTP) escalated dose to the predicted residual tumor while maintaining the same level of predicted complication rates for a clinical plan delivering uniform dose to the entire tumor. The effect of uncertainty on the predictive model's ability to escalate dose was also evaluated. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the predictive model were 0.73, 0.76, and 0.74, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for voxel classification was 0.87. The Dice coefficient and mean surface distance between the predicted and actual residual tumor averaged 0.75, and 1.6 mm, respectively. The PTP approach allowed elevation of PTV D95 and mean dose to the actual residual tumor by 6.5 Gy and 10.4 Gy, respectively, relative to the clinical uniform dose approach. A geometric atlas can provide useful information on the distribution of resistant tumors and effectively guide dose escalation to the tumor without compromising the organs at risk complications. The atlas can be further refined by using more

  7. Fundamental principals of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene therapy approach and implications for patients with lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D; Aydin, Cigdem; Bozcuk, Hakan; Terzioglu, Ender; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2004-05-01

    Apoptosis, known as programmed cell death, is defined as a cell's preferred form of death under hectic conditions through genetically conserved and complex pathways. There is a decisive balance between stimulatory and inhibitory signaling pathways to maintain homeostasis in cells. In order to shift the balance towards apoptosis, the modulation of both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways represents an attractive target for cancer therapeutics. Currently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the most commonly used treatment modalities against lung cancer. Tumor suppressor gene, p53, is required in order for both of these treatment methods to work as anti-tumor agents. As a result, tumors lacking p53 display resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, death ligands induce apoptosis regardless of p53 status of cells. Thus, these methods constitute a complementary therapeutic approach to currently employed conventional treatment modalities. At present, death ligands are being evaluated as potential cancer therapeutic agents. Since resistance to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-mediated apoptosis represented an obstacle for the treatment of patients with lung carcinoma in the earlier attempts, an extensive research was recently initiated to understand molecular mechanism of TNF-alpha signaling. NF-kappaB transcription factors have been demonstrated to modulate the apoptotic program, mostly as blockers of apoptosis in different cell types. In this review, we concentrate on the current progress in the understanding of TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis for lung carcinoma. Representative models of NF-kappaB-inhibiting gene therapy strategies from various labs including ours are also provided as examples of up-to-date approaches to defeat TNF resistance. In order to give the reader better understanding and appreciation of such approaches, previously unpublished in vivo assays are also incorporated into this review. Current progress in clinical trials using

  8. Highly sensitive detection of multiple tumor markers for lung cancer using gold nanoparticle probes and microarrays.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wanlei; Wang, Wentao; Yao, Shihua; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Honglian; Zhang, Jishen; Jing, Fengxiang; Mao, Hongju; Jin, Qinghui; Cong, Hui; Jia, Chunping; Zhang, Guojun; Zhao, Jianlong

    2017-03-15

    Assay of multiple serum tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen (CYFRA21-1), and neuron specific enolase (NSE), is important for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a novel serological and histochemical biomarker, was recently reported to be preferentially expressed in lung cancer. Four target proteins were sandwiched by capture antibodies attached to microarrays and detection antibodies carried on modified gold nanoparticles. Optical signals generated by the sandwich structures were amplified by gold deposition with HAuCl4 and H2O2, and were observable by microscopy or the naked eye. The four tumor markers were subsequently measured in 106 lung cancer patients and 42 healthy persons. The assay was capable of detecting multiple biomarkers in serum sample at concentration of <1 ng mL(-1) in 1 h. Combined detection of the four tumor markers highly improved the sensitivity (to 87.74%) for diagnosis of lung cancer compared with sensitivity of single markers. A rapid, highly sensitive co-detection method for multiple biomarkers based on gold nanoparticles and microarrays was developed. In clinical use, it would be expected to improve the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  9. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of gastrointestinal tumors: initial clinical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Plamenova, Lilia; Keremedchiev, Momchil; Vladimirov, Borislav; Avramov, Latchezar

    2013-03-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenge and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different level of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. One of the most promising approaches is fluorescence detection using naturally existing fluorescent molecules or added fluorescent markers. Deltaaminolevulinic acid / protoporphyrin IX is applied for exogenous fluorescent tumor detection in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. Highpower light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as a source and the excitation light is passed through the light-guide of standard video-endoscopic system to obtain 2-D visualization. Both kinds of spectra - autofluorescence signals and protoporphyrin IX signal are recorded and stored using a fiber-optic microspectrometer, as in endoscopy instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence signals. In such way 1-D detection and 2-D visualization of the lesions' fluorescence are received. The results from in vivo detection show significant differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues in 1-D spectroscopic regime, but only moderate discrimination in 2-D imaging.

  10. Targeting Unique Metabolic Properties of Breast Tumor Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiguo; Gentles, Andrew; Nair, Ramesh V.; Huang, Min; Lin, Yuan; Lee, Cleo Y.; Cai, Shang; Scheeren, Ferenc A.; Kuo, Angera H.; Diehn, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Normal stem cells from a variety of tissues display unique metabolic properties compared to their more differentiated progeny. However, relatively little is known about heterogeneity of metabolic properties cancer stem cells, also called tumor initiating cells (TICs). In this study we show that, analogous to some normal stem cells, breast TICs have distinct metabolic properties compared to non-tumorigenic cancer cells (NTCs). Transcriptome profiling using RNA-Seq revealed TICs under-express genes involved in mitochondrial biology and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and metabolic analyses revealed TICs preferentially perform glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation compared to NTCs. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that decreased expression and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh), a key regulator of oxidative phosphorylation, play a critical role in promoting the pro-glycolytic phenotype of TICs. Metabolic reprogramming via forced activation of Pdh preferentially eliminates TICs both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal unique metabolic properties of TICs and demonstrate that metabolic reprogramming represents a promising strategy for targeting these cells. PMID:24497069

  11. Cellular microenvironment modulates the galvanotaxis of brain tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Hoffmann, Gwendolyn; Wheeler, Benjamin; Schiapparelli, Paula; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Searson, Peter

    2016-02-22

    Galvanotaxis is a complex process that represents the collective outcome of various contributing mechanisms, including asymmetric ion influxes, preferential activation of voltage-gated channels, and electrophoretic redistribution of membrane components. While a large number of studies have focused on various up- and downstream signaling pathways, little is known about how the surrounding microenvironment may interact and contribute to the directional response. Using a customized galvanotaxis chip capable of carrying out experiments in both two- and three-dimensional microenvironments, we show that cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions modulate the galvanotaxis of brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). Five different BTICs across three different glioblastoma subtypes were examined and shown to all migrate toward the anode in the presence of a direct-current electric field (dcEF) when cultured on a poly-L-ornithine/laminin coated surface, while the fetal-derived neural progenitor cells (fNPCs) migrated toward the cathode. Interestingly, when embedded in a 3D ECM composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen, BTICs exhibited opposite directional response and migrated toward the cathode. Pharmacological inhibition against a panel of key molecules involved in galvanotaxis further revealed the mechanistic differences between 2- and 3D galvanotaxis in BTICs. Both myosin II and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) were found to hold strikingly different roles in different microenvironments.

  12. Thoracoscopic native lung pneumonectomy after single lung transplant: initial experience with 2 cases†.

    PubMed

    Abi Jaoude, Wassim; Tiu, Brian; Strieter, Nicole; Maloney, James D

    2016-01-01

    Single lung transplants (SLTs) leave in place a diseased lung, a potential source of complications. Native lung pneumonectomy is occasionally indicated. We present 2 cases of native lung complications (NLCs) managed with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) pneumonectomy at our institution, a procedure never reported in this context before. Case 1 involves a 59-year old gentleman with refractory, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis of the native lung, 5 years after SLT for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Case 2 involves a 66-year old gentleman with α-1 antitrypsin deficiency who developed severe haemoptysis and intraparenchymal haemorrhage in the native lung 12 years after SLT. A VATS pneumonectomy was performed in both cases because we believed it would facilitate wound healing and hasten recovery in immunosuppressed patients. Our short-term results align with this hypothesis. We conclude that VATS pneumonectomy is a feasible, adequate and safe procedure in this patient population; larger series are needed to draw definitive conclusions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Tracking Lung Tumors in Orthogonal X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally very efficient, robust, automatic tracking method that does not require any implanted fiducials for low-contrast tumors. First, it generates a set of motion hypotheses and computes corresponding feature vectors in local windows within orthogonal-axis X-ray images. Then, it fits a regression model that maps features to 3D tumor motions by minimizing geodesic distances on motion manifold. These hypotheses can be jointly generated in 3D to learn a single 3D regression model or in 2D through back projection to learn two 2D models separately. Tumor is tracked by applying regression to the consecutive image pairs while selecting optimal window size at every time. Evaluations are performed on orthogonal X-ray videos of 10 patients. Comparative experimental results demonstrate superior accuracy (~1 pixel average error) and robustness to varying imaging artifacts and noise at the same time. PMID:23986789

  14. Tumor-associated neutrophils stimulate T cell responses in early-stage human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy B.; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik S.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Stephen, Tom Li; Ranganathan, Anjana; Deshpande, Charuhas; Akimova, Tatiana; Vachani, Anil; Litzky, Leslie; Hancock, Wayne W.; Conejo-Garcia, José R.; Feldman, Michael; Albelda, Steven M.; Singhal, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Infiltrating inflammatory cells are highly prevalent within the tumor microenvironment and mediate many processes associated with tumor progression; however, the contribution of specific populations remains unclear. For example, the nature and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in the cancer microenvironment is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to provide a phenotypic and functional characterization of TANs in surgically resected lung cancer patients. We found that TANs constituted 5%–25% of cells isolated from the digested human lung tumors. Compared with blood neutrophils, TANs displayed an activated phenotype (CD62LloCD54hi) with a distinct repertoire of chemokine receptors that included CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, and CXCR4. TANs produced substantial quantities of the proinflammatory factors MCP-1, IL-8, MIP-1α, and IL-6, as well as the antiinflammatory IL-1R antagonist. Functionally, both TANs and neutrophils isolated from distant nonmalignant lung tissue were able to stimulate T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release. Cross-talk between TANs and activated T cells led to substantial upregulation of CD54, CD86, OX40L, and 4-1BBL costimulatory molecules on the neutrophil surface, which bolstered T cell proliferation in a positive-feedback loop. Together our results demonstrate that in the earliest stages of lung cancer, TANs are not immunosuppressive, but rather stimulate T cell responses. PMID:25384214

  15. STRAIN-DEPENDENT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TRANSPLACENTALLY-INDUCED MURINE LUNG TUMORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    STRAIN-DEPENDENT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TRANSPLACENTALLY-INDUCED MURINE LUNG TUMORS
    M S Miller, J E Moore, M Xu, G B Nelson, S T Dance, N D Kock, J A Ross Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC and USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Previously, our laboratory demonstrated...

  16. STRAIN-DEPENDENT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TRANSPLACENTALLY-INDUCED MURINE LUNG TUMORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    STRAIN-DEPENDENT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TRANSPLACENTALLY-INDUCED MURINE LUNG TUMORS
    M S Miller, J E Moore, M Xu, G B Nelson, S T Dance, N D Kock, J A Ross Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC and USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Previously, our laboratory demonstrated...

  17. Prognostic value of tumor volume for patients with advanced lung cancer treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Ke, Bo-Han; Wu, Nain-Ying; Kuo, Joseph; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2017-06-01

    We aim to develop a reference system utilizing computed tomography to calculate changes in tumor volume of lung cancer patients after chemotherapy to assist physicians in clinical treatment and evaluation. Image processing techniques were used to analyze the computed tomography of lung cancer, locate the tumor, and calculate the tumor volume. The medical indicator was then evaluated and analyzed. We examined the correlation between reduced tumor volume and survival duration of 88 patients after chemotherapy at Tri-Service General Hospital, Taiwan. The innovative survival prediction index was obtained by four statistical methods: receiver operating characteristic curve, Youden index, Kaplan-Meier method, and log rank test. From the image processing techniques, tumor volume from each patient were obtained within an average of 7.25 seconds. The proposed method was shown to achieve rapid positioning of lung tumors and volume reconstruction with an estimation error of 1.92% when calibrated with an irregularly shaped stone. In medical indicator evaluation and analysis, the area below the receiver operating characteristic curve is greater than 0.8, indicating good predictability of the medical index used herein. The Youden index spotted the best cut-off point of volume, and the correlation between the volume's cut-off point and survival time was confirmed again by Kaplan-Meier and log rank test. The p-values were all less than 0.05, presenting a high degree of correlation between the two, indicating that this medical indicator is highly reliable. The proposed techniques can automatically find the location of tumors in the lung, reconstruct the volume, and calculate changes in volume before and after treatment, thus obtaining an innovative survival prediction index. This will help facilitate early and accurate predictions of disease outcomes during the course of therapy, and categorize patient stratification into risk groups for more efficient therapies. Copyright © 2017

  18. Oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits growth and progression of primary lung tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Kyungmann; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2007-04-01

    To develop novel mechanism-based preventive approaches for lung cancer, we examined the effect of oral consumption of a human achievable dose of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) on growth, progression, angiogenesis, and signaling pathways in two mouse lung tumor protocols. Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) were used to induce lung tumors, and PFE was given in drinking water to A/J mice. Lung tumor yield was examined on the 84th day and 140 days after B(a)P dosing and 240 days after NTCU treatment. Mice treated with PFE and exposed to B(a)P and NTCU had statistically significant lower lung tumor multiplicities than mice treated with carcinogens only. Tumor reduction was 53.9% and 61.6% in the B(a)P + PFE group at 84 and 140 days, respectively, compared with the B(a)P group. The NTCU + PFE group had 65.9% tumor reduction compared with the NTCU group at 240 days. Immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to determine effect on cell survival pathways and markers of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. PFE treatment caused inhibition of (a) activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and IkappaBalpha kinase, (b) degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, (c) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1/2, and p38), (d) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p85 and p110), (e) phosphorylation of Akt at Thr(308), (f) activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, (g) phosphorylation of c-met, and (h) markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and angiogenesis (inducible nitric oxide synthase, CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor) in lungs of B(a)P- and NTCU-treated mice. Thus, our data show that PFE significantly inhibits lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice and merits investigation as a chemopreventive agent for human lung cancer.

  19. β-catenin contributes to lung tumor development induced by EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Sohei; Sng, Natasha; Carretero, Julian; Welner, Robert; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Tan, Alistair J.; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Li, Danan; Soejima, Kenzo; Soo, Ross A.; Costa, Daniel B.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Kobayashi, Susumu S.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and development of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized treatment for lung cancer. However, resistance to TKIs emerges in almost all patients and currently no effective treatment is available. Here we show that β-catenin is essential for development of EGFR mutated lung cancers. β-catenin was upregulated and activated in EGFR mutated cells. Mutant EGFR preferentially bound to and tyrosine-phosphorylated β-catenin, leading to increase in β-catenin-mediated transactivation, particularly in cells harboring the gefitinib/erlotinib-resistant gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation. Pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin suppressed EGFR-L858R-T790M mutated lung tumor growth and genetic deletion of the β-catenin gene dramatically reduced lung tumor formation in EGFR-L858R-T790M transgenic mice. These data suggest that β-catenin plays an essential role in lung tumorigenesis and that targeting the β-catenin pathway may provide novel strategies to prevent lung cancer development or overcome resistance to EGFR TKIs. PMID:25164010

  20. Lung Tumor Suppressor GPRC5A Binds EGFR and Restrains Its Effector Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuangshuang; Yin, Huijing; Liao, Yueling; Yao, Feng; Li, Qi; Zhang, Jie; Jiao, Huike; Zhao, Yongxu; Xu, Dongliang; Liu, Shuli; Song, Hongyong; Gao, Yong; Liu, Jingyi; Ma, Lina; Pang, Zhi; Yang, Ruixu; Ding, Chengyi; Sun, Beibei; Lin, Xiaofeng; Ye, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wenzheng; Han, Baohui; Zhou, Binhua P; Chin, Y Eugene; Deng, Jiong

    2015-05-01

    GPRC5A is a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed in lung tissue but repressed in most human lung cancers. Studies in Gprc5a(-/-) mice have established its role as a tumor-suppressor function in this setting, but the basis for its role has been obscure. Here, we report that GPRC5A functions as a negative modulator of EGFR signaling. Mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) from Gprc5a(-/-) mice exhibited a relative increase in EGFR and downstream STAT3 signaling, whereas GPRC5A expression inhibited EGFR and STAT3 signaling. GPRC5A physically interacted with EGFR through its transmembrane domain, which was required for its EGFR inhibitory activity. Gprc5a(-/-) MTEC were much more susceptible to EGFR inhibitors than wild-type MTEC, suggesting their dependence on EGFR signaling for proliferation and survival. Dysregulated EGFR and STAT3 were identified in the normal epithelia of small and terminal bronchioles as well as tumors of Gprc5a(-/-) mouse lungs. Moreover, in these lungs EGFR inhibitor treatment inhibited EGFR and STAT3 activation along with cell proliferation. Finally, overexpression of ectopic GPRC5A in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells inhibited both EGF-induced and constitutively activated EGFR signaling. Taken together, our results show how GPRC5A deficiency leads to dysregulated EGFR and STAT3 signaling and lung tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 75(9); 1801-14. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Lung cancer: a classic example of tumor escape and progression while providing opportunities for immunological intervention.

    PubMed

    Jadus, Martin R; Natividad, Josephine; Mai, Anthony; Ouyang, Yi; Lambrecht, Nils; Szabo, Sandor; Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Dacosta-Iyer, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancers remain one of the most common and deadly cancers in the world today (12.5% of newly diagnosed cancers) despite current advances in chemo- and radiation therapies. Often, by the time these tumors are diagnosed, they have already metastasized. These tumors demonstrate the classic hallmarks of cancer in that they have advanced defensive strategies allowing them to escape various standard oncological treatments. Immunotherapy is making inroads towards effectively treating other fatal cancers, such as melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and castrate-resistant prostate cancers. This paper will cover the escape mechanisms of bronchogenic lung cancer that must be overcome before they can be successfully treated. We also review the history of immunotherapy directed towards lung cancers.

  2. Lung Cancer: A Classic Example of Tumor Escape and Progression While Providing Opportunities for Immunological Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jadus, Martin R.; Natividad, Josephine; Mai, Anthony; Ouyang, Yi; Lambrecht, Nils; Szabo, Sandor; Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Dacosta-Iyer, Maria G.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancers remain one of the most common and deadly cancers in the world today (12.5% of newly diagnosed cancers) despite current advances in chemo- and radiation therapies. Often, by the time these tumors are diagnosed, they have already metastasized. These tumors demonstrate the classic hallmarks of cancer in that they have advanced defensive strategies allowing them to escape various standard oncological treatments. Immunotherapy is making inroads towards effectively treating other fatal cancers, such as melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and castrate-resistant prostate cancers. This paper will cover the escape mechanisms of bronchogenic lung cancer that must be overcome before they can be successfully treated. We also review the history of immunotherapy directed towards lung cancers. PMID:22899945

  3. Fei-Liu-Ping ointment inhibits lung cancer growth and invasion by suppressing tumor inflammatory microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the primary therapeutic methods for lung cancer with the use of combination therapies gaining popularity. The frequency and duration of treatment, as well as, managing lung cancer by targeting multiple aspects of cancer biology is often limited by toxicity to the patient. There are many naturally occurring anticancer agents that have a high degree of efficacy and low toxicity, offering a viable and safe approach for the treatment of lung cancer. The herbs traditionally used in Chinese medicine for anticancer treatment offer great potential to enhance the efficacy of conventional therapy. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic effects of Fei-Liu-Ping (FLP) ointment in treating lung cancer; a known anticancer Chinese herbal based formula. Methods In this study, A549 human lung carcinoma cell line and Lewis lung carcinoma xenograft mouse model were used. In addition, we utilized an in vitro co-culture system to simulate the tumor microenvironment in order to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of FLP treatment. Results FLP treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth in the Lewis lung xenograft by 40 percent, compared to that of cyclophosphamide (CTX) of 62.02 percent. Moreover, combining FLP and CTX inhibited tumor growth by 83.23 percent. Upon evaluation, we found that FLP treatment reduced the concentration of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. In addition, we also found an improvement in E-cadherin expression and inhibition of N-cadherin and MMP9. We found similar findings in vitro when we co-cultured A549 cells with macrophages. FLP treatment inhibited A549 cell growth, invasion and metastasis, in part, through the regulation of NF-κB and altering the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, MMP2 and MMP9. Conclusions FLP exerts anti-inflammatory properties in the tumor microenvironment, which may

  4. A geometric atlas to predict lung tumor shrinkage for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Rimner, Andreas; Yorke, Ellen; Hu, Yu-Chi; Kuo, Licheng; Apte, Aditya; Lockney, Natalie; Jackson, Andrew; Mageras, Gig; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2017-02-01

    To develop a geometric atlas that can predict tumor shrinkage and guide treatment planning for non-small-cell lung cancer. To evaluate the impact of the shrinkage atlas on the ability of tumor dose escalation. The creation of a geometric atlas included twelve patients with lung cancer who underwent both planning CT and weekly CBCT for radiotherapy planning and delivery. The shrinkage pattern from the original pretreatment to the residual posttreatment tumor was modeled using a principal component analysis, and used for predicting the spatial distribution of the residual tumor. A predictive map was generated by unifying predictions from each individual patient in the atlas, followed by correction for the tumor’s surrounding tissue distribution. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the predictive model for classifying voxels inside the original gross tumor volume were evaluated. In addition, a retrospective study of predictive treatment planning (PTP) escalated dose to the predicted residual tumor while maintaining the same level of predicted complication rates for a clinical plan delivering uniform dose to the entire tumor. The effect of uncertainty on the predictive model’s ability to escalate dose was also evaluated. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the predictive model were 0.73, 0.76, and 0.74, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for voxel classification was 0.87. The Dice coefficient and mean surface distance between the predicted and actual residual tumor averaged 0.75, and 1.6 mm, respectively. The PTP approach allowed elevation of PTV D95 and mean dose to the actual residual tumor by 6.5 Gy and 10.4 Gy, respectively, relative to the clinical uniform dose approach. A geometric atlas can provide useful information on the distribution of resistant tumors and effectively guide dose escalation to the tumor without compromising the organs at risk complications. The atlas can be further refined by using

  5. SHIP represses lung inflammation and inhibits mammary tumor metastasis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Melisa J; Halvorsen, Elizabeth C; LePard, Nancy E; Bosiljcic, Momir; Ho, Victor W; Lam, Vivian; Banáth, Judit; Bennewith, Kevin L; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-01-26

    SH2-containing-inositol-5'-phosphatase (SHIP) is a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway in hematopoietic cells and limits the development of leukemias and lymphomas. The potential role of SHIP in solid tumor development and metastasis remains unknown. While SHIP restricts the aberrant development of myeloid cells in C57BL/6 mice, there are conflicting reports regarding the effect of SHIP deletion in BALB/c mice with important consequences for determining the influence of SHIP in different model tumor systems. We generated SHIP-/- BALB/c mice and challenged them with syngeneic non-metastatic 67NR or metastatic 4T1 mammary tumors. We demonstrate that SHIP restricts the development, alternative-activation, and immunosuppressive function of myeloid cells in tumor-free and tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. Tumor-free SHIP-/- BALB/c mice exhibited pulmonary inflammation, myeloid hyperplasia, and M2-polarized macrophages and this phenotype was greatly exacerbated by 4T1, but not 67NR, tumors. 4T1-bearing SHIP-/- mice rapidly lost weight and died from necrohemorrhagic inflammatory pulmonary disease, characterized by massive infiltration of pulmonary macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells that were more M2-polarized and immunosuppressive than wild-type cells. Importantly, while SHIP loss did not affect primary tumor growth, 4T1-bearing SHIP-/- mice had 7.5-fold more metastatic tumor cells in their lungs than wild-type mice, consistent with the influence of immunosuppressive myeloid cells on metastatic growth. Our findings identify the hematopoietic cell-restricted protein SHIP as an intriguing target to influence the development of solid tumor metastases, and support development of SHIP agonists to prevent the accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and tumor metastases in the lungs to improve treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  6. SHIP represses lung inflammation and inhibits mammary tumor metastasis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Melisa J.; Halvorsen, Elizabeth C.; LePard, Nancy E.; Bosiljcic, Momir; Ho, Victor W.; Lam, Vivian; Banáth, Judit

    2016-01-01

    SH2-containing-inositol-5′-phosphatase (SHIP) is a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway in hematopoietic cells and limits the development of leukemias and lymphomas. The potential role of SHIP in solid tumor development and metastasis remains unknown. While SHIP restricts the aberrant development of myeloid cells in C57BL/6 mice, there are conflicting reports regarding the effect of SHIP deletion in BALB/c mice with important consequences for determining the influence of SHIP in different model tumor systems. We generated SHIP−/− BALB/c mice and challenged them with syngeneic non-metastatic 67NR or metastatic 4T1 mammary tumors. We demonstrate that SHIP restricts the development, alternative-activation, and immunosuppressive function of myeloid cells in tumor-free and tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. Tumor-free SHIP−/− BALB/c mice exhibited pulmonary inflammation, myeloid hyperplasia, and M2-polarized macrophages and this phenotype was greatly exacerbated by 4T1, but not 67NR, tumors. 4T1-bearing SHIP−/− mice rapidly lost weight and died from necrohemorrhagic inflammatory pulmonary disease, characterized by massive infiltration of pulmonary macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells that were more M2-polarized and immunosuppressive than wild-type cells. Importantly, while SHIP loss did not affect primary tumor growth, 4T1-bearing SHIP−/− mice had 7.5-fold more metastatic tumor cells in their lungs than wild-type mice, consistent with the influence of immunosuppressive myeloid cells on metastatic growth. Our findings identify the hematopoietic cell-restricted protein SHIP as an intriguing target to influence the development of solid tumor metastases, and support development of SHIP agonists to prevent the accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and tumor metastases in the lungs to improve treatment of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26683227

  7. Lung Tumors in Mice Receiving Different Schedules of Urethane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    tumors, but this phenotypic expression did become markedly segregated. Thus, there are strains such as A, in which almost all animals develop pulmonary...urethane," Khanolkar Felicitation Volume, Bombay , Indian Cancer Research Center, 1963, pp. 158-181. [11] P. S. HENSHAW and H. L. MEYER, "Further

  8. Initial experience in treating lung cancer with helical tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yartsev, S; Dar, AR; Woodford, C; Wong, E; Bauman, G; Van Dyk, J

    2007-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a new form of image-guided radiation therapy that combines features of a linear accelerator and a helical computed tomography (CT) scanner. Megavoltage CT (MVCT) data allow the verification and correction of patient setup on the couch by comparison and image registration with the kilovoltage CT multi-slice images used for treatment planning. An 84-year-old male patient with Stage III bulky non-small cell lung cancer was treated on a Hi-ART II tomotherapy unit. Daily MVCT imaging was useful for setup corrections and signaled the need to adapt the delivery plan when the patient’s anatomy changed significantly. PMID:21614260

  9. Glucocorticoid receptor over-expression promotes human small cell lung cancer apoptosis in vivo and thereby slows tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Paula; Cowen, Rachel L; Berry, Andrew; Cookson, Ann; Telfer, Brian A; Williams, Kaye J; Stratford, Ian J; Kay, Paul; White, Anne; Ray, David W

    2010-03-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor, associated with ectopic ACTH syndrome. We have shown that SCLC cells are glucocorticoid receptor (GR) deficient, and that restoration of GR expression confers glucocorticoid sensitivity and induces apoptosis in vitro. To determine the effects of GR expression in vivo, we characterized a mouse SCLC xenograft model that secretes ACTH precursor peptides, and so drives high circulating corticosterone concentrations (analogous to the ectopic ACTH syndrome). Infection of SCLC xenografts with GR-expressing adenovirus significantly slowed tumor growth compared with control virus infection. Time to fourfold initial tumor volume increased from a median of 9 days to 16 days (P=0.05; n=7 per group). Post-mortem analysis of GR-expressing tumors revealed a threefold increase in apoptotic (TUNEL positive) cells (P<0.01). Infection with the GR-expressing adenovirus caused a significant reduction in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL transcripts. Furthermore, in both the GR-expressing adenovirus-infected cells and tumors, a significant number of uninfected cells underwent apoptosis, supporting a bystander cell killing effect. Therefore, GR expression is pro-apoptotic for human SCLCs in vivo, as well as in vitro, suggesting that loss of GR confers a survival advantage to SCLCs.

  10. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 silencing inhibits tumor growth and lung metastasis in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yang-Fan; Yan, Guang-Ning; Meng, Gang; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Qiao-Nan

    2015-08-12

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) methyltransferase is the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which acts as a transcription repressor via the trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3). EZH2 has been recognised as an oncogene in several types of tumors; however, its role in osteosarcoma has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we show that EZH2 silencing inhibits tumor growth and lung metastasis in osteosarcoma by facilitating re-expression of the imprinting gene tumor-suppressing STF cDNA 3 (TSSC3). Our previous study showed that TSSC3 acts as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma. In this study, we found that EZH2 was abnormally elevated in osteosarcoma, and its overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in osteosarcoma. Silencing of EZH2 resulted in tumor growth inhibition, apoptosis and chemosensitivity enhancement. Moreover, suppression of EZH2 markedly inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, EZH2 knockdown facilitated the re-expression of TSSC3 by reducing H3K27me3 in the promoter region. Cotransfection with siEZH2 and siTSSC3 could partially reverse the ability of siEZH2 alone. We have demonstrated that EZH2 plays a crucial role in tumor growth and distant metastasis in osteosarcoma; its oncogenic role is related to its regulation of the expression of TSSC3.

  11. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 silencing inhibits tumor growth and lung metastasis in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yang-Fan; Yan, Guang-Ning; Meng, Gang; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Qiao-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) methyltransferase is the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which acts as a transcription repressor via the trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3). EZH2 has been recognised as an oncogene in several types of tumors; however, its role in osteosarcoma has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we show that EZH2 silencing inhibits tumor growth and lung metastasis in osteosarcoma by facilitating re-expression of the imprinting gene tumor-suppressing STF cDNA 3 (TSSC3). Our previous study showed that TSSC3 acts as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma. In this study, we found that EZH2 was abnormally elevated in osteosarcoma, and its overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in osteosarcoma. Silencing of EZH2 resulted in tumor growth inhibition, apoptosis and chemosensitivity enhancement. Moreover, suppression of EZH2 markedly inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, EZH2 knockdown facilitated the re-expression of TSSC3 by reducing H3K27me3 in the promoter region. Cotransfection with siEZH2 and siTSSC3 could partially reverse the ability of siEZH2 alone. We have demonstrated that EZH2 plays a crucial role in tumor growth and distant metastasis in osteosarcoma; its oncogenic role is related to its regulation of the expression of TSSC3. PMID:26265454

  12. Alterations of tumor microenvironment by carbon monoxide impedes lung cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Csizmadia, Eva; Vikstrom, Lisa; Li, Mailin; Bisht, Kavita; Feizi, Alborz; Otterbein, Sherrie; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Costa, Daniel B.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Fillinger, Janos; Döme, Balazs; Otterbein, Leo E.; Wegiel, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are controlled by the diffusible gas carbon monoxide (CO). We demonstrate that induction of apoptosis in lung tumors treated with low doses of CO is associated with increased CD86 expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) 1/2 pathway in tumor microenvironment. Presence of CD86-positive cells was required for the anti-tumoral effects of CO in established A549 xenografts. We show that the effects of CO on tumor stroma and reprogramming of macrophages towards the anti-tumoral phenotype is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of MAPK/Erk1/2-c-myc pathway as well as Notch 1-dependent negative feedback on the metabolic enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We find a similar negative correlation between HO-1 and active MAPK-Erk1/2 levels in human lung cancer specimens. In summary, we describe novel non-cell autonomous mechanisms by which the diffusible gas CO dictates changes in the tumor microenvironment through the modulation of macrophages. PMID:26993595

  13. Disease Recurrence and Second Tumors in Long-term Survivors of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Cos Escuín, Julio; Rodríguez López, David P; Utrabo Delgado, Isabel; Gallego Domínguez, Rocío; Sojo González, M Agustín; Hernández Valle, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    As cancer survival improves, the appearance of multiple tumors in a single patient is becoming more common. The aim of this study was to analyze long-term evolution, focusing particularly on disease recurrence and second primary tumors, in patients with lung cancer (LC) and ≥ 3 years overall survival. Retrospective study of 1,769 patients with LC. A total of 218 (136 treated with surgery and 82 with other treatments), followed up for between 5 and 23 years were enrolled. LC progress and intercurrent diseases were recorded. A total of 65 patients presented tumor relapse, of which 60.9% occurred in the first 3 years; 26 patients developed secondary primary tumors (84.6% after 5 years) and 24 developed 2 or more second extrapulmonary tumors (66.6% after 5 years), most of which were smoking-related. The incidence of second primaries was greater than the expected incidence of cancer in the general population matched for age and sex. The multiple carcinogenic effect of smoking persists and manifests in various organs, more than 5 years after the diagnosis of LC, even in patients with long survival. After 5 years, a second tumor is more likely than a relapse of the primary disease, and the lung is the most common site of development of a second tumor. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting Tumor Microenvironment: Effects of Chinese Herbal Formulae on Macrophage-Mediated Lung Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Cui, Wenqiang; Zhao, Zhengxiao; Gong, Weiyi; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Mihui; Li, Qiuping; Yan, Chen; Qiu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that Qing-Re-Huo-Xue (QRHX) formulae had significant anti-inflammatory effects in chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. Here, we examined the effects of QRHX on lung cancer cell invasion and the potential associated mechanism(s), mainly polarization of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment. In vivo, QRHX both inhibited tumor growth and decreased the number of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in mice with lung cancer. Further study indicated that QRHX inhibited cancer-related inflammation in tumor by decreasing infiltration of TAMs and IL-6 and TNF-α production and meanwhile decreased arginase 1 (Arg-1) expression and increased inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. QRHX could markedly inhibit CD31 and VEGF protein expression. Additionally, CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation were reduced in QRHX treatment group. Thus, we draw that QRHX played a more important role in inhibiting tumor growth by regulating TAMs in mice, which was found to be associated with the inhibition of inflammation and the CXCL12/CXCR4/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:28630636

  15. Quality of care of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: a report of a performance improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Fred R; Jotte, Robert M; Berry, Carolyn A; Mencia, William A; Stowell, Stephanie A; Gardner, Allison J

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the molecular characterization of tumors, and the availability of new agents to treat non-small-cell lung cancer has increased. Despite these achievements, optimal care of patients with this condition remains less than ideal. Although national quality measures and guideline recommendations provide the necessary framework for patient care, routine self-assessment of adherence to these measures is required for physician practice improvement. To this end, a performance improvement initiative that met national continuing medical education standards was designed. Focusing on non-small-cell lung cancer patient care, oncologists underwent a three-step process that included a self-assessment of predetermined performance measures, the development and implementation of an actionable plan for improvement, and a second round of assessment to measure practice change. A total of 440 unique patient charts were reviewed by 22 practicing oncologists. Participants demonstrated high baseline performance levels of established quality measures, such as inclusion of the patient's pathology report and assessment of smoking history. Significant gains were observed in the areas of supportive care, including assessment of the patient's emotional well-being and the use of molecular markers in diagnostic and treatment decision making. Data from this study support the value of performance improvement initiatives to help increase physician delivery of evidence-based care to patients.

  16. Metachronous Primary Adenocarcinoma of Lung During Adjuvant Imatinib Mesylate Therapy for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meng-jie; Weng, Shan-Shan; Cao, Ying; Li, Xiao-Fen; Wang, Liu-Hong; Xu, Jing-Hong; Yuan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor in gastrointestinal tracts; however, the synchronous or metachronous coexistence of GIST with additional primary malignancy is not common. Here, we present an unusual case of gastric GIST with metachronous primary lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed during his adjuvant treatment with oral receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (400 mg daily). After 6-month use of imatinib, the patient suffered from dry cough and dyspnea. Subsequent lung biopsy demonstrated adenocarcinoma with diffuse interstitial changes. Our research emphasizes the possibility of an additional primary tumor with GIST, and reminds the clinicians to strengthen the surveillance of the additional cancer during the follow-up of GIST patients. PMID:26356712

  17. Electromagnetic tracking navigation to guide radiofrequency ablation of a lung tumor.

    PubMed

    Amalou, Hayet; Wood, Bradford J

    2012-10-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may be an option for patients with lung tumors who have unresectable disease and are not suitable for available palliative modalities. RFA electrode positioning may take several attempts, necessitating multiple imaging acquisitions or continuous use of computed tomography. Electromagnetic tracking uses miniature sensors integrated with RFA equipment to guide tools in real time, while referencing to preprocedure imaging. This technology was demonstrated successfully during a lung tumor ablation, and this was more accurate at targeting the tumor compared with traditional freehand needle insertion. It is possible, although speculative and anecdotal, that more accuracy could prevent unnecessary repositioning punctures and decrease radiation exposure. Electromagnetic tracking has theoretical potential to benefit minimally invasive interventions.

  18. Electromagnetic Tracking Navigation to Guide Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of a Lung Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Amalou, Hayet; Wood, Bradford J.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may be an option for patients with lung tumors who have unresectable disease and are not suitable for available palliative modalities. RFA electrode positioning may take several attempts, necessitating multiple imaging acquisitions or continuous use of CT (Computed Tomography). Electromagnetic tracking utilizes miniature sensors integrated with RFA equipment to guide tools in real-time, while referencing to pre-procedure imaging. This technology was demonstrated successfully during a lung tumor ablation, and was more accurate at targeting the tumor, compared to traditional freehand needle insertion. It is possible, although speculative and anecdotal, that more accuracy could prevent unnecessary repositioning punctures and decrease radiation exposure. Electromagnetic tracking has theoretical potential to benefit minimally invasive interventions. PMID:23207535

  19. Density features of screened lung tumors in low-dose computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Liu, Juhn-Cherng; Shieh, Shwn-Huey; Yang, Su-Tso; Tseng, Guan-Chin; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chen, Chih-Yi; Yu, Yang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), small and heterogeneous lung tumors are detected in screening. The criteria for assessing detected tumors are crucial for determining follow-up or resection strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capacity of density features in differentiating lung tumors. From July 2008 to December 2011, 48 surgically confirmed tumors (29 malignancies, comprising 17 cases of adenocarcinoma and 12 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ [AdIs], and 19 benignancies, comprising 11 cases of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia [AAH] and eight cases of benign non-AAH) in 38 patients were retrospectively evaluated, indicating that the positive predictive value (PPV) of physicians is 60.4% (29/48). Three types of density features, tumor disappearance rate (TDR), mean, and entropy, were obtained from the CT values of detected tumors. Entropy is capable of differentiating malignancy from benignancy but is limited in differentiating AdIs from benign non-AAH. The combination of entropy and TDR is effective for predicting malignancy with an accuracy of 87.5% (42/48) and a PPV of 89.7% (26/29), improving the PPV of physicians by 29.3%. The combination of entropy and mean adequately clarifies the four pathology groups with an accuracy of 72.9% (35/48). For tumors with a mean below -400 Hounsfield units, the criterion of an entropy larger than 5.4 might be appropriate for diagnosing malignancy. For others, the pathology is either benign non-AAH or adenocarcinoma; adenocarcinoma has a higher entropy than benign non-AAH, with the exception of tuberculoma. Combining density features enables differentiating heterogeneous lung tumors in LDCT. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory-swallowing coordination in normal subjects: Lung volume at swallowing initiation.

    PubMed

    McFarland, D H; Martin-Harris, B; Fortin, A-J; Humphries, K; Hill, E; Armeson, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the significance of bolus types and volumes, delivery methods and swallowing instructions on lung volume at swallowing initiation in normal subjects in a single experiment using a multifactorial approach. Our broad range goal was to determine optimal lung volume range associated with swallowing initiation to provide training targets for dysphagic patients with disordered respiratory-swallow coordination. Our hypothesis was that swallows would be initiated within a limited range of quiet breathing lung volumes regardless of bolus volume, consistency or task. Results confirmed this hypothesis and revealed that swallows were initiated at mean lung volume=244ml. Cued swallows were initiated at lower quiet breathing volumes than un-cued swallows (cued=201ml; un-cued=367ml). Water boluses were initiated at slightly higher quiet breathing volumes than solids. Data suggest that swallows occur within a restricted range of lung volumes with variation due to instructions, bolus type and other experimental variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein kinase Cα suppresses Kras-mediated lung tumor formation through activation of a p38 MAPK-TGFβ signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, KS; Erdogan, E; Khoor, A; Walsh, MP; Leitges, M; Murray, NR; Fields, AP

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) can activate both pro- and anti-tumorigenic signaling depending upon cellular context. Here, we investigated the role of PKCα in lung tumorigenesis in vivo. Gene expression data sets revealed that primary human non-small lung cancers (NSCLC) express significantly decreased PKCα levels, indicating that loss of PKCα expression is a recurrent event in NSCLC. We evaluated the functional relevance of PKCα loss during lung tumorigenesis in three murine lung adenocarcinoma models (LSL-Kras, LA2-Kras and urethane exposure). Genetic deletion of PKCα resulted in a significant increase in lung tumor number, size, burden and grade, bypass of oncogene-induced senescence, progression from adenoma to carcinoma and a significant decrease in survival in vivo. The tumor promoting effect of PKCα loss was reflected in enhanced Kras-mediated expansion of bronchio-alveolar stem cells (BASCs), putative tumor-initiating cells, both in vitro and in vivo. LSL-Kras/Prkca−/− mice exhibited a decrease in phospho-p38 MAPK in BASCs in vitro and in tumors in vivo, and treatment of LSL-Kras BASCs with a p38 inhibitor resulted in increased colony size indistinguishable from that observed in LSL-Kras/Prkca−/− BASCs. In addition, LSL-Kras/Prkca−/− BASCs exhibited a modest but reproducible increase in TGFβ1 mRNA, and addition of exogenous TGFβ1 to LSL-Kras BASCs results in enhanced growth similar to untreated BASCs from LSL-Kras/Prkca−/− mice. Conversely, a TGFβR1 inhibitor reversed the effects of PKCα loss in LSL-Kras/Prkca−/−BASCs. Finally, we identified the inhibitors of DNA binding (Id) Id1–3 and the Wilm’s Tumor 1 as potential downstream targets of PKCα-dependent tumor suppressor activity in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that PKCα suppresses tumor initiation and progression, at least in part, through a PKCα-p38MAPK-TGFβ signaling axis that regulates tumor cell proliferation and Kras-induced senescence. Our results provide the

  2. Fibrocytes Regulate Wilms’ Tumor 1-Positive Cell Accumulation in Severe Fibrotic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sontake, Vishwaraj; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K.; DiPasquale, Betsy A.; Reddy, Geereddy B.; Medvedovic, Mario; Hardie, William D.; White, Eric S.; Madala, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-producing myofibroblast transdifferentiation is considered a crucial determinant in the formation of scar tissue in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Multiple resident pulmonary cell types and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes have been implicated as contributors to fibrotic lesions due to the transdifferentiation potential of these cells into myofibroblasts. In this study, we assessed the expression of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1), a known marker of mesothelial cells, in various cell types in normal and fibrotic lungs. We demonstrate that WT1 is expressed by both mesothelial and mesenchymal cells in IPF lungs, but has limited or no expression in normal human lungs. We also demonstrate that WT1-positive cells accumulate in fibrotic lung lesions, using two different mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and WT1 promoter-driven fluorescent reporter mice. Reconstitution of bone-marrow cells into a transforming growth factor-α transgenic-mouse model demonstrated that fibrocytes do not transform into WT1-positive mesenchymal cells, but do augment accumulation of WT1-positive cells in severe fibrotic lung disease. Importantly, the number of WT1-positive cells in fibrotic lesions were correlated with severity of lung disease as assessed by changes in lung function, histology, and hydroxyproline levels in mice. Finally, inhibition of WT1 expression was sufficient to attenuate collagen and other extracellular-matrix gene production by mesenchymal cells from both murine and human fibrotic lungs. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate a novel association between fibrocyte-driven WT1-positive cell accumulation and severe fibrotic lung disease. PMID:26371248

  3. Fibrocytes Regulate Wilms Tumor 1-Positive Cell Accumulation in Severe Fibrotic Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Sontake, Vishwaraj; Shanmukhappa, Shiva K; DiPasquale, Betsy A; Reddy, Geereddy B; Medvedovic, Mario; Hardie, William D; White, Eric S; Madala, Satish K

    2015-10-15

    Collagen-producing myofibroblast transdifferentiation is considered a crucial determinant in the formation of scar tissue in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Multiple resident pulmonary cell types and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes have been implicated as contributors to fibrotic lesions because of the transdifferentiation potential of these cells into myofibroblasts. In this study, we assessed the expression of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), a known marker of mesothelial cells, in various cell types in normal and fibrotic lungs. We demonstrate that WT1 is expressed by both mesothelial and mesenchymal cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lungs but has limited or no expression in normal human lungs. We also demonstrate that WT1(+) cells accumulate in fibrotic lung lesions, using two different mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and WT1 promoter-driven fluorescent reporter mice. Reconstitution of bone marrow cells into a TGF-α transgenic mouse model demonstrated that fibrocytes do not transform into WT1(+) mesenchymal cells, but they do augment accumulation of WT1(+) cells in severe fibrotic lung disease. Importantly, the number of WT1(+) cells in fibrotic lesions was correlated with severity of lung disease as assessed by changes in lung function, histology, and hydroxyproline levels in mice. Finally, inhibition of WT1 expression was sufficient to attenuate collagen and other extracellular matrix gene production by mesenchymal cells from both murine and human fibrotic lungs. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate a novel association between fibrocyte-driven WT1(+) cell accumulation and severe fibrotic lung disease. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Claudin 3, 4, and 15 expression in solid tumors of lung adenocarcinoma versus malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Chaouche-Mazouni, Siham; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Zaamoum, Rima; Mihalache, Adriana; Amir, Zine-Charaf; Lebaïli, Nemcha; Delaire, Baptiste; Gosset, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can easily be confused with lung adenocarcinomas (ACAs). In serous effusion, claudin (cldn) 3 is shown to be useful in the diagnosis of mesothelioma vs ACAs. Cldn15 is reported to be overexpressed in epithelioid mesothelioma and absent in human airway epithelium. The aim was to assess the value of cldn3 and cldn4 compared to that of BerEp4 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) in differentiating lung ACA from epithelioid MPM and to examine the expression of cldn15 in these tumors. The expression of cldn3, cldn4, cldn15, BerEp4, and TTF1 was examined by immunohistochemistry in a total of 62 human specimen including 28 epithelioid MPMs and 34 ACAs of the lung. In lung ACA, cldn4 was strongly expressed in all 34 (100%) specimens followed by cldn3 in 33 (97%) of 34. BerEp4 was expressed in 32 (94.1%) of 34. TTF1 reacted for only 20 (58.82%) of 34 cases of lung ACA. In MPM specimens, the expression of cldn3 and4 as well as that of TTF1 was completely absent. In contrast, BerEp4 was focally expressed in 5 (17.85%) of 28 cases of epithelioid MPM. Cldn15 was strongly expressed in 53% pf epithelioid MPMs but also in 50% of lung ACAs. Its expression was moderate in normal pleura and limited in normal lung. Cldn3 and cldn4 appear to be the best performing carcinoma markers in discriminating lung ACA from mesothelioma compared with BerEp4 and TTF1. There is no differential expression of cldn15 between the 2 pathologies. However, the limited cldn15 expression in normal tissues and high expression in tumors make it an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Study of Orthogonal-View Phase-Matched Digital Tomosynthesis for Lung Tumor Localization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You; Ren, Lei; Vergalasova, Irina; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Compared to cone-beam computed tomography, digital tomosynthesis imaging has the benefits of shorter scanning time, less imaging dose, and better mechanical clearance for tumor localization in radiation therapy. However, for lung tumors, the localization accuracy of the conventional digital tomosynthesis technique is affected by the lack of depth information and the existence of lung tumor motion. This study investigates the clinical feasibility of using an orthogonal-view phase-matched digital tomosynthesis technique to improve the accuracy of lung tumor localization. The proposed orthogonal-view phase-matched digital tomosynthesis technique benefits from 2 major features: (1) it acquires orthogonal-view projections to improve the depth information in reconstructed digital tomosynthesis images and (2) it applies respiratory phase-matching to incorporate patient motion information into the synthesized reference digital tomosynthesis sets, which helps to improve the localization accuracy of moving lung tumors. A retrospective study enrolling 14 patients was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the orthogonal-view phase-matched digital tomosynthesis technique. Phantom studies were also performed using an anthropomorphic phantom to investigate the feasibility of using intratreatment aggregated kV and beams' eye view cine MV projections for orthogonal-view phase-matched digital tomosynthesis imaging. The localization accuracy of the orthogonal-view phase-matched digital tomosynthesis technique was compared to that of the single-view digital tomosynthesis techniques and the digital tomosynthesis techniques without phase-matching. The orthogonal-view phase-matched digital tomosynthesis technique outperforms the other digital tomosynthesis techniques in tumor localization accuracy for both the patient study and the phantom study. For the patient study, the orthogonal-view phase-matched digital tomosynthesis technique localizes the tumor to an average (± standard

  6. Random Walk and Graph Cut for Co-Segmentation of Lung Tumor on PET-CT Images.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wei; Xiang, Dehui; Xiang, Deihui; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lirong; Kopriva, Ivica; Chen, Xinjian

    2015-12-01

    Accurate lung tumor delineation plays an important role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Since the lung tumor has poor boundary in positron emission tomography (PET) images and low contrast in computed tomography (CT) images, segmentation of tumor in the PET and CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we effectively integrate the two modalities by making fully use of the superior contrast of PET images and superior spatial resolution of CT images. Random walk and graph cut method is integrated to solve the segmentation problem, in which random walk is utilized as an initialization tool to provide object seeds for graph cut segmentation on the PET and CT images. The co-segmentation problem is formulated as an energy minimization problem which is solved by max-flow/min-cut method. A graph, including two sub-graphs and a special link, is constructed, in which one sub-graph is for the PET and another is for CT, and the special link encodes a context term which penalizes the difference of the tumor segmentation on the two modalities. To fully utilize the characteristics of PET and CT images, a novel energy representation is devised. For the PET, a downhill cost and a 3D derivative cost are proposed. For the CT, a shape penalty cost is integrated into the energy function which helps to constrain the tumor region during the segmentation. We validate our algorithm on a data set which consists of 18 PET-CT images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is superior to the graph cut method solely using the PET or CT is more accurate compared with the random walk method, random walk co-segmentation method, and non-improved graph cut method.

  7. Markerless tumor tracking using short kilovoltage imaging arcs for lung image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Huang, Chen-Yu; Feain, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    The ability to monitor tumor motion without implanted markers is clinically advantageous for lung image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Existing markerless tracking methods often suffer from overlapping structures and low visibility of tumors on kV projection images. We introduce the short arc tumor tracking (SATT) method to overcome these issues. The proposed method utilizes multiple kV projection images selected from a nine-degree imaging arc to improve tumor localization, and respiratory-correlated 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) prior knowledge to minimize the effects of overlapping anatomies. The 3D tumor position is solved as an optimization problem with prior knowledge incorporated via regularization. We retrospectively validated SATT on 11 clinical scans from four patients with central tumors. These patients represent challenging scenarios for markerless tumor tracking due to the inferior adjacent contrast. The 3D trajectories of implanted fiducial markers were used as the ground truth for tracking accuracy evaluation. In all cases, the tumors were successfully tracked at all gantry angles. Compared to standard pre-treatment CBCT guidance alone, trajectory errors were significantly smaller with tracking in all cases, and the improvements were the most prominent in the superior-inferior direction. The mean 3D tracking error ranged from 2.2-9.9 mm, which was 0.4-2.6 mm smaller compared to pre-treatment CBCT. In conclusion, we were able to directly track tumors with inferior visibility on kV projection images using SATT. Tumor localization accuracies are significantly better with tracking compared to the current standard of care of lung IGRT. Future work involves the prospective evaluation and clinical implementation of SATT.

  8. Cytosolic PhospholipaseA2 Inhibition with PLA-695 Radiosensitizes Tumors in Lung Cancer Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Daniel J.; Kotipatruni, Rama P.; Bhave, Sandeep R.; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hallahan, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted. PMID:23894523

  9. Cytosolic phospholipaseA2 inhibition with PLA-695 radiosensitizes tumors in lung cancer animal models.

    PubMed

    Thotala, Dinesh; Craft, Jeffrey M; Ferraro, Daniel J; Kotipatruni, Rama P; Bhave, Sandeep R; Jaboin, Jerry J; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the rest of the world. The advent of molecularly directed therapies holds promise for improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is associated with tumor progression and radioresistance in mouse tumor models. Utilizing the cPLA2 specific inhibitor PLA-695, we determined if cPLA2 inhibition radiosensitizes non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and tumors. Treatment with PLA-695 attenuated radiation induced increases of phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt in endothelial cells. NSCLC cells (LLC and A549) co-cultured with endothelial cells (bEND3 and HUVEC) and pre-treated with PLA-695 showed radiosensitization. PLA-695 in combination with irradiation (IR) significantly reduced migration and proliferation in endothelial cells (HUVEC & bEND3) and induced cell death and attenuated invasion by tumor cells (LLC &A549). In a heterotopic tumor model, the combination of PLA-695 and radiation delayed growth in both LLC and A549 tumors. LLC and A549 tumors treated with a combination of PLA-695 and radiation displayed reduced tumor vasculature. In a dorsal skin fold model of LLC tumors, inhibition of cPLA2 in combination with radiation led to enhanced destruction of tumor blood vessels. The anti-angiogenic effects of PLA-695 and its enhancement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in mouse models of NSCLC suggest that clinical trials for its capacity to improve radiotherapy outcomes are warranted.

  10. Evaluation of lung tumor motion management in radiation therapy with dynamic MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seyoun; Farah, Rana; Shea, Steven M.; Tryggestad, Erik; Hales, Russell; Lee, Junghoon

    2017-03-01

    Surrogate-based tumor motion estimation and tracing methods are commonly used in radiotherapy despite the lack of continuous real time 3D tumor and surrogate data. In this study, we propose a method to simultaneously track the tumor and external surrogates with dynamic MRI, which allows us to evaluate their reproducible correlation. Four MRIcompatible fiducials are placed on the patient's chest and upper abdomen, and multi-slice 2D cine MRIs are acquired to capture the lung and whole tumor, followed by two-slice 2D cine MRIs to simultaneously track the tumor and fiducials, all in sagittal orientation. A phase-binned 4D-MRI is first reconstructed from multi-slice MR images using body area as a respiratory surrogate and group-wise registration. The 4D-MRI provides 3D template volumes for different breathing phases. 3D tumor position is calculated by 3D-2D template matching in which 3D tumor templates in 4D-MRI reconstruction and the 2D cine MRIs from the two-slice tracking dataset are registered. 3D trajectories of the external surrogates are derived via matching a 3D geometrical model to the fiducial segmentations on the 2D cine MRIs. We tested our method on five lung cancer patients. Internal target volume from 4D-CT showed average sensitivity of 86.5% compared to the actual tumor motion for 5 min. 3D tumor motion correlated with the external surrogate signal, but showed a noticeable phase mismatch. The 3D tumor trajectory showed significant cycle-to-cycle variation, while the external surrogate was not sensitive enough to capture such variations. Additionally, there was significant phase mismatch between surrogate signals obtained from fiducials at different locations.

  11. Markerless tumor tracking using short kilovoltage imaging arcs for lung image-guided radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Huang, Chen-Yu; Feain, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    The ability to monitor tumor motion without implanted markers is clinically advantageous for lung image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Existing markerless tracking methods often suffer from overlapping structures and low visibility of tumors on kV projection images. We introduce the short arc tumor tracking (SATT) method to overcome these issues. The proposed method utilizes multiple kV projection images selected from a nine-degree imaging arc to improve tumor localization, and respiratory-correlated 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) prior knowledge to minimize the effects of overlapping anatomies. The 3D tumor position is solved as an optimization problem with prior knowledge incorporated via regularization. We retrospectively validated SATT on 11 clinical scans from four patients with central tumors. These patients represent challenging scenarios for markerless tumor tracking due to the inferior adjacent contrast. The 3D trajectories of implanted fiducial markers were used as the ground truth for tracking accuracy evaluation. In all cases, the tumors were successfully tracked at all gantry angles. Compared to standard pre-treatment CBCT guidance alone, trajectory errors were significantly smaller with tracking in all cases, and the improvements were the most prominent in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. The mean 3D tracking error ranged from 2.2–9.9 mm, which was 0.4–2.6 mm smaller compared to pre-treatment CBCT. In conclusion, we were able to directly track tumors with inferior visibility on kV projection images using SATT. Tumor localization accuracies are significantly better with tracking compared to the current standard of care of lung IGRT. Future work involves the prospective evaluation and clinical implementation of SATT. PMID:26583772

  12. Identification of Circulating Tumor DNA for the Early Detection of Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Perdomo, Sandra; Avogbe, Patrice H; Leblay, Noemie; Delhomme, Tiffany M; Gaborieau, Valerie; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Chanudet, Estelle; Olivier, Magali; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Vilensky, Marta; Holcatova, Ivana; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Byrnes, Graham; Scelo, Ghislaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Foll, Matthieu; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a key potential biomarker for post-diagnosis surveillance but it may also play a crucial role in the detection of pre-clinical cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an excellent candidate for early detection given there are no successful therapeutic options for late-stage disease, and it displays almost universal inactivation of TP53. We assessed the presence of TP53 mutations in the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of 51 SCLC cases and 123 non-cancer controls. We identified mutations using a pipeline specifically designed to accurately detect variants at very low fractions. We detected TP53 mutations in the cfDNA of 49% SCLC patients and 11.4% of non-cancer controls. When stratifying the 51 initial SCLC cases by stage, TP53 mutations were detected in the cfDNA of 35.7% early-stage and 54.1% late-stage SCLC patients. The results in the controls were further replicated in 10.8% of an independent series of 102 non-cancer controls. The detection of TP53 mutations in 11% of the 225 non-cancer controls suggests that somatic mutations in cfDNA among individuals without any cancer diagnosis is a common occurrence, and poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests.

  13. Mitigation of motion artifacts in CBCT of lung tumors based on tracked tumor motion during CBCT acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John H; Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Watkins, W Tyler; Lou, Yifei; Song, William Y; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-09-07

    An algorithm capable of mitigating respiratory motion blurring artifacts in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) lung tumor images based on the motion of the tumor during the CBCT scan is developed. The tumor motion trajectory and probability density function (PDF) are reconstructed from the acquired CBCT projection images using a recently developed algorithm Lewis et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 2505-22). Assuming that the effects of motion blurring can be represented by convolution of the static lung (or tumor) anatomy with the motion PDF, a cost function is defined, consisting of a data fidelity term and a total variation regularization term. Deconvolution is performed through iterative minimization of this cost function. The algorithm was tested on digital respiratory phantom, physical respiratory phantom and patient data. A clear qualitative improvement is evident in the deblurred images as compared to the motion-blurred images for all cases. Line profiles show that the tumor boundaries are more accurately and clearly represented in the deblurred images. The normalized root-mean-squared error between the images used as ground truth and the motion-blurred images are 0.29, 0.12 and 0.30 in the digital phantom, physical phantom and patient data, respectively. Deblurring reduces the corresponding values to 0.13, 0.07 and 0.19. Application of a -700 HU threshold to the digital phantom results in tumor dimension measurements along the superior-inferior axis of 2.8, 1.8 and 1.9 cm in the motion-blurred, ground truth and deblurred images, respectively. Corresponding values for the physical phantom are 3.4, 2.7 and 2.7 cm. A threshold of -500 HU applied to the patient case gives measurements of 3.1, 1.6 and 1.7 cm along the SI axis in the CBCT, 4DCT and deblurred images, respectively. This technique could provide more accurate information about a lung tumor's size and shape on the day of treatment.

  14. An evaluation of planning techniques for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianzhou; Li, Huiling; Shekhar, Raj; Suntharalingam, Mohan; D’Souza, Warren

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate four planning techniques for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung tumors. Methods and Materials Four SBRT plans were performed for 12 patients with stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer under the following conditions: (1) conventional margins on free-breathing CT (plan 1), (2) generation of an internal target volume (ITV) using 4DCT with beam delivery under free-breathing conditions (plan 2), (3) gating at end-exhale (plan 3), and (4) gating at end-inhale (plan 4). Planning was performed following the RTOG 0236 protocol with a prescription dose of 54Gy (3 fractions). For each plan 4D dose was calculated using deformable image registration. Results There was no significant difference in tumor dose delivered by the 4 plans. However, compared with plan 1, plans 2-4 reduced total lung BED by 1.9±1.2Gy, 3.1±1.6Gy and 3.5±2.1Gy, reduced mean lung dose by 0.8±0.5Gy, 1.5±0.8Gy, and 1.6±1.0Gy, reduced V20 by 1.5±1.0%, 2.7±1.4%, and 2.8±1.8% respectively with p<0.01. Compared with plan 2, plans 3-4 reduced lung BED by 1.2±1.0Gy and 1.6±1.5Gy, reduced mean lung dose by 0.6±0.5Gy and 0.8±0.7Gy, reduced V20 by 1.2±1.1% and 1.3±1.5% respectively with p<0.01. The differences in lung BED, mean dose and V20 of plan 4 compared with plan 3 are insignificant. Conclusions Tumor dose coverage was statistically insignificant between all plans. However, compared with plan 1, plans 2-4 significantly reduced lung doses. Compared with plan 2, plan 3-4 also reduced lung toxicity. The difference in lung doses between plan 3 and plan 4 was not significant. PMID:18359529

  15. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Prostate Which Was Initially Misdiagnosed as Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Osamu, Soma; Murasawa, Hiromi; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the prostate is a very rare tumor. We report a case of 65-year-old man with SFT of the prostate which was initially misdiagnosed as prostate cancer. Finally, we performed total prostatectomy and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as SFT of the prostate. The patient's clinical course has progressed favorably with no obvious recurrence 18 months postoperatively.

  16. Posture-Dependent Human 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access MRI System: Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, L. L.; Mair, R. W.; Li, C.-H.; Rosen, M. S.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to orientation and posture, and debate continues as to the role of gravity and the surrounding anatomy in determining lung function and heterogeneity of perfusion and ventilation. However, study of these effects is difficult. The conventional high-field magnets used for most hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the human lung, and most other common radiological imaging modalities including PET and CT, restrict subjects to lying horizontally, minimizing most gravitational effects. Materials and Methods In this paper, we briefly review the motivation for posture-dependent studies of human lung function, and present initial imaging results of human lungs in the supine and vertical body orientations using inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas and an open-access MRI instrument. The open geometry of this MRI system features a “walk-in” capability that permits subjects to be imaged in vertical and horizontal positions, and potentially allows for complete rotation of the orientation of the imaging subject in a two-dimensional plane. Results Initial results include two-dimensional lung images acquired with ~ 4 × 8 mm in-plane resolution and three-dimensional images with ~ 2 cm slice thickness. Conclusion Effects of posture variation are observed, including posture-related effects of the diaphragm and distension of the lungs while vertical. PMID:18486009

  17. Dosimetric effect of intrafraction tumor motion in phase gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Bo; Yang Yong; Li Tianfang; Li Xiang; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: A major concern for lung intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery is the deviation of actually delivered dose distribution from the planned one due to simultaneous movements of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves and tumor. For gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment (SBRT), the situation becomes even more complicated because of SBRT's characteristics such as fewer fractions, smaller target volume, higher dose rate, and extended fractional treatment time. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dosimetric effect of intrafraction tumor motion during gated lung SBRT delivery by reconstructing the delivered dose distribution with real-time tumor motion considered. Methods: The tumor motion data were retrieved from six lung patients. Each of them received three fractions of stereotactic radiotherapy treatments with Cyberknife Synchrony (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA). Phase gating through an external surrogate was simulated with a gating window of 5 mm. The resulting residual tumor motion curves during gating (beam-on) were retrieved. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as physician-contoured clinical target volume (CTV) surrounded by an isotropic 5 mm margin. Each patient was prescribed with 60 Gy/3 fractions. The authors developed an algorithm to reconstruct the delivered dose with tumor motion. The DMLC segments, mainly leaf position and segment weighting factor, were recalculated according to the probability density function of tumor motion curve. The new DMLC sequence file was imported back to treatment planning system to reconstruct the dose distribution. Results: Half of the patients in the study group experienced PTV D95% deviation up to 26% for fractional dose and 14% for total dose. CTV mean dose dropped by 1% with tumor motion. Although CTV is almost covered by prescribed dose with 5 mm margin, qualitative comparison on the dose distributions reveals that CTV is on the verge of underdose. The discrepancy happens due to tumor

  18. Tumor necrosis factor links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and K-ras mutant lung cancer through induction of an immunosuppressive pro-tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Caetano, Mauricio; Cumpian, Amber M.; Daliri, Soudabeh; Garza Flores, Alejandra; Chang, Seon Hee; Evans, Christopher M.; Yu, Zhentao; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known as an important regulator of tumor microenvironment and inflammation. TNF levels are markedly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model (CC-LR mouse). This was associated with a significant increase of neutrophils in BALF, accompanied by a marked increase in TNF level, suggesting a link between COPD, TNF, and lung cancer promotion. Therefore, we first overexpressed TNF in the airway epithelium of CC-LR mice, which promoted lung cancer by ∼2-fold. This was associated with increased numbers of Ki67 and CD31 positive cells in lung tumors of CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice. We also found a robust increase in NF-κB activation, and numbers of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung. Accordingly, we depleted MDSCs in CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice, which lead to significant tumor suppression emphasizing on the role of TNF-induced MDSCs in K-ras induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, we targeted TNF expression by crossing CC-LR mice with TNF knock-out mice (CC-LR/TNF-KO), which resulted in a significant decrease in lung tumor burden in the absence or presence of COPD-like airway inflammation. Interestingly, there were less MDSCs and lower Ki67 and CD31 expression in the lung of the CC-LR/TNF-KO mice. We conclude that TNF links COPD to lung cancer promotion by induction of an immunosuppressive MDSC response, and subsequent amplification of proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors. PMID:27853654

  19. Tumor necrosis factor links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and K-ras mutant lung cancer through induction of an immunosuppressive pro-tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; da Silva Caetano, Mauricio; Cumpian, Amber M; Daliri, Soudabeh; Garza Flores, Alejandra; Chang, Seon Hee; Ochoa, Cesar E; Evans, Christopher M; Yu, Zhentao; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known as an important regulator of tumor microenvironment and inflammation. TNF levels are markedly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model (CC-LR mouse). This was associated with a significant increase of neutrophils in BALF, accompanied by a marked increase in TNF level, suggesting a link between COPD, TNF, and lung cancer promotion. Therefore, we first overexpressed TNF in the airway epithelium of CC-LR mice, which promoted lung cancer by ∼2-fold. This was associated with increased numbers of Ki67 and CD31 positive cells in lung tumors of CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice. We also found a robust increase in NF-κB activation, and numbers of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung. Accordingly, we depleted MDSCs in CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice, which lead to significant tumor suppression emphasizing on the role of TNF-induced MDSCs in K-ras induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, we targeted TNF expression by crossing CC-LR mice with TNF knock-out mice (CC-LR/TNF-KO), which resulted in a significant decrease in lung tumor burden in the absence or presence of COPD-like airway inflammation. Interestingly, there were less MDSCs and lower Ki67 and CD31 expression in the lung of the CC-LR/TNF-KO mice. We conclude that TNF links COPD to lung cancer promotion by induction of an immunosuppressive MDSC response, and subsequent amplification of proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors.

  20. β-elemene inhibits tumor-promoting effect of M2 macrophages in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomu; Xu, Maoyi; Li, Na; Li, Zongjuan; Li, Hongye; Shao, Shujuan; Zou, Kun; Zou, Lijuan

    2017-08-19

    Macrophages in tumor are mostly M2-polarized and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). β-elemene has therapeutic effects against several cancers, however, it remains unknown whether β-elemene could inhibit cancer by targeting TAMs. Herein, we examined the effect of β-elemene on macrophages to elucidate a novel mechanism of β-elemene in tumor therapy. We showed that the conditioned medium of M2 macrophages promoted lung cancer cells to migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which could be inhibited by β-elemene. Moreover, β-elemene regulated the polarization of macrophages from M2 to M1. β-elemene also inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of lung cancer cells and enhanced its radiosensitivity. These results indicate β-elemene suppresses lung cancer by regulating both macrophages and lung cancer cells, it is a promising drug for combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Lung Metastasis in Mouse Mammary Tumor Models by Quantitative Real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Abt, Melissa A.; Grek, Christina L.; Ghatnekar, Gautam S.; Yeh, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic disease is the spread of malignant tumor cells from the primary cancer site to a distant organ and is the primary cause of cancer associated death 1. Common sites of metastatic spread include lung, lymph node, brain, and bone 2. Mechanisms that drive metastasis are intense areas of cancer research. Consequently, effective assays to measure metastatic burden in distant sites of metastasis are instrumental for cancer research. Evaluation of lung metastases in mammary tumor models is generally performed by gross qualitative observation of lung tissue following dissection. Quantitative methods of evaluating metastasis are currently limited to ex vivo and in vivo imaging based techniques that require user defined parameters. Many of these techniques are at the whole organism level rather than the cellular level 3–6. Although newer imaging methods utilizing multi-photon microscopy are able to evaluate metastasis at the cellular level 7, these highly elegant procedures are more suited to evaluating mechanisms of dissemination rather than quantitative assessment of metastatic burden. Here, a simple in vitro method to quantitatively assess metastasis is presented. Using quantitative Real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), tumor cell specific mRNA can be detected within the mouse lung tissue. PMID:26862835

  2. Evaluation of Lung Metastasis in Mouse Mammary Tumor Models by Quantitative Real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Abt, Melissa A; Grek, Christina L; Ghatnekar, Gautam S; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-29

    Metastatic disease is the spread of malignant tumor cells from the primary cancer site to a distant organ and is the primary cause of cancer associated death. Common sites of metastatic spread include lung, lymph node, brain, and bone. Mechanisms that drive metastasis are intense areas of cancer research. Consequently, effective assays to measure metastatic burden in distant sites of metastasis are instrumental for cancer research. Evaluation of lung metastases in mammary tumor models is generally performed by gross qualitative observation of lung tissue following dissection. Quantitative methods of evaluating metastasis are currently limited to ex vivo and in vivo imaging based techniques that require user defined parameters. Many of these techniques are at the whole organism level rather than the cellular level. Although newer imaging methods utilizing multi-photon microscopy are able to evaluate metastasis at the cellular level, these highly elegant procedures are more suited to evaluating mechanisms of dissemination rather than quantitative assessment of metastatic burden. Here, a simple in vitro method to quantitatively assess metastasis is presented. Using quantitative Real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), tumor cell specific mRNA can be detected within the mouse lung tissue.

  3. LUNG TUMOR KRAS AND TP53 MUTATIONS IN NON-SMOKERS REFLECT EXPOSURE TO PAH-RICH COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Abstract

    We determined the TP53 and codon 12 KRAS mutations in lung tumors from 24 nonsmokers whose tumors were associated with exposure to smoky coal. Among any tumors studied previously, these showed the highest percentage of mutations that (a) were G -+ T transver...

  4. The relation of lung volume initiation to selected acoustic properties of speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Peter J.; Ciccia, Angela H.; Weismer, Gary

    2003-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of speech breathing to other elements of speech production. It was hypothesized that initiating speech from different lung volumes would have an effect on different elements of the acoustic output. It was postulated that effects may be brought about by mechanical interaction as well as a dispersion of effort to mechanically unlinked elements of speech production, such as articulatory behavior. To this end, selected acoustic variables were studied in eight young healthy women who initiated speech from low, typical, and high lung volume levels. The acoustic variables studied were selected because they have been shown to be sensitive indicators of speech production performance. It was found that with increasing lung volume initiation levels, average sound pressure level, average fundamental frequency, and declination rate of fundamental frequency increased. It was also observed that vowel space was significantly smaller during low lung volume initiation levels relative to typical lung volume initiation levels. Vowel space reduction is discussed relative to ``gaining down.''

  5. [New WHO-classification of lung and pleural tumors].

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, S S

    1999-05-08

    A new classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) of lung and pleural tumours will be published presently. Compared with the previous edition of 1981 the changed parts more accurately reflect the available therapeutic choices and the prognostic characteristics of the different tumour types. The classification is based on conventional light-microscopical typing. Additional techniques (from histochemistry, immune histochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular biology) have not yet decisive influence on tumour typing. The dichotomy between small-cell and large-cell carcinomas is too simplistic, as the group of large-cell carcinomas is heterogeneous, and further differentiation leads to identification of tumour types with distinct therapeutic options and prognostic characteristics. There are new criteria for the classification of neuroendocrine tumours, such as the mitotic index. It is recommended to use the newly revised classification for diagnostic purposes, epidemiology and biologic studies.

  6. The transcriptome of lung tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells reveals a tumor-supporting phenotype and a microRNA signature with negative impact on clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pyfferoen, Lotte; Brabants, Elisabeth; De Cabooter, Nancy; Heyns, Kelly; Deswarte, Kim; Vanheerswynghels, Manon; De Prijck, Sofie; Waegemans, Glenn; Hammad, Hamida; De Wever, Olivier; Mestdagh, Pieter; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Vermaelen, Karim Y.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Targeting immunomodulatory pathways has ushered a new era in lung cancer therapy. Further progress requires deeper insights into the biology of immune cells in the lung cancer micro-environment. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a heterogeneous and highly plastic immune cell system with a central role in controlling immune responses. The intratumoral infiltration and activation status of DCs are emerging as clinically relevant parameters in lung cancer. In this study, we used an orthotopic preclinical model of lung cancer to dissect how the lung tumor micro-environment affects tissue-resident DCs and extract novel biologically and clinically relevant information. Lung tumor-infiltrating leukocytes expressing generic DC markers were found to predominantly consist of CD11b+ cells that, compare with peritumoral lung DC counterparts, strongly overexpress the T-cell inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and acquire classical surface markers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Transcriptome analysis of these CD11b+ tumor-infiltrating DCs (TIDCs) indicates impaired antitumoral immunogenicity, confirms the skewing toward TAM-related features, and indicates exposure to a hypoxic environment. In parallel, TIDCs display a specific microRNA (miRNA) signature dominated by the prototypical lung cancer oncomir miR-31. In vitro, hypoxia drives intrinsic miR-31 expression in CD11b+ DCs. Conditioned medium of miR-31 overexpressing CD11b+ DCs induces pro-invasive lung cancer cell shape changes and is enriched with pro-metastatic soluble factors. Finally, analysis of TCGA datasets reveals that the TIDC-associated miRNA signature has a negative prognostic impact in non-small cell lung cancer. Together, these data suggest a novel mechanism through which the lung cancer micro-environment exploits the plasticity of the DC system to support tumoral progression. PMID:28197369

  7. Primary Ewing's sarcoma family tumors of the lung a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daijiro; Nagayama, Jun; Nagatoshi, Yoshihisa; Inagaki, Jiro; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Moriyasu, Yosio; Okada, Kenji; Okamura, Jun

    2007-11-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) have been reported to originate in a variety of sites, most commonly in the extremities. We herein report a case of a primary ESFT of the lung presenting in an 8-year-old boy. A histological examination of hematoxylin-eosin stained sections showed a homogeneous population of closely packed small neoplastic cells. The tumor cells were strongly positive for CD99/MIC2 and negative for the leukocyte common antigen, myoglobin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, AE1/AE3 and synaptophysin. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery. Nine months later, he is in good condition and chest CT scans have revealed no evidence of either local recurrence or distant metastasis. Cases of ESFT of the lung have been reported in recent years but there are still few reports of primary ESFT of the lung. To date, only eight cases of ESFT of the lung have been reported in the literature. This is the first report of an ESFT of the lung occurring in a patient under 10 years of age. The clinical course and therapeutic management of ESFT are also discussed.

  8. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: Background Data and Proposals for the Classification of Lung Cancer with Separate Tumor Nodules in the Forthcoming Eighth Edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Frank C; Bolejack, Vanessa; Arenberg, Douglas A; Crowley, John; Donington, Jessica S; Franklin, Wilbur A; Girard, Nicolas; Marom, Edith M; Mazzone, Peter J; Nicholson, Andrew G; Rusch, Valerie W; Tanoue, Lynn T; Travis, William D; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Separate tumor nodules with the same histologic appearance occur in the lungs in a small proportion of patients with primary lung cancer. This article addresses how such tumors can be classified to inform the eighth edition of the anatomic classification of lung cancer. Separate tumor nodules should be distinguished from second primary lung cancer, multifocal ground glass/lepidic tumors, and pneumonic-type lung cancer, which are addressed in separate analyses. Survival of patients with separate tumor nodules in the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer database were analyzed. This was compared with a systematic literature review. Survival of clinically staged patients decreased according to the location of the separate tumor nodule relative to the index tumor (same lobe > same side > other side) in N0 and N-any cohorts (all M0 except possible other-side nodules). However, there was also a decrease in the proportion of patients resected; among only surgically resected or among nonresected patients no survival differences were noted. There were no survival differences between patients with same-lobe nodules and those with other T3 tumors, between patients with same-side nodules and those with T4 tumors, and patients with other-side nodules and those with other M1a tumors. The data correlated with those identified in a literature review. Tumors with same-lobe separate tumor nodules (with the same histologic appearance) are recommended to be classified as T3, same-side nodules as T4, and other-side nodules as M1a. Thus, there is no recommended change between the seventh and eighth edition of the TNM classification of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Periostin and tumor-stroma interactions in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, Ulrich; Stangel, Daniela; Pan, Zheng; Schlitter, Anna Melissa; Esposito, Irene; Regel, Ivonne; Raulefs, Susanne; Friess, Helmut; Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality globally. Interactions of the cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment are essential carcinogenic features for the majority of solid tumors, such as pancreatic cancer. The present study investigated the role of stromal activation in NSCLC and analyzed the surgical specimens of 93 patients by immunohistochemistry with regard to periostin (an extracellular matrix protein), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; a marker of myofibroblasts) and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31; a marker of endothelial cells), and the activated stroma index. There was a trend towards reduced overall survival for patients with high periostin expression (hazard ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.99–3.27; P=0.050). No significant correlations with overall survival were identified for α-SMA (P=0.930), CD31 (P=0.923), collagen (P=0.441) or the activated stroma index (P=0.706). In a multivariable analysis, the histological tumor subtype, tumor stage, lymph node involvement and resection status were independent prognostic factors in NSCLC, but none of the investigated immunohistochemical markers were prognostic factors. Thus, the tumor microenvironment and stroma activation did not prove to be of prognostic relevance for lung cancer, as it has been previously described for pancreatic cancer. Other markers of the microenvironment of NSCLC may be of higher prognostic value, pointing towards tumor-type specific effects. PMID:27895734

  10. Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells inhibit endogenous cytotoxic T cell responses to lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Anusha-Preethi; Johansson, Magnus; Ruffell, Brian; Beltran, Adam; Lau, Jonathan; Jablons, David M.; Coussens, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Immune cells comprise a substantial proportion of the tumor mass in human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), but the precise composition and significance of this infiltration is unclear. Herein we examined immune complexity of human NSCLC as well as NSCLC developing in CC10-TAg transgenic mice, and revealed that CD4+ T lymphocytes represent the dominant population of CD45+ immune cells, and relative to normal lung tissue, CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were significantly increased as a proportion of total CD4+ cells. To assess the functional significance of increased Treg cells, we evaluated CD8+ T cell-deficient/CC10-TAg mice and revealed that CD8+ T cells significantly controlled tumor growth with anti-tumor activity that was partially repressed by Treg cells. However, while treatment with anti-CD25 depleting mAb as monotherapy preferentially depleted Tregs and improved CD8+ T cell-mediated control of tumor progression during early tumor development, similar monotherapy was ineffective at later stages. Since mice bearing early NSCLC treated with anti-CD25 mAb exhibited increased tumor cell death associated with infiltration by CD8+ T cells expressing elevated levels of granzyme A, granzyme B, perforin and interferon-γ, we therefore evaluated carboplatin combination therapy resulting in a significantly extended survival beyond that observed with chemotherapy alone, indicating that Treg depletion in combination with cytotoxic therapy may be beneficial as a treatment strategy for advanced NSCLC. PMID:23851682

  11. Comparison of Spine, Carina, and Tumor as Registration Landmarks for Volumetric Image-Guided Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Jane Bezjak, Andrea; Franks, Kevin; Le, Lisa W.; Cho, B.C.; Payne, David; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility, reproducibility, and accuracy of volumetric lung image guidance using different thoracic landmarks for image registration. Methods and Materials: In 30 lung patients, four independent observers conducted automated and manual image registrations on Day 1 cone-beam computed tomography data sets using the spine, carina, and tumor (720 image registrations). The image registration was timed, and the couch displacements were recorded. The intraclass correlation was used to assess reproducibility, and the Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare the automatic and manual matching methods. Tumor coverage (accuracy) was assessed through grading the tumor position after image matching against the internal target volume and planning target volume. Results: The image-guided process took an average of 1 min for all techniques, with the exception of manual tumor matching, which took 4 min. Reproducibility was greatest for automatic carina matching (intraclass correlation, 0.90-0.93) and lowest for manual tumor matching (intraclass correlation, 0.07-0.43) in the left-right, superoinferior, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. The Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant difference between the automatic and manual registration methods. The tumor was within the internal target volume 62% and 60% of the time and was outside the internal target volume, but within the planning target volume, 38% and 40% of the time after automatic spine and automatic carina matching, respectively. Conclusion: For advanced lung cancer, the spine or carina can be used equally for cone-beam computed tomography image registration without compromising target coverage. The carina was more reproducible than the spine, but additional analysis is required to confirm its validation as a tumor surrogate. Soft-tissue registration is unsuitable at present, given the limitations in contrast resolution and the high interobserver variability.

  12. Quantification of lung tumor rotation with automated landmark extraction using orthogonal cine MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Chiara; Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B.; Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco; Keall, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The quantification of tumor motion in sites affected by respiratory motion is of primary importance to improve treatment accuracy. To account for motion, different studies analyzed the translational component only, without focusing on the rotational component, which was quantified in a few studies on the prostate with implanted markers. The aim of our study was to propose a tool able to quantify lung tumor rotation without the use of internal markers, thus providing accurate motion detection close to critical structures such as the heart or liver. Specifically, we propose the use of an automatic feature extraction method in combination with the acquisition of fast orthogonal cine MRI images of nine lung patients. As a preliminary test, we evaluated the performance of the feature extraction method by applying it on regions of interest around (i) the diaphragm and (ii) the tumor and comparing the estimated motion with that obtained by (i) the extraction of the diaphragm profile and (ii) the segmentation of the tumor, respectively. The results confirmed the capability of the proposed method in quantifying tumor motion. Then, a point-based rigid registration was applied to the extracted tumor features between all frames to account for rotation. The median lung rotation values were  -0.6   ±   2.3° and  -1.5   ±   2.7° in the sagittal and coronal planes respectively, confirming the need to account for tumor rotation along with translation to improve radiotherapy treatment.

  13. Real-time soft tissue motion estimation for lung tumors during radiotherapy delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rottmann, Joerg; Keall, Paul; Berbeco, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide real-time lung tumor motion estimation during radiotherapy treatment delivery without the need for implanted fiducial markers or additional imaging dose to the patient. Methods: 2D radiographs from the therapy beam's-eye-view (BEV) perspective are captured at a frame rate of 12.8 Hz with a frame grabber allowing direct RAM access to the image buffer. An in-house developed real-time soft tissue localization algorithm is utilized to calculate soft tissue displacement from these images in real-ti