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Sample records for lung type ii

  1. Type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca Estela; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung. PMID:23762890

  2. Type II congenital cystic pulmonary malformation in an esophageal lung.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca E; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung.

  3. Glutathione reductase targeted to type II cells does not protect mice from hyperoxic lung injury.

    PubMed

    Heyob, Kathryn M; Rogers, Lynette K; Welty, Stephen E

    2008-12-01

    Exposure of the lung epithelium to reactive oxygen species without adequate antioxidant defenses leads to airway inflammation, and may contribute to lung injury. Glutathione peroxidase catalyzes the reduction of peroxides by oxidation of glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulfide (GSSG), which can in turn be reduced by glutathione reductase (GR). Increased levels of GSSG have been shown to correlate negatively with outcome after oxidant exposure, and increased GR activity has been protective against hyperoxia in lung epithelial cells in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that increased GR expression targeted to type II alveolar epithelial cells would improve outcome in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Human GR with a mitochondrial targeting sequence was targeted to mouse type II cells using the SPC promoter. Two transgenic lines were identified, with Line 2 having higher lung GR activities than Line 1. Both transgenic lines had lower lung GSSG levels and higher GSH/GSSG ratios than wild-type. Six-week-old wild-type and transgenic mice were exposed to greater than 95% O2 or room air (RA) for 84 hours. After exposure, Line 2 mice had higher right lung/body weight ratios and lavage protein concentrations than wild-type mice, and both lines 1 and 2 had lower GSSG levels than wild-type mice. These findings suggest that GSSG accumulation in the lung may not play a significant role in the development of hyperoxic lung injury, or that compensatory responses to unregulated GR expression render animals more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury.

  4. Surfactant treatment effects on lung structure and type II cells of preterm ventilated lambs.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, K E; Ikegami, M; Dillard, L M; Jobe, A H

    2000-05-01

    We evaluated surfactant treatment effects on lung morphology and alveolar type II cells of preterm ventilated lambs. Lambs were ventilated for 10 h following treatment of the right lung with natural surfactant. Lung parenchyma from the surfactant-treated right and the untreated left lung was compared morphometrically. Mechanical ventilation without surfactant resulted in distention of alveolar ducts accompanied by shallowing and loss of well-defined alveoli without disruption of collagen or elastin fibers. Surfactant treatment almost completely prevented these changes. The percent of normal parenchyma was 82 +/- 7% in surfactant-treated lobes and 26 +/- 5% in the nontreated lobes (p < 0.05). Type II cells became flatter in lungs ventilated without surfactant, and cell shape was preserved by surfactant treatment. The volume densities of lamellar bodies and multivesicular bodies in alveolar type II cells were not changed by surfactant treatment. With or without surfactant treatment, mechanical ventilation was associated with a shift in lamellar body distribution to a smaller size and a decrease in glycogen content of type II cells. Surfactant treatment of the preterm lung prevents alveolar distortion and atelectasis, but does not result in changes in subcellular organelles in immature type II cells.

  5. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

    PubMed

    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  6. Phospholipid-transfer activities in cytosols from lung, isolated alveolar type II cells and alveolar type II cell-derived adenomas.

    PubMed Central

    Pool, G L; Bubacz, D G; Lumb, R H; Mason, R J

    1983-01-01

    We have examined phospholipid-transfer activities in cytosols from rat and mouse whole lung, isolated rat alveolar type II cells and alveolar type II cell-derived mouse pulmonary adenomas. We report an enrichment in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (but not phosphatidylinositol) protein-catalysed transfer in the type II cell and adenoma cytosols compared with the whole-lung cytosols. The activities from these cytosols were resolved using column chromatofocusing, which clearly demonstrated the presence of a phosphatidylcholine-specific transfer protein in each of the four tissues. In addition, two proteins (rat) or three proteins (mouse) catalysing both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol transfer were resolved from whole lung, whereas in both the rat isolated alveolar type II cells and the mouse type II cell-derived adenomas one of these less specific proteins is not present. PMID:6661189

  7. Organotypic culture of fetal lung type II alveolar epithelial cells: applications to pulmonary toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Shami, S G; Aghajanian, J D; Sanders, R L

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for isolation and culture of fetal Type II alveolar epithelial cells, as well as the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of these histotypic cultures, are described. Type II alveolar epithelial cells can be isolated from fetal rat lungs and grown in an organotypic culture system as described in this review. The fetal Type II cells resemble differentiated rat Type II cells in morphology, biochemistry, and karyotype as they grow in culture for up to 5 weeks. The cells of the mature organotypic cultures form alveolarlike structures while growing on a gelatin sponge matrix. The Type II cells also synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant similar in biochemical composition to that produced in vivo. This system has been used to study the effects of hormones on surfactant production and composition. The organotypic model has many potential applications to the study of pulmonary toxicology. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:6548184

  8. Isolation of alveolar epithelial type II progenitor cells from adult human lungs

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Naoya; Kubo, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takaya; Ota, Chiharu; Hegab, Ahmed E; He, Mei; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Takashi; Kato, Hidemasa; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2011-01-01

    Resident stem/progenitor cells in the lung are important for tissue homeostasis and repair. However, a progenitor population for alveolar type II (ATII) cells in adult human lungs has not been identified. The aim of this study is to isolate progenitor cells from adult human lungs with the ability to differentiate into ATII cells. We isolated colony-forming cells that had the capability for self-renewal and the potential to generate ATII cells in vitro. These undifferentiated progenitor cells expressed surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and surfactant proteins associated with ATII cells, such as CD90 and pro-surfactant protein-C (pro-SP-C), respectively. Microarray analyses indicated that transcripts associated with lung development were enriched in the pro-SP-C+/CD90+ cells compared with bone marrow-MSCs. Furthermore, pathological evaluation indicated that pro-SP-C and CD90 double-positive cells were present within alveolar walls in normal lungs, and significantly increased in ATII cell hyperplasias contributing to alveolar epithelial repair in damaged lungs. Our findings demonstrated that adult human lungs contain a progenitor population for ATII cells. This study is a first step toward better understanding of stem cell biology in adult human lung alveoli. PMID:21079581

  9. Isolation and properties of type II alveolar cells from rat lung.

    PubMed

    Mason, R J; Williams, M C; Greenleaf, R D; Clements, J A

    1977-06-01

    Type II alveolar cells can be isolated and partially purified from adult rat lung by a series of steps that includes enzymatic digestion of the lung with trypsin and separation of cells on a discontinuous albumin density gradient. The yield of the isolated type II cells depends on the supplier and the housing of the rats used to prepare the cells. With specific pathogen-free rats housed in a laminar flow hood, the yield was 20.3 x 10(6) cells per rat, of which 50 per cent were type II cells. With rats from 2 other suppliers and no special housing, the yields were 8.8 and 8.3 x 10(6) cells per rat, of which 67 and 65 per cent were type II cells. The ultrastructural appearance of the isolated cells was similar to that of cells from intact lung, except for some dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum and the perinuclear space. Most cells (92 +/- 5 per cent) excluded the vital dye, trypan blue. The cells consumed O2 at the rate of 76 +/- 12 nmole per 10(6) cells per hour and released only 5.7 +/- 2.0 per cent of their lactate dehydrogenase, a cytoplasmic enzyme, into the medium after 1 hour of incubation. The isolated type II cells contained disaturated phosphatidylcholine, a major component of purified surface-active material. The cells, however, had a low glucose utilization compared to their O2 consumption, which may indicate an abnormality in the metabolism of glucose. This population of cells could be further purified to 89 per cent type II cells by unit gravity velocity sedimentation.

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment reduced the lung injury of type II decompression sickness

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ming; Zhou, Luting; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Peifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To detect the ultrastructural changes in rabbits with type II decompression sickness (DCS), and study the therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Methods: Twenty-seven male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided equally into the DCS group, HBO treatment group and control group. Experimental models of each group were prepared. Lung apex tissues were harvested to prepare paraffin- and EPON812-embedded tissues. Results: In the DCS group, macroscopic and histological examination revealed severe and rapid damage to lung tissue. Ultrastructural examination revealed exudation of red blood cells in the alveolar space. Type I alveolar epithelial cells exhibited retracted cell processes and swollen mitochondria, and type II cells showed highly swollen mitochondria and decrease in cytoplasmic lamellar bodies. Dilatation and congestion of capillary vessels were accompanied by swelling of endothelial cells and incomplete basement membrane. In the HBO treatment group, the findings were somewhat similar to those in the DCS group, but the extent of damage was lesser. Only a small amount of tiny bubbles could be seen in the blood vessels. Type I alveolar epithelia cells and endothelial cells of the capillaries illustrated slight shortening of cells, swollen cytoplasm and decreased cell processes. Type II alveolar epithelial cells showed slight swelling of the mitochondria, decreased vacuolar degeneration of lamellar bodies, and increase in the number of free ribosomes. Conclusions: Our microscopic and ultrastructural findings confirm that the lung is an important organ affected by DCS. We also confirmed that HBO can alleviate DCS-induced pulmonary damage. PMID:25973070

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment reduced the lung injury of type II decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ming; Zhou, Luting; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Peifeng

    2015-01-01

    To detect the ultrastructural changes in rabbits with type II decompression sickness (DCS), and study the therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Twenty-seven male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided equally into the DCS group, HBO treatment group and control group. Experimental models of each group were prepared. Lung apex tissues were harvested to prepare paraffin- and EPON812-embedded tissues. In the DCS group, macroscopic and histological examination revealed severe and rapid damage to lung tissue. Ultrastructural examination revealed exudation of red blood cells in the alveolar space. Type I alveolar epithelial cells exhibited retracted cell processes and swollen mitochondria, and type II cells showed highly swollen mitochondria and decrease in cytoplasmic lamellar bodies. Dilatation and congestion of capillary vessels were accompanied by swelling of endothelial cells and incomplete basement membrane. In the HBO treatment group, the findings were somewhat similar to those in the DCS group, but the extent of damage was lesser. Only a small amount of tiny bubbles could be seen in the blood vessels. Type I alveolar epithelia cells and endothelial cells of the capillaries illustrated slight shortening of cells, swollen cytoplasm and decreased cell processes. Type II alveolar epithelial cells showed slight swelling of the mitochondria, decreased vacuolar degeneration of lamellar bodies, and increase in the number of free ribosomes. Our microscopic and ultrastructural findings confirm that the lung is an important organ affected by DCS. We also confirmed that HBO can alleviate DCS-induced pulmonary damage.

  12. The MicroRNA 29 Family Promotes Type II Cell Differentiation in Developing Lung

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Benlhabib, Houda

    2016-01-01

    Lung alveolar type II cells uniquely synthesize surfactant, a developmentally regulated lipoprotein that is essential for breathing. Expression of the gene (SFTPA) encoding the major surfactant protein, SP-A, in midgestation human fetal lung (HFL) is dramatically induced by cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP induction of SP-A expression is repressed by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and by hypoxia. In this study, we found that expression of the microRNA 29 (miR-29) family was significantly upregulated in epithelial cells isolated from mouse fetal lung during late gestation and in epithelial cells isolated from HFL explants during type II cell differentiation in culture. miR-29 expression in cultured HFL epithelial cells was increased by cAMP and inhibited by hypoxia, whereas the miR-29 target, TGF-β2, was coordinately decreased. Knockdown of the miR-29 family in cultured HFL type II cells blocked cAMP-induced SP-A expression and accumulation of surfactant-containing lamellar bodies, suggesting their physiological relevance. This occurred through derepression of TGF-β signaling. Notably, cAMP increased binding of endogenous thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1/Nkx2.1) to the miR-29ab1 promoter in HFL type II cells, and TTF-1 increased miR-29ab1 promoter-driven luciferase activity in cotransfection assays. Together, these findings identify miR-29 family members as TTF-1-driven mediators of SP-A expression and type II cell differentiation through repression of TGF-β signaling. PMID:27215389

  13. The MicroRNA 29 Family Promotes Type II Cell Differentiation in Developing Lung.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Benlhabib, Houda; Mendelson, Carole R

    2016-08-15

    Lung alveolar type II cells uniquely synthesize surfactant, a developmentally regulated lipoprotein that is essential for breathing. Expression of the gene (SFTPA) encoding the major surfactant protein, SP-A, in midgestation human fetal lung (HFL) is dramatically induced by cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP induction of SP-A expression is repressed by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and by hypoxia. In this study, we found that expression of the microRNA 29 (miR-29) family was significantly upregulated in epithelial cells isolated from mouse fetal lung during late gestation and in epithelial cells isolated from HFL explants during type II cell differentiation in culture. miR-29 expression in cultured HFL epithelial cells was increased by cAMP and inhibited by hypoxia, whereas the miR-29 target, TGF-β2, was coordinately decreased. Knockdown of the miR-29 family in cultured HFL type II cells blocked cAMP-induced SP-A expression and accumulation of surfactant-containing lamellar bodies, suggesting their physiological relevance. This occurred through derepression of TGF-β signaling. Notably, cAMP increased binding of endogenous thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1/Nkx2.1) to the miR-29ab1 promoter in HFL type II cells, and TTF-1 increased miR-29ab1 promoter-driven luciferase activity in cotransfection assays. Together, these findings identify miR-29 family members as TTF-1-driven mediators of SP-A expression and type II cell differentiation through repression of TGF-β signaling.

  14. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R.; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W.; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at ∼95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days on collagen-coated dishes with or without DCI for the final 3 days. In freshly isolated cells, highly expressed genes included SFTPA/B/C, SCGB1A, IL8, CXCL2, and SFN in addition to ubiquitously expressed genes. Transcript abundance was correlated between fetal and adult cells (r = 0.88), with a subset of 187 genes primarily related to inflammation and immunity that were expressed >10-fold higher in adult cells. During control culture, expression increased for 8.1% of expressed genes and decreased for ∼4% including 118 immune response and 10 surfactant-related genes. DCI treatment promoted lamellar body production and increased expression of ∼3% of probed genes by ≥1.5-fold; 40% of these were also induced in fetal cells. Highly induced genes (≥10-fold) included PGC, ZBTB16, DUOX1, PLUNC, CIT, and CRTAC1. Twenty-five induced genes, including six genes related to surfactant (SFTPA/B/C, PGC, CEBPD, and ADFP), also had decreased expression during control culture and thus are candidates for hormonal regulation in vivo. Our results further define the adult human type II cell molecular phenotype and demonstrate that a subset of genes remains hormone responsive in cultured adult cells. PMID:20382749

  15. p120-Catenin Expressed in Alveolar Type II Cells Is Essential for the Regulation of Lung Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Chignalia, Andreia Z.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Albert B.; Mehta, Dolly; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Malik, Asrar B.; Liu, Yuru

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the lung alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the gas exchange and is important for immune regulation. Alveolar epithelial barrier is composed of flat type I cells, which make up approximately 95% of the gas-exchange surface, and cuboidal type II cells, which secrete surfactants and modulate lung immunity. p120-catenin (p120; gene symbol CTNND1) is an important component of adherens junctions of epithelial cells; however, its function in lung alveolar epithelial barrier has not been addressed in genetic models. Here, we created an inducible type II cell–specific p120-knockout mouse (p120EKO). The mutant lungs showed chronic inflammation, and the alveolar epithelial barrier was leaky to 125I-albumin tracer compared to wild type. The mutant lungs also demonstrated marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and activation of NF-κB. Intracellular adhesion molecule 1, Toll-like receptor 4, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were all up-regulated. p120EKO lungs showed increased expression of the surfactant proteins Sp-B, Sp-C, and Sp-D, and displayed severe inflammation after pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with wild type. In p120-deficient type II cell monolayers, we observed reduced transepithelial resistance compared to control, consistent with formation of defective adherens junctions. Thus, although type II cells constitute only 5% of the alveolar surface area, p120 expressed in these cells plays a critical role in regulating the innate immunity of the entire lung. PMID:25773174

  16. Role of type II pneumocyte senescence in radiation-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Citrin, Deborah E; Shankavaram, Uma; Horton, Jason A; Shield, William; Zhao, Shuping; Asano, Hiroaki; White, Ayla; Sowers, Anastasia; Thetford, Angela; Chung, Eun Joo

    2013-10-02

    Radiation is a commonly delivered therapeutic modality for cancer. The causes underlying the chronic, progressive nature of radiation injury in the lung are poorly understood. C57Bl/6NCr mice were exposed to thoracic irradiation (n = 3 per dose and time point for tissue collection). Microarray analysis of gene expression from irradiated murine lung was performed using one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Scheffe analysis. Senescence and type II airway epithelial cell (AECII) count were assayed in irradiated murine lung tissue (n = 3 per condition). Irradiated mice were treated with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX), and fibrosis was assessed by collagen assays. All statistical tests were two-tailed. Gene expression in lung tissue from mice irradiated to 17.5 Gy clustered with that of aged unirradiated mice. Only fibrogenic exposures led to AECII senescence (0 Gy: 0.66% ± 0.67%; 5 Gy: 4.5% ± 1.19%; 17.5 Gy: 18.7% ± 3.05; P = .007) and depletion (0 Gy: 2.89 per alveolus ± 0.26; 5 Gy: 2.41 ± 0.19; 17.5 Gy: 1.6 ± 0.14; P < .001) at 30 weeks. Treatment of irradiated mice with DPI for 16 weeks markedly reduced collagen accumulation (5×6 Gy: 57.26 μg/lung ± 9.91; 5×6 Gy ± DPI: 36.54μg/lung ± 4.39; P = .03) and AECII senescence (5×6 Gy: 37.61% ± 4.82%; 5×6 Gy ± DPI: 12.38% ± 2.78; P < .001). These studies identify senescence as an important process in AECII in vivo and indicate that NOX is a critical mediator of radiation-induced AECII senescence and pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Role of Type II Pneumocyte Senescence in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation is a commonly delivered therapeutic modality for cancer. The causes underlying the chronic, progressive nature of radiation injury in the lung are poorly understood. Methods C57Bl/6NCr mice were exposed to thoracic irradiation (n = 3 per dose and time point for tissue collection). Microarray analysis of gene expression from irradiated murine lung was performed using one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Scheffe analysis. Senescence and type II airway epithelial cell (AECII) count were assayed in irradiated murine lung tissue (n = 3 per condition). Irradiated mice were treated with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX), and fibrosis was assessed by collagen assays. All statistical tests were two-tailed. Results Gene expression in lung tissue from mice irradiated to 17.5 Gy clustered with that of aged unirradiated mice. Only fibrogenic exposures led to AECII senescence (0 Gy: 0.66% +/− 0.67%; 5 Gy: 4.5% +/− 1.19%; 17.5 Gy: 18.7% +/− 3.05; P = .007) and depletion (0 Gy: 2.89 per alveolus +/− 0.26; 5 Gy: 2.41 +/− 0.19; 17.5 Gy: 1.6 +/− 0.14; P < .001) at 30 weeks. Treatment of irradiated mice with DPI for 16 weeks markedly reduced collagen accumulation (5×6 Gy: 57.26 μg/lung +/− 9.91; 5×6 Gy +/− DPI: 36.54μg/lung +/− 4.39; P = .03) and AECII senescence (5×6 Gy: 37.61% +/− 4.82%; 5×6 Gy +/− DPI: 12.38% +/− 2.78; P < .001). Conclusions These studies identify senescence as an important process in AECII in vivo and indicate that NOX is a critical mediator of radiation-induced AECII senescence and pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24052614

  18. Interfacial sensing by alveolar type II cells: a new concept in lung physiology?

    PubMed Central

    Ravasio, Andrea; Hobi, Nina; Bertocchi, Cristina; Jesacher, Alexander; Dietl, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar type II (AT II) cells are in close contact with an air-liquid interface (IAL). This contact may be of considerable physiological relevance; however, no data exist to provide a satisfying description of this specific microenvironment. This is mainly due to the experimental difficulty to manipulate and analyze cell-air contacts in a specific way. Therefore, we designed assays to quantify cell viability, Ca2+ changes, and exocytosis in the course of interface contact and miniaturized IAL devices for direct, subcellular, and real-time analyses of cell-interface interactions by fluorescence microscopy or interferometry. The studies demonstrated that the sole presence of an IAL is not sensed by the cells. However, when AT II cells are forced into closer contact with it, they respond promptly with sustained Ca2+ signals and surfactant exocytosis before the occurrence of irreversible cell damage. This points to a paradoxical situation: a potential threat and potent stimulus for the cells. Furthermore, we found that the signalling mechanism underlying sensation of an IAL can be sufficiently explained by mechanical forces. These results demonstrate that the IAL itself can play a major, although so-far neglected, role in lung physiology, particularly in the regulatory mechanisms related with surfactant homeostasis. Moreover, they also support a general new concept of mechanosensation in the lung. PMID:21270294

  19. Altered lipid synthesis in type II pneumonocytes exposed to lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, N R; Tesan, M; Tyler, N E; Bleasdale, J E

    1986-01-01

    When type II pneumonocytes were exposed to purified lung surfactant that contained 1-palmitoyl-2-[3H]palmitoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine, radiolabelled surfactant was apparently taken up by the cells since it could not be removed by either repeated washing or exchange with non-radiolabelled surfactant, but was released when the cells were lysed. After 4 h of exposure to [3H]surfactant, more than half of the 3H within cells remained in disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Incorporation of [3H]choline, [14C]palmitate and [14C]acetate into glycerophospholipids was decreased in type II cells exposed to surfactant and this inhibition, like surfactant uptake, was half-maximal when the extracellular concentration of surfactant was approx. 0.1 mumol of lipid P/ml. Inhibition of incorporation of radiolabelled precursors by surfactant occurred rapidly and reversibly and was not due solely to dilution of the specific radioactivity of intracellular precursors. Activity of dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase, but not glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, was decreased in type II cells exposed to surfactant and this was reflected by a decrease in the 14C/3H ratio of total lipids synthesized when cells incubated with [U-14C]glycerol and [2-3H]glycerol were exposed to surfactant. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and cholesterol, either individually or mixed in the molar ratio found in surfactant, did not mimic purified surfactant in the inhibition of glycerophospholipid synthesis. In contrast, an apoprotein fraction isolated from surfactant inhibited greatly the incorporation of [3H]choline into lipids and this inhibitory activity was labile to heat and to trypsin. It is concluded that the apparent uptake of surfactant by type II cells in vitro is accompanied by an inhibition of glycerophospholipid synthesis via a mechanism that involves a surfactant apoprotein. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3827860

  20. Left atrial approach to close the atrial septal defect type II in case of right lung agenesis with extreme dextroversion.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowski, Witold D; Moll, Maciej; Kobielski, Artur; Moll, Jacek J

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a case of a rare combination of right lung agenesis and atrial septal defect type II (ASD II). Successful surgical repair of ASD II was performed at the age of six years with total circulatory arrest (TCA) and deep hypothermia, because of difficult approach. Computed tomography and intraoperative findings are described. From patho-embryological consideration, defects in the primitive respiratory apparatus in embryo stages were presumably responsible for agenesis of the lung. The patient was found to have a very short stump of the right pulmonary artery, but this malformation seems to be secondary.

  1. Bcl-2 overexpression in type II epithelial cells does not prevent hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Métrailler-Ruchonnet, Isabelle; Pagano, Alessandra; Carnesecchi, Stéphanie; Khatib, Karim; Herrera, Pedro; Donati, Yves; Bron, Camille; Barazzone, Constance

    2010-09-01

    Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic molecule preventing oxidative stress damage and cell death. We have previously shown that Bcl-2 is able to prevent hyperoxia-induced cell death when overexpressed in a murine fibrosarcoma cell line L929. We hypothesized that its specific overexpression in pulmonary epithelial type II cells could prevent hyperoxia-induced lung injury by protecting the epithelial side of the alveolo-capillary barrier. In the present work, we first showed that in vitro Bcl-2 can rescue murine pulmonary epithelial cells (MLE12) from oxygen-induced cell apoptosis, as shown by analysis of LDH release, annexin V/propidium staining, and caspase-3 activity. We then generated transgenic mice overexpressing specifically Bcl-2 in lung epithelial type II cells under surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter (Tg-Bcl-2) and exposed them to hyperoxia. Bcl-2 did not hinder hyperoxia-induced mitochondria and DNA oxidative damage of type II cell in vivo. Accordingly, lung damage was identical in both Tg-Bcl-2 and littermate mice strains, as measured by lung weight, bronchoalveolar lavage, and protein content. Nevertheless, we observed a significant lower number of TUNEL-positive cells in type II cells isolated from Tg-Bcl-2 mice exposed to hyperoxia compared with cells isolated from littermate mice. In summary, these results show that although Bcl-2 overexpression is able to prevent hyperoxia-induced cell death at single cell level in vitro and ex vivo, it is not sufficient to prevent cell death of parenchymal cells and to protect the lung from acute damage in mice.

  2. Rat lung type II cell and lamellar body: elemental composition in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenhoff, R.G.; Somlyo, A.P.

    1988-05-01

    We determined the in situ elemental composition of alveolar type II cells (ATII) and lamellar bodies (LB) with electronprobe microanalysis (EPMA) of freeze-dried unstained cryosections (100-200 nm) obtained from lungs frozen in anesthetized rats. Twenty-nine ATII from seven rats were subjected to EPMA. Cytoplasmic (Cyto) composition was the following (in mmol/kg dry wt, mean +/- SE, n = 30): 136 +/- 14.1 Na, 60 +/- 2.8 Mg, 549 +/- 34.8 P, 278 +/- 10.5 S, 158 +/- 7.3 Cl, 525 +/- 26.4 K, and 6.6 +/- 0.9 Ca. LB composition was the following (n = 66): 44 +/- 4.0 Na, 7.9 +/- 0.8 Mg, 1,060 +/- 25.0 P, 79 +/- 4.8 S, 64 +/- 3.6 Cl, 114 +/- 4.1 K, and 30 +/- 0.9 Ca. P and S concentrations were consistent with previous biochemical determinations of phospholipid and protein content of isolated LBs. LBs contain significantly more Ca and less Mg than Cyto. Ca correlated significantly with LB P but not S concentration, and the reported low Ca binding affinity of similar phospholipid mixtures implies a high LB free Ca concentration. Ca was significantly higher in apical and exocytotic LBs compared with those in the perinuclear region. Differences between LB and Cyto monovalent ion concentrations are not entirely due to the difference in hydration revealed by significantly lower K-Cl ratios in LBs. The relative excess of Cl and Ca in LB suggests that these ions may be distributed by active transport systems known to be present in the Golgi apparatus and in Golgi-derived organelles of other cell types.

  3. Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived alveolar epithelial type II cells abrogates acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dachun; Morales, John E; Calame, Daniel G; Alcorn, Joseph L; Wetsel, Rick A

    2010-03-01

    Respiratory diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Current treatments offer no prospect of cure or disease reversal. Transplantation of pulmonary progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may provide a novel approach to regenerate endogenous lung cells destroyed by injury and disease. Here, we examine the therapeutic potential of alveolar type II epithelial cells derived from hESCs (hES-ATIICs) in a mouse model of acute lung injury. When transplanted into lungs of mice subjected to bleomycin (BLM)-induced acute lung injury, hES-ATIICs behaved as normal primary ATIICs, differentiating into cells expressing phenotypic markers of alveolar type I epithelial cells. Without experiencing tumorigenic side effects, lung injury was abrogated in mice transplanted with hES-ATIICs, demonstrated by recovery of body weight and arterial blood oxygen saturation, decreased collagen deposition, and increased survival. Therefore, transplantation of hES-ATIICs shows promise as an effective therapeutic to treat acute lung injury.

  4. Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells Abrogates Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dachun; Morales, John E; Calame, Daniel G; Alcorn, Joseph L; Wetsel, Rick A

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Current treatments offer no prospect of cure or disease reversal. Transplantation of pulmonary progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may provide a novel approach to regenerate endogenous lung cells destroyed by injury and disease. Here, we examine the therapeutic potential of alveolar type II epithelial cells derived from hESCs (hES-ATIICs) in a mouse model of acute lung injury. When transplanted into lungs of mice subjected to bleomycin (BLM)-induced acute lung injury, hES-ATIICs behaved as normal primary ATIICs, differentiating into cells expressing phenotypic markers of alveolar type I epithelial cells. Without experiencing tumorigenic side effects, lung injury was abrogated in mice transplanted with hES-ATIICs, demonstrated by recovery of body weight and arterial blood oxygen saturation, decreased collagen deposition, and increased survival. Therefore, transplantation of hES-ATIICs shows promise as an effective therapeutic to treat acute lung injury. PMID:20087316

  5. The rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine synthesis by alveolar type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung.

    PubMed

    Post, M; Batenburg, J J; Van Golde, L M; Smith, B T

    1984-10-04

    The rate-limiting reaction in the formation of phosphatidylcholine by type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung was examined. Studies on the uptake of [Me-3H]choline and its incorporation into its metabolites indicated that in these cells the choline phosphate pool was much larger than both the choline and CDPcholine pools. Chemical measurements of the pool sizes showed that the choline phosphate pool was indeed much larger than the intracellular choline and CDPcholine pools. Pulse-chase studies with [Me-3H]choline revealed that labelled choline taken up by the cells was rapidly phosphorylated to choline phosphate and that the radioactivity lost from choline phosphate during the chase period appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Little change was observed in the labelling of CDPcholine during the chase period. These results indicate that cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase catalyzes a rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine formation by fetal rat lung type II cells.

  6. Diffusible signal to murine alveolar macrophages from lipopolysaccharide- and Escherichia coli-stimulated lung Type II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Farberman, M M; Hoffmann, J W; Ryerse, J S; Demello, D E

    2004-09-01

    To demonstrate a diffusible intercellular macrophage activation factor secreted by Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in transwell co-cultures. T(7), our Type II conditionally immortalized AEC line; MH-S, an alveolar macrophage cell line; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or uv-killed Escherichia coli (UVEC) for antigen presentation. LPS or UVEC stimulation of T(7) cells in the lower chamber was investigated for ability to activate MH-S cells in the upper chamber, as assayed by nitric oxide production and western blots for inducible nitric oxide synthase-2. Both transwell and UVEC-conditioned medium experiments showed secretion of an MH-S activation factor by T(7) cells. Many common inflammatory cytokines were ruled out as this immunoactivator. Demonstration of a diffusible activation factor produced by Type II AECs supports their potential role as first responders of innate immunity in the lung.

  7. Chronic ethanol ingestion impairs alveolar type II cell glutathione homeostasis and function and predisposes to endotoxin-mediated acute edematous lung injury in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Holguin, F; Moss, I; Brown, L A; Guidot, D M

    1998-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse increases the incidence and mortality of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in septic patients. To examine a potential mechanism, we hypothesized that ethanol ingestion predisposes to sepsis-mediated acute lung injury by decreasing alveolar type II cell glutathione homeostasis and function. Lungs isolated from rats fed ethanol (20% in water for >/= 3 wk), compared with lungs from control-fed rats, had greater (P < 0. 05) edematous injury (reflected by nonhydrostatic weight gain) after endotoxin (2 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and subsequent perfusion ex vivo with n-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP, 10(-7) M). Ethanol ingestion decreased (P < 0.05) glutathione levels in the plasma, lung tissue, and lung lavage fluid, and increased (P < 0.05) oxidized glutathione levels in the lung lavage fluid. Furthermore, ethanol ingestion decreased type II cell glutathione content by 95% (P < 0.05), decreased (P < 0.05) type II cell surfactant synthesis and secretion, and decreased (P < 0.05) type II cell viability, in vitro. Finally, treatment with the glutathione precursors S-adenosyl-L-methionine and N-acetylcysteine in the final week of ethanol ingestion significantly reduced lung edema during perfusion ex vivo. We conclude that ethanol ingestion in rats alters alveolar type II cell glutathione levels and function, thereby predisposing the lung to acute edematous injury after endotoxemia. We speculate that chronic alcohol abuse in humans predisposes to ARDS through similar mechanisms. PMID:9466970

  8. The miR-200 family and its targets regulate type II cell differentiation in human fetal lung.

    PubMed

    Benlhabib, Houda; Guo, Wei; Pierce, Brianne M; Mendelson, Carole R

    2015-09-11

    Type II cell differentiation and expression of the major surfactant protein, SP-A, in mid-gestation human fetal lung (HFL) are induced by cAMP and inhibited by TGF-β. cAMP induction of SP-A promoter activity is mediated by increased phosphorylation and DNA binding of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1/Nkx2.1), a master regulator of lung development. To further define mechanisms for developmental induction of surfactant synthesis in HFL, herein, we investigated the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs). To identify and characterize differentially regulated miRNAs in mid-gestation HFL explants during type II pneumocyte differentiation in culture, we performed miRNA microarray of RNA from epithelial cells isolated from mid-gestation HFL explants before and after culture with or without Bt2cAMP. Interestingly, the miR-200 family was significantly up-regulated during type II cell differentiation; miR-200 induction was inversely correlated with expression of known targets, transcription factors ZEB1/2 and TGF-β2. miR-200 antagonists inhibited TTF-1 and surfactant proteins and up-regulated TGF-β2 and ZEB1 expression in type II cells. Overexpression of ZEB1 in type II cells decreased DNA binding of endogenous TTF-1, blocked cAMP stimulation of surfactant proteins, and inhibited miR-200 expression, whereas cAMP markedly inhibited ZEB1/2 and TGF-β. Importantly, overexpression of ZEB1 or miR-200 antagonists in HFL type II cells also inhibited LPCAT1 and ABCA3, enzymes involved in surfactant phospholipid synthesis and trafficking, and blocked lamellar body biogenesis. Our findings suggest that the miR-200 family and ZEB1, which exist in a double-negative feedback loop regulated by TGF-β, serve important roles in the developmental regulation of type II cell differentiation and function in HFL. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Secretagogues of lung surfactant increase annexin A7 localization with ABCA3 in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Gerelsaikhan, Tudevdagva; Chen, Xiao-Liang; Chander, Avinash

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fusion between the lamellar bodies and plasma membrane is an obligatory event in the secretion of lung surfactant. Previous studies have postulated a role for annexin A7 (A7) in membrane fusion during exocytosis in some cells including alveolar type II cells. However, the intracellular trafficking of A7 during such fusion is not described. In this study, we investigated association of endogenous A7 with lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells following treatment with several secretagogues of lung surfactant. Biochemical studies with specific antibodies showed increased membrane-association of cell A7 in type II cells stimulated with agents that increase secretion through different signaling mechanisms. Immuno-fluorescence studies showed increased co-localization of A7 with ABCA3, the lamellar body marker protein. Because these agents increase surfactant secretion through activation of PKC and PKA, we also investigated the effects of PKC and PKA inhibitors, bisindolylmaleimideI (BisI) and H89, respectively, on A7 partitioning. Western blot analysis showed that these inhibitors prevented secretagogue-mediated A7 increase in the membrane fractions. These inhibitors also blocked increased co-localization of A7 with ABCA3 in secretagogue-treated cells, as revealed by immuno-fluorescence studies. In vitro studies with recombinant A7 showed phosphorylation with PKC and PKA. The cell A7 was also phosphorylated in cells treated with surfactant secretagogues. Thus, our studies demonstrate that annexin A7 relocates to lamellar bodies in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We suggest that activation of protein kinase promotes phosphorylation and membrane-association of A7 presumably to facilitate membrane fusion during lung surfactant secretion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Secretagogues of lung surfactant increase Annexin A7 localization with ABCA3 in alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerelsaikhan, Tudevdagva; Chen, Xiao-Liang; Chander, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Membrane fusion between the lamellar bodies and plasma membrane is an obligatory event in the secretion of lung surfactant. Previous studies have postulated a role for annexin A7 (A7) in membrane fusion during exocytosis in some cells including alveolar type II cells. However, the intracellular trafficking of A7 during such fusion is not described. In this study, we investigated association of endogenous A7 with lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells following treatment with several secretagogues of lung surfactant. Biochemical studies with specific antibodies showed increased membrane-association of cell A7 in type II cells stimulated with agents that increase secretion through different signaling mechanisms. Immuno-fluorescence studies showed increased co-localization of A7 with ABCA3, the lamellar body marker protein. Because these agents increase surfactant secretion through activation of PKC and PKA, we also investigated the effects of PKC and PKA inhibitors, bisindolylmaleimideI (BisI) and H89, respectively, on A7 partitioning. Western blot analysis showed that these inhibitors prevented secretagogue-mediated A7 increase in the membrane fractions. These inhibitors also blocked increased co-localization of A7 with ABCA3 in secretagogue-treated cells, as revealed by immuno-fluorescence studies. In vitro studies with recombinant A7 showed phosphorylation with PKC and PKA. The cell A7 was also phosphorylated in cells treated with surfactant secretagogues. Thus, our studies demonstrate that annexin A7 relocates to lamellar bodies in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We suggest that activation of protein kinase promotes phosphorylation and membrane-association of A7 presumably to facilitate membrane fusion during lung surfactant secretion. PMID:21911013

  11. Maintenance of differentiated function of the surfactant system in human fetal lung type II epithelial cells cultured on plastic.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, L W; Angampalli, S; Guttentag, S H; Beers, M F; Feinstein, S I; Matlapudi, A; Ballard, P L

    2001-01-01

    We report a simplified culture system for human fetal lung type II cells that maintains surfactant expression. Type II cells isolated from explant cultures of hormone-treated lungs (18-22 wk gestation) by collagenase + trypsin digestion were cultured on plastic for 4 days in serum-free medium containing dexamethasone (Dex, 10 nM) + 8-bromo-cAMP (0.1 mM + isobutylmethylxanthine (0.1 mM) or were untreated (control). Surfactant protein (SP) mRNAs decreased markedly in control cells between days 1 and 4 of culture, but mRNA levels were high in treated cells on day) 4 (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D; 600%, 100%, 85%, 130% of day 0 content, respectively). Dex or cAMP alone increased SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D mRNAs and together had additive effects. The greatest increase in SP-A mRNA occurred with cAMP alone. Treated cells processed pro-SP-B and pro-SP-C proteins to mature forms and had a higher rate of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis (2-fold) and higher saturation of PC (approximately 34% versus 27%) than controls. Only treated cells maintained secretagogue-responsive phospholipid synthesis. By electron microscopy, the treated cells retained lamellar bodies and extensive microvilli. We conclude that Dex and cAMP additively stimulate expression of surfactant components in isolated fetal type II cells, providing a simplified culture system for investigation of surfactant-related, and perhaps other, type II cell functions.

  12. Targeted gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor to alveolar type II epithelial cells reduces lung fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gazdhar, Amiq; Temuri, Almas; Knudsen, Lars; Gugger, Mathias; Schmid, Ralph A; Ochs, Matthias; Geiser, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Inefficient alveolar wound repair contributes to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent growth factor for alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) and may improve repair and reduce fibrosis. We studied whether targeted gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII improves lung fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. A plasmid encoding human HGF expressed from the human surfactant protein C promoter (pSpC-hHGF) was designed, and extracorporeal electroporation-mediated gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII was performed 7 days after bleomycin-induced lung injury in the rat. Animals were killed 7 days after hHGF gene transfer. Electroporation-mediated HGF gene transfer resulted in HGF expression specifically in AECII at biologically relevant levels. HGF gene transfer reduced pulmonary fibrosis as assessed by histology, hydroxyproline determination, and design-based stereology compared with controls. Our results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of HGF is due in part to a reduction of transforming growth factor-β(1), modulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and reduction of extravascular fibrin deposition. We conclude that targeted HGF gene transfer specifically to AECII decreases bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and may therefore represent a novel cell-specific gene transfer technology to treat pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and fetal lung maturation: immunogold detection of VDR expression in pneumocytes type II cells and effect on fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M; Trubert, C L; Rizk-Rabin, M; Rehan, V K; Besançon, F; Cayre, Y E; Garabédian, M

    2004-05-01

    Lung maturation before birth includes type II pneumocyte differentiation with progressive disappearance of glycogen content and onset of surfactant synthesis. We have shown previously that 1,25-(OH)2D3 increases surfactant synthesis and secretion by type II cells and decreases their glycogen content in fetal rat lung explants. Recently, the gene coding fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase (F1,6BP), a regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis, has been identified in type II cells and its promoter bears a Vitamin D response element. Present results show:The coexistence of type II cells at different stages of maturation. in rat fetal lung on day 21 of gestation (electron microscopy), and the association between maturation of type II cells and disappearance of their glycogen content. The immunogold labeling of all type II cells when using the 9A7g VDR-antibody, with significantly more abundant gold particles in cells exhibiting an intermediate glycogen content. The expression of F1,6BP mRNA in a human type II cell line (NCI-H441) and the increase of this expression after 18h incubation with 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10(-8)M). These results bring further evidence for a physiological role of 1,25-(OH)2D3 during type II pneumocyte maturation. Activation of F1,6BP may participate to the 1,25-(OH)2D3 action on surfactant synthesis via the gluconeogenesis pathway.

  14. Isolation and characterization of lung resident mesenchymal stem cells capable of differentiating into alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xuemin; Sun, Zhaorui; Cui, Di; Xu, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Huiming; Wang, Lihui; Qian, Weiping; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-04-01

    Controversies and risks continue to be reported about exogenous mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies. In contrast with employing exogenous stem cells, making use of lung resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) could be advantageous. Our study sought to isolate the LR-MSCs and explore their potential to differentiate into alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII cells). Total lung cells were first precultured, from which the Sca-1(+) CD45(-) CD31(-) population was purified using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). By these methods, it would seem that the Sca-1(+) CD45(-) CD31(-) cells were LR-MSCs. Similar to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), these cells express Sca-1, CD29, CD90, CD44 and CD106, but not CD31 or CD45. They share the same gene expression file with the BM-MSCs and have a similar DNA content during long-term culturing. Furthermore, they could be serially passaged with all these properties being sustained. Above all, LR-MSCs could differentiate into ATII cells when co-cultured with ATII cells in a trans-well system. These findings demonstrated that the Sca-1(+) CD45(-) CD31(-) cells appear to be LR-MSCs that can differentiate into ATII cells. This approach may hold promise for their use in the treatment of lung disease.

  15. Sirtuin 1 Activator SRT1720 Protects Against Lung Injury via Reduction of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells Apoptosis in Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Li, Yaqing; Xu, Wu-Lin; Yan, Jian-Ping; Xia, Ying-jie; Ma, Ying-Yu; Chen, Chun; Wang, Hui-Ju; Tao, Hou-quan

    2015-08-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two major pathological changes that occur are the loss of alveolar structure and airspace enlargement. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) play a vital role in maintaining alveolar homeostasis and lung tissue repair. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, regulates many pathophysiological processes including inflammation, apoptosis, cellular senescence and stress resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether SRT1720, a pharmacological SIRT1 activator, could protect against AECII apoptosis in rats with emphysema caused by cigarette smoke exposure and intratracheal lipopolysaccharide instillation in vivo. During the induction of emphysema in rats, administration of SRT1720 improved lung function including airway resistance and pulmonary dynamic compliance. SRT1720 treatment up-regulated the levels of surfactant protein (SP)A, SPC, SIRT1 and forkhead box O 3, increased SIRT1 activity, down-regulated the level of p53 and inhibited AECII apoptosis. Lung injury caused by emphysema was alleviated after SRT1720 treatment. SRT1720 could protect against AECII apoptosis in rats with emphysema and thus could be used in COPD treatment.

  16. Fetal rat lung type II cell differentiation in serum-free isolated cell culture: modulation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fraslon, C; Lacaze-Masmonteil, T; Zupan, V; Chailley-Heu, B; Bourbon, J R

    1993-05-01

    Undifferentiated fetal rat lung epithelial cells were isolated on gestational days 15 or 17 (term 22 days) and cultured in a defined medium. On plastic, most of the cells developed structurally abnormal lamellar bodies. On a basement membrane matrix (BMM), they sequentially accumulated glycogen and formed typical lamellar bodies. Biochemical analysis of the latter indicated that they had a phospholipid composition typical of surfactant for cells on BMM but not on plastic and that surfactant protein A appeared on BMM only. Progressing maturation from day 1 to day 6 in culture was demonstrated for 17-day cells on BMM by a sevenfold increase of labeled precursor incorporation into surfactant phospholipids. Exposure to medium conditioned by 21-day fetal fibroblasts enhanced incorporation already after a 1-day culture. The antisteroid RU 486 had no effect on differentiation, whereas transforming growth factor-beta, a factor produced by lung mesenchyme at early fetal stages, inhibited it markedly. Alveolar epithelial type II cells appear to be committed early, but their maturational process would be prevented until a definite gestational stage.

  17. Type I and II pneumocyte differentiation in the developing fetal chicken lung: conservation of pivotal proteins from birds to human in the struggle for life at birth.

    PubMed

    Bjørnstad, Sigrid; Paulsen, Ragnhild E; Erichsen, Aage; Glover, Joel C; Roald, Borghild

    2014-01-01

    Antenatal corticosteroids and surfactant replacement therapy have dramatically reduced mortality caused by lung disease in premature babies. Knowledge about mechanisms regulating epithelial differentiation of the respiratory membrane is limited, as are effects of pharmacological interventions. The chicken fetus is a valuable model for exploring pharmacological actions on developing organs. However, more precise information about the timing of developmental events in the chicken lung is needed for human correlation. Characterization of morphological development and protein expression in the respiratory membrane of the developing chicken lung to create a platform for pharmacological testing in a human context. Fetal chicken lungs, embryonic days (E) 7-20, were characterized by morphology and protein expression of epithelial differentiation markers. This was compared with publications on the same processes during human lung development. The respiratory membranes of developing chicken and human lungs show basic similarities. In chicken, surfactant protein B is expressed in cuboidal type II epithelial cells from E17. Aquaporin 5 is expressed in the epithelium from E7 and selectively in type I pneumocytes from E17. The type I pneumocyte and endothelial marker, caveolin 1, is expressed in the endothelium from E7 to E20. Despite phylogenetic distance, central aspects of cellular development in the chicken and human lung are similar. The fetal chicken model has important additional advantages to mammalian models, including fetal independence and short incubation, and is thus well suited for in vivo studies of lung maturation relevant to human development. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Rab38 targets to lamellar bodies and normalizes their sizes in lung alveolar type II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linghui; Yu, Kevin; Robert, Kyle W.; DeBolt, Kristine M.; Hong, Nankang; Tao, Jian-Qin; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Fisher, Aron B.

    2011-01-01

    Rab38 is a rat Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome gene that plays an important role in surfactant homeostasis in alveolar type II (ATII) pneumocytes. We examined Rab38 function in regulating lamellar body (LB) morphology in ATII cells. Quantitative electron microscopy revealed that LBs in ATII cells were ∼77% larger in Rab38-null fawn-hooded hypertension (FHH) than control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rab38 protein expression was restricted in lung epithelial cells but was not found in primary endothelial cells. In SD ATII cells, Rab38 protein level gradually declined during 5 days in culture. Importantly, endogenous Rab38 was present in LB fractions purified from SD rat lungs, and transiently expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged Rab38 labeled only the limiting membranes of a subpopulation (∼30%) of LBs in cultured ATII cells. This selective targeting was abolished by point mutations to EGFP-Rab38 and was not shared by Rab7 and Rab4b, which also function in the ATII cells. Using confocal microscopy, we established a method for quantitative evaluation of the enlarged LB phenotype temporally preserved in cultured FHH ATII cells. A direct causal relationship was established when the enlarged LB phenotype was reserved and then rescued by transiently reexpressed EGFP-Rab38 in cultured FHH ATII cells. This rescuing effect was associated with dynamic EGFP-Rab38 targeting to and on LB limiting membranes. We conclude that Rab38 plays an indispensible role in maintaining LB morphology and surfactant homeostasis in ATII pneumocytes. PMID:21764986

  19. An improved method for the isolation of rat alveolar type II lung cells: Use in the Comet assay to determine DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a cause of serious diseases, including lung cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and heart disease. DNA damage is thought to be one of the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke (CS) initiates disease in the lung. Indeed, CS induced DNA damage can be measured in vitro and in vivo. The potential of the Comet assay to measure DNA damage in isolated rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II) was explored as a means to include a genotoxicity end-point in rodent sub-chronic inhalation studies. In this study, published AEC II isolation methods were improved to yield viable cells suitable for use in the Comet assay. The improved method reduced the level of basal DNA damage and DNA repair in isolated AEC II. CS induced DNA damage could also be quantified in isolated cells following a single or 5 days CS exposure. In conclusion, the Comet assay has the potential to determine CS or other aerosol induced DNA damage in AEC II isolated from rodents used in sub-chronic inhalation studies.

  20. Biochemical mechanisms involved in the endotoxin-induced type II cell hyperplasia in F344 rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Johnson, N.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Proliferative lesions and pulmonary epithelial neoplasms induced in the rat by plutonium inhalation have been shown to be of type II cell origin. Defining the gene changes responsible for the development of the type II proliferative lesions would help to elucidate the genetic events involved in the expansion of initiated type II cells into fully transformed tumor cells. One problem in identifying these gene alterations is dissociating changes in gene expression linked to cell replication or repair from those involved in tumor initiation and progression. The long-term goals of these investigations are to first develop and characterize a model of transient type II cell hyperplasia. Second, changes in gene expression associated with remodeling epithelium will be compared to gene changes exhibited by the {sup 239}Pu-induced hyperplastic lesions.

  1. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in alveolar macrophages, type II pneumocytes, and airways in smokers: relationship to lung function and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Alison M; Loy, Leanna B; Abboud, Raja T; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Coxson, Harvey O; Muller, Nestor L; Kalloger, Steve; Li, Xing; Mark Elliott, W; English, John C; Finley, Richard J; Paré, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    An imbalance between proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Matrix metalloproteinase-1, also known as interstitial collagenase, has been implicated as a potentially important proteinase in the genesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, more specifically, emphysema. We performed quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in the resected lung of 20 smokers/ex-smokers who had varying severity of airflow obstruction and emphysema and compared this with the lungs of 5 nonsmokers. Emphysema was measured using a morphometric measure of the lungs' surface area/volume ratio and with qualitative and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema. There were significantly more matrix metalloproteinase-1-expressing alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes as well as a greater percentage of small airways that stained positively for matrix metalloproteinase-1 in the lungs of smokers than in those of nonsmokers (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0003, respectively). The extent of staining of type II pneumocytes and airways for matrix metalloproteinase-1 was significantly related to the extent of smoking (p = 0.012 and p = 0.013, respectively). In addition, the extent of matrix metalloproteinase-1 staining of alveolar macrophages was related to the lung surface area/volume ratio and to qualitative estimates of emphysema on CT. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking increases expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in alveolar macrophages as well as in alveolar and small airway epithelial cells. Smokers who develop emphysema have increased alveolar macrophage expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1.

  2. Morphology of tracheal and bronchial epithelium and type II cells of the peripheral lung of the guinea pig after inhalation of toluene diisocyanate vapors.

    PubMed

    Miller, M L; Andringa, A; Vinegar, A; Adams, W D; Cibulas, W; Brooks, S M

    1986-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a polymerizing agent used in production of plastics, can cause airways disease in some exposed individuals. Using guinea pigs as a model, the response of the airways and the type II cells of the peripheral lung was monitored morphologically and morphometrically after exposure to TDI vapors at 30 ppb, 260 ppb, and 3100 ppb. The two low doses of TDI caused little change in airways epithelium. There was no gross inflammatory cell infiltrate, however, surface infoldings and intracellular ciliated cysts increased in numbers. Animals exposed to 3100 ppb TDI 4 h/day for 5 days, sustained considerable damage to the epithelium, and stratified nonkeratinizing cells lined the airways until one week after exposure. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were present in the early period after exposure. Increased numbers of eosinophils were present between one and two weeks following exposure. Mitoses in the epithelium were common during recovery. In the peripheral lung, though a modest subjective increase in the number of type II cells was seen after 3100 ppb TDI, the volume density of type II cells, and organellar components (lamellar bodies, mitochondria, cisternal bodies) did not change significantly after any exposure level of TDI.

  3. Presenilin-1 Processing of ErbB4 in Fetal Type II Cells is Necessary for Control of Fetal Lung Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hoeing, Kristina; Zscheppang, Katja; Mujahid, Sana; Murray, Sandy; Volpe, MaryAnn V.; Dammann, Christiane E. L.; Nielsen, Heber C.

    2011-01-01

    Maturation of pulmonary fetal type II cells to initiate adequate surfactant production is crucial for postnatal respiratory function. Little is known about specific mechanisms of signal transduction controlling type II cell maturation. The ErbB4 receptor and its ligand neuregulin (NRG) are critical for lung development. ErbB4 is cleaved at the cell membrane by the γ-secretase enzyme complex whose active component is either presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) or presenilin-2. ErbB4 cleavage releases the 80 kDa intracellular domain (4ICD) which associates with chaperone proteins such as YAP (Yes associated protein) and translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We hypothesized that PSEN-1 and YAP have a development-specific expression in fetal type II cells and are important for ErbB4 signaling in surfactant production. In primary fetal mouse E16, E17, and E18 type II cells, PSEN-1 and YAP expression increased at E17 and E18 over E16. Subcellular fractionation showed a strong cytosolic and a weaker membrane location of both PSEN-1 and YAP. This was enhanced by NRG stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitations showed ErbB4 associated separately with PSEN-1 and with YAP. Their association, phosphorylation and co-localization were induced by NRG. Confocal immunofluorescence and nuclear fractionation confirmed these associations in a time-dependent manner after NRG stimulation. Primary ErbB4-deleted E17 type II cells were transfected with a mutant ErbB4 lacking the γ-secretase binding site. When compared to transfection with wild type ErbB4, the stimulatory effect of NRG on surfactant protein mRNA expression was lost. We conclude that PSEN-1 and YAP have crucial roles in ErbB4 signal transduction during type II cell maturation. PMID:21195117

  4. Presenilin-1 processing of ErbB4 in fetal type II cells is necessary for control of fetal lung maturation.

    PubMed

    Hoeing, Kristina; Zscheppang, Katja; Mujahid, Sana; Murray, Sandy; Volpe, MaryAnn V; Dammann, Christiane E L; Nielsen, Heber C

    2011-03-01

    Maturation of pulmonary fetal type II cells to initiate adequate surfactant production is crucial for postnatal respiratory function. Little is known about specific mechanisms of signal transduction controlling type II cell maturation. The ErbB4 receptor and its ligand neuregulin (NRG) are critical for lung development. ErbB4 is cleaved at the cell membrane by the γ-secretase enzyme complex whose active component is either presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) or presenilin-2. ErbB4 cleavage releases the 80kDa intracellular domain (4ICD), which associates with chaperone proteins such as YAP (Yes-associated protein) and translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We hypothesized that PSEN-1 and YAP have a development-specific expression in fetal type II cells and are important for ErbB4 signaling in surfactant production. In primary fetal mouse E16, E17, and E18 type II cells, PSEN-1 and YAP expression increased at E17 and E18 over E16. Subcellular fractionation showed a strong cytosolic and a weaker membrane location of both PSEN-1 and YAP. This was enhanced by NRG stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitations showed ErbB4 associated separately with PSEN-1 and with YAP. Their association, phosphorylation, and co-localization were induced by NRG. Confocal immunofluorescence and nuclear fractionation confirmed these associations in a time-dependent manner after NRG stimulation. Primary ErbB4-deleted E17 type II cells were transfected with a mutant ErbB4 lacking the γ-secretase binding site. When compared to transfection with wild-type ErbB4, the stimulatory effect of NRG on surfactant protein mRNA expression was lost. We conclude that PSEN-1 and YAP have crucial roles in ErbB4 signal transduction during type II cell maturation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations of alveolar type II cells and intraalveolar surfactant after bronchoalveolar lavage and perfluorocarbon ventilation. An electron microscopical and stereological study in the rat lung

    PubMed Central

    Rüdiger, Mario; Wendt, Sebastian; Köthe, Lars; Burkhardt, Wolfram; Wauer, Roland R; Ochs, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Background Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. Intratracheal administration of surface active agents such as perfluorocarbons (PFC) can prevent the alveolar collapse in surfactant depleted lungs. However, it is not known how BAL or subsequent PFC administration affect the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool. Methods Male wistar rats were surfactant depleted by BAL and treated for 1 hour by conventional mechanical ventilation (Lavaged-Gas, n = 5) or partial liquid ventilation with PF 5080 (Lavaged-PF5080, n = 5). For control, 10 healthy animals with gas (Healthy-Gas, n = 5) or PF5080 filled lungs (Healthy-PF5080, n = 5) were studied. A design-based stereological approach was used for quantification of lung parenchyma and the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool at the light and electron microscopic level. Results Compared to Healthy-lungs, Lavaged-animals had more type II cells with lamellar bodies in the process of secretion and freshly secreted lamellar body-like surfactant forms in the alveoli. The fraction of alveolar epithelial surface area covered with surfactant and total intraalveolar surfactant content were significantly smaller in Lavaged-animals. Compared with Gas-filled lungs, both PF5080-groups had a significantly higher total lung volume, but no other differences. Conclusion After BAL-induced alveolar surfactant depletion the amount of intracellularly stored surfactant is about half as high as in healthy animals. In lavaged animals short time liquid ventilation with PF5080 did not alter intra- or extracellular surfactant content or subtype composition. PMID:17550584

  6. Expression of cyclin D{sub 1} during endotoxin-induced aleveolar type II cell hyperplasia in rat lung and the detection of apoptotic cells during the remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Wood, M.B.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Our studies have shown that endotoxin intratracheally instilled into the rat lung induces proliferation of alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cell hyperplasia occurred 2 d after instillation of endotoxin and persisted for a further 2 d. After hyperplasia, the lung remodeled and returned to a normal state within 24-48 h. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the remodeling process of this transient hyperplasia may be useful to identify molecular changes that are altered in neoplasia. The purpose of the present study was to corroborate induction of epithelial cell hyperplasia by endotoxin and to delineate mechanisms involved in tissue remodeling after endotoxin-induced alveolar type II cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, immonostaining with cyclin D1 and cytokeratin shows that endotoxin induced epithelial cell proliferation and resulted in hyperplasia in the lung which persisted through 4 d post-instillation.

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in rats with experimental silicosis, alveolar type II hyperplasia, and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. O.; Flanders, K. C.; Saffiotti, U.

    1993-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) was studied in the lungs of rats given crystalline silica or ferric oxide by single intratracheal instillation. Ferric oxide elicited no progressive granulomatous reaction, no epithelial hyperplasia, and no lung tumors; no demonstrable reactivity to TGF-beta 1 was observed. Silica induced a granulomatous reaction with progressive fibrosis, adjacent alveolar type II hyperplasia, and alveolar carcinomas. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies to synthetic peptides corresponding to the first 30 amino acids of mature TGF-beta 1, anti-LC (1-30), and anti-CC (1-30) were used for the localization of intracellular and extracellular TGF-beta 1. An antibody to a peptide corresponding to amino acids 266-278 of the TGF-beta 1 precursor sequence, anti-Pre (266-278), was used to detect the TGF-beta precursor and the latency-associated peptide. Intracellular mature TGF-beta (anti-LC) was demonstrated in fibroblasts and macrophages located at the periphery of silicotic granulomas and in fibroblasts adjacent to hyperplastic type II cells. Extracellular mature TGF-beta 1 was localized in the connective tissue matrix of the granulomas and in the stroma of both hyperplastic type II cells and well-differentiated adenocarcinomas. Immunoreactivity to anti-Pre was localized, intracellularly, in hyperplastic alveolar type II cells and their proliferative lesions adjacent to granulomas, in adenomas, but not in adenocarcinomas. The hyperplastic type II cells appear to be the sites of production and secretion of TGF-beta 1, which may regulate their own growth and differentiation and mediate the production of extracellular TGF-beta 1-associated matrix. The lack of reactivity to TGF-beta 1 precursor in the adenocarcinomas is consistent with the loss of normal cellular differentiation and function. TGF-beta 1 appears to have a pathogenetic role in silica-induced mesenchymal and epithelial lesions. The role of TGF-beta 1 and

  8. Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors and lymphatic vessels modulate lung remodeling and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Parra, Edwin Roger; Ruppert, Aline Domingos Pinto; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

    2014-01-01

    To validate the importance of the angiotensin II receptor isotypes and the lymphatic vessels in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We examined angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors and lymphatic vessels in the pulmonary tissues obtained from open lung biopsies of 30 patients with systemic sclerosis and 28 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Their histologic patterns included cellular and fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia for systemic sclerosis and usual interstitial pneumonia for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We used immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry to evaluate the number of cells in the alveolar septae and the vessels stained by these markers. Survival curves were also used. We found a significantly increased percentage of septal and vessel cells immunostained for the angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors in the systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients compared with the controls. A similar percentage of angiotensin 2 receptor positive vessel cells was observed in fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia. A significantly increased percentage of lymphatic vessels was present in the usual interstitial pneumonia group compared with the non-specific interstitial pneumonia and control groups. A Cox regression analysis showed a high risk of death for the patients with usual interstitial pneumonia and a high percentage of vessel cells immunostained for the angiotensin 2 receptor in the lymphatic vessels. We concluded that angiotensin II receptor expression in the lung parenchyma can potentially control organ remodeling and fibrosis, which suggests that strategies aimed at preventing high angiotensin 2 receptor expression may be used as potential therapeutic target in patients with pulmonary systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. A site-specific genetic modification for induction of pluripotency and subsequent isolation of derived lung alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Quan, Yuan; Sun, Huanhuan; Peng, Xinmiao; Zou, Zhengyun; Alcorn, Joseph L; Wetsel, Rick A; Wang, Dachun

    2014-02-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have great therapeutic potential in repairing defective lung alveoli. However, genetic abnormalities caused by vector integrations and low efficiency in generating hiPSCs, as well as difficulty in obtaining transplantable hiPSC-derived cell types are still major obstacles. Here we report a novel strategy using a single nonviral site-specific targeting vector with a combination of Tet-On inducible gene expression system, Cre/lox P switching gene expression system, and alveolar epithelial type II cell (ATIIC)-specific Neomycin(R) transgene expression system. With this strategy, a single copy of all of the required transgenes can be specifically knocked into a site immediately downstream of β-2-microglobulin (B2M) gene locus at a high frequency, without causing B2M dysfunction. Thus, the expression of reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, and Klf4, can be precisely regulated for efficient reprogramming of somatic cells into random integration-free or genetic mutation-free hiPSCs. The exogenous reprogramming factor transgenes can be subsequently removed after reprogramming by transient expression of Cre recombinase, and the resulting random integration-free and exogenous reprogramming factor-free hiPSCs can be selectively differentiated into a homogenous population of ATIICs. In addition, we show that these hiPSC-derived ATIICs exhibit ultrastructural characteristics and biological functions of normal ATIICs. When transplanted into bleomycin-challenged mice lungs, hiPSC-derived ATIICs efficiently remain and re-epithelialize injured alveoli to restore pulmonary function, preventing lung fibrosis and increasing survival without tumorigenic side effect. This strategy allows for the first time efficient generation of patient-specific ATIICs for possible future clinical applications. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Staining histological lung sections with Sudan Black B or Sudan III for automated identification of alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jan Philipp; Pedersen, Lars; Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells produce, store and secrete pulmonary surfactant and serve as progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium. They are thus an interesting target in wide fields of pulmonary research. Stereological methods allow their quantification based on measurements on histological sections. A proper AE2 cell quantification, however, requires a method of tissue processing that results in little tissue shrinkage during processing. It was recently shown that a primary fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde, postfixation with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate and embedding in glycol methacrylate fulfills this requirement. However, a proper quantification, furthermore, requires a secure identification of the cells under the microscope. Classical approaches using routine stainings, high magnifications and systematic uniform random sampling can result in a tedious counting procedure. In this article we show that Sudan Black B and Sudan III staining in combination with the previously described "low shrinkage method" of tissue processing result in good staining of lamellar bodies of AE2 cells (their storing organelles of surfactant) and thus provide a good signal of AE2 cells, which allows their easy and secure identification even at rather low magnifications. We further show that this signal enables automated detection of AE2 cells by image analysis, which should make this method a suitable staining method for the recently developed and more efficient proportionator sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Agonists of MAS oncogene and angiotensin II type 2 receptors attenuate cardiopulmonary disease in rats with neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Gerry T M; Laghmani, El Houari; Fidder, Melissa; Sengers, Rozemarijn M A; de Visser, Yvonne P; de Vries, Louwe; Rink, Rick; Roks, Anton J M; Folkerts, Gert; Walther, Frans J

    2013-09-01

    Stimulation of MAS oncogene receptor (MAS) or angiotensin (Ang) receptor type 2 (AT2) may be novel therapeutic options for neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) by counterbalancing the adverse effects of the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, consisting of arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and pulmonary inflammation. We determined the cardiopulmonary effects in neonatal rats with CLD of daily treatment during continuous exposure to 100% oxygen for 10 days with specific ligands for MAS [cyclic Ang-(1-7); 10-50 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)] and AT2 [dKcAng-(1-7); 5-20 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)]. Parameters investigated included lung and heart histopathology, fibrin deposition, vascular leakage, and differential mRNA expression in the lungs of key genes involved in the renin-angiotensin system, inflammation, coagulation, and alveolar development. We investigated the role of nitric oxide synthase inhibition with N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) during AT2 agonist treatment. Prophylactic treatment with agonists for MAS or AT2 for 10 days diminished cardiopulmonary injury by reducing alveolar septum thickness and medial wall thickness of small arterioles and preventing RVH. Both agonists attenuated the pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells, including macrophages (via AT2) and neutrophils (via MAS) but did not reduce alveolar enlargement and vascular alveolar leakage. The AT2 agonist attenuated hyperoxia-induced fibrin deposition. In conclusion, stimulation of MAS or AT2 attenuates cardiopulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation and preventing PAH-induced RVH but does not affect alveolar and vascular development in neonatal rats with experimental CLD. The beneficial effects of AT2 activation on experimental CLD were mediated via a NOS-independent mechanism.

  12. Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II Suppresses Lung Carcinogenesis by Blocking Tumor COX-2 Expression as Well as the ERK and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilin; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Pozzi, Ambra; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death. Early diagnosis and prevention remain the best approach to reduce the overall morbidity and mortality. Experimental and clinical evidence have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to lung tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress the development and progression of lung cancer. However, increased cardiovascular risks of COX-2 inhibitors limit their use in chemoprevention of lung cancers. Glucocorticoids are endogenous and potent COX-2 inhibitors, and their local actions are down-regulated by 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11ßHSD2)-mediated metabolism. We found that 11βHSD2 expression was increased in human lung cancers and experimental lung tumors. Inhibition of 11βHSD2 activity enhanced glucocorticoid-mediated COX-2 inhibition in human lung carcinoma cells. Furthermore, 11βHSD2 inhibition suppressed lung tumor growth and invasion in association with increased tissue active glucocorticoid levels, decreased COX-2 expression, inhibition of ERK and mTOR signaling pathways, increased tumor endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as increased lifespan. Therefore, 11βHSD2 inhibition represents a novel approach for lung cancer chemoprevention and therapy by increasing tumor glucocorticoid activity, which in turn selectively blocks local COX-2 activity and/or inhibits the ERK and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:26011146

  13. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" (chILD) ... therapeutic intervention Lung and bone marrow transplant-associated lung diseases Diffuse alveolar damage of unknown cause The various types ...

  14. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor ligand PD123319 attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung and heart injury at a low dose in newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Laghmani, El Houari; Chen, Xueyu; Lindeboom, Melissa P. H. A.; Roks, Anton J. M.; Folkerts, Gert; Walther, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Intervening in angiotensin (Ang)-II type 2 receptor (AT2) signaling may have therapeutic potential for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by attenuating lung inflammation and preventing arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). We first investigated the role of AT2 inhibition with PD123319 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg−1·day−1) on the beneficial effect of AT2 agonist LP2–3 (5 μg/kg twice a day) on RVH in newborn rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Next we determined the cardiopulmonary effects of PD123319 (0.1 mg·kg−1·day−1) in two models: early treatment during continuous exposure to hyperoxia for 10 days and late treatment starting on day 6 in rat pups exposed postnatally to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by a 9-day recovery period in room air. Parameters investigated included lung and heart histopathology, fibrin deposition, vascular leakage, and differential mRNA expression. Ten days of coadministration of LP2–3 and PD123319 abolished the beneficial effects of LP2–3 on RVH in experimental BPD. In the early treatment model PD123319 attenuated cardiopulmonary injury by reducing alveolar septal thickness, pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, medial wall thickness of small arterioles, and extravascular collagen III deposition, and by preventing RVH. In the late treatment model PD123319 diminished PAH and RVH, demonstrating that PAH is reversible in the neonatal period. At high concentrations PD123319 blocks the beneficial effects of the AT2-agonist LP2–3 on RVH. At low concentrations PD123319 attenuates cardiopulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and preventing PAH-induced RVH but does not affect alveolar and vascular development in newborn rats with experimental BPD. PMID:24951776

  15. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor ligand PD123319 attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung and heart injury at a low dose in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Gerry T M; Sengers, Rozemarijn M A; Laghmani, El Houari; Chen, Xueyu; Lindeboom, Melissa P H A; Roks, Anton J M; Folkerts, Gert; Walther, Frans J

    2014-08-01

    Intervening in angiotensin (Ang)-II type 2 receptor (AT2) signaling may have therapeutic potential for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by attenuating lung inflammation and preventing arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). We first investigated the role of AT2 inhibition with PD123319 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) on the beneficial effect of AT2 agonist LP2-3 (5 μg/kg twice a day) on RVH in newborn rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Next we determined the cardiopulmonary effects of PD123319 (0.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in two models: early treatment during continuous exposure to hyperoxia for 10 days and late treatment starting on day 6 in rat pups exposed postnatally to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by a 9-day recovery period in room air. Parameters investigated included lung and heart histopathology, fibrin deposition, vascular leakage, and differential mRNA expression. Ten days of coadministration of LP2-3 and PD123319 abolished the beneficial effects of LP2-3 on RVH in experimental BPD. In the early treatment model PD123319 attenuated cardiopulmonary injury by reducing alveolar septal thickness, pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, medial wall thickness of small arterioles, and extravascular collagen III deposition, and by preventing RVH. In the late treatment model PD123319 diminished PAH and RVH, demonstrating that PAH is reversible in the neonatal period. At high concentrations PD123319 blocks the beneficial effects of the AT2-agonist LP2-3 on RVH. At low concentrations PD123319 attenuates cardiopulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and preventing PAH-induced RVH but does not affect alveolar and vascular development in newborn rats with experimental BPD.

  16. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; McCormack, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  17. Interdependent TTF1 - ErbB4 interactions are critical for surfactant protein-B homeostasis in primary mouse lung alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Marten, Elger; Nielsen, Heber C; Dammann, Christiane E L

    2015-09-01

    ErbB4 receptor and thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 are important modulators of fetal alveolar type II (ATII) cell development and injury. ErbB4 is an upstream regulator of TTF-1, promoting its expression in MLE-12 cells, an ATII cell line. Both proteins are known to promote surfactant protein-B gene (SftpB) and protein (SP-B) expression, but their feedback interactions on each other are not known. We hypothesized that TTF-1 expression has a feedback effect on ErbB4 expression in an in-vitro model of isolated mouse ATII cells. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effects of overexpressing HER4 and Nkx2.1, the genes of ErbB4 and TTF-1 on TTF-1 and ErbB4 protein expression, respectively, as well as SP-B protein expression in primary fetal mouse lung ATII cells. Transient ErbB4 protein overexpression upregulated TTF-1 protein expression in primary fetal ATII cells, similarly to results previously shown in MLE-12 cells. Transient TTF-1 protein overexpression down regulated ErbB4 protein expression in both cell types. TTF-1 protein was upregulated in primary transgenic ErbB4-depleted adult ATII cells, however SP-B protein expression in these adult transgenic ATII cells was not affected by the absence of ErbB4. The observation that TTF-1 is upregulated in fetal ATII cells by ErbB4 overexpression and also in ErbB4-deleted adult ATII cells suggests additional factors interact with ErbB4 to regulate TTF-1 levels. We conclude that the interdependency of TTF-1 and ErbB4 is important for surfactant protein levels. The interactive regulation of ErbB4 and TTF-1 needs further elucidation.

  18. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  19. Activation-induced cell death of memory CD8+ T cells from pleural effusion of lung cancer patients is mediated by the type II Fas-induced apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Morales-Fuentes, Jorge; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2012-07-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Pleural effusions, containing high numbers of mononuclear and tumor cells, are frequent in patients with advanced stages of lung cancer. We reported that in pleural effusions from primary lung cancer, the CD8+ T cell subpopulation, and particularly the terminally differentiated subset, is reduced compared to that of non-malignant effusions. We analyzed the participation of activation-induced cell death (AICD) and extrinsic pathways (type I or II) as mechanisms for the decrease in pleural effusion CD8+ T cell subpopulation. Pleural effusion or peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, from lung cancer patients, were stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody and analyzed for (a) apoptosis by annexin-V-binding and TUNEL assay, (b) transcript levels of Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL by real-time RT-PCR, (c) expression of FasL and TRAIL, measured as integrated mean fluorescence intensities (iMFI) by flow cytometry, (d) expression of Bcl-2 and BIM molecules, measured as MFI, and (e) apoptosis inhibition using caspase-8 and -9 inhibitors. Pleural effusion CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, from cancer patients underwent AICD. Blocking FasL/Fas pathway protected from AICD. Upregulation of FasL and TRAIL expressions was found in pleural effusion CD8+ T cells, which also showed a subset of Bcl-2 low cells. In memory CD8+ T cells, AICD depended on both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Hence, in the pleural space of lung cancer patients, AICD might compromise the antitumor function of CD8+ T cells.

  20. A phase II trial of erlotinib monotherapy for pretreated elderly patients with advanced EGFR wild-type non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Minemura, Hiroyuki; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Azuma, Keisuke; Hirai, Ken-ichiro; Sekine, Satoko; Oshima, Kengo; Kanazawa, Kenya; Tanino, Yoshinori; Inokoshi, Yayoi; Ishii, Taeko; Katsuura, Yutaka; Oishi, Akio; Ishida, Takashi; Munakata, Mitsuru

    2015-06-05

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which is an effective treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially those harboring activating EGFR mutations. A previous phase III trial suggested that patients with EGFR wild-type (EGFR-wt) NSCLC or elderly patients with disease progression after cytotoxic chemotherapy might benefit from erlotinib monotherapy. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of second- or third-line erlotinib monotherapy for elderly patients with EGFR-wt advanced or recurrent NSCLC. Pretreated patients aged ≥70 years with EGFR-wt stage IIIB/IV NSCLC or those with postoperative recurrence were enrolled and received oral erlotinib at a dose of 150 mg/day until disease progression. Primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included the disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profile. This study was terminated early because of the results from a Japanese phase III trial (DELTA trial). Sixteen patients were enrolled between April 2010 and May 2013. The median age was 78 years (range 70-84 years). Six patients were female. Five patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0. Eleven (69%) patients had adenocarcinoma. Fifteen (94%) patients were treated with erlotinib as a second-line therapy. The ORR was 0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0-17.1]. DCR was 56.3% (95% CI 33.2-76.9). The median PFS and OS were 1.7 months (95% CI 1.3-2.2) and 7.2 months (95% CI 5.6-8.7), respectively. The most commonly occurring adverse events included acneiform eruption (31.3%) and skin rash (25.0%). One patient developed grade 3 interstitial lung disease, which improved following steroid therapy. In pretreated elderly patients with advanced or recurrent EGFR-wt NSCLC, daily oral erlotinib was well tolerated; however, administration of the drug should not

  1. Treatment of Lung Carcinoid by Type and Extent of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carcinoid Tumor Treating Lung Carcinoid Tumors Treatment of Lung Carcinoid, by Type and Extent of Disease The ... those that can’t be removed completely Resectable lung carcinoid tumors Resectable carcinoid tumors haven’t spread ...

  2. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-06

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed.

  3. The secretome of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 type II secretion system reveals a novel plasmid encoded phospholipase that could be implicated in lung colonization.

    PubMed

    Elhosseiny, Noha M; El-Tayeb, Ossama M; Yassin, Aymen S; Lory, Stephen; Attia, Ahmed S

    2016-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii infections are compounded with a striking lack of treatment options. In many Gram-negative bacteria, secreted proteins play an important early role in avoiding host defences. Typically, these proteins are targeted to the external environment or into host cells using dedicated transport systems. Despite the fact that medically relevant species of Acinetobacter possess a type II secretion system (T2SS), only recently, its significance as an important pathway for delivering virulence factors has gained attention. Using in silico analysis to characterize the genetic determinants of the T2SS, which are found clustered in other organisms, in Acinetobacter species, they appear to have a unique genetic organization and are distributed throughout the genome. When compared to other T2SS orthologs, individual components of the T2SS apparatus showed the highest similarity to those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A mutant of Acinetobacter baumannii strain ATCC 17978 lacking the secretin component of the T2SS (ΔgspD), together with a trans-complemented mutant, were tested in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays to determine the role of T2SS in pathogenicity. The ΔgspD mutant displayed decreased lipolytic activity, associated with attenuated colonization ability in a murine pneumonia model. These phenotypes are linked to LipAN, a novel plasmid-encoded phospholipase, identified through mass spectroscopy as a T2SS substrate. Recombinant LipAN showed specific phospholipase activity in vitro. Proteomics on the T2-dependent secretome of ATCC 17978 strain revealed its potential dedication to the secretion of a number of lipolytic enzymes, among others which could contribute to its virulence. This study highlights the role of T2SS as an active contributor to the virulence of A. baumannii potentially through secretion of a newly identified phospholipase.

  4. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  5. [Mucolipidoses type II. Case report].

    PubMed

    Aracena, Mariana; Mabe, Paulina; Mena, María; Andreani, Silvia; Daza, Claudio

    2003-03-01

    We report a female newborn with type II mucolipidoses. This condition is characterized clinically by Hurler like features, progressive psychomotor retardation and death during the first or second year of life. Most cases present during the first year of life, with poor weight gain and coarse facies features. The cause of this rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease is the deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, required for the synthesis of mannose-6-phosphate, the ligand that allows the transport of acid hydrolases into lysosomes. The patient had clinical features commonly found in mucolipidosis II, including disproportionate dwarfism, retarded psychomotor development, coarse facies features, gibbous and restricted joint mobility. The diagnosis was proved by an extremely elevated activity of lysosomal enzymes in the serum, secondary to non-regulated secretion and subsequent intracellular depletion of these proteins. The child suffered recurrent pneumonia and died at 22 months of age.

  6. The angiotensin II receptor 2 is expressed and mediates angiotensin II signaling in lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Königshoff, Melanie; Wilhelm, Anke; Jahn, Andreas; Sedding, Daniel; Amarie, Oana Veronica; Eul, Bastian; Seeger, Werner; Fink, Ludger; Günther, Andreas; Eickelberg, Oliver; Rose, Frank

    2007-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe interstitial lung disease unresponsive to currently available therapies. In IPF, initial alveolar epithelial cell damage leads to activation of fibroblast-(myo)fibroblasts, which deposit an increased amount of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix. Angiotensin II (ANGII) signaling, mediated via angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) or type 2 (AGTR2), controls tissue remodeling in fibrosis, but the relevance of AGTR2 remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated increased expression of AGTR1 und AGTR2 in human and rodent lung tissues from patients with IPF and mice subjected to bleomycin-induced fibrosis, respectively. Both AGTR1 und AGTR2 localized to interstitial fibroblasts. Quantitative analysis of cell surface expression in primary mouse fibroblasts revealed a significant increase of AGTR2 surface expression in fibrotic fibroblasts, whereas AGTR1 surface expression levels remained similar. ANGII treatment of normal fibroblasts led to enhanced migration and proliferation, which was abrogated after pretreatment with losartan (LOS), an AGTR1 inhibitor. In contrast, in fibrotic fibroblasts, migration and proliferation was modified only by AGTR2, but not AGTR1 inhibition (using PD123319). ANGII-induced effects were mediated via phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and p42/44, which was blocked via LOS and PD123319, respectively. Similar effects of AGTR1 and AGTR2 inhibition were observed using conditioned media of alveolar epithelial cells, a prominent source of ANGII in the lung in vivo. In summary, we conclude that ANGII signaling occurs primarily via AGTR1 in normal fibroblasts, while AGTR2-mediated effects are dominant on activated (myo)-fibroblasts, a receptor switch that may perturb epithelial-mesenchymal interaction, thereby further perpetuating fibrogenesis.

  7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Type II Endoleaks

    PubMed Central

    Kuziez, Mohamed S; Sanchez, Luis A; Zayed, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks occur commonly following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Although they remain enigmatic, multiples studies have evaluated preoperative risk factors and strategies for prevention of type II endoleaks. Prophylactic treatment of type II endoleaks can include embolization of accessory arteries, as well as complete aneurysmal sac occlusion. Regular post-operative surveillance and screening for type II endoleaks with triple-phase CTA is the standard of care. Aneurysm size and growth rate are factors that predict whether a persistence type II endoleak is hemodynamically significant, and whether it requires treatment with percutaneous trans-lumbar or trans-arterial embolization techniques. Less commonly, type II endoleaks can be repaired using laparoscopic or open surgical ligation of feeder arterial branches. Emerging methods using endovascular aneurysm sac sealing technology may continue to alter the incidence and long-term management strategies of type II endoleaks. Here we review the latest strategies in the treatment of Type II endoleaks following EVAR. PMID:27857945

  8. A randomized phase II trial of erlotinib vs. S-1 as a third- or fourth-line therapy for patients with wild-type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (HOT1002).

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Yasuyuki; Asahina, Hajime; Oizumi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Takamura, Kei; Kawai, Yasutaka; Yamada, Noriyuki; Harada, Toshiyuki; Kinoshita, Ichiro; Fujita, Yuka; Miyauchi, Eisaku; Ogi, Takahiro; Amano, Toraji; Furuta, Megumi; Sakakibara-Konishi, Jun; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Isobe, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2017-09-13

    A high proportion of patients with wild-type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receive third-line therapy and beyond, with no prospective randomized trials addressing the issue. This study aimed to select the most suitable regimen as a third- or fourth-line therapy for wild-type EGFR NSCLC. This multicenter, randomized phase II study in Japan included patients with recurrent or advanced NSCLC with wild-type or unknown EGFR, who progressed after two or three previous chemotherapies. The patients were randomly assigned to erlotinib (150 mg/day, days 1-21) or S-1 (80-120 mg/day, days 1-14) every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR). The secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), toxicity, and quality of life (QOL). From 2011 to 2016, 37 patients were randomly assigned to receive erlotinib (E arm, n = 19) and S-1 (S arm, n = 18). This study was terminated prematurely because of poor patient accrual. DCR/ORR were 42.1%/15.8% in the E arm and 66.7%/16.7% in the S arm. Median PFS/OS were 1.6 months/8.0 months in the E arm and 3.3 months/12.2 months in the S arm. In both groups, the most commonly reported grade 3-4 toxicities were fatigue, anorexia, and nausea. One grade 5 pneumonitis occurred in the S arm. No significant difference was seen in QOL. S-1 as a third- or fourth-line therapy for wild-type EGFR NSCLC showed numerically better clinical outcomes than erlotinib. UMIN000005308.

  9. Alveolar type II cell-fibroblast interactions, synthesis and secretion of surfactant and type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M; Bhandari, R; Hamilton, G; Chan, Y C; Powell, J T

    1993-06-01

    During alveolar development and alveolar repair close contacts are established between fibroblasts and lung epithelial cells through gaps in the basement membrane. Using co-culture systems we have investigated whether these close contacts influence synthesis and secretion of the principal surfactant apoprotein (SP-A) by cultured rat lung alveolar type II cells and the synthesis and secretion of type I collagen by fibroblasts. The alveolar type II cells remained cuboidal and grew in colonies on fibroblast feeder layers and on Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts but were progressively more flattened on fixed fibroblast monolayers and plastic. Alveolar type II cells cultured on plastic released almost all their SP-A into the medium by 4 days. Alveolar type II cells cultured on viable fibroblasts or Matrigel-coated inserts above fibroblasts accumulated SP-A in the medium at a constant rate for the first 4 days, and probably recycle SP-A by endocytosis. The amount of mRNA for SP-A was very low after 4 days of culture of alveolar type II cells on plastic, Matrigel-coated inserts or fixed fibroblast monolayers: relatively, the amount of mRNA for SP-A was increased 4-fold after culture of alveolar type II cells on viable fibroblasts. Co-culture of alveolar type II cells with confluent human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 2- to 3-fold the secretion of collagen type I into the culture medium, even after the fibroblasts' growth had been arrested with mitomycin C. Collagen secretion, by fibroblasts, also was stimulated 2-fold by conditioned medium from alveolar type II cells cultured on Matrigel. The amount of mRNA for type I collagen increased only modestly when fibroblasts were cultured in this conditioned medium. This stimulation of type I collagen secretion diminished as the conditioned medium was diluted out, but at high dilutions further stimulation occurred, indicating that a factor that inhibited collagen secretion also was being diluted out. The conditioned medium

  10. Rare lung diseases II: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Juvet, Stephen C; Hwang, David; Waddell, Thomas K; Downey, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, leading to macrophage and neutrophil dysfunction. This has spurred new therapeutic approaches to this disorder. The discussion of PAP will begin with a case report, then will highlight the classification of PAP and review recent insights into the pathogenesis of PAP. The approach to therapy and the prognosis of PAP will also be discussed. PMID:18551202

  11. Microdosimetry of rat alveolar type II cells irradiated with alpha particles from 239PuO2

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.Y.; Ye, C.Q.; Wu, D.C. )

    1989-11-01

    The alveolar type II cell is one of the critical cells for radiation damage in the lungs after inhalation of radioactive aerosols. With the aid of a Quantimet-970 image analyzer and a VAX-11/780 computer, we calculated the radiation dose to rat alveolar type II cells from alpha particles emitted by {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. A series of dosimetric parameters for type II cells, including track length distribution, linear energy transfer (LET), values of the specific energy for a single hit of a spherical target (z1), cellular dose, hit number, and their spatial distributions were calculated. By comparing the volume density of type II cells and lung tissue with energy deposited in alveolar type II cells, we found that the energy deposited per unit volume of type II cells was larger than that of lung tissue excluding type II cells. The z1 for spherical targets and the LET across type II cells were less than those in lung tissue excluding type II cells. The age of the rat and damage to lung by inhalation may significantly influence some of the parameters. The neoplastic transformation probability for type II cells is also discussed. The results suggest that the type II cell is an important target cell in the rat lung for exposure to inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}.

  12. Microdosimetry of rat alveolar type II cells irradiated with alpha particles from 239PuO2.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z Y; Ye, C Q; Wu, D C

    1989-11-01

    The alveolar type II cell is one of the critical cells for radiation damage in the lungs after inhalation of radioactive aerosols. With the aid of a Quantimet-970 image analyzer and a VAX-11/780 computer, we calculated the radiation dose to rat alveolar type II cells from alpha particles emitted by 239PuO2. A series of dosimetric parameters for type II cells, including track length distribution, linear energy transfer (LET), values of the specific energy for a single hit of a spherical target (z1), cellular dose, hit number, and their spatial distributions were calculated. By comparing the volume density of type II cells and lung tissue with energy deposited in alveolar type II cells, we found that the energy deposited per unit volume of type II cells was larger than that of lung tissue excluding type II cells. The z1 for spherical targets and the LET across type II cells were less than those in lung tissue excluding type II cells. The age of the rat and damage to lung by inhalation may significantly influence some of the parameters. The neoplastic transformation probability for type II cells is also discussed. The results suggest that the type II cell is an important target cell in the rat lung for exposure to inhaled 239PuO2.

  13. Moving beyond Type I and Type II neuron types.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    In 1948, Hodgkin delineated different classes of axonal firing.  This has been mathematically translated allowing insight and understanding to emerge.  As such, the terminology of 'Type I' and 'Type II' neurons is commonplace in the Neuroscience literature today.  Theoretical insights have helped us realize that, for example, network synchronization depends on whether neurons are Type I or Type II.  Mathematical models are precise with analyses (considering Type I/II aspects), but experimentally, the distinction can be less clear.  On the other hand, experiments are becoming more sophisticated in terms of distinguishing and manipulating particular cell types but are limited in terms of being able to consider network aspects simultaneously.   Although there is much work going on mathematically and experimentally, in my opinion it is becoming common that models are either superficially linked with experiment or not described in enough detail to appreciate the biological context.  Overall, we all suffer in terms of impeding our understanding of brain networks and applying our understanding to neurological disease.  I suggest that more modelers become familiar with experimental details and that more experimentalists appreciate modeling assumptions. In other words, we need to move beyond our comfort zones.

  14. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  15. Neurofibromatosis type II: a rare neurocutaneous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu; Khan, Ashfa Ameer; Malik, Muhammad Akbar; Nadeem, Malik Muhammad; Rahman, Mahfooz-Ur-; Khan, Malik Muhammad Nazir

    2007-06-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are heterogeneous group of disorders with abnormalities of central as well as peripheral nervous system. Neurofibromatosis type II (NF-II) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome rarely diagnosed in pediatric population. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and radioimaging. We present a 14 years old boy with headache and decreased hearing, who turned to be a case of neurofibromatosis type II.

  16. Drug Transporter Protein Quantification of Immortalized Human Lung Cell Lines Derived from Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), Bronchiolar-Alveolar Cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and Alveolar Type II-like Cells (A549) by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Matsumaru, Takehisa; Yamamura, Norio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug transport in the human lung is an important issue in pulmonary drug discovery and development. For this purpose, there is an increasing interest in immortalized lung cell lines as alternatives to primary cultured lung cells. We recently reported the protein expression in human lung tissues and pulmonary epithelial cells in primary culture, (Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) whereas comprehensive quantification of protein expressions in immortalized lung cell lines is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the drug transporter protein expression of five commercially available immortalized lung cell lines derived from tracheobronchial cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), bronchiolar-alveolar cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and alveolar type II cells (A549), by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches. Among transporters detected, breast cancer-resistance protein in Calu-3, NCI-H292, NCI-H441, and A549 and OCTN2 in BEAS2-B showed the highest protein expression. Compared with data from our previous study,(Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) NCI-H441 was the most similar with primary lung cells from all regions in terms of protein expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1). In conclusion, the protein expression profiles of transporters in five immortalized lung cell lines were determined, and these findings may contribute to a better understanding of drug transport in immortalized lung cell lines.

  17. Impact of MHC Class II Incompatibility on Localization of Mononuclear Cell Infiltrates to the Bronchiolar Compartment of Orthotopic Lung Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Shinji; Soong, T. Rinda; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Qian, Zhiping; Rahimi, Salma; Wasowska, Barbara A.; Rohde, Charles A.; Chen, Sabrina; Garcia, Joe G.N.; Baldwin, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic pathological changes in transplanted lungs are unique because they center on the airways. We examined the relative role of MHC class I and II antigens in causing bronchial pathology in orthotopic lung transplants to rats maintained on cyclosporin A (CsA). Transplants mismatched for MHC class II antigens had significantly more peri-bronchiolar infiltrates than MHC class I incompatible transplants. No significant increase in infiltrates was found in lung transplants incompatible for MHC class I plus II antigens compared to MHC class II antigens alone. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MHC class II antigen expression was confined to macrophages in MHC class I incompatible transplants, but was upregulated on bronchial epithelium in transplants with MHC class II incompatibilities. Vascular endothelium was notably devoid of MHC class II antigen expression in all transplants. However, both peri-bronchial and peri-vascular infiltrates were frequently cuffed by alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes that expressed MHC class II antigens. PCR analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ and regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were upregulated in MHC class II incompatible transplants. Thus, MHC class II incompatible orthotopic lung transplants in rats maintained on CsA immunosuppression undergo a bronchiolcentric upregulation of alloantigens. PMID:15760392

  18. Micronucleus assay for mouse alveolar Type II and Clara cells.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Catalán, Julia; Santonen, Tiina; Norppa, Hannu

    2010-03-01

    The objective of our study was to develop a micronucleus (MN) assay for detecting genotoxic damage after inhalation exposure in mouse alveolar Type II and Clara cells, potential target cells for lung carcinogens. Ten male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to ethylene oxide (630 mg/m(3)) for 4 hr via inhalation; 10 unexposed mice serving as controls. 72 hr after the exposure, Clara cells and alveolar Type II cells were isolated using two different methods. Method 1 included a 15-min trypsin lavage and a 2-hr incubation of cell suspension. Method 2 involved a 30-min trypsin lavage, Percoll gradient centrifugation, and a 48-hr incubation for cell attachment. Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) -staining was applied to distinguish Clara cells. The frequency of micronuclei (MNi) was scored in NBT-negative cells (defined as Type II cells in Method 2) and NBT-positive cells (Clara cells). To detect possible differences between the techniques, MNi in Clara cells were analyzed from samples prepared by both methods. With Method 2, a clear increase in the mean frequency of micronucleated cells was seen in the exposed mice as compared with the controls, for both alveolar Type II and Clara cells. However, no significant increase in MN frequency was seen in Clara cells analyzed from samples prepared by Method 1. Based on our findings, mouse alveolar Type II and Clara cells seem to be suitable for MN analysis in studies aimed at identifying genotoxic lung carcinogens. Both alveolar Type II and Clara cells can be isolated using Method 2. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    PubMed

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... experience the most severe symptoms of glutaric acidemia type II . Mutations that allow the enzyme to retain some activity may result in milder forms of the disorder. Learn more about the genes associated with glutaric acidemia type II ETFA ETFB ETFDH Related Information What is ...

  1. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  2. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Walker, V; Mills, G A; Peters, S A; Merton, W L

    2000-03-01

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.

  3. A comparison of the antigen-presenting capabilities of class II MHC-expressing human lung epithelial and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, A C; Zhang, J G; Moy, J V; Ali, S; Kirby, J A

    1997-01-01

    Human lung alveolar epithelial cells constitutively express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Human lung microvascular endothelial and small airway epithelial cells can be induced to express class II MHC by stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. The levels of class II MHC on lung epithelial and endothelial cells were comparable to those seen on an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-cell line. However, the costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 were not expressed. The ability of the class II MHC expressing human lung parenchymal cells to present alloantigen to CD4+ T lymphocytes was investigated. Freshly isolated human alveolar epithelial cells (type II pneumocytes) and monolayers of interferon-gamma-stimulated small airway epithelial and lung microvascular endothelial cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD4+ T lymphocytes and proliferation determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. A clear difference was observed between effects of the epithelial and endothelial cells on CD4+ T-lymphocyte activation. Alveolar and small airway epithelial cells failed to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic CD4+ T lymphocytes whereas lung microvascular endothelial cells did stimulate proliferation. This difference could not be explained by the levels of class II MHC or the lack of B7-1 and B7-2 solely. Microvascular endothelial cells, and not alveolar or small airway epithelial cells, possess B7-independent costimulatory pathways. PMID:9301537

  4. Visual Fixation in Chiari Type II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks’ parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

  5. Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11060 TITLE: Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II...The following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO11059 thru ADP011100 UNCLASSIFIED 2-1 Headache and Decompression Sickness...while Type II necessitates recompression with 100% oxygen (7). Headache associated with DCS is not new. Ryles and Pilmanis reported an eleven-year

  6. Genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pieke Dahl, S; Kimberling, W J; Gorin, M B; Weston, M D; Furman, J M; Pikus, A; Möller, C

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been localised to chromosome 1q32-q41. DNA from a family with four of seven sibs affected with clinical characteristics of Usher syndrome type II was genotyped using markers spanning the 1q32-1q41 region. These included D1S70 and D1S81, which are believed to flank USH2. Genotypic results and subsequent linkage analysis indicated non-linkage of this family to these markers. The A test analysis for heterogeneity with this family and 32 other Usher type II families was statistically significant at p < 0.05. Further clinical evaluation of this family was done in light of the linkage results to determine if any phenotypic characteristics would allow for clinical identification of the unlinked type. No clear phenotypic differences were observed; however, this unlinked family may represent a previously unreported subtype of Usher type II characterised by a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa and mild vestibular abnormalities. Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II complicates efforts to isolate and clone Usher syndrome genes using linkage analysis and limits the use of DNA markers in early detection of Usher type II. Images PMID:7901420

  7. Mast Cells in Lung Homeostasis: Beyond Type I Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Campillo-Navarro, Marcia; Chávez-Blanco, Alma D; Wong-Baeza, Isabel; Serafín-López, Jeanet; Flores-Mejía, Raúl; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Estrada-García, Iris; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel

    2014-06-01

    Lungs are indispensable organs for the respiratory process, and maintaining their homeostasis is essential for human health and survival. However, during the lifetime of an individual, the lungs suffer countless insults that put at risk their delicate organization and function. Many cells of the immune system participate to maintain this equilibrium and to keep functional lungs. Among these cells, mast cells have recently attracted attention because of their ability to rapidly secrete many chemical and biological mediators that modulate different processes like inflammation, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, etc. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of the role that mast cells play in lung protection during infections, and of the relation of mast cell responses to type I hypersensitivity-associated pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of mast cells during wound healing in the lung and its association with lung cancer, and how mast cells could be exploited as therapeutic targets in some diseases.

  8. Mast Cells in Lung Homeostasis: Beyond Type I Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Campillo-Navarro, Marcia; Chávez-Blanco, Alma D; Wong-Baeza, Isabel; Serafín-López, Jeanet; Flores-Mejía, Raúl; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Estrada-García, Iris; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel

    2014-01-01

    Lungs are indispensable organs for the respiratory process, and maintaining their homeostasis is essential for human health and survival. However, during the lifetime of an individual, the lungs suffer countless insults that put at risk their delicate organization and function. Many cells of the immune system participate to maintain this equilibrium and to keep functional lungs. Among these cells, mast cells have recently attracted attention because of their ability to rapidly secrete many chemical and biological mediators that modulate different processes like inflammation, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, etc. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of the role that mast cells play in lung protection during infections, and of the relation of mast cell responses to type I hypersensitivity-associated pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of mast cells during wound healing in the lung and its association with lung cancer, and how mast cells could be exploited as therapeutic targets in some diseases PMID:25484639

  9. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  10. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation.

  11. Noether symmetries of Bianchi type II spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Mark; Yazdan, Shair-a.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate Noether symmetries of Bianchi type II spacetimes. We use the reduced involutive form of the determining equations to classify their possible algebras. We show that Noether symmetries contain both Killing vectors and homothetic motions.

  12. Lack of correlation between growth inhibition by TGF-beta and the percentage of cells expressing type II TGF-beta receptor in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    López-González, José Sullivan; Aguilar-Cázares, Dolores; Prado-García, Heriberto; Nieto-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Mandoki, Juan José; Avila-Moreno, Federico; Rivera, Rosa María; Chavarría-Garcés, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    To determine the mechanisms involved in the evasion from TGF-beta growth regulation in the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines and the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, we studied: (a) production of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2; (b) percentage of cells expressing TGF-beta RII; (c) responsiveness of the tumour cell lines to exogenous TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2; and (d) presence of mRNA transcripts of the three TGF-beta isoforms and of the TGF-beta RII. Our results indicate that the SCLC cell lines do not synthesize the isoforms TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 nor the TGF-beta RII, thus avoiding inhibitory autocrine and paracrine TGF-beta actions. However, NSCLC cell lines express not only TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta RII mRNA transcripts, but also synthesize both isoforms and the TGF-beta RII. Although approximately 50% of the cells from the studied cell lines expressed the TGF-beta RII, different cell lines varied greatly in the sensitivity to the inhibitory action of TGF-beta. This could result from alterations in: (i) the structure of TGF-beta RII; (ii) the phosphorylation motif of TGF-beta RI; (iii) the molecules involved in the intracellular signalling pathway of TGF-beta; and (iv) cell cycle regulation.

  13. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible.

  14. Type I Interferons as Regulators of Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Spyridon; Paulsen, Michelle; Johansson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Immune responses to lung infections must be tightly regulated in order to permit pathogen eradication while maintaining organ function. Exuberant or dysregulated inflammation can impair gas exchange and underlies many instances of lung disease. An important driver of inflammation in the lung is the interferon (IFN) response. Type I IFNs are antiviral cytokines that induce a large range of proteins that impair viral replication in infected cells. This cell-intrinsic action plays a crucial role in protecting the lungs from spread of respiratory viruses. However, type I IFNs have also recently been found to be central to the initiation of lung inflammatory responses, by inducing recruitment and activation of immune cells. This helps control virus burden but can cause detrimental immunopathology and contribute to disease severity. Furthermore, there is now increasing evidence that type I IFNs are not only induced after viral infections but also after infection with bacteria and fungi. The pro-inflammatory function of type I IFNs in the lung opens up the possibility of immune modulation directed against this antiviral cytokine family. In this review, the initiation and signaling of type I IFNs as well as their role in driving and maintaining lung inflammation will be discussed. PMID:28344581

  15. Type II alveolar epithelial cell in vitro culture in aerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B

    1988-08-01

    A method of Type II alveolar epithelial cell culture in aerobiosis has been developed. Isolation of Type II cells was performed by digesting guinea-pig lung tissue with crude trypsin and elastase and using discontinuous Percoll density gradients. The Type II cells, as identified by light and electron microscopy, were cultured in aerobiosis for up to six days, in direct contact with the atmosphere in conditions mimicking those present in the lower respiratory tract. Significant activities of cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found at the time of isolation. In contrast, cell glutathione content varied widely from one experiment to another. Changes of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated during cell culture in aerobiosis. SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase were significantly decreased after three days but were not significantly different between a three day and six day culture. Antioxidant changes did not influence the cell culture. In marked contrast, decrease in cell glutathione was associated with rapid cell death, whereas good cell survival was obtained at high levels of cell glutathione. Cell culture in aerobiosis will permit a precise evaluation of the effects of gases, particularly oxidant gases, on a primary culture of Type II alveolar epithelial cells.

  16. Type II endometrial cancers: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Flora D.; Thomas, Eliz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endometrial carcinoma ranks 3rd in India among gynecological malignancies. Endometrial cancer (EC) can be classified into two distinct groups – type I and type II, based on histology, which differs in molecular, clinical and histopathological profiles. Type II is nonestrogen dependent, nonendometrioid, more aggressive and carries poor prognosis. Although type II cancers contribute only about 10% of EC incidence, they present at advanced age and cause approximately 50% recurrence and deaths with a low 5-year, overall survival rate. Type II EC are also characterized by genetic alterations in p53, human epidermal growth factor-2/neu, p16 and E-cadherin. Materials and Methods: Endometrial carcinomas diagnosed from endometrial biopsies and hysterectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, from January 2007 to June 2012 were included in the study. Clinicopathological analysis of the 84 cases of EC was done with emphasis on morphology. p53 immunostaining was performed in two cases of serous carcinoma. Results: Out of a total of 84 cases of EC, ten cases were of type II (11.9%). Out of which, eight were serous carcinoma (9.5%) and two clear cell (2.4%). p53 immunostain was strongly positive in the serous papillary carcinomas. The age of the patients ranged from 45 to 75 years. Myometrial invasion was more than half. Treatment was hysterectomy followed by aggressive chemotherapy. Conclusion: Of the type II EC, serous carcinoma is the most common type. Clinical presentation and prognosis differs in comparison to type I EC, thus the recognition of this type of EC is pivotal. PMID:27499593

  17. Randomized Phase II Trial of Sulindac for Lung Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Limburg, Paul J.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Aubry, Marie Christine; Ziegler, Katie L. Allen; Zhang, Jun; Yi, Joanne E.; Henry, Michael; Tazelaar, Henry D.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Midthun, David E.; Edell, Eric S.; Rickman, Otis B.; Mazzone, Peter; Tockman, Melvyn; Beamis, John F.; Lamb, Carla; Simoff, Michael; Loprinzi, Charles; Szabo, Eva; Jett, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sulindac represents a promising candidate agent for lung cancer chemoprevention, but clinical trial data have not been previously reported. We conducted a randomized, phase II chemoprevention trial involving current or former cigarette smokers (≥ 30 pack-years) utilizing the multi-center, inter-disciplinary infrastructure of the Cancer Prevention Network (CPN). Methods At least 1 bronchial dysplastic lesion identified by fluorescence bronchoscopy was required for randomization. Intervention assignments were sulindac 150 mg bid or an identical placebo bid for six months. Trial endpoints included changes in histologic grade of dysplasia (per-participant as primary endpoint and per lesion as secondary endpoint), number of dysplastic lesions (per-participant), and Ki67 labeling index. Results Slower than anticipated recruitment led to trial closure after randomizing participants (n = 31 and n = 30 in the sulindac and placebo arms, respectively). Pre- and post-intervention fluorescence bronchoscopy data were available for 53/61 (87%) randomized, eligible participants. The median (range) of dysplastic lesions at baseline was 2 (1-12) in the sulindac arm and 2 (1-7) in the placebo arm. Change in dysplasia was categorized as regression:stable:progression for 15:3:8 (58%:12%:31%) subjects in the sulindac arm and 15:2:10 (56%:7%:37%) subjects in the placebo arm; these distributions were not statistically different (p=0.85). Median Ki67 expression (% cells stained positive) was significantly reduced in both the placebo (30 versus 5; p = 0.0005) and sulindac (30 versus 10; p = 0.0003) arms, but the difference between arms was not statistically significant (p = 0.92). Conclusions Data from this multi-center, phase II squamous cell lung cancer chemoprevention trial do not demonstrate sufficient benefits from sulindac 150 mg bid for 6 months to warrant additional phase III testing. Investigation of pathway-focused agents is necessary for lung cancer chemoprevention

  18. Randomized phase II trial of sulindac for lung cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Limburg, Paul J; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Aubry, Marie Christine; Ziegler, Katie L Allen; Zhang, Jun; Yi, Joanne E; Henry, Michael; Tazelaar, Henry D; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Midthun, David E; Edell, Eric S; Rickman, Otis B; Mazzone, Peter; Tockman, Melvyn; Beamis, John F; Lamb, Carla; Simoff, Michael; Loprinzi, Charles; Szabo, Eva; Jett, James

    2013-03-01

    Sulindac represents a promising candidate agent for lung cancer chemoprevention, but clinical trial data have not been previously reported. We conducted a randomized, phase II chemoprevention trial involving current or former cigarette smokers (≥30 pack-years) utilizing the multi-center, inter-disciplinary infrastructure of the Cancer Prevention Network (CPN). At least 1 bronchial dysplastic lesion identified by fluorescence bronchoscopy was required for randomization. Intervention assignments were sulindac 150mg bid or an identical placebo bid for 6 months. Trial endpoints included changes in histologic grade of dysplasia (per-participant as primary endpoint and per lesion as secondary endpoint), number of dysplastic lesions (per-participant), and Ki67 labeling index. Slower than anticipated recruitment led to trial closure after randomizing participants (n=31 and n=30 in the sulindac and placebo arms, respectively). Pre- and post-intervention fluorescence bronchoscopy data were available for 53/61 (87%) randomized, eligible participants. The median (range) of dysplastic lesions at baseline was 2 (1-12) in the sulindac arm and 2 (1-7) in the placebo arm. Change in dysplasia was categorized as regression:stable:progression for 15:3:8 (58%:12%:31%) subjects in the sulindac arm and 15:2:10 (56%:7%:37%) subjects in the placebo arm; these distributions were not statistically different (p=0.85). Median Ki67 expression (% cells stained positive) was significantly reduced in both the placebo (30 versus 5; p=0.0005) and sulindac (30 versus 10; p=0.0003) arms, but the difference between arms was not statistically significant (p=0.92). Data from this multi-center, phase II squamous cell lung cancer chemoprevention trial do not demonstrate sufficient benefits from sulindac 150mg bid for 6 months to warrant additional phase III testing. Investigation of pathway-focused agents is necessary for lung cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  19. Late appearance of a type I alveolar epithelial cell marker during fetal rat lung development.

    PubMed

    Danto, S I; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1994-10-01

    Recent studies in fetal lung using immunological and molecular probes have revealed type I and type II cell phenotypic markers in primordial lung epithelial cells prior to the morphogenesis of these cell types. We have recently developed monoclonal antibodies specific for adult type I cells. To evaluate further the temporal appearance of the type I cell phenotype during alveolar epithelial cell ontogeny, we analyzed fetal lung development using one of our monoclonal antibodies (mAb VIII B2). The epitope recognized by mAb VIII B2 first appears in the canalicular stage of fetal lung development, at approx. embryonic day 19 (E19), in occasional, faintly stained tubules. Staining with this type I cell probe becomes more intense and more widespread with increasing gestational age, during which time the pattern of staining changes. Initially, all cells of the distal epithelial tubules are uniformly labelled along their apical and basolateral surfaces. As morphological differentiation of the alveolar epithelium proceeds, type I cell immunoreactivity appears to become restricted to the apical surface of the primitive type I cells in a pattern approaching that seen in the mature lung. We concurrently analyzed developing fetal lung with an antiserum to surfactant apoprotein-A (alpha-SP-A). Consistent with the findings of others, labeling of SP-A was first detectable in scattered cuboidal cells at E18. Careful examination of the double-labeled specimens suggested that some cells were reactive with both the VIII B2 and SP-A antibodies, particularly at E20. Confocal microscopic analysis of such sections from E20 lung confirmed this impression. Three populations of cells were detected: cells labeled only with alpha-SP-A, cells labeled only with mAb VIII B2, and a smaller subset of cells labeled by both.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Printable PDF Open All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder ...

  1. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome.

  2. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  3. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  4. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  5. Naturalness in testable type II seesaw scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Vila, Clara Miralles; Rodejohann, Werner

    2017-08-01

    New physics coupling to the Higgs sector of the Standard Model can lead to dangerously large corrections to the Higgs mass. We investigate this problem in the type II seesaw model for neutrino mass, where a weak scalar triplet is introduced. The interplay of direct and indirect constraints on the type II seesaw model with its contribution to the Higgs mass is analyzed. The focus lies on testable triplet masses and (sub) eV-scale triplet vacuum expectation values. We identify scenarios that are testable in collider and/or lepton flavor violation experiments, while satisfying the Higgs naturalness criterion.

  6. The Type 1 Alveolar Lining Cells of the Mammalian Lung

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Robert M.; Picciano, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Using a newly described dissociation and isolation technique, Type 1 alveolar lining cells were obtained from adult rabbit lung within a heterogeneous population. Identification of many lung cell types in this mixed population was by a) comparison of isolated cells with in situ lung cells in lung sections using identical parallel staining, b) stepwise ultrastructural examination of cells during all stages of lung dissociation so that intercellular associations were monitored throughout, and c) Type 1 cell surface changes following collagenase treatment. This phenomenon was studied with both electron and light microscopy, the latter employing tetrachrome staining of basophilic blebs as well as characteristic staining of nucleus and cytoplasm. Following their isolation, most Type 1 cells lost their surface blebs and assumed a “relaxed” state. In this condition, Type 1 cells were exposed to cytochalasin D (CD) for various times and at several concentrations. Surface knobs, having all the characteristics of zeiotic knobs produced in a number of cultured cell lines by exposure to CD, were produced in isolated Type 1 epithelial cells within 45 minutes. The reaction to CD was temperature-dependent, proceeding maximally at 37 C with inhibition at lower temperatures and was inhibited by antimetabolites such as dinitrophenol and 2-deoxyglucose in the presence of CD. As with established cell lines, formation of zeiotic knobs at the isolated Type 1 cell surface appeared closely related to microfilamentous nets located beneath the plasmalemma. The density of this net appeared to vary as isolated Type 1 cells underwent expansion and contraction in response to CD. Zeiotic knobs were formed as the result of herniation of endoplasm through the cell cortex. The significance of such a labile cortical zone is considered in relation to the deformation changes Type 1 cells undergo during inflation-deflation of alveoli and the folding-unfolding of alveolar lining cells as a result of

  7. Type II Technology Applications in Teacher Education:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen Wang, Lih-Ching; Beasley, William

    2005-01-01

    The use of the Instant Messenger (IM) environment to carry out structured online class discussions in graduate teacher education courses is described. Properties of IM are delineated, and specific procedures in using IM as a vehicle for class discussions are discussed. Attributes of Type II technology applications are addressed directly, and the…

  8. Are coronal type II shocks piston driven?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kundu, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Flare blast waves and shocks piston driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been proposed to be responsible for generating type II radio bursts in the solar corona. The idea for piston-driven shocks came primarily from temporal association of shocks and CMEs. Our compilation of CME events with simultaneous radio observations with positional information supports idea of flare blast waves.

  9. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    PubMed

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears.

  10. [A case of type II achondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Micheli, E; Perrone, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Vetrugno, M; Zecca, G; Indirli, G C; Greco, F; Elia, G; Ciancio, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a rare case of type II achondrogenesis (gestational age = thirty-two weeks) dead forty-five minutes after birth. This congenital skeletal dysplasia is classified among the lethal osteochondrodysplasias. Clinical features were enough for diagnosis and autopsy added nothing to our clinical knowledges.

  11. The Type 1 Alveolar Lining Cells of the Mammalian Lung

    PubMed Central

    Picciano, Paul; Rosenbaum, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    With removal of large numbers of macrophages by airway lavage, Type 1 cells were isolated in heterogeneous cell populations following the stepwise dissociation of lung tissue. Using a carefully timed collagenase-trypsin digestive sequence at 37 C, unwanted cellular and noncellular lung components were minimized prior to selective release of Type 1 cells. Resulting heterogeneous cell suspensions containing well-preserved Type 1 cells, as determined by electron microscopy, were layered onto a shallow gradient (3 to 6% Ficoll in minimal essential medium [MEM]) and separated at unit gravity into enriched subpopulations of various cell types. These included various fractions enriched with respect to Type 1 cells (70%), Type 2 cells (82%), and macrophages (81%). Identification of Type 1 cells following their isolation and gradient enrichment was established by light microscopic staining techniques and by specific cell surface characteristics in vitro as visualized by electron microscopy. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 1Figure 5Figure 2 PMID:619698

  12. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate /sup 12/C(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 16/O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  14. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  15. Lung Cancer Screening Based on Type-different Sensor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Liu, Hongying; Xie, Dandan; He, Zichun; Pi, Xititan

    2017-05-16

    In recent years, electronic nose (e-nose) systems have become a focus method for diagnosing pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer. However, principles and patterns of sensor responses in traditional e-nose systems are relatively homogeneous. Less study has been focused on type-different sensor arrays. In this paper, we designed a miniature e-nose system using 14 gas sensors of four types and its subsequent analysis of 52 breath samples. To investigate the performance of this system in identifying and distinguishing lung cancer from other respiratory diseases and healthy controls, five feature extraction algorithms and two classifiers were adopted. Lastly, the influence of type-different sensors on the identification ability of e-nose systems was analyzed. Results indicate that when using the LDA fuzzy 5-NN classification method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of discriminating lung cancer patients from healthy controls with e-nose systems are 91.58%, 91.72% and 91.59%, respectively. Our findings also suggest that type-different sensors could significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy of e-nose systems. These results showed e-nose system proposed in this study was potentially practicable in lung cancer screening with a favorable performance. In addition, it is important for type-different sensors to be considered when developing e-nose systems.

  16. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  17. Detection of different types of noise in lung sounds.

    PubMed

    Leal, A; Couceiro, R; Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N; Henriques, J; Paiva, R; Carvalho, P; Teixeira, C

    2016-08-01

    Lung sound signal processing has proven to be a great improvement to the traditional acoustic interpretation of lung sounds. However, that analysis can be seriously hindered by the presence of different types of noise originated in the acquisition environment or caused by physiological processes. Consequently, the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary diseases can be severely affected, especially if the implementation of telemonitoring systems is considered. The present study is focused on the implementation of an algorithm able to identify noisy periods, either voluntarily (vocalizations, chest movement and background voices) or involuntarily produced during acquisitions of lung sounds. The developed approach also had to deal with the presence of simulated cough events, that carry important diagnostic information regarding several pulmonary diseases. Features such as Katz fractal dimension, Teager-Kaiser energy operator and normalized mutual information, were extracted from the time domain of healthy and a pathological lung signals. Noise detection was the result of a good discrimination between uncontaminated lung sounds and both cough and noise episodes and a slightly worse classification of cough events. In fact, detection of cough periods carrying diagnostic information was influenced by the presence of two other types of noise having similar signal characteristics.

  18. Type II restriction endonucleases: structure and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pingoud, A; Fuxreiter, M; Pingoud, V; Wende, W

    2005-03-01

    Type II restriction endonucleases are components of restriction modification systems that protect bacteria and archaea against invading foreign DNA. Most are homodimeric or tetrameric enzymes that cleave DNA at defined sites of 4-8 bp in length and require Mg2+ ions for catalysis. They differ in the details of the recognition process and the mode of cleavage, indicators that these enzymes are more diverse than originally thought. Still, most of them have a similar structural core and seem to share a common mechanism of DNA cleavage, suggesting that they evolved from a common ancestor. Only a few restriction endonucleases discovered thus far do not belong to the PD...D/ExK family of enzymes, but rather have active sites typical of other endonuclease families. The present review deals with new developments in the field of Type II restriction endonucleases. One of the more interesting aspects is the increasing awareness of the diversity of Type II restriction enzymes. Nevertheless, structural studies summarized herein deal with the more common subtypes. A major emphasis of this review will be on target site location and the mechanism of catalysis, two problems currently being addressed in the literature.

  19. Acute and subchronic exposure to air particulate matter induces expression of angiotensin and bradykinin-related genes in the lungs and heart: Angiotensin-II type-I receptor as a molecular target of particulate matter exposure.

    PubMed

    Aztatzi-Aguilar, Octavio Gamaliel; Uribe-Ramírez, Marisela; Arias-Montaño, José Antonio; Barbier, Olivier; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea

    2015-06-26

    Particulate matter (PM) adverse effects on health include lung and heart damage. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) and kallikrein-kinin (KKS) endocrine systems are involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and have been found to impact lung diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether PM exposure regulates elements of RAAS and KKS. Sprague-Dawley rats were acutely (3 days) and subchronically (8 weeks) exposed to coarse (CP), fine (FP) or ultrafine (UFP) particulates using a particulate concentrator, and a control group exposed to filtered air (FA). We evaluated the mRNA of the RAAS components At1, At2r and Ace, and of the KKS components B1r, B2r and Klk-1 by RT-PCR in the lungs and heart. The ACE and AT1R protein were evaluated by Western blot, as were HO-1 and γGCSc as indicators of the antioxidant response and IL-6 levels as an inflammation marker. We performed a binding assay to determinate AT1R density in the lung, also the subcellular AT1R distribution in the lungs was evaluated. Finally, we performed a histological analysis of intramyocardial coronary arteries and the expression of markers of heart gene reprogramming (Acta1 and Col3a1). The PM fractions induced the expression of RAAS and KKS elements in the lungs and heart in a time-dependent manner. CP exposure induced Ace mRNA expression and regulated its protein in the lungs. Acute and subchronic exposure to FP and UFP induced the expression of At1r in the lungs and heart. All PM fractions increased the AT1R protein in a size-dependent manner in the lungs and heart after subchronic exposure. The AT1R lung protein showed a time-dependent change in subcellular distribution. In addition, the presence of AT1R in the heart was accompanied by a decrease in HO-1, which was concomitant with the induction of Acta1 and Col3a1 and the increment of IL-6. Moreover, exposure to all PM fractions increased coronary artery wall thickness. We demonstrate that exposure to PM induces

  20. Peripheral papillary tumor of type-II pneumocytes: a rare neoplasm of undetermined malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Dessy, E; Braidotti, P; Del Curto, B; Falleni, M; Coggi, G; Santa Cruz, G; Carai, A; Versace, R; Pietra, G G

    2000-03-01

    Peripheral papillary adenomas of the lung are uncommon neoplasms (only ten cases have been described so far in the English literature) composed predominantly of type-II pneumocytes and generally considered benign. We describe here two additional cases of this lung tumor. In both cases histological examination revealed an encapsulated papillary neoplasm with invasion of the capsule and, in one case, invasion of the adjacent alveoli and visceral pleura too. The proliferative index (Ki67) was less than 2% and the epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratins, surfactant apoproteins (SP), and nuclear thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF- 1). Ultrastructurally, the epithelial cells showed the characteristic surface microvilli and cytoplasmic lamellar inclusions of type-II cells. Review of the literature has revealed two other cases of peripheral papillary adenoma of type-II pneumocytes with infiltrative features. Thus, we propose replacing the term peripheral papillary adenoma with peripheral papillary tumor of undetermined malignant potential.

  1. Does lung cancer attract greater stigma than other cancer types?

    PubMed

    Marlow, Laura A V; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Cancer stigma can have widespread effects, influencing the behaviour and wellbeing of patients as well as the community and even research funding. Patients with lung cancer report feeling particularly stigmatised because of the association with a behaviour (smoking) that is perceived to be personally controllable. However, there are other dimensions of cancer stigma, that might be more severe for other cancers. The present study therefore examined differences in attitudes towards lung cancer and four other cancer types, using a multidimensional measure of cancer stigma, to extend findings beyond personal responsibility attributions. Participants were a non-patient sample (n=1205) who were randomised to complete a survey online relating to one of five cancer types (lung, colorectal, skin, breast and cervical). Stigma was assessed using the Cancer Stigma Scale (CASS). There were significant differences across the five cancer types on all CASS subscales: awkwardness (F(4, 1009)=5.16, p<0.001), severity (F(4, 984)=26.24, p<0.001), avoidance (F(4, 1008)=5.38, p<0.001), policy opposition (F(4, 1009)=8.38, p<0.001), personal responsibility (F(4, 995)=31.67, p<0.001) and financial discrimination (F(4, 957)=9.45, p<0.001). Lung cancer attracted higher stigma scores than breast and cervical cancer on all subscales. Lung cancer was similar to skin cancer on personal responsibility, avoidance, and policy opposition, but attracted higher stigma in the domains of awkwardness, severity and financial discrimination. Lung cancer was similar to colorectal cancer for awkwardness, but significantly higher on all other subscales. Lung cancer stigma extends beyond personal responsibility attributions to other dimensions, particularly perceived severity of the disease and tolerance of financial discrimination against patients with the disease. Future work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions designed to limit cancer stigma for patients, health professionals and the community

  2. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  3. Spectral modeling of Type II SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The red supergiant phase represents the final stage of evolution in the life of moderate mass (8-25Msun) massive stars. Hidden from view, the core changes considerably its structure, progressing through the advanced stages of nuclear burning, and eventually becomes degenerate. Upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass, this Fe or ONeMg core collapses, leading to the formation of a proto neutron star. A type II supernova results if the shock that forms at core bounce, eventually wins over the envelope accretion and reaches the progenitor surface.The electromagnetic display of such core-collapse SNe starts with this shock breakout, and persists for months as the ejecta releases the energy deposited initially by the shock or continuously through radioactive decay. Over a timescale of weeks to months, the originally optically-thick ejecta thins out and turns nebular. SN radiation contains a wealth of information about the explosion physics (energy, explosive nucleosynthesis), the progenitor properties (structure and composition). Polarised radiation also offers signatures that can help constrain the morphology of the ejecta.In this talk, I will review the current status of type II SN spectral modelling, and emphasise that a proper solution requires a time dependent treatment of the radiative transfer problem. I will discuss the wealth of information that can be gleaned from spectra as well as light curves, from both the early times (photospheric phase) and late times (nebular phase). I will discuss the diversity of Type SNe properties and how they are related to the diversity of red supergiant stars from which they originate.SN radiation offers an alternate means of constraining the properties of red-supergiant stars. To wrap up, I will illustrate how SNe II-P can also be used as probes, for example to constrain the metallicity of their environment.

  4. Vitiligo following type II lepra reaction.

    PubMed

    Pavithran, K

    1989-01-01

    A middle-aged male with lepromatous leprosy developed bouts of skin lesions of depigmented macules and patches of vitiligo, just following attacks of type II lepra reaction each time. In view of the present concept of autoimmunity playing a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo as well as lepra reaction, their association in our patient appears to be more than fortuious. The depigmented macules persisted even after regression of skin lesions of leprosy following chemotherapy. The vitiligo macules responded partially to topical and systemic psoralen therapy.

  5. [Prenatal diagnosis of type II osteogenesis imperfecta].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, R; Salomé-Salomé, J; Mercado-García, A; Simg-Alor, C

    1998-02-01

    We present one case of a 23 week old fetus that was diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta type II via ultrasound, The principal ultrasonographic findings were; lack of mineralization in the calvaria, short, wide, and angulated femurs, with the presence of fractures, the length corresponds to a 17.5 week old gestation, more than two standard deviations below the mean for gestational age. The rest of the long bones show fractures and poor mineralization that was suggested by reduced acoustic shadowing. An elective cesarean was programmed at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The osseous lesions were confirmed postnatally by means of a conventional radiographs.

  6. Minkowski Flux Vacua of Type II Supergravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriot, David; Blâbäck, Johan; Van Riet, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We study flux compactifications of 10D type II supergravities to 4D Minkowski space-time, supported by parallel orientifold Op planes with 3 ≤p ≤8 . With some geometric restrictions, the 4D Ricci scalar can be written as a negative sum of squares involving Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield-like conditions. Setting all squares to zero provides automatically a solution to 10D equations of motion. This way we characterize a broad class, if not the complete set, of Minkowski flux vacua with parallel orientifolds. We conjecture an extension with nongeometric fluxes. None of our results rely on supersymmetry.

  7. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions HSAN2 hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... All Close All Description Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II ( HSAN2 ) is a condition that primarily ...

  9. Captopril pretreatment protects the lung against severe acute pancreatitis induced injury via inhibiting angiotensin II production and suppressing Rho/ROCK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi-Hong; Guo, Jie-Fang; Chen, Yan; Guo, Xiao-Rong; Du, Yi-Qi; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) usually causes acute lung injury, which is also known as acute pancreatitis associated lung injury (APALI). This study aimed to investigate whether captopril pretreatment was able to protect lung against APALI via inhibiting angiotensin II (Ang II) production and suppressing Rho/ROCK (Rho kinase) pathway in rats. Severe AP (SAP) was introduced to rats by bile-pancreatic duct retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. Rats were randomly divided into three groups. In the sham group, sham operation was performed; in the SAP group, SAP was introduced; in the pre-cpl + SAP group, rats were intragastrically injected with 5 mg/kg captopril 1 hour prior to SAP induction. Pathological examination of the lung and pancreas, evaluation of pulmonary vascular permeability by wet/dry ratio and Evans Blue staining, detection of serum amylase, Western blot assay for Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1), RhoA, ROCK (Rho kinase), and MLCK (myosin light chain kinase) were performed after the animals were sacrificed at 24 hours. After the surgery, characteristic findings of pancreatitis were observed, accompanied by lung injury. The serum amylase, Ang II, and lung expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK increased dramatically in SAP rats. However, captopril pretreatment improved the histological changes, reduced the pathological score of the pancreas and lung, inhibited serum amylase and Ang II production, and decreased expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK in the lung. These findings suggest that captopril pretreatment is able to protect the lung against APALI, which is, at least partially, related to the inhibition of Ang II production and the suppression of the Rho/ROCK pathway. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Enhanced proliferation of primary rat type II pneumocytes by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chassidy; Jahid, Sohail; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fan Hung

    2011-04-10

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep. The envelope protein (Env) is the oncogene, as it can transform cell lines in culture and induce tumors in animals, although the mechanisms for transformation are not yet clear because a system to perform transformation assays in differentiated type II pneumocytes does not exist. In this study we report culture of primary rat type II pneumocytes in conditions that favor prolonged expression of markers for type II pneumocytes. Env-expressing cultures formed more colonies that were larger in size and were viable for longer periods of time compared to vector control samples. The cells that remained in culture longer were confirmed to be derived from type II pneumocytes because they expressed surfactant protein C, cytokeratin, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity and were positive for Nile red. This system will be useful to study JSRV Env in the targets of transformation.

  11. Type-II superlattices: the Fraunhofer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Wörl, Andreas; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-04-01

    In the past years, the development of the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice technology at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) has been focused on achieving series-production readiness for third generation dualcolor superlattice detector arrays for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range. The technology is ideally suited for airborne missile threat warning systems, due to its ability of low false alarm remote imaging of hot carbon dioxide signatures on a millisecond time scale. In a multi-wafer molecular beam epitaxy based process eleven 288×384 dualcolor detector arrays are fabricated on 3" GaSb substrates. Very homogeneous detector arrays with an excellent noise equivalent temperature difference have been realized. The current article presents the type-II superlattice dual-color technology developed at IAF and delivers insights into a range of test methodologies employed at various stages during the fabrication process, which ensure that the basic requirements for achieving high detector performance are met.

  12. U.S. Lung Cancer Trends by Histologic Type

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Denise Riedel; Check, David P.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Travis, William D.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background U.S. lung cancer incidence rates overall are declining in the United States. We investigated the trends by histologic type and demographic characteristics. Methods Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program rates of microscopically-confirmed lung cancer overall and squamous cell, small cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell, other, and unspecified carcinomas among U.S. whites and blacks diagnosed 1977–2010 and white non-Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders and white Hispanics diagnosed 1992–2010 were analyzed by gender and age. Results Squamous and small cell carcinoma rates declined since the 1990s, although less rapidly among females than males. Adenocarcinoma rates decreased among males and only through 2005, after which they then rose during 2006–2010 among every racial/ethnic/gender group; rates for unspecified type declined. Male/female rate ratios declined among whites and blacks more than among other groups. Recent rates among young females were higher than among males for adenocarcinoma among all racial/ethnic groups and for other specified carcinomas among whites. Conclusions U.S. lung cancer trends vary by gender, histologic type, racial/ethnic group, and age, reflecting historical cigarette smoking rates, duration, cessation, cigarette composition, and exposure to other carcinogens. Substantial excesses among males have diminished and higher rates of adenocarcinoma among young females have emerged as rates among males declined more rapidly. The recognition of EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangements that occur primarily in adenocarcinomas are the primary basis for the molecular revolution that has transformed lung cancer diagnosis and treatment over the past decade, and these changes have affected recent type-specific trends. PMID:25113306

  13. Laser irradiation for central-type lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai

    1993-03-01

    Based on laser irradiation experiments on isolated lung specimens of animals done in 1989, 8 patients with central type lung cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation via fiberoptic bronchoscope from January 1990 to August 1991 in our hospital. The patients recruited were all diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histology as having central type bronchopulmonary cancer without distal metastasis. All patients were male with a mean age of 64 (range 57 - 72). Of 8 patients, 4 had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 1 undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, all being stage TUM 3. After laser treatment, 6 cases had a result of significant response and 2 had minor response. Among 6 cases of atelectasis, 4 were completely cured or partially improved and 4 recovered from their hemoptysis. The subjective symptoms in all cases remitted. A combined chemotherapy was carried out accompanying laser therapy for all, 6 of whom had a shrink of focus over 25%. Six cases were re-examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy, showing a distinct reduction of the tumor. Four cases expectorated black charring tissues and residual tumorous tissues persistently as an outcome. Two typical cases are reported, the characteristics, indications, techniques, and side effects of laser therapy are analyzed and factors affecting efficacy discussed, indicating that the technique has such advantages as easy operation, accurate orientation, and safe outcome. The procedure is really an effective one for treating central type lung cancer in intermediate or late stage.

  14. Edaravone suppresses degradation of type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Liao, Guangjun; Han, Jian; Zhang, Guofeng; Zou, Benguo

    2016-05-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease affecting millions of people. The degradation and loss of type II collagen induced by proinflammatory cytokines secreted by chondrocytes, such as factor-α (TNF-α) is an important pathological mechanism to the progression of OA. Edaravone is a potent free radical scavenger, which has been clinically used to treat the neuronal damage following acute ischemic stroke. However, whether Edaravone has a protective effect in articular cartilage hasn't been reported before. In this study, we investigated the chondrocyte protective effects of Edaravone on TNF-α induced degradation of type Ⅱ collagen. And our results indicated that TNF-α treatment resulted in degradation of type Ⅱ collagen, which can be ameliorated by treatment with Edaravone in a dose dependent manner. Notably, it was found that the inhibitory effects of Edaravone on TNF-α-induced reduction of type Ⅱ collagen were mediated by MMP-3 and MMP-13. Mechanistically, we found that Edaravone alleviated TNF-α induced activation of STAT1 and expression of IRF-1. These findings suggest a potential protective effect of Edaravone in OA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Rho pathway mediates transition to an alveolar type I cell phenotype during static stretch of alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Cherie D; Varghese, Linda S; Gonzales, Linda W.; Margulies, Susan S.; Guttentag, Susan H.

    2011-01-01

    Stretch is an essential mechanism for lung growth and development. Animal models in which fetal lungs have been chronically over- or under-distended demonstrate a disrupted mix of type II and type I cells, with static overdistention typically promoting a type I cell phenotype. The Rho GTPase family, key regulators of cytoskeletal signaling, are known to mediate cellular differentiation in response to stretch in other organs. Using a well-described model of alveolar epithelial cell differentiation and a validated stretch device, we investigated the effects of supraphysiologic stretch on human fetal lung (HFL) alveolar epithelial cell phenotype. Static stretch applied to epithelial cells suppressed type II cell markers (SP-B and Pepsinogen C, PGC), and induced type I cell markers (Caveolin-1, Claudin 7 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, PAI-1) as predicted. Static stretch was also associated with Rho A activation. Furthermore, the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 decreased Rho A activation, and blunted the stretch-induced changes in alveolar epithelial cell marker expression. Together these data provide further evidence that mechanical stimulation of the cytoskeleton and Rho activation are key upstream events in mechanotransduction-associated alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:20220547

  16. Calibration of the Accuscan II IN Vivo System for High Energy Lung Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ovard R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for high energy lung counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable lung set manufactured at the University of Cincinnati UCLL43AMEU & UCSL43AMEU containing Am-241 and Eu-152 with energies from 26 keV to 1408 keV. The lung set was used in conjunction with a Realistic Torso phantom. The phantom was placed on the RMC II counting table (with pins removed) between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The top of the detector housing was positioned perpendicular to the junction of the phantom clavicle with the sternum. This position places the approximate center line of the detector housing with the center of the lungs. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using a Realistic Torso phantom (Appendix I) and the University of Cincinnati lung set. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for high energy lung counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  17. Ordering dynamics in type-II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2006-12-01

    We use analytic and numerical methods to analyze the dynamics of vortices following the quench of a type-II superconductor under the application of an external magnetic field. In three dimensions, in the absence of a field, the spacing between vortices scales with time t with an exponent phi=0.414+/-0.01, in a thin sheet of a superconductor, the scaling exponent is phi=0.294+/-0.01. When an external magnetic field h is applied, the vortices are confined with respect to the length scale of the Abrikosov lattice, leading to a crossover between the power-law scaling length scale and the lattice length scale. From this we suggest a one-parameter scaling of r with h and r that is consistent with numerical data.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Blaumeiser, Bettina; Loquet, Philip; Wuyts, Wim; Nöthen, Markus M

    2004-08-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by coronal craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great toes. On the basis of clinical findings, three subtypes have been delineated. The clinical variability of Pfeiffer syndrome as well as other causes of craniosynostosis can make a prenatal diagnosis based on sonography alone difficult. We describe a fetus in whom sonographic findings (including 3D ultrasound) suggested a Pfeiffer syndrome type II and in which subsequent molecular analysis verified the diagnosis by identifying a de novo mutation in the FGFR2 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prenatal molecular diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome in a patient without family history.

  19. Enteropeptidase, a type II transmembrane serine protease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X Long; Kitamoto, Yasunori; Sadler, J Evan

    2009-06-01

    Enteropeptidase, a type II transmembrane serine protease, is localized to the brush border of the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. It is synthesized as a zymogen (proenteropeptidase) that requires activation by another protease, either trypsin or possibly duodenase. Active enteropeptidase then converts the pancreatic precursor, trypsinogen, to trypsin by cleavage of the specific trypsinogen activation peptide, Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys- Ile that is highly conserved in vertebrates. Trypsin, in turn, activates other digestive zymogens such as chymotrypsinogen, proelastase, procarboxypeptidase and prolipase in the lumen of the gut. The important biological function of enteropeptidase is highlighted by the manifestation of severe diarrhea, failure to thrive, hypoproteinemia and edema as a result of congenital deficiency of enteropeptidase activity in the gut. Conversely, duodenopancreatic reflux of proteolytically active enteropeptidase may cause acute and chronic pancreatitis.

  20. Isolation of Highly Pure Primary Mouse Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells by Flow Cytometric Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Clifford A.

    2017-01-01

    In this protocol, we describe the method for isolating highly pure primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells from lungs of naïve mice. The method combines negative selection for a variety of lineage markers along with positive selection for EpCAM, a pan-epithelial cell marker. This method yields 2-3 × 106 ATII cells per mouse lung. The cell preps are highly pure and viable and can be used for genomic or proteomic analyses or cultured ex vivo to understand their roles in various biological processes. PMID:28180137

  1. Type II supergravity origin of dyonic gaugings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inverso, Gianluca; Samtleben, Henning; Trigiante, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Dyonic gaugings of four-dimensional supergravity typically exhibit a richer vacuum structure compared to their purely electric counterparts, but their higher-dimensional origin often remains more mysterious. We consider a class of dyonic gaugings with gauge groups of the type (SO (p ,q )×SO (p',q'))⋉N with N nilpotent. Using generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions of exceptional field theory, we show how these four-dimensional gaugings may be consistently embedded in type II supergravity upon compactification around products of spheres and hyperboloids. As an application, we give the explicit uplift of the N =4 AdS4 vacuum of the theory with gauge group (SO (6 )×SO (1 ,1 ))⋉T12 into a supersymmetric AdS4×M5×S1 S-fold solution of IIB supergravity. The internal space M5 is a squashed S5 preserving an SO (4 )⊂SO (6 ) subset of its isometries.

  2. Waardenburg syndrome type II: phenotypic findings and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Z; Newton, V E; Read, A P

    1995-01-02

    The Waardenburg syndrome (WS) consists of at least two distinct autosomal dominant hereditary disorders. WS Type I has been mapped to the distal part of chromosome 2q and the gene identified as PAX3. Other gene(s) are responsible for WS Type II. Mapping WS Type II requires accurate diagnosis within affected families. To establish diagnostic criteria for WS Type II, 81 individuals from 21 families with Type II WS were personally studied, and compared with 60 personally studied patients from 8 families with Type I and 253 cases of WS (Type I or II) from the literature. Sensorineural hearing loss (77%) and heterochromia iridum (47%) were the two most important diagnostic indicators for WS Type II. Both were more common in Type II than in Type I. Other clinical manifestations, such as white forelock and skin patches, were more frequent in Type I. We estimate the frequency of phenotypic traits and propose diagnostic criteria for WS Type II. In practice, a diagnosis of WS Type II can be made with confidence given a family history of congenital hearing loss and pigmentary disorders, where individuals have been accurately measured for ocular distances to exclude dystopia canthorum.

  3. Global phase diagram of disordered type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yijia; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua; Xie, X. C.

    2017-07-01

    With electron and hole pockets touching at the Weyl node, type-II Weyl semimetal is a newly proposed topological state distinct from its type-I cousin. We numerically study the localization effect for tilted type-I as well as type-II Weyl semimetals and give the global phase diagram. For disordered type-I Weyl semimetal, an intermediate three-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall phase is confirmed between Weyl semimetal phase and diffusive metal phase. However, this intermediate phase is absent for disordered type-II Weyl semimetal. Besides, along the direction of tilt, comparing to its type-I cousin, type-II Weyl semimetal typically possesses longer normalized localization length and therefore it is more robust against disorder. Near the phase boundary between the type-I and the type-II Weyl semimetals, infinitesimal disorder will induce an insulating phase so that, in this region, the concept of Weyl semimetal is meaningless for real materials.

  4. [The lungs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection].

    PubMed

    Barić, D; Vrkić, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a case of two patients who were admitted to the Zadar hospital and according to clinical symptoms directed to the Department of Lung Diseases. Both patients were temporarily employed abroad. It has been established that they were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). One of the patients has been moved to the Department of Infectious Diseases and later to Zagreb, while the other has returned abroad. On admission to the hospital of the Zadar Medical Center none of them answered the question about being engaged in risky behavior. In 1990 there were 699 registered patients hospitalized and 745 registered in the protocol of the Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Lung Diseases. 0.069% of patients were HIV-1-infected. In 1991, there were 520 hospitalized and 453 outpatients, whereas 0.102% were HIV-1-infected and registered subjects. It must be pointed out that these are only numbers of registration and not subjects, because there were patients who were examined or hospitalized twice or more times during the corresponding calendar year. The aim of this study was to point to a new differentially-diagnostic problem present especially at the Department of Lung Diseases after AIDS has become part of our reality. There still remains a problem in regard to detection of HIV-1 seropositivity in patients at departments with opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis.

  5. Abolition of fetal breathing movements by spinal cord transection leads to reductions in fetal lung liquid volume, lung growth, and IGF-II gene expression.

    PubMed

    Harding, R; Hooper, S B; Han, V K

    1993-08-01

    Fetal breathing movements (FBM) are considered necessary for normal growth and structural maturation of the fetal lung, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The small fluctuations in lung dimensions caused by FBM have been proposed as a stimulus to lung growth, but it is equally possible that FBM act by maintaining the basal level of lung luminal volume, which is an established determinant of fetal lung growth. Our aim, therefore, was to determine the effects of abolishing FBM, while retaining the integrity of the diaphragm, on the volume and rate of production of fetal lung liquid, gene expression for IGF-II, and fetal lung growth. FBM were abolished in seven fetal sheep by high spinal cord transection at 114 +/- 1.2 d of gestation; seven intact fetuses served as controls. At 119 to 124, 125 to 130, and 131 to 136 d, we measured the volume and secretion rate of lung liquid by dye dilution. At these three age ranges, the lungs of cord-transfected fetuses contained 27 to 53% less lung liquid than controls (p = 0.004), and their rates of secretion were 65 to 138% greater (p = 0.001). At postmortem (135 +/- 0.1 d), the lungs of the cord transected fetuses contained less DNA per kg body weight and tended to be lighter and to contain less protein than controls. IGF-II gene expression in the lungs of cord-transected fetuses was significantly less than that in controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Conditional deletion of Abca3 in alveolar type II cells alters surfactant homeostasis in newborn and adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Valérie; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Clark, Jean; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E.; Ikegami, Machiko; Stahlman, Mildred T.; Weaver, Timothy E.; Hunt, Alan N.; Postle, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lipid transport protein required for synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. Abca3 was conditionally deleted in respiratory epithelial cells (Abca3Δ/Δ) in vivo. The majority of mice in which Abca3 was deleted in alveolar type II cells died shortly after birth from respiratory distress related to surfactant deficiency. Approximately 30% of the Abca3Δ/Δ mice survived after birth. Surviving Abca3Δ/Δ mice developed emphysema in the absence of significant pulmonary inflammation. Staining of lung tissue and mRNA isolated from alveolar type II cells demonstrated that ∼50% of alveolar type II cells lacked ABCA3. Phospholipid content and composition were altered in lung tissue, lamellar bodies, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from adult Abca3Δ/Δ mice. In adult Abca3Δ/Δ mice, cells lacking ABCA3 had decreased expression of mRNAs associated with lipid synthesis and transport. FOXA2 and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-α, transcription factors known to regulate genes regulating lung lipid metabolism, were markedly decreased in cells lacking ABCA3. Deletion of Abca3 disrupted surfactant lipid synthesis in a cell-autonomous manner. Compensatory surfactant synthesis was initiated in ABCA3-sufficient type II cells, indicating that surfactant homeostasis is a highly regulated process that includes sensing and coregulation among alveolar type II cells. PMID:20190032

  7. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  8. Photoelectrolysis Using Type-II Semiconductor Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S; Hayne, M

    2017-09-14

    The solar-powered production of hydrogen for use as a renewable fuel is highly desirable for the world's future energy infrastructure. However, difficulties in achieving reasonable efficiencies, and thus cost-effectiveness, have hampered significant research progress. Here we propose the use of semiconductor nanostructures to create a type-II heterojunction at the semiconductor-water interface in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) and theoretically investigate it as a method of increasing the maximum photovoltage such a cell can generate under illumination, with the aim of increasing the overall cell efficiency. A model for the semiconductor electrode in a PEC is created, which solves the Schrödinger, Poisson and drift-diffusion equations self-consistently. From this, it is determined that ZnO quantum dots on bulk n-InGaN with low In content x is the most desirable system, having electron-accepting and -donating states straddling the oxygen- and hydrogen-production potentials for x < 0.26, though large variance in literature values for certain material parameters means large uncertainties in the model output. Accordingly, results presented here should form the basis for further experimental work, which will in turn provide input to refine and develop the model.

  9. Type-II superlattice hole effective masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2017-08-01

    A long wavelength infrared (LWIR) type-II superlattice (T2SL) is typically characterized by a very large valence-band-edge curvature effective mass, which is often assumed to lead to poor hole mobility. A detailed examination of the LWIR T2SL heavy-hole 1 (hh1) band structure reveals that a hole with non-zero in-plane momentum (k‖ ≠ 0) can move with a much larger group velocity component along the growth direction than one at the band edge (k‖ = 0), and that the hh1 miniband width can exhibit a very strong dependence on the in-plane wavevector k‖ . To distill the band structure effects relevant to hole transport into a simple quantity, we describe a formulation for computing the thermally averaged conductivity effective mass. We show that the LWIR T2SL hole conductivity effective masses along the growth direction can be orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding band-edge curvature effective masses. We compare the conductivities effective masses of InAs/GaSb T2SL and InAs/InAsSb T2SL grown pseudomorphically on GaSb substrate, as well as the metamorphic bulk InAsSb and InAs/InAsSb T2SL.

  10. Current Understanding of Usher Syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Le; Song, Hongman; Sokolov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome is the most common deafness-blindness caused by genetic mutations. To date, three genes have been identified underlying the most prevalent form of Usher syndrome, the type II form (USH2). The proteins encoded by these genes are demonstrated to form a complex in vivo. This complex is localized mainly at the periciliary membrane complex in photoreceptors and the ankle-link of the stereocilia in hair cells. Many proteins have been found to interact with USH2 proteins in vitro, suggesting that they are potential additional components of this USH2 complex and that the genes encoding these proteins may be the candidate USH2 genes. However, further investigations are critical to establish their existence in the USH2 complex in vivo. Based on the predicted functional domains in USH2 proteins, their cellular localizations in photoreceptors and hair cells, the observed phenotypes in USH2 mutant mice, and the known knowledge about diseases similar to USH2, putative biological functions of the USH2 complex have been proposed. Finally, therapeutic approaches for this group of diseases are now being actively explored. PMID:22201796

  11. Studies on quantitative analysis and automatic recognition of cell types of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Hu, Kuang-Hu; Li, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shu-Yu; Su, Wan-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Ying; Hu, Ying-Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Recognition of lung cancer cells is very important to the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. In this paper we present a novel method to extract the structure characteristics of lung cancer cells and automatically recognize their types. Firstly soft mathematical morphology methods are used to enhance the grayscale image, to improve the definition of images, and to eliminate most of disturbance, noise and information of subordinate images, so the contour of target lung cancer cell and biological shape characteristic parameters can be extracted accurately. Then the minimum distance classifier is introduced to realize the automatic recognition of different types of lung cancer cells. A software system named "CANCER.LUNG" is established to demonstrate the efficiency of this method. The clinical experiments show that this method can accurately and objectively recognize the type of lung cancer cells, which can significantly improve the pathology research on the pathological changes of lung cancer and clinical assistant diagnoses.

  12. Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid

    2017-07-14

    The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, MA_{3} (M=V, Nb, Ta; A=Al, Ga, In). We show that the VAl_{3} family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl_{3} is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.

  13. Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2017-07-01

    The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, M A3 (M =V , Nb, Ta; A =Al , Ga, In). We show that the VAl3 family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl3 is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.

  14. Learning Objects, Type II Applications, and Embedded Pedagogical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George; Schindler, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the extent to which learning objects that focus on higher level thinking might be seen as Type II applications, as defined by Maddux, Johnson, and Willis (2001). We conclude that learning objects are at best hybrid applications, with some Type I and some Type II characteristics. We also consider whether the educational…

  15. [Achondrogenesis type I and II and hypochondrogenesis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Toledo, F; Toledo, J; Villegas, T; López, S; Remírez, J; García-Julián, G

    1980-10-01

    A study is made of achondrogenesis in relation to four observations of early fatal development. One case corresponds to type I (Parenti-Fraccaro); another to type II (Langer-Saldino); the final two, brothers, seem to come under the variation of hypochondrogenesis. In this study, authors stress the heterogenous nature of lethal, neonatal (short-limb) nanisms of which currently include: Type I and II achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, homozygote achondroplasia, classical Torrance-type and San Diego-type thanatophoric dysplasia.

  16. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  17. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  18. [Effect of phosgene on apoptosis of alveolar type II cells and vascular endothelial growth factor in exposed mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Qin, Xu-jun; Liang, Xin; Chen, Hong-li

    2004-06-01

    To study the apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, alterations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (Flt1) in serum and lung and expression of VEGF mRNA in lung in pulmonary edema mice induced by phosgene. Twenty-six BALB/C mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group, exposed group (13 mice in each group). Mice of exposed group were intoxicated by inhalation of phosgene 11.9 mg/L for 5 minutes. Mice of control group were treated as the same way by inhalation of air. Isolation of mice alveolus type II cells 4 h after intoxication was carried out to observe their apoptosis under electron microscope. Contents of VEGF and Flt1 in lung and serum by ELISA, and expression of VEGF mRNA were determined. Alveolar type II cells were identified by tannic acid staining and electron microscopy. After exposed to 11.9 mg/L of phosgene for 5 minutes, the apoptotic body in alveolus type II cells was found in exposed group. The contents of VEGF in serum and lung and Flt1 in lung of exposed mice [(134.07 +/- 120.26), (477.76 +/- 98.06), (1,2818.48 +/- 2,304.15) pg/ml] were significantly lower than those of control group [(445.57 +/- 173.30), (1,026.87 +/- 474.56), (21,976.51 +/- 7,421.01) pg/ml, P < 0.05] but the content of Flt1 in serum [(2,369.56 +/- 381.70) pg/ml] was higher than that in control group [(1,898.00 +/- 453.69) pg/ml, P < 0.05]. The expression of VEGF mRNA in pulmonary edema mice was decreased. Phosgene can induce apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, and decrease in the content of VEGF and Flt1, and expression of VEGF mRNA in lung.

  19. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  20. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  1. Surgical Treatment of Tubular Breast Type II

    PubMed Central

    Dabizha, Oleksii Y.; Kostenko, Alona A.; Gomolyako, Irina V.; Samko, Kristina A.; Borovyk, Denys V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tubular breasts are caused by connective tissue malformation and occur in puberty. The main clinical characteristics of the tubular breast are breast asymmetry, dense fibrous ring around the areola, hernia bulging of the areola, megaareola, and hypoplasia of quadrants of the breast. Pathology causes great psychological discomfort to patients. Methods: This study included 17 patients, aged 18 to 34 years, with tubular breast type II who had bilateral pathology and were treated from 2013 to 2016. They had surgical treatment by method of the clinic. Correction technique consisted of mobilization of the central part of the gland and formation of a glandular flap with vertical and horizontal scorings, which looks like a “chessboard,” that was sufficient to cover the lower pole of the implant. The flap was fixed to the submammary folds with stitches that prevented its reduction and accented a new submammary fold. To underscore the importance of the method and to study the structural features of the vascular bed of tubular breast tissue, a morphological study was conducted. Results: Mean follow-up time was 25 months (range between 13 and 37 mo). The proposed technique achieved good results. Complications (hematoma, circumareolar scarring, and “double-bubble” deformity) were identified in 4 patients. Conclusions: Our morphological study confirmed that tubular breast tissue has increased vascularity due to the vessels with characteristic minor malformation and due to the high restorative potential of the vascular bed. Therefore, an extended glandular flap could be freely mobilized without damaging its blood supply; thus, the flap in most cases covered the implant completely and good aesthetic results were achieved. PMID:27826461

  2. Type-II Dirac surface states in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Chan, Y.-H.; Li, Xiao; Nohara, Y.; Schnyder, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been realized that topological Weyl semimetals come in two different varieties: (i) with standard Weyl cones with pointlike Fermi surfaces (type I) and (ii) with tilted Weyl cones that appear at the contact of electron and hole pockets (type II). These two types of Weyl semimetals have very different physical properties, in particular, in their thermodynamics and magnetotransport. Here, we show that Dirac cone surface states of topological crystalline insulators can be distinguished in a similar way. We demonstrate this in terms of a general surface theory and then apply this knowledge to a family of antiperovskites of the form A3E O , where A denotes an alkaline earth metal, while E stands for Pb or Sn. Using ab initio DFT calculations, we investigate the bulk and surface topology of these antiperovskites and show that they exhibit type-I as well as type-II Dirac surface states protected by reflection symmetry. We find that the type-II Dirac states, as opposed to the type-I Dirac states, exhibit characteristic van Hove singularities in their dispersion, which lead to different thermodynamic properties, and which can serve as an experimental fingerprint of type-II surface states. The different magnetotransport characteristics between type-I and type-II surface states are discussed. In addition, we show that both type-I and type-II surface states exhibit an unusual helical spin polarization, which could lead to topological surface superconductivity.

  3. Induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells in a cultured cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Scott, G.G.

    1994-11-01

    The functions of pulmonary type II cells, such as synthesis of pulmonary surfactant and metabolism of inhaled xenobiotics, can be studied in primary isolates of lung cells. However, isolated type II cells, when cultured, quickly lose the phenotypic expressions characteristics of type II cells, including surfactant lipid and protein synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. A cultured cell line that maintained expression of type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous for the study of such functions as surfactant synthesis and secretion. Such a cell line would allow generation of a large number of homogeneous cells for study. The purpose of the current study was to induce markers of differentiated type II cells in a cultured cell line to facilitate studies of factors that control surfactant synthesis and secretion.

  4. Irreversible inhibition of type I dehydroquinase by substrates for type II dehydroquinase.

    PubMed

    Bello, C G; Harris, J M; Manthey, M K; Coggins, J R; Abell, C

    2000-03-06

    Mechanistic differences between type I and type II dehydroquinases have been exploited in the design of type specific inhibitors. (2R)-2-Bromo-3-dehydroquinic acid (3), (2R)-2-fluoro-3-dehydroquinic acid (5) and 2-bromo-3-dehydroshikimic acid (4), all excellent substrates for type II dehydroquinase, are shown to be irreversible inhibitors of type I dehydroquinase.

  5. Relationship between asbestos exposure and lung cancer cell type

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between asbestos exposure and lung cancer cell type. Cases were former employees of two Virginia shipyards, and were identified from the Virginia Tumor Registry. All cases were diagnosed with lung cancer between 1975-82. A stratified random sample of controls was selected from among former shipyard workers from the same two yards as the cases. Job histories were abstracted from shipyard personnel records on all cases and controls and were the primary source of data used to derive measures of asbestos exposure. Analyses were conducted using the conditional maximum likelihood estimate of the odds ratio an logistic regression. The results from the analysis showed that adenocarcinoma had the strongest association with asbestos exposure and the only case group to be associated with a multiplicative interaction effect between asbestos exposure and smoking. The most significant associations were found for adenocarcinoma cases employed before 1950. Strikingly negative dose-response relationships were found for the other three case groups. The results suggest indirectly that squamous and small cell cancer may have shorter latency from exposure to diagnosis and that proportionately more of these cases were not captured in this study. Problems which are related to a calendar time criteria for case ascertainment, i.e., diagnosis between 1975-82, limit the conclusiveness of these findings.

  6. Type II collagenopathies: Are there additional family members?

    SciTech Connect

    Freisinger, P.; Pontz, B.F.; Emmrich, P.; Stoess, H.; Bonaventure, J.

    1996-05-03

    The type II collagenopathies represent a group of chondrodysplasia sharing clinical and radiological manifestations which are expressed as a continuous spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from perinatally lethal to very mild conditions. Their common molecular bases are mutations in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). We describe one case of lethal platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type, and a variant of lethal Kniest dysplasia, neither of which has been reported as a type II collagenopathy. Biochemical studies of cartilage collagens and morphological analysis of cartilage sections suggest that abnormalities of type II collagen structure and biosynthesis are the main pathogenetic factors in both cases. Thus, the phenotypic spectrum of type II collagenopathies might be greater than hitherto suspected. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mato, J M; Gallego, S V; Elcoro, L; Tasci, E; Aroyo, M I

    2016-07-20

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out.

  8. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction.

  9. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform test: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices...

  10. Vortex Dynamics Studies in Type II Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang

    1993-03-01

    Vibrating reed, ac susceptibility and resistance measurements have been used to study the dynamics of vortices in type II superconductors. In Nb measurements, in spite of the low T _{c}'s and long coherence lengths compared to the high T_{c} superconductors, we find an extended region of temperature and field over which reversible flux line motion occurs when the Nb reed is oriented with its long dimension perpendicular to the applied field. We observe a strong, frequency-independent depression of the "irreversibility temperature" T _{Q}(H) below the resistively determined critical temperature T_{R}. The results of the ac susceptibility measurements also support these results. We concluded that observation of an extended region of magnetic reversibility is not restricted to high T_{c} or extremely anisotropic materials, and depends upon the geometry of samples with respect to the applied field direction. In NbSe_2 measurements, vibrating reed measurements were performed with the hexagonal c-axis approximately parallel or perpendicular to an applied magnetic field. Field-cooling data revealed an unusual peak in the frequency shift of the reed, accompanied by two peaks in reed dissipation. The upper peak occurs near the temperature where R~ 0, and the lower peak is very sample and amplitude dependent and hysteretic. The ac susceptibility results also show that corresponding features. The interplay of superconductivity and density waves were investigated by comparing data for NbSe _2 with the results for NbS_2 , which has a comparable superconducting T _{c } and crystal structure. In NbS_2 measurements, we did not see such a peak in the frequency shift nor the double peak feature in the dissipation in either vibrating reed measurements or ac susceptibility measurements. We have also studied the (Ba,K)BiO_3 system. It is cubic at its superconducting composition, but exhibits a moderately high T_{c }=30 K that is intermediate between conventional and high T_{rm c

  11. Cryopreservation and in vitro culture of primary cell types from lung tissue of a stranded pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).

    PubMed

    Annalaura Mancia; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; McFee, Wayne E; Newton, Danforth A; Baatz, John E

    2012-01-01

    Current models for in vitro studies of tissue function and physiology, including responses to hypoxia or environmental toxins, are limited and rely heavily on standard 2-dimensional (2-D) cultures with immortalized murine or human cell lines. To develop a new more powerful model system, we have pursued methods to establish and expand cultures of primary lung cell types and reconstituted tissues from marine mammals. What little is known about the physiology of the deep-sea diving pygmy sperm whale (PSW), Kogia breviceps, comes primarily from stranding events that occur along the coast of the southeastern United States. Thus, development of a method for preserving live tissues and retrieving live cells from deceased stranded individuals was initiated. This report documents successful cryopreservation of PSW lung tissue. We established in vitro cultures of primary lung cell types from tissue fragments that had been cryopreserved several months earlier at the stranding event. Dissociation of cryopreserved lung tissues readily provides a variety of primary cell types that, to varying degrees, can be expanded and further studied/manipulated in cell culture. In addition, PSW-specific molecular markers have been developed that permitted the monitoring of fibroblast, alveolar type II, and vascular endothelial cell types. Reconstitution of 3-D cultures of lung tissues with these cell types is now underway. This novel system may facilitate the development of rare or disease-specific lung tissue models (e.g., to test causes of PSW stranding events and lead to improved treatments for pulmonary hypertension or reperfusion injury in humans). Also, the establishment of a "living" tissue bank biorepository for rare/endangered species could serve multiple purposes as surrogates for freshly isolated samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  13. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  14. Generating controllable type-II Weyl points via periodic driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin

    2016-12-01

    Type-II Weyl semimetals are a novel gapless topological phase of matter discovered recently in 2015. Similar to normal (type-I) Weyl semimetals, type-II Weyl semimetals consist of isolated band touching points. However, unlike type-I Weyl semimetals which have a linear energy dispersion around the band touching points forming a three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cone, type-II Weyl semimetals have a tilted conelike structure around the band touching points. This leads to various novel physical properties that are different from type-I Weyl semimetals. In order to study further the properties of type-II Weyl semimetals and perhaps realize them for future applications, generating controllable type-II Weyl semimetals is desirable. In this paper, we propose a way to generate a type-II Weyl semimetal via a generalized Harper model interacting with a harmonic driving field. When the field is treated classically, we find that only type-I Weyl points emerge. However, by treating the field quantum mechanically, some of these type-I Weyl points may turn into type-II Weyl points. Moreover, by tuning the coupling strength, it is possible to control the tilt of the Weyl points and the energy difference between two Weyl points, which makes it possible to generate a pair of mixed Weyl points of type-I and type-II. We also discuss how to physically distinguish these two types of Weyl points in the framework of our model via the Landau level structures in the presence of an artificial magnetic field. The results are of general interest to quantum optics as well as ongoing studies of Floquet topological phases.

  15. Type II vitamin D-dependent rickets with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumantra; Mondal, Rakesh; Banerjee, Indira; Sabui, Tapas

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in relation to diabetes mellitus is well reported in the literature. However, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in association with resistant rickets is extremely rare and reported in only one previous case. The authors describe here a case of type II vitamin D-dependent rickets (VDDR type II) in a 10-year-old Indian girl who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA as a presenting manifestation of T1DM in a patient with VDDR type II has never been reported before in worldwide literature.

  16. High incidence of type II autoantibodies in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, H M; Dawson, D W; Howarth, J E; Geary, C G

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the incidence of type II autoantibodies to intrinsic factor in pernicious anaemia. METHODS: Three hundred and forty four serum samples submitted for intrinsic factor antibody (IFAB) analysis on clinical or laboratory grounds were tested by an established radioassay and a new enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for type I and total IFAB, respectively. Sixty of these were found to be positive by ELISA; this method was used to test further, 40 samples of adequate volume for types I and II antibodies. RESULTS: Type II antibodies were detected in 39 of the 40 sera tested. A comparative analysis indicated that seven samples contained pure type II antibody, being positive for total and type II by ELISA, but negative for type I by both the ELISA and radioassay technique. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of type II antibody, both alone and in combination with type I, seems to be more common than has previously been recognised, and emphasises the advantage of using a technique which will detect both types of antibody. PMID:8432887

  17. Degree of polarization of type-II unpolarized light

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-05-15

    We address a quantitative determination of the degree of polarization of type-II unpolarized light via the computation of the distance between the polarization distribution and the uniform distribution associated with fully unpolarized light (i.e., type-I unpolarized light or natural light). We determine the maximum degree of polarization for type-II unpolarized light and the states reaching it. We show that the degree of polarization can be arbitrarily large, approaching complete polarization for increasing mean photon numbers.

  18. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  19. Modifications of carbon black nanoparticle surfaces modulate type II pneumocyte homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Nicole; Ströbele, Michael; Hochscheid, Renate; Kotte, Elke; Weber, Petra; Bockhorn, Henning; Müller, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation uptake of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) bears the risk of morphological and functional lung impairment attributed to the highly reactive particle surface area. Chemical particle surface modifications might affect particle-cell interactions; however, thus far these alterations have not been determined. This is the first in vivo study comparing particle-induced acute lung injury using Printex(®)90 (Pr90, 7 µg), Printex®90 covered by benzo[a]pyrene or 9-nitroanthracene (BaP-Pr90, NA-Pr90, 7 µg, 15% BaP or NA by weight), and acetylene carbon black (CB) with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH-AB, 7 µg, 20% PAH by weight). All particles were suspended in distilled water with bovine serum albumin (BSA). In addition, the influence of suspension media was tested using Printex®90 suspended without BSA (Pr90(-BSA), 7 µg). Quartz (DQ12, 7 µg), 70 µl saline (NaCl), and distilled water with or without BSA (H2O(+/-BSA)) were used as reference and controls. It was postulated that CBNP surface modifications trigger pulmonary responses. After oropharyngeal particle aspiration, lung functions were measured 2 d postexposure, followed by lung preparation for histological or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) examinations and type II pneumocyte isolation on d 3. Head-out body plethysmography revealed reduced flow rates induced by PAH-AB. Examinations of BALF demonstrated reduced influx of macrophages after exposure to Pr90(-BSA) and decreased lymphocyte levels after Pr90(+BSA) or BaP-Pr90 treatment. Further, CBNP induced changes in mRNA expressions (surfactant proteins) in type II pneumocytes. These findings indicate that CBNP surface area and media modulate interactions between NP and lung cells in short-term experiments.

  20. When is an Alveolar Type 2 Cell an Alveolar Type 2 Cell? A Conundrum for Lung Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Beers, Michael F; Moodley, Yuben

    2017-03-22

    Generating mature, differentiated, adult lung cells from pluripotent cells such as induced pluripotent cells (iPS) and embryonic stem cells (ES) offers the hope of both generating disease specific in vitro models and creating definitive and personalized therapies for a host of debilitating lung parenchymal and airway diseases. With the goal of advancing lung regenerative medicine, several groups have developed and reported on protocols utilizing either defined media, co-culture with mesenchymal components, or sequential treatments mimicking lung development, to obtain distal lung epithelial cells from stem cell precursors. However, there remains significant controversy about the degree of differentiation of these cells compared to their primary counterparts coupled with a lack of consistency or uniformity in assessing the resultant phenotypes. Given the inevitable, exponential expansion of these approaches and the probable but yet to emerge 2nd and higher generation techniques to create such assets, we were prompted to pose the question: "What makes a lung epithelial cell a lung epithelial cell?" and more specifically for this Perspective "What are the minimum features that constitute an alveolar type II epithelial cell (AT2)". In addressing this, we summarize a body of work spanning nearly five decades amassed by a series of "lung epithelial cell biology pioneers" which carefully describes well characterized molecular, functional, and morphological features critical for discriminate assessment of an AT2 phenotype. Armed with this we propose a series of core criteria to assist the field in confirming that cells obtained following a differentiating protocol are indeed mature and functional AT2 epithelial cells.

  1. Radiation induced secretion of surfactant from cell cultures of type II pneumocytes: an in vitro model of radiation toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.L.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Rubin, P.; Penney, D.P.; Siemann, D.W.

    1984-03-01

    The pathogenesis of pneumonitis and fibrosis secondary to lung irradiation is incompletely understood. The role of the type II alveolar epithelial pneumocyte in these processes has been under investigation. The type II pneumocyte has been shown in vivo to respond to radiation induced injury with release of pulmonary surfactant. The effect of irradiation on cell cultures of type II pneumocytes was studied to determine if this could be reproduced in vitro. Type II pneumocytes were found to release surfactant material with a threshold of radiation dose between 1000 and 1500 rad. This is similar to the dosage range over which the same effect has been demonstrated in vivo. Experimental results support the concept that the release of surfactant is not due to either cell disruption or non-specific release of phospholipid from cell membranes. Irradiation appears to trigger membrane receptor mediated surfactant release. In addition, irradiation abolishes the ability of cells to subsequently respond to a physiologic agonist, suggesting radiation induced damage to the secretory mechanism. These studies establish that surfactant release in response to irradiation in vivo is a direct effect on type II pneumocytes. Cell cultures of type II pneumocytes can serve as a laboratory model of lung cell radiation toxicity.

  2. EZH2 inhibition sensitizes BRG1 and EGFR mutant lung tumors to TopoII inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Christine M.; Xu, Chunxiao; Desai, Pooja T.; Berry, Joanne M.; Rowbotham, Samuel P.; Lin, Yi-Jang; Zhang, Haikuo; Marquez, Victor E.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Kim, Carla F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide1. Chemotherapies such as the topoisomerase II inhibitor (TopoIIi) etoposide effectively reduce disease in a minority of NSCLC patients2,3; therefore, alternative drug targets, including epigenetic enzymes, are under consideration for therapeutic intervention4. A promising potential epigenetic target is the methyltransferase EZH2, which in the context of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is well known to tri-methylate Histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and elicit gene silencing5. Here, we demonstrate that EZH2 inhibition (EZH2i) had differential effects on TopoIIi response of NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo. EGFR and BRG1 mutations were genetic biomarkers that predicted enhanced sensitivity to TopoIIi in response to EZH2i. BRG1 loss-of-function mutant tumors responded to EZH2i with increased S phase, anaphase bridging, apoptosis, and TopoIIi sensitivity. Conversely, EGFR and BRG1 wild-type tumors up-regulated BRG1 in response to EZH2i and ultimately became more resistant to TopoIIi. EGFR gain-of-function mutant tumors were also sensitive to dual EZH2i and TopoIIi, due to genetic antagonism between EGFR and BRG1. These findings suggest an exciting opportunity for precision medicine in the genetically complex disease of NSCLC. PMID:25629630

  3. Proton Beam Therapy of Stage II and III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Satoh, Hiroaki; Sugahara, Shinji; Kurishima, Koichi; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The present retrospective study assessed the role of proton beam therapy (PBT) in the treatment of patients with Stage II or III non-small-cell lung cancer who were inoperable or ineligible for chemotherapy because of co-existing disease or refusal. Patients and Methods: Between November 2001 and July 2008, PBT was given to 35 patients (5 patients with Stage II, 12 with Stage IIIA, and 18 with Stage IIIB) whose median age was 70.3 years (range, 47.4-85.4). The median proton dose given was 78.3 Gy (range, 67.1-91.3) (relative biologic effectiveness). Results: Local progression-free survival for Stage II-III patients was 93.3% at 1 year and 65.9% at 2 years during a median observation period of 16.9 months. Four patients (11.4%) developed local recurrence, 13 (37.1%) developed regional recurrence, and 7 (20.0%) developed distant metastases. The progression-free survival rate for Stage II-III patients was 59.6% at 1 year and 29.2% at 2 years. The overall survival rate of Stage II-III patients was 81.8% at 1 year and 58.9% at 2 years. Grade 3 or greater toxicity was not observed. A total of 15 patients (42.9%) developed Grade 1 and 6 (17.1%) Grade 2 toxicity. Conclusion: PBT for Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer without chemotherapy resulted in good local control and low toxicity. PBT has a definite role in the treatment of patients with Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer who are unsuitable for surgery or chemotherapy.

  4. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  5. Herringbone bursts associated with type II solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed observations of the herringbone (HB) fine structure on type II solar radio bursts are presented. Data from the Culgoora radiospectrograph, radiometer and radioheliograph are analyzed. The characteristic spectral profiles, frequency drift rates and exciter velocities, fluxes, source sizes, brightness temperatures, and polarizations of individual HB bursts are determined. Correlations between individual bursts within the characteristic groups of bursts and the properties of the associated type II bursts are examined. These data are compatible with HB bursts being radiation at multiples of the plasma frequency generated by electron streams accelerated by the type II shock. HB bursts are physically distinct phenomena from type II and type III bursts, differing significantly in emission processes and/or source conditions; this conclusion indicates that many of the presently available theoretical ideas for HB bursts are incorrect.

  6. Type II oestrogen binding sites in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Piantelli, M; Ricci, R; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Capelli, A; Rizzo, S; Scambia, G; Ranelletti, F O

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas were investigated for the presence of oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The tumours specifically bound oestradiol. This binding almost exclusively resulted from the presence of high numbers of type II oestrogen binding sites. Oestrogen receptors were absent or present at very low concentrations. Immunohistochemical investigation of nuclear oestrogen receptors gave negative results. This indicates that antioestrogen receptor antibodies recognise oestrogen receptors but not type II oestrogen binding sites. The presence of specific type II oestrogen binding sites and progesterone binding offers further evidence for a potential role for these steroids and their receptors in colorectal carcinoma. PMID:2266171

  7. Type-II Fuzzy Decision Support System for Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ather; Sarwar, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Type-II fuzzy sets are used to convey the uncertainties in the membership function of type-I fuzzy sets. Linguistic information in expert rules does not give any information about the geometry of the membership functions. These membership functions are mostly constructed through numerical data or range of classes. But there exists an uncertainty about the shape of the membership, that is, whether to go for a triangle membership function or a trapezoidal membership function. In this paper we use a type-II fuzzy set to overcome this uncertainty, and develop a fuzzy decision support system of fertilizers based on a type-II fuzzy set. This type-II fuzzy system takes cropping time and soil nutrients in the form of spatial surfaces as input, fuzzifies it using a type-II fuzzy membership function, and implies fuzzy rules on it in the fuzzy inference engine. The output of the fuzzy inference engine, which is in the form of interval value type-II fuzzy sets, reduced to an interval type-I fuzzy set, defuzzifies it to a crisp value and generates a spatial surface of fertilizers. This spatial surface shows the spatial trend of the required amount of fertilizer needed to cultivate a specific crop. The complexity of our algorithm is O(mnr), where m is the height of the raster, n is the width of the raster, and r is the number of expert rules. PMID:24892071

  8. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen.

  9. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  10. Inhaled cisplatin deposition and distribution in lymph nodes in stage II lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Krauss, Leslie; Huang, Haidong; Zachariadis, George A; Katsavou, Anna; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Vogl, Thomas J; Freitag, Lutz; Stamatis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    Lung cancer therapies during the last decade have focused on targeting the genome of cancer cells, and novel routes for administering lung cancer therapies have been investigated for decades. Aerosol therapies for several systematic diseases and systemic infections were introduced into the market a decade ago. One of the main issues of aerosol therapies has been the ability to investigate the deposition of a drug compound throughout the systematic circulation and lymph node circulation. Until now, none of the published studies have efficiently shown the deposition of a chemotherapy pharmaceutical within the lymph node tissue. In our current work we present, for the first time, with the novel CytoViva(®) (AL, USA) technique, the deposition of cisplatin aerosol therapy in surgically resected stage II lymph nodes from lung cancer patients. Finally, we present the distribution of cisplatin in correlation with the cisplatin concentration in different lymph stations and comment on the possible mechanisms of distribution.

  11. Type II lepra reaction: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, S; Mohan, H; Singh, R; Ram, J; Sachdev, A

    2006-01-27

    Ulcers with maculo-papular rash are an unusual presenting feature of leprosy. They occur as result of neuropathy, type-2 lepra reaction or Lucio's phenomenon. The hall mark of type-2 reaction is erythema nodosum. Very rarely it manifests as ulcerative skin lesions. We describe one such unusual case of a young male who presented with multiple ulcers and maculo-papular rash over the legs, chest and abdomen. In addition to this, he had fever, heart murmur, pulmonary infiltrates, neuropathy, and deranged liver function. A clinical differential diagnosis of infective endocarditis and systemic nectrozing vasculitis was made. Skin biopsy showed dense inflammation with lepra bacilli consistent with type-2 lepra reaction.

  12. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage.

  13. Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Type II Cochlear Afferents in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pankhuri; Wu, Jingjing Sherry; Zimmerman, Amanda; Fuchs, Paul; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic information propagates from the ear to the brain via spiral ganglion neurons that innervate hair cells in the cochlea. These afferents include unmyelinated type II fibers that constitute 5 % of the total, the majority being myelinated type I neurons. Lack of specific genetic markers of type II afferents in the cochlea has been a roadblock in studying their functional role. Unexpectedly, type II afferents were visualized by reporter proteins induced by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven Cre recombinase. The present study was designed to determine whether TH-driven Cre recombinase (TH-2A-CreER) provides a selective and reliable tool for identification and genetic manipulation of type II rather than type I cochlear afferents. The "TH-2A-CreER neurons" radiated from the spiral lamina, crossed the tunnel of Corti, turned towards the base of the cochlea, and traveled beneath the rows of outer hair cells. Neither the processes nor the somata of TH-2A-CreER neurons were labeled by antibodies that specifically labeled type I afferents and medial efferents. TH-2A-CreER-positive processes partially co-labeled with antibodies to peripherin, a known marker of type II afferents. Individual TH-2A-CreER neurons gave off short branches contacting 7-25 outer hair cells (OHCs). Only a fraction of TH-2A-CreER boutons were associated with CtBP2-immunopositive ribbons. These results show that TH-2A-CreER provides a selective marker for type II versus type I afferents and can be used to describe the morphology and arborization pattern of type II cochlear afferents in the mouse cochlea.

  14. The decline and fall of Type II error rates

    Treesearch

    Steve Verrill; Mark Durst

    2005-01-01

    For general linear models with normally distributed random errors, the probability of a Type II error decreases exponentially as a function of sample size. This potentially rapid decline reemphasizes the importance of performing power calculations.

  15. Rational design of new bifunctional inhibitors of type II dehydroquinase.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Miguel D; Stewart, Kirsty A; Coggins, John R; Lapthorn, Adrian J; Abell, Chris

    2005-09-07

    Selective inhibitors of type II dehydroquinase were rationally designed to explore a second binding-pocket in the active-site. The molecular modelling, synthesis, inhibition studies and crystal structure determination are described.

  16. PKMiner: a database for exploring type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a pharmacologically important group of natural products synthesized by type II polyketide synthases (type II PKSs) in actinobacteria. Isolation of novel aromatic polyketides from microbial sources is currently impeded because of the lack of knowledge about prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis and the difficulties in finding and optimizing target microorganisms. Comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and the prediction of possible polyketide chemotypes in various actinobacterial genomes will thus enable the discovery or synthesis of novel polyketides in the most plausible microorganisms. Description We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of type II PKSs and their gene clusters in actinobacterial genomes. By identifying type II PKS subclasses from the sequence analysis of 280 known type II PKSs, we developed highly accurate domain classifiers for these subclasses and derived prediction rules for aromatic polyketide chemotypes generated by different combinations of type II PKS domains. Using 319 available actinobacterial genomes, we predicted 231 type II PKSs from 40 PKS gene clusters in 25 actinobacterial genomes, and polyketide chemotypes corresponding to 22 novel PKS gene clusters in 16 genomes. These results showed that the microorganisms capable of producing aromatic polyketides are specifically distributed within a certain suborder of Actinomycetales such as Catenulisporineae, Frankineae, Micrococcineae, Micromonosporineae, Pseudonocardineae, Streptomycineae, and Streptosporangineae. Conclusions We could identify the novel candidates of type II PKS gene clusters and their polyketide chemotypes in actinobacterial genomes by comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and prediction of aromatic polyketides. The genome analysis results indicated that the specific suborders in actinomycetes could be used as prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis. The chemotype-prediction rules with the suggested type II PKS

  17. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Swar, M O; Srikrishna, B V

    1995-09-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystophy characterised by extreme micromelia. Definitive clinical and radiographic criteria have been established to differentiate Type II Achondrogenesis (Langer-Saldino) from type I Achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive for both types. We are presenting a case of Type II Achondrogenesis, a still born male to consanguinous parents. The clinical features included an enlarged head, protuberant abdomen and short stubby limbs. The mother had earlier delivered two still born males presumably with similar features. Radiographic characteristics of absence of rib fractures and well ossified iliac bones with concave medial margins and absent or deficient ossification of the sacrum, ischiae, and pubic bones differentiated Type II Achondrogenesis from Type I Achondrogenesis.

  18. Revealing the cost of Type II diabetes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, B

    2002-07-01

    'The Cost of Diabetes in Europe - Type II study' is the first coordinated attempt to measure total healthcare costs of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Europe. The study evaluated more than 7000 patients with Type II diabetes in eight countries -- Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. A bottom-up, prevalence-based design was used, which optimised the collection of data at the national level while maintaining maximum international comparability. Effort was made to ensure consistency in terms of data specification, data collection tools and methods, sampling design, and the analysis and reporting of results. Results are reported for individual countries and in aggregate for the total study population. The total direct medical costs of Type II diabetes in the eight European countries was estimated at EUR 29 billion a year (1999 values). The estimated average yearly cost per patient was EUR 2834 a year. Of these costs, hospitalisations accounted for the greatest proportion (55%, range 30-65%) totalling EUR 15.9 billion for the eight countries. During the 6-month evaluation period, 13% of the Type II diabetic patients were hospitalised, with an average of 23 days in hospital projected annually. In contrast, drug costs for managing Type II diabetes were relatively low, with antidiabetic drugs and insulin accounting for only 7% of the total healthcare costs for Type II diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is a common disease and the prevalence is expected to increase considerably in the future, especially in developing countries. Current comprehensive economic data on the costs of diabetes are required for policy decisions to optimise resource allocation and to evaluate different approaches for disease management.

  19. Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed extremities. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very important and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology.

  20. Cyclic deformation-induced injury and differentiation of rat alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huan; Zhan, Qingyuan; Ren, Yanhong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Chun; Wang, Chen

    2012-03-15

    The injury and differentiation of alveolar epithelial type II cells induced by alveolar epithelial deformation play important roles in the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury and repair of the lung injury, respectively. We developed an in vitro rat model to investigate the effects of deformation amplitude, peak deformation, and minimum deformation on the viability and differentiation of type II cells. Rat primary alveolar epithelial type II cells were exposed to a variety of equibiaxial cyclic stretch protocols, and deformation-induced cell survival and differentiation were analyzed. Cell death increased when deformation consisted of change in cell surface area (ΔSA) of 0-37%, 0-50%, 12-50%, 37-50% (P=0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.003, respectively). When ΔSA was at 12-37% and 12-50%, mRNA transcription (P=0.034 and P=0.036) and protein expressions (P=0.008 and P=0.001) of caveolin-1 (a marker for the type I phenotype) increased, in contrast to the decrease of their mRNA transcription of surfactant protein C (a marker for the type II phenotype) (P=0.011, 0.002). These results suggest that amplitude or minimum deformation ≥ 37% ΔSA is an important cause of cell death, and amplitude ≥ 25% ΔSA promotes cell differentiation. Appropriate amplitude (25% ΔSA) can not only avoid cell death but also promote cell differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Unsupervised Clustering of Type II Supernova Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Adam; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities come online, the astronomical community will be provided with extremely large data sets of well-sampled light curves (LCs) of transients. This motivates systematic studies of the LCs of supernovae (SNe) of all types, including the early rising phase. We performed unsupervised k-means clustering on a sample of 59 R-band SN II LCs and find that the rise to peak plays an important role in classifying LCs. Our sample can be divided into three classes: slowly rising (II-S), fast rise/slow decline (II-FS), and fast rise/fast decline (II-FF). We also identify three outliers based on the algorithm. The II-FF and II-FS classes are disjoint in their decline rates, while the II-S class is intermediate and “bridges the gap.” This may explain recent conflicting results regarding II-P/II-L populations. The II-FS class is also significantly less luminous than the other two classes. Performing clustering on the first two principal component analysis components gives equivalent results to using the full LC morphologies. This indicates that Type II LCs could possibly be reduced to two parameters. We present several important caveats to the technique, and find that the division into these classes is not fully robust. Moreover, these classes have some overlap, and are defined in the R band only. It is currently unclear if they represent distinct physical classes, and more data is needed to study these issues. However, we show that the outliers are actually composed of slowly evolving SN IIb, demonstrating the potential of such methods. The slowly evolving SNe IIb may arise from single massive progenitors.

  2. Mg II 2800 A emission in late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The largest body of data on ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars now available is the series of scans made with the long wavelength spectrometer onboard OAO-2. Some features of selected scans from this series and estimates of Mg II emission fluxes were reported earlier. Since that time, the effects of sky background, scattered light and variable instrumental sensitivity have become better understood. Additional stars are used to define more clearly the transition from Mg II 2800 A absorption to emission with advancing spectral type, and additional scans of alpha Sco provide a better estimate of Mg II emission strength for this supergiant in OAO observations.

  3. Paraquat-induced injury of type II alveolar cells. An in vitro model of oxidant injury

    SciTech Connect

    Skillrud, D.M.; Martin, W.J.

    1984-06-01

    Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, causes severe, often fatal lung damage. In vivo studies suggest the alveolar epithelial cells (types I and II) are specific targets of paraquat toxicity. This study used /sup 51/Cr-labeled type II cells to demonstrate that paraquat (10-5 M) resulted in type II cell injury in vitro, independent of interacting immune effector agents. With /sup 51/Cr release expressed as the cytotoxic index (Cl), type II cell injury was found to accelerate with increasing paraquat concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-4) M, and 10(-3) M, resulting in a Cl of 12.5 +/- 2.2, 22.8 +/- 1.8, and 35.1 +/- 1.9, respectively). Paraquat-induced cytotoxicity (10(-4) M, with a Cl of 22.8 +/- 1.8) was effectively reduced by catalase 1,100 U/ml (Cl 8.0 +/- 3.2, p less than 0.001), superoxide dismutase, 300 U/ml (Cl 17.4 +/- 1.7, p less than 0.05), alpha tocopherol, 10 micrograms/ml (Cl 17.8 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.05). Paraquat toxicity (10(-3) M) was potentiated in the presence of 95% O2 with an increase in Cl from 31.1 +/- 1.7 to 36.4 +/- 2.3 (p less than 0.05). Paraquat-induced type II cell injury was noted as early as 4 h incubation by electron microscopic evidence of swelling of mitochondrial cristae and dispersion of nuclear chromatin. Thus, this in vitro model indicates that paraquat-induced type II cell injury can be quantified, confirmed by morphologic ultrastructural changes, significantly reduced by antioxidants, and potentiated by hyperoxia.

  4. In vivo autoradiographic demonstration of. beta. -adrenergic binding sites in adult rat type II alveolar epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Sidhu, M.K.

    1984-02-06

    Adult male rats were injected intravenously with the muscarinic binding probe /sup 3/H-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the ..beta..-adrenergic probe /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA). Other rats were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of a 500-fold excess of L-isoproterenol prior to the DHA. Light microscopic autoradiography of 0.5 ..mu..m sections of lung from the QNB group demonstrated very little labelling even after 6 months of exposure. In constrast, trachealis smooth muscle from these animals contained substantial labelling. Autoradiographs of lung from rats injected with DHA demonstrated labelling which was well localized over alveolar septa and concentrated over the cytoplasm of type II cells. Quantitative analysis of labelling in the DHA groups indicated a significant reduction of labelling in animals treated with L-isoproterenol prior to DHA, in both the alveolar parenchyma in general and over type II cells. The results of this study provide morphologic evidence for the uptake and specific binding of ..beta..-adrenergic antagonists by the adult lung in vivo, while failing to demonstrate similar binding of a muscarinic probe. In addition, the results demonstrate specific ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on type II cells in vivo and substantiate the view of a direct effect of ..beta..-adrenergic agonists on alveolar type II cells.

  5. Theoretical Exploration of Type I/Type II Dual Photoreactivity of Promising Ru(II) Dyads for PDT Approach.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Marta Erminia; Pirillo, Jenny; Russo, Nino; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-11-07

    Ru(II) dyads are a class of bioactive molecules of interest as anticancer agents obtained incorporating an organic chromophore in the light-absorbing metallic scaffold. A careful DFT and TDDFT investigation of the photophysical properties of a series of Ru(II)-polypiridyl dyads containing polythiophene chains of different lengths bound to a coordinating imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligand is herein reported. The modulation of the crucial chemical and physical properties of the photosensitizer with increasing number of thiophene units has been accurately described by investigating the UV-vis spectra and type I and type II photoreactions, also including spin-orbit coupling values (SOC). Results show that the low-lying (3)IL states afforded as the number of thiophene ligands increases (n = 3, 4) are energetically high enough to ensure singlet oxygen production and can be also involved in electron transfer reaction, showing a dual type I/type II photeoreactivity.

  6. Acoustic Type-II Weyl Nodes from Stacking Dimerized Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2016-11-01

    Lorentz-violating type-II Weyl fermions, which were missed in Weyl's prediction of nowadays classified type-I Weyl fermions in quantum field theory, have recently been proposed in condensed matter systems. The semimetals hosting type-II Weyl fermions offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena that are different from type-I Weyl systems. Here we construct the acoustic version of a type-II Weyl Hamiltonian by stacking one-dimensional dimerized chains of acoustic resonators. This acoustic type-II Weyl system exhibits distinct features in a finite density of states and unique transport properties of Fermi-arc-like surface states. In a certain momentum space direction, the velocity of these surface states is determined by the tilting direction of the type-II Weyl nodes rather than the chirality dictated by the Chern number. Our study also provides an approach of constructing acoustic topological phases at different dimensions with the same building blocks.

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of lattice corneal dystrophies types I and II.

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, T; Tarkkanen, A; McLean, I; Ghiso, J; Frangione, B; Haltia, M

    1993-01-01

    Corneal buttons from four patients with lattice corneal dystrophy (LD) type I, thought to be an isolated corneal amyloidosis, and from six patients with LD type II, part of systemic familial amyloidosis, Finnish type (FAF; Meretoja's syndrome), were studied by immunohistochemistry to determine the differential distribution in the amyloid deposits of amyloid P component (AP), mutated gelsolin specific for FAF, and native gelsolin. In both types of LD, antibodies to AP labelled lattice lines and a discontinuous layer of amyloid deposits under Bowman's layer. In LD type II, particularly, they also reacted with streak-like amyloid deposits between corneal almellae, especially in the limbal region. While the anti-FAF antiserum strongly labelled all amyloid deposits in LD type II, it failed to react unequivocally with them in LD type I. Both in LD type I and in two control specimens representing granular dystrophy, the monoclonal antibody (MAb) GS-2C4 to gelsolin faintly labelled some deposits, while in LD type II it reacted non-homogeneously with most amyloid deposits. In all specimens, MAb GS-2C4 labelled corneal epithelial cells and occasional stromal keratocytes and endothelial cells. The results suggest that Meretoja's syndrome, a systemic disease, can be diagnosed even retrospectively from corneal buttons subjected to histopathological study. Images PMID:8110676

  8. Cytidine monophosphate-dependent synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol in permeabilized type II pneumonocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bleasdale, J E; Thakur, N R; Rader, G R; Tesan, M

    1985-01-01

    Results of previous investigations support the proposition that, in type II pneumonocytes, CMP is involved in integration of the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol for lung surfactant. In the present investigation, the amount of CMP in rat type II pneumonocytes was altered directly and resultant changes in the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol were examined. Type II pneumonocytes were made permeable to CMP by treatment with Ca2+-free medium, and phosphatidylglycerol synthesis was then assessed by measurement of the incorporation of a radiolabelled precursor, [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate, that was not effectively utilized by cells that resisted permeabilization. Incorporation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate into phosphatidylglycerol (but not into other lipids) was stimulated greatly by CMP (half-maximal stimulation at approx. 0.1 mM). CMP stimulated the incorporation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate into both the phosphatidyl moiety and the head group of phosphatidylglycerol. Incorporation of [14C]palmitate into phosphatidylglycerol was also stimulated by CMP. myo-Inositol, at concentrations found in foetal-rat serum (0.2-2.0 mM), inhibited CMP-dependent incorporation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate into phosphatidylglycerol and promoted, instead, CMP-dependent incorporation into phosphatidylinositol. These data, when extrapolated to foetal type II pneumonocytes, are consistent with the view that the developmental increase in the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol for surfactant by foetal lungs is promoted by the increase in intracellular CMP and the declining availability of myo-inositol that were found previously to be associated with this period of development. PMID:3004409

  9. Effect of collagen type I or type II on chondrogenesis by cultured human articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, Marijn; Saris, Daniel B; Vonk, Lucienne A; van Rijen, Mattie H; Akrum, Vanessa; Langeveld, Danielle; van Boxtel, Antonette; Dhert, Wouter J; Creemers, Laura B

    2013-01-01

    Current cartilage repair procedures using autologous chondrocytes rely on a variety of carriers for implantation. Collagen types I and II are frequently used and valuable properties of both were shown earlier in vitro, although a preference for either was not demonstrated. Recently, however, fibrillar collagens were shown to promote cartilage degradation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of collagen type I and type II coating on chondrogenic properties of in vitro cultured human chondrocytes, and to investigate if collagen-mediated cartilage degradation occurs. Human chondrocytes of eight healthy cartilage donors were isolated, expanded, and cultured on culture well inserts coated with either collagen type I, type II, or no coating (control). After 28 days of redifferentiation culture, safranin O and immunohistochemical staining for collagen types I, II, X, and Runx2/Cbfa1 were performed and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA content and release were examined. Further, expression of collagen type I, type II, type X, MMP13, Runx2/Cbfa1, DDR2, α2 and β1 integrin were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The matrix, created by chondrocytes grown on collagen type I- and II-coated membranes, resembled cartilage more than when grown on noncoated membranes as reflected by histological scoring. Immunohistochemical staining did not differ between the conditions. GAG content as well as GAG/DNA were higher for collagen type II-coated cartilage constructs than control. GAG release was also higher on collagen type I- and II-coated constructs. Expression of collagen type X was higher of chondrocytes grown on collagen type II compared to controls, but no collagen X protein could be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. No effects of collagen coating on DDR2 nor MMP-13 gene expression were found. No differences were observed between collagen types I and II. Chondrocyte culture on collagen type I or II promotes more active matrix production

  10. Origin of wide-band IP type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjolainen, S.; Allawi, H.; Valtonen, E.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Different types of interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been observed, where the more usual ones show narrow-band and patchy emissions, sometimes with harmonics, and which at intervals may disappear completely from the dynamic spectrum. The more unusual bursts are wide-band and diffuse, show no patches or breaks or harmonic emission, and often have long durations. Type II bursts are thought to be plasma emission, caused by propagating shock waves, but a synchrotron-emitting source has also been proposed as the origin for the wide-band type IIs. Aims: Our aim is to find out where the wide-band IP type II bursts originate and what is their connection to particle acceleration. Methods: We analyzed in detail 25 solar events that produced well-separated, wide-band IP type II bursts in 2001-2011. Their associations to flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar energetic particle events (SEPs) were investigated. Results: Of the 25 bursts, 18 were estimated to have heights corresponding to the CME leading fronts, suggesting that they were created by bow shocks ahead of the CMEs. However, seven events were found in which the burst heights were significantly lower and which showed a different type of height-time evolution. Almost all the analyzed wide-band type II bursts were associated with very high-speed CMEs, originating from different parts of the solar hemisphere. In terms of SEP associations, many of the SEP events were weak, had poor connectivity due to the eastern limb source location, or were masked by previous events. Some of the events had precursors in specific energy ranges. These properties and conditions affected the intensity-time profiles and made the injection-time-based associations with the type II bursts difficult to interpret. In several cases where the SEP injection times could be determined, the radio dynamic spectra showed other features (in addition to the wide-band type II bursts) that could be signatures of shock fronts

  11. Mechanical stretch promotes fetal type II epithelial cell differentiation via shedding of HB-EGF and TGF-α

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yulian; Maciejewski, Benjamin S; Soto-Reyes, Dariana; Lee, Hyeon-Soo; Warburton, David; Sanchez-Esteban, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which mechanical forces promote fetal lung development are not fully understood. Here, we investigated differentiation of fetal type II epithelial cells via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in response to mechanical strain. First, we showed that incubation of embryonic day (E) 19 fetal type II cells with recombinant heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, but not with amphiregulin (AR), betacellulin (BTC) or epiregulin (EPR), increased fetal type II cell differentiation, as measured by surfactant protein B/C mRNA and protein levels. Next, we demonstrated that 5% cyclic stretch of E19 monolayers transfected with plasmid encoding alkaline phosphatase (AP)-tagged ligands shed mature HB-EGF and TGF-α into the supernatant and promoted type II cell differentiation. Release of these ligands was also observed in E19 cells subjected to higher degrees of cyclic strain, but not in cells exposed to continuous stretch. Interestingly, the addition of fibroblasts to type II cell cultures did not enhance release of HB-EGF. Whereas HB-EGF shedding was also detected in E18 cells exposed to 5% cyclic stretch, release of this ligand after 2.5% sustained stretch was restricted to cells isolated on E18 of gestation. In addition, mechanical stretch released EGF, AR and BTC. We conclude that mechanical stretch promotes fetal type II cell differentiation via ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF and TGF-α. The magnitude of shedding varied depending on gestational age, ligand, and strain protocol. These studies provide novel mechanistic information potentially relevant to fetal lung development and to mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury. PMID:19237431

  12. Comparative Decellularization and Recellularization of Wild-Type and Alpha 1,3 Galactosyltransferase Knockout Pig Lungs: A Model for Ex Vivo Xenogeneic Lung Bioengineering and Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Platz, Joseph; Bonenfant, Nicholas R; Uhl, Franziska E; Coffey, Amy L; McKnight, Tristan; Parsons, Charles; Sokocevic, Dino; Borg, Zachary D; Lam, Ying-Wai; Deng, Bin; Fields, Julia G; DeSarno, Michael; Loi, Roberto; Hoffman, Andrew M; Bianchi, John; Dacken, Brian; Petersen, Thomas; Wagner, Darcy E; Weiss, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    A novel potential approach for lung transplantation could be to utilize xenogeneic decellularized pig lung scaffolds that are recellularized with human lung cells. However, pig tissues express several immunogenic proteins, notably galactosylated cell surface glycoproteins resulting from alpha 1,3 galactosyltransferase (α-gal) activity, that could conceivably prevent effective use. Use of lungs from α-gal knock out (α-gal KO) pigs presents a potential alternative and thus comparative de- and recellularization of wild-type and α-gal KO pig lungs was assessed. Decellularized lungs were compared by histologic, immunohistochemical, and mass spectrometric techniques. Recellularization was assessed following compartmental inoculation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells, human lung fibroblasts, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (all via airway inoculation), and human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (CBF) (vascular inoculation). No obvious differences in histologic structure was observed but an approximate 25% difference in retention of residual proteins was determined between decellularized wild-type and α-gal KO pig lungs, including retention of α-galactosylated epitopes in acellular wild-type pig lungs. However, robust initial recellularization and subsequent growth and proliferation was observed for all cell types with no obvious differences between cells seeded into wild-type versus α-gal KO lungs. These proof of concept studies demonstrate that decellularized wild-type and α-gal KO pig lungs can be comparably decellularized and comparably support initial growth of human lung cells, despite some differences in retained proteins. α-Gal KO pig lungs are a suitable platform for further studies of xenogeneic lung regeneration.

  13. Comparative Decellularization and Recellularization of Wild-Type and Alpha 1,3 Galactosyltransferase Knockout Pig Lungs: A Model for Ex Vivo Xenogeneic Lung Bioengineering and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Platz, Joseph; Bonenfant, Nicholas R.; Uhl, Franziska E.; Coffey, Amy L.; McKnight, Tristan; Parsons, Charles; Sokocevic, Dino; Borg, Zachary D.; Lam, Ying-Wai; Deng, Bin; Fields, Julia G.; DeSarno, Michael; Loi, Roberto; Hoffman, Andrew M.; Bianchi, John; Dacken, Brian; Petersen, Thomas; Wagner, Darcy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A novel potential approach for lung transplantation could be to utilize xenogeneic decellularized pig lung scaffolds that are recellularized with human lung cells. However, pig tissues express several immunogenic proteins, notably galactosylated cell surface glycoproteins resulting from alpha 1,3 galactosyltransferase (α-gal) activity, that could conceivably prevent effective use. Use of lungs from α-gal knock out (α-gal KO) pigs presents a potential alternative and thus comparative de- and recellularization of wild-type and α-gal KO pig lungs was assessed. Methods: Decellularized lungs were compared by histologic, immunohistochemical, and mass spectrometric techniques. Recellularization was assessed following compartmental inoculation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells, human lung fibroblasts, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (all via airway inoculation), and human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (CBF) (vascular inoculation). Results: No obvious differences in histologic structure was observed but an approximate 25% difference in retention of residual proteins was determined between decellularized wild-type and α-gal KO pig lungs, including retention of α-galactosylated epitopes in acellular wild-type pig lungs. However, robust initial recellularization and subsequent growth and proliferation was observed for all cell types with no obvious differences between cells seeded into wild-type versus α-gal KO lungs. Conclusion: These proof of concept studies demonstrate that decellularized wild-type and α-gal KO pig lungs can be comparably decellularized and comparably support initial growth of human lung cells, despite some differences in retained proteins. α-Gal KO pig lungs are a suitable platform for further studies of xenogeneic lung regeneration. PMID:27310581

  14. Evidence for metabolic origin of absorptive hypercalciuria Type II.

    PubMed

    Pak, Charles Y C; Pearle, Margaret S; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this retrospective data analysis was to test the hypothesis that absorptive hypercalciuria Type II (AH-II) is a less severe variant of absorptive hypercalciuria Type I (AH-I), a common cause of calcareous stones. 24-h urinary calcium obtained on constant metabolic diets was retrieved from several data sources, including those of the authors and another group. On a low calcium diet (10 mmol calcium), 35 patients with AH-II were compared with 70 non-stone formers (NSF) and 76 patients with AH-I. On a high calcium diet (25 mmol calcium/day), 10 patients with AH-II were compared with 35 NSF and 32 with AH-I. On a low calcium diet for all participants, 24-h urinary calcium in AH-II (4.13 ± 0.63 mmol/day) was significantly higher than in NSF (3.06 ± 1.17 mmol/day), but significantly lower than in AH-I (6.11 ± 1.14 mmol/day) (p < 0.001). In a smaller subset, fractional intestinal calcium absorption in AH-II (65.0 ± 11.1%) was intermediate between NSF (50.0 ± 6.4%) and AH-I (71.0 ± 6.7%) (p < 0.001 between AH-II and other groups). On a high calcium diet, the rise in urinary calcium in AH-II was significantly higher than in NSF, but not as marked as in AH-I. Estimated calcium balance in AH-II was similar to NSF, but significantly more positive than AH-I. In conclusion, AH-II shares with AH-I the same metabolic disturbance(s) stimulating intestinal absorption and renal excretion of calcium but to a lesser degree. Bone might be spared in AH-II.

  15. Multiplicity among F-type stars. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of our previous study we present an updated census of new companions and model atmosphere analyses for some 50 southern dwarfs, mostly in the mass range 0.90≤slant M≤slant 1.10 {M}⊙ . For the common-proper-motion companions μ Vir B, HR 2225 B, HD 67199 B, and HD 114853 B, we confirm their physical association from their radial velocities. We report the discovery of the F-type visual binary α For as a field blue straggler and confirm (ζ Ret, HR 5864) or identify (HD 67199, HR 4013, HR 8843) another five mass transfer systems or candidates. For the F stars {τ }1 Eri and 111 Tau, we present 10σ and 7σ cases for astrometric binaries by virtue of the very accurate van Leeuwen Hipparcos parallaxes. Following the work of Shaya & Olling, we suggest the F-type star ι Vir to be a wide (0.37 pc) hierarchical quadruple system. We confirm the visual binary NLTT 23781/2 as a common-proper-motion object to the very wide (0.54 pc) F star 40 Leo, but discard the G star HD 128987 as an ultra-wide (1.01 pc) physical companion to the α Lib quadruple system on account of a diverse metallicity. The improved statistics of our sample establishes the previously discovered positive correlation of stellar multiplicities with primary mass. For the F star multiplicity census in the mass range 1.10≤slant M≤slant 1.70 {M}⊙ , we find that at least a quarter consists of triple or higher level systems and at least two out of three F stars are non-single.

  16. Purification and characterization of a second type thioredoxin peroxidase (type II TPx) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J S; Kwon, S J; Kang, S W; Rhee, S G; Kim, K

    1999-01-12

    A yeast peroxidase that reduces H2O2 and alkyl hydroperoxides with the use of reducing equivalents provided by thioredoxin was identified previously and named thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) [Chae, H. Z., Chung, S. J., and Rhee, S. G. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 27670-27678]. A second type thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase, named type II TPx, has now been purified from yeast, and several peptide sequences have been obtained. Using those sequences, the corresponding cDNA has been identified from the GenBank database. Comparison of the predicted sequence of 176 amino acids of type II TPx with that of the 195 residues of TPx, now renamed type I TPx, revealed no substantial homology except for a short segment preceding Cys62 of type II TPx. Kinetic characterization of the reactions catalyzed by type I and II TPxs revealed that type I preferentially reduces H2O2 rather than alkyl hydroperoxides, whereas type II shows the reverse specificity. Type II TPx contains three cysteine residues at positions 31, 62, and 120. Experiments with mutant proteins in which these three cysteine residues were replaced individually with serine suggest that Cys62-SH constitutes the site of oxidation by peroxides and that the oxidized Cys62 reacts with the Cys120-SH group of another type II TPx molecule to form an intermolecular disulfide linkage. The formed disulfide can then be reduced by thioredoxin, but not by glutathione. Thus, type II TPx mutants lacking Cys62 or Cys120 showed no detectable TPx activity, whereas mutation of Cys31 had no effect on TPx activity. An antioxidant function of type II TPx in intact cells was demonstrated by the observation that Escherichia coli cells overexpressing wild-type protein were less sensitive to inhibition of growth by alkyl hydroperoxides than were control cells or cells overexpressing the mutant protein lacking Cys62.

  17. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Summary Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance. PMID:23738307

  18. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance.

  19. Autopsy case of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial "dwarfism" type II.

    PubMed

    Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Sato, Seiji; Sullivan, Michael J; Nishimura, Gen; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Matsuo, Nobutake

    2002-11-15

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial "dwarfism" (MOPD) is a group of disorders similar to Seckel syndrome. Three subtypes (types I-III) have been reported. We report here the first autopsy case of MOPD type II. The patient was a Japanese girl with typical clinical and radiological manifestations of MOPD type II. The manifestations included severe intrauterine and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, a distinctive facial appearance, micromelia, brachytelephalangy, coxa vara, and V-shaped metaphyses of the distal femora. Other than small cerebral hemispheres, no neuropathological abnormalities were found. Chondro-osseous histology showed thinning of the growth plate, ballooned chondrocytes, reduced cellularity, lack of zonal and columnar formations, and poor formation of primary trabeculae. These findings suggest that impairment of chondrocytic formation and differentiation is the major pathogenesis of MOPD type II. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. A sample of Type II-L supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faran, T.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Leonard, D. C.; Li, W.; Modjaz, M.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention - both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ˜15-25 M⊙ range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterized by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyse the multiband light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Hα absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong O I λ7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose to define them based on their decline in the V band: SNe II-L decline by more than 0.5 mag from peak brightness by day 50 after explosion. Using our sample we provide template light curves for SNe II-L and II-P in four photometric bands.

  1. Enzyme augmentation therapy enhances the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow transplantation in mucopolysaccharidosis type II mice.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kazumasa; Shimada, Yohta; Higuchi, Takashi; Ohtsu, Makoto; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ida, Hiroyuki; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Crawford, Brett E; Brown, Jillian R; Ohashi, Toya

    2014-02-01

    Before the availability of an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), patients were treated by bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, the effectiveness of BMT for MPS II was equivocal, particularly at addressing the CNS manifestations. To study this further, we subjected a murine model of MPS II to BMT and evaluated the effect at correcting the biochemical and pathological aberrations in the viscera and CNS. Our results indicated that BMT reduced the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a variety of visceral organs, but not in the CNS. With the availability of an approved ERT for MPS II, we investigated and compared the relative merits of the two strategies either as a mono or combination therapy. We showed that the combination of BMT and ERT was additive at reducing tissue levels of GAGs in the heart, kidney and lung. Moreover, ERT conferred greater efficacy if the immunological response against the infused recombinant enzyme was low. Finally, we showed that pathologic GAGs might potentially represent a sensitive biomarker to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of therapies for MPS II. © 2013.

  2. Trace element geochemistry of ordinary chondrite chondrules: The type I/type II chondrule dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Alard, Olivier; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    We report trace element concentrations of silicate phases in chondrules from LL3 ordinary chondrites Bishunpur and Semarkona. Results are similar to previously reported data for carbonaceous chondrites, with rare earth element (REE) concentrations increasing in the sequence olivine < pyroxene < mesostasis, and heavy REE (HREE) being enriched by 1-2 orders of magnitude (CI-normalized) relative to light REE (LREE) in ferromagnesian silicates, although no single olivine with very large LREE/HREE fractionation has been found. On average, olivine in type II chondrules is poorer in refractory lithophile incompatible elements (such as REE) than its type I counterpart by a factor of ∼2. This suggests that olivine in type I and II chondrules formed by batch and fractional crystallization, respectively, implying that type II chondrules formed under faster cooling rates (>∼10 K/h) than type I chondrules. Appreciable Na concentrations (3-221 ppm) are measured in olivine from both chondrule types; type II chondrules seem to have behaved as closed systems, which may require chondrule formation in the vicinity of protoplanets or planetesimals. At any rate, higher solid concentrations in type II chondrule forming regions may explain the higher oxygen fugacities they record compared to type I chondrules. Type I and type II chondrules formed in different environments and the correlation between high solid concentrations and/or oxygen fugacities with rapid cooling rates is a key constraint that chondrule formation models must account for.

  3. Depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Sultan, Sayed Mohammad; Nazli, Rubina; Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mudasar Ahmad; Sher, Nabila; Aslam, Hina

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus in Peshawar at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from March to September 2010. Depression was assessed by using Beck Depressive Inventory-II (BDI-II). Out of 140 patients with type-II diabetes, 85 (61%) were women and 55 (39%) were men. Mean age was 45±7.45 years. Eighty four (60%) patients presented with severe depression. Depression was higher in females than males and widows. Depression was high in diabetic patients, especially in females and widows. It is of essence that psychiatric attention may be necessary to be incorporated in diabetes care both for prevention and treatment.

  4. Vacuolar ATPase Regulates Surfactant Secretion in Rat Alveolar Type II Cells by Modulating Lamellar Body Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D.; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion. PMID:20169059

  5. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated augmentation of renal interstitial fluid angiotensin II in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akira; Seth, Dale M; Navar, L Gabriel

    2003-10-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension is associated with augmented intrarenal concentrations of Ang II; however, the distribution of the increased intrarenal Ang II has not been fully established. To determine the changes in renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations in Ang II-induced hypertension and the consequences of treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. Rats were selected to receive vehicle (5% acetic acid subcutaneously; n = 6), Ang II (80 ng/min subcutaneously, via osmotic minipump; n = 7) or Ang II plus an AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg per day, in drinking water; n = 6) for 13-14 days, at which time, experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the renal cortex and were perfused at 2 microl/min. The effluent dialysate concentrations of Ang I and Ang II were measured by radioimmunoassay and reported values were corrected for the equilibrium rates at this perfusion rate. Ang II-infused rats developed greater mean arterial pressures (155 +/- 7 mmHg) than vehicle-infused rats (108 +/- 3 mmHg). Ang II-infused rats showed greater plasma (181 +/- 30 fmol/ml) and kidney (330 +/- 38 fmol/g) Ang II concentrations than vehicle-infused rats (98 +/- 14 fmol/ml and 157 +/- 22 fmol/g, respectively). Renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations were much greater than plasma concentrations, averaging 5.74 +/- 0.26 pmol/ml in Ang II-infused rats - significantly greater than those in vehicle-infused rats (2.86 +/- 0.23 pmol/ml). Candesartan treatment prevented the hypertension (87 +/- 3 mmHg) and led to increased plasma Ang II concentrations (441 +/- 27 fmol/ml), but prevented increases in kidney (120 +/- 15 fmol/g) and renal interstitial fluid (2.15 +/- 0.12 pmol/ml) Ang II concentrations. These data indicate that Ang II-infused rats develop increased renal interstitial fluid concentrations of Ang II, which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance and

  6. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  7. Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine.

    PubMed Central

    Walz, P H; Baker, J C; Mullaney, T P; Kaneene, J B; Maes, R K

    1999-01-01

    Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A noncytopathic type I and a noncytopathic type II BVDV isolate were chosen for evaluation in feeder age swine based upon preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments. A dose titration study was performed using 4 groups of 4 pigs for each viral isolate. The groups were inoculated intranasally with either sham (control), 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) TCID50 of virus. The pigs were examined daily and clinical findings were recorded. Antemortem and postmortem samples were collected for virus isolation. Neither the type I nor type II BVDV isolates resulted in clinical signs of disease in pigs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from antemortem and postmortem samples from groups of pigs receiving the 10(5) and the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type I BVDV isolate. In contrast, BVDV was only isolated from postmortem samples in the group of pigs receiving the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type II BVDV isolate. Type I BVDV was able to establish infection in pigs at lower doses by intranasal instillation than type II BVDV. Infection of pigs with a type II isolate of BVDV known to cause severe disease in calves did not result in clinically apparent disease in pigs. PMID:10369569

  8. DNA synthesis in pulmonary alveolar macrophages and type II cells: effects of ozone exposure and treatment with alpha-difluoromethylornithine

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, E.S.; White, D.M.; Brady, A.N.; Li, L.C.; D'Arcy, J.B.; Smiler, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in the number of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AM) can be induced by a number of toxic insults to the lung, including ozone, an important photochemical oxidant air pollutant. This increase could arise from an influx of monocytes from the vascular or interstitial compartments, or from proliferation of AM in situ. While proliferation of alveolar type II cells after oxidant exposure has been well documented, it is not clear whether AM are also capable of this response. Rats were exposed to air or to 0.12, 0.25, or 0.50 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 3, 7, or 14 d, 20 h/d. The labeling index in both AM and type II cells increased about 10-fold after 2 d of exposure to 0.25 and 0.50 ppm of ozone, but returned to control levels by the end of 1 wk of exposure. These changes closely paralleled the temporal and dose-response characteristics of changes in total lung DNA synthesis. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) administered to rats during a 2-d exposure to 0.50 ppm ozone did not inhibit the ozone-induced increase in labeling index in AM or type II cells, although evidence of inhibition of lung ornithine decarboxylase activity was obtained, and the ozone-induced increase in total lung DNA synthesis was inhibited by 23%. These results suggest that, like type II cells, AM are capable of entering the cell cycle and synthesizing new DNA in situ in response to short-term exposure to environmentally relevant doses of ozone, and that the ozone-induced stimulation of DNA synthesis in these cell types was refractory to inhibition by DFMO.

  9. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end.

  10. Realizing type-II Weyl points in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Kunal; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Lorentz symmetry-violating "type-II" Weyl semimetal phase has renewed interest in the study of Weyl physics in condensed-matter systems. However, tuning the exceptional properties of this novel state has remained a challenge. Optical lattices, created using standing laser beams, provide a convenient platform to tune tunneling parameters continuously in time. In this paper, we propose a generalized two level system exhibiting type-II Weyl points that can be realized using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The system is engineered using a three-dimensional lattice with complex π phase tunneling amplitudes. Various unique properties of the type-II Weyl semimetal such as open Fermi surface, anomalous chirality, and topological Fermi arcs can be probed using the proposed optical lattice scheme.

  11. Asymptomatic type II hyperprolinaemia associated with hyperglycinaemia in three sibs.

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, L; Mollica, F; Levy, H L

    1975-01-01

    Three clinically normal sibs were discovered to have type II hyperprolinaemia in a routine serum amino acid screening programme in Sicily. In addition to the basic biochemical features of type II hyperprolinaemia, all 3 children had marked hyperglycinaemia, whereas their parents had both normal blood proline and glycine concentrations. Clinical normality in individuals with hyperprolinaemia may suggest that these two metabolic disorders (types I and II) are benign entities. Furthermore, the absence of clinical abnormality in these sibs, despite the presence of marked hyperprolinaemia and hyperglycinaemia, may suggest that neither of these findings alone causes brain damage. The hyperglycinaemia in these sibs is unexplained and is an unusual if not unique finding in association with hyperprolinaemia. PMID:1200680

  12. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  13. Phase II multicenter clinical trial of pulmonary metastasectomy and isolated lung perfusion with melphalan in patients with resectable lung metastases.

    PubMed

    den Hengst, Willem A; Hendriks, Jeroen M H; Balduyck, Bram; Rodrigus, Inez; Vermorken, Jan B; Lardon, Filip; Versteegh, Michel I M; Braun, Jerry; Gelderblom, Hans; Schramel, Franz M N H; Van Boven, Wim-Jan; Van Putte, Bart P; Birim, Özcan; Maat, Alexander P W M; Van Schil, Paul E Y

    2014-10-01

    The 5-year overall survival rate of patients undergoing complete surgical resection of pulmonary metastases (PM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) and sarcoma remains low (20-50%). Local recurrence rate is high (48-66%). Isolated lung perfusion (ILuP) allows the delivery of high-dose locoregional chemotherapy with minimal systemic leakage to improve local control. From 2006 to 2011, 50 patients, 28 male, median age 57 years (15-76), with PM from CRC (n = 30) or sarcoma (n = 20) were included in a phase II clinical trial conducted in four cardiothoracic surgical centers. In total, 62 ILuP procedures were performed, 12 bilaterally, with 45 mg of melphalan at 37°C, followed by resection of all palpable PM. Survival was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Operative mortality was 0%, and 90-day morbidity was mainly respiratory (grade 3: 42%, grade 4: 2%). After a median follow-up of 24 months (3-63 mo), 18 patients died, two without recurrence. Thirty patients had recurrent disease. Median time to local pulmonary progression was not reached. The 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 57% ± 9% and 36% ± 8%, respectively. Lung function data showed a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and diffusing capacity of the alveolocapillary membrane of 21.6% and 25.8% after 1 month, and 10.4% and 11.3% after 12 months, compared with preoperative values. Compared with historical series of PM resection without ILuP, favorable results are obtained in terms of local control without long-term adverse effects. These data support the further investigation of ILuP as additional treatment in patients with resectable PM from CRC or sarcoma.

  14. A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITHOUT A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q. E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn

    2015-05-10

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ∼600 km s{sup −1} during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  15. Clinical and morphological features of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, P B; Parsons, M A; Weatherhead, R G; Karcioglu, Z A

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of 4-month-old girl who presented with congenital cataracts revealed heterochromia iridis, fundus hypopigmentation, residual white forelock and sensory neural hearing loss--findings consistent with Waardenburg syndrome type II. Bilateral peripheral iridectomies performed at lensectomy provided tissue for evaluation. Light microscopy revealed fewer melanocytes in the blue iris than in the brown. Electron microscopic examination showed a significant (p = 0.0001) reduction in melanosome size in the blue iris, and the nerve endings contained fewer vesicles. A defect in neural crest cell migration and melanin synthesis may be responsible for the heterochromia iridis seen in Waardenburg syndrome type II.

  16. Efficient stop-and-wait type II hybrid ARQ scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, S.

    1992-06-01

    The stop-and-wait (SW) Sastry's (1975) ARQ scheme is modified to include a parity retransmission type II hybrid ARQ scheme described by Lin and Yu (1982) and Kallel (1990). In the new scheme, the data packet to be transmitted is encoded with a rate of 1/2 code, and repetitions alternate between the two sequences obtained at the output of the encoder (unlike in the Sastry scheme in which simple repeats of a data packet are transmitted). It is shown that the use of the SW type II hybrid ARQ scheme results in a substantial increase of the throughput.

  17. Vortex liquid crystals in anisotropic type II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Carlson, E W; Castro Neto, A H; Campbell, D K

    2003-02-28

    In an isotropic type II superconductor in a moderate magnetic field, the transition to the normal state occurs by vortex lattice melting. In certain anisotropic cases, the vortices acquire elongated cross sections and interactions. Systems of anisotropic, interacting constituents generally exhibit liquid crystalline phases. We examine the possibility of a two step melting in homogeneous type II superconductors with anisotropic superfluid stiffness from a vortex lattice into first a vortex smectic and then a vortex nematic at high temperature and magnetic field. We find that fluctuations of the ordered phase favor an instability to an intermediate smectic-A in the absence of intrinsic pinning.

  18. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Doh, J W; Kim, C J; Chi, J G

    2000-10-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis) detected by prenatal ultrasonography at 20-week gestation. A dwarfed fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs was terminated transvaginally. Radiologic and histopathologic examination revealed features of mild form of achondrogenesis type II. Although the case had no known risk factor and the phenotypic abnormality was mild, modern development in prenatal screening made the early detection possible.

  19. Hepatitis C: a possible etiology for cryoglobulinaemia type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pechère-Bertschi, A; Perrin, L; de Saussure, P; Widmann, J J; Giostra, E; Schifferli, J A

    1992-01-01

    Out of 15 successive patients with mixed essential cryoglobulinaemia type II (monoclonal IgM kappa/IgG), 13 had serological evidence for hepatitis C infection as shown by specific enzyme immunoassays and immunoblot. RNA was purified from the serum of seven patients and hepatitis C sequences were identified in five following reverse transcription and DNA amplification. The liver histology showed chronic active hepatitis with or without cirrhosis in the 12 patients with hepatitis C who had a liver biopsy. The two patients without serological evidence of hepatitis C suffered from haematological malignancies. Hepatitis C may be a major etiological agent of cryoglobulinaemia type II. PMID:1381302

  20. Interface recombination current in type II heterostructure bipolar diodes.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Marius; Karsthof, Robert; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2014-09-10

    Wide-gap semiconductors are often unipolar and can form type II bipolar heterostructures with large band discontinuities. We present such diodes with very high rectification larger than 1 × 10(10). The current is assumed to be entirely due to interface recombination. We derive the ideality factor for both symmetric and asymmetric diodes and find it close to 2 in agreement with experimental data from NiO/ZnO and CuI/ZnO type II diodes. The comparison with experimental results shows that the actual interface recombination rate is orders of magnitude smaller than its possible maximum value.

  1. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen E-mail: g9522528@oz.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-01-15

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space.

  2. miR-34 miRNAs Regulate Cellular Senescence in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Disayabutr, Supparerk; Kim, Eun Kyung; Cha, Seung-Ick; Green, Gary; Naikawadi, Ram P.; Jones, Kirk D.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Schroeder, Aaron; Matthay, Michael A.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Erle, David J.; Collard, Harold R.; Wolters, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include genetic predisposition, activation of the unfolded protein response, telomere attrition, and cellular senescence. The mechanisms leading to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as regulators of cellular senescence. Senescence markers including p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) activity were measured in type II AECs from IPF lungs and unused donor lungs. miRNAs were quantified in type II AECs using gene expression arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Molecular markers of senescence (p16, p21, and p53) were elevated in IPF type II AECs. SA-βgal activity was detected in a greater percentage in type II AECs isolated from IPF patients (23.1%) compared to patients with other interstitial lung diseases (1.2%) or normal controls (0.8%). The relative levels of senescence-associated miRNAs miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c, but not miR-20a, miR-29c, or miR-let-7f were significantly higher in type II AECs from IPF patients. Overexpression of miR-34a, miR-34b, or miR-34c in lung epithelial cells was associated with higher SA-βgal activity (27.8%, 35.1%, and 38.2%, respectively) relative to control treated cells (8.8%). Targets of miR-34 miRNAs, including E2F1, c-Myc, and cyclin E2, were lower in IPF type II AECs. These results show that markers of senescence are uniquely elevated in IPF type II AECs and suggest that the miR-34 family of miRNAs regulate senescence in IPF type II AECs. PMID:27362652

  3. miR-34 miRNAs Regulate Cellular Senescence in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Disayabutr, Supparerk; Kim, Eun Kyung; Cha, Seung-Ick; Green, Gary; Naikawadi, Ram P; Jones, Kirk D; Golden, Jeffrey A; Schroeder, Aaron; Matthay, Michael A; Kukreja, Jasleen; Erle, David J; Collard, Harold R; Wolters, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include genetic predisposition, activation of the unfolded protein response, telomere attrition, and cellular senescence. The mechanisms leading to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as regulators of cellular senescence. Senescence markers including p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) activity were measured in type II AECs from IPF lungs and unused donor lungs. miRNAs were quantified in type II AECs using gene expression arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Molecular markers of senescence (p16, p21, and p53) were elevated in IPF type II AECs. SA-βgal activity was detected in a greater percentage in type II AECs isolated from IPF patients (23.1%) compared to patients with other interstitial lung diseases (1.2%) or normal controls (0.8%). The relative levels of senescence-associated miRNAs miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c, but not miR-20a, miR-29c, or miR-let-7f were significantly higher in type II AECs from IPF patients. Overexpression of miR-34a, miR-34b, or miR-34c in lung epithelial cells was associated with higher SA-βgal activity (27.8%, 35.1%, and 38.2%, respectively) relative to control treated cells (8.8%). Targets of miR-34 miRNAs, including E2F1, c-Myc, and cyclin E2, were lower in IPF type II AECs. These results show that markers of senescence are uniquely elevated in IPF type II AECs and suggest that the miR-34 family of miRNAs regulate senescence in IPF type II AECs.

  4. Lactate as substrate for mitochondrial respiration in alveolar epithelial type II cells

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Robyn G.; Newton, Danforth A.; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the many energy-demanding functions they perform and their physical location in the lung, alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells have a rapid cellular metabolism and the potential to influence substrate availability and bioenergetics both locally in the lung and throughout the body. A thorough understanding of ATII cell metabolic function in the healthy lung is necessary for determining how metabolic changes may contribute to pulmonary disease pathogenesis; however, lung metabolism is poorly understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine lactate utilization by primary ATII cells and the ATII model cell line, MLE-15, and link lactate consumption directly to mitochondrial ATP generation. ATII cells cultured in lactate undergo mitochondrial respiration at near-maximal levels, two times the rates of those grown in glucose, and oxygen consumption under these conditions is directly linked to mitochondrial ATP generation. When both lactate and glucose are available as metabolic substrate, the presence of lactate alters glucose metabolism in ATII to favor reduced glycolytic function in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that lactate is used in addition to glucose when both substrates are available. Lactate use by ATII mitochondria is dependent on monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated import, and ATII cells express MCT1, the isoform that mediates lactate import by cells in other lactate-consuming tissues. The balance of lactate production and consumption may play an important role in the maintenance of healthy lung homeostasis, whereas disruption of lactate consumption by factors that impair mitochondrial metabolism, such as hypoxia, may contribute to lactic acid build-up in disease. PMID:25747963

  5. Lactate as substrate for mitochondrial respiration in alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Lottes, Robyn G; Newton, Danforth A; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; Baatz, John E

    2015-05-01

    Because of the many energy-demanding functions they perform and their physical location in the lung, alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells have a rapid cellular metabolism and the potential to influence substrate availability and bioenergetics both locally in the lung and throughout the body. A thorough understanding of ATII cell metabolic function in the healthy lung is necessary for determining how metabolic changes may contribute to pulmonary disease pathogenesis; however, lung metabolism is poorly understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine lactate utilization by primary ATII cells and the ATII model cell line, MLE-15, and link lactate consumption directly to mitochondrial ATP generation. ATII cells cultured in lactate undergo mitochondrial respiration at near-maximal levels, two times the rates of those grown in glucose, and oxygen consumption under these conditions is directly linked to mitochondrial ATP generation. When both lactate and glucose are available as metabolic substrate, the presence of lactate alters glucose metabolism in ATII to favor reduced glycolytic function in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that lactate is used in addition to glucose when both substrates are available. Lactate use by ATII mitochondria is dependent on monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated import, and ATII cells express MCT1, the isoform that mediates lactate import by cells in other lactate-consuming tissues. The balance of lactate production and consumption may play an important role in the maintenance of healthy lung homeostasis, whereas disruption of lactate consumption by factors that impair mitochondrial metabolism, such as hypoxia, may contribute to lactic acid build-up in disease. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  7. Highly water-permeable type I alveolar epithelial cells confer high water permeability between the airspace and vasculature in rat lung

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Leland G.; Gonzalez, Robert; Matthay, Michael A.; Carter, Ethan P.; Allen, Lennell; Verkman, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    Water permeability measured between the airspace and vasculature in intact sheep and mouse lungs is high. More than 95% of the internal surface area of the lung is lined by alveolar epithelial type I cells. The purpose of this study was to test whether osmotic water permeability (Pf) in type I alveolar epithelial cells is high enough to account for the high Pf of the intact lung. Pf measured between the airspace and vasculature in the perfused fluid-filled rat lung by the pleural surface fluorescence method was high (0.019 ± 0.004 cm/s at 12°C) and weakly temperature-dependent (activation energy 3.7 kcal/mol). To resolve the contributions of type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells to lung water permeability, Pf was measured by stopped-flow light scattering in suspensions of purified type I or type II cells obtained by immunoaffinity procedures. In response to a sudden change in external solution osmolality from 300 to 600 mOsm, the volume of type I cells decreased rapidly with a half-time (t1/2) of 60–80 ms at 10°C, giving a plasma membrane Pf of 0.06–0.08 cm/s. Pf in type I cells was independent of osmotic gradient size and was weakly temperature-dependent (activation energy 3.4 kcal/mol). In contrast, t1/2 for type II cells in suspension was much slower, ≈1 s; Pf for type II cells was 0.013 cm/s. Vesicles derived from type I cells also had a very high Pf of 0.06–0.08 cm/s at 10°C that was inhibited 95% by HgCl2. The Pf in type I cells is the highest measured for any mammalian cell membrane and would account for the high water permeability of the lung. PMID:9501203

  8. In situ lung perfusion is a valuable tool to assess lungs from donation after circulatory death donors category I-II.

    PubMed

    Van De Wauwer, Caroline; Munneke, Anita J; Engels, Gerwin E; Berga, Foke M; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Nijsten, Maarten W; Mariani, Massimo A; Erasmus, Michiel E

    2013-05-01

    Donations after circulatory death (DCD) lung grafts are an alternative to extend the donor pool in lung transplantation. This study investigates the use of an in situ lung perfusion system (ISLP) in the donor to evaluate category I-II lungs. Pigs were sacrificed by ventricular fibrillation. All animals underwent 20 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 5 min hands-off period after which heparin was administered. In group [WI-1], this was followed by 1 h of warm ischemia (WI) and 2 h of topical cooling (TC). In group [WI-2], 2 h of WI was followed by 1 h of TC. In group [WI-0], there was a minimal period of WI and no TC. In all three groups, the lungs were then evaluated during 60 min with ISLP. [WI-0] lungs showed a significantly higher compliance and Δ PO2 /FiO2 compared with [WI-1] and [WI-2]. PaCO2 and lactate production were higher in [WI-2] versus [WI-0]. Wet/Dry weight ratio was significantly higher in [WI-2] compared with [WI-0] in two lung biopsy locations. A high W/D weight ratio was correlated with a lower compliance, higher lactate production, and a higher PaCO2 . ISLP is an effective way to assess the quality of lungs from category I-II DCD donors. © 2013 The Authors Transplant International © 2013 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities in denervated type I and type II muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, G; Tågerud, S; Libelius, R

    1992-01-01

    Previous work has shown that increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities occur in the endplate region of denervated skeletal muscle fibres. This, however, does not engage all fibres of a muscle at a given time after denervation. The present study was carried out in order to determine if both type I (slow) and type II (fast) muscle fibres can react to denervation by increased endocytotic and lysosomal activities. Uptake of horseradish peroxidase as a marker for endocytosis was studied in conjunction with acid phosphatase staining for lysosomal activity in type I and type II fibres of the denervated mouse hemidiaphragm. Fibre typing was performed using a monoclonal antibody against fast skeletal myosin and by adenosine triphosphatase staining. The results show that increased endocytosis and lysosomal activation occur in both type I and type II fibres after denervation.

  10. SHAPING OF ACTION POTENTIALS BY TYPE I AND TYPE II BK CHANNELS

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, David B.; Wang, Bin; Brenner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The BK channel is a Ca2+ and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca2+ was high (>20 µM) and the other where BK-activating Ca2+ was low (~0.4–1.2 µM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca2+ dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron. PMID:21723921

  11. Marked differences between prone and supine sheep in effect of PEEP on perfusion distribution in zone II lung.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sten M; Johansson, Mats J; Flatebø, Torun; Nicolaysen, Anne; Nicolaysen, Gunnar

    2005-09-01

    The classic four-zone model of lung blood flow distribution has been questioned. We asked whether the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is different between the prone and supine position for lung tissue in the same zonal condition. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated prone (n = 6) and supine (n = 5) sheep were studied at 0, 10, and 20 cm H2O PEEP. Perfusion was measured with intravenous infusion of radiolabeled 15-microm microspheres. The right lung was dried at total lung capacity and diced into pieces (approximately 1.5 cm3), keeping track of the spatial location of each piece. Radioactivity per unit weight was determined and normalized to the mean value for each condition and animal. In the supine posture, perfusion to nondependent lung regions decreased with little relative perfusion in nondependent horizontal lung planes at 10 and 20 cm H2O PEEP. In the prone position, the effect of PEEP was markedly different with substantial perfusion remaining in nondependent lung regions and even increasing in these regions with 20 cm H2O PEEP. Vertical blood flow gradients in zone II lung were large in supine, but surprisingly absent in prone, animals. Isogravitational perfusion heterogeneity was smaller in prone than in supine animals at all PEEP levels. Redistribution of pulmonary perfusion by PEEP ventilation in supine was largely as predicted by the zonal model in marked contrast to the findings in prone. The differences between postures in blood flow distribution within zone II strongly indicate that factors in addition to pulmonary arterial, venous, and alveolar pressure play important roles in determining perfusion distribution in the in situ lung. We suggest that regional variation in lung volume through the effect on vascular resistance is one such factor and that chest wall conformation and thoracic contents determine regional lung volume.

  12. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: Treatment updates

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, P. S.; Chen, Y. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  13. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Kishnani, P S; Chen, Y T

    2007-04-01

    Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future.

  14. Dietary chemoprevention strategies for induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung carcinogenesis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiang-Lin; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women in the United States and is a growing worldwide problem. Protection against lung cancer is associated with higher dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, according to recent large epidemiologic studies. One strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention focuses on the use of agents to modulate the metabolism and disposition of tobacco, environmental and endogenous carcinogens through upregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes. We summarize the substantial evidence that suggests that induction of phase II enzymes, particularly the glutathione S-transferases, plays a direct role in chemoprotection against lung carcinogenesis. The engagement of the Keap1–Nrf2 complex regulating the antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway has been identified as a key molecular target of chemopreventive phase II inducers in several systems. Monitoring of phase II enzyme induction has led to identification of novel chemopreventive agents such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, and the 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. However, no agents have yet demonstrated clear benefit in human cell systems, or in clinical trials. Alternative strategies include: (a) using intermediate cancer biomarkers for the endpoint in human trials; (b) high-throughput small molecule discovery approaches for induced expression of human phase II genes; and (c) integrative approaches that consider pharmacogenetics, along with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in target lung tissue. These approaches may lead to a more effective strategy of tailored chemoprevention efforts using compounds with proven human activity. PMID:19185948

  15. Dietary chemoprevention strategies for induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung carcinogenesis: A review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiang-Lin; Spivack, Simon D

    2009-08-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women in the United States and is a growing worldwide problem. Protection against lung cancer is associated with higher dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, according to recent large epidemiologic studies. One strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention focuses on the use of agents to modulate the metabolism and disposition of tobacco, environmental and endogenous carcinogens through upregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes. We summarize the substantial evidence that suggests that induction of phase II enzymes, particularly the glutathione S-transferases, plays a direct role in chemoprotection against lung carcinogenesis. The engagement of the Keap1-Nrf2 complex regulating the antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway has been identified as a key molecular target of chemopreventive phase II inducers in several systems. Monitoring of phase II enzyme induction has led to identification of novel chemopreventive agents such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, and the 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. However, no agents have yet demonstrated clear benefit in human cell systems, or in clinical trials. Alternative strategies include: (a) using intermediate cancer biomarkers for the endpoint in human trials; (b) high-throughput small molecule discovery approaches for induced expression of human phase II genes; and (c) integrative approaches that consider pharmacogenetics, along with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in target lung tissue. These approaches may lead to a more effective strategy of tailored chemoprevention efforts using compounds with proven human activity.

  16. Heterogenous Material Integration and Band Engineering With Type II Superlattice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0333 HETEROGENOUS MATERIAL INTEGRATION AND BAND ENGINEERING WITH TYPE II SUPERLATTICE Sanjay Krishna UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/15/2010-10/14/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE "Heterogenous Material ...well as lowered size, weight, power and cost. However, despite extensive efforts on T2SL material growth, detector passivation, and fabrication, T2SL

  17. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain. PMID:27252946

  18. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  19. Type II restriction endonucleases--a historical perspective and more.

    PubMed

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss 'Type II' REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures.

  20. 46 CFR 153.231 - Type II system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type II system. 153.231 Section 153.231 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment...

  1. Subcellular localization of mammalian type II membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Aturaliya, Rajith N; Fink, J Lynn; Davis, Melissa J; Teasdale, Melvena S; Hanson, Kelly A; Miranda, Kevin C; Forrest, Alistair R R; Grimmond, Sean M; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kanamori, Mutsumi; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2006-05-01

    Application of a computational membrane organization prediction pipeline, MemO, identified putative type II membrane proteins as proteins predicted to encode a single alpha-helical transmembrane domain (TMD) and no signal peptides. MemO was applied to RIKEN's mouse isoform protein set to identify 1436 non-overlapping genomic regions or transcriptional units (TUs), which encode exclusively type II membrane proteins. Proteins with overlapping predicted InterPro and TMDs were reviewed to discard false positive predictions resulting in a dataset comprised of 1831 transcripts in 1408 TUs. This dataset was used to develop a systematic protocol to document subcellular localization of type II membrane proteins. This approach combines mining of published literature to identify subcellular localization data and a high-throughput, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach to experimentally characterize subcellular localization. These approaches have provided localization data for 244 and 169 proteins. Type II membrane proteins are localized to all major organelle compartments; however, some biases were observed towards the early secretory pathway and punctate structures. Collectively, this study reports the subcellular localization of 26% of the defined dataset. All reported localization data are presented in the LOCATE database (http://www.locate.imb.uq.edu.au).

  2. Generalized type II hybrid ARQ scheme using punctured convolutional coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, Samir; Haccoun, David

    1990-11-01

    A method is presented to construct rate-compatible convolutional (RCC) codes from known high-rate punctured convolutional codes, obtained from best-rate 1/2 codes. The construction method is rather simple and straightforward, and still yields good codes. Moreover, low-rate codes can be obtained without any limit on the lowest achievable code rate. Based on the RCC codes, a generalized type-II hybrid ARQ scheme, which combines the benefits of the modified type-II hybrid ARQ strategy of Hagenauer (1988) with the code-combining ARQ strategy of Chase (1985), is proposed and analyzed. With the proposed generalized type-II hybrid ARQ strategy, the throughput increases as the starting coding rate increases, and as the channel degrades, it tends to merge with the throughput of rate 1/2 type-II hybrid ARQ schemes with code combining, thus allowing the system to be flexible and adaptive to channel conditions, even under wide noise variations and severe degradations.

  3. Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II with otolaryngological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Havle, A; Shedge, S; Malashetti, S; Jain, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr's syndrome) which is characterized by malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. The facial and oral features include tongue nodules, cleft or high-arched palate, missing teeth, broad nose; cleft lip. The digital features include clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly and duplication of the hallux.

  4. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  5. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  6. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  7. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  8. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126 Section 159.126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform...

  9. Type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes: new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, B J

    1997-01-01

    Type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) is a common primary and secondary diagnosis in home care patients. This article describes the pathophysiology of NIDDM, the new drugs that have been released for treatment, and the nursing implications inherent in using these new medications.

  10. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C.; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  11. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  12. Safety and toxicological evaluation of undenatured type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Marone, Palma Ann; Lau, Francis C; Gupta, Ramesh C; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that undenatured type II collagen is effective in the treatment of arthritis. The present study evaluated the broad-spectrum safety of UC-II by a variety of toxicological assays including acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, and primary eye irritation toxicity. In addition, genotoxicity studies such as Ames bacterial reverse mutation assay and mouse lymphoma tests, as well as a dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study were conducted. Safety studies indicated that acute oral LD(50) of UC-II was greater than 5000 mg/kg in female Sprague-Dawley rats. No changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy. Acute dermal LD(50) of UC-II was determined to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. Primary skin irritation tests conducted on New Zealand Albino rabbits classified UC-II as slightly irritating. Primary eye irritation tests conducted on rabbits indicated that UC-II was moderately irritating to the eye. UC-II did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation test in five Salmonella typhimurium strains either with or without metabolic activation. Similarly, UC-II did not induce a mutagenic effect in the gene mutation test in mouse lymphoma cells either with or without metabolic activation. A dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study revealed no pathologically significant changes in selected organ weights individually or as percentages of body or brain weights. No significant changes were observed in hematology and clinical chemistry. Therefore, the results from the current study show a broad-spectrum safety profile of UC-II.

  13. Antidepressants in type II versus type I bipolar depression: A randomized discontinuation trial

    PubMed Central

    Vöhringer, Paul A.; Ostacher, Michael J.; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Holtzman, Niki S.; Thommi, Sairah B.; Whitham, Elizabeth A.; Sullivan, Matthew C.; Baldassano, Claudia F.; Goodwin, Fredrick K.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to test the hypothesis that antidepressants (ADs) may show preferential efficacy and safety among type-II over type-I bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Methods DSM-IV BD-I (n=21) and -II patients (n=49) in acute major depressive episodes were treated with ADs plus mood-stabilizers to euthymia sustained for two months, and then randomized openly to continue or discontinue ADs for up to three years. Outcomes were episode-recurrences and changes in standardized symptom-ratings. Results In follow-up averaging 1.64±0.98 years, both subgroups showed improvement in depressive episode frequency with AD continuation, but contrary to the hypothesis, more improvement was seen in type I than in type II bipolar depression (for type II, mean decrease in depressive episodes per year 0.21 ± 0.26 [CI:0.05, 0.37]; for type I: mean decrease 0.35 ± 0.15 [CI:0.30, 0.41]). Type II subjects continued on ADs had slightly more depressive, but fewer manic/hypomanic, episodes than BD-I subjects. No notable differences were seen in either group in time to a recurrence of mood episodes or total time-in-remission. Conclusions The findings do not confirm the hypothesis that long-term AD treatment in BP-II has better outcomes than in BD-I patients, except somewhat lower risk of manic/hypomanic episodes. PMID:26267418

  14. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE AS STANDARD CANDLES: THE SDSS-II SAMPLE REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Poznanski, Dovi; Nugent, Peter E.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2010-10-01

    We revisit the observed correlation between the H{beta} and Fe II velocities for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) using 28 optical spectra of 13 SNe II-P and demonstrate that it is well modeled by a linear relation with a dispersion of about 300 km s{sup -1}. Using this correlation, we re-analyze the publicly available sample of SNe II-P compiled by D'Andrea et al. and find a Hubble diagram with an intrinsic scatter of 11% in distance, which is nearly as tight as that measured before their sample is added to the existing set. The larger scatter reported in their work is found to be systematic, and most of it can be alleviated by measuring the H{beta} rather than Fe II velocities, due to the low signal-to-noise ratios and early epochs at which many of the optical spectra were obtained. Their sample, while supporting the mounting evidence that SNe II-P are good cosmic rulers, is biased toward intrinsically brighter objects and is not a suitable set to improve upon SN II-P correlation parameters. This will await a dedicated survey.

  15. Control of pulmonary surfactant secretion from type II pneumocytes isolated from the lizard Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    Wood, P G; Lopatko, O V; Orgeig, S; Codd, J R; Daniels, C B

    1999-12-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a mixture consisting of lipids and proteins and secreted by type II cells, functions to reduce the surface tension of the fluid lining of the lung, and thereby decreases the work of breathing. In mammals, surfactant secretion appears to be influenced primarily by the sympathetic nervous system and changes in ventilatory pattern. The parasympathetic nervous system is not believed to affect surfactant secretion in mammals. Very little is known about the factors that control surfactant secretion in nonmammalian vertebrates. Here, a new methodology for the isolation and culture of type II pneumocytes from the lizard Pogona vitticeps is presented. We examined the effects of the major autonomic neurotransmitters, epinephrine (Epi) and ACh, on total phospholipid (PL), disaturated PL (DSP), and cholesterol (Chol) secretion. At 37 degrees C, only Epi stimulated secretion of total PL and DSP from primary cultures of lizard type II cells, and secretion was blocked by the beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol. Neither of the agonists affected Chol secretion. At 18 degrees C, Epi and ACh both stimulated DSP and PL secretion but not Chol secretion. The secretion of surfactant Chol does not appear to be under autonomic control. It appears that the secretion of surfactant PL is predominantly controlled by the autonomic nervous system in lizards. The sympathetic nervous system may control surfactant secretion at high temperatures, whereas the parasympathetic nervous system may predominate at lower body temperatures, stimulating surfactant secretion without elevating metabolic rate.

  16. A universal characteristic of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gopalswamy, N.; MacDowall, R.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2005-12-01

    We present a study on the spectral properties of interplanetary type II radio bursts observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave (WAVES) experiment on board the Wind spacecraft. We investigated the relative bandwidth of the type II radio bursts observed by WAVES from 1997 up to 2003. We obtained three sets of events, based on the frequency domain of occurrence: 109 events in the low-frequency domain (30 KHz to 1000 kHz, detected by the RAD1 receiver), 216 events in the high-frequency domain (1-14 MHz, observed by the RAD2 receiver), and 73 events that spanned both domains (RAD1 and RAD2). Statistical results show that the average bandwidth-to-frequency ratio (BFR) was 0.28 ± 0.15, 0.26 ± 0.16, and 0.32 ± 0.15 for RAD1, RAD2, and RAD1 + RAD2, respectively. We compared our results with those obtained for ISEE-3 type II bursts and found a difference in the average BFR, which seems to be due to a selection effect. The BFR of the WAVES type II bursts is similar to that of metric type II bursts reported in published works. This suggests that the BFR is a universal characteristic, irrespective of the spectral domain. Finally, we also studied the BFR evolution with heliocentric distance using white-light observation of the associated coronal mass ejections. We found that the BFR remains roughly constant in the SOHO/LASCO field of view (i.e., from 2.1 to 32 solar radii), while the bandwidth itself decreases.

  17. Effects of type II thyroplasty on adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji; Minoda, Ryosei; Kodama, Narihiro

    2010-04-01

    Type II thyroplasty, or laryngeal framework surgery, is based on the hypothesis that the effect of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) on the voice is due to excessively tight closure of the glottis, hampering phonation. Most of the previous, partially effective treatments have aimed to relieve this tight closure, including recurrent laryngeal nerve section or avulsion, extirpation of the adductor muscle, and botulinum toxin injection, which is currently the most popular. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of type II thyroplasty on aerodynamic and acoustic findings in patients with AdSD. Case series. University hospital. Ten patients with AdSD underwent type II thyroplasty between August 2006 and December 2008. Aerodynamic and acoustic analyses were performed prior to and six months after surgery. Mean flow rates (MFRs) and voice efficiency were evaluated with a phonation analyzer. Jitter, shimmer, the harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), standard deviation of the fundamental frequency (SDF0), and degree of voice breaks (DVB) were measured from each subject's longest sustained phonation sample of the vowel /a/. Voice efficiency improved significantly after surgery. No significant difference was found in the MFRs between before and after surgery. Jitter, shimmer, HNR, SDF0, and DVB improved significantly after surgery. Treatment of AdSD with type II thyroplasty significantly improved aerodynamic and acoustic findings. The results of this study suggest that type II thyroplasty provides relief from voice strangulation in patients with AdSD. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  19. Energy decay rate of transmission problem between thermoelasticity of type I and type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Han, Zhong-Jie; Xu, Gen-Qi

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the energy decay rate of a 1-d mixed type I and type II thermoelastic system is considered. The system consists of two kinds of thermoelastic components. One is the classical thermoelasticity (so-called type I), another one is nonclassical thermoelasticity without dissipation (named type II). These two components are coupled at the interface satisfying certain transmission condition. We prove that the system is lack of uniform exponential decay rate and further obtain the sharp polynomial decay rate by resolvent estimates together with the diagonalization argument in linear algebra. Moreover, we present some numerical simulations to support these theoretical results.

  20. SPECTRA OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES AND RELATED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E. G.; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: drogall1@bigred.unl.edu

    2011-02-15

    We present low-resolution spectra for variable stars in the Cepheid period range from the ROTSE-I Demonstration Project and the All Sky Automated Survey, some of which were previously identified as type II Cepheid candidates. We have derived effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities from the spectra. Based on this, three types of variables were identified: Cepheid strip stars, cool stars that lie along the red subgiant and giant branch, and cool main-sequence stars. Many fewer type II Cepheids were found than expected and most have amplitudes less than 0.4 mag. The cool variables include many likely binaries as well as intrinsic variables. Variation among the main-sequence stars is likely to be mostly due to binarity or stellar activity.

  1. Gain spectroscopy of a type-II VECSEL chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, C.; Stein, M.; Berger, C.; Möller, C.; Fuchs, C.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Koch, M.

    2016-12-01

    Using optical pump-white light probe spectroscopy, the gain dynamics is investigated for a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser chip, which is based on a type-II heterostructure. The active region of the chip consists of a GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs multiple quantum well. For this structure, a fully microscopic theory predicts a modal room temperature gain at a wavelength of 1170 nm, which is confirmed by the experimental spectra. The results show a gain buildup on the type-II chip that is delayed relative to that of a type-I chip. This slower gain dynamics is attributed to a diminished cooling rate arising from the reduced electron-hole scattering.

  2. Intrafibrillar Mineral May be Absent in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II (DI-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A.

    2001-03-29

    High-resolution synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were performed on normal and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) teeth. Three normal and three DI-II human third molars were used in this study. The normal molars were unerupted and had intact enamel; donors were female and ranged in age from 18-21y. The DI-II specimens, which were also unerupted with intact enamel, came from a single female donor age 20y. SRCT showed that the mineral concentration was 33% lower on average in the DI-II dentin with respect to normal dentin. The SAXS spectra from normal dentin exhibited low-angle diffraction peaks at harmonics of 67.6 nm, consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within gaps in the collagen fibrils (intrafibrillar mineralization). In contrast, the low-angle peaks were almost nonexistent in the DI-II dentin. Crystallite thickness was independent of location in both DI-II and normal dentin, although the crystallites were significantly thicker in DI-II dentin (6.8 nm (s.d. = 0.5) vs 5.1 nm (s.d. = 0.6)). The shape factor of the crystallites, as determined by SAXS, showed a continuous progression in normal dentin from roughly one-dimensional (needle-like) near the pulp to two-dimensional (plate-like) near the dentin-enamel junction. The crystallites in DI-II dentin, on the other hand, remained needle-like throughout. The above observations are consistent with an absence of intrafibrillar mineral in DI-II dentin.

  3. A new method for correcting type I and type II constricted (cup and lop) ears.

    PubMed

    Xiaogeng, Hu; Hongxing, Zhuang; Qinghua, Yang; Haiyue, Jiang; Yanyong, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Tanzer suggested the term "constricted ear," denoting a spectrum of deformities limited to the superior third of the ear. Tanzer classified the constricted ear into three types. Type I ears have involvement of the helix, which usually is flattened. Type II ears show involvement of both the helix and the scapha. With type III ears, the auricle is rolled into a nearly tubular form that some authors regard as a form of microtia. The authors' new method for correcting the constricted ear varies in accordance with the diverse degree of deformity. The new method was used to correct constricted ears through a one-stage operation in eight type I cases. For the remaining six type 2 cases, the methods were combined with composite grafting. Most of the patients were satisfied with the final results. Therefore, the authors conclude that their approach is suitable for the treatment of type I and type II constricted ears.

  4. The Prevalence and Extent of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Correlates to the Type of Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fisichella, Piero Marco; Davis, Christopher S.; Shankaran, Vidya; Gagermeier, James; Dilling, Daniel; Alex, Charles G.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Joehl, Raymond J.; Love, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence is increasingly convincing that lung transplantation is a risk factor of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, it is still not known if the type of lung transplant (unilateral, bilateral, or retransplant) plays a role in the pathogenesis of GERD. Study Design The records of 61 lung transplant patients who underwent esophageal function tests between September 2008 and May 2010, were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were divided into 3 groups based on the type of lung transplant they received: unilateral (n=25); bilateral (n=30), and retransplant (n=6). Among these groups we compared: (1) the demographic characteristics (eg, sex, age, race, and body mass index); (2) the presence of Barrett esophagus, delayed gastric emptying, and hiatal hernia; and (3) the esophageal manometric and pH-metric profile. Results Distal and proximal reflux were more prevalent in patients with bilateral transplant or retransplant and less prevalent in patients after unilateral transplant, regardless of the cause of their lung disease. The prevalence of hiatal hernia, Barrett esophagus, and the manometric profile were similar in all groups of patients. Conclusions Although our data show a discrepancy in prevalence of GERD in patients with different types of lung transplantation, we cannot determine the exact cause for these findings from this study. We speculate that the extent of dissection during the transplant places the patients at risk for GERD. On the basis of the results of this study, a higher level of suspicion of GERD should be held in patients after bilateral or retransplantation. PMID:22318059

  5. HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome types II and III.

    PubMed

    Flesch, B K; Matheis, N; Alt, T; Weinstock, C; Bux, J; Kahaly, G J

    2014-01-01

    Genetics of the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the genetics of the adult APS types. SITE: The study was conducted at a university referral center. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were determined in a large cohort of patients with APS, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and type 1 diabetes and in healthy controls by the consistent application of high-resolution typing at a four-digit level. Comparison of the allele and haplotype frequencies significantly discriminated patients with APS vs AITD and controls. The HLA class II alleles DRB1*03:01 *04:01, DQA1*03:01, *05:01, DQB1*02:01, and *03:02 were observed more frequently (P<.001) in APS than in AITD and controls, whereas the alleles DRB1*15:01, DQB1*03:01, and *06:02 were underrepresented in APS vs AITD (Pc<.001) and controls (Pc<.01), respectively. The DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (DR3-DQ2) and DRB1*04:01-DQA1*03:01:DQB1*03:02 (DRB1*04:01-DQ8) haplotypes were overrepresented in APS (Pc<.001). Combination of both haplotypes to a genotype was highly prevalent in APS vs AITD and controls (Pc<.001). Dividing the APS collective into those with Addison's disease (APS type II) and those without Addison's disease but including type 1 diabetes and AITD (APS type III) demonstrated DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:01-DQ8 as a susceptibility genotype in APS III (Pc<.001), whereas the DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:04-DQ8 genotype correlated with APS II (Pc<.001). The haplotypes DRB1*11:01-DQA1*05:05-DQB1*03:01 and DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 are protective in APS III but not in type II (Pc<.01). HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult APS types II and III. Susceptible haplotypes favor the development of polyglandular autoimmunity in patients with AITD.

  6. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  7. Angiotensin-(1-7) Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth and Angiogenesis via Complex Interactions of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor, Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Mas Receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Li, Bin; Wang, Ximing; Li, Guishuang; Shang, Rui; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yuguo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Cheng; Hao, Panpan

    2015-07-27

    We recently confirmed that angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue using a murine hepatoma model. Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) has been found beneficial in ameliorating lung cancer and prostate cancer. Which receptor of Ang-(1-7) is activated to mediate its effects is much speculated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) on hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the probable mechanisms. H22 hepatoma-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups for treatment: mock group, low-dose Ang-(1-7), high-dose Ang-(1-7), high-dose Ang-(1-7) + A779 and high-dose Ang-(1-7) + PD123319. Ang-(1-7) treatment inhibited tumor growth time- and dose-dependently by arresting tumor proliferation and promoting tumor apoptosis as well as inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. The effects of Ang-(1-7) on tumor proliferation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration with A779 or PD123319, whereas the effects on tumor angiogenesis were completely reversed by A779 but not by PD123319. Moreover, Ang-(1-7) downregulated AT1R mRNA, upregulated mRNA levels of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and Mas receptor (MasR) and p38-MAPK phosphorylation and suppressed H22 cell-endothelial cell communication. Thus, Ang-(1-7) administration suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma via complex interactions of AT1R, AT2R and MasR and may provide a novel and promising approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Angiotensin-(1–7) Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth and Angiogenesis via Complex Interactions of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor, Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Mas Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanping; Li, Bin; Wang, Ximing; Li, Guishuang; Shang, Rui; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yuguo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Cheng; Hao, Panpan

    2015-01-01

    We recently confirmed that angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue using a murine hepatoma model. Angiotensin(Ang)-(1–7) has been found beneficial in ameliorating lung cancer and prostate cancer. Which receptor of Ang-(1–7) is activated to mediate its effects is much speculated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ang-(1–7) on hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the probable mechanisms. H22 hepatoma-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups for treatment: mock group, low-dose Ang-(1–7), high-dose Ang-(1–7), high-dose Ang-(1–7) + A779 and high-dose Ang-(1–7) + PD123319. Ang-(1–7) treatment inhibited tumor growth time- and dose-dependently by arresting tumor proliferation and promoting tumor apoptosis as well as inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. The effects of Ang-(1–7) on tumor proliferation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration with A779 or PD123319, whereas the effects on tumor angiogenesis were completely reversed by A779 but not by PD123319. Moreover, Ang-(1–7) downregulated AT1R mRNA, upregulated mRNA levels of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and Mas receptor (MasR) and p38-MAPK phosphorylation and suppressed H22 cell–endothelial cell communication. Thus, Ang-(1–7) administration suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma via complex interactions of AT1R, AT2R and MasR and may provide a novel and promising approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26225830

  9. Refined genetic and physical mapping of BPES type II.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, L; Leroy, B P; De Bie, S; De Pauw, K; Van Roy, N; Speleman, F; Van Camp, G; De Paepe, A

    1996-01-01

    BPES is a genetic disorder including blepharophimosis, ptosis of the eyelids, epicanthus inversus and telecanthus. Type I is associated with female infertility, whereas type II presents without other symptoms. Both types I and II occur sporadically or are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. We present a molecular genetic and cytogenetic study in a large four-generation Belgian family with BPES type II. Karyotype analysis on high-resolution banded chromosomes yielded normal results. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid probes spanning 3q22-q24 revealed normal hybridization patterns. Sixteen polymorphic CA repeats encompassing region 3q13-q25 were analysed. Linkage analysis in this large four-generation family provides conclusive evidence for the presence of a BPES gene in this region. Two-point lod scores greater than 3.0 between the disease and the following markers were seen: D3S1589 (4.67), D3S1292 (3.52), D3S1290 (3.59) and D3S1549 (3.65). By FISH, D3S1290, D3S1292 and D3S1549 were assigned to chromosome 3q23 using YACs positive for these markers.

  10. Type II restriction endonucleases—a historical perspective and more

    PubMed Central

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss ‘Type II’ REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures. PMID:24878924

  11. On the nature of rapidly fading Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Pruzhinskaya, Maria V.; Ergon, Mattias; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that Type II supernovae with rapidly fading light curves (a.k.a. Type IIL supernovae) are explosions of progenitors with low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes which are of the order of 1 M⊙. We investigate light-curve properties of supernovae from such progenitors. We confirm that such progenitors lead to rapidly fading Type II supernovae. We find that the luminosity of supernovae from such progenitors with the canonical explosion energy of 1051 erg and 56Ni mass of 0.05 M⊙ can increase temporarily shortly before all the hydrogen in the envelope recombines. As a result, a bump appears in their light curves. The bump appears because the heating from the nuclear decay of 56Ni can keep the bottom of hydrogen-rich layers in the ejecta ionized, and thus the photosphere can stay there for a while. We find that the light-curve bump becomes less significant when we make explosion energy larger (≳2 × 1051 erg), 56Ni mass smaller (≲0.01 M⊙), 56Ni mixed in the ejecta, or the progenitor radius larger. Helium mixing in hydrogen-rich layers makes the light-curve decline rates large but does not help reducing the light-curve bump. Because the light-curve bump we found in our light-curve models has not been observed in rapidly fading Type II supernovae, they may be characterized by not only low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes but also higher explosion energy, larger degrees of 56Ni mixing, and/or larger progenitor radii than slowly fading Type II supernovae, so that the light-curve bump does not become significant.

  12. The Use of Transvaginal Ultrasound in Type II Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Caroline C; Kenne, Kimberly A; Cansino, Catherine D; Backes, Floor J; Cohn, David E; O'Malley, David M; Copeland, Larry J; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Salani, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    To determine the use of the transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) in postmenopausal women with type II endometrial cancer. A retrospective review was conducted for 173 women with pathology proven type II endometrial cancer at a single institution. Those who underwent preoperative TVUS were included, and the following data were obtained: endometrial stripe (EMS) measurement, uterine and/or adnexal findings, and uterine size/volume. Clinicopathologic factors were abstracted. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. Fifty-eight women comprised the cohort, and the median age was 66.5 years (50-85 years). The most commonly reported symptom was postmenopausal bleeding in 53 patients (91.4%). The EMS was reported as thin (≤ 5 mm) or indistinct in 16 patients (27.5%). Approximately 60% of patients had 1 or more ultrasound abnormalities: intracavitary mass (31%), intracavitary fluid (12.1%), myometrial lesion (31.03%), and adnexal mass (12.1%). Poorly differentiated endometrioid cancer (53.45%) represented the predominant histology. Of the 16 (27.5%) women with a thin/indistinct EMS, 5 women (8.6%) did not have any abnormal ultrasound findings whatsoever. Women with type II endometrial cancer had a thin/indistinct EMS on TVUS in approximately 25% of cases. Lack of any ultrasound abnormality, including a thickened EMS, was noted in approximately 10% of patients. The use of TVUS, which has been of value in type I cancer, is limited in type II endometrial cancer. Therefore, endometrial sampling should be included in the evaluation of all women with postmenopausal bleeding, regardless of EMS thickness.

  13. Post treatment surveillance of type II endometrial cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zakhour, Mae; Li, Andrew J; Walsh, Christine S; Cass, Ilana; Karlan, Beth Y; Rimel, B J

    2013-12-01

    There are few studies analyzing surveillance for Type II endometrial cancer recurrence. Our objective was to determine the types of post treatment surveillance tests performed in our institution and the efficacy of these tests in detecting recurrence in type II endometrial cancer patients. One hundred and thirty six cases of type II endometrial cancers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center from January of 2000 to August of 2011 were identified and 106 patients met inclusion criteria. Medical charts were reviewed for surveillance methods and number of follow up visits. For patients who underwent a recurrence of disease, the surveillance method utilized for detection was documented. Forty-seven of the 106 (44%) patients developed recurrence with a mean progression free interval of 11 months. All patients had a history and physical at each surveillance visit, 78% had Pap testing, 57% had CA-125 levels drawn, 59% had CT (computed tomography) scans done, 6% had PET (positron emission tomography) scans done for surveillance. In our cohort, recurrence was detected by symptoms in 16, by CA-125 in 11, by physical exam in 7, by CT scan in 12, and by PET scan in one patient. No patients had recurrence detected by vaginal cytology. Although performed in the majority of patients, Pap testing did not detect any recurrences within this cohort. History and physical exam detected the most recurrences. These findings suggest that educating patients about relevant symptoms and performing thorough follow-up exams may be the most important aspects of detecting type II endometrial cancer recurrence. © 2013.

  14. Acrylamide-induced carcinogenicity in mouse lung involves mutagenicity: cII gene mutations in the lung of big blue mice exposed to acrylamide and glycidamide for up to 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Guo, Li-Wu; Shelton, Sharon D; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-06-01

    Potential health risks for humans from exposure to acrylamide (AA) and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide (GA) have garnered much attention lately because substantial amounts of AA are present in a variety of fried and baked starchy foods. AA is tumorigenic in rodents, and a large number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that AA is genotoxic. A recent cancer bioassay on AA demonstrated that the lung was one of the target organs for tumor induction in mice; however, the mutagenicity of AA in this tissue is unclear. Therefore, to investigate whether or not gene mutation is involved in the etiology of AA- or GA-induced mouse lung carcinogenicity, we screened for cII mutant frequency (MF) in lungs from male and female Big Blue (BB) mice administered 0, 1.4, and 7.0 mM AA or GA in drinking water for up to 4 weeks (19-111 mg/kg bw/days). Both doses of AA and GA produced significant increases in cII MFs, with the high doses producing responses 2.7-5.6-fold higher than the corresponding controls (P ≤ 0.05; control MFs = 17.2 ± 2.2 and 15.8 ± 3.5 × 10(-6) in males and females, respectively). Molecular analysis of the mutants from high doses indicated that AA and GA produced similar mutation spectra and that these spectra were significantly different from the spectra in control mice (P ≤ 0.01). The predominant types of mutations in the lung cII gene from AA- and GA-treated mice were A:T → T:A, and G:C → C:G transversions, and -1/+1 frameshifts at a homopolymeric run of Gs. The MFs and types of mutations induced by AA and GA in the lung are consistent with AA exerting its genotoxicity via metabolism to GA. These results suggest that AA is a mutagenic carcinogen in mouse lungs and therefore further studies on its potential health risk to humans are warranted. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:446-456, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparison of Chromosome 4 gene expression profile between lung telocytes and other local cell types.

    PubMed

    Song, Dongli; Cretoiu, Dragos; Zheng, Minghuan; Qian, Mengjia; Zhang, Miaomiao; Cretoiu, Sanda M; Chen, Luonan; Fang, Hao; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Wang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are new cellular entities of mesenchymal origin described almost ubiquitously in human and mammalian organs (www.telocytes.com). Different subtypes of TCs were described, all forming networks in the interstitial space by homo- and heterocellular junctions. Previous studies analysed the gene expression profiles of chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 17 and 18 of murine pulmonary TCs. In this study, we analysed by bioinformatics tools the gene expression profiles of chromosome 4 for murine pulmonary TCs and compared it with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblasts (Fbs), alveolar type II cells (ATII), airway basal cells, proximal airway cells, CD8(+) T cells from bronchial lymph nodes (T-BL) and CD8(+) T cells from lungs (T-L). Key functional genes were identified with the aid of the reference library of the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database. Seventeen genes were up-regulated and 56 genes were down-regulated in chromosome 4 of TCs compared with other cells. Four genes (Akap2, Gpr153, Sdc3 and Tbc1d2) were up-regulated between one and fourfold and one gene, Svep1, was overexpressed over fourfold. The main functional networks were identified and analysed, pointing out to a TCs involvement in cellular signalling, regulation of tissue inflammation and cell expansion and movement.

  16. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  17. Regulation of the angiotensin II-p22phox-reactive oxygen species signaling pathway, apoptosis and 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 retrieval in hyperoxia-induced lung injury and fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Yuxi; Zhu, Yudi; Lu, Zhongyi; Xu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the impact of hyperoxia on lung injury and fibrosis via the angiotensin II (AngII)-p22phox-reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathway, apoptosis and 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) repair enzyme. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided in the newborn air group, newborn hyperoxia group and newborn intervention group, the latter of which was administered the chymotrypsin inhibitor, 2-(5-formylamino-6-oxo-2-phenyl-1, 6-dihydropyrimidine-1-yl)-N-[4-dioxo-1-phenyl-7-(2-pyridyloxy)] 2-heptyl-acetamide (NK3201). A group of adult rats also received hyperoxic treatment. Histomorphological changes in lung tissues were dynamically observed. AngII, ROS, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and p22phox messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, and OGG1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) protein levels in the lung tissues were detected at various times after hyperoxia. Hyperoxia led to traumatic changes in the lungs of newborn rats that resulted in decreased viability, increased mortality, morphological changes and the apoptosis of alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT-II), as well as increased expression levels of AngII, AT1R and p22phox, which would ultimately lead to secondary diseases. NK3201 significantly inhibited the hyperoxia-induced increased expression of AngII, AT1R and p22phox and further promoted OGG1 and PPARγ protein expression, thus reducing the intrapulmonary ROS level, the apoptotic index and caspase-3 levels. However, the adult hyperoxia group only exhibited tachypnea and reduced viability. This study suggested that the AngII-p22phox-ROS signaling pathway, PPARγ and OGG1 together contributed to the hyperoxia-induced lung injury and that NK3201 was able to reverse the effects of hyperoxia. PMID:28587419

  18. A phase II study of pemetrexed monotherapy in chemo-naïve Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 2 patients with EGFR wild-type or unknown advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (HANSHIN Oncology Group 002).

    PubMed

    Hata, Akito; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Shiro; Nanjo, Shigeki; Takeshita, Jumpei; Tanaka, Kosuke; Kaneda, Toshihiko; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Nishimura, Takashi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Morita, Satoshi; Urata, Yoshiko; Negoro, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed monotherapy in chemo-naïve Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) 2 patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type or unknown advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed was administered at 500 mg/m(2) triweekly until progression with supplementations in chemo-naïve ECOG PS 2 patients with EGFR wild-type or unknown advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Between September 2009 and April 2013, twenty-eight patients were enrolled. Median age was 75 (range 59-89). Nineteen (68 %) of 28 were ever smoker, and 18 (64 %) had pulmonary emphysema. Sixteen (57 %) had comorbidities such as hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes. In 26 eligible patients, the overall response rate, disease control rate, median PFS, and median overall survival were 11.5, 53.8 %, 3.0 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.9-5.7] months and 9.5 (95 % CI 3.3-12.5) months, respectively. Median administered course number was 3 (range 1-14). Median duration of PS maintenance ≤2 was 4.9 (95 % CI 1.3-9.7) months. Common (≥10 %) grade 3/4 toxicities included 7 (27 %) neutropenia, 7 (27 %) leukopenia, 4 (15 %) fatigue, and 3 (12 %) thrombocytopenia. Febrile neutropenia and interstitial lung disease were not observed. There were no treatment-related deaths. Pemetrexed monotherapy demonstrated moderate efficacy and good safety in chemo-naïve PS 2 patients with EGFR wild-type or unknown non-squamous NSCLC. It can be a therapeutic option in "frail" PS 2 non-squamous NSCLC patients without the indication of combination regimens, if the patient is EGFR wild-type.

  19. Variable stretch pattern enhances surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Arold, Stephen P; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2009-04-01

    Secretion of pulmonary surfactant that maintains low surface tension within the lung is primarily mediated by mechanical stretching of alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells. We have shown that guinea pigs ventilated with random variations in frequency and tidal volume had significantly larger pools of surfactant in the lung than animals ventilated in a monotonous manner. Here, we test the hypothesis that variable stretch patterns imparted on the AEII cells results in enhanced surfactant secretion. AEII cells isolated from rat lungs were exposed to equibiaxial strains of 12.5, 25, or 50% change in surface area (DeltaSA) at 3 cycles/min for 15, 30, or 60 min. (3)H-labeled phosphatidylcholine release and cell viability were measured 60 min following the onset of stretch. Whereas secretion increased following 15-min stretch at 50% DeltaSA and 30-min stretch at 12.5% DeltaSA, 60 min of cyclic stretch diminished surfactant secretion regardless of strain. When cells were stretched using a variable strain profile in which the amplitude of each stretch was randomly pulled from a uniform distribution, surfactant secretion was enhanced both at 25 and 50% mean DeltaSA with no additional cell injury. Furthermore, at 50% mean DeltaSA, there was an optimum level of variability that maximized secretion implying that mechanotransduction in these cells exhibits a phenomenon similar to stochastic resonance. These results suggest that application of variable stretch may enhance surfactant secretion, possibly reducing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. Variable stretch-induced mechanotransduction may also have implications for other areas of mechanobiology.

  20. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  1. Characteristics of Type-II Radio Bursts Associated with Flares and CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanth, V.; Umapathy, S.; Vršnak, Bojan; Anna Lakshmi, M.

    2011-10-01

    We present a statistical study of the characteristics of type-II radio bursts observed in the metric (m) and deca-hectometer (DH) wavelength range during 1997-2008. The collected events are divided into two groups: Group I contains the events of m-type-II bursts with starting frequency ≥ 100 MHz, and group II contains the events with starting frequency of m-type-II radio bursts < 100 MHz. We have analyzed both samples considering three different aspects: i) statistical properties of type-II bursts, ii) statistical properties of flares and CMEs associated with type-II bursts, and iii) time delays between type-II bursts, flares, and CMEs. We find significant differences in the properties of m-type-II bursts in duration, bandwidth, drift rate, shock speed and delay between m- and DH-type-II bursts. From the timing analysis we found that the majority of m-type-II bursts in both groups occur during the flare impulsive phase. On the other hand, the DH-type-II bursts in both groups occur during the decaying phase of the associated flares. Almost all m-DH-type-II bursts are found to be associated with CMEs. Our results indicate that there are two kinds of shock in which group I (high frequency) m-type-II bursts seem to be ignited by flares whereas group II (low frequency) m-type-II bursts are CME-driven.

  2. Changing trends in incidence of lung cancer by histological type in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Medenica, Milić; Medenica, Miras; Bojović, Olivera; Soldatović, Ivan; Durutović, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms, as well as the most common cause of death cancer. Most lung cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, small cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Examining changes in trends of lung cancer incidence in Montenegro by histological type during a 15-year period, from 1997 to 2011. During the study period, histopathological confirmation was obtained for all primary lung cancer cases in the only hospital for lung diseases in the country. Based on the data from medical records, patients were classified by time period, sex, age groups and smoking history. Descriptive method was used. Ratio between incidences of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma changes in males, with a significant increase in the incidence rate of adenocarcinoma and drop in the rate of squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0.001). In addition, statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the incidence of NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) and an increase in the incidence of SCLC (small cell lung cancer) was found. A statistically significant increase in linear trend in the incidence of small cell carcinoma was noted in females (p < 0.005). Incidence rates of adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma have increased during the study period.

  3. Double impact of cigarette smoke and mechanical ventilation on the alveolar epithelial type II cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) impacts clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is characterized by neutrophil-mediated inflammation and loss of alveolar barrier function. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that smoking may be a risk factor for the development of ARDS. Because alveolar type II cells are central to maintaining the alveolar epithelial barrier during oxidative stress, mediated in part by neutrophilic inflammation and mechanical ventilation, we hypothesized that exposure to cigarette smoke and mechanical strain have interactive effects leading to the activation of and damage to alveolar type II cells. Methods To determine if cigarette smoke increases susceptibility to VILI in vivo, a clinically relevant rat model was established. Rats were exposed to three research cigarettes per day for two weeks. After this period, some rats were mechanically ventilated for 4 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and differential cell count was done and alveolar type II cells were isolated. Proteomic analysis was performed on the isolated alveolar type II cells to discover alterations in cellular pathways at the protein level that might contribute to injury. Effects on levels of proteins in pathways associated with innate immunity, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in alveolar type II cell lysates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical comparisons were performed by t-tests, and the results were corrected for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate. Results Tobacco smoke exposure increased airspace neutrophil influx in response to mechanical ventilation. The combined exposure to cigarette smoke and mechanical ventilation significantly increased BAL neutrophil count and protein content. Neutrophils were significantly higher after smoke exposure and ventilation than after ventilation alone. DNA fragments were significantly elevated in alveolar type II cells. Smoke exposure did not

  4. Exploring Type I and Type II Errors Using Rhizopus Sporangia Diameter Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Burns, Gerard; Freud, Brian; Fenning, Stacy; Hoffman, Rosemary; Sabapathi, Durai

    2000-01-01

    Presents exercises in which students can explore Type I and Type II errors using sporangia diameter measurements as a means of differentiating between two species. Examines the influence of sample size and significance level on the outcome of the analysis. (SAH)

  5. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 controls who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17–1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99–1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89–2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62–5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for non-small cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11–4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. PMID:24615328

  6. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).

    PubMed

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-10-15

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 control who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10-1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99-1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89-2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62-5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for nonsmall cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. © 2014 UICC.

  7. Horizontal Visibility graphs generated by type-II intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Ángel M.; Lacasa, Lucas; Patricio Gómez, Jose

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we study the onset of chaos via type-II intermittency within the framework of Horizontal Visibility graph theory. We construct graphs associated to time series generated by an iterated map close to a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation and study, both numerically and analytically, their main topological properties. We find well defined equivalences between the main statistical properties of intermittent series (scaling of laminar trends and Lyapunov exponent) and those of the resulting graphs, and accordingly construct a graph-theoretical description of type-II intermittency. We finally recast this theory into a graph-theoretical renormalization group (RG) framework, and show that the fixed point structure of RG flow diagram separates regular, critical and chaotic dynamics.

  8. UBVRIz Light Curves of 51 Type II Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, Lluís; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; de Jaeger, Thomas; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Krzeminski, Wojtek; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón; Anguita, Claudio; Galaz, Gaspar; Green, Elisabeth M.; Impey, Chris; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Kirhakos, Sofia; Malkan, Mathew A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Pizzella, Alessandro; Prosser, Charles F.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Schommer, Robert A.; Sherry, William; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wells, Lisa A.; Williger, Gerard M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986-2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C&T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  9. New insights into bacterial type II polyketide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuan; Pan, Hai-Xue; Tang, Gong-Li

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides, exemplified by anthracyclines, angucyclines, tetracyclines, and pentangular polyphenols, are a large family of natural products with diverse structures and biological activities and are usually biosynthesized by type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). Since the starting point of biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis in 1984–1985, there has been a continuous effort to investigate the biosynthetic logic of aromatic polyketides owing to the urgent need of developing promising therapeutic candidates from these compounds. Recently, significant advances in the structural and mechanistic identification of enzymes involved in aromatic polyketide biosynthesis have been made on the basis of novel genetic, biochemical, and chemical technologies. This review highlights the progress in bacterial type II PKSs in the past three years (2013–2016). Moreover, novel compounds discovered or created by genome mining and biosynthetic engineering are also included. PMID:28299197

  10. Multicolor Oservations of the Type II Cepheid Prototype W Virginis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Henden, A. A.; Crawford, T.; James, R.; Bonnardeau, M.; Wells, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the AAVSO's six-month photometric campaign on the bright, pulsating variable star W Virginis, class prototype of the Type II Cepheid variables. This campaign was organized in support of separate spectroscopic observations (Wallerstein et al., in preparation), but these photometric data also stand alone as a valuable, recent, multicolor light curve of this object. Observations were obtained by several amateur and professional observers using a variety of equipment; data are primarily in the V filter, but include two complete pulsation cycles in the BVRcIc filters. We present lightand color-curves of this star, and compare our results to previous observational and theoretical results on W Vir and the Type II Cepheids.

  11. On the Covariant Quantization of Type II Superstrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Sebastian; Knapp, Johanna; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2004-06-01

    In a series of papers Grassi, Policastro, Porrati and van Nieuwenhuizen have introduced a new method to covariantly quantize the GS-superstring by constructing a resolution of the pure spinor constraint of Berkovits' approach. Their latest version is based on a gauged WZNW model and a definition of physical states in terms of relative cohomology groups. We first put the off-shell formulation of the type-II version of their ideas into a chirally split form and directly construct the free action of the gauged WZNW model, thus circumventing some complications of the super group manifold approach to type-II. Then we discuss the BRST charges that define the relative cohomology and the N=2 superconformal algebra. A surprising result is that nilpotency of the BRST charge requires the introduction of another quartet of ghosts.

  12. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  13. Type II Quasars among Z>4 Strong Lyman Alpha Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2002-09-01

    Strong Lyman-alpha emission is expected both from primordial galaxies and from the type II quasars required to explain the hard x-ray background. We have identified ~300 Ly-alpha sources at redshifts 4.5 and 5.7. About 60% of these show rest equivalent widths >200 Angstrom, which requires active nuclei, or extreme populations of massive stars. Our Ly-alpha survey (LALA) is a unique resource for determining the space density of type II quasars at high z efficiently. The large fields of ACIS and LALA will allow us to observe 60 ly-alpha emitters, including the brightest narrow line Ly-alpha emitter with EW=660. This will have implications for composition of the X-ray background, background radiation at other wavelengths, and structure formation (stars vs black holes) in the early universe.

  14. Modeling tools for design of type-II superlattice photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Carl; Marcks von Würtemberg, Rickard; Höglund, Linda

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a range of modeling tools that are used in the design and performance evaluation of type-II superlattice detectors. Among these is an optical and photo carrier transport model for the spectral total external QE, which takes into account carrier diffusion length. Using this model, the diffusion length is extracted from external quantum efficiency measurements. It can also be used to fine-tune an optical cavity in relation to the wavelength range of interest for optimal quantum efficiency. Furthermore, an electrical device model for band bending, dark current and doping optimization is described. The modeling tools are discussed and examples of their use are given for MWIR type-II detectors based on InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices.

  15. THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Olluri, Kosovare

    2012-02-20

    We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

  16. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; Krisciunas, Kevin; Krzeminski, Wojtek; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón; and others

    2016-02-15

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  17. Closed Timelike Curves in Type II Non-Vacuum Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Faizuddin

    2017-02-01

    Here we present a cyclicly symmetric non-vacuum spacetime, admitting closed timelike curves (CTCs) which appear after a certain instant of time, i.e., a time-machine spacetime. The spacetime is asymptotically flat, free-from curvature singularities and a four-dimensional extension of the Misner space in curved spacetime. The spacetime is of type II in the Petrov classification scheme and the matter field pure radiation satisfy the energy condition.

  18. Classification of SN2005dj, a Type II Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, N.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Sauge, L.; Smadja, G.; Antilogus, P.; Garavini, G.; Gilles, S.; Pain, R.; Aldering, G.; Bailey, S.; Lee, B. C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Scalzo, R.; Thomas, R. C.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B. A.; Bonnaud, C.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.

    2005-08-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory reports that a spectrum (range 320-1000 nm) of SN 2005dj (IAUC#8585), obtained August 19.6 UT with the Supernova Integral Field Spectrograph on the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope, reveals P-Cygni H-alpha and H-beta, indicative of a Type II supernova. The observed redshift is consistent with that of the host UGC 3545 (z = 0.011508, Huchtmeier & Skillman 1998 via NED).

  19. Study of interacting CMEs and DH type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Subramanian, S.; Shanmugaraju, A.

    2013-04-01

    The subject of interaction between the Corona Mass Ejections (CMEs) is important in the concept of space-weather studies. In this paper, we analyzed a set of 15 interacting events taken from the list compiled by Manoharan et al. (in J. Geophys. Res. 109:A06109, 2004) and their associated DH type II radio bursts. The pre and primary CMEs, and their associated DH type II bursts are identified using the SOHO/LASCO catalog and Wind/WAVES catalog, respectively. All the primary CMEs are associated with shocks and interplanetary CMEs. These CMEs are found to be preceded by secondary slow CMEs. Most of primary CMEs are halo type CME and much faster (Mean speed = 1205 km s-1) than the pre CME (Mean speed = 450 km s-1). The average delay between the pre and primary CMEs, drift rate of DH type IIs and interaction height are found to be 211 min, 0.878 kHz/s and 17.87 Ro, respectively. The final observed distance (FOD) of all pre CMEs are found to be less than 15 Ro and it is seen that many of the pre CMEs got merged with the primary CMEs, and, they were not traced as separate CMEs in the LASCO field of view. Some radio signatures are identified for these events in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction. The interaction height obtained from the height-time plots of pre and primary CMEs is found to have correlations with (i) the time delay between the two CMEs and (ii) the central frequency of emission in the radio signatures in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction. The centre frequency of emission in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction seems to decrease when the interaction height increases. This result is compared with an interplanetary density model of Saito et al. (in Solar Phys. 55:121, 1977).

  20. Amplification of Type II Cadherins in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Teresa L. Johnson-Pais. The incidence of prostate cancer continues to rise. One in six men is diagnosed with prostate cancer , which accounts for 30,000...used for the early detection of prostate cancer , however, a prevalence of prostate cancer was recently reported in men with “normal” PSA levels...TITLE: Amplification of Type II Cadherins in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Teresa L. Johnson-Pais, Ph.D

  1. Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.

  2. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  3. Type III intermediate filament peripherin inhibits neuritogenesis in type II spiral ganglion neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Meagan; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Ryan, Allen F.; Housley, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Peripherin, a type III intermediate filament protein, forms part of the cytoskeleton in a subset of neurons, most of which have peripheral fibre projections. Studies suggest a role for peripherin in axon outgrowth and regeneration, but evidence for this in sensory and brain tissues is limited. The exclusive expression of peripherin in a sub-population of primary auditory neurons, the type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) prompted our investigation of the effect of peripherin gene deletion (pphKO) on these neurons. We used confocal immunofluorescence to examine the establishment of the innervation of the cochlear outer hair cells by the type II SGN neurites in vivo and in vitro, in wildtype (WT) and pphKO mice, in the first postnatal week. The distribution of the type II SGN nerve fibres was normal in pphKO cochleae. However, using P1 spiral ganglion explants under culture conditions where the majority of neurites were derived from type II SGN, pphKO resulted in increased numbers of neurites/explant compared WT controls. Type II SGN neurites from pphKO explants extended ~ double the distance of WT neurites, and had reduced complexity based on greater distance between turning points. Addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the culture media increased neurite number in WT and KO explants ~30-fold, but did not affect neurite length or distance between turning. These results indicate that peripherin may interact with other cytoskeletal elements to regulate outgrowth of the peripheral neurites of type II SGN, distinguishing these neurons from the type I SGN innervating the inner hair cells. PMID:20132868

  4. Neurologic injury because of trauma after type II odontoid nonunion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Dibra, Florian; Anderson, D Greg; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Harrop, James S; Albert, Todd J; Radcliff, Kristen E

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of Type II odontoid fractures remains controversial, whereas nonoperative treatment is well accepted for isolated Type III odontoid fractures. Little is known about long-term sequelae of nonoperative management or risk of recurrent injury after nonsurgical treatment. We hypothesize that a substantial proportion of odontoid fractures assumed to be acute are actually chronic injuries and have a high rate of late displacement resulting in neurologic injury. To identify patients presenting with previously unrecognized odontoid fracture nonunions and to document the incidence of new neurologic injury after secondary trauma in this population. Retrospective case series. One hundred thirty-three patients with Type II odontoid fractures presenting to a Level I trauma center. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, American Spinal Injury Association Motor Score (AMS), and neurologic examination. All patients presenting after traumatic injury to a Level I trauma center from May 2005 to May 2010 with a Type II odontoid fracture on CT scan were included. Patients aged less than 18 years and those with pathologic fractures were excluded. Fractures were classified as chronic or acute based on CT evidence of chronic injury/nonunion including fracture resorption, sclerosis, and cyst formation. Magnetic resonance imaging was then examined for evidence of fracture acuity (increased signal in C2 on T2 images). Patients without evidence of acute fracture on MRI were considered to have chronic injuries. Computed tomography and MRI scans were interpreted independently by two reviewers. Chart review was performed to document demographics, AMS, and new-onset neurologic deficit associated with secondary injury. One hundred thirty-three patients presented with Type II odontoid fractures and no known history of cervical fracture with an average age of 79 years. Based on CT criteria, 31/133 (23%) fractures were chronic injuries. Nine additional fractures

  5. Two different types of carcinoid tumors of the lung: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigation and their histogenetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Whan

    2013-02-01

    claimed to play an important role in the branching of bronchi and regeneration of bronchial epithelial cells following tissue injury. They are claimed to play an important function as a chemoreceptor apparatus related to oxygen tension of the breathing air. To test the hypothesis that histopathologic variability found in bronchial carcinoids may be related to the fact that lungs are endowed with more than one type of NEC, the author reviewed 36 cases of bronchial carcinoids and found 8 cases in which tumor cells varied significantly from typical carcinoids in cell shape and arrangement. Tumor cells tend to be spindly with frequent presence of S-100-positive sustentacular cells. The latter was designated as type II carcinoid and the rest as type I. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells in type I exhibited features more typical for epithelial cells. The tumor cells were usually polygonal, forming closely packed cell masses, and cell membranes were closely apposed with frequent primitive cell junctions. The membrane-bound dense-core granules were of variable size and appearance and larger than those seen in type II in which the size of granules ranged from 160 to 350 nm. In 2 cases of type I, frequent cells contained myelin bodies similar to those found in type II alveolar cells. In 14 cases of type I tumors, tumor cells formed lumens into which microvilli were converging. In 5 cases, some areas showed increased cell size exceeding the usual limit of pathologist's comfortable range of small cells. In 2 cases, the tumor contained areas of adenocarcinoma. Tumor cells in type II were rather oblong and closely packed without any intercellular spaces and the majority of tumor cells contained dense-core granules typical for so-called P granules. These cells seem to give out slender cell processes containing a few dense-core granules. In rare foci, groups of thin cell processes aggregate where profiles of processes cut at different angles can be seen. In such areas one can recognize the

  6. Central angiotensin II stimulates cutaneous water intake behavior via an angiotensin II type-1 receptor pathway in the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Sho; Konno, Norifumi; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2010-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates oral water intake by causing thirst in all terrestrial vertebrates except anurans. Anuran amphibians do not drink orally but absorb water osmotically through ventral skin. In this study, we examined the role of Ang II on the regulation of water-absorption behavior in the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica). In fully hydrated frogs, intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intralymphatic sac (ILS) injection of Ang II significantly extended the residence time of water in a dose-dependent manner. Ang II-dependent water uptake was inhibited by ICV pretreatment with an angiotensin II type-1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist but not a type-2 (AT(2)) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that Ang II stimulates water-absorption behavior in the tree frog via an AT(1)-like but not AT(2)-like receptor. We then cloned and characterized cDNA of the tree frog AT(1) receptor from the brain. The tree frog AT(1) receptor cDNA encodes a 361 amino acid residue protein, which is 87% identical to the toad (Bufo marinus) AT(1) receptor and exhibits the functional characteristics of an Ang II receptor. AT(1) receptor mRNAs were found to be present in a number of tissues including brain (especially in the diencephalon), lung, large intestine, kidney and ventral pelvic skin. When tree frogs were exposed to dehydrating conditions, AT(1) receptor mRNA significantly increased in the diencephalon and the rhombencephalon. These data suggest that central Ang II may control water intake behavior via an AT(1) receptor on the diencephalon and rhombencephalon in anuran amphibians and may have implications for water consumption in vertebrates.

  7. Riboflavin-responsive glutaric aciduria type II with recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Tsai, Kun-Bon; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chen, Liang-Hui; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2004-09-01

    A 22-year-old woman had suffered from several episodes of acute pancreatitis since the age of 11. Other than exercise intolerance since early childhood, her psychomotor development was normal. At age 21, she experienced two episodes of generalized muscle weakness including acute respiratory failure and hepatomegaly. Liver biopsy indicated fatty metamorphosis, and muscle biopsy revealed vacuolar myopathy with lipid accumulation. Biochemical investigations demonstrated elevated serum creatine kinase and elevated 2-hydroxylglutaric, pyruvic, ethylmalonic, hippuric, adipic, and seburic acids in urinary organic acid analysis. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type II. Although acute pancreatitis in glutaric aciduria type II has been reported previously, this is the first reported case of recurrent pancreatitis occurring in glutaric aciduria type II. We treated the patient with l-carnitine and riboflavin. As of the latest follow-up 2.5 years later, the patient has had no further episodes of muscle weakness or pancreatitis. We suggested analyzing urine organic acid when lipid storage myopathy is suspected.

  8. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  9. Subcellular dynamics of type II PKA in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haining; Sia, Gek-Ming; Sato, Takashi R.; Gray, Noah W.; Mao, Tianyi; Khuchua, Zaza; Huganir, Richard L.; Svoboda, Karel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein kinase A (PKA) plays multiple roles in neurons. The localization and specificity of PKA are largely controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA in neurons, and the roles of specific AKAPs, are poorly understood. We imaged the distribution of type II PKA in hippocampal and cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. PKA was concentrated in dendritic shafts compared to the soma, axons and dendritic spines. This spatial distribution was imposed by the microtubule-binding protein MAP2, indicating that MAP2 is the dominant AKAP in neurons. Following cAMP elevation, catalytic subunits dissociated from the MAP2-tethered regulatory subunits and rapidly moved to become enriched in nearby spines. The spatial gradient of type II PKA between dendritic shafts and spines was critical for the regulation of synaptic strength and long-term potentiation. The localization and activity-dependent translocation of type II PKA are therefore important determinants of PKA function. PMID:19447092

  10. Type-II superlattice infrared detector technology at Fraunhofer IAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Daumer, Volker; Hugger, Tsvetelina; Kohn, Norbert; Luppold, Wolfgang; Müller, Raphael; Niemasz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Stadelmann, Tim; Wauro, Matthias; Wörl, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    For more than two decades, Antimony-based type-II superlattice photodetectors for the infrared spectral range between 3-15 μm are under development at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF). Today, Fraunhofer IAF is Germany's only national foundry for InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice detectors and we cover a wide range of aspects from basic materials research to small series production in this field. We develop single-element photodetectors for sensing systems as well as two-dimensional detector arrays for high-performance imaging and threat warning systems in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength region of the thermal infrared. We continuously enhance our production capabilities by extending our in-line process control facilities. As a recent example, we present a semiautomatic wafer probe station that has developed into an important tool for electrooptical characterization. A large amount of the basic materials research focuses on the reduction of the dark current by the development of bandgap engineered device designs on the basis of heterojunction concepts. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated Europe's first LWIR InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice imager with 640x512 pixels with 15 μm pitch. The demonstrator camera already delivers a good image quality and achieves a thermal resolution better than 30 mK.

  11. Heparanase expression and localization in different types of human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandes dos Santos, Teresa Cristina; Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Paschoal, Marcos Eduardo Machado; Stelling, Mariana Paranhos; Rumjanek, Vivian Mary Barral Dodd; Junior, Alyson do Rosário; Valiante, Paulo Marcos; Madi, Kalil; Pereira de Souza, Heitor Siffert; Pavão, Mauro Sergio Gonçalves; Castelo-Branco, Morgana Teixeira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Heparanase is the only known mammalian glycosidase capable of cleaving heparan sulfate chains. The expression of this enzyme has been associated with tumor development because of its ability to degrade extracellular matrix and promote cell invasion. We analyzed heparanase expression in lung cancer samples to understand lung tumor progression and malignancy. Of the samples from 37 patients, there were 14 adenocarcinomas, 13 squamous cell carcinomas, 5 large cell carcinomas, and 5 small cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed to ascertain the expression and localization of heparanase. All of the tumor types expressed heparanase, which was predominantly localized within the cytoplasm and nucleus. Significant enzyme expression was also observed in cells within the tumor microenvironment, such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Adenocarcinomas exhibited the strongest heparanase staining intensity and the most widespread heparanase distribution. Squamous cell carcinomas, large cell carcinomas, and small cell carcinomas had a similar subcellular distribution of heparanase to adenocarcinomas but the distribution was less widespread. Heparanase expression tended to correlate with tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging in non-small cell lung carcinoma. In this study, we showed that heparanase was localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus of tumor cells and to cells within the microenvironment in different types of lung cancer. This enzyme exhibited a differential distribution based on the type of lung tumor. General significance Elucidating the heparanase expression patterns in different types of lung cancer increased our understanding of the crucial role of heparanase in lung cancer biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure.

  13. Stochastic simulation of alveolar particle deposition in lungs affected by different types of emphysema.

    PubMed

    Sturm, R; Hofmann, W

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, disease-specific stochastic models were developed for the computation of particle deposition in lungs affected by COPD, emphysema, or both, distinguishing between four types of pulmonary emphysema-centriacinar, paraseptal, panacinar, and bullous. To simulate COPD, airway calibers of the tracheobronchial tree were randomly reduced between 20% and 50% in each airway. For the study of pure COPD ("blue bloaters"), alveolated airway dimensions of the healthy lung were used, while for the simulation of emphysema without COPD ("pink puffers"), normal conductive airway diameters were assumed. Deposition calculations in diseased lungs were carried out by assuming (a) identical inspiration and expiration times (no breath-hold time) and (b) a continuous increase of the functional residual capacity (from 3,300 to 5,000 mL), accompanied by a simultaneous drop of the tidal volume (from 1,000 to 500 mL). Independent of particle size, total alveolar deposition in emphysematous lungs was significantly decreased relative to normal lungs. In particular, the deposition maximum at large particle sizes, which is a characteristic for healthy subjects, completely disappeared. Among the various emphysema models, deposition was smallest in lungs with bullous emphysema due to strongly enhanced settling and diffusion distances within the alveolar structures. A change of the lung volume caused a further decrease in particle deposition. Alveolar deposition in "blue bloaters" and "pink puffers" was very similar to the deposition in patients suffering from COPD and emphysema. Alveolar deposition per acinar airway generation was also strongly reduced in diseased lungs compared to normal lungs. Besides this reduction, deposition patterns became more uniform throughout the alveolar region.

  14. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF TYPE II PNEUMOCOCCUS AND ITS SEPARATION INTO PARTIAL SPECIFICITIES. II

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberger, Michael

    1960-01-01

    Quantitative data are given on the cross reactions in Type II antipneumococcal horse sera of plant gums and hemicelluloses containing multiple terminal groupings of glucuronic acid and/or 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. Great variability is shown both in the reactivities of the polysaccharides and in the antibodies in the sera of different animals immunized with the same antigen. The 4-O-methyl substituent on the glucuronic acid residues in a gum often appears to diminish cross-precipitation with antibodies to S II. PMID:13852209

  15. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  16. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses.

  17. A study of low-energy type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2015-08-01

    All stars with an initial mass greater than 8Msun, but not massive enough to encounter the pair-production instability, eventually form a degenerate core and collapse to form a compact object, either a neutron star or a black hole.At the lower mass end, these massive stars die as red-supergiant stars and give rise to Type II supernovae (SNe). The diversity of observed properties of SNe II suggests a range of progenitor mass, radii, but also explosion energy.We have performed a large grid simulations designed to cover this range of progenitor and explosion properties. Using MESA STAR, we compute a set of massive star models (12-30Msun) from the main sequence until core collapse. We then generate explosions with V1D to produce ejecta with a range of explosion energies and yields. Finally, all ejecta are evolved with CMFGEN to generate multi-band light curves and spectra.In this poster, we focus our attention on the properties of low-energy explosions that give rise to low-luminosity Type II Plateau (II-P) SNe. In particular, we present a detailed study of SN 2008bk, but also include other notorious low-energy SNe II-P like 2005cs, emphasising their non-standard properties by comparing to models that match well events like SN 1999em. Such low-energy explosions, characterised by low ejecta expansion rates, are more suitable for reliable spectral line identifications.Based on our models, we discuss the distinct signatures of low-energy explosions in lower and higher mass models. One important goal is to identify whether there is a progenitor-mass bias leading to such events.

  18. Effect of a misspecification of response rates on type I and type II errors, in a phase II Simon design.

    PubMed

    Baey, Charlotte; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Phase-II trials are a key stage in the clinical development of a new treatment. Their main objective is to provide the required information for a go/no-go decision regarding a subsequent phase-III trial. In single arm phase-II trials, widely used in oncology, this decision relies on the comparison of efficacy outcomes observed in the trial to historical controls. The false positive rate generally accepted in phase-II trials, around 10%, contrasts with the very high attrition rate of new compounds tested in phase-III trials, estimated at about 60%. We assumed that this gap could partly be explained by the misspecification of the response rate expected with standard treatment, leading to erroneous hypotheses tested in the phase-II trial. We computed the false positive probability of a defined design under various hypotheses of expected efficacy probability. Similarly we calculated the power of the trial to detect the efficacy of a new compound for different expected efficacy rates. Calculations were done considering a binary outcome, such as the response rate, with a decision rule based on a Simon two-stage design. When analysing a single-arm phase-II trial, based on a design with a pre-specified null hypothesis, a 5% absolute error in the expected response rate leads to a false positive rate of about 30% when it is supposed to be 10%. This inflation of type-I error varies only slightly according to the hypotheses of the initial design. Single-arm phase-II trials poorly control for the false positive rate. Randomised phase-II trials should, therefore, be more often considered.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies against type II rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, C.H.; Huang, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (8/1, 10/10, and 25/3) against rat brain type II protein kinase C (PKC) were used to carry out the immunochemical characterization of this kinase. These antibodies immunoprecipitated the type II PKC in a dose-dependent manner but did neither to type I nor type III isozyme. Purified type II PKC has a molecular weight of 82,000 and consists of heterogeneous isoelectric point species, all of which are cross reactive with these antibodies. Immunoblot analysis of the tryptic fragments from PKC revealed that all three antibodies recognized the 33-38-KDa fragments, the phospholipid/phorbol ester-binding domain, but not the 45-48-KDa fragments, the kinase catalytic domain. The immune complexes of the kinase and the antibodies retained the kinase activity which was dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidylserine (PS) and further activated by diacylglycerol. With antibody 8/1, the apparent Km values of the kinase for Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS were not influenced. The initial rate and final extent of autophosphorylation were reduced. The concentration of PS required for half-maximal (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding was increased and the total PDBu binding was reduced. In the presence of optimum concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS, the Kd of PDBu was unaffected by the antibody but the total binding was reduced. These results demonstrate that the PS/PDBu-binding domain contains the major epitope for the antibodies and the antibody mainly influences the PS/PDBu binding to the kinase.

  20. Cryopreservation and in vitro culture of primary cell types from lung tissue of a stranded pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps)☆

    PubMed Central

    Mancia, Annalaura; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; McFee, Wayne E.; Newton, Danforth A.; Baatz, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Current models for in vitro studies of tissue function and physiology, including responses to hypoxia or environmental toxins, are limited and rely heavily on standard 2-dimensional (2-D) cultures with immortalized murine or human cell lines. To develop a new more powerful model system, we have pursued methods to establish and expand cultures of primary lung cell types and reconstituted tissues from marine mammals. What little is known about the physiology of the deep-sea diving pygmy sperm whale (PSW), Kogia breviceps, comes primarily from stranding events that occur along the coast of the southeastern United States. Thus, development of a method for preserving live tissues and retrieving live cells from deceased stranded individuals was initiated. This report documents successful cryopreservation of PSW lung tissue. We established in vitro cultures of primary lung cell types from tissue fragments that had been cryopreserved several months earlier at the stranding event. Dissociation of cryopreserved lung tissues readily provides a variety of primary cell types that, to varying degrees, can be expanded and further studied/manipulated in cell culture. In addition, PSW-specific molecular markers have been developed that permitted the monitoring of fibroblast, alveolar type II, and vascular endothelial cell types. Reconstitution of 3-D cultures of lung tissues with these cell types is now underway. This novel system may facilitate the development of rare or disease-specific lung tissue models (e.g., to test causes of PSW stranding events and lead to improved treatments for pulmonary hypertension or reperfusion injury in humans). Also, the establishment of a “living” tissue bank biorepository for rare/endangered species could serve multiple purposes as surrogates for freshly isolated samples. PMID:21501697

  1. EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE II AND Ib SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Hyewon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Yoon, Sung-chul

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies find that some early-type galaxies host Type II or Ibc supernovae (SNe II, Ibc). This may imply recent star formation activities in these SNe host galaxies, but a massive star origin of the SNe Ib so far observed in early-type galaxies has been questioned because of their intrinsic faintness and unusually strong Ca lines shown in the nebular phase. To address the issue, we investigate the properties of early-type SNe host galaxies using the data with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet photometry and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical data. Our sample includes eight SNe II and one peculiar SN Ib (SN 2000ds) host galaxies as well as 32 SN Ia host galaxies. The host galaxy of SN 2005cz, another peculiar SN Ib, is also analyzed using the GALEX data and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database optical data. We find that the NUV-optical colors of SN II/Ib host galaxies are systematically bluer than those of SN Ia host galaxies, and some SN II/Ib host galaxies with NUV - r colors markedly bluer than the others exhibit strong radio emission. We perform a stellar population synthesis analysis and find a clear signature of recent star formation activities in most of the SN II/Ib host galaxies. Our results generally support the association of the SNe II/Ib hosted in early-type galaxies with core collapse of massive stars. We briefly discuss implications for the progenitors of the peculiar SNe Ib 2000ds and 2005cz.

  2. Deciphering the role of the type II glyoxalase isoenzyme YcbL (GlxII-2) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reiger, Matthias; Lassak, Jürgen; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG) requires glyoxalases I and II. Glyoxalase I (gloA/GlxI) isomerizes the hemithioacetal, formed spontaneously from MG and glutathione (GSH) to S-lactoylglutathione (SLG), which is hydrolyzed by glyoxalase II (gloB/GlxII) to lactate and GSH. YcbL from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an unusual type II glyoxalase whose role in MG detoxification has remained enigmatic. Here we show that YcbL (gloC/GlxII-2) acts as an accessory type II glyoxylase in E. coli. The two isoenzymes have additive effects and ensure maximal MG degradation.

  3. The Use of Metformin and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smiechowski, Brielan B.; Azoulay, Laurent; Yin, Hui; Pollak, Michael N.; Suissa, Samy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Observational studies have associated metformin use with a decreased risk of lung cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the studies had important methodological shortcomings. The objective of this study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes, while avoiding previous biases. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using the U.K. General Practice Research Database, we assembled a cohort of patients newly treated with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) between 1988 and 2009. A nested case–control analysis was conducted, where case subjects with lung cancer occurring during follow-up were matched with up to 10 control subjects for age, sex, calendar time, and duration of follow-up. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted rate ratios of lung cancer associated with ever use of metformin, along with measures of duration and cumulative dose. Models were adjusted for potential confounders, which included smoking. RESULTS The cohort included 115,923 new users of OHAs, with 1,061 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during follow-up (rate 2.0/1,000 person-years). Metformin use was not associated with a decreased rate of lung cancer (rate ratio 0.94 [95% CI 0.76–1.17]). No dose-response was observed by number of prescriptions received, cumulative duration of use, and dose. CONCLUSIONS Metformin use is not associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. The decreased risk reported in other observational studies is likely due to bias from methodological shortcomings. Nonetheless, greater consideration should be given to clarify inconsistencies between experimental models and population studies. PMID:22923670

  4. Exposure to crocidolite and the incidence of different histological types of lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    de Klerk, N H; Musk, A W; Eccles, J L; Hansen, J; Hobbs, M S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relations between exposure to both tobacco smoke and crocidolite and the incidence of various histological types of lung cancer. METHODS: In 1979 all former workers from the Wittenoom asbestos industry who could be traced were sent a questionnaire on smoking history. Of 2928 questionnaires sent, satisfactory replies were received from 2400 men and 149 women. Of the men, 80% had smoked at some time and 50% still smoked. Occupational exposure to crocidolite was known from employment records and follow up was maintained through death and cancer registries in Australia with histological diagnoses obtained from the relevant State Cancer Registry. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of tobacco and asbestos exposure on incidence of different cell types of lung cancer in a nested case-control design. RESULTS: Between 1979 and 1990, 71 cases of lung cancer occurred among men in this cohort: 27% squamous cell carcinoma, 31% adenocarcinoma, 18% small cell carcinoma, 11% large cell carcinoma, and 13% unclassified or indeterminate. Two of the classified cases and one unclassified case had never smoked. The incidence of both squamous and adenocarcinoma types of lung cancer were greatest in ex-smokers and in those subjects with the highest levels of exposure to crocidolite. After adjustment for smoking habit, the increase in incidence of lung cancer with increasing exposure to crocidolite was greater for squamous cell carcinoma than for adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study have shown significant exposure-response effects for exposure to crocidolite, and both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. They also provide some further evidence against the theory that parenchymal fibrosis induced by asbestos is a necessary precursor to asbestos induced lung cancer. PMID:8704855

  5. The rise-time of Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Tominaga, N.; Molina, J.; Galbany, L.; Bufano, F.; Anderson, J. P.; Gutierrez, C.; Förster, F.; Pignata, G.; Bersten, M.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Carlberg, R.; de Jaeger, T.; Hamuy, M.; Baklanov, P. V.; Blinnikov, S. I.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the early-time light curves of a large sample of 223 Type II supernovae (SNe II) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Having a cadence of a few days and sufficient non-detections prior to explosion, we constrain rise-times, i.e. the durations from estimated first to maximum light, as a function of effective wavelength. At rest-frame g' band (λeff = 4722 Å), we find a distribution of fast rise-times with median of (7.5 ± 0.3) d. Comparing these durations with analytical shock models of Rabinak & Waxman and Nakar & Sari, and hydrodynamical models of Tominaga et al., which are mostly sensitive to progenitor radius at these epochs, we find a median characteristic radius of less than 400 solar radii. The inferred radii are on average much smaller than the radii obtained for observed red supergiants (RSG). Investigating the post-maximum slopes as a function of effective wavelength in the light of theoretical models, we find that massive hydrogen envelopes are still needed to explain the plateaus of SNe II. We therefore argue that the SN II rise-times we observe are either (a) the shock cooling resulting from the core collapse of RSG with small and dense envelopes, or (b) the delayed and prolonged shock breakout of the collapse of an RSG with an extended atmosphere or embedded within pre-SN circumstellar material.

  6. Strain-induced fetal type II epithelial cell differentiation is mediated via cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulian; Maciejewski, Benjamin S; Lee, Nicole; Silbert, Ophira; McKnight, Nathan L; Frangos, John A; Sanchez-Esteban, Juan

    2006-10-01

    The signaling pathways by which mechanical forces modulate fetal lung development remain largely unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that strain-induced fetal type II cell differentiation is mediated via the cAMP signaling pathway. Freshly isolated E19 fetal type II epithelial cells were cultured on collagen-coated silastic membranes and exposed to mechanical strain for varying intervals, to simulate mechanical forces during lung development. Unstretched samples were used as controls. Mechanical strain activated heterotrimeric G-protein alpha(s) subunit, cAMP, and the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Incubation of E19 cells with the PKA inhibitor H-89 significantly decreased strain-induced CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, adenylate cyclase 5 and CREB genes were also mechanically induced. In contrast, components of the PKA-independent (Epac) pathway, including Rap-1 or B-Raf, were not phosphorylated by strain. The addition of forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP to unstretched E19 monolayers markedly upregulated expression of the type II cell differentiation marker surfactant protein C, whereas the Epac agonist 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP had no effect. Furthermore, incubation of E19 cells with the PKA inhibitor Rp-2'-O-monobutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate or transient transfection with plasmid DNA containing a PKA inhibitor expression vector significantly decreased strain-induced surfactant protein C mRNA expression. In conclusion, these studies indicate that the cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway is activated by force in fetal type II cells and participates in strain-induced fetal type II cell differentiation.

  7. Type-II nodal loops: Theory and material realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Ying; Guan, Shan; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2017-08-01

    A nodal loop appears when two bands, typically one electronlike and one holelike, are crossing each other linearly along a one-dimensional manifold in reciprocal space. Here, we propose a type of nodal loop which emerges from the crossing between two bands which are both electronlike (or holelike) along a certain direction. Close to any point on such a loop (dubbed as a type-II nodal loop), the linear spectrum is strongly tilted and tipped over along one transverse direction, leading to marked differences in magnetic, optical, and transport responses compared with conventional (type-I) nodal loops. We show that the compound K4P3 is an example that hosts a pair of type-II nodal loops close to the Fermi level. Each loop traverses the whole Brillouin zone, and hence can only be annihilated in a pair when symmetry is preserved. The symmetry and topological protections of the loops as well as the associated surface states are discussed.

  8. Preferential Type II Muscle Fiber Damage From Plyometric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Filippo; Isaacs, Ashwin W.; Myburgh, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    Context Plyometric training has been successfully used in different sporting contexts. Studies that investigated the effect of plyometric training on muscle morphology are limited, and results are controversial with regard to which muscle fiber type is mainly affected. Objective To analyze the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural change induced by an acute bout of plyometric exercise to determine which type of muscle fibers is predominantly damaged. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight healthy, untrained individuals (age = 22 ± 1 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 5.9 kg). Intervention(s) Participants completed an acute bout of plyometric exercise (10 sets of 10 squat-jumps with a 1-minute rest between sets). Main Outcome Measure(s) Blood samples were collected 9 days and immediately before and 6 hours and 1, 2, and 3 days after the acute intervention. Muscle samples were collected 9 days before and 3 days after the exercise intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for creatine kinase activity. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for damage using fluorescent and electron transmission microscopy. Results Creatine kinase activity peaked 1 day after the exercise bout (529.0 ± 317.8 U/L). Immunofluorescence revealed sarcolemmal damage in 155 of 1616 fibers analyzed. Mainly fast-twitch fibers were damaged. Within subgroups, 7.6% of type I fibers, 10.3% of type IIa fibers, and 14.3% of type IIx fibers were damaged as assessed by losses in dystrophin staining. Similar damage was prevalent in IIx and IIa fibers. Electron microscopy revealed clearly distinguishable moderate and severe sarcomere damage, with damage quantifiably predominant in type II muscle fibers of both the glycolytic and oxidative subtypes (86% and 84%, respectively, versus only 27% of slow-twitch fibers). Conclusions We provide direct evidence that a single bout of plyometric exercise affected mainly type II muscle

  9. Preferential type II muscle fiber damage from plyometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Filippo; Isaacs, Ashwin W; Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2012-01-01

    Plyometric training has been successfully used in different sporting contexts. Studies that investigated the effect of plyometric training on muscle morphology are limited, and results are controversial with regard to which muscle fiber type is mainly affected. To analyze the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural change induced by an acute bout of plyometric exercise to determine which type of muscle fibers is predominantly damaged. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Eight healthy, untrained individuals (age = 22 ± 1 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 5.9 kg). Participants completed an acute bout of plyometric exercise (10 sets of 10 squat-jumps with a 1-minute rest between sets). Blood samples were collected 9 days and immediately before and 6 hours and 1, 2, and 3 days after the acute intervention. Muscle samples were collected 9 days before and 3 days after the exercise intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for creatine kinase activity. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for damage using fluorescent and electron transmission microscopy. Creatine kinase activity peaked 1 day after the exercise bout (529.0 ± 317.8 U/L). Immunofluorescence revealed sarcolemmal damage in 155 of 1616 fibers analyzed. Mainly fast-twitch fibers were damaged. Within subgroups, 7.6% of type I fibers, 10.3% of type IIa fibers, and 14.3% of type IIx fibers were damaged as assessed by losses in dystrophin staining. Similar damage was prevalent in IIx and IIa fibers. Electron microscopy revealed clearly distinguishable moderate and severe sarcomere damage, with damage quantifiably predominant in type II muscle fibers of both the glycolytic and oxidative subtypes (86% and 84%, respectively, versus only 27% of slow-twitch fibers). We provide direct evidence that a single bout of plyometric exercise affected mainly type II muscle fibers.

  10. Functional properties of type I and type II cytochromes c3 from Desulfovibrio africanus.

    PubMed

    Paquete, Catarina M; Pereira, Patrícia M; Catarino, Teresa; Turner, David L; Louro, Ricardo O; Xavier, António V

    2007-02-01

    Type I cytochrome c(3) is a key protein in the bioenergetic metabolism of Desulfovibrio spp., mediating electron transfer between periplasmic hydrogenase and multihaem cytochromes associated with membrane bound complexes, such as type II cytochrome c(3). This work presents the NMR assignment of the haem substituents in type I cytochrome c(3) isolated from Desulfovibrio africanus and the thermodynamic and kinetic characterisation of type I and type II cytochromes c(3) belonging to the same organism. It is shown that the redox properties of the two proteins allow electrons to be transferred between them in the physiologically relevant direction with the release of energised protons close to the membrane where they can be used by the ATP synthase.

  11. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) with multiple vascular complications misdiagnosed as Dubowitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dieks, Jana-Katharina; Baumer, Alessandra; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Rauch, Anita; Sigler, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    To date, the genetic basis of Dubowitz syndrome (short stature, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, eczema) is unknown and vascular complications are not known to be associated with this syndrome. In microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II; disproportionate short statue, microcephaly, facial abnormalities), however, cerebral aneurysms and other vascular abnormalities are frequent complications. MOPD II is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene (21q22). We report on a patient who came to our attention as a 22-year-old with subarachnoid bleeding due to a ruptured cranial aneurysm. Until then, the patient was thought and published to have Dubowitz syndrome; previously, he was treated with coronary bypass surgery for extensive coronary angiopathy. Consecutive genetic testing revealed MOPD II. After clinical stabilization, the patient was discharged to a specialized rehabilitation center where he died due to re-rupture of a cranial aneurysm. In patients with short stature-especially when clinical features are accompanied by vascular complications-MOPD II should be considered as a differential diagnosis leading to consecutive genetic testing. After detection of mutations in the PCNT gene, a full vascular status including cerebral imaging and cardiac evaluation needs to be determined in order to analyze vascular abnormalities and initiate prophylactic treatment.

  12. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) procedure for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) by intraventricular administration (IVA) in murine MPS II.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiromi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Shiho; Matsumoto, Juri; Shimada, Yohta; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya; Morimoto, Hideto; Hirato, Tohru; Nishino, Katsuya; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2012-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), or Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) and is characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS II has been treated by hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT)/enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but its effectiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) is limited because of poor enzyme uptake across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To increase the efficacy of ERT in the brain, we tested an intraventricular ERT procedure consisting of repeated administrations of IDS (20 μg/mouse/3 weeks) in IDS-knockout, MPS II model mice. The IDS enzyme activity and the accumulation of total GAGs were measured in mouse brains. The IDS activity was significantly increased, and the accumulation of total GAGs was decreased in the MPS II mouse brains treated with multiple administrations of IDS via intraventricular ERT. Additionally, a high level of IDS enzyme activity was appreciated in other MPS II mouse tissues, such as the liver, spleen, testis and others. A Y-maze was used to test learning and memory after repeated intraventricular ERT with IDS. The IDS-treated mouse groups recovered the capacity for short-term memory and activity. Although large and small vacuoles were found at the margin of the cerebellar Purkinje cells in the disease-control mice, these vacuoles disappeared upon treated with IDS. Loss of vacuoles was also observed in other tissues (liver, kidney and testis). These results demonstrate the possible efficacy of an ERT procedure with intraventricular administration of IDS for the treatment of MPS II. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Geochemistry of the alginite and amorphous organic matter from type II-S kerogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Salmon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively high concentration of alkylbenzenes and alkylthiophenes, while its elginite concentrate showed a more aliphatic character upon pyrolysis. There was a marked enrichment of thiophenic sulfur in the light-colored AOM of both samples (and also pyrrolic nitrogen in the case of the Monterey) relative to the alginite. The results support a bacterially-mediated, degradative origin for Type II-S amorphous organic matter, with algal remains as the primary source of the kerogen.

  14. Dynamics of keratin assembly: exogenous type I keratin rapidly associates with type II keratin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IF) are obligate heteropolymers containing equal amounts of type I and type II keratin. We have previously shown that microinjected biotinylated type I keratin is rapidly incorporated into endogenous bundles of keratin IF (tonofilaments) of PtK2 cells. In this study we show that the earliest steps in the assembly of keratin subunits into tonofilaments involve the extremely rapid formation of discrete aggregates of microinjected keratin. These are seen as fluorescent spots containing both type I and type II keratins within 1 min post-injection as determined by double label immunofluorescence. These observations suggest that endogenous type II keratin subunits can be rapidly mobilized from their endogenous state to form complexes with the injected type I protein. Furthermore, confocal microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy suggest that the type I-type II keratin spots from in close association with the endogenous keratin IF network. When the biotinylated protein is injected at concentrations of 0.3-0.5 mg/ml, the organization of the endogenous network of tonofilaments remains undisturbed during incorporation into tonofilaments. However, microinjection of 1.5-2.0 mg/ml of biotinylated type I results in significant alterations in the organization and assembly state of the endogenous keratin IF network soon after microinjection. The results of this study are consistent with the existence of a state of equilibrium between keratin subunits and polymerized keratin IF in epithelial cells, and provide further proof that IF are dynamic elements of the cytoskeleton of mammalian cells. PMID:7686161

  15. Toxic effect of cooking oil fumes in primary fetal pulmonary type II-like epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiyu; Ding, Rui; Wang, Yong; Chen, Daojun; Guo, Dongmei; Liang, Chunmei; Feng, Zhewei; Che, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological studies indicated that there is an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among cooks and bakers. The cooking oil fumes are believed to conduct this risk, and many studies have focused on evaluating the mutagenicity and finding the mutagenic components in oil fumes. COFs contains two major classes of compounds. One class consists of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. BaP is a known immunosuppressant. It can also alter cell cycle progression, induce inflammation, and impair DNA repair and apoptotic processes leading to aberrant cellular functioning. This study investigates the effect of toxicity of cooking oil fumes (COFs) in primary ICR mice' fetal lung type II-like epithelium cells (AEC II). The cells were cultured in different concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200μg/ml) of COFs for different time periods. The results showed that cell viability decreased in a dose- and time- dependent manner, which is accompanied by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities. Moreover, comet assay suggested DNA damage, as well as increased production of DNA adducts induced by PAHs. The present study also shows that COFs may disturb cell cycles even at a very low dose. In summary, the present study indicates that COFs may lead to toxicity in AEC II cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  17. Early photocoagulation in patients with either type I or type II diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the benefits of early photocoagulation in patients with type I versus type II diabetes. DESIGN: One eye of each of 3,711 patients was randomly assigned to early photocoagulation; the other was assigned to deferral of photocoagulation, with follow-up visits scheduled every 4 months and photocoagulation to be carried out promptly if high-risk proliferative retinopathy developed. Patients were categorized by age and type of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best corrected visual acuity was measured at each study visit scheduled at 4-month intervals. Stereoscopic fundus photographs were taken and evaluated at baseline, 4 months, and yearly thereafter. Retinopathy severity was assessed from fundus photographs. Severe visual loss was defined as visual acuity of worse than 5/200 for at least two consecutive study visits. RESULTS: Previously published results of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) demonstrated a statistically significant benefit of early photocoagulation in preventing severe vision loss. Further analyses demonstrate that this benefit of early photocoagulation is greater in patients with type II diabetes than in those with type I. The relative benefit of early photocoagulation in patients with type II diabetes is also seen for other outcomes (development of high-risk proliferative retinopathy, development of the combined end point [severe visual loss or vitrectomy], development of moderate visual loss, or development of legal blindness). The patients most likely to benefit from early photocoagulation had severe nonproliferative retinopathy or early proliferative retinopathy. Analyses from the Diabetic Retinopathy Study confirm the relative benefit of scatter photocoagulation for type II patients. Because of the high correlation between age and type of diabetes, analyses sub-grouped by age show similar results. CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest that patients with type II diabetes, or older patients with diabetes

  18. THE SPECIFIC POLYSACCHARIDES OF TYPES I, II, AND III PNEUMOCOCCUS

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberger, Michael; Kendall, Forrest E.; Scherp, Henry W.

    1936-01-01

    1. The thermolability of the specific polysaccharides of Types I, II, and III pneumococcus has been shown by three independent methods: (a) diminution of the viscosity of solutions on heating; (b) decrease in the amount of antibody precipitated from homologous rabbit antisera; and (c) increased tendency (S III) to pass through a collodion membrane. 2. These effects may be explained most simply as a partial depolymerization under the influence of heat. In air, particularly in the presence of broth, oxidation also appears to be involved. 3. Improved and simpler methods of preparation based on these findings, are given for S I, S II, and S III. The resulting products precipitate more anti-S from homologous rabbit antisera than do the earlier preparations. 4. The methyl glycoside of methyl galacturonate has been isolated from the hydrolytic products of S I, and evidence of the ultimate structural unit obtained. PMID:19870553

  19. Vacuum stability and naturalness in type-II seesaw

    DOE PAGES

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; ...

    2016-06-16

    Here, we study the vacuum stability and perturbativity conditions in the minimal type-II seesaw model. These conditions give characteristic constraints to the model parameters. In the model, there is a SU(2)L triplet scalar field, which could cause a large Higgs mass correction. From the naturalness point of view, heavy Higgs masses should be lower than 350GeV, which may be testable by the LHC Run-II results. Due to the effects of the triplet scalar field, the branching ratios of the Higgs decay (h → γγ,Zγ) deviate from the standard model, and a large parameter region is excluded by the recent ATLASmore » and CMS combined analysis of h → γγ. Our result of the signal strength for h → γγ is Rγγ ≲ 1.1, but its deviation is too small to observe at the LHC experiment.« less

  20. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer risk according to histologic type in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Seki, Takako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tanji, Fumiya; Maemondo, Makoto; Takahashi, Satomi; Sato, Ikuro; Kawai, Masaaki; Minami, Yuko

    2013-11-01

    Although cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for lung cancer, histology-specific risk has not been fully clarified in Japan. This case-control study evaluated the associations between smoking and lung cancer risk according to sex and histologic type. From among patients aged 30 years and over admitted to a single hospital in Japan between 1997 and 2009, 1670 lung cancer cases and 5855 controls were selected. History of smoking, quantity and duration of smoking, and passive smoking from spouses were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each exposure were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Ever-smoking was significantly associated with a higher risk of squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The OR for these two histologic types combined was larger in women (OR = 24.98, 95% CI: 13.50-46.23) than in men (OR = 9.43, 95% CI: 5.73-15.51). Analysis of the quantity and duration of smoking showed that the OR for each exposure level tended to be larger in women than in men. For adenocarcinoma, clear positive associations with quantity and duration-related factors were observed among men, and a significant positive association with passive smoking from spouses was found among non-smoking women (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.06-1.95). These results suggest sex- and histologic type- differences in the association of smoking with lung cancer risk. Although smoking control should be continued to prevent lung cancers, further studies are required to better clarify differences in smoking-related lung cancer risk between the sexes and histologic types.

  1. Arginase I and II in Lungs of Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-01-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  2. Arginases I and II in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-08-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  3. Comparison of Prevalence and Types of Mutations in Lung Cancers Among Black and White Populations.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joshua D; Lathan, Christopher; Sholl, Lynette; Ducar, Matthew; Vega, Mikenah; Sunkavalli, Ashwini; Lin, Ling; Hanna, Megan; Schubert, Laura; Thorner, Aaron; Faris, Nicholas; Williams, David R; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; van Hummelen, Paul; Meyerson, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States in all ethnic and racial groups. The overall death rate from lung cancer is higher in black patients than in white patients. To compare the prevalence and types of somatic alterations between lung cancers from black patients and white patients. Differences in mutational frequencies could illuminate differences in prognosis and lead to the reduction of outcome disparities by more precisely targeting patients' treatment. Tumor specimens were collected from Baptist Cancer Center (Memphis, Tennessee) over the course of 9 years (January 2004-December 2012). Genomic analysis by massively parallel sequencing of 504 cancer genes was performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, Massachusetts). Overall, 509 lung cancer tumors specimens (319 adenocarcinomas; 142 squamous cell carcinomas) were profiled from 245 black patients and 264 white patients. The frequencies of genomic alterations were compared between tumors from black and white populations. Overall, 509 lung cancers were collected and analyzed (273 women [129 black patients; 144 white patients] and 236 men [116 black patients; 120 white patients]). Using 313 adenocarcinomas and 138 squamous cell carcinomas with genetically supported ancestry, overall mutational frequencies and copy number changes were not significantly different between black and white populations in either tumor type after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Furthermore, specific activating alterations in members of the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/Raf pathway including EGFR and KRAS were not significantly different between populations in lung adenocarcinoma. These results demonstrate that lung cancers from black patients are similar to cancers from white patients with respect to clinically actionable genomic alterations and suggest that clinical trials of targeted therapies could significantly benefit patients in both groups.

  4. CAR mediates efficient tumor engraftment of mesenchymal type lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Veena, Mysore S; Qin, Min; Andersson, Asa; Sharma, Sherven; Batra, Raj K

    2009-08-01

    The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a developmentally regulated intercellular adhesion molecule that was previously observed to be required for efficient tumor formation. To confirm that observation, we compared the tumorigenicity of clonally derived test and control cell subsets that were genetically modified for CAR. Silencing CAR in lung cancer cells with high constitutive expression reduced engraftment efficiency. Conversely, overexpressing CAR in lung cancer cells with low constitutive expression did not affect tumor formation or growth kinetics. A blocking antibody to the extracellular domain of CAR inhibited tumor engraftment, implicating that domain as being important to this process. However, differences in adhesion properties attributable to this domain (barrier function and aggregation) could not be distinguished in the test groups in vitro, and the mechanisms underlying CAR's contribution to tumor engraftment remain elusive. Because high CAR cells displayed a spindle-shaped morphology at baseline, we considered whether this expression was an accompaniment of other mesenchymal features in these lung cancer cells. Molecular correlates of CAR were compared in model epithelial and mesenchymal type lung cancer cells. CAR expression is associated with an absence of E-cadherin, diminished expression of alpha- and gamma-catenin, and increased Zeb1, Snail, and vimentin expression in lung cancer cells. In contrast, epithelial type (NCI-H292, Calu3) lung cancer cells show comparatively low CAR expression. These data suggest that if the mesenchymal cell phenotype is an accurate measure of an undifferentiated and invasive state, then CAR expression may be more closely aligned with this phenotype of lung cancer cells.

  5. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Garud, Mayuresh S

    2016-10-01

    Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Glipizide (5mg/kg) was used as standard treatment drug. Treatment was given for 28days. Parameters evaluated were body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and bun urea nitrogen. In type II diabetes, high density lipoprotein levels in plasma and plasma insulin level were also evaluated. Histopathological study of pancreases were carried out in type I study. AE showed significant decrease in plasma glucose significantly. AE was also found to decrease cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in both types of diabetes. AE did not show any significant effect on plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase. AE was found to increase the albumin and total protein levels. Histopathological study showed that AE decreases the necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue. Aqueous extract of B. variegata leaves was found effective in treatment of both type I and type II diabetes.

  6. Distinct type I and type II toxin-antitoxin modules control Salmonella lifestyle inside eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Moreno-Córdoba, Inmaculada; Figueroa, Virginia; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2015-03-20

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules contribute to the generation of non-growing cells in response to stress. These modules abound in bacterial pathogens although the bases for this profusion remain largely unknown. Using the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model, here we show that a selected group of TA modules impact bacterial fitness inside eukaryotic cells. We characterized in this pathogen twenty-seven TA modules, including type I and type II TA modules encoding antisense RNA and proteinaceous antitoxins, respectively. Proteomic and gene expression analyses revealed that the pathogen produces numerous toxins of TA modules inside eukaryotic cells. Among these, the toxins HokST, LdrAST, and TisBST, encoded by type I TA modules and T4ST and VapC2ST, encoded by type II TA modules, promote bacterial survival inside fibroblasts. In contrast, only VapC2ST shows that positive effect in bacterial fitness when the pathogen infects epithelial cells. These results illustrate how S. Typhimurium uses distinct type I and type II TA modules to regulate its intracellular lifestyle in varied host cell types. This function specialization might explain why the number of TA modules increased in intracellular bacterial pathogens.

  7. Association between the Type of Workplace and Lung Function in Copper Miners

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyński, Leszek; Wojakowska, Anna; Ścieszka, Marek; Turczyn, Barbara; Schmidt, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the analysis was to retrospectively assess changes in lung function in copper miners depending on the type of workplace. In the groups of 225 operators, 188 welders, and 475 representatives of other jobs, spirometry was performed at the start of employment and subsequently after 10, 20, and 25 years of work. Spirometry Longitudinal Data Analysis software was used to estimate changes in group means for FEV1 and FVC. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess an association between workplace and lung function. Lung function assessed on the basis of calculation of longitudinal FEV1 (FVC) decline was similar in all studied groups. However, multiple linear regression model used in cross-sectional analysis revealed an association between workplace and lung function. In the group of welders, FEF75 was lower in comparison to operators and other miners as early as after 10 years of work. Simultaneously, in smoking welders, the FEV1/FVC ratio was lower than in nonsmokers (p < 0,05). The interactions between type of workplace and smoking (p < 0,05) in their effect on FVC, FEV1, PEF, and FEF50 were shown. Among underground working copper miners, the group of smoking welders is especially threatened by impairment of lung ventilatory function. PMID:27274987

  8. Modeling fluid dynamics on type II quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, James; Weeks, David; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-03-01

    A quantum algorithm is presented for modeling the time evolution of density and flow fields governed by classical equations, such as the diffusion equation, the nonlinear Burgers equation, and the damped wave equation. The algorithm is intended to run on a type-II quantum computer, a parallel quantum computer consisting of a lattice of small type I quantum computers undergoing unitary evolution and interacting via information interchanges represented by an orthogonal matrices. Information is effectively transferred between adjacent quantum computers over classical communications channels because of controlled state demolition following local quantum mechanical qubit-qubit interactions within each quantum computer. The type-II quantum algorithm presented in this paper describes a methodology for generating quantum logic operations as a generalization of classical operations associated with finite-point group symmetries. The quantum mechanical evolution of multiple qubits within each node is described. Presented is a proof that the parallel quantum system obeys a finite-difference quantum Boltzman equation at the mesoscopic scale, leading in turn to various classical linear and nonlinear effective field theories at the macroscopic scale depending on the details of the local qubit-qubit interactions.

  9. Gene expression profiles of alveolar type II cells of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Naoya; Ota, Chiharu; Takahashi, Toru; Suzuki, Takaya; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nagatomi, Ryouichi; Kondo, Takashi; Yamaya, Mutsuo; Kubo, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the gene expression pattern specific in alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII cells) isolated from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design Case control. Setting Two hospitals in Japan. Participants Three patients without COPD and three patients with COPD in microarray analyses. Five smokers without COPD and nine smokers with COPD in the following analyses. Primary and secondary outcome measured Primary outcome included identification of differentially expressed genes and activated or inhibited pathways in ATII cells of the patients with COPD, compared to those of the patients without COPD, using Affymetrix gene expression arrays. Secondary outcome included validation of the results of microarray analyses by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Results We isolated ATII cells from COPD and non-COPD lungs using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We performed Affymetrix gene expression arrays on both types of ATII cells. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed that two major gene sets were enriched in ATII cells from COPD lungs: interferon-responsive gene sets and gene sets associated with cell cycle progression. Gene ontology term enrichment analyses indicated that among the interferon-stimulated genes, ATII cells in COPD expressed genes such as PSMB8, PSMB9, TAP1 and TAP2 associated with the antigen processing and presentation pathway. We validated the results of the microarray analyses using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. In addition, FACS analysis indicated that the percentage of ATII cells to CD45-negative lung cells isolated from COPD lungs were significantly increased more than that from non-COPD lungs. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that interferon-stimulated genes involved in the antigen processing and presentation pathway and genes involved in cell cycle progression were enriched in ATII cells of the patients with COPD. These pathways might alter phenotypes of ATII

  10. Glomerular filtration rate determinations in conscious type II diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Benjamin J.; Park, Sungmi

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The current studies were performed to determine the later stages of the progression of renal disease in type II diabetic mice (BKS; db/db). Methodology was developed for determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in conscious, chronically instrumented mice using continuous intravenous infusion of FITC-labeled inulin to achieve a steady-state plasma inulin concentration. Obese diabetic mice exhibited increased GFR compared with control mice. GFR averaged 0.313 ± 0.018 and 0.278 ± 0.007 ml/min in 18-wk-old obese diabetic (n = 11) and control (n = 13) mice, respectively (P < 0.05). In 28-wk-old obese diabetic (n = 10) and control (n = 15) mice, GFR averaged 0.348 ± 0.030 and 0.279 ± 0.009 ml/min, respectively (P < 0.05). GFR expressed per gram BW was significantly reduced in 18- and 28-wk-old obese diabetic compared with control mice (5.9 ± 0.3 vs. 9.0 ± 0.3; 6.6 ± 0.6 vs. 7.8 ± 0.3 μl·min−1·g body wt−1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, older nonobese type II diabetic mice had significantly reduced GFR (0.179 ± 0.023 ml/min; n = 6) and elevated urinary albumin excretion (811 ± 127 μg/day) compared with obese diabetic and control mice (514 ± 54, 171 ± 18 μg/day), which are consistent with the advanced stages of renal disease. These studies suggest that hyperfiltration contributes to the progression of renal disease in type II diabetic mice. PMID:21147841

  11. On the Intrinsic Diversity of Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Prieto, Jose L.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen-rich Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe) exhibit correlations between the plateau luminosity {L}{pl}, the nickel mass {M}{Ni}, the explosion energy {E}{exp}, and the ejecta mass {M}{ej}. Using our global, self-consistent, multi-band model of nearby well-observed SNe, we find that the covariances of these quantities are strong and that the confidence ellipsoids are oriented in the direction of the correlations, which reduces their significance. By proper treatment of the covariance matrix of the model, we discover a significant intrinsic width to the correlations between {L}{pl}, {E}{exp} and {M}{Ni}, where the uncertainties due to the distance and the extinction dominate. For fixed {E}{exp}, the spread in {M}{Ni} is about 0.25 dex, which we attribute to the differences in the progenitor internal structure. We argue that the effects of incomplete γ-ray trapping are not important in our sample. Similarly, the physics of the Type II-Plateau SN light curves leads to inherently degenerate estimates of {E}{exp} and {M}{ej}, which makes their observed correlation weak. Ignoring the covariances of SN parameters or the intrinsic width of the correlations causes significant biases in the slopes of the fitted relations. Our results imply that Type II-Plateau SN explosions are not described by a single physical parameter or a simple one-dimensional trajectory through the parameter space, but instead reflect the diversity of the core and surface properties of their progenitors. We discuss the implications for the physics of the explosion mechanism and possible future observational constraints.

  12. New enzyme immunoassay for detecting total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Waters, H M; Smith, C; Howarth, J E; Dawson, D W; Delamore, I W

    1989-03-01

    A method for the detection of total, type I, and type II intrinsic factor antibodies was devised. The technique comprises a two-site solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with human intrinsic factor conjugated with horseradish peroxidase as label and attached to polystyrene tubes as solid phase. One conjugation provides sufficient material to assay more than 10,000 patient samples. The label proved stable during the course of this evaluation and was still in use more than 12 months after preparation. When applied to 45 serum samples from cases of pernicious anaemia, intrinsic factor antibodies were shown in 30 (67%). Simplicity, high capacity, low cost and label stability, combined with relatively high clinical sensitivity make the method suitable for cost effective screening of large numbers of samples. Simple modifications to the basic assay reagents permitted type I and type II intrinsic factor antibodies to be differentiated.

  13. Effect of the type-I to type-II Weyl semimetal topological transition on superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dingping; Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Shapiro, I.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of recently discovered topological transition between type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals on superconductivity is considered. A set of Gorkov equations for weak superconductivity in Weyl semimetal under topological phase transition is derived and solved. The critical temperature and superconducting gap both have spikes in the transition point as functions of the tilt parameter of the Dirac cone determined, in turn, by the material parameters like pressure. The spectrum of superconducting excitations is different in two phases: The sharp cone pinnacle is characteristic for type I, while two parallel almost flat bands, are formed in type II. Spectral density is calculated on both sides of transition to demonstrate the different weights of the bands. The superconductivity thus can be used as a clear indicator for the topological transformation. Results are discussed in the light of recent experiments.

  14. A quantitative infection assay for human type I, II, and III interferon antiviral activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upon virus infection, cells secrete a diverse group of antiviral molecules that signal proximal cells to enter into an antiviral state, slowing or preventing viral spread. These paracrine signaling molecules can work synergistically, so measurement of any one antiviral molecule does not reflect the total antiviral activity of the system. Results We have developed an antiviral assay based on replication inhibition of an engineered fluorescent vesicular stomatitis virus reporter strain on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our assay provides a quantitative functional readout of human type I, II, and III interferon activities, and it provides better sensitivity, intra-, and inter-assay reproducibility than the traditional crystal violet based assay. Further, it eliminates cell fixation, rinsing, and staining steps, and is inexpensive to implement. Conclusions A dsRed2-strain of vesicular stomatitis virus that is sensitive to type I, II, and III interferons was used to develop a convenient and sensitive assay for interferon antiviral activity. We demonstrate use of the assay to quantify the kinetics of paracrine antiviral signaling from human prostate cancer (PC3) cells in response to viral infection. The assay is applicable to high-throughput screening for anti-viral compounds as well as basic studies of cellular antiviral signaling. PMID:23829314

  15. Interfacial stress affects rat alveolar type II cell signaling and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Hobi, Nina; Ravasio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456–C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (IAL) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca2+-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an IAL in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between IAL and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca2+ was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca2+ entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the IAL, but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release. PMID:22610352

  16. Jamming dynamics of stretch-induced surfactant release by alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Arnab; Arold, Stephen P; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Suki, Béla

    2012-03-01

    Secretion of pulmonary surfactant by alveolar epithelial type II cells is vital for the reduction of interfacial surface tension, thus preventing lung collapse. To study secretion dynamics, rat alveolar epithelial type II cells were cultured on elastic membranes and cyclically stretched. The amounts of phosphatidylcholine, the primary lipid component of surfactant, inside and outside the cells, were measured using radiolabeled choline. During and immediately after stretch, cells secreted less surfactant than unstretched cells; however, stretched cells secreted significantly more surfactant than unstretched cells after an extended lag period. We developed a model based on the hypothesis that stretching leads to jamming of surfactant traffic escaping the cell, similar to vehicular traffic jams. In the model, stretch increases surfactant transport from the interior to the exterior of the cell. This transport is mediated by a surface layer with a finite capacity due to the limited number of fusion pores through which secretion occurs. When the amount of surfactant in the surface layer approaches this capacity, interference among lamellar bodies carrying surfactant reduces the rate of secretion, effectively creating a jam. When the stretch stops, the jam takes an extended time to clear, and subsequently the amount of secreted surfactant increases. We solved the model analytically and show that its dynamics are consistent with experimental observations, implying that surfactant secretion is a fundamentally nonlinear process with memory representing collective behavior at the level of single cells. Our results thus highlight the importance of a jamming dynamics in stretch-induced cellular secretory processes.

  17. Plasmons in finite type-II semiconductor multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, H. K.; Song, L. M.

    1988-10-01

    We study finite type-II semiconductor multilayers consisting of alternate layers of two-dimensional electron and hole carriers. The collective excitation is investigated with use of the coupled Boltzmann equations. We obtain the equation determining the plasma modes for N (even) layers. For N=6, we have shown the numerical results for two cases of different electron and hole masses. The total number of plasmons, and the existence of Giuliani-Quinn surface plasmons which are not Landau damped, depend on the parameters used.

  18. Predictive data modeling of human type II diabetes related statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Kristina L.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Albritton, Nathaniel G.

    2009-04-01

    During the course of routine Type II treatment of one of the authors, it was decided to derive predictive analytical Data Models of the daily sampled vital statistics: namely weight, blood pressure, and blood sugar, to determine if the covariance among the observed variables could yield a descriptive equation based model, or better still, a predictive analytical model that could forecast the expected future trend of the variables and possibly eliminate the number of finger stickings required to montior blood sugar levels. The personal history and analysis with resulting models are presented.

  19. Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.

  20. The type II secretion system: biogenesis, molecular architecture and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin V; Sandkvist, Maria; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-04-02

    Many gram-negative bacteria use the sophisticated type II secretion system (T2SS) to translocate a wide range of proteins from the periplasm across the outer membrane. The inner-membrane platform of the T2SS is the nexus of the system and orchestrates the secretion process through its interactions with the periplasmic filamentous pseudopilus, the dodecameric outer-membrane complex and a cytoplasmic secretion ATPase. Here, recent structural and biochemical information is reviewed to describe our current knowledge of the biogenesis and architecture of the T2SS and its mechanism of action.

  1. Predicted continuum spectra of type II supernovae - LTE results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaviv, G.; Wehrse, R.; Wagoner, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The continuum spectral energy distribution of the flux emerging from type II supernovae is calculated from quasi-static radiative transfer through a power-law density gradient, assuming radiative equilibrium and LTE. It is found that the Balmer jump disappears at high effective temperatures and low densities, while the spectrum resembles that of a dilute blackbody but is flatter with a sharper cutoff at the short-wavelength end. A significant UV excess is found in all models calculated. The calculation should be considered exploratory because of significant effects which are anticipated to arise from departure from LTE.

  2. Antimonide type-II superlattice barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Höglund, Linda; Keo, Sam A.; Rafol, B., , Sir; Hill, Cory J.; Fisher, Anita M.; Luong, Edward M.; Nguyen, Jean; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Pepper, Brian J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2017-02-01

    We provide a brief overview of recent progress in III-V semiconductor infrared photodetectors resulting from advances in infrared detector materials, including type-II superlattices (T2SL) and InAsSb alloy, and the unipolar detector architecture. We summarize T2SL unipolar barrier infrared detector and focal plane array development at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of the Vital Infrared Sensor Technology Acceleration (VISTA) Program. We also comment on the connection of T2SL barrier infrared detector to MCT infrared detectors.

  3. Interaction of ultrasound with vortices in type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1996-04-01

    The theory of ultrasound in the mixed state of type-II superconductors is suggested which takes into account the Magnus force on vortices, the anti-Magnus force on ions, and diamagnetism of the mixed state. The acoustic Faraday effect (rotation of polarization of the transverse ultrasonic wave propagating along vortices) is linear in the Magnus force in any regime of the flux flow for wavelengths now used in the ultrasound experiments. Therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, the Faraday effect should be looked for only in clean superconductors with a strong Magnus force. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. d-Brane Instantons in Type II Orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetič, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

    2009-11-01

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of d-brane instantons in [Formula: see text] supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract d-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function, and higher fermionic F-terms, and we briefly discuss the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy d-brane instantons for the construction of semirealistic models of particle physics or supersymmetry breaking in compact and noncompact geometries.

  5. Nonresonant Recirculating Type II Second-Harmonic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, T. Sean; Moore, Gerald T.

    2004-04-01

    We show an experimental proof of concept for a nonresonant recirculation method to increase the conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) with type II phase matching. As much as a factor-of-4 efficiency increase compared with that of single-pass SHG is possible, provided that the recirculation length is within the coherence length of the pump laser. Nonresonant recirculating SHG may be valuable in systems in which intracavity doubling is not practicable, such as high-power cw bulk solid-state or fiber lasers.

  6. Type II strained layer superlattice: A potential future IR solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidrow, Meimei Z.

    2009-11-01

    Type II strained layer superlattice (SLS) has been making tremendous progress in the past few years funded by the Missile Defense Agency Advanced Technology Directorate (MDA/DV) under the Passive EO/IR Program. SLS has shown great potential as a future solution for infrared military systems. In this presentation, the most recent progress in SLS development will be presented. The presentation will also discuss the comparison of SLS with mercury-cadmium-telluride (HgCdTe) using Rule 07, SLS minority carrier lifetime issues, and future directions.

  7. Lung cancer patients’ CD4+ T cells are activated in vitro by MHC II cell-based vaccines despite the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Minu K.; Bosch, Jacobus J.; Thompson, James A.; Ksander, Bruce R.; Edelman, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains an incurable disease. Immunotherapies that activate patients’ T cells against resident tumor cells are being developed; however, these approaches may not be effective in NSCLC patients due to tumor-induced immune suppression. A major cause of immune suppression is myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Because of the strategic role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and immune memory, we are developing cell-based vaccines that activate tumor-specific CD4+ T cells in the presence of MDSC. The vaccines are NSCLC cell lines transfected with costimulatory (CD80) plus major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) genes that are syngeneic to the recipient. The absence of invariant chain promotes the presentation of endogenously synthesized tumor antigens, and the activation of MHC II-restricted, tumor-antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Methods Potential vaccine efficacy was tested in vitro by priming and boosting peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten NSCLC patients who had varying levels of MDSC. CD4+ T cell activation was quantified by measuring Type 1 and Type 2 cytokine release. Results The vaccines activated CD4+ T cells from all ten patients, despite the presence of CD33+CD11b+ MDSC. Activated CD4+ T cells were specific for NSCLC and did not cross-react with tumor cells derived from non-lung tissue or normal lung fibroblasts. Conclusions The NSCLC vaccines activate tumor-specific CD4+ T cells in the presence of potent immune suppression, and may be useful for the treatment of patients with NSCLC. PMID:18322683

  8. Lung cancer patients' CD4(+) T cells are activated in vitro by MHC II cell-based vaccines despite the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Minu K; Bosch, Jacobus J; Thompson, James A; Ksander, Bruce R; Edelman, Martin J; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2008-10-01

    Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains an incurable disease. Immunotherapies that activate patients' T cells against resident tumor cells are being developed; however, these approaches may not be effective in NSCLC patients due to tumor-induced immune suppression. A major cause of immune suppression is myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Because of the strategic role of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the activation of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and immune memory, we are developing cell-based vaccines that activate tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells in the presence of MDSC. The vaccines are NSCLC cell lines transfected with costimulatory (CD80) plus major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) genes that are syngeneic to the recipient. The absence of invariant chain promotes the presentation of endogenously synthesized tumor antigens, and the activation of MHC II-restricted, tumor-antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. Potential vaccine efficacy was tested in vitro by priming and boosting peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten NSCLC patients who had varying levels of MDSC. CD4(+) T cell activation was quantified by measuring Type 1 and Type 2 cytokine release. The vaccines activated CD4(+) T cells from all ten patients, despite the presence of CD33(+)CD11b(+) MDSC. Activated CD4(+) T cells were specific for NSCLC and did not cross-react with tumor cells derived from non-lung tissue or normal lung fibroblasts. The NSCLC vaccines activate tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells in the presence of potent immune suppression, and may be useful for the treatment of patients with NSCLC.

  9. Safety and Tolerability of Alveolar Type II Cell Transplantation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Mollar, Anna; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; Closa, Daniel; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Fernanda; Marin, Pedro; Burgos, Felip; Martorell, Jaume; Sánchez, Marcelo; Arguis, Pedro; Soy, Dolors; Bayas, José M; Ramirez, José; Tetley, Teresa D; Molins, Laureano; de la Bellacasa, Jordi Puig; Rodríguez-Villar, Camino; Rovira, Irene; Fiblà, Juan José; Xaubet, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited response to currently available therapies. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells act as progenitor cells in the adult lung, contributing to alveolar repair during pulmonary injury. However, in IPF, ATII cells die and are replaced by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. In previous preclinical studies, we demonstrated that ATII-cell intratracheal transplantation was able to reduce pulmonary fibrosis. The main objective of this study was to investigate the safety and tolerability of ATII-cell intratracheal transplantation in patients with IPF. We enrolled 16 patients with moderate and progressive IPF who underwent ATII-cell intratracheal transplantation through fiberoptic bronchoscopy. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of ATII-cell transplantation by assessing the emergent adverse side effects that appeared within 12 months. Moreover, pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and disease extent during 12 months of follow-up were evaluated. No significant adverse events were associated with the ATII-cell intratracheal transplantation. After 12 months of follow-up, there was no deterioration in pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, or disease extent. Our results support the hypothesis that ATII-cell intratracheal transplantation is safe and well tolerated in patients with IPF. This study opens the door to designing a clinical trial to elucidate the potential beneficial effects of ATII-cell therapy in IPF. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  10. Bleomycin-induced synthesis of type I procollagen by human lung and skin fibroblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    Clark, J G; Starcher, B C; Uitto, J

    1980-08-13

    Bleomycin is a chemotherapeutic agent sometimes associated with pulmonary fibrosis and skin lesions in patients undergoing treatment. We examined the mechanisms of increased collagen deposition on bleomycin-induced fibrosis by incubating human lung and skin fibroblast cultures with [14C]proline; the synthesis of [14C]hydroxyproline relative to DNA or cell protein was taken as an index of procollagen formation. Procollagen synthesis by lung cells in the presence of 0.1 and 1.0 microgram/ml bleomycin was significantly increased and similar results were obtained with skin fibroblasts. The relative synthesis of genetically distinct types of collagen was measured by isolating the newly synthesized type I and type III procollagens by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The proportion of type III procollagen of total newly synthesized procollagen in control lung fibroblast cultures was 17.4 +/0 0.6% (mean +/- S.E.) while the corresponding value in cells incubated in 1 microgram/ml bleomycin was 12.5 +/- 0.6% (n = 6, P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained when the ratios of newly synthesized type I and type III collagens were estimated by interrupted polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate after a limited proteolytic digestion with pepsin. The results indicate that the increased procollagen synthesis induced by bleomycin in fibroblast cultures is predominantly directed towards the synthesis of type I procollagen.

  11. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  12. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  13. [Achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis: radiological features.Case report].

    PubMed

    Delgado Carrasco, J; Casanova Morcillo, A; Zabalza Alvillos, M; Ayala Garcés, A

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of lethal dysplasia in the neonatal period. The abnormality was suspected after ultrasonography of a pregnant woman presenting weak fetal movements revealed shortening of the extremities, voluminous cranium and polyhydramnios. Clinical and radiological findings showed platyspondylic dwarfism with short extremities, narrow thorax and hydropic appearance. The infant died on the third day of life from progressive respiratory distress. In the absence of histological, chondro-osseus and molecular studies, detailed clinical and radiological studies, as well as the lethal evolution during the neonatal period, guided the diagnosis of hypochondrogenesis. This entity, together with achondrogenesis II (and other dysplasias), forms part of the same spectrum of collagen type II abnormalities produced by a defect in the gene (COL2A1) that codifies collagen II, located in chromosome 12 I(12q13.1-13.2). When a heterozygote is produced, transmission is dominant autosomal. The phenotype shows wide variation and severity depends on the mechanism and location of the mutation. The definitive diagnosis is given by cytomolecular studies, while individualization of the different entities is based on histological data from the cartilage; clinical findings and skeletal radiology serve as a guide.

  14. [Correction of tetralogy of Fallot and its influence to oxygen transport and lung changes. Part II: Lung changes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Reichart, B; Brunner, L; Hügel, W; Klinner, W; Weinhold, C; Westerburg, K W; Heinze, G

    1977-02-01

    22 children got lung scans 3 weeks respectively 12 months after the correction of a tetralogy of Fallot. In 18 cases previous operations were done: 12 times a Blalock-Taussig shunt and 6 times a Brock procedure. For the scan 20-70 mu diameter albumin macrospheres were used, which were labeled with Technetium 99m. The following pathologicla lung changes were seen: 1. Loss of perfusion, typical after Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure; these findings were always on the left side, the site of the anastomosis. 2. Anomalous flow distrubution (=more spheres in the upper than in the lower lobe) in the left lung; these changes were also caused by the Blalock-Taussing shunts, but disappeared within the one year follow-up after the correction. 3. Intrapulmonary rigt-left shunts (according to the dilatation of the alveolar capillaries). These decreased within one year from 9.9+/-1.3 to 4.6+/-0.9%.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic integration of type II nanorod heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Hunter Y.

    Motivated by a desire to control the actions of charges within materials in new and productive ways, researchers have increasingly focused their efforts on engineering materials on the nanometer scale where the laws of quantum mechanics rule supreme. Novel properties emerge when a semiconductor crystal is prepared at sizes below the hydrogenic ground state of the material, also known as the exciton Bohr radius. In addition to effects of quantum confinement, the large fraction of surface atoms can play a significant role in determining nanocrystal properties and applications. By combining two or more nanometer scale semiconductor crystals together to form a nanocrystal heterostructure, new avenues for materials engineering are opened up as nascent properties emerge. The high fraction of surface atoms means that much larger degrees of strain are possible than in the bulk. The large fraction of interface atoms means that the heterojunction properties can dominate the properties of the entire structure. Along with engineering these novel multi component properties comes new unexplored areas of science to be investigated and understood. New techniques are needed for studying these materials that require resolution of features much smaller than the wavelength of (visible) light. Along with this research comes a responsibility to share findings with the scientific community and to pursue directions that can positively impact humanity. At the same time, we should take a long term view when judging the applications of this or any new technology as we are only beginning to understand what is possible. After an introduction to the field in chapter one where we motivate our focus on anisotropic nanocrystal heterostructures, we discuss the formation of Fe3O4/CdS structures from spherical seeds in chapter two. In chapter three we turn our focus to type II CdSe/CdTe nanorod heterostructures where the anisotropy is inherent. The type II system is of particular interest because

  16. Type-II Bursts in Meter and Deca - Hectometer Wavelengths and Their Relation to Flares and CMEs: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, O.; Umapathy, S.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Pappa Kalaivani, P.; Vršnak, Bojan

    2010-09-01

    A study of the relationship between 38 type-II bursts recorded in meter and deca-hectometer (hereinafter m and DH) wavelength range and the associated flares and CMEs observed during the years 2000 - 2005 was carried out by Prakash et al. (2009). These events were divided into two classes: i) Class I, representing events where DH-type-II bursts are not a continuation of m-type-II bursts and ii) Class II, where DH-type-II bursts are a continuation of m-type-II bursts. In the present work, we extend the analysis of this sample of 38 events in three different steps: i) statistical properties of m- and DH-type-II bursts; ii) analysis of time lags between onsets of flares and CMEs associated with type-II bursts; and iii) statistical properties and relation between flares and CMEs of Class I and Class II events. We found a significant difference between the properties of m- and DH-type-II bursts of Class I and Class II events. For example, there are significant differences in starting and ending frequencies, bandwidth and speed. From the time delay analysis, we found the following. i) In 64% of Class I events, flares start after the onset of CMEs and the remaining 36% of flares start before the onset of CMEs. On the other hand, in the case of Class II events, the values are 83% and 17%, respectively. ii) The difference between the mean values of delay between flare start and DH start has high statistical significance (probability P of null hypothesis <1%). The time delays between the start of m-type-II burst and the CME onset are considerably larger for Class I events ( P=7%) than Class II events. iii) There are notable differences in: (a) delay between the flare and CME onset times ( P<1%); (b) flare rise time of Class I and Class II events ( P<5%). iv) While the flare rise time is well correlated with the lag between the flare start and the CME onset in Class I events, there is no such correlation for Class II events.

  17. Exotic dual of type II double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Riccioni, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    We perform an exotic dualization of the Ramond-Ramond fields in type II double field theory, in which they are encoded in a Majorana-Weyl spinor of O (D , D). Starting from a first-order master action, the dual theory in terms of a tensor-spinor of O (D , D) is determined. This tensor-spinor is subject to an exotic version of the (self-)duality constraint needed for a democratic formulation. We show that in components, reducing O (D , D) to GL (D), one obtains the expected exotically dual theory in terms of mixed Young tableaux fields. To this end, we generalize exotic dualizations to self-dual fields, such as the 4-form in type IIB string theory.

  18. Type-II Weyl cone transitions in driven semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ching-Kit; Oh, Yun-Tak; Han, Jung Hoon; Lee, Patrick A.

    2016-09-01

    Periodically driven systems provide tunable platforms to realize interesting Floquet topological phases and phase transitions. In electronic systems with Weyl dispersions, the band crossings are topologically protected even in the presence of time-periodic perturbations. This robustness permits various routes to shift and tilt the Weyl spectra in the momentum and energy space using circularly polarized light of sufficient intensity. We show that type-II Weyl fermions, in which the Weyl dispersions are tilted with the appearance of pocketlike Fermi surfaces, can be induced in driven Dirac semimetals and line node semimetals. Under a circularly polarized drive, both semimetal systems immediately generate Weyl node pairs whose types can be further controlled by the driving amplitude and direction. The resultant phase diagrams demonstrate experimental feasibilities.

  19. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Leigh D; Kat, Evelyn; Voyvodic, Frank

    2004-06-01

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema.

  20. Association of variations in HLA class II and other loci with susceptibility to EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Kouya; Okada, Yukinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kunitoh, Hideo; Matsumoto, Shingo; Takano, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Goto, Akiteru; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Ohe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Yukio; Goto, Yasushi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Furuta, Koh; Yoshida, Akihiko; Goto, Koichi; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kazumi; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Maeda, Daichi; Imai, Kazuhiro; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Saito, Akira; Shimada, Yoko; Sunami, Kuniko; Saito, Motonobu; Inazawa, Johji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Yokota, Jun; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Matsuo, Keitaro; Daigo, Yataro; Kubo, Michiaki; Kohno, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma driven by somatic EGFR mutations is more prevalent in East Asians (30–50%) than in European/Americans (10–20%). Here we investigate genetic factors underlying the risk of this disease by conducting a genome-wide association study, followed by two validation studies, in 3,173 Japanese patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma and 15,158 controls. Four loci, 5p15.33 (TERT), 6p21.3 (BTNL2), 3q28 (TP63) and 17q24.2 (BPTF), previously shown to be strongly associated with overall lung adenocarcinoma risk in East Asians, were re-discovered as loci associated with a higher susceptibility to EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, two additional loci, HLA class II at 6p21.32 (rs2179920; P =5.1 × 10−17, per-allele OR=1.36) and 6p21.1 (FOXP4) (rs2495239; P=3.9 × 10−9, per-allele OR=1.19) were newly identified as loci associated with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. This study indicates that multiple genetic factors underlie the risk of lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations. PMID:27501781

  1. nifH Sequences and Nitrogen Fixation in Type I and Type II Methanotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Auman, Ann J.; Speake, Catherine C.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2001-01-01

    Some methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are known to be capable of expressing nitrogenase and utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source. However, no sequences are available for nif genes in these strains, and the known nitrogen-fixing methanotrophs are confined mainly to a few genera. The purpose of this work was to assess the nitrogen-fixing capabilities of a variety of methanotroph strains. nifH gene fragments from four type I methanotrophs and seven type II methanotrophs were PCR amplified and sequenced. Nitrogenase activity was confirmed in selected type I and type II strains by acetylene reduction. Activities ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 nmol/min/mg of protein. Sequence analysis shows that the nifH sequences from the type I and type II strains cluster with nifH sequences from other gamma proteobacteria and alpha proteobacteria, respectively. The translated nifH sequences from three Methylomonas strains show high identity (95 to 99%) to several published translated environmental nifH sequences PCR amplified from rice roots and a freshwater lake. The translated nifH sequences from the type II strains show high identity (94 to 99%) to published translated nifH sequences from a variety of environments, including rice roots, a freshwater lake, an oligotrophic ocean, and forest soil. These results provide evidence for nitrogen fixation in a broad range of methanotrophs and suggest that nitrogen-fixing methanotrophs may be widespread and important in the nitrogen cycling of many environments. PMID:11525998

  2. A-current and type I/type II transition determine collective spiking from common input.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Andrea K; Thilo, Evan L; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2012-09-01

    The mechanisms and impact of correlated, or synchronous, firing among pairs and groups of neurons are under intense investigation throughout the nervous system. A ubiquitous circuit feature that can give rise to such correlations consists of overlapping, or common, inputs to pairs and populations of cells, leading to common spike train responses. Here, we use computational tools to study how the transfer of common input currents into common spike outputs is modulated by the physiology of the recipient cells. We focus on a key conductance, g(A), for the A-type potassium current, which drives neurons between "type II" excitability (low g(A)), and "type I" excitability (high g(A)). Regardless of g(A), cells transform common input fluctuations into a tendency to spike nearly simultaneously. However, this process is more pronounced at low g(A) values. Thus, for a given level of common input, type II neurons produce spikes that are relatively more correlated over short time scales. Over long time scales, the trend reverses, with type II neurons producing relatively less correlated spike trains. This is because these cells' increased tendency for simultaneous spiking is balanced by an anticorrelation of spikes at larger time lags. These findings extend and interpret prior findings for phase oscillators to conductance-based neuron models that cover both oscillatory (superthreshold) and subthreshold firing regimes. We demonstrate a novel implication for neural signal processing: downstream cells with long time constants are selectively driven by type I cell populations upstream and those with short time constants by type II cell populations. Our results are established via high-throughput numerical simulations and explained via the cells' filtering properties and nonlinear dynamics.

  3. Creatine kinase activity in patients with diabetes mellitus type I and type II.

    PubMed

    Jevrić-Causević, Adlija; Malenica, Maja; Dujić, Tanja

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus can be looked upon as an array of diseases, all of which exhibit common symptoms. While pathogenesis of IDDM (insulin dependant diabetes mellitus) is well understood, the same is not true for diabetes mellitus type II. In the latter case, relative contribution of the two factors (insulin resistance or decreased insulin secretion) varies individually, being highly increased in peripheral tissues and strictly dependant on insulin for glucose uptake. Moreover, in patients with diabetes mellitus type II, disbalance at the level of regulation of glucose metabolism as well as lipid metabolism has been noted in skeletal muscles. It is normal to assume that in this type of diabetes, these changes are reflected at the level of total activity of enzyme creatine kinase. This experimental work was performed on a group of 80 regular patients of Sarajevo General Hospital. Forty of those patients were classified as patients with diabetes type I and forty as patients with diabetes type II. Each group of patients was carefully chosen and constituted of equal number of males and females. The same was applied for adequate controls. Concentration of glucose was determined for each patient with GOD method, while activity of creatine kinase was determined with CK-NAC activated kit. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS software for Windows. Obtained results point out highly expressed differences in enzyme activity between two populations examined. Changes in enzyme activity are more expressed in patients with diabetes type II. Positive correlation between concentration of glucose and serum activity of the enzyme is seen in both categories of diabetic patients which is not the case for the patients in control group. At the same time, correlation between age and type of diabetes does exist . This is not followed at the level of enzyme activity or concentration of glucose.

  4. Effect of breastfeeding on asthma, lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity in ISAAC Phase II.

    PubMed

    Nagel, G; Büchele, G; Weinmayr, G; Björkstén, B; Chen, Y-Z; Wang, H; Nystad, W; Saraclar, Y; Bråbäck, L; Batlles-Garrido, J; Garcia-Hernandez, G; Weiland, S K

    2009-05-01

    The association between breastfeeding and wheezing, lung function and atopy was evaluated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase II. Cross-sectional studies were performed in 27 centres in 20 countries. Information on disease and exposure factors was collected by parental questionnaires. Data from 54,000 randomly selected school children (aged 8-12 yrs, 31,759 with skin prick testing) and a stratified subsample (n = 4,888) were used for testing the correlation of breastfeeding with bronchial hyperreactivity and lung function. Random effect models for meta-analysis were applied to calculate combined odds ratios (ORs). Any breastfeeding was associated with less wheeze both in affluent (adjusted OR (OR(adj)) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.97) and nonaffluent countries (OR(adj) 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.94). Further analyses revealed that this was true only for nonatopic wheeze in nonaffluent countries (OR(adj) 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.90). Breastfeeding was not associated with atopic wheeze and objective measures of allergy in both affluent and nonaffluent countries. In contrast, breastfeeding was associated with higher predicted forced expiratory volume in one second in affluent countries only (mean ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20). Breastfeeding is associated with protection against nonatopic wheeze, which becomes particularly evident in nonaffluent countries. Overall, breastfeeding was not related to any measure of allergy. These findings may explain some of the controversy regarding breastfeeding, since the direction of the association with breastfeeding depends on the predominating wheeze phenotype (e.g. atopic, nonatopic).

  5. Innate type 2 response to Alternaria extract enhances ryegrass-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with A. alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airways compared with ryegrass-only challenges. Type 2 ILC2 and Th2 cell recruitment to the airways was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass-challenged mice. Innate immune challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. A single exposure to Alternaria extract in ryegrass-sensitized and -challenged mice enhances the type 2 lung inflammatory response, including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production, possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposure to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma.

  6. Innate Type-2 Response to Alternaria Extract Enhances Ryegrass-induced Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Methods Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with Alternaria alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of BAL eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), IL-5 and IL-13 as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Results Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airway compared with ryegrass only challenges. Type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and Th2 cell recruitment to the airway was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass challenged mice. Innate challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. Conclusions A single exposure of Alternaria extract in ryegrass sensitized and challenged mice enhances the type-2 lung inflammatory response including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposures to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma. PMID:24296722

  7. Type 2 Deiodinase and Host Responses of Sepsis and Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shwu-Fan; Xie, Lishi; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Sammani, Saad; Wade, Michael S.; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Siegler, Jessica; Wang, Ting; Infusino, Giovanni; Kittles, Rick A.; Flores, Carlos; Zhou, Tong; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Villar, Jesus; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Dudek, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    The role of thyroid hormone metabolism in clinical outcomes of the critically ill remains unclear. Using preclinical models of acute lung injury (ALI), we assessed the gene and protein expression of type 2 deiodinase (DIO2), a key driver for synthesis of biologically active triiodothyronine, and addressed potential association of DIO2 genetic variants with ALI in a multiethnic cohort. DIO2 gene and protein expression levels in murine lung were validated by microarrays and immunoblotting. Lung injury was assessed by levels of bronchoalveolar lavage protein and leukocytes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped and ALI susceptibility association assessed. Significant increases in both DIO2 gene and D2 protein expression were observed in lung tissues from murine ALI models (LPS- and ventilator-induced lung injury), with expression directly increasing with the extent of lung injury. Mice with reduced levels of DIO2 expression (by silencing RNA) demonstrated reduced thyroxine levels in plasma and increased lung injury (increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein and leukocytes), suggesting a protective role for DIO2 in ALI. The G (Ala) allele of the Thr92Ala coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs225014) was protective in severe sepsis and severe sepsis–associated ALI after adjustments for age, sex, and genetic ancestry in a logistic regression model in European Americans. Our studies indicate that DIO2 is a novel ALI candidate gene, the nonsynonymous Thr92Ala coding variant of which confers ALI protection. Increased DIO2 expression may dampen the ALI inflammatory response, thereby strengthening the premise that thyroid hormone metabolism is intimately linked to the integrated response to inflammatory injury in critically ill patients. PMID:21685153

  8. The Standardized Candle Method for Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares Estay, F. A.; Hamuy, M.

    2009-05-01

    The large luminosities of type II supernovae (SNe) (those with a hydrogen-rich envelope) make this class of objects an interesting distance indicator. Their luminosities can be standardized using the expansion velocity of the photosphere estimated from P-Cygni line profiles of Fe II (Hamuy & Pinto 2002, ApJ, 566, L63). However, one of the problems that hampers their use in distance determinations is the uncertainty in the host-galaxy extinction. In this work we examine the usefulness of the V - I color measured toward the end of the plateau phase (the optically thick era of the supernova) as a reddening estimator. For this purpose we first assume a standard reddening law (R_V = 3.1) and then we relax this constrain and solve for R[V] by minimizing the dispersion in the Hubble diagram. >From a set of 30 type II plateau SNe we obtain a dispersion in the Hubble diagram of 0.4 mag when we fix R_V to 3.1, and 0.3 mag when we treat R[V] as a free parameter. In the latter case we find R_V = 1.71+/-0.11, which suggests a significantly different extinction law than the Galactic case. The calibration of the Hubble diagrams, using Cepheid distances for SN 1999em (Leonard et al. 2002, PASP, 114, 35) and SN 2004dj (Freedman et al. 2001, ApJ, 553, 47), yields a weighted mean of BVI filters for the Hubble constant of 71.3+/-3.4~km s^-1 Mpc^-1 using the second technique for dereddening.

  9. The influence of lung function on exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2010-03-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have impaired exercise capacity. While numerous factors are known to contribute to impaired exercise capacity, the role of lung function remains unclear. We conducted the present study to investigate the influence of lung function on exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was carried out in 31 male patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic complications or cardiopulmonary diseases. Patients with abnormal spirometry results such as a percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) < 80% and/or a ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to FVC (FEV1/FVC) < 70% were excluded from the study. We used the percentage of predicted maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max) as an index of exercise capacity. The correlations between %VO2max and lung function and other factors known to be associated with impaired exercise capacity were then assessed. Univariate analysis revealed %VO2max correlated significantly with percentage of predicted FEV1 (%FEV1), duration of type 2 diabetes, regular exercise habits, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In a multivariate analysis, %FEV1 and regular exercise habits were found to be independent determinants of %VO2max. A mild reduction in %FEV1, which may be a complication of diabetes, is associated with impaired exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. When evaluating spirometric values in patients with type 2 diabetes, a reduction in %FEV1 should be noted even when both %FVC and FEV1/FVC are within normal limits.

  10. Model light curves of linear Type II supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, D.A.; Wheeler, J.C.; Harkness, R.P. )

    1991-06-01

    Light curves computed from hydrodynamic models of supernova are compared graphically with the average observed B and V-band light curves of linear Type II supernovae. Models are based on the following explosion scenarios: carbon deflagration within a C + O core near the Chandrasekhar mass, electron-capture-induced core collapse of an O-Ne-Mg core of the Chandrasekhar mass, and collapse of an Fe core in a massive star. A range of envelope mass, initial radius, and composition is investigated. Only a narrow range of values of these parameters are consistent with observations. Within this narrow range, most of the observed light curve properties can be obtained in part, but none of the models can reproduce the entire light curve shape and absolute magnitude over the full 200 day comparison period. The observed lack of a plateau phase is explained in terms of a combination of small envelope mass and envelope helium enhancement. The final cobalt tail phase of the light curve can be reproduced only if the mass of explosively synthesized radioactive Ni-56 is small. The results presented here, in conjunction with the observed homogeneity among individual members of the supernova subclass, argue favorably for the O-Ne-Mg core collapse mechanism as an explanation for linear Type II supernovae. The Crab Nebula may arisen from such an explosion. Carbon deflagrations may lead to brighter events like SN 1979C. 62 refs.

  11. New evidence for flux cutting in type II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, David

    New evidence is presented for cross flow and cutting of nonparallel flux lines in type-II superconductors. A dramatic reversal is observed in the evolution of the axial flux density in the cavity of a hollow cylinder when the magnitude of a helical magnetic field is increased or decreased along the cylinder surfaces. Measurements of the concurrent evolution of the axial flux density threading the cylinder wall complement the above data. These two phenomena are explained, based on the ideas of two way traffic of sublattices of nonparallel flux lines traversing each other via flux line cutting processes. The classical critical state concept is reviewed and the essential features of the flux cutting process, cross traversal of flux line sheets, and attendant breathing modes are outlined. A generalized critical state model incorporating a phenomenological framework based on Maxwell's equations, standard physical constraints, and two separate energy dissipation mechanisms is summarized. Data curves are presented and it is shown in qualitative detail that the observed behavior demonstrates that flux line cutting occurs and associated breathing in and out of nonparallel flux lines takes places across the surface of type-II superconductors subjected to a varying helical magnetic field.

  12. Type II intermediate-luminosity optical transients (ILOTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, Amit; Soker, Noam

    2017-01-01

    We propose that in a small fraction of intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs) powered by a strongly interacting binary system, the ejected mass in the equatorial plane can block the central source from our line of sight. We can therefore observe only radiation that is reprocessed by polar outflow, much as in type II active galactic nuclei (AGN). An ejection of M_ej,e=10^{-4} M_⊙ (1 M_⊙) at 30 degrees from the equatorial plane and at a velocity of v_e = 100 {km} {s}^{-1} will block the central source in the NIR for about 5 years (500 years). During that period of time the object might disappear in the visible band, and be detected only in the IR band due to polar dust. We raise the possibility that the recently observed disappearance of a red giant in the visible, designated N6946-BH1, is a type II ILOT rather than a failed supernova. For this case we estimate that the ejected mass in the polar direction was M_ej,p≈ 10^{-3} M_⊙. Our scenario predicts that this event should reinstate its visible emission in several decades.

  13. Feeding problems and malnutrition in spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    PubMed

    Messina, Sonia; Pane, Marika; De Rose, Paola; Vasta, Isabella; Sorleti, Domenica; Aloysius, Annie; Sciarra, Federico; Mangiola, Fortunato; Kinali, Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a survey using a dedicated questionnaire to assess feeding difficulties and weight gain in a population of 122 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) type II patients, aged between 1 and 47 years. All the answers were entered in a database and were analysed subdividing the cohort into age groups (1-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-19, 20-29, and 30-50 years). Six out of our 122 patients (5%), all younger than 11 years, had weights more than 2SD above the median for age matched controls, whilst 45 (37%) had weights less than 2SD below the median. Chewing difficulties were reported in 34 of the 122 patients (28%) and limitation in the ability to open the mouth in 36 (30%) and both were increasingly more frequent with age. Swallowing difficulties were reported in 30 patients (25%). The results of our survey suggest that a number of patients with SMA type II have limited jaw opening, and chewing and swallowing difficulties. Our findings raise a few issues concerning standards of care that should be implemented in the monitoring and management of feeding difficulties and weight gain.

  14. Type II decompression sickness in a hyperbaric inside attendant.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Arbor, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) of an inside attendant (IA) is rarely encountered in hyperbarics. This report describes an IA who developed Type II DCS after a routine hyperbaric exposure. A 50-year-old male complained of lower extremity weakness and paresthesias after serving as an IA during a hyperbaric treatment to 40 fsw (122.52 kPa). Within 10 minutes after the conclusion of the treatment, the IA experienced irritability and confusion, and was unable to walk. Physical examination revealed decreased sensation below the T7 level, and decreased strength in the lower extremities. Type II DCS was diagnosed, and the IA was recompressed to 60 fsw (183.78 kPa) on a U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6, which resulted in improvement of his symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography with bubble study performed 16 months after the event demonstrated a large patent foramen ovale (PFO). Increased age, decreased physical fitness and the undiagnosed PFO may have predisposed this attendant to developing DCS. Although rare, DCS may occur in IAs. Routine monitoring and reporting of the long-term health of hyperbaric IAs should be considered by hyperbaric facilities and medical directors in order to further understand the characteristics of DCS and other hyperbaric-related conditions in these workers.

  15. Vitamin D - Dependent Rickets, Type II Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Hoxha, Rina; Grajçevci-Uka, Violeta; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work the report of one case with vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II. Methods: Diagnosis has been established based on anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory findings and radiological examination. Results: A female child (age 25 months) has been hospitalized due to bone deformity, bone pain, alopecia and walking difficulties. The laboratory findings have revealed that the calcium values was low (1.20 mmol/L), phosphates in the reference value (1.30 mmol/L) the alkaline phosphatase value was quite high (852 IU/L), high value of parathyroid hormone (9.21 pmol/L), normal value of 25- hydroxyvitamin D, whereas the values of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was high (185 μmol/L). Radiographic changes were evident and typical in the distal metaphysis of radius and ulna as well as in the bones of lower limbs (distal metaphysis of femur and proximal metaphysis of tibia and fibula). After treatment with calcium and calcitriol, the above mentioned clinical manifestations, laboratory test values and the radiographic changes in bones withdrew. Conclusions: Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II is a rare genetic recessive disease, and its treatment includes a constant use of calcium and calcitriol. PMID:24757409

  16. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  17. Inert Higgs Doublet Dark Matter in Type-II Seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Nomura, Takaaki

    2016-04-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) as a dark matter (DM) candidate is further inspired by recent AMS-02 data, which confirm the excess of positron fraction observed earlier by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments. Additionally, the excess of positron+electron flux is still significant in the measurement of Fermi-LAT. For solving the problem of massive neutrinos and observed excess of cosmic-ray by DM annihilation, we study the model with an inert Higgs doublet (IHD) in the framework of type-II seesaw mechanism by imposing a Z2 symmetry on the IHD, where the lightest particle of IHD is the DM candidate while the neutrino masses origin from the Higgs triplet in type-II seesaw model. We calculate the cosmic-ray production in our model and find that if leptonic triplet decays are dominant, the observed excess of positron/electron flux could be explained well in normal ordered neutrino mass spectrum, when the constraints of DM relic density and comic-ray antiproton spectrum are taken into account.

  18. Isolation and characterization of alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huanhuan; Quan, Yuan; Yan, Qing; Peng, Xinmiao; Mao, Zhengmei; Wetsel, Rick A; Wang, Dachun

    2014-06-01

    The use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to regenerate distal lung epithelia damaged by injuries or diseases requires development of safe and efficient methodologies that direct ESC differentiation into transplantable distal lung epithelial progenitors. Time-consuming culture procedure and low differentiation efficiency are major problems that are associated with conventional differentiation approaches via embryoid body formation. The use of a growth factor cocktail or a lung-specific cell-conditioned medium to enrich definitive endoderm for efficient differentiation of mouse ESCs (mESC) into alveolar epithelial progenitor type II cells (ATIICs) has been reported, but not yet successful for generating a homogenous population of ATIICs for tissue regeneration purpose, and it remains unclear whether or not those mESC-derived ATIICs possess normal biological functions. Here, we report a novel method using a genetically modified mESC line harboring an ATIIC-specific neomycin(R) transgene in Rosa 26 locus. We showed that ATIICs can be efficiently differentiated from mESCs as early as day 7 by culturing them directly on Matrigel-coated plates in DMEM containing 15% knockout serum replacement. With this culture condition, the genetically modified mESCs can be selectively differentiated into a homogenous population (>99%) of ATIICs. Importantly, the mESC-derived ATIICs (mESC-ATIICs) exhibited typical lamellar bodies and expressed surfactant protein A, B, and C as normal control ATIICs. When cultured with an air-liquid-interface culture system in Small Airway Epithelial Cell Growth Medium, the mESC-ATIICs can be induced to secrete surfactant proteins after being treated with dibutyryl cAMP+dexamethasone. These mESC-ATIICs can synthesize and secrete surfactant lipid in response to secretagogue, demonstrating active surfactant metabolism in mESC-ATIICs as that seen in normal control ATIICs. In addition, we demonstrated that the selected mESC-ATIICs can be maintained on Matrigel

  19. Characterization of type II alveolar epithelial cells by flow cytometry and fluorescent markers.

    PubMed

    Rochat, T R; Casale, J M; Hunninghake, G W

    1988-10-01

    Type II alveolar epithelial cells play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and functions of pulmonary alveoli. A number of techniques have been described to isolate type II cells for in vitro studies; however, type II cell suspensions isolated by each technique are still contaminated by macrophages or monocytes. The present studies describe the use of flow cytometry to accurately characterize the composition of these cell suspensions. With freshly isolated type II cell suspensions, type II cells could be distinguished from macrophages and monocytes by two methods: (1) the combination of natural fluorescence and orthogonal light scatter, or (2) the use of monoclonal antibodies OX-1 (directed against a common leukocyte antigen present on rat macrophages and monocytes) and PKK-1 (directed against cytokeratin intermediate filaments present in type II cells). With cultured type II cells, the combination of natural fluorescence and orthogonal light scatter did not distinguish between type II cells and macrophages or monocytes; however, the monoclonal antibodies OX-I and PKK-1 continued to distinguish between these cell types. As an example of the use of these techniques, the methods were used to define the sequential expression of class I and II major histocompatibility antigens on both type II cells and on macrophages or monocytes in the same cell preparations. These methods are of potential value in isolating pure populations either of type II cells or of macrophages or monocytes by cell sorting and in accurately identifying the cells present in type II cell suspensions or cultures.

  20. Supernova 1993J as a spectroscopic link between type II and type Ib supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, D. A.; Clocchiatti, A.; Benjamin, R.; Lester, D. F.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Supernova 1993J in the nearby galaxy M81 is one of the closest - and hence brightest - supernovae to be witnessed this century. The early spectrum of SN1993J showed the characteristic hydrogen signature of type II supernovae, but its subsequent evolution is atypical for this class of supernova. Here we present optical and infrared spectra of SN1993J up to 43 days after outburst, which reveal the onset of the helium absorption and emission features more commonly associated with hydrogen-free type Ib supernovae. Corresponding model spectra show that the progenitor star must have possessed an unusually thin (for type II supernovae) hydrogen-rich envelope overlying a helium-rich mantle. Moreover, the supernova ejecta must have remained compositionally stratified, with little transport of the hydrogen-rich material down into the underlying helium layer or mixing of heavier elements outwards. SN1993J therefore represents a transition object between hydrogen-dominated type II supernovae, and hydrogen-free, helium-dominated type Ib supernovae.

  1. Magnetic description of the Fermi arc in type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchoumakov, Serguei; Civelli, Marcello; Goerbig, Mark O.

    2017-03-01

    We consider finite-sized interfaces of a Weyl semimetal and show that the corresponding confinement potential is similar to the application of a magnetic field. Among the numerous states, which can be labeled by indices n like in Landau levels, the n =0 surface state describes the Weyl semimetal Fermi arc at a given chemical potential. Moreover, the analogy with a magnetic field shows that an external in-plane magnetic field can be used to distort the Fermi arc and would explain some features of magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals. We derive the Fermi arc for type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals where we deal with the tilt anisotropy by the use of Lorentz boosts. In the case of type-II Weyl semimetals, this leads to many additional topologically trivial surface states at low energy. Finally, we extend the Aharonov-Casher argument and demonstrate the stability of the Fermi arc over fluctuations of the surface potential.

  2. Varespladib inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 in bronchoalveolar lavage of different types of neonatal lung injury.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Daniele; Minucci, Angelo; Trias, Joaquim; Tripodi, Domenico; Conti, Giorgio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2012-05-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), which links surfactant catabolism and lung inflammation, is associated with lung stiffness, surfactant dysfunction, and degree of respiratory support in acute respiratory distress syndrome and in some forms of neonatal lung injury. Varespladib potently inhibits sPLA2 in animal models. The authors investigate varespladib ex vivo efficacy in different forms of neonatal lung injury. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 40 neonates affected by hyaline membrane disease, infections, or meconium aspiration and divided in 4 aliquots added with increasing varespladib or saline. sPLA2 activity, proteins, and albumin were measured. Dilution was corrected with the urea ratio. Varespladib was also tested in vitro against pancreatic sPLA2 mixed with different albumin concentration. Varespladib was able to inhibit sPLA2 in the types of neonatal lung injury investigated. sPLA2 activity was reduced in hyaline membrane disease (P < .0001), infections (P = .003), and meconium aspiration (P = .04) using 40 µM varespladib; 10 µM was able to lower enzyme activity (P = .001), with an IC(50) of 87 µM. An inverse relationship existed between protein level and activity reduction (r = 0.5; P = .029). The activity reduction/protein ratio tended to be higher in hyaline membrane disease. Varespladib efficacy was higher in vitro than in lavage fluids obtained from neonates (P < .001).

  3. Epidemiological study of HER-2 mutations among EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma patients in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefei; Zhao, Chao; Su, Chunxia; Ren, Shengxiang; Chen, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Caicun

    2016-10-28

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 is a driver gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study evaluated the mutation rate of HER-2 within the wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) lung adenocarcinoma population in China. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 456 patients with wild-type EGFR lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for HER-2 mutations by amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS), and HER-2 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. All samples positive for HER-2 mutation underwent direct sequencing for further verification. HER-2 mutation was detected in 22/456 cases (4.8 %); the rate was 6.7 % among 331 triple-negative samples (i.e., wild-type EGFR, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and ROS proto-oncogene 1). Direct sequencing confirmed that the results were consistent with those obtained by ARMS analysis in 19 cases. The positive rate was 15.4 % by immunohistochemical analysis of HER-2 expression; this was not correlated with mutation rate. HER-2 mutation and positivity were not correlated with gender, age, smoking status, disease stage, or histological subtype. The 22 cases of HER-2 mutations occurred only in acinar (36.4 %), papillary (36.4 %), minimally invasive (13.6 %), solid (9.2 %), and invasive mucinous (4.5 %) subtypes. Disease-free and overall survival were not associated with HER-2 mutation or HER-2 protein overexpression. The HER-2 mutation rate was 4.8 % among EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma patients in China, and 6.7 % among driver genes, triple-negative lung adenocarcinoma. The incidence of HER-2 mutation varied among different lung adenocarcinoma subtypes, occurring mainly in acinar and papillary predominant subtypes. 15.4 % of EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma patients showed HER-2 protein overexpression, but this was not correlated to HER-2 mutation. Existing follow-up data did not show a correlation between HER-2 mutation with DFS or OS.

  4. Hypoxia promotes the skewed differentiation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells toward type II alveolar epithelial cells by regulating microRNA-145.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Shi, Xu; Yang, Liming; Mou, Yan; Li, Yingbo; Dang, Rongjing; Li, Changyuan

    2017-09-30

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well recognized for their ability to differentiate into type II alveolar epithelial (ATII) cells in damaged lungs, which is critical for reepithelization and recovery in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the high level of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) commonly seen in injured lung tissues is also able to induce MSCs to differentiate into fibroblast-like cells. In this study, we found that hypoxia could promote umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) differentiation into ATII cells rather than into fibroblast-like cells, and this effect was mainly mediated by microRNA-145 (miR-145), which could induce the inhibition of TGF-β signaling by targeting TGF-β receptor II (TGFβRII). Clarifying the function of hypoxia in the fate determination of MSCs is important for improving stem cell-based therapies for ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Critical role of the endogenous interferon ligand-receptors in type I and type II interferons response.

    PubMed

    Lasfar, Ahmed; Cook, Jeffry R; Cohen Solal, Karine A; Reuhl, Kenneth; Kotenko, Sergei V; Langer, Jerome A; Laskin, Debra L

    2014-07-01

    Separate ligand-receptor paradigms are commonly used for each type of interferon (IFN). However, accumulating evidence suggests that type I and type II IFNs may not be restricted to independent pathways. Using different cell types deficient in IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR1, IFNGR2 and IFN-γ, we evaluated the contribution of each element of the IFN system to the activity of type I and type II IFNs. We show that deficiency in IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 is associated with impairment of type II IFN activity. This impairment, presumably resulting from the disruption of the ligand-receptor complex, is obtained in all cell types tested. However, deficiency of IFNGR1, IFNGR2 or IFN-γ was associated with an impairment of type I IFN activity in spleen cells only, correlating with the constitutive expression of type II IFN (IFN-γ) observed on those cells. Therefore, in vitro the constitutive expression of both the receptors and the ligands of type I or type II IFN is critical for the enhancement of the IFN activity. Any IFN deficiency can totally or partially impair IFN activity, suggesting the importance of type I and type II IFN interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that type I and type II IFNs may regulate biological activities through distinct as well as common IFN receptor complexes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Piezoelectricity in collagen type II fibrils measured by scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, D.; Kilpatrick, J. I.; Hsu, T.; Habelitz, S.; Fertala, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.

    2014-08-01

    The converse piezoelectric effect in collagen type II fibrils, the main collagen constituent in cartilage, was investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. The fibrils exhibited shear piezoelectric behavior similar to that previously reported in collagen type I fibrils and followed the same cantilever-fibril angle dependence present for type I. A uniform polarization directed from the amine to carboxyl termini, as seen for collagen type I, was observed in all type II fibrils studied. The shear piezoelectric coefficient, d15, however, for type II was roughly 28-32% of the value measured for type I fibrils. Possible explanations for the reduced piezoelectric coefficient of type II collagen are provided.

  7. LungTech, an EORTC Phase II trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy for centrally located lung tumours: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Adebahr, S; Collette, S; Shash, E; Lambrecht, M; Le Pechoux, C; Faivre-Finn, C; De Ruysscher, D; Peulen, H; Belderbos, J; Dziadziuszko, R; Fink, C; Guckenberger, M; Hurkmans, C

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a curative treatment option for inoperable early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resulting in high rates of tumour control and low risk of toxicity. However, promising results are mainly derived from SBRT of peripheral pulmonary lesions, whereas SBRT for the central tumours can lead to severe radiation sequelae owing to the spatial proximity to the serial organs at risk. Robust data on the tolerance of mediastinal structures to high-dose hypofractionated radiation are limited; furthermore, there are many open questions regarding the efficiency, safety and response assessment of SBRT in inoperable, centrally located early stage NSCLC, which are addressed in a prospective multicentre study [sponsored by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC 22113-08113—LungTech)]. In this review, we summarize the current status regarding SBRT for centrally located early stage NSCLC that leads to the rationale of the LungTech trial. Outline and some essential features of the study with focus on a summary of current experiences in dose/fraction-toxicity coherences after SBRT to the mediastinal structures that lead to LungTech normal tissue constraints are provided. PMID:25873481

  8. Neutrinos from type II supernovae - The first 100 milliseconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myra, Eric S.; Burrows, Adam

    1990-01-01

    The collapse of a 1.17 solar mass iron core is numerically followed through infall to 100 ms past core bounce, and the emergent neutrino spectra during each phase are highlighted. It is found that, even with fairly optimistic conditions for producing a strong, sustained core-bounce shock wave, the prompt shock stalls within 9 ms of core bounce at a radius of less than 250 km. It appears that a radical change in the character of the progenitor core or in our understanding of the relevant physics of stellar collapse is needed before the direct mechanism for type II supernovae can become viable. Expanding the number of neutrino types from one to six magnifies the debilitating effect of neutrino loss on shock propagation. At shock breakout, prompt bursts of all neutrino types are observed. The luminosities of the nonelectron types show a sudden turn-on in luminosity while that of the electron neutrinos steadily increases throughout infall as a result of accelerating electron capture.

  9. Neutrinos from type II supernovae - The first 100 milliseconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myra, Eric S.; Burrows, Adam

    1990-01-01

    The collapse of a 1.17 solar mass iron core is numerically followed through infall to 100 ms past core bounce, and the emergent neutrino spectra during each phase are highlighted. It is found that, even with fairly optimistic conditions for producing a strong, sustained core-bounce shock wave, the prompt shock stalls within 9 ms of core bounce at a radius of less than 250 km. It appears that a radical change in the character of the progenitor core or in our understanding of the relevant physics of stellar collapse is needed before the direct mechanism for type II supernovae can become viable. Expanding the number of neutrino types from one to six magnifies the debilitating effect of neutrino loss on shock propagation. At shock breakout, prompt bursts of all neutrino types are observed. The luminosities of the nonelectron types show a sudden turn-on in luminosity while that of the electron neutrinos steadily increases throughout infall as a result of accelerating electron capture.

  10. Metallicity from Type II supernovae from the (i)PTF

    SciTech Connect

    Taddia, F.; Moquist, P.; Sollerman, J.; Rubin, A.; Leloudas, G.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Pan, Y. -C.; Silverman, J. M.; Xu, D.; Yaron, O.

    2016-03-01

    Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) have recently been proposed as metallicity (Z) probes. The spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 1856) showed that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe ii λ5018 (pEW5018) during the plateau phase depends on the primordial Z, but there was a paucity of SNe IIP exhibiting pEW5018 that were compatible with Z < 0.4 Z. This lack might be due to some physical property of the SN II population or to the fact that those SNe have been discovered in luminous, metal-rich targeted galaxies. In this paper, we use SN II observations from the untargeted (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF] survey, aiming to investigate the pEW5018 distribution of this SN population and, in particular, to look for the presence of SNe II at lower Z. We perform pEW5018 measurements on the spectra of a sample of 39 (i)PTF SNe II, selected to have well-constrained explosion epochs and light-curve properties. Based on the comparison with the pEW5018 spectral models, we subgrouped our SNe into four Z bins from Z ≈ 0.1 Z up to Z ≈ 2 Z. We also independently investigated the Z of the hosts by using their absolute magnitudes and colors and, in a few cases, using strong-line diagnostics from spectra. We searched for possible correlations between SN observables, such as their peak magnitudes and the Z inferred from pEW5018. We found 11 events with pEW5018 that were small enough to indicate Z ≈ 0.1 Z. The trend of pEW5018 with Z matches the Z estimates obtained from the host-galaxy photometry, although the significance of the correlation is weak. Finally, we also found that SNe with brighter peak magnitudes have smaller pEW5018 and occur at lower Z.

  11. Metallicity from Type II supernovae from the (i)PTF

    DOE PAGES

    Taddia, F.; Moquist, P.; Sollerman, J.; ...

    2016-03-01

    Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) have recently been proposed as metallicity (Z) probes. The spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 1856) showed that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe ii λ5018 (pEW5018) during the plateau phase depends on the primordial Z, but there was a paucity of SNe IIP exhibiting pEW5018 that were compatible with Z < 0.4 Z⊙. This lack might be due to some physical property of the SN II population or to the fact that those SNe have been discovered in luminous, metal-rich targeted galaxies. In this paper, we use SN II observations from themore » untargeted (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF] survey, aiming to investigate the pEW5018 distribution of this SN population and, in particular, to look for the presence of SNe II at lower Z. We perform pEW5018 measurements on the spectra of a sample of 39 (i)PTF SNe II, selected to have well-constrained explosion epochs and light-curve properties. Based on the comparison with the pEW5018 spectral models, we subgrouped our SNe into four Z bins from Z ≈ 0.1 Z⊙ up to Z ≈ 2 Z⊙. We also independently investigated the Z of the hosts by using their absolute magnitudes and colors and, in a few cases, using strong-line diagnostics from spectra. We searched for possible correlations between SN observables, such as their peak magnitudes and the Z inferred from pEW5018. We found 11 events with pEW5018 that were small enough to indicate Z ≈ 0.1 Z⊙. The trend of pEW5018 with Z matches the Z estimates obtained from the host-galaxy photometry, although the significance of the correlation is weak. Finally, we also found that SNe with brighter peak magnitudes have smaller pEW5018 and occur at lower Z.« less

  12. Magnetoexcitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Barticevic, Zdenka; Pacheco, Monica; Oliveira, Luiz E.

    2004-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of excitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots (QD). In these systems the confinement of electrons inside the QD and the hole outside the QD produces a ring-like structure [1-2]. Recently, Ribeiro et al [3], in a magnetophotoluminescence study of type-II InP/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots, observed Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations characteristic of the ring topology for neutral excitons. Using a simple model they have derived the groundstate hole energy as a function of the magnetic field, and obtained values for the ring parameters which are in good agreement with the measured values. However, some of the features observed experimentally, in the photoluminescence intensity, can not be well explained under that approach. In this work we present a more realistic model which considers the finite width of the ring and the electron-hole interaction included via a perturbative approach. The calculations are performed within the oneparticle formalism using the effective mass approximation. The confinement potential for electrons is modelled as the superposition of a quantum well potential along the axial direction, and a parabolic lateral confinement potential. The energies for the hole in the ring plane are calculated using the method of reference [4]. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results of reference [3] provided that excitonic effects are properly taken into account. References 1. A.O. Govorov et al., Physica E 13 , 297 (2002). 2. K. L. Janssens et al. Phys. Rev B64, 155324 (2001), and Phys. Rev. B66, 075314 (2002). 3. E. Ribeiro, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, and W.Carvalho Jr., and A.O. Govorov, condmat/0304092 (2003). 4. Z. Barticevic, G. Fuster, and M. Pacheco,Phys. Rev. B 65, 193307 (2002).

  13. Frequency of Class I and II HLA alleles in patients with lung cancer according to chemotherapy response and 5-year survival.

    PubMed

    Araz, Omer; Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Meral, Mehmet; Yalcin, Aslıhan; Acemoglu, Hamit; Dogan, Hasan; Karaman, Adem; Aydin, Yener; Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the world, and the most common type is non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are the main treatments for patients with NSCLC, but unfortunately outcome remains unsatisfactory. This study aimed to determine whether Class I and II histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are related with response to chemotherapy and survival of lung cancer. A total of 65 NSCLC patients (56 men and 9 women, mean age 58.4 ± 11 years) were included in the study. Patient groups were compared with a control group of 88 unrelated healthy kidney or bone marrow donors in order to clearly identify susceptible and protective HLA alleles in lung cancer. Target lesions and tumor response were assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines. Results were classified into two groups: complete-partial response and stable-progressive disease. We found that expression of HLA-A32, HLA-B41, HLA-B57, HLA-DRB1*13, and HLA-DQ5 were more frequent in the complete and partial response groups to chemotherapy than in the control group. The frequency of HLA-A11, HLA-A29, HLA-BW6, HLA-CW3, HLA-DR1*1, and HLA-DRB1*3 were determined to be higher in the stable and progressive disease groups taking chemotherapy than in the control group. Additionally, expressions of HLA-A2 and HLA-B49 were statistically related with 5-year survival. Our results suggested that expressions of HLA-BW6 and HLA-DRB1*13 alleles may be predictable markers for response to chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A dinuclear Ni(II) complex with two types of intramolecular magnetic couplings: Ni(II)-Ni(II) and Ni(II)-TTF*+.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Xia; Ambrus, Christina; Dolder, Stefan; Neels, Antonia; Decurtins, Silvio

    2006-11-27

    A dinuclear Ni(II) complex involving tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) radicals as ligands has been prepared and characterized, [Ni2(mu-Cl)2(L*+)2(I3)4(I2)3.(H2O)2.(C4H8O)3 (1), L = 4,5-bis(2-pyridylmethylsulfanyl)-4',5'-ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene. There are two types of intramolecular magnetic exchange interactions, namely one ferromagnetic Ni(II)-Ni(II) and one antiferromagnetic Ni(II)-TTF*+. This study is new in the respect of revealing a magnetic exchange interaction between a TTF*+ radical and a paramagnetic transition metal ion. This is due to the fact of a direct binding of the transition metal ion to the skeleton of the TTF*+ radical.

  15. Truck design optimization project. Phase II: Type II Truck test results report. Technical report Apr-Dec 80

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, R.A.; Gibson, D.W.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of the Type II Truck Test Program was to obtain performance data on several Type II (or premium) freight car trucks in order to characterize their operational behavior. Data were acquired in the performance regimes of curve negotiation, lateral stability, trackability, and ride quality. Tests were also conducted to obtain rolling resistance data as part of the fuel consumption study. Data on the Longitudinal coupler forces were used to compare the relative ability of various trucks to reduce rolling resistance and flanging forces, thus improving fuel consumption. The test program was designed to provide direct comparison measurements, wherever possible, with the Type I Truck tested earlier in TDOP Phase II. Seven Type II trucks were tested over the same test zones used during Type I testing. This report documents the changes to the instrumentation and equipment developed for Type I testing which were made for testing Type II trucks. Descriptions of the testing of each truck are presented, as are the procedures for data acquisition and reduction. Additionally, the report contains five appendices: Wheelset Calibration Data, Bearing Adapter Calibration Data, Type II Truck Test Plan and Procedure, Data Reduction Equations, and Transducer Location Measurement Data. The performance data gathered during testing will be used to formulate performance specifications for Type II trucks.

  16. Policing starter unit selection of the enterocin type II polyketide synthase by the type II thioesterase EncL.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzis, John A; Cheng, Qian; Meluzzi, Dario; Xiang, Longkuan; Izumikawa, Miho; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Moore, Bradley S

    2011-11-15

    Enterocin is an atypical type II polyketide synthase (PKS) product from the marine actinomycete 'Streptomyces maritimus'. The enterocin biosynthesis gene cluster (enc) codes for proteins involved in the assembly and attachment of the rare benzoate primer that initiates polyketide assembly with the addition of seven malonate molecules and culminates in a Favorskii-like rearrangement of the linear poly-β-ketone to give its distinctive non-aromatic, caged core structure. Fundamental to enterocin biosynthesis, which utilizes a single acyl carrier protein (ACP), EncC, for both priming with benzoate and elongating with malonate, involves maintaining the correct balance of acyl-EncC substrates for efficient polyketide assembly. Here, we report the characterization of EncL as a type II thioesterase that functions to edit starter unit (mis)priming of EncC. We performed a series of in vivo mutational studies, heterologous expression experiments, in vitro reconstitution studies, and Fourier-transform mass spectrometry-monitored competitive enzyme assays that together support the proposed selective hydrolase activity of EncL toward misprimed acetyl-ACP over benzoyl-ACP to facilitate benzoyl priming of the enterocin PKS complex. While this system resembles the R1128 PKS that also utilizes an editing thioesterase (ZhuC) to purge acetate molecules from its initiation module ACP in favor of alkylacyl groups, the enterocin system is distinct in its usage of a single ACP for both priming and elongating reactions with different substrates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Typing of colon and lung adenocarcinoma by high throughput imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kriegsmann, Mark; Longuespée, Rémi; Wandernoth, Petra; Mohanu, Cristina; Lisenko, Katharina; Weichert, Wilko; Warth, Arne; Dienemann, Hendrik; De Pauw, Edwin; Katzenberger, Tiemo; Aust, Daniela; Baretton, Gustavo; Kriegsmann, Joerg; Casadonte, Rita

    2017-07-01

    In advanced tumor stages, diagnosis is frequently made from metastatic tumor tissue. In some cases, the identification of the tumor of origin may be difficult by histology alone. In this setting, immunohistochemical and molecular biological methods are often required. In a subset of tumors definite diagnosis cannot be achieved. Thus, additional new diagnostic methods are required for precise tumor subtyping. Mass spectrometric methods are of special interest for the discrimination of different tumor types. We investigated whether it is possible to discern adenocarcinomas of colon and lung using high-throughput imaging mass spectrometry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays. 101 primary adenocarcinoma of the colon and 91 primary adenocarcinoma of the lung were used to train a Linear Discriminant Analysis model. Results were validated on an independent set of 116 colonic and 75 lung adenocarcinomas. In the validation cohort 109 of 116 patients with colonic and 67 of 75 patients with lung adenocarcinomas were correctly classified. The ability to define proteomic profiles capable to discern different tumor types promises a valuable tool in cancer diagnostics and might complement current approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Standardized Candle Method for Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Felipe; Hamuy, Mario

    The determination of extragalactic distances allows us to constrain the cosmological parameters which drive the universe dynamics. The large luminosities of type II supernovae (SNe) (those with a hydrogen-rich envelope) make this class of objects as interesting distance indicators. Their luminosities can be standardized using the expansion velocity of the photosphere estimated from P-Cygni line profiles. However, one of the problems that hampers their use in distance determinations is the uncertainty in the host-galaxy extinction. The physics of the photosphere suggests the existence of a unique asymptotic color for all SNe toward the end of the optically thick phase (which corresponds to a period of constant luminosity of about 100 days called plateau). The purpose of this work is to examine the validity of this hypothesis and to contruct Hubble diagrams standardizing the luminosities of these objects. A usual problem with the measurement of such asymptotic color is that there is no obvious maximum during the plateau phase (unlike their cousins, the type Ia SNe), so it proves hard to bring all light curves to the same time scale. One way around this is to use the end of the plateau as an estimate of the time origin for each event. This time origin also serves as a uniform reference epoch to measure magnitudes and expansion velocities. Although simple in theory, in practice it is usually hard to measure magnitudes, colors and expansion velocities owing to the coarse sampling of the observations. Thus, our aims are 1) perform adequate fits to the light, color and velocity curves, 2) determine the asymptotic color, 3) explore the usefulness of such color as reddening indicator, 4) calibrate the relation between luminosity and expansion velocity, and 5) measure distances, which will lead us to the contruction a Hubble diagram. In this talk we present fits made by means of analytic function modeling. We discuss the usefulness of the (V-R) and (V-I) colors for the

  19. Preliminary study of brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ling; Fu, Chang; Xuan, Ang; Shi, Da-Peng; Gao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Jun-Ling

    2015-02-05

    Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases), squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases), and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases). The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM) software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255) was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217) and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292). The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  20. Type II and Type III Radio Emissions and Their Association with Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that CME-driven shocks are a major source of solar energetic particles (SEPs). The solar phenomena associated with high energy SEP increases nearly always include type II radio emissions indicative of the presence of shocks. However, there is also a clear link between particles accelerated in the low corona and type III radio bursts. For the most energetic events the type III emissions extend into or occur after, the flare impulsive phase. Such emission has been named type III-l mainly because the emission is "late". In our work, we have found an excellent correlation between the pattern of radio emissions and the associated particle events. However, various other studies have investigated type III-l emissions and found the association with SEP events to be less compelling. We explore the results of these studies in order to determine why this is the case.

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type II Deficiency and Increased Inflammatory Cytokine Production. A Gateway to Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Elaine; Crosby, Alexi; Southwood, Mark; Yang, Peiran; Tajsic, Tamara; Toshner, Mark; Appleby, Sarah; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Upton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR-II) underlie most cases of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, disease penetrance is only 20–30%, suggesting a requirement for additional triggers. Inflammation is emerging as a key disease-related factor in PAH, but to date there is no clear mechanism linking BMPR-II deficiency and inflammation. Objectives: To establish a direct link between BMPR-II deficiency, a consequentially heightened inflammatory response, and development of PAH. Methods: We used pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from Bmpr2+/− mice and patients with BMPR2 mutations and compared them with wild-type controls. For the in vivo model, we used mice heterozygous for a null allele in Bmpr2 (Bmpr2+/−) and wild-type littermates. Measurements and Main Results: Acute exposure to LPS increased lung and circulating IL-6 and KC (IL-8 analog) levels in Bmpr2+/− mice to a greater extent than in wild-type controls. Similarly, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from Bmpr2+/− mice and patients with BMPR2 mutations produced higher levels of IL-6 and KC/IL-8 after lipopolysaccharide stimulation compared with controls. BMPR-II deficiency in mouse and human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was associated with increased phospho-STAT3 and loss of extracellular superoxide dismutase. Chronic lipopolysaccharide administration caused pulmonary hypertension in Bmpr2+/− mice but not in wild-type littermates. Coadministration of tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, ameliorated the exaggerated inflammatory response and prevented development of PAH. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that BMPR-II deficiency promotes an exaggerated inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo, which can instigate development of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26073741

  2. HTLV type I and HTLV type II infection among Indians and natives from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, M B; Zapiola, I; Quiruelas, S; Gorvein, D; Panzita, A; Rey, J; Carnese, F P; Corral, R; Perez, C; Zala, C

    1994-11-01

    Endemic foci for HTLV-II infection have been identified in several Amerindian populations. To determine HTLV-I and/or HTLV-II infection among Amerindians living in Argentina we studied 454 sera or plasmas from Indians and natives from different areas of our country. All samples were tested by the particle agglutination technique, and positive reactions were confirmed by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA titration was used to differentiate HTLV-I and HTLV-II antibodies. Twenty-three of 222 samples (10.4%) were found positive among the Tobas Indians; 22 samples were typed as HTLV-II and 1 as HTLV-I. Antibodies for HTLV-I were found in the serum and CSF of three natives from Salta with a TSP diagnosis. No positive samples were found among 96 Mapuche Indians and 133 natives from San Luis. Our results indicate that HTLV-II is endemic among the Tobas Indians. In this study, infection by these retroviruses in Argentinian Amerindians seems to have a marked geographic distribution.

  3. The importance of type II error and falsifiability.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Before intergovernmental consensus under the Rio Declaration in 1992, ignorance of type I errors had been disfavored in science. However, the Precautionary Principle (PP) counsels the avoidance of type II errors, rather than of type I errors. We need a new academic code for the PP. The risk of extinction has usually been evaluated based on conservative estimates of the present population size. I define the weight of evidence as the extinction risk of Japanese vascular plants based on unbiased estimates. Catch quotas in the fisheries are usually decided by precautionary approach. I calculate the long-term yield and risk of stock collapse under a simple stock dynamics model. The weight of evidence depends on the frequency of grids with size unknown. In a few plant species, rankings based on conservative estimates have differed from rankings based on unbiased estimates. In fishery management, a catch quota based on a precautionary approach proved neither sufficient nor necessary to avoid stock collapse. The precautionary approach is one of the reasons that prevent us from maximizing a sustainable yield. We need to clarify the end-point of risks, and check whether it is necessary to adopt a PP. We can obtain the weight of evidence that is measured under unbiased estimates, while the risk based on a PP is measured under conservative estimates.

  4. High-efficiency type II cell-enhanced green fluorescent protein expression facilitates cellular identification, tracking, and isolation.

    PubMed

    Vanderbilt, Jeff N; Gonzalez, Robert F; Allen, Lennell; Gillespie, AnneMarie; Leaffer, David; Dean, Willow B; Chapin, Cheryl; Dobbs, Leland G

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a transgenic mouse expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in virtually all type II (TII) alveolar epithelial cells. The CBG mouse (SPC-BAC-EGFP) contains a bacterial artificial chromosome modified to express EGFP within the mouse surfactant protein (SP)-C gene 3' untranslated region. EGFP mRNA expression is limited to the lung. EGFP fluorescence is both limited to and exhibited by all cells expressing pro-SP-C; fluorescence is uniform throughout all lobes of the lung and does not change as mice age. EGFP(+) cells also express SP-B but do not express podoplanin, a type I (TI) cell marker. CBG mice show no evidence of lung disease with aging. In 3 hours, TII cells can be isolated in >99% purity from CBG mice by FACS; the yield of 3.7 ± 0.6 × 10(6) cells represents approximately 25 to 60% of the TII cells in the lung. By FACS analysis, approximately 0.9% of TII cells are in mitosis in uninjured lungs; after bleomycin injury, 4.1% are in mitosis. Because EGFP fluorescence can be detected for >14 days in culture, at a time that SP-C mRNA expression is essentially nil, this line may be useful for tracking TII cells in culture and in vivo. When CBG mice are crossed to transgenic mice expressing rat podoplanin, TI and TII cells can be easily simultaneously identified and isolated. When bred to other strains of mice, EGFP expression can be used to identify TII cells without the need for immunostaining for SP-C. These mice should be useful in models of mouse pulmonary disease and in studies of TII cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics.

  5. Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Arabic-Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes has not spared the Arabic-speaking countries, which have some of the highest prevalence of type II diabetes. This is particularly true of the Arab Gulf, a conglomerate of high income, oil-producing countries where prevalence rates are the highest. The prevalence rates among adults of the Arabic speaking countries as a whole range between 4%–21%, with the lowest being in Somalia and the highest in Kuwait. As economic growth has accelerated, so has the movement of the populations to urban centers where people are more likely to adopt lifestyles that embrace increased high-calorie food consumption and sedentary lifestyles. These factors likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Arabic speaking countries. PMID:22851968

  6. Unusual approach for the treatment of a type II endoleak.

    PubMed

    Ciampi Dopazo, J J; Gastaldo, F; Lanciego Pérez, C

    2016-01-01

    This case presentation is about an 88 years-old male patient with previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repairment history and aortic endoleak type II (EL2). The direct lumbar artery catheterization was considered an alternative to solve EL2, associated with aortic endovascular prosthesis and due to an incomplete sealing or exclusion of the aneurysmal sac or a vascular segment demonstrated by imaging studies, when other treatment alternative failed (transarterial embolization) to control the aneurysm growing. Performing translumbar approach was decided by puncturing the artery lumbar (L4) left, previously the lumbar arteries (L4) were evaluated in the abdominal CT arterial phase to guide a puncture/access under flouroscopy control. Diagnostic angiogram clearly demonstrated the median sacral and right lumbar arteries inflow into the aneurysm sac. Transcatheter embolization with fibered platinum microcoils was performed of the median sacral artery and lumbar left and right arteries (L4), showing satisfactory endoleak devascularization.

  7. Vorticity and magnetic shielding in a type-II superconductor.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marco; Bicudo, Pedro; Sacramento, Pedro D

    2006-09-20

    We study in detail, solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, the magnetic field, supercurrent and order parameter profiles originated by a solenoid or magnetic whisker inserted in a type-II superconductor. We consider solutions of different vorticities, n, in the various cases. The results confirm the connection between the vorticity, the internal currents and the boundstates in a self-consistent way. The number of boundstates is given by the vorticity of the phase of the gap function as in the case with no external solenoid. In the limiting case of an infinitely thin solenoid, like a Dirac string, the solution is qualitatively different. The quasiparticle spectrum and wavefunctions are a function of n-n(ext), where n(ext) is the vorticity of the solenoid. The flux is in all cases determined by the vorticity of the gap function.

  8. Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Mailhiot, C.

    1987-09-01

    It is shown that strained type II superlattices made of InAs-Ga(1-x)In(x)Sb(x) about 0.4 have favorable optical properties for infrared detection. By adjusting the layer thicknesses and the alloy composition, a wide range of wavelengths can be reached. Optical absorption calculations for a case where the cutoff wavelength is about 10 microns show that, near threshold, the absorption is as good as for the HgCdTe alloy with the same band gap. The electron effective mass is nearly isotropic and equal to 0.04 m. This effective mass should give favorable electrical properties, such as small diode tunneling currents and good mobilities, and diffusion lengths.

  9. Type II seesaw model and multilepton signatures at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Manimala; Niyogi, Saurabh; Spannowsky, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We investigate multilepton signatures, arising from the decays of doubly charged and singly charged Higgs bosons in the Type II seesaw model. Depending on the vacuum expectation value of the triplet vΔ , the doubly and singly charged Higgs bosons can decay into a large variety of multilepton final states. We explore all possible decay modes corresponding to different regimes of vΔ that generate distinguishing four and five leptonic signatures. We focus on the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and further extend the study to a very high energy proton-proton collider (VLHC) with a center-of-mass energy of 100 TeV. We find that a doubly charged Higgs boson of masses around 375 GeV can be discovered at immediate LHC runs. A heavier mass of 630 GeV can instead be discovered at the high-luminosity run of the LHC or at the VLHC with 30 fb-1 .

  10. Low power and type II errors in recent ophthalmology research.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zainab; Milko, Jordan; Iqbal, Munir; Masri, Moness; Almeida, David R P

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the power of unpaired t tests in prospective, randomized controlled trials when these tests failed to detect a statistically significant difference and to determine the frequency of type II errors. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We examined all prospective, randomized controlled trials published between 2010 and 2012 in 4 major ophthalmology journals (Archives of Ophthalmology, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology, and American Journal of Ophthalmology). Studies that used unpaired t tests were included. Power was calculated using the number of subjects in each group, standard deviations, and α = 0.05. The difference between control and experimental means was set to be (1) 20% and (2) 50% of the absolute value of the control's initial conditions. Power and Precision version 4.0 software was used to carry out calculations. Finally, the proportion of articles with type II errors was calculated. β = 0.3 was set as the largest acceptable value for the probability of type II errors. In total, 280 articles were screened. Final analysis included 50 prospective, randomized controlled trials using unpaired t tests. The median power of tests to detect a 50% difference between means was 0.9 and was the same for all 4 journals regardless of the statistical significance of the test. The median power of tests to detect a 20% difference between means ranged from 0.26 to 0.9 for the 4 journals. The median power of these tests to detect a 50% and 20% difference between means was 0.9 and 0.5 for tests that did not achieve statistical significance. A total of 14% and 57% of articles with negative unpaired t tests contained results with β > 0.3 when power was calculated for differences between means of 50% and 20%, respectively. A large portion of studies demonstrate high probabilities of type II errors when detecting small differences between means. The power to detect small difference between means varies across journals. It is, therefore

  11. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception.

  12. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetic, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  13. Microcephalic Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism, Type II: a Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Bober, Michael B; Jackson, Andrew P

    2017-04-01

    This review will provide an overview of the microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) class of disorders and provide the reader comprehensive clinical review with suggested care guidelines for patients with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type II (MOPDII). Over the last 15 years, significant strides have been made in the diagnosis, natural history, and management of MOPDII. MOPDII is the most common and well described form of MPD. The classic features of the MPD group are severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, with marked microcephaly. In addition to these features, individuals with MOPDII have characteristic facies, skeletal dysplasia, abnormal dentition, and an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and insulin resistance. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the pericentrin gene cause MOPDII, which is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

  14. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): expanding the vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bober, Michael B; Khan, Nadia; Kaplan, Jennifer; Lewis, Kristi; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Scott, Charles I; Steinberg, Gary K

    2010-04-01

    Majewski Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism, Type II (MOPD II) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder. Features include severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), poor postnatal growth (adult stature approximately 100 cm), severe microcephaly, skeletal dysplasia, characteristic facial features, and normal or near normal intelligence. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved registry was created and currently follows 25 patients with a diagnosis of MOPD II. Based on previous studies, a neurovascular screening program was implemented and 13 (52%) of these patients have been found to have cerebral neurovascular abnormalities including moyamoya angiopathy and/or intracranial aneurysms. The typical moyamoya pathogenesis begins with vessel narrowing in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral (A1) or middle cerebral (M1) artery segments. The narrowing may predominate initially on one side, progresses to bilateral stenosis, with subsequent occlusion of the vessels and collateral formation. We present four patients who, on neurovascular screening, were found to have cerebrovascular changes. Two were asymptomatic, one presented with a severe headache and projectile vomiting related to a ruptured aneurysm, and one presented after an apparent decline in cognitive functioning. Analysis of the registry suggests screening for moyamoya disease be performed at the time of MOPD II diagnosis and at least every 12-18 months using MRA or computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). We believe this is imperative. If diagnosed early enough, re-vascularization and aneurysm treatment in skilled hands can be performed safely and prevent or minimize long-term sequelae in this population. Emergent evaluation is also needed when other neurologic or cardiac symptoms are present.

  15. Study of lung cancer histologic types, occupation, and smoking in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Zahm, S.H.; Brownson, R.C.; Chang, J.C.; Davis, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted to evaluate the relationship between lung cancer histologic types and occupation, adjusted for smoking. A total of 4,431 white male cases and 11,326 cancer controls, diagnosed between 1980 and 1985, were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry. For all histologic types combined, excess risk was observed among many a priori suspected high-risk occupations. Lung cancer was elevated among men employed as insulators (odds ratio (OR) = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7, 137.8), carpenters (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.7), painters, plasterers, and wallpaper hangers (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2,3.3), structural metal workers (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 0.6,6.0), mechanics and repairers (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0,1.7), motor vehicle drivers (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2,1.8), police and firefighters (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1,2.3), and food service personnel (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0,3.5). A deficit of lung cancer was observed among farmers (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.7,1.0). Adenocarcinoma of the lung was elevated among carpenters (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0,2.5) and cabinet and furniture makers (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 0.4,8.1), which is interesting because of the previous reports of excess adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity associated with wood dust exposure. Adenocarcinomas were also elevated among plumbers (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.0,3.8) and printers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.7,4.2). Electricians were at slightly increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.7,2.8) and ''other'' or mixed cell types of lung cancer (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.8,2.9) but at decreased risk for small cell (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.3,2.0) and squamous cell (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4,1.6) tumors. Among welders, adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.7,3.8) and squamous cell (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.9,3.3) cancers were elevated, but small cell and ''other'' lung cancers were not.

  16. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPARδ (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1α (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1β (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, and PPARD and the relative mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake (CPT1B, SLC25A20), tricarboxylic acid cycle (SDHA), mitochondrial respiratory chain (COX5A, COX6A1), and angiogenesis (VEGFA) in LD, SM and ST muscles were greater (P < 0.05) or tended to be greater (P < 0.15) in the niacin group than in the control group. Conclusions The study shows that niacin supplementation induces muscle fiber transition from type II to type I, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are

  17. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II: reexposure to heparin].

    PubMed

    Matthies, B; Bürger, T; Koch, B; Böck, M

    1999-10-29

    At the age of 55 years a now 70-year-old man had his aortic valve replaced by a prosthetic (Björk-Shiley) valve, and 11 years later a VDD pacemaker had been implanted. 18 months before the latest admission he had been hospitalized for treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis involving the aortic prothesis. At that time thrombocytopenia developed during heparin administration, diagnosed clinically and with the heparin-induced platelet activity (HIPA) test as type II heparin induced thrombocytopenia. His latest admission was for the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease of the right leg (Fontaine stage IIb). Right popliteal and pedal pulses were not palpable. He was able to walk pain-free for only 70 m. Doppler sonography demonstrated an arm-leg index on the right of 0.7. Angiography revealed marked stenosis in the right superficial femoral artery and a filiform stenosis in the right popliteal artery. Both stenoses were relieved by percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty, in the course of which 5000 IU heparin were administered as a bolus intraarterially. Postoperative anticoagulation was maintained for 2 days with recombinant hirudin. There was no evidence of platelet reduction or heparin-induced antibodies despite the renewed infusion of heparin. Single re-administration of heparin in a patient who had developed a type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia several years before does not necessarily lead to a booster of antibodies and thus to a reduction of platelets in the peripheral blood. It is a moot point whether the course in this case was an exception or the rule.

  18. Type-II superlattice materials for mid-infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gail J.; Haugan, Heather; Szmulowicz, Frank; Mahalingam, Krishnamur; Grazulis, L.; Houston, Shanee

    2005-03-01

    Type-II superlattices composed of alternating thin layers of InAs and GaSb, have been shown to be a highly flexible infrared materials system in which the energy band gap can be adjusted anywhere between 360 meV and 40 meV. These superlattices (SLs) are the III-V equivalent to the well established HgxCd1-xTe alloys used for infrared detection in the short, mid and long wavelength bands of the infrared spectrum. There are many possible designs for these superlattices that will produce the same narrow band gap by adjusting individual layer thicknesses and interface composition. Systematic growth and characterization studies were performed to determine optimum superlattice designs suitable for infrared detection in the 3 to 5 μm wavelength band. For these studies the individual layer thicknesses were less than 35Å. The effects of adding different thickness InSb-like interfaces were also studied. Through precision molecular beam epitaxy, design changes as small as 3Å to the SL layers could be studied. Significant changes were observed in the infrared photoresponse spectra of the various SL samples. The infrared properties of the various designs of these type-II superlattices were modeled using an 8-band Envelope Function Approximation. The infrared photoresponse spectra, combined with quantum mechanical modeling of predicted absorption spectra, were a key factor in the design optimization of the InAs/GaSb superlattices with band gaps in the range of 200 to 360 meV.

  19. Bilateral internal auditory canal gangliogliomas mimicking neurofibromatosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Hooten, Kristopher G.; Oliveria, Seth F.; Sadrameli, Saeed S.; Gandhi, Shashank; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Lewis, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gangliogliomas are rare low grade, typically well-differentiated, tumors that are composed of mature ganglion cells and neoplastic glial cells. These tumors can appear at virtually any location along the neuroaxis but classically occur in the temporal lobe of young patients. In a small number of cases, gangliogliomas have presented as masses in the brainstem or involving cranial nerves. With the exception of vestibular schwannomas, bilateral tumors in the region of the internal auditory canal (IAC) or cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are exceedingly rare. Cas