Science.gov

Sample records for lupin lupinus albus

  1. Organic Weed Control in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...

  2. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    PubMed

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in protein content of bulgur compared with lupin seeds. Phytic acid losses in bitter and sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  3. Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

    PubMed Central

    Borek, Sławomir; Pukacka, Stanisława; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7–14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (–S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed. PMID:19635747

  4. Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    PubMed

    Borek, Slawomir; Pukacka, Stanisława; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7-14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

  5. Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Peel, Gregory J; Lei, Zhentian; Aziz, Naveed; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; Watson, Bonnie; Zhao, Patrick X; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy) metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy) metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits. PMID:19123941

  6. Comparison of nutritional and antinutritional traits among different species (Lupinus albus L., Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius L.) and varieties of lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Musco, N; Cutrignelli, M I; Calabrò, S; Tudisco, R; Infascelli, F; Grazioli, R; Lo Presti, V; Gresta, F; Chiofalo, B

    2017-01-30

    In order to promote the use of lupin in pig nutrition, in this research the nutritional characteristics (i.e. dietary fibre, alkaloid and fatty acid profile) and the in vitro gas production of 12 lupin varieties grown in the Mediterranean basin and belonging to three lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus) were assessed. Four varieties of L. albus (Asfer, Lublanc, Lutteur and Multitalia) were grown in South Campania. Three varieties of L. luteus (Dukat, Mister and Taper), three of L. angustifolius (Jindalee, Sonet and Wonga) and two of L. albus (Rosetta and Luxor) were grown in Eastern Sicily. Lupinus albus varieties showed interesting nutritional and dietetic characteristics (i.e. high protein and low fibre content); the lipid fraction, rather elevated, is well represented by monounsaturated fatty acids (544 g/kg), whereas saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are less represented (167 g/kg) and the n-3/n-6 ratio (0.510) is the most favourable. Lupinus luteus varieties presented the most remarkable dietetic aspects, in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content (569 g/kg), n-6 PUFA series (490 g/kg), UFA/SFA (5.24) and PUFA/SFA (3.56) ratios and atherogenic (0.059) and thrombogenic (0.100) indices and very low alkaloid content (1.07 mg per 100 g). Lupinus angustifolius varieties showed the least interesting nutritional and dietetic characteristics: low protein and fat content, high fibre level, high SFA amount (248 g/kg) and the lowest favourable nutritional indices (IA: 0.164 and IT: 0.334). Regarding the fermentation process, in L. albus, the tendency to increase the rate of gas production during the early stages of fermentation suggests that the high presence of alkaloids did not affect the in vitro degradability, production of short-chain fatty acids and fermentation process, probably due to their concentration and/or water solubility. Lupinus angustifolius and L. luteus showed intermediate and slightly worse in

  7. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of

  8. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

  9. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation.

  10. Evaluation of herbicide efficacy, injury and yield in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is of increasing interest in the southeastern USA as a winter legume cover crop or as mid-winter forage for ruminants. White lupins are poor weed competitors during early establishment which makes effective weed control necessary, however, only three herbicides are currently registered f...

  11. Dietary micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) in meat-type guinea fowls and its influence on growth performance, carcass traits and meat lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Demauro, R; Laudadio, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Multitalia) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass traits, and meat fatty acids composition. A total of 120 one-day-old guinea fowl females were randomly assigned to 2 treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 wk of age. Birds were fed 2 wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (195 g/kg) and a test diet containing micronized-dehulled lupin (240 g/kg) as the main protein source. Replacing SBM with treated lupin had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative to the weight of guinea fowls. A decrease (P < 0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed lupin-diet. Breast muscle from birds fed lupin had higher lightness (L*) (P < 0.01) and redness (a*) (P < 0.05) scores and water-holding capacity (P < 0.05) than the SBM-control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed lupin had less total lipids (P < 0.05) and cholesterol (P < 0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.01). Feeding treated lupin increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in breast meat and decreased saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentrations. Our findings suggest that replacing SBM as protein source with micronized-dehulled lupin in meat-type guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative characteristics, enhancing also meat lipid profile with no effect on growth traits.

  12. Nutritional quality of lupine (Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa) as affected by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C; Marcus, D; Guzmán, E; Campos, R; von Bäer, D; Trugo, L

    1991-12-01

    The effects of selected NRRL strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. buchneri, L. cellobiosus and L. fermentum upon oligosaccharide, phytate and alkaloid contents, as well as on the nutritive value of lupine, were investigated. Lupine was processed to a 12% total solids suspension, inoculated with 1% (v/v) cultures and fermented until a final desired pH of 4.5. L. acidophilus B-2092 and L. buchneri B-1837 growth was related to a significant sucrose breakdown and decreases of phytates, whereas L. acidophilus B-1910 and L. fermentum B-585 reduced the content of flatulence oligosaccharides. The activity of L. acidophilus B-1910 was particularly associated with lowering of alkaloids and increase of riboflavin. Lactic acid fermentation produced slight changes in lysine and methionine contents. No significant differences in net protein ratio values and protein digestibility were found between fermented and unfermented lupine (P less than 0.05). A 1:1 ratio mixture of B-1910 and B-2092 strains of L. acidophilus lead to a final fermented lupine with nutritional advantages to those given by the individual cultures.

  13. Purification and characterization of three phytases from germinated lupine seeds (Lupinus albus var. amiga).

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ralf

    2002-11-06

    Three phytases were purified about 14200-fold (LP11), 16000-fold (LP12), and 13100-fold (LP2) from germinated 4-day-old lupine seedlings to apparent homogeneity with recoveries of 13% (LP11), 8% (LP12), and 9% (LP2) referred to the phytase activity in the crude extract. They behave as monomeric proteins of a molecular mass of about 57 kDa (LP11 and LP12) and 64 kDa (LP2), respectively. The purified proteins belong to the acid phytases. They exhibit a single pH optimum at 5.0. Optimal temperature for the degradation of sodium phytate is 50 degrees C. Kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of sodium phytate are K(M) = 80 microM (LP11), 300 microM (LP12), and 130 microM (LP2) and k(cat) = 523 s(-1) (LP11), 589 s(-1) (LP12), and 533 s(-1) (LP2) at pH 5.0 and 35 degrees C. The phytases from lupine seeds exhibit a broad affinity for various phosphorylated compounds and hydrolyze phytate in a stepwise manner.

  14. The First Genetic and Comparative Map of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.): Identification of QTLs for Anthracnose Resistance and Flowering Time, and a Locus for Alkaloid Content

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Huyen T. T.; Ellwood, Simon R.; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant × P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P < 0.05. Syntenic relationships between Medicago truncatula and L. albus were complex. Forty-five orthologous markers that mapped between M. truncatula and L. albus identified 17 small syntenic blocks, and each M. truncatula chromosome aligned to between one and six syntenic blocks in L. albus. Genetic mapping of three important traits: anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

  15. [Possibilities of Lupinus mutabolis and Lupinus albus in the Andean countries].

    PubMed

    Gross, R; von Baer, E

    1977-12-01

    Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis may achieve importance among the andean countries in which soy bean can not grow due to ecological reasons. Both lupin varieties are outstanding because of their high protein and oil content. Its alkaloid content limits the lupins usage; however the bitter substances can be eliminated by means of genetic selection or technological processing. Beside the intoxication caused by alkaloids exists the lupinosis, which is caused by a micotoxin. This disease can be observed when animals pasture forages which suffered under a secundary attack of fungus. According to the results obtained up to date other antimetabolic substances present in the legums have no significant importance. The lupin seed flour is adequate for animal consumption, being used for this effect in different countries. Starting next year there exist the prospects of employing Lupinus mutabilis as an oil source in Peru and Lupinus albus as proteic flour in Chile.

  16. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages

  17. 40 CFR 180.1319 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1319 Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from... catabolism of a seed storage protein (β-conglutin) of sweet lupines (Lupinus albus), in or on all food commodities when applied as a fungicide and used in accordance with label directions and good...

  18. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-11-01

    Lupin is a valuable ancient legume which contains high amount of protein, dietary fiber, oil, minerals and different functional components. Bitter lupin seeds cannot be consumed directly since its high toxic alkaloid content. Cooking and soaking are effective processes for removing these toxic substances and antinutrients as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. In this study, debittering process containing cooking and soaking up to 144 h was applied to lupin seeds. Raw lupin seeds had 3.3 % ash and 41.3 % protein content. Ash and protein content of debittered seeds changed between 2.1 and 2.5 %, 39.5 and 40.9 % respectively. After debittering process, significant (p < 0.05) decreases (between % 5.7 and 75.7) were observed in calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, magnesium and manganese contents of the lupin seeds. Phytic acid was removed from raw lupin seeds up to 71.4 % ratio by debittering processes, and soaking in distilled water at 55 °C and long soaking time (144 h) was found the most effective methods on phytic acid loss. While more lighter (L*) seeds were obtained with soaking in distilled water at 25 °C, soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution gave more yellowish (b*) seed properties compared to other soaking methods. Soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution at 144 h gave the most liked products in terms of sensorial evaluation.

  19. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  20. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    PubMed

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  1. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants.

  2. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  3. A re-assessment of sucrose signaling involved in cluster-root formation and function in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Apart from substrate functions, a signaling role of sucrose in root growth regulation is well established. This raised the question whether sucrose signals might also be involved in formation of cluster-roots (CRs) under phosphate (Pi) limitation, mediating exudation of phosphorus (P)-mobilizing root exudates, e.g. in Lupinus albus and members of the Proteaceae. Earlier studies demonstrated that CR formation in L. albus was mimicked to some extent by external application of high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) in the presence of extremely high P supply (1-10 mM), usually suppressing CR formation. In this study, we re-addressed this question using an axenic hydroponic culture system with normal P supply (0.1 mM) and a range of sucrose applications (0.25-25 mM). The 2.5 mM sucrose concentration was comparable with internal sucrose levels in the zone of CR initiation in first-order laterals of P-deficient plants (3.4 mM) and induced the same CR morphology. Similar to earlier studies, high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) resulted in root thickening and inhibition of root elongation, associated with a 10-fold increase of the internal sucrose level. The sucrose analog palatinose and a combination of glucose/fructose failed to stimulate CR formation under P-sufficient conditions, demonstrating a signal function of sucrose and excluding osmotic or carbon source effects. In contrast to earlier findings, sucrose was able to induce CR formation but had no effect on CR functioning with respect to citrate exudation, in vitro activity and expression of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, secretory acid phosphatase and MATE transporters, mediating P-mobilizing functions of CRs.

  4. Growth conditions determine different melatonin levels in Lupinus albus L.

    PubMed

    Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

    2013-09-01

    Melatonin, an indoleamine, which has recently been assigned several roles in plant physiology as a growth promoter, as rooting agent, and as antioxidant in senescence delay and cytoprotection, seems to have a relevant function in plant stress situations. The presence of melatonin increases the resistance of lupin plant tissues (Lupinus albus L.) against natural or artificially induced adverse situations. In this work, we studied the response of lupin plants in controlled stress situations (drought-, anaerobic-, pH-, and cold stress and using ZnSO4 , NaCl, and H2 O2 as chemical stressors) and measured the changes in endogenous melatonin levels in lupin plants. Also, the effect of abscisic acid, ethylene, and natural environmental conditions were evaluated. In general, nearly all stressful factors caused an increase in melatonin in the investigated organs. The chemical stress provoked by ZnSO4 or NaCl caused the most pronounced changes in the endogenous level of melatonin, followed by cold and drought stressors. In some cases, the level of melatonin increased 12-fold with respect to the levels in control plants, indicating that melatonin biosynthesis is upregulated in common stress situations, in which it may serve as a signal molecule and/or as a direct antistress agent due to its well-known antioxidative properties.

  5. New ester alkaloids from lupins (genus lupinus).

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, P; Witte, L; Wink, M

    1988-06-01

    Esters of 13-hydroxylupanine and 4-hydroxylupanine with acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, tiglic, benzoic, and TRANS-cinnamic acid have been synthesized and characterized by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (EI-MS, CI-MS). In LUPINUS POLYPHYLLUS, L. ALBUS, L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS, and L. MUTABILIS we could identify new ester alkaloids (e.g. 13-propyloxylupanine, 13-butyryloxylupanine, 13-isobutyryloxylupanine, and 4-tigloyloxylupanine) besides the known esters, i.e. 13-acetoxylupanine, 13-isovaleroyloxylupanine, 13-angeloyloxylupanine, 13-tigloyloxylupanine, 13-benzoyloxylupanine, 13- CIS-cinnamoyloxylupanine nine, and 13- TRANS-cinnamoyloxylupanine.

  6. Screening of cytoplasmic DNA diversity between and within Lupinus mutabilis Sweet and Lupinus albus sensu lato by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    PubMed

    Olczak, T; Rurek, M; Jańska, H; Augustyniak, H; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, E J

    2001-01-01

    Seven populations and five mutant lines of the Andean lupin and four species from the section Albus were screened for their mitochondrial and chloroplast polymorphisms. For this purpose the RFLP method with EcoRI as a restriction enzyme was used. Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus and Phaseolus vulgaris organellar clones as well as amplified fragments were used as probes. We found that mitochondrial probes were more suitable than chloroplast probes for identification of inter- and intra-specific variations within the examined material. Most mitochondrial probes differentiate the two species investigated. A high level of mitochondrial polymorphism was observed among the populations of L. mutabilis in contrast to monomorphism among the species in the section Albus. A limited polymorphism was detected between the mutant lines of L. mutabilis. We conclude from this study that the mitochondrial RFLP analysis is a valuable tool for identification of variability among Andean lupin populations.

  7. Iron Stress and Pyoverdin Production by a Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Rhizosphere of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Marschner, P.; Crowley, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Induction of high-affinity iron transport during root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) was examined in lupine and barley growing in microcosms. P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) contains a plasmid carrying pvd-inaZ; thus, in this strain, ice nucleation activity is regulated by pyoverdin production. Lupine or barley plants were grown for 18 or 8 days, respectively, in soil amended with 2% calcium carbonate and inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) at a density of 4 x 10(sup8) CFU g (dry weight) of soil(sup-1). A filter paper blotting technique was used to sample cells from the rhizosphere in different root zones, and then the cells were resuspended for enumeration and measurement of ice nucleation activity. The population density of P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere decreased by one order of magnitude in both lupine and barley over time. The ice nucleation activity ranged from -3.4 to -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for lupine and -3.0 to -2.8 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for barley, was similar in all root zones, and did not change over time. An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production in P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). An ice nucleation activity of approximately -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) was measured in the in vitro experiment at 25 to 50 (mu)M FeCl(inf3). By using the regression between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production determined in vitro and assuming a P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) population density of 10(sup8) CFU g of root(sup-1), the maximum possible pyoverdin accumulation by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.5 and 0.8 nmol g of root(sup-1) for lupine and barley, respectively. The low ice nucleation activity measured in the rhizosphere suggests that nutritional competition for iron in the rhizosphere may not be a major factor influencing root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf-5

  8. The Effect of Lupinus albus on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Satiety Hormones of Male Pigs Immunized against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) have an increased feed intake, growth rate, back fat and fat deposition compared to entire males. A previous experiment found that Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) has the potential to reduce feed intake and fat deposition in IC males. The current experiment aimed to develop a dietary management strategy using albus lupins for either 14 or 28 days pre-slaughter to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in IC males. Abstract Two hundred and ninety four pigs were used with the aim to develop a dietary management strategy using Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) and entire male pigs in the late finishing stage. From day (d) 0 to 28, IC males fed the control diet grew faster (p = 0.009) than entire males fed the control diet but there was no difference in growth rate between sexes for pigs fed albus lupins for 14 days pre-slaughter (Albus 14) or pigs fed albus lupins for 28 days pre-slaughter (Albus 28). From d 15 to 28, IC males receiving the Albus 14 diet grew more slowly (p < 0.001) than entire males receiving the Albus 14 diet. From d 15 to 28 (p < 0.001), IC males fed the control diet ate more feed than entire males fed the control diet, although there was no difference between sexes in feed intake of the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diet. Immunocastrates had a lower backfat when fed either Albus 14 or Albus 28 compared to the control diet, although there was no difference between diets for entire males. There was also a trend for pigs on the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diets to have a higher lean deposition (p = 0.055) and a lower fat deposition (p = 0.056) compared to the pigs on the control diet. Pigs fed the Albus 28 diet had a lower plasma ghrelin concentration compared to pigs

  9. Cytokinin Activity in Lupinus albus L

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Joanne E.; van Staden, Johannes

    1979-01-01

    Endogenous levels of cytokinin activity were examined in Lupinus albus L. seed at intervals of 2 weeks after anthesis using the soybean callus bioassay. High levels of cytokinin activity per gram seed material were present in the seeds at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after anthesis. The cytokinin activity per gram seed material was low at 8 and 10 weeks after anthesis. Cytokinin activity associated with each seed was greatest at 6 weeks after anthesis. The majority of the activity in the seeds at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after anthesis was in the endosperm. Cytokinin activity was also detected in the testas and embryos at 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks, and the suspensors at 4 weeks. Column chromatography of extracts of the different seed fractions on Sephadex LH-20 indicated that the cytokinins present coeluted with zeatin, zeatin riboside, and the glucoside cytokinins. It is suggested that cytokinins are accumulated in the seeds and are stored in the endosperm mainly in the form of ribosides and glucosides of zeatin. The reduction in cytokinin activity in the seed coincides with the reduction in endosperm volume and embryo growth and suggests that these compounds are utilized during the course of seed maturation. PMID:16660829

  10. Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seed from a public germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1319 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1319 Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from... the residues of Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD), a naturally occurring polypeptide from...

  12. Effect of drought and rewatering on the metabolism of Lupinus albus organs.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carla; Passarinho, José António; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2004-11-01

    Alterations in the metabolism of Lupinus albus organs that result from and subsequently follow a period of severe water deficit (WD) are described. By means of 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), changes in the major metabolites were monitored in several plant organs (leaflets and petiole, roots, stem stele and cortex). During the stress, most of the leaves were lost and the stem functioned as a storage repository of sugars (glucose and sucrose) and amino acids (asparagine and proline). Upon rewatering, lupin plants rapidly re-established the relative water content (RWC) and produced new leaves. However, at the metabolic level, the events seem to be more complex, since proline (a stress related metabolite) disappeared rapidly while sugars and asparagine reached the initial pattern more slowly, particularly in the stem.

  13. Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced “crooked calf disease” occur in northern Oregon and e...

  14. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops).

  15. Lupinus albus plants acquire mercury tolerance when inoculated with an Hg-resistant Bradyrhizobium strain.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Miguel A; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    One strain of Bradyrhizobium canariense (L-7AH) was selected for its metal-resistance and ability to nodulate white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants, from a collection of rhizobial strains previously created from soils of the Almadén mining district (Spain) with varying levels of Hg contamination. Plants were inoculated with either strain L-7AH (Hg-tolerant) or L-3 (Hg-sensitive, used as control), and watered with nutrient solutions supplemented with various concentrations (0-200 μM) of HgCl2 in a growth chamber. L. albus inoculated with L-7AH were able to nodulate even at the highest concentration of Hg while those inoculated with L-3 had virtually no nodules at Hg concentrations above 25 μM. Plants inoculated with L-7AH, but not those with the control strain, were able to accumulate large amounts of Hg in their roots and nodules. Nodulation with L-7AH allowed plants to maintain constant levels of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in their leaves and a high photosynthetic efficiency, whereas in those inoculated with L-3 both pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly as Hg concentration increased. Nitrogenase activity of plants nodulated with L-7AH remained fairly constant at all concentrations of Hg used. Results suggest that this symbiotic pair may be used for rhizoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils.

  16. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  17. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrated (IC) males) have an increased feed intake, growth rate, back fat and fat deposition compared to entire males. It is desirable to develop management strategies to limit the increase in feed intake and fat deposition in IC males. This experiment used in-feed ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) to try to suppress the voluntary feed intake of IC male pigs and subsequently fat deposition. Mineral salts decreased feed intake with no effect on fat deposition while albus lupins reduced both feed intake and fat deposition in pigs. Abstract Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0.05) or fat deposition (p > 0.05). Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p < 0.001 for all time periods), lower growth rate (p < 0.001 for all time periods), lower backfat (p < 0.005) and decreased fat deposition (p < 0.001 for all time periods) compared to those fed the control diet or mineral salts. From day (d) 0–28 pigs fed mineral salts had a better feed conversion ratio (p = 0.001) than those fed albus lupins who in turn had an improved feed conversion compared to the control diet. Immunocastrates had thicker backfat than entire males at the end of the experiment (p < 0.001), however, feeding albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01). With the exception of the

  18. EDTA and hydrochloric acid effects on mercury accumulation by Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Villaseñor, José; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of white lupine (Lupinus albus) to uptake and accumulate mercury from a soil polluted by mining activities was assessed in a pot experiment with chemically assisted phytoextraction. The mobilizing agents tested were ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Two doses of each amendment were used (0.5 and 1.0 g of amendment per kg of soil), and unamended pots were used as a control. Addition of HCl to the soil did not negatively affect plant biomass, while the use of EDTA led to a significant decrease in plant growth when compared to that found for non-treated pots, with plants visually showing symptoms of toxicity. The addition of hydrochloric acid increased root, shoot and total plant Hg uptake of white lupine by 3.7 times, 3.1 times and 3.5 times, respectively, in relation to non-amended plants. The greatest efficiency was obtained for the highest HCl dose. EDTA led to higher concentrations of total plant Hg than that found with the control, but, due to the aforementioned decrease in plant biomass, the Hg phytoextraction yield was not significantly increased. These results were attributed to the capability of both amendments to form stable Hg complexes. The concentration of Hg in the water of the soil pores after the phytoextraction experiment was very low for all treatments, showing that risks derived from metal leaching could be partially avoided by using doses and chemicals suitable to the concentration of metal in the soil and plant performance.

  19. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    PubMed

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner.

  20. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor.

    PubMed

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0.05) or fat deposition (p > 0.05). Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p < 0.001 for all time periods), lower growth rate (p < 0.001 for all time periods), lower backfat (p < 0.005) and decreased fat deposition (p < 0.001 for all time periods) compared to those fed the control diet or mineral salts. From day (d) 0-28 pigs fed mineral salts had a better feed conversion ratio (p = 0.001) than those fed albus lupins who in turn had an improved feed conversion compared to the control diet. Immunocastrates had thicker backfat than entire males at the end of the experiment (p < 0.001), however, feeding albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01). With the exception of the increased muscle pH at 45 minutes post-exsanguination in mineral salts and albus lupins compared with the control diet (p = 0.03) there was no effect of diet on objective pork quality. Pork from IC males had a higher ultimate pH (p < 0.001), was lighter (L*; p = 0.003), more yellow (p = 0.008) and had a higher drip loss (p < 0.001) compared to entire males. Albus lupins show potential in reducing the increase in feed intake and backfat associated with immunocastration. Mineral salts may be useful in situations where a reduction in feed intake and an improvement in feed conversion is desired and reducing fat deposition is not the objective.

  1. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub Lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)

    DOE PAGES

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; ...

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. In conclusion, these loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used tomore » determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.« less

  2. Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Igual, José M; Tejedor, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-09-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU15(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus, with its closest relatives being Paenibacillus catalpae D75(T), Paenibacillus glycanilyticus DS-1(T), Paenibacillus endophyticus PECAE04(T) and Paenibacillus xinjiangensis B538(T) with 98.8 %, 98.9 %, 97.4 % and 97.4 % similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed values lower than 45 % between the strain RLAHU15(T) and any of these species. The isolate was a Gram-stain positive, motile and sporulating rod. Catalase activity was weak and oxidase activity was positive. Casein and starch were hydrolysed but gelatin was not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RLAHU15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RLAHU15(T) ( = LMG 27296(T) = CECT 8235(T)).

  3. Nutritional value of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for broilers.

    PubMed

    Nalle, C L; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G

    2011-12-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of three cultivars (Wallan, Tanjil and Borre) of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for broilers. 2. In Experiment 1, the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of the three cultivars were determined. The cultivar effects were not significant for AME and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients. In general, amino acids in narrow-leafed lupin were well digested, with the notable exception of methionine. Among the indispensable amino acids, arginine had the highest digestibility coefficient (0·92-0·95), while the lowest was for methionine (0·74-0·83). 3. In Experiment 2, using the energy and digestible amino acid values determined in Experiment 1, diets containing 200 g/kg of the three lupin cultivars were formulated and the effects of feeding these diets on the performance and the digestive tract development of broiler starters were investigated. 4. Weight gain, feed intake and feed per gain of broilers fed narrow-leafed lupins diets were similar to those fed on the maize-soy basal diet. The performance of birds fed on diets containing different cultivars of lupins was also similar. Birds fed on lupin diets had similar excreta scores to those fed on the basal diet. 5. Inclusion of 200 g/kg lupins in broiler diets had no effects on the relative weight and length of the intestinal tract. Broilers fed on lupin diets, however, had higher relative weights of liver. 6. These results suggest that narrow-leafed lupins are good sources of protein, but poor sources of AME and sulphur-containing amino acids. It is concluded that, when diets are properly balanced in terms of AME and digestible amino acids, lupins can be included at 200 g/kg inclusion level in broiler starter diets with no adverse effects on performance.

  4. Extraction, isolation, and characterization of globulin proteins from Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Pedro; Canela, Nuria; Katakis, Ioanis; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2011-03-23

    Lupin has recently been added to the list of allergens requiring mandatory advisory labeling on foodstuffs sold in the European Union, and since December 2008, all products containing even trace amounts of lupin must be labeled correctly. Lupin globulins consist of two major globulins called α-conglutin (11S and "legumin-like") and β-conglutin (7S and "vicilin-like") and another additional two globulins, γ-conglutin and δ-conglutin, which are present in lower amounts. We report on a methodology to facilitate the extraction of each of these proteins using centrifugation and isolation by anion-exchange chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. The isolated subunits were characterized using reducing and non-reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and peptide mass fingerprinting, all of which revealed that the individual protein subunits are highly pure and can be used as immunogens for the production of antibodies specific for each of the conglutin fractions, as well as standards, and the extraction protocol can be used for the selective extraction of each of the subunits from foodstuffs, thus facilitating a highly accurate determination of the lupin concentration. Furthermore, the subunits can be used to elucidate information regarding the toxicity of each of the subunits, by looking at their interaction with the IgE antibodies found in the serum of individuals allergic to lupin, providing critical information for the definition of the requirements of analytical assays for the detection of lupin in foodstuffs.

  5. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Génard, Thaïs; Etienne, Philippe; Laîné, Philippe; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Diquélou, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L.) to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using the split-root (15)N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low (15)N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant (15)N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and (15)N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant(-1), respectively), which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  6. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub Lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O.; Lance, Stacey L.; Pruett, Christin L.

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. In conclusion, these loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.

  7. Administration of Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (Cγ) to n5 STZ rats augmented Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; García-López, Pedro M; Martínez-Ayala, Alma L; Domínguez-Rosales, José A; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M

    2014-09-01

    Several studies support the health-promoting benefits of lupins, particularly lupin proteins. It has been demonstrated that Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (Cγ) protein lowered blood glucose levels; thus, Cγ showed promise as a new anti-diabetic compound for type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cγ on Ins-1 gene expression and on pancreatic insulin content in streptozotocin-mediated diabetic rats. Cγ was isolated from Lupinus albus seeds. Its identification was confirmed with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native and denaturing conditions. We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce T2D on the 5th day of life of newborn male Wistar rats (n5-STZ). After 20 weeks post-induction, these animals (glycemia > 200 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to three groups that received the following one-week treatments: vehicle, 0.90% w/v NaCl (n5 STZ-Ctrl); glibenclamide, 10 mg/kg (n5 STZ-Glib); or Cγ, 120 mg/kg (n5 STZ-Cγ). Glucose and insulin levels were measured before and after treatment. Ins-1 gene expression was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction and the pancreatic insulin content was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Post-treatment, the n5 STZ-Cγ and n5 STZ-Glib groups showed reductions in glucose, increments in serum insulin, and increases in Ins-1 gene expression and beta cell insulin content compared to the n5 STZ-Ctrl group. The results showed that Cγ had beneficial effects on Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content. These biological effects of Cγ strengthen its promising potential as a nutraceutical and/or new agent for controlling hyperglycemia.

  8. Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster root development and citrate exudation in white lupin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, we evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation in white lupin. Plants were treated with NO ...

  9. The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly “crooked calf disease” in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primari...

  10. A comprehensive draft genome sequence for lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), an emerging health food: Insights into plant-microbe interactions and legume evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupins are important grain legume crops that form a critical part of sustainable farming systems, by reducing the need for fertilizer and providing disease breaks. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is gaining popularity as a human health food, as a non-GM alternative to soybean with the...

  11. Protein distribution in lupin protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. prepared by various isolation techniques.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Volke, Daniela; Hoffmann, Ralf; Eisner, Peter; Herfellner, Thomas; Brunnbauer, Markus; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-09-15

    Differences in the protein distribution of various protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor were identified as affected by the isolation procedure (alkaline and/or salt-induced extraction followed by isoelectric and/or dilutive precipitation). Protein isolates extracted in alkaline solution showed higher protein yields (26.4-31.7%) compared to salt-induced extraction (19.8-30.0%) or combined alkaline and salt-induced extraction (23.3-25.6%). Chemical variations among the protein isolates especially occurred within the albumins. Protein isolates precipitated isoelectrically showed the highest contents, whereas protein isolates precipitated by dilutive showed the lowest contents of conglutin δ. Furthermore, the alkaline subunits of conglutin α and conglutin γ decreased during alkaline extraction compared to salt-induced extraction. A decrease in protein-bound polar and basic amino acids was shown after protein isolation. In contrast, the amounts of nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, hydroxylated and sulfur-rich amino acids were higher in the lupin protein isolates compared to the lupin flakes. However, the functional side chains could not be related to the specific molecular arrangements of the protein isolates, as a similar amino acid composition was found among the protein isolates.

  12. Identification of chromosome regions controlling seed storage proteins of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Islam, Shahidul; Yang, Huaan; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun

    2013-05-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a valuable legume crop for animal feed and human health food because of its high proteins content. However, the genetics of seed storage proteins is unclear, limiting further improvement of protein quantity and quality. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used for the first time to analyze lupin seed storage proteins and the spectra generated was treated as markers to investigate the chromosome locations controlling seed storage proteins in the narrow-leafed lupin. In a recombinant inbred line population of 89 individuals, 48 polymorphic protein peaks were identified and seven of which were successfully mapped onto four existing linkage groups: two on NLL-04, three on NLL-05, one on NLL-07 and one on NLL-14, with LOD values ranging from 2.6 to 7.7 confirming a significant linkage. Most protein-based markers showed distorted segregation and were failed to be integrated into the reference map. Among them, 31 were grouped into six clusters and the other ten were totally unlinked. This study provides a significant clue to study the comparative genomics/proteomics among legumes as well as for protein marker-assisted breeding. The distribution pattern of genes controlling seed storage protein revealed in this study probably exists universally among legumes or even all plants and animals. Whether genes controlling seed storage protein share the same gene expression pattern controlling other enzymes and what is the mechanism behind it are the questions which remain to be answered in the future.

  13. Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J.; Ash, Gavin J.; Harper, John D.I.; Vipin, Cina A.; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

  14. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  15. White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

  16. Plant nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; simple purification from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds and properties of homogeneous enzyme.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna M; Rydzik, Anna M; Stepiński, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH₂-pA) is an uncommon natural nucleotide of poorly understood biochemistry and function. We studied a plant enzyme potentially involved in the catabolism of NH₂-pA. A fast and simple method comprising extraction of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seed-meal with a low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionations, removal of contaminating proteins by heat denaturation, and affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose, yielded homogenous nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the lupin hydrolase exhibits closest similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana Hint1 protein. The substrate specificity of the lupin enzyme, in particular its ability to split the P-S bond in adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate, is typical of known Hint1 proteins. Adenosine 5'-phosphofluoride and various derivatives of guanosine 5'-phosphoramidate were also substrates. Neither common divalent metal cations nor 10 mM EDTA or EGTA affected the hydrolysis of NH₂-pA. The enzyme functions as a homodimer (2 x 15,800 Da). At the optimum pH of 7.0, the K(m) for NH₂-pA was 0.5 µM and k(cat) 0.8 s⁻¹ (per monomer active site). The properties of the lupin nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase are compared with those of its counterparts from other organisms.

  17. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205 Mb and 530 Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64 L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome

  18. Lupin nad9 and nad6 genes and their expression: 5' termini of the nad9 gene transcripts differentiate lupin species.

    PubMed

    Rurek, Michał; Nuc, Katarzyna; Raczyńska, Katarzyna Dorota; Augustyniak, Halina

    2003-10-02

    The mitochondrial nad9 and nad6 genes were analyzed in four lupin species: Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis. The nucleotide sequence of these genes confirmed their high conservation, however, higher number of nucleotide substitution was observed in the L. albus genes. Southern hybridizations confirmed the presence of single copy number of these genes in L. luteus, L. albus and L. angustifolius. The expression of nad9 and nad6 genes was analyzed by Northern in different tissue types of analyzed lupin species. Transcription analyses of the two nad genes displayed single predominant mRNA species of about 0.6 kb in L. luteus and L. angustifolius. The L. albus transcripts were larger in size. The nad9 and nad6 transcripts were modified by RNA editing at 8 and 11 positions, in L. luteus and L. angustifolius, respectively. The gene order, rps3-rpl16-nad9, found in Arabidopsis thaliana is also conserved in L. luteus and L. angustifolius mitochondria. L. luteus and L. angustifolius showed some variability in the sequence of the nad9 promoter region. The last feature along with the differences observed in nad9 mRNA 5' termini of two lupins differentiate L. luteus and L. angustifolius species.

  19. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  20. Detectability of lupine seeds by ELISA and PCR may be strongly influenced by potential differences between cultivars.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Kleiner, Kornelia; Sachs, Andrea; Keil, Nicole; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2013-06-26

    Accurate methods for allergen detection are needed for the verification of allergen labeling and the avoidance of hidden allergens. But systematic data on the influence of different cultivars of allergenic crop species on their detectability in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are lacking. As one example, seeds of 14 different cultivars of lupine (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) were investigated for total protein according to a Kjeldahl method, and for their relative quantitative detectability in three commercial lupine-specific ELISA tests and four lupine-specific PCR methods. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen allowed an accurate quantification of total protein. Relative differences in quantitative response between cultivars of 390-5050% and 480-13,600% were observed between ELISA kits and PCR methods, respectively. Hence, quantitative results of selected ELISA and PCR methods may be strongly influenced by the examined lupine cultivar.

  1. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS(n). The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germination, with the total content and composition of isoflavonoids more affected than those of flavonoids. Glycosylated isoflavones were the most predominant compounds found in lupine seedlings. Lesser amounts of isoflavone aglycones, including prenylated ones, were also accumulated. Elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae, in addition to germination, raised the content of isoflavonoids further: the total content of 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives was increased considerably, without increasing that of genistein derivatives. Elicitation by fungus triggered prenylation of isoflavonoids, especially of the 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives. The preferred positions of prenylation differed among the three lupine species. The change in isoflavone composition increased the agonistic activity of the extracts towards the human estrogen receptors, whereas no antagonistic activity was observed.

  2. Study of the intercellular fluid of healthy Lupinus albus organs. Presence of a chitinase and a thaumatin-like protein.

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P

    1996-01-01

    Proteins in the intercellular fluid (IF) of healthy Lupinus albus leaves were characterized. Silver staining of the proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed more than 30 polypeptides, with the major ones having a molecular mass lower than 36 kD. After amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, one of the major polypeptides, IF4, was shown to have no identity with any of the proteins present in the data bases. Two others, IF1 and IF3, showed identity with previously reported pathogenesis-related proteins, IF1 with an antifungal protein from Hordeum vulgare that belongs to the thaumatin family (PR-5 family), and IF3 with class III chitinase-lysozymes. IF3 was also present in the IF of stem and root and it represents the major polypeptide in the medium of L. albus cell-suspension cultures. The ubiquitous presence of this enzyme in healthy, nonstressed tissues of L. albus cannot be explained. PMID:8587984

  3. Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots; proteoid-root development ...

  4. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  5. Differential expression of a novel gene during seed triacylglycerol accumulation in lupin species ( Lupinus angustifolius L. and L. mutabilis L.).

    PubMed

    Francki, Michael G; Whitaker, Peta; Smith, Penelope M; Atkins, Craig A

    2002-11-01

    Seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) are stored as energy reserves and extracted for various end-product uses. In lupins, seed oil content varies from 16% in Lupinus mutabilisto 8% in L. angustifolius. We have shown that TAGs rapidly accumulate during mid-stages of seed development in L. mutabilis compared to the lower seed oil species, L. angustifolius. In this study, we have targeted the key enzymes of the lipid biosynthetic pathway, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DAGAT), to determine factors regulating TAG accumulation between two lupin species. A twofold increase in ACCase activity was observed in L. mutabilis relative to L. angustifolius and correlated with rapid TAG accumulation. No difference in DAGAT activity was detected. We have identified, cloned and partially characterised a novel gene differentially expressed during TAG accumulation between L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis. The gene has some identity to the glucose dehydrogenase family previously described in barley and bacteria and the significance of its expression levels during seed development in relation to TAG accumulation is discussed. DNA sequence analysis of the promoter in both L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis identified putative matrix attachment regions and recognition sequences for transcription binding sites similar to those found in the Adh1 gene from Arabidopsis. The identical promoter regions between species indicate that differential gene expression is controlled by alternative transcription factors, accessibility to binding sites or a combination of both.

  6. Metabolic analysis revealed altered amino acid profiles in Lupinus albus organs as a result of boron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marta; Chicau, Paula; Matias, Helena; Passarinho, José; Pinheiro, Carla; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2011-07-01

    We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs.

  7. Impact of biochar and root-induced changes on metal dynamics in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris and Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Houben, David; Sonnet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Rhizosphere interactions are deemed to play a key role in the success of phytoremediation technologies. Here, the effects of biochar and root-induced changes in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris L. and Lupinus albus L. on metal (Cd, Pb and Zn) dynamics were investigated using a biotest on a 2mm soil layer and a sequential extraction procedure (Tessier's scheme). In the bulk soil, the application of 5% biochar significantly reduced the exchangeable pool of metals primarily due to a liming effect which subsequently promoted the metal shift into the carbonate-bound pool. However, metals were re-mobilized in the rhizosphere of both A. capillaris and L. albus due to root-induced acidification which counteracted the liming effect of biochar. As a result, the concentrations of metals in roots and shoots of both plants were not significantly reduced by the application of biochar. Although the study should be considered a worst-case scenario because experimental conditions induced the intensification of rhizosphere processes, the results highlight that changes in rhizosphere pH can impact the effectiveness of biochar to immobilize metals in soil. Biochar has thus a potential as amendment for reducing metal uptake by plants, provided the acidification of the rhizosphere is minimized.

  8. A comprehensive draft genome sequence for lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), an emerging health food: insights into plant-microbe interactions and legume evolution.

    PubMed

    Hane, James K; Ming, Yao; Kamphuis, Lars G; Nelson, Matthew N; Garg, Gagan; Atkins, Craig A; Bayer, Philipp E; Bravo, Armando; Bringans, Scott; Cannon, Steven; Edwards, David; Foley, Rhonda; Gao, Ling-Ling; Harrison, Maria J; Huang, Wei; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Li, Sean; Liu, Cheng-Wu; McGrath, Annette; Morahan, Grant; Murray, Jeremy; Weller, James; Jian, Jianbo; Singh, Karam B

    2017-03-01

    Lupins are important grain legume crops that form a critical part of sustainable farming systems, reducing fertilizer use and providing disease breaks. It has a basal phylogenetic position relative to other crop and model legumes and a high speciation rate. Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is gaining popularity as a health food, which is high in protein and dietary fibre but low in starch and gluten-free. We report the draft genome assembly (609 Mb) of NLL cultivar Tanjil, which has captured >98% of the gene content, sequences of additional lines and a dense genetic map. Lupins are unique among legumes and differ from most other land plants in that they do not form mycorrhizal associations. Remarkably, we find that NLL has lost all mycorrhiza-specific genes, but has retained genes commonly required for mycorrhization and nodulation. In addition, the genome also provided candidate genes for key disease resistance and domestication traits. We also find evidence of a whole-genome triplication at around 25 million years ago in the genistoid lineage leading to Lupinus. Our results will support detailed studies of legume evolution and accelerate lupin breeding programmes.

  9. Significant reduction of fungal disease symptoms in transgenic lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) expressing the anti-apoptotic baculovirus gene p35.

    PubMed

    Wijayanto, Teguh; Barker, Susan J; Wylie, Stephen J; Gilchrist, David G; Cowling, Wallace A

    2009-10-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius) is a recently domesticated but anciently propagated crop with significant value in rotation with cereals in Mediterranean climates. However, several fungal pathogens, traditionally termed necrotrophs, severely affect broad-acre production and there is limited genetic resistance in the NLL germplasm pool. Symptoms of many of these diseases appear as localized areas of dead cells exhibiting markers of programmed cell death. Based on our previous research, we hypothesized that engineered expression of the baculovirus anti-apoptotic p35 gene might reduce symptoms of these diseases. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of a cultivar highly susceptible to several pathogens, 14 independent NLL lines containing both the p35 and bar genes were obtained (p35-NLL). Integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), progeny testing, Southern blot, Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses. Fecundity and nodulation were not altered in these lines. Third or fourth generation p35-NLL lines were challenged with necrotrophic fungal pathogens (anthracnose in stem and leaf, and Pleiochaeta root rot and leaf brown spot) in controlled environment conditions. Several p35-NLL lines had significantly reduced disease symptoms. Interestingly, as with natural resistance, no single line was improved for all three diseases which possibly reflecting spatial variation of p35 expression in planta. These data support an alternative molecular definition for 'necrotrophic disease' in plants and suggest new routes for achieving resistance against a range of pathogens.

  10. Conservation of the structure and organization of lupin mitochondrial nad3 and rps12 genes.

    PubMed

    Rurek, M; Oczkowski, M; Augustyniak, H

    1998-01-01

    A high level of the nucleotide sequence conservation of mitochondrial nad3 and rps12 genes was found in four lupin species. The only differences concern three nucleotides in the Lupinus albus rps12 gene and three nucleotides insertion in the L. mutabilis spacer. Northern blot analysis as well as RT-PCR confirmed cotranscription of the L. luteus genes because the transcripts detected were long enough.

  11. Nodulation of Lupinus albus by Strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Martha E.; Willems, Anne; Abril, Adriana; Planchuelo, Ana-María; Rivas, Raúl; Ludeña, Dolores; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-01-01

    The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the α-Proteobacteria. However, in the last 3 years four nonrhizobial species, belonging to α and β subclasses of the Proteobacteria, have been described as legume-nodulating bacteria. In the present study, two fast-growing strains, LUP21 and LUP23, were isolated from nodules of Lupinus honoratus. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belong to the genus Ochrobactrum. The strains were able to reinfect Lupinus plants. A plasmid profile analysis showed the presence of three plasmids. The nodD and nifH genes were located on these plasmids, and their sequences were obtained. These sequences showed a close resemblance to the nodD and nifH genes of rhizobial species, suggesting that the nodD and nifH genes carried by strain LUP21T were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. A polyphasic study including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular features of the strains isolated in this study showed that they belong to a new species of the genus Ochrobactrum for which we propose the name Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov. Strain LUP21T (LMG 20667T) is the type strain. PMID:15746334

  12. Elevational variation of quinolizidine alkaloid contents in a lupine (Lupinus argenteus) of the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Carey, D B; Wink, M

    1994-04-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloid contents of leaves and seeds ofLupinus argenteus (Fabaceae) collected from seven different localities near Gothic, Colorado were determined by capillary GLC. Differences in alkaloid levels between sites are substantial and alkaloid quantity decreases as elevation increases. Leaves at the lowest elevation, for example, contain six times the alkaloid levels of leaves at the highest elevation. Seeds from plants of low-and high-elevation sites were grown under identical conditions in the green-house. Alkaloid levels of leaves of seedlings were significantly higher in those seedlings derived from populations of low elevations than those of high elevations, indicating that the observed differences in the field are at least partly genetic and not environmental. To determine whether predation rates were responsible for these genetic differences, data on seed predation rates and observations on herbivory were collected.

  13. [Quality evaluation of a dehydrated product based on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) and eggs].

    PubMed

    Glorio Paulet, P; Reynoso Zárate, Z

    1993-03-01

    After a mathematical evaluation of 20 mixtures containing different proportions of potato (P), lupin (L) and whole egg (E) on dry basis and kept the latter component in a constant amount of 6 per cent, a mixture of 60:34:6 (P:L:E) was chosen for a further experimental work at a lab level because of his better nutritional value for the pre-school children feeding. When an eighteen percent suspension of the mixture mentioned above was dehydrated in a drum drier an adecuate yield of flakes was obtained with an appropriate water absorption. The sensory evaluation test of the dehydrated product as a sauce indicated a higher acceptance than purées. On the other hand, during a 90 days period storage test of the product as flakes, it did not show microbiological problems, although after 45 days rancidity appeared in the dehydrated product.

  14. Lupinus albus Conglutin Gamma Modifies the Gene Expressions of Enzymes Involved in Glucose Hepatic Production In Vivo.

    PubMed

    González-Santiago, Ana E; Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; García-López, Pedro M; Martínez-Ayala, Alma L; Domínguez-Rosales, José A; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M

    2017-01-18

    Lupinus albus seeds contain conglutin gamma (Cγ) protein, which exerts a hypoglycemic effect and positively modifies proteins involved in glucose homeostasis. Cγ could potentially be used to manage patients with impaired glucose metabolism, but there remains a need to evaluate its effects on hepatic glucose production. The present study aimed to analyze G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions in two experimental animal models of impaired glucose metabolism. We also evaluated hepatic and renal tissue integrity following Cγ treatment. To generate an insulin resistance model, male Wistar rats were provided 30% sucrose solution ad libitum for 20 weeks. To generate a type 2 diabetes model (STZ), five-day-old rats were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). Each animal model was randomized into three subgroups that received the following oral treatments daily for one week: 0.9% w/v NaCl (vehicle; IR-Ctrl and STZ-Ctrl); metformin 300 mg/kg (IR-Met and STZ-Met); and Cγ 150 mg/kg (IR-Cγ and STZ-Cγ). Biochemical parameters were assessed pre- and post-treatment using colorimetric or enzymatic methods. We also performed histological analysis of hepatic and renal tissue. G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions were quantified using real-time PCR. No histological changes were observed in any group. Post-treatment G6pc gene expression was decreased in the IR-Cγ and STZ-Cγ groups. Post-treatment Fbp1 and Pck1 gene expressions were reduced in the IR-Cγ group but increased in STZ-Cγ animals. Overall, these findings suggest that Cγ is involved in reducing hepatic glucose production, mainly through G6pc inhibition in impaired glucose metabolism disorders.

  15. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    Przysiecka, Łucja; Książkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI), a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL), and fatty acid-binding (FAP) proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1) main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis, and Glycine

  16. Application of the High Resolution Melting analysis for genetic mapping of Sequence Tagged Site markers in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Kamel, Katarzyna A; Kroc, Magdalena; Święcicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Sequence tagged site (STS) markers are valuable tools for genetic and physical mapping that can be successfully used in comparative analyses among related species. Current challenges for molecular markers genotyping in plants include the lack of fast, sensitive and inexpensive methods suitable for sequence variant detection. In contrast, high resolution melting (HRM) is a simple and high-throughput assay, which has been widely applied in sequence polymorphism identification as well as in the studies of genetic variability and genotyping. The present study is the first attempt to use the HRM analysis to genotype STS markers in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The sensitivity and utility of this method was confirmed by the sequence polymorphism detection based on melting curve profiles in the parental genotypes and progeny of the narrow-leafed lupin mapping population. Application of different approaches, including amplicon size and a simulated heterozygote analysis, has allowed for successful genetic mapping of 16 new STS markers in the narrow-leafed lupin genome.

  17. Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. Results All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls - from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. Conclusions All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously

  18. Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Lupins and Prospects for Grain Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Karen M.; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Singh, Karam B.; Foley, Rhonda C.

    2017-01-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites found within the genus Lupinus, some species of which are commercially important grain legume crops including Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, NLL), L. luteus (yellow lupin), L. albus (white lupin), and L. mutabilis (pearl lupin), with NLL grain being the most largely produced of the four species in Australia and worldwide. While QAs offer the plants protection against insect pests, the accumulation of QAs in lupin grain complicates its use for food purposes as QA levels must remain below the industry threshold (0.02%), which is often exceeded. It is not well understood what factors cause grain QA levels to exceed this threshold. Much of the early work on QA biosynthesis began in the 1970–1980s, with many QA chemical structures well-characterized and lupin cell cultures and enzyme assays employed to identify some biosynthetic enzymes and pathway intermediates. More recently, two genes associated with these enzymes have been characterized, however, the QA biosynthetic pathway remains only partially elucidated. Here, we review the research accomplished thus far concerning QAs in lupin and consider some possibilities for further elucidation and manipulation of the QA pathway in lupin crops, drawing on examples from model alkaloid species. One breeding strategy for lupin is to produce plants with high QAs in vegetative tissues while low in the grain in order to confer insect resistance to plants while keeping grain QA levels within industry regulations. With the knowledge achieved on alkaloid biosynthesis in other plant species in recent years, and the recent development of genomic and transcriptomic resources for NLL, there is considerable scope to facilitate advances in our knowledge of QAs, leading to the production of improved lupin crops. PMID:28197163

  19. Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Lupins and Prospects for Grain Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Frick, Karen M; Kamphuis, Lars G; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Singh, Karam B; Foley, Rhonda C

    2017-01-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites found within the genus Lupinus, some species of which are commercially important grain legume crops including Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, NLL), L. luteus (yellow lupin), L. albus (white lupin), and L. mutabilis (pearl lupin), with NLL grain being the most largely produced of the four species in Australia and worldwide. While QAs offer the plants protection against insect pests, the accumulation of QAs in lupin grain complicates its use for food purposes as QA levels must remain below the industry threshold (0.02%), which is often exceeded. It is not well understood what factors cause grain QA levels to exceed this threshold. Much of the early work on QA biosynthesis began in the 1970-1980s, with many QA chemical structures well-characterized and lupin cell cultures and enzyme assays employed to identify some biosynthetic enzymes and pathway intermediates. More recently, two genes associated with these enzymes have been characterized, however, the QA biosynthetic pathway remains only partially elucidated. Here, we review the research accomplished thus far concerning QAs in lupin and consider some possibilities for further elucidation and manipulation of the QA pathway in lupin crops, drawing on examples from model alkaloid species. One breeding strategy for lupin is to produce plants with high QAs in vegetative tissues while low in the grain in order to confer insect resistance to plants while keeping grain QA levels within industry regulations. With the knowledge achieved on alkaloid biosynthesis in other plant species in recent years, and the recent development of genomic and transcriptomic resources for NLL, there is considerable scope to facilitate advances in our knowledge of QAs, leading to the production of improved lupin crops.

  20. Asparagine slows down the breakdown of storage lipid and degradation of autophagic bodies in sugar-starved embryo axes of germinating lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Pukacka, Stanisława; Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Ratajczak, Lech

    2017-02-01

    The research was conducted on embryo axes of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet), which were isolated from imbibed seeds and cultured for 96h in vitro under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Isolated embryo axes were fed with 60mM sucrose or were sugar-starved. The effect of 35mM asparagine (a central amino acid in the metabolism of germinating lupin seeds) and 35mM nitrate (used as an inorganic kind of nitrogen) on growth, storage lipid breakdown and autophagy was investigated. The sugar-starved isolated embryo axes contained more total lipid than axes fed with sucrose, and the content of this storage compound was even higher in sugar-starved isolated embryo axes fed with asparagine. Ultrastructural observations showed that asparagine significantly slowed down decomposition of autophagic bodies, and this allowed detailed analysis of their content. We found peroxisomes inside autophagic bodies in cells of sugar-starved Andean lupin embryo axes fed with asparagine, which led us to conclude that peroxisomes may be degraded during autophagy in sugar-starved isolated lupin embryo axes. One reason for the slower degradation of autophagic bodies was the markedly lower lipolytic activity in axes fed with asparagine.

  1. Development of genomic resources for the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius): construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius L, also known as narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), is becoming an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognised as a potential human health food. Recent interest is being directed at NLL to improve grain production, disease and pest management and health benefits of the grain. However, studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Results A NLL BAC library was constructed consisting of 111,360 clones with an average insert size of 99.7 Kbp from cv Tanjil. The library has approximately 12 × genome coverage. Both ends of 9600 randomly selected BAC clones were sequenced to generate 13985 BAC end-sequences (BESs), covering approximately 1% of the NLL genome. These BESs permitted a preliminary characterisation of the NLL genome such as organisation and composition, with the BESs having approximately 39% G:C content, 16.6% repetitive DNA and 5.4% putative gene-encoding regions. From the BESs 9966 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified and some of these are shown to be potential markers. Conclusions The NLL BAC library and BAC-end sequences are powerful resources for genetic and genomic research on lupin. These resources will provide a robust platform for future high-resolution mapping, map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole-genome sequencing data for the species. PMID:22014081

  2. Structural analysis and profiling of phenolic secondary metabolites of Mexican lupine species using LC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Wojakowska, Anna; Piasecka, Anna; García-López, Pedro M; Zamora-Natera, Francisco; Krajewski, Paweł; Marczak, Łukasz; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2013-08-01

    Flavonoid glycoconjugates from roots and leaves of eight North America lupine species (Lupinus elegans, Lupinus exaltatus, Lupinus hintonii, Lupinus mexicanus, Lupinus montanus, Lupinus rotundiflorus, Lupinus stipulatus, Lupinus sp.), three Mediterranean species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) and one species from South America domesticated in Europe (Lupinus mutabilis) were analyzed using two LC/MS systems: low-resolution ion trap instrument and high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight spectrometer. As a result of the LC/MS profiling using the CID/MS(n) experiments structures of 175 flavonoid glycoconjugates found in 12 lupine species were identified at three confidence levels according to the Metabolomic Standard Initiative, mainly at level 2 and 3, some of them were classified to the level 1. Among the flavonoid derivatives recognized in the plant extracts were isomeric or isobaric compounds, differing in the degree of hydroxylation of the aglycones and the presence of glycosidic, acyl or alkyl groups in the molecules. The elemental composition of the glycoconjugate molecules was established from the exact m/z values of the protonated/deprotonated molecules ([M+H](+)/[M-H](-)) measured with the accuracy better than 5 ppm. Information concerning structures of the aglycones, the type of sugar moieties (hexose, deoxyhexose or pentose) and, in some cases, their placement on the aglycones as well as the acyl substituents of the flavonoid glycoconjugates was achieved in experiments, in which collision-induced dissociation was applied. Flavonoid aglycones present in the studied O-glycoconjugates were unambiguously identified after the comparison of the pseudo-MS(3) spectra with the spectra registered for the standards. Isomers of flavonoid glycoconjugates, in which one or two sugar moieties were attached to 4'- or 7-hydroxyl groups or directly to the C-6 or C-8 of the aglycones, could be distinguished on the basis of the MS(2) spectra. However

  3. Sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seed as a substitute for concentrate mix supplement in the diets of yearling washera rams fed on natural pasture hay as basal diet in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yeheyis, Likawent; Kijora, Claudia; Tegegne, Firew; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-08-01

    In the mixed crop-livestock farming system of Ethiopia where crop residues are the major feed resources and concentrate supplement feeds are not common, home-grown legume protein sources can help to minimise the feed problem. A 69-day feeding experiment on sheep was conducted to evaluate the potential of sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) cultivar Sanabor seed as a substitute for commercial concentrate supplement. Thirty yearling male intact Washera sheep with initial body weight of 21 ± 1.38 kg (mean ± SD) were used. The design was a randomised complete block design with six replications. The five experimental supplement feeds were 453 g concentrate (T1), 342 g concentrate + 74 g lupin seed (T2), 228 g concentrate + 147 g lupin seed (T3), 116 g concentrate + 219 g lupin seed (T4) and 290 g lupin seed (T5) in dry matter basis to supplement around 100 g crude protein per day per animal. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in total dry matter, crude protein, ash and organic matter intakes among treatments. The average daily body weight gain for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was 91, 79, 79, 87 and 74 g/day, respectively, and this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). It was concluded that blue lupin seed has a potential to substitute the commercial concentrate supplement feed in Ethiopia.

  4. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Candy M; Jost, Ricarda; Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more

  5. Enhanced methionine levels and increased nutritive value of seeds of transgenic lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene

    PubMed Central

    Molvig, Lisa; Tabe, Linda M.; Eggum, Bjorn O.; Moore, Andrew E.; Craig, Stuart; Spencer, Donald; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds contained less sulfate and more total amino acid sulfur than the nontransgenic parent line. This was associated with a 94% increase in methionine content and a 12% reduction in cysteine content. There was no statistically significant change in other amino acids or in total nitrogen or total sulfur contents of the seeds. In feeding trials with rats, the transgenic seeds gave statistically significant increases in live weight gain, true protein digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization, compared with wild-type seeds. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using genetic engineering to improve the nutritive value of grain crops. PMID:9237987

  6. Consequences of transforming narrow leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L.]) with an ipt gene under control of a flower-specific promoter.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Craig A; Emery, R J Neil; Smith, Penelope M C

    2011-12-01

    Phenotypes of five transgenic lines of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L] cv Merrit) stably transformed with the isopentenyl pyrophosphate transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens coupled to a flower-specific promoter (TP12) from Nicotiana tabacum [L.] are described. Expression of the transgene was detected in floral tissues and in shoot apical meristems on all orders of inflorescence. In each transgenic line there was significant axillary bud outgrowth at all nodes on the main stem with pronounced branch development from the more basal nodes in three of the lines. The lowest basal branches developed in a manner similar to the upper stem axillary branches on cv Merrit and bore fruits, which, in two lines, contained a significant yield of filled seeds at maturity. Senescence of the cotyledons was delayed in all lines with green cotyledons persisting beyond anthesis in one case. IPT expression increased cytokinin (CK) levels in flowers, meristem tissues and phloem exudates in a form specific manner, which was suggestive of localized flower and meristem production with significant long-distance re-distribution in phloem. The total number of fruits formed (pod set) on some transgenic lines was increased compared to cv Merrit. Grain size compared to cv Merrit was not significantly altered in transgenic lines.

  7. Phylogenetic examination of two chemotypes of Lupinus leucophyllus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines (Lupinus spp.) are a common legume found on western U.S. rangelands. Lupinus spp. may contain quinolizidine and or piperidine alkaloids that could be toxic and or teratogenic to grazing livestock. Lupinus leucohyllus and Lupinus polyphyllus represent important species in the rangelands of ...

  8. The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). One such lupine, Lupinus sulphureus, occurs in parts of Oregon, Washington, and British ...

  9. Do rhizospheric processes linked to P nutrition participate in U absorption by Lupinus albus grown in hydroponics?

    PubMed

    Tailliez, Antoine; Pierrisnard, Sylvie; Camilleri, Virginie; Keller, Catherine; Henner, Pascale

    2013-10-01

    Phosphate (P) is an essential element for plant development but is generally present in limiting amount in the soil solution. Plant species have developed different mechanisms promoting the solubilization of this element in soils to ensure a sufficient supply for their growth. One of these mechanisms is based on the ability of certain species such as L. albus to exude large amounts of citrate through specific tertiary roots called cluster-roots. Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous contaminant known firstly for its chemical toxicity and secondly for its high affinity for P with which it forms low-soluble complexes in soils. We highlight the effects of P-U interaction on the physiology of L. albus and particularly on citrate exudation, and the impact of this root process on the phytoavailability of U and its accumulation in plants in a hydroponic study. Different levels of P (1 and 100 μM) and U (0 and 20 μM) have been tested. Our results show no toxicity of U on the development of L. albus with an adequate P supply, whereas the effects of P starvation are amplified by the presence of U in the growth medium, except for the production of cluster-roots. Citrate exudation is totally inhibited by U in a low-P environment whereas it increases in the presence of U when its toxicity is lowered by the addition of P. The differences observed in terms of toxicity and accumulation are partly explained by the microphotographs obtained by electron microscopy (TEM-EDX): in the absence of P, U penetrates deep into the roots and causes lethal damages, whereas in presence of P, we observe the formation of U-P complexes which limit the internalization of the pollutant and so its toxicity.

  10. [Phenotypic and technological influences of the Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) seed on its methionine availability and sulfur content].

    PubMed

    Oliveros, M; Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R; Reynoso, Z

    1983-09-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the content of available methionine and sulphur in seed cultivars of Lupinus mutabilis from different Andean regions, and to study the influence of processing on methionine and sulphur contents. An additional objective was to evaluate interrelationships among these chemical characteristics and protein quality, as measured by the protein efficiency ratio (PER) method. Results revealed a high variability in the content of available methionine and sulphur between the different ecotypes and varieties of Lupinus mutabilis. Fertilization with CaSO4 (200 kg/ha) did alter the content of available methionine and sulphur in Lupinus albus seeds. Traditional water-debittering of lupines did not affect the methionine content of the seeds, whereas oil-extraction and alcohol-debittering led to a decrease in available methionine (14 and 23% reduction, respectively). Production of a protein isolate further reduced the methionine content (54%). Regression analysis revealed a high correlation between available methionine and sulphur (r = 0.83), between sulphur and PER (r = 0.98) in the processed lupine samples, and lupine mixtures with other protein sources.

  11. Molecular markers for genetics and plant breeding: the MFLP marker system and its application in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Shahidul, Islam; Yang, Huaan; Yan, Guijun

    2013-01-01

    Since the development of molecular markers to tag genes of agronomic traits of interests, molecular markers have played an increasingly significant role in breeding programs. Molecular markers have been implemented for large-scale marker-assisted selection in the breeding program of many important crops including lupin. So far, more than a dozen molecular markers for disease resistance genes and for other agronomic traits of interest have been developed in lupin. The DNA fingerprinting method, "MFLP" has played a pivotal role in the success of lupin breeding program in Australia. Here, we describe the MFLP technique used in lupin breeding which could be easily transferable to other crop species.

  12. Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carla; António, Carla; Ortuño, Maria Fernanda; Dobrev, Petre I; Hartung, Wolfram; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Vanková, Radomira; Chaves, M Manuela; Wilson, Julie C

    2011-10-01

    The early (2-4 d) effects of slowly imposed soil water deficit on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance in different organs (leaf blade, stem stele, stem cortex, and root) were evaluated on 23-d-old plants (growth chamber assay). Our work shows that several metabolic adjustments occurred prior to alteration of the plant water status, implying that water deficit is perceived before the change in plant water status. The slow, progressive decline in soil water content started to be visible 3 d after withholding water (3 DAW). The earliest plant changes were associated with organ-specific metabolic responses (particularly in the leaves) and with leaf conductance and only later with plant water status and photosynthetic rate (4 DAW) or photosynthetic capacity (according to the Farquhar model; 6 DAW). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the physiological parameters, the carbohydrate and the hormone levels and their relative values, as well as leaf water-soluble metabolites full scan data (LC-MS/MS), showed separation of the different sampling dates. At 6 DAW classically described stress responses are observed, with plant water status, ABA level, and root hormonal balance contributing to the separation of these samples. Discrimination of earlier stress stages (3 and 4 DAW) is only achieved when the relative levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (Cks), and carbon metabolism (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch levels) are taken into account. Our working hypothesis is that, in addition to single responses (e.g. ABA increase), the combined alterations in hormone and carbohydrate levels play an important role in the stress response mechanism. Response to more advanced stress appears to be associated with a combination of cumulative changes, occurring in several plant organs. The carbohydrate and hormonal balance in the leaf (IAA to bioactive-Cks; soluble sugars to IAA and starch to IAA; relative abundances of the

  13. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Scabland region of eastern Washington is dominated by annual grasses and in some areas by Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine). The purpose of these trials was to document the consumption of velvet lupine and relate the amount of lupine eaten by pregnant cows with the incidence of crooked calv...

  14. Effect of jasmonic acid-methyl ester on the composition of carbohydrates and germination of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Kazimierz; Nitkiewicz, Bartosz; Lahuta, Lesław B; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Socha, Aleksander; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2010-08-15

    Mature seeds of yellow lupine contained sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and galactosyl cyclitols as major soluble carbohydrates. The study showed that RFOs dominated in lupine seeds (16% DW). The disappearance of both types of alpha-d-galactosides in germinating lupine seeds was strongly inhibited by the presence of jasmonic acid-methyl ester (JA-Me) at a concentration of 10(-3)M in the incubation medium. JA-Me inhibited the activity of alpha-D-galactosidase (fraction I) during seed germination. Anatomical studies of lupine roots have shown certain cell structure differences between control and JA-Me-treated seedlings. The cross-sections of plant roots treated with JA-Me showed a characteristic folding of the cell walls in all root tissues, starting from the rhyzodermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. In water-treated (control) plants, the cell walls were rounded with no folding.

  15. Occurrence of H2-Uptake Hydrogenases in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Their Expression in Nodules of Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus compressus1

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Jesús; Villa, Ana; Chamber, Manuel; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-four strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) from worldwide collections were screened by a colony hybridization method for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the structural genes of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase. Twelve strains exhibited strong colony hybridization signals, and subsequent Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that they fell into two different groups on the basis of the pattern of EcoRI fragments containing the homology to the hup probe. All strains in the first group (UPM860, UPM861, and 750) expressed uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, and Ornithopus compressus, but both the rate of H2 uptake by bacteroids and the relative efficiency of N2 fixation (RE = 1 - [H2 evolved in air/acetylene reduced]) by nodules were markedly affected by the legume host. L. angustifolius was the less permissive host for hydrogenase expression in symbiosis with the three strains (average RE = 0.76), and O. compressus was the more permissive (average RE = 1.0). None of the strains in the second group expressed hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules, and only one exhibited low H2-uptake activity in symbiosis with O. compressus. The inability of these putative Hup+ strains to induce hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules is discussed on the basis of the legume host effect. Among the 42 strains showing no homology to the B. japonicum hup-specific probe in the colony hybridization assay, 10 were examined in symbiosis with L. angustifolius. The average RE for these strains was 0.51. However, one strain, IM43B, exhibited high RE values (higher than 0.80) and high levels of hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with L. angustifolius, L. albus, and L. luteus. In Southern blot hybridization experiments, no homology was detected between the B. japonicum hup-specific DNA probe and total DNA from vegetative cells or bacteroids from strain IM43B even under low stringency hybridization

  16. An RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of orthophosphate-deficient white lupin reveals novel insights into phosphorus acclimation in plants.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Jamie A; Yang, S Samuel; Miller, Susan S; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W; Vance, Carroll P

    2013-02-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (P(i)), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to P(i) deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in P(i)-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to P(i) supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ≥ 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to P(i) deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ≤ 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to P(i) deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the P(i) status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in P(i) deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to P(i) deficiency.

  17. The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of some bitter and sweet selections of lupin species used as food.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Gross, R

    1980-01-01

    The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of bitter and sweet Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus, Lupinus mutabilis, Lupinus polyphyllus, and Lupinus perennis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. No anagyrine was detected in any of the samples. The GC peak in some of the samples which corresponded to anagyrine in retention of time seems to be identical to 17-oxolupanine. The alkaloid content of samples ranged from 3.17 to 0.003 percent.

  18. A First Glimpse of Wild Lupin Karyotype Variation As Revealed by Comparative Cytogenetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Susek, Karolina; Bielski, Wojciech K.; Hasterok, Robert; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Insight into plant genomes at the cytomolecular level provides useful information about their karyotype structure, enabling inferences about taxonomic relationships and evolutionary origins. The Old World lupins (OWL) demonstrate a high level of genomic diversification involving variation in chromosome numbers (2n = 32–52), basic chromosome numbers (x = 5–7, 9, 13) and in nuclear genome size (2C DNA = 0.97–2.68 pg). Lupins comprise both crop and wild species and provide an intriguing system to study karyotype evolution. In order to investigate lupin chromosome structure, heterologous FISH was used. Sixteen BACs that had been generated as chromosome markers for the reference species, Lupinus angustifolius, were used to identify chromosomes in the wild species and explore karyotype variation. While all “single-locus” in L. angustifolius, in the wild lupins these clones proved to be “single-locus,” “single-locus” with additional signals, “repetitive” or had no detectable BAC-FISH signal. The diverse distribution of the clones in the targeted genomes suggests a complex evolution history, which possibly involved multiple chromosomal changes such as fusions/fissions and repetitive sequence amplification. Twelve BACs were sequenced and we found numerous transposable elements including DNA transposons as well as LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons with varying quantity and composition among the different lupin species. However, at this preliminary stage, no correlation was observed between the pattern of BAC-FISH signals and the repeat content in particular BACs. Here, we describe the first BAC-based chromosome-specific markers for the wild species: L. cosentinii, L. cryptanthus, L. pilosus, L. micranthus and one New World lupin, L. multiflorus. These BACs could constitute the basis for an assignment of the chromosomal and genetic maps of other lupins, e.g., L. albus and L. luteus. Moreover, we identified karyotype variation that helps illustrate the

  19. Evaluation of USDA Lupinus sp. collection for seed-borne potyviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses pose a threat to the acquisition, maintenance, and distribution of lupin germplasm (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). The availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from maintained lupin collections is mandatory for conducting lupin research. The objective of t...

  20. Emulsifying and Foaming Properties of Different Protein Fractions Obtained from a Novel Lupin Variety AluProt-CGNA(®) (Lupinus luteus).

    PubMed

    Burgos-Díaz, César; Piornos, José A; Wandersleben, Traudy; Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Xaviera; Rubilar, Mónica

    2016-07-01

    The use of vegetable proteins as food ingredient is becoming increasingly important due to their high versatility and environmental acceptability. This work describes a chemical characterization and techno-functional properties (emulsifying and foaming properties) of 3 protein fractions obtained from a protein-rich novel lupin variety, AluProt-CGNA(®) . This nongenetically modified variety have a great protein content in dehulled seeds (60.6 g protein/100 g, dry matter), which is higher than soybean and other lupin varieties. A simple procedure was utilized to obtain 3 different fractions by using alkali solubilization and isoelectric precipitation. Fractions 1 and 3 were mainly composed of protein and polysaccharides (NNE), whereas fraction 2 was mainly composed by protein (97%, w/w). Fraction 3 presented interesting and potential foaming properties in comparison to the other fractions evaluated in the study. Besides, its solubility, foaming and emulsifying capacity were practically not affected by pH variations. The 3 fractions also presented good emulsion stability, reaching values above a 95%. SDS-PAGE showed that fractions 1 and 2 contained mainly conglutin α, β, and δ, but in different ratios, whereas fraction 3 contained mainly conglutin γ and albumins. The results of this work will provide better understanding for the utilization of each protein fractions as potential ingredients in food industry.

  1. Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) β1- and β6-Conglutin Proteins Exhibit Antifungal Activity, Protecting Plants against Necrotrophic Pathogen Induced Damage from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora nicotianae

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C.; Melser, Su; DeBoer, Kathleen; Thatcher, Louise F.; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Foley, Rhonda C.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Vicilins (7S globulins) are seed storage proteins and constitute the main protein family in legume seeds, particularly in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.; NLL), where seven vicilin genes, called β1- to β7-conglutin have been identified. Vicilins are involved in germination processes supplying amino acids for seedling growth and plant development, as well as in some cases roles in plant defense and protection against pathogens. The roles of NLL β-conglutins in plant defense are unknown. Here the potential role of five NLL β-conglutin family members in protection against necrotrophic fungal pathogens was investigated and it was demonstrated that recombinant purified 6xHis-tagged β1- and β6-conglutin proteins exhibited the strongest in vitro growth inhibitory activity against a range of necrotrophic fungal pathogens compared to β2, β3, and β4 conglutins. To examine activity in vivo, two representative necrotrophic pathogens, the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae were used. Transient expression of β1- and β6-conglutin proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated in vivo growth suppression of both of these pathogens, resulting in low percentages of hyphal growth and elongation in comparison to control treated leaves. Cellular studies using β1- and β6-GFP fusion proteins showed these conglutins localized to the cell surface including plasmodesmata. Analysis of cellular death following S. sclerotiorum or P. nicotianae revealed both β1- and β6-conglutins suppressed pathogen induced cell death in planta and prevented pathogen induced suppression of the plant oxidative burst as determined by protein oxidation in infected compared to mock-inoculated leaves. PMID:28018392

  2. Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

  3. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  4. The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.

    PubMed

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-03-01

    The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens.

  5. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes during Infection of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) by Phytophthora parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Leila M.; Cullerne, Darren P.; Torreña, Pernelyn; Taylor, Jen; Hardham, Adrienne R.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis has shown that over 60% (12,962) of the predicted transcripts in the Phytophthora parasitica genome are expressed during the first 60 h of lupin root infection. The infection transcriptomes included 278 of the 431 genes encoding P. parasitica cell wall degrading enzymes. The transcriptome data provide strong evidence of global transcriptional cascades of genes whose encoded proteins target the main categories of plant cell wall components. A major cohort of pectinases is predominantly expressed early but as infection progresses, the transcriptome becomes increasingly dominated by transcripts encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycoproteins. The most highly expressed P. parasitica carbohydrate active enzyme gene contains two CBM1 cellulose binding modules and no catalytic domains. The top 200 differentially expressed genes include β-1,4-glucosidases, β-1,4-glucanases, β-1,4-galactanases, a β-1,3-glucanase, an α-1,4-polygalacturonase, a pectin deacetylase and a pectin methylesterase. Detailed analysis of gene expression profiles provides clues as to the order in which linkages within the complex carbohydrates may come under attack. The gene expression profiles suggest that (i) demethylation of pectic homogalacturonan occurs before its deacetylation; (ii) cleavage of the backbone of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I precedes digestion of its side chains; (iii) early attack on cellulose microfibrils by non-catalytic cellulose-binding proteins and enzymes with auxiliary activities may facilitate subsequent attack by glycosyl hydrolases and enzymes containing CBM1 cellulose-binding modules; (iv) terminal hemicellulose backbone residues are targeted after extensive internal backbone cleavage has occurred; and (v) the carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins are degraded late in infection. A notable feature of the P. parasitica infection transcriptome is the high level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes that degrade β-1

  6. Citrate-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of cluster roots from white lupin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Ryan, Peter R; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2004-11-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is well adapted to phosphorus deficiency by developing cluster roots that release large amounts of citrate into the rhizosphere to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphorus. To determine the mechanism underlying citrate release from cluster roots, we isolated protoplasts from different types of roots of white lupin plants grown in phosphorus-replete (+P) and phosphorus-deficient (-P) conditions and used the patch-clamp technique to measure the whole-cell currents flowing across plasma membrane of these protoplasts. Two main types of anion conductance were observed in protoplasts prepared from cluster root tissue: (1) an inwardly rectifying anion conductance (IRAC) activated by membrane hyperpolarization, and (2) an outwardly rectifying anion conductance (ORAC) that became more activated with membrane depolarization. Although ORAC was an outward rectifier, it did allow substantial inward current (anion efflux) to occur. Both conductances showed citrate permeability, with IRAC being more selective for citrate3- than Cl- (PCit/PCl = 26.3), while ORAC was selective for Cl- over citrate (PCl/PCit = 3.7). Both IRAC and ORAC were sensitive to the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These currents were also detected in protoplasts derived from noncluster roots of -P plants, as well as from normal (noncluster) roots of plants grown with 25 microm phosphorus (+P). No differences were observed in the magnitude or frequency of IRAC and ORAC currents between the cluster roots and noncluster roots of -P plants. However, the IRAC current from +P plants occurred less frequently than in the -P plants. IRAC was unaffected by external phosphate, but ORAC had reduced inward current (anion efflux) when phosphate was present in the external medium. Our data suggest that IRAC is the main pathway for citrate efflux from white lupin roots, but ORAC may also contribute to citrate efflux.

  7. First Report of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus from Diseased Lupinus luteus L. in Eastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, in Pullman, Washington is responsible for the acquisition, maintenance, storage, and distribution of lupine (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). Availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from lupine collections is ma...

  8. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and other elements in seeds of Lupinus mutabilis and of other legumes.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Auslitz, J; Schramel, P; Payer, H D

    1987-01-01

    Several species of legumes and varieties of lupins were examined for their heavy metal content in the seeds. Atomic absorption spectrometry was the main analytical tool. Validity and reproducibility of the results was checked by analyzing the same materials at two different laboratories performing the same technique. Additionally, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy was applied. In grains of Lupinus mutabilis which constitute a traditional food in Andean populations, the following contents of heavy metals were determined: 0.10-0.25 microgram/g Cd; 0.5-1.6 microgram/g Pb; 0.10-0.15 microgram/g Hg. Seeds of other legumes contained 0.05-0.35 microgram/g Cd; 0.1-0.2 microgram/g Pb; 0.01-0.04 microgram/g Hg. The high lead content of lupins is easily reduced to one tenth by traditional extraction with boiling water. The mercury content, too, is decreased by this technique. The high manganese content of 1 300-1,400 micrograms/g of Lupinus albus compared to other legumes (25-37 micrograms/g) seems to be characteristic for this species and may be of nutritional significance. The comparison of the heavy metal contents of legume seeds of different origin and variety indicates a complex pattern of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the specific metal contents of individual harvests. On the level of varieties the environmental factors (climate, soil, geology, agricultural techniques) seem to exhibit more important influences on the specific accumulation of heavy metals than genetic factors. In contrast, on the level of species or genera, the accumulation of heavy metals seems to be dominated by genetic factors rather than by environmental influences.

  9. The Forms and Sources of Cytokinins in Developing White Lupine Seeds and Fruits1

    PubMed Central

    Emery, R.J. Neil; Ma, Qifu; Atkins, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive range of cytokinins (CK) was identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tissues of and in xylem and phloem serving developing white lupine (Lupinus albus) fruits. Analyses were initiated at anthesis and included stages of podset, embryogenesis, and seed filling up to physiological maturation 77 d post anthesis (DPA). In the first 10 DPA, fertilized ovaries destined to set pods accumulated CK. The proportion of cis-CK:trans-CK isomers was initially 10:1 but declined to less than 1:1. In ovaries destined to abort, the ratio of cis-isomers to trans-isomers remained high. During early podset, accumulation of CK (30–40 pmol ovary−1) was accounted for by xylem and phloem translocation, both containing more than 90% cis-isomers. During embryogenesis and early seed filling (40–46 DPA), translocation accounted for 1% to 14% of the increases of CK in endosperm (20 nmol fruit−1) and seed coat (15 nmol fruit−1), indicating synthesis in situ. High CK concentrations in seeds (0.6 μmol g−1 fresh weight) were transient, declining rapidly to less than 1% of maximum levels by physiological maturity. These data pose new questions about the localization and timing of CK synthesis, the significance of translocation, and the role(s) of CK forms in reproductive development. PMID:10938375

  10. Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg−1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release. PMID:20150198

  11. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  12. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  13. Influence of plant secondary metabolites on in vitro oxidation of methyl ferulate with cell wall peroxidases from lupine apoplast.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Łukasz; Wojtaszek, Przemysław; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Ionically bound cell wall peroxidases (POXs) were liberated to intercellular washing fluids (IWFs) and isolated together with other proteins and metabolites present in the apoplast of white lupine (Lupinus albus L. var. Bac) root. After separation of proteins from low molecular weight compounds, activity of peroxidases was monitored in in vitro experiments. Oxidation of methyl ferulate with H2O2 was studied in multi-component mixtures of plant metabolites. Secondary metabolites identified in IWFs or other natural products playing important roles in different physiological processes were applied as modifiers of the dehydrodimerization process during oxidation reactions performed in vitro. These were isoflavones and their conjugates, lupanine representing quinolizidine alkaloids synthesized in lupine, or other natural products such as quercetin, ascorbic, and salicylic acid. The influence of these substances on the oxidation kinetics of methyl ferulate was monitored with liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC/UV), and identification of compounds was confirmed with the liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) system. On the basis of data collected, it was possible to reveal changes in the activities of cell wall POXs. Application of the LC system permitted us to monitor, independently, quantitative changes of two or more reaction products in the mixtures. In multi-component combinations, oxidation yields of methyl ferulate by POXs were modified depending on the actual composition of the reaction mixture. We conclude that various classes of plant secondary metabolites can modify the yield of methyl ferulate oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of POX, due to interactions with the enzyme's active site (genistein) or radical scavenging properties of metabolites present in the reaction mixture.

  14. Crude protein supplementation to reduce lupine consumption by pregnant cattle in the scablands of eastern Washington.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine) is prevalent in eastern Washington, and when consumed by pregnant cows, can cause “crooked calf disease.” Rangelands in this region are dominated by poor quality annual grasses. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding supplemental crude protein...

  15. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause significant losses to the cattle industry. Previous research has suggested that Holstein cattle clear toxic Delphinium alkaloids from their serum at a greater rate than beef cattle. The toxicokinetics of lupine alkaloids in Holsteins are not known...

  16. Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Larenas, F E; Linnemann, A R; Nout, M J R; Koziol, M; van Boekel, M A J S

    2016-07-03

    Lupinus mutabilis has protein (32.0-52.6 g/100 g dry weight) and lipid (13.0-24.6 g/100 g dry weight) contents similar to soya bean (Glycine max). The Ω3, Ω6, and Ω9 contents are 1.9-3.0, 26.5-39.6, and 41.2-56.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively. Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of pasta, bread, biscuits, salads, hamburgers, sausages, and can substitute milk and soya bean. Specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display protein solubility (>90%), water-absorption capacity (4.5 g/g dry weight), oil-absorption capacity (3.98 g/g), emulsifying capacity (2000 mL of oil/g), emulsifying stability (100%, 60 hours), foaming capacity (2083%), foaming stability (78.8%, 36 hours), and least gelation concentration (6%), which are of industrial interest. Lupins contain bitter alkaloids. Preliminary studies on their toxicity suggest as lethal acute dose for infants and children 10 mg/kg bw and for adults 25 mg/kg bw. However, alkaloids can also have medical use for their hypocholesterolemic, antiarrhythmic, and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins can be detoxified by biological, chemical, or aqueous processes. The shortest debittering process requires one hour. This review presents the nutritional composition of lupins, their uses (as food, medicine, and functional protein isolates), toxicology, and debittering process scenarios. It critically evaluates the data, infers conclusions, and makes suggestions for future research.

  17. Germinated and Ungerminated Seeds Extract from Two Lupinus Species: Biological Compounds Characterization and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Andor, Bogdan; Alexa, Ersilia; Hogea, Elena; Coricovac, Dorina; Pătrașcu, Jenel Marian; Mioc, Marius; Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, nutraceuticals attracted a great amount of attention in the biomedical research due to their significant contribution as natural agents for prevention of various health issues. Ethanolic extracts from the ungerminated and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. were analyzed for the content in isoflavones (genistein) and cinnamic acid derivatives. Additionally, the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties, using in vitro and in vivo tests. Germination proved to be a method of choice in increasing the amount of genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives in both Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. Biological evaluation of all vegetal extracts revealed a weak therapeutic potential for both ungerminated and germinated seeds. PMID:28090213

  18. Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

  19. Protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis: metabolic studies in children.

    PubMed

    Lopez de Romaãna, G; Graham, G G; Morales, E; Massa, E; MacLean, W C

    1983-04-01

    The nutritional quality of lupins (Lupinus mutabilis) for infants and children was evaluated in two sets of balance studies. In the first the digestibility and protein quality of diets based on lupin flour, with and without methionine supplementation, were compared with those of a control diet consisting of casein, sucrose and vegetable oil. Apparent nitrogen absorption from lupin flour (81.8 and 84.3% of intake) was slightly but significantly less than that during casein control periods (87.2 and 86.8% of intake, P less than 0.05 and less than 0.001). Apparent nitrogen retention from unsupplemented lupin (15.6 +/- 5.8% of intake) was significantly less than that from casein in the corresponding control periods (29.8 +/- 4.9%, P less than 0.001); a small but significant (P less than 0.05) increase in nitrogen retention was observed during the control period following the lupin diet when compared with that preceding it. Methionine supplementation of lupin produced a marked improvement in apparent nitrogen retention (to 22.2 +/- 6.9%, P less than 0.05). In the second set of studies the digestibility of lupin oil was compared with that of a blend of soybean and cottonseed oils (50:50). Excretion of fecal fat (9.8 +/- 3.0% of intake) and fecal energy (6.7 +/- 1.2% of intake) with the diet containing lupin oil were similar to those observed with the control diet. Both the protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis are very similar to those from soybeans processed in a similar manner. For certain countries the lupin could be a valuable source of protein and edible oil for human consumption.

  20. Putative porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) bacteroids induced by glyphosate.

    PubMed

    de María, Nuria; Guevara, Angeles; Serra, M Teresa; García-Luque, Isabel; González-Sama, Alfonso; García de Lacoba, Mario; de Felipe, M Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2007-08-01

    Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed.

  1. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  2. Intermittent grazing: A management tool to reduce the impact of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lupinus genus is a large group of legumes, some of which cause a congenital condition in cattle referred to as “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS). Only Lupines that contain the alkaloids anagyrine or ammodendrine are problematic to cattle producers. The syndrome is manifest by a series of multiple ...

  3. Positive responses of coastal dune plants to soil conditioning by the invasive Lupinus nootkatensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanslin, Hans Martin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Invasive nitrogen-fixing plants drive vegetation dynamics and may cause irreversible changes in nutrient-limited ecosystems through increased soil resources. We studied how soil conditioning by the invasive alien Lupinus nootkatensis affected the seedling growth of co-occurring native plant species in coastal dunes, and whether responses to lupin-conditioned soil could be explained by fertilisation effects interacting with specific ecological strategies of the native dune species. Seedling performance of dune species was compared in a greenhouse experiment using field-collected soil from within or outside coastal lupin stands. In associated experiments, we quantified the response to nutrient supply of each species and tested how addition of specific nutrients affected growth of the native grass Festuca arundinacea in control and lupin-conditioned soil. We found that lupin-conditioned soil increased seedling biomass in 30 out of 32 native species; the conditioned soil also had a positive effect on seedling biomass of the invasive lupin itself. Increased phosphorus mobilisation by lupins was the major factor driving these positive seedling responses, based both on growth responses to addition of specific elements and analyses of plant available soil nutrients. There were large differences in growth responses to lupin-conditioned soil among species, but they were unrelated to selected autecological indicators or plant strategies. We conclude that Lupinus nootkatensis removes the phosphorus limitation for growth of native plants in coastal dunes, and that it increases cycling of other nutrients, promoting the growth of its own seedlings and a wide range of dune species. Finally, our study indicates that there are no negative soil legacies that prevent re-establishment of native plant species after removal of lupins.

  4. Electron transport, Photosystem-2 reaction centers and chlorophyll-protein complexes of thylakoids of drought resistant and sensitive Lupin piants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; de Kouchkovsky, Y

    1993-07-01

    Two genotypes ofLupinus albus L., resistant and susceptible to drought, were subjected to water deficiency for up to two weeks. Such treatment progressively lowered the leaf water content from about 85% to about 60% (water potential from -0.8 to -4.3 MPa). Light-saturation curves of the uncoupled electron transport were analyzed according to a simple kinetic model of separated or connected reversible photoreactions. It gives an extrapolated maximum rate (Vmax) and the efficiency for capturing light (Im, which is the light intensity at Vmax/2). For Photosystem 2, Vmax and, less markedly, Im, declined with increasing severity of drought treatment; the artificial donor, diphenylcarbazide, could not restore the activity. One cause of this Photosystem 2 inhibition could be the loss of active Photosystem 2 centers. Indeed, their concentration relative to chlorophyll, estimated by flash-induced reduction of dimethylquinone, was halved by a medium stress. To the extent that it was still not restored by diphenylcarbazide, the site of Photosystem 2 inactivation must have been close to the photochemical trap, after water oxidation and before or at plastoquinone pool. By relating electron transport rate to active centers instead of chlorophyll, no inhibition by drought was detected. Therefore, water stress inactivates specifically Photosystem 2, without impairing a downhill thermal step of electron transport. On the other hand, the decrease of Im suggests that antennae connected to inactive centers may transfer their excitation energy to active neighbors, which implies that antenna network remains essentially intact. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the apoproteins of the pigment complexes were well conserved. In conclusion, the inactivation of Photosystem 2 may not be a physical loss of its centers and core antennae but probably reflects protein alterations or conformational changes. These may result from the massive decrease of lipids induced by drought (Meyer et al. 1992

  5. Composition and protein quality of Lupinus mutabilis.

    PubMed

    Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R; Cremer, H D; Elmadfa, I

    1982-01-01

    The chemical composition and the protein quality of three samples of Lupinus mutabilis (a raw, semi-sweet variety; cooked, water-extracted seeds; and alcohol-extracted oil cake) were studied. The protein content varied from 47.7% dry weight (raw seeds) to 65.3% (oil-cake). Compared to the FAO reference pattern sulfur- containing amino acids are first limiting. The water-extracted sample contained 26.9% oil and the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of 30 seed samples was 5.3. Alkaloid content of raw seed was high (3.3%), but could be reduced or nearly eliminated by water-and-alcohol extraction or plant breeding. Other anti-nutritive substances were present only in trace quantities. Protein quality measured as protein efficiency ratio (PER) gave low values for the non-supplemented lupin proteins (1.34 semi-sweet variety; 1.53 water-extracted seeds; 1.19 oil-cake; 3.09 casein), but the PER's were improved by the addition of 0.2% DL-methionine to the diets (3.05, 2.69, 2,81, respectively). Raw as well as processed lupin protein showed an excellent apparent digestibility (80.0-85.8%, casein 87.1%). Studies of net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) confirmed the importance of methionine supplementation, The true digestibility of 92% was equivalent to that of casein.

  6. Organ-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) subunits in yellow lupine.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Dabert, Mirosława; Nowak, Witold

    2011-07-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.2-4) is present in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus cv. Juno) in many isoforms. The number and banding pattern of isoenzymes varies with respect to plant organ and developmental stage. To better understand the complex nature of GDH regulation in plants, the levels of GDH transcripts, enzyme activity and isoenzyme patterns in germinating seeds and roots of yellow lupine were examined. The analysis of GDH cDNA sequences in lupine revealed three mRNA types, of which two encoded the β-GDH subunit and one encoded the α-GDH subunit (corresponding to the GDH1(GDH3) and GDH2 genes, respectively). The relative expression of GDH1 and GDH2 genes was analyzed in various lupine organs by using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that different mRNA types were differently regulated depending on organ type. Although both genes appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in all lupine tissues, the GDH1 transcripts evidently predominated over those of GDH2. Immunochemical analyses confirmed that, during embryo development, varied expression of two GDH subunits takes place. The α-GDH subunit (43kDa) predominated in the early stages of germinating seeds, while the β-GDH subunit (44kDa) was the only GDH polypeptide present in lupine roots. These results firmly support the hypothesis that isoenzyme variability of GDH in yellow lupine is associated with the varied expression of α and β subunits into the complexes of hexameric GDH forms. The presence of several isogenes of GDH in yellow lupine may explain the high number (over 20) of its molecular forms in germinating lupine.

  7. Widespread adaptive evolution during repeated evolutionary radiations in New World lupins

    PubMed Central

    Nevado, Bruno; Atchison, Guy W.; Hughes, Colin E.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed. Furthermore, widespread shifts in optimal gene expression coincided with shifts to high rates of diversification and evolution of perenniality, a putative key adaptation trait thought to have triggered the evolutionary radiations in New World lupins. Our results reconcile long-standing debate about the relative importance of protein-coding and regulatory evolution, and represent the first unambiguous evidence for the rapid onset of lineage- and genome-wide accelerated Darwinian evolution during rapid species diversification. PMID:27498896

  8. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  9. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  10. Putative Porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) Bacteroids Induced by Glyphosate▿

    PubMed Central

    de María, Nuria; Guevara, Ángeles; Serra, M. Teresa; García-Luque, Isabel; González-Sama, Alfonso; de Lacoba, Mario García; de Felipe, M. Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed. PMID:17557843

  11. The Effect of Military Training Activity on Eastern Lupine and the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.; Turner, Monica G.; Rusch, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly ( Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine ( Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training.

  12. The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Turner, Monica G; Rusch, Donald H

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training.

  13. A comparative study of the effects of sparteine, lupanine and lupin extract on the central nervous system of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Pothier, J; Cheav, S L; Galand, N; Dormeau, C; Viel, C

    1998-08-01

    Lupin is toxic because of its alkaloid content, sparteine and lupanine in particular. Although the pharmacological properties of sparteine are well known those of lupanine have not been much studied. This paper reports procedures for extraction, purification and crystallization of lupanine, and methods for the preparation of an extract for injection of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet, and for the determination of the acute toxicity and maximum non-lethal dose (DL0) of lupanine, sparteine and lupin extract in the mouse. The three substances were tested on the central nervous system (CNS) for locomotor activity, for interaction with specific drugs used for treatment of the CNS (the stimulant drugs amphetamine and pentetrazol and the depressant drugs pentobarbital and chlorpromazine) and for analgesic activity. The results indicate that lupanine and lupin extract are less toxic than sparteine and that at the doses studied the three products have a weak sedative effect on the CNS.

  14. Nuclear DNA Content Variation and Species Relationships in the Genus Lupinus (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    NAGANOWSKA, BARBARA; WOLKO, BOGDAN; ŚLIWIŃSKA, ELWIRA; KACZMAREK, ZYGMUNT

    2003-01-01

    The 2C nuclear DNA content has been estimated by flow cytometry in 18 species and botanical forms of the genus Lupinus (family Fabaceae), using propidium iodide as a fluorescent dye. They represented distinct infrageneric taxonomic groups and differed in somatic chromosome numbers. Estimated 2C DNA values ranged from 0·97 pg in L. princei to 2·44 pg in L. luteus, which gives a more than 2·5-fold variation. Statistical analysis of the data obtained resulted in a grouping that supports the generally accepted taxonomic classification of the Old World lupins. The rough-seeded L. princei turned out to be an interesting exception, getting closer to smooth-seeded species. Results of DNA content analyses are discussed with regards to the phylogenetic relationships among the Old World lupins and some aspects of the evolution of the genus. PMID:12853281

  15. Cloning and expression of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed Central

    Maksel, D; Guranowski, A; Ilgoutz, S C; Moir, A; Blackburn, M G; Gayler, K R

    1998-01-01

    The first isolation, cloning and expression of cDNA encoding an asymmetric diadenosine 5',5'''P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (Ap4A hydrolase) from a higher plant is described. Ap4A hydrolase protein was purified from seeds of both Lupinus luteus and Lupinus angustifolius and partially sequenced. The Ap4A hydrolase cDNA was cloned from L. angustifolius cotyledonary polyadenylated RNA using reverse transcription and PCR with primers based on the amino acid sequence. The cDNA encoded a protein of 199 amino acids, molecular mass 22982Da. When expressed in Escherichia coli fused to a maltose-binding protein, the enzyme catalysed asymmetric cleavage of Ap4A to AMP and ATP which was inhibited at concentrations of F- as low as 3 microM. These are properties characteristic of Ap4A hydrolase (asymmetrical) (EC 3.6.1. 17). Comparison of the Ap4A hydrolase sequences derived from the four known cDNAs from pig, human, lupin and fission yeast showed that, like the mammalian hydrolase, the lupin enzyme possesses a Mut T motif but no other significant similarities. No sequence similarity to the human fragile histidine triad protein, as found in the Ap4A hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was detected in the Ap4A hydrolase from lupin. PMID:9425114

  16. Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-12-20

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program.

  17. Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976884

  18. Cluster-root formation and carboxylate release in three Lupinus species as dependent on phosphorus supply, internal phosphorus concentration and relative growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Pearse, Stuart J.; Lambers, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status. Methods Three cluster-root-forming Lupinus species, L. albus, L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, were grown in washed river sand at 0, 7·5, 15 or 40 mg P kg−1 dry sand. Plants were harvested at 34, 42 or 62 d after sowing, and fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, cluster roots and non-cluster roots of different ages were measured. The percentage of cluster roots, tissue P concentrations, root exudates and plant RGR were determined. Key Results Phosphorus treatments had major effects on cluster-root allocation, with a significant but incomplete suppression in L. albus and L. pilosus when P supply exceeded 15 mg P kg−1 sand. Complete suppression was found in L. atlanticus at the highest P supply; this species never invested more than 20 % of its root weight in cluster roots. For L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, cluster-root formation was decreased at high internal P concentration, irrespective of RGR. For L. albus, there was a trend in the same direction, but this was not significant. Conclusions Cluster-root formation in all three Lupinus species was suppressed at high leaf P concentration, irrespective of RGR. Variation in cluster-root formation among the three species cannot be explained by species-specific variation in RGR or leaf P concentration. PMID:24061491

  19. Influence of germination with different selenium solutions on nutritional value and cytotoxicity of lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Frias, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Pilarski, Radosław; Blazquez, Enrique; Jiménez, Begoña; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2009-02-25

    The effect of different selenium solutions during germination of lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius L. cv. Zapaton) on the content of total selenium, protein, amino acids, soluble carbohydrates, total antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity on HL-60 human leukemic cell line has been studied. Seeds were germinated in the presence of selenite (Na2SeO3) or selenate (Na2SeO4) solutions at different concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/L) for 5 days at either 20 or 25 degrees C. The addition of inorganic Se forms significantly increased Se content in lupin sprouts in a dose-dependent manner. The highest Se content in lupin sprouts was observed when germination was carried out with selenate solutions at 20 degrees C (11 microg/g of dw) or 25 degrees C (14 microg/g of dw). The Se-enriched sprouts presented an improvement in antioxidant activity (up to 117.8 and 103.5 micromol of Trolox/g of dw) as well as in essential amino acid content, and no cytotoxicity was observed on HL-60 human leukemic cells. Lupin seeds germinated with 8 mg/L selenate solutions for 5 days at 20 degrees C exhibited a higher germination rate (>90%) and a higher concentration of some essential amino acids than those obtained in selenite solutions in the same germination conditions. Therefore, the employment of selenate solutions at a concentration of 8 mg/L and germination for 5 days at 20 degrees C may be suggested for the production of Se-enriched lupin sprouts.

  20. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds.

  1. Influence of the Isolation Method on the Technofunctional Properties of Protein Isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Otto, Clemens; Pickardt, Claudia; Osen, Raffael; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-10-05

    The technofunctional properties of 2 protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor isolated by different procedures were investigated. The lupin protein isolate prepared by aqueous alkaline extraction with subsequent isoelectric precipitation (ILP) showed a significantly higher degree of protein denaturation and lower denaturation temperatures than the one obtained by aqueous salt-induced extraction followed by dilutive precipitation (MLP) as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Rheological investigations revealed higher firmness and a viscoelastic solid-like behavior of ILP, in contrast to MLP that showed viscoelastic, liquid-like properties. Protein solubility of MLP was higher compared to ILP and solubility minima were slightly different for both lupin protein isolates. The protein isolates exhibited different technofunctional properties with ILP showing higher water binding capacity, lower oil binding capacity and lower emulsifying capacity than MLP. This reflects the different putative application of both lupin protein isolates as food ingredients, for example for ILP as a moisture enhancer and for MLP as a "natural" emulsifier in mixed food systems.

  2. Draft genome sequence, and a sequence-defined genetic linkage map of the legume crop species Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W; Howieson, John G; Li, Chengdao

    2013-01-01

    Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species.

  3. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  4. Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus mariae-josephae: a unique symbiosis endemic of a basic soil in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, D.; Sánchez-Cañizares, C.; Navarro, A.; Rey, L.; Imperial, J.; Ruiz-Argüeso, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mahé et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Cañizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the

  5. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... and Western Europe, the United States and South America, Tropical and Southern Africa, Russia and the... significantly decreased relative liver weights in both sexes in the second and third generation rats; however... standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may...

  6. [Establishment of optimal conditions at laboratory and pilot plant levels for the preparation of a protein isolated from Lupinus mutabilis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Pacheco, T; Aliaga, T; Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R

    1981-12-01

    Laboratory conditions were first investigated to determine are optimum processing parameters for the preparation of a protein isolate from the ground, defatted, commercial flakes of Lupinus mutabilis. The extraction variables were: pH (2-10); solvent to lupine ratio (5:1 to 40:1); temperature (28 degrees C - 60 degrees C) and time (10-50 min). The isoelectric point of the lupine protein was found to be pH 4.5 with a protein solubility higher than 80% above pH 8.0. Using 70-100 mesh, ground defatted flakes, and extracting at pH 8.7 for 60 min, a protein isolate was obtained on acidification to pH 4.5 which was 99.8 protein (dry basis), compared to 55.25% protein for the original material. This protein isolate represented 32% of the initial material and 57.6% of the initial nitrogen. When making pilot plant assays we found that the yield of protein isolate decreased to 20.4% of the original material and 36.4% of the initial nitrogen. The protein efficiency ratio for the protein isolate was 2.15 when supplemented with methionine, and had a digestibility of 89.33

  7. Root trait diversity, molecular marker diversity, and trait-marker associations in a core collection of Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yinglong; Shan, Fucheng; Nelson, Matthew N; Siddique, Kadambot HM; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the predominant grain legume crop in southern Australia, contributing half of the total grain legume production of Australia. Its yield in Australia is hampered by a range of subsoil constraints. The adaptation of lupin genotypes to subsoil constraints may be improved by selecting for optimal root traits from new and exotic germplasm sources. We assessed root trait diversity and genetic diversity of a core collection of narrow-leafed lupin (111 accessions) using 191 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. The genetic relationship among accessions was determined using the admixture model in STRUCTURE. Thirty-eight root-associated traits were characterized, with 21 having coefficient of variation values >0.5. Principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis of the DArT markers revealed broad diversity among the accessions. An ad hoc statistics calculation resulted in 10 distinct populations with significant differences among and within them (P < 0.001). The mixed linear model test in TASSEL showed a significant association between all root traits and some DArT markers, with the numbers of markers associated with an individual trait ranging from 2 to 13. The percentage of phenotypic variation explained by any one marker ranged from 6.4 to 21.8%, with 15 associations explaining >10% of phenotypic variation. The genetic variation values ranged from 0 to 7994, with 23 associations having values >240. Root traits such as deeper roots and lateral root proliferation at depth would be useful for this species for improved adaptation to drier soil conditions. This study offers opportunities for discovering useful root traits that can be used to increase the yield of Australian cultivars across variable environmental conditions. PMID:27049020

  8. An inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds effective against aspartic proteases from Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Molina, Diana; Zamora, Humberto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro

    2010-06-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), is one of the most devastating coffee pests (Coffea arabica L.) worldwide. Digestion in the midgut of H. hampei is facilitated by aspartic proteases. This is the first report of an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis. The L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI) exhibited a molecular mass of 12.84kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF, and consists of a single polypeptide chain with an isoelectric point of 4.5. In thermal activity experiments, stability was retained at pH 2.5 after heating the protein at 70 degrees C for 30 min, but was unstable at 100 degrees C. The protein was also stable over a broad range of pH, from 2 to 11, at 30 degrees C. In in vitro assays, LbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 2.9 microg. LbAPI inhibits pepsin in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. LbAPI inhibition of pepsin was competitive, with a K(i) of 3.1 microM, using hemoglobin as substrate. Its amino-terminal sequence had 76% homology with the seed storage proteins vicilin and beta-conglutin. The homology of LbAPI to vicilins from Lupinus albus L. suggests that they may also serve as storage proteins in the seed. LbAPI could be a promising tool to make genetically modified coffee with resistance to H. hampei.

  9. Ability of lupine seeds to germinate and to tolerate desiccation as related to changes in free radical level and antioxidants in freshly harvested seeds.

    PubMed

    Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar; Jancelewicz, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) were collected throughout their development on the mother plant to determine whether the ability to germinate and to tolerate desiccation is related to the level of free radicals and the changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione as well as the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based analyses showed that development of lupine seed was accompanied by generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0049+/-0.0004 and 2.0029+/-0.0003, respectively. Free radical level increased significantly 25 DAF and decreased thereafter. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was high in fresh immature seeds and decreased during maturation drying. Ascorbate accumulated in lupine embryos during early seed filling stage whereas glutathione content increased during late seed filling phase. During maturation drying the redox state of both ascorbate and glutathione pools shifted towards the oxidized forms. While superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) activities remained high at the early seed filling stage the activities of both dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and that of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) increased before seeds reached physiological maturity and decreased thereafter. The changes of isoform patterns of antioxidative enzymes were observed during seed maturation. Immature lupine seeds tested immediately after harvest acquired the ability to germinate when less than half-filled and reached high tolerance to desiccation just after physiological maturity. The physiological implications of the changes in antioxidative machinery for the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and seeds germinability are discussed.

  10. Comparative genomics of Lupinus angustifolius gene-rich regions: BAC library exploration, genetic mapping and cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n = 40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  12. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  13. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, M. Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M.; Pueyo, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen’s expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe. PMID:26442020

  14. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M; Pueyo, José J

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen's expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe.

  15. The loss of vernalization requirement in narrow-leafed lupin is associated with a deletion in the promoter and de-repressed expression of a Flowering Locus T (FT) homologue.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Książkiewicz, Michał; Rychel, Sandra; Besharat, Naghmeh; Taylor, Candy M; Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Jost, Ricarda; Erskine, William; Cowling, Wallace A; Berger, Jens D; Batley, Jacqueline; Weller, James L; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) to cropping in southern Australian and northern Europe was transformed by a dominant mutation (Ku) that removed vernalization requirement for flowering. The Ku mutation is now widely used in lupin breeding to confer early flowering and maturity. We report here the identity of the Ku mutation. We used a range of genetic, genomic and gene expression approaches to determine whether Flowering Locus T (FT) homologues are associated with the Ku locus. One of four FT homologues present in the narrow-leafed lupin genome, LanFTc1, perfectly co-segregated with the Ku locus in a reference mapping population. Expression of LanFTc1 in the ku (late-flowering) parent was strongly induced by vernalization, in contrast to the Ku (early-flowering) parent, which showed constitutively high LanFTc1 expression. Co-segregation of this expression phenotype with the LanFTc1 genotype indicated that the Ku mutation impairs cis-regulation of LanFTc1. Sequencing of LanFTc1 revealed a 1.4-kb deletion in the promoter region, which was perfectly predictive of vernalization response in 216 wild and domesticated accessions. Linkage disequilibrium rapidly decayed around LanFTc1, suggesting that this deletion caused the loss of vernalization response. This is the first time a legume FTc subclade gene has been implicated in the vernalization response.

  16. A novel O-tigloyltransferase for alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. Purification, characterization, and distribution in Lupinus plants.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Murakoshi, I; Saito, K

    1994-06-03

    A novel acyltransferase for alkaloid metabolism, tigloyl-CoA: (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine/(+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine O-tigloyltransferase (HMT/HLTase), a monomeric 50-kDa protein, was purified to homogeneity from 10-day-old Lupinus termis seedlings. There were two isoforms of this acyltransferase with the same molecular mass (50 kDa) but slightly different isoelectric points (pI 7.8 and 7.6). These two isoforms showed the same catalytic activity of tigloyl transfer from tigloyl-CoA to (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine and (+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine, which belong to the same (7S, 9S) enantiomeric series of tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloids; whereas no activity was detected toward an antipodal (7R, 9R) alkaloid, (-)-baptifoline, or to bicyclic quinolizidine alkaloids, (+)-epilupinine and (-)-lupinine. The Km values for HMTase activity were determined to be 21 microM and 46 microM for (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine and tigloyl-CoA, respectively; and for HLTase activity, 27 microM and 52 microM for (+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine and tigloyl-CoA, respectively. The activity was inhibited by CoASH in a competitive manner, and by (+)-lupanine and (+)-epilupinine in a partially noncompetitive manner. The enzyme showed the highest activity around pH 8.0 and was inactivated by heat treatment and by the addition of sulfhydryl blocking reagents. Such tigloyltransferases for quinolizidine alkaloid metabolism are distributed in some Lupinus species and Cytisus scoparius, in which tigloyl alkaloids are accumulated in addition to non-ester-type alkaloids, but not in other lupin plants, in which only non-ester-type alkaloids are present.

  17. Conservation of endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in its natural habitat by inoculation with selected, native Bradyrhizobium strains.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in "terra rossa" soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other "terra rossa" or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive.

  18. Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in “terra rossa” soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other “terra rossa” or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

  19. Stress-induced changes in glutamate dehydrogenase activity imply its role in adaptation to C and N metabolism in lupine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Skrok, Albert; Dabert, Mirosława

    2010-01-01

    The modifying effect of sucrose on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity and isoenzyme pattern was investigated in isolated embryos of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), cultured in vitro in a medium with sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S) and exposed to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) stress. Sucrose starvation of lupine embryos led to a rapid increase in the specific activity of GDH, immunoreactive beta-polypeptide and it was accompanied by appearance of new cathodal isoforms of enzyme. This suggests that isoenzymes induced in lupine embryos by sucrose starvation combine into GDH hexamers with the predominance of beta-GDH subunits synthetized under GDH1 gene control. The addition of sucrose to the medium caused an opposite effect. Along with upregulation of catabolic activity of GDH by sucrose starvation, activity of proteolytic enzymes was also induced. These data can point to regulatory mechanism implying a sucrose dependent repression of the GDH1 gene according to the mechanism of catabolic repression. Treatment of embryos with Cd(2+) or Pb(2+) resulted in ammonium accumulation in the tissues, accompanied by an increase in anabolic activity of GDH and activity of anodal isoenzymes, in both (+S) and (-S) embryos without new de novo synthesis of alpha subunit proteins. Thus, GDH isoenzyme profiles may reflect the physiological function of GDH, which appears to be an important link of metabolic adaptation in cells, aimed at using carbon sources other than sugar during carbohydrate starvation (catabolic activity of GDH) and protecting plant tissues against ammonium accumulated because of heavy metal stress (anabolic activity of GDH).

  20. Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

    2010-10-01

    Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability.

  1. Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.

    PubMed

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

    2014-01-15

    This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, γ-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for γ-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that γ-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements.

  2. Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf disease” is used to describe a number of skeletal malformations in newborn calves, including a twisted spine, neck, and one or both forelimbs. These malformations develop when the pregnant cow eats toxic lupines containing the alkaloids anagyrine, ammodendrine, and N-methyl ammodendri...

  3. [Chemical, sensory and clinical characterization of lupin marmalades].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Larenas, G; Wittig, E; Díaz, V; Muñoz, Y

    1996-09-01

    Legumes are characterized as showing interesting hypoglicemic properties. Their presence in the diet is very useful in controlling the level of blood glucose in diabetic people. Taking in mind this property different formulations of prune marmalades were developed using 5, -7.5, 10 and 15% of full fat sweet lupin flour (FFLF). These samples were submitted to chemical, physical, sensory and clinical analysis. The protein content increased from 0.6 to 5.2% in direct proportion to lupin flour concentration. Energy content remained relatively constant in all formulations. The incorporation of FFLF did not affect the natural dark red prune color and pH, acidity and soluble solids values remained under the limits of Chilean food regulation laws. The samples were analyzed by a Rank preference test. Reported data showed a significative preference for the prune marmalade with 10% HEL (p < 0.05). A facial Hedonic test was used to compare the degree of acceptability between this formula and a control marmalade with fructose as edulcorant. Statistical analysis using the student test did not show significant difference (p < 0.05) between them. The hypoglycemic effect of the lupin flour was tested in seven adult non insulin dependent diabetic patients using the glucose tolerance test. Postprandial blood glucose concentration data was lower in individuals after a test meal of lupin marmalade compared to fructose marmalade. This result would allow diabetic people to eat foods such as marmalades which are known to contain a large amount of carbohydrates.

  4. Remnants of the Legume Ancestral Genome Preserved in Gene-Rich Regions: Insights from Lupinus angustifolius Physical, Genetic, and Comparative Mapping.

    PubMed

    Książkiewicz, Michał; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Szczepaniak, Anna; Rychel, Sandra; Karlowski, Wojciech; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    The narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) was recently considered as a legume reference species. Genetic resources have been developed, including a draft genome sequence, linkage maps, nuclear DNA libraries, and cytogenetic chromosome-specific landmarks. Here, we used a complex approach, involving DNA fingerprinting, sequencing, genetic mapping, and molecular cytogenetics, to localize and analyze L. angustifolius gene-rich regions (GRRs). A L. angustifolius genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with short sequence repeat (SSR)-based probes. Selected BACs were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs. BAC-end sequence (BES) annotation allowed us to choose clones for sequencing, targeting GRRs. Additionally, BESs were aligned to the scaffolds of the genome sequence. The genetic map was supplemented with 35 BES-derived markers, distributed in 14 linkage groups and tagging 37 scaffolds. The identified GRRs had an average gene density of 19.6 genes/100 kb and physical-to-genetic distance ratios of 11 to 109 kb/cM. Physical and genetic mapping was supported by multi-BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and five new linkage groups were assigned to the chromosomes. Syntenic links to the genome sequences of five legume species (Medicago truncatula, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cajanus cajan) were identified. The comparative mapping of the two largest lupin GRRs provides novel evidence for ancient duplications in all of the studied species. These regions are conserved among representatives of the main clades of Papilionoideae. Furthermore, despite the complex evolution of legumes, some segments of the nuclear genome were not substantially modified and retained their quasi-ancestral structures. Cytogenetic markers anchored in these regions constitute a platform for heterologous mapping of legume genomes.

  5. Diverse Bacteria Affiliated with the Genera Microvirga, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium Nodulate Lupinus micranthus Growing in Soils of Northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Msaddak, Abdelhakim; Durán, David; Rejili, Mokhtar; Mars, Mohamed; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Imperial, Juan; Palacios, José; Rey, Luis

    2017-03-15

    The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus micranthus in five geographical sites from northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of 50 isolates based on partial sequences of recA and gyrB grouped strains into seven clusters, five of which belong to the genus Bradyrhizobium (28 isolates), one to Phyllobacterium (2 isolates), and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (20 isolates). The largest Bradyrhizobium cluster (17 isolates) grouped with the B. lupini species, and the other five clusters were close to different recently defined Bradyrhizobium species. Isolates close to Microvirga were obtained from nodules of plants from four of the five sites sampled. We carried out an in-depth phylogenetic study with representatives of the seven clusters using sequences from housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, glnII, gyrB, and dnaK) and obtained consistent results. A phylogeny based on the sequence of the symbiotic gene nodC identified four groups, three formed by Bradyrhizobium isolates and one by the Microvirga and Phyllobacterium isolates. Symbiotic behaviors of the representative strains were tested, and some congruence between symbiovars and symbiotic performance was observed. These data indicate a remarkable diversity of L. micranthus root nodule symbionts in northern Tunisia, including strains from the Bradyrhizobiaceae, Methylobacteriaceae, and Phyllobacteriaceae families, in contrast with those of the rhizobial populations nodulating lupines in the Old World, including L. micranthus from other Mediterranean areas, which are nodulated mostly by Bradyrhizobium strains.IMPORTANCELupinus micranthus is a legume broadly distributed in the Mediterranean region and plays an important role in soil fertility and vegetation coverage by fixing nitrogen and solubilizing phosphate in semiarid areas. Direct sowing to extend the distribution of this indigenous legume can contribute to the prevention of soil erosion in pre-Saharan lands of Tunisia. However

  6. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  7. Insights into naturally minimised Streptomyces albus J1074 genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Streptomyces albus J1074 strain is one of the most widely used chassis for the heterologous production of bioactive natural products. The fast growth and an efficient genetic system make this strain an attractive model for expressing cryptic biosynthetic pathways to aid drug discovery. Results To improve its capabilities for the heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters, the complete genomic sequence of S. albus J1074 was obtained. With a size of 6,841,649 bp, coding for 5,832 genes, its genome is the smallest within the genus streptomycetes. Genome analysis revealed a strong tendency to reduce the number of genetic duplicates. The whole transcriptomes were sequenced at different time points to identify the early metabolic switch from the exponential to the stationary phase in S. albus J1074. Conclusions S. albus J1074 carries the smallest genome among the completely sequenced species of the genus Streptomyces. The detailed genome and transcriptome analysis discloses its capability to serve as a premium host for the heterologous production of natural products. Moreover, the genome revealed 22 additional putative secondary metabolite gene clusters that reinforce the strain’s potential for natural product synthesis. PMID:24495463

  8. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  9. Lupine leghemoglobin I: expression in transgenic Lotus and tobacco tissues.

    PubMed

    Strózycki, P M; Karłowski, W M; Dessaux, Y; Petit, A; Legocki, A B

    2000-03-01

    The proximal parts of the promoters of the genes for symbiotic-type hemoglobins are generally conserved, but the promoter of the lbI gene of lupine (LulbI) shows some unusual structural features. It lacks typical organ-specific elements characteristic of all the leghemoglobin gene promoters described thus far. We have analysed its functional activity in transgenic Lotus corniculatus. A fusion construct between the lbI promoter and the GUS reporter gene was expressed mainly in the central zone of the root nodule, but the product was also detected in the non-nodule root zone and in roots in tissue culture. In roots of transgenic tobacco, the activity of the promoter was only 24% lower than in Lotus nodules. LulbI promoter activity was also detected in tobacco leaves. Lupine hemoglobin I has a higher sequence identity to symbiotic-type hemoglobins and thus it groups within the "Class II" hemoglobins.

  10. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...

  11. Diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating Lupinus micranthus on both sides of the Western Mediterranean: Algeria and Spain.

    PubMed

    Bourebaba, Yasmina; Durán, David; Boulila, Farida; Ahnia, Hadjira; Boulila, Abdelghani; Temprano, Francisco; Palacios, José M; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Rey, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Lupinus micranthus is a lupine distributed in the Mediterranean basin whose nitrogen fixing symbiosis has not been described in detail. In this study, 101 slow-growing nodule isolates were obtained from L. micranthus thriving in soils on both sides of the Western Mediterranean. The diversity of the isolates, 60 from Algeria and 41 from Spain, was addressed by multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, atpD, glnII and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodC). Using genomic fingerprints from BOX elements, 37 different profiles were obtained (22 from Algeria and 15 from Spain). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and concatenated atpD, glnII and recA sequences of a representative isolate of each BOX profile displayed a homogeneous distribution of profiles in six different phylogenetic clusters. All isolates were taxonomically ascribed to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Three clusters comprising 24, 6, and 4 isolates, respectively, accounted for most of the profiles. The largest cluster was close to the Bradyrhizobium canariense lineage, while the other two were related to B. cytisi/B. rifense. The three remaining clusters included only one isolate each, and were close to B. canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii species, respectively. In contrast, phylogenetic clustering of BOX profiles based on nodC sequences yielded only two phylogenetic groups. One of them included all the profiles except one, and belonged to symbiovar genistearum. The remaining profile, constituted by a strain related to B. elkanii, was not related to any well-defined symbiotic lineage, and may constitute both a new symbiovar and a new genospecies.

  12. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases.

  13. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  14. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map.

  15. The first gene-based map of Lupinus angustifolius L.-location of domestication genes and conserved synteny with Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Phan, Huyen T T; Ellwood, Simon R; Moolhuijzen, Paula M; Hane, James; Williams, Angela; O'Lone, Clare E; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Scobie, Marie; Cakir, Mehmet; Jones, Michael G K; Bellgard, Matthew; Ksiazkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Barker, Susan J; Oliver, Richard P; Cowling, Wallace A

    2006-07-01

    We report the first gene-based linkage map of Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) and its comparison to the partially sequenced genome of Medicago truncatula. The map comprises 382 loci in 20 major linkage groups, two triplets, three pairs and 11 unlinked loci and is 1,846 cM in length. The map was generated from the segregation of 163 RFLP markers, 135 gene-based PCR markers, 75 AFLP and 4 AFLP-derived SCAR markers in a mapping population of 93 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between domesticated and wild-type parents. This enabled the mapping of five major genes controlling key domestication traits in L. angustifolius. Using marker sequence data, the L. angustifolius genetic map was compared to the partially completed M. truncatula genome sequence. We found evidence of conserved synteny in some regions of the genome despite the wide evolutionary distance between these legume species. We also found new evidence of widespread duplication within the L. angustifolius genome.

  16. Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation

  17. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  18. Strain-level diversity of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Seipke, Ryan F

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty.

  19. Differential recovery of lupin proteins from the gluten matrix in lupin-wheat bread as revealed by mass spectrometry and two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shahidul; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun; Gao, Liyan; Appels, Rudi

    2011-06-22

    Bread made from a mixture of wheat and lupin flour possesses a number of health benefits. The addition of lupin flour to wheat flour during breadmaking has major effects on bread properties. The present study investigated the lupin and wheat flour protein interactions during the breadmaking process including dough formation and baking by using proteomics research technologies including MS/MS to identify the proteins. Results revealed that qualitatively most proteins from both lupin and wheat flour remained unchanged after baking as per electrophoretic behavior, whereas some were incorporated into the bread gluten matrix and became unextractable. Most of the lupin α-conglutins could be readily extracted from the lupin-wheat bread even at low salt and nonreducing/nondenaturing extraction conditions. In contrast, most of the β-conglutins lost extractability, suggesting that they were trapped in the bread gluten matrix. The higher thermal stability of α-conglutins compared to β-conglutins is speculated to account for this difference.

  20. Degradation of quinolizidine alkaloids of lupin by Rhizopus oligosporus.

    PubMed

    Ortega-David, Eduar; Rodríguez-Stouvenel, Aida

    2013-06-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus has proven beneficial in the detoxification of lupin seeds. The fermentation process is mainly affected by the initial pH in the medium. In the range of growth of mold, there are maximum enzymatic activities in pH of 3.5 and 5.5. Metabolism change occurs at these pH levels; therefore, we studied the growth, pH changes, dry matter intake, and alkaloid degradation within 48 h of fermentation. Cultures of lupin agar (LA) with pH of 3.5 and 5.5 were made in Petri dishes with lupin flour. Results showed pH directly affects the degradation of alkaloids and fungal growth. Detoxification levels achieved were 16.58 and 63.23 % in treatments LA 3.5 and LA 5.5, respectively. Fungal growth was 0.919 mg/cm(2) in LA 3.5 and 1.081 mg/cm(2) in LA 5.5. Maximum degradation rate in LA 5.5 was given between 16 and 20 h, which coincided with maximum fungal growth. Despite having similar dry matter intake in both treatments, a pH of 3.5 did not show the same degree of detoxification. The analysis with exponential, yield of growth, yield of dry matter intake and luedeking and piret equations, confirm the relation between intake and growth with detoxification. Dry matter intake equation predicts with R (2) of 0.94 the detoxification in LA 5.5. A pH of 5.5 is directly related with detoxification and fungal development.

  1. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...

  2. Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

  3. Composition and functional properties of Lupinus campestris protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Martínez-Ayala, A L; Millán, F; Dávila-Ortíz, G

    2005-09-01

    Protein isolates from L. campestris and soybean seeds were prepared using isoelectric precipitation (PI) and micellization (MI) procedures. The amount of protein recovered was considerably higher with the isoelectric precipitation than with the micellization procedure (60% and 30%, respectively). Protein contents were higher than 90% in protein isolates. Antinutritional factors content (alkaloids, lectins, and tannins) were reduced to innocuous levels after protein isolate preparation. Minimum protein solubility for the precipitated lupin protein isolate (LPI) was at pH 4.0, and between pH 4 and 6 for the micellized lupin protein isolate (LMI), increasing at both extremes of the pH scale. Water absorption for the LMI was 1.3 ml/g of protein and its oil absorption 2.2 ml/g of protein. The LPI had 1.7 ml/g of protein in both water and oil absorption. Foaming capacity and stability was pH-dependent. Foaming capacity was higher at pH 2 and lower near the protein isoelectric points. Minimum protein concentration for gelation in LMI was 8% w/v at pH 4, while for LPI was 6% at pH 4 and 6. Amino acid composition in L. campestris flour and protein isolates was high in lysine and low in methionine. Most of the essential amino acids in lupin protein isolates were at acceptable levels compared to a reference pattern for infants and adults. The electrophoretic pattern of both protein isolates showed three bands with different mobilities, suggesting that the protein fractions belong to alpha-conglutin (11S-like protein), beta-conglutin (7S-like protein) and gamma-conglutin. It is proven that some of the functional properties of L. campestris protein isolates are similar to those soybean protein isolates recovered under equal conditions.

  4. Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.

    PubMed Central

    Chater, K F; Wilde, L C

    1976-01-01

    The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images PMID:977549

  5. Lupines, manganese, and devil-sickness: an Anglo-Saxon medical response to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dendle, P

    2001-01-01

    The most frequently prescribed herb for "devil-sickness" in the vernacular medical books from Anglo-Saxon England, the lupine, is exceptionally high in manganese. Since manganese depletion has been linked with recurring seizures in both clinical and experimental studies, it is possible that lupine administration responded to the particular pathophysiology of epilepsy. Lupine is not prescribed for seizures in classical Mediterranean medical sources, implying that the Northern European peoples (if not the Anglo-Saxons themselves) discovered whatever anticonvulsive properties the herb may exhibit.

  6. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein.

  7. The Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-08-05

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was designed to assess how Missouri River management has affected—and may affect—the endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population. The EA emerged from the recognition that the direction and focus of the Missouri River Recovery Program would benefit from an updated, thorough evaluation of what is known, what is not known, and what needs to be known for effective actions. This fact sheet documents the steps in the EA process and the four core reports, culminating in the 2016 integrative report.

  8. The Role of Exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase in the Mobilization of Polysaccharides from the Cotyledon Cell Walls of Lupinus angustifolius Following Germination

    PubMed Central

    BUCKERIDGE, MARCOS S.; HUTCHEON, IAN S.; REID, J. S. GRANT

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The cotyledons of Lupinus angustifolius contain large amounts of cell wall storage polysaccharide (CWSP) composed mainly of (1→4)-β-linked d-galactose residues in the form of branches attached to a rhamnogalacturonan core molecule. An exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase with a very high specificity towards (1→4)-β-linked d-galactan has been isolated from L. angustifolius cotyledons, and shown to vary (activity and specific protein) in step with CWSP mobilization. This work aimed to confirm the hypothesis that galactan is the main polymer retrieved from the wall during mobilization at the ultrastructural level, using the purified exo-galactanase as a probe. • Methods Storage mesophyll cell walls (‘ghosts’) were isolated from the cotyledons of imbibed but ungerminated lupin seeds, and also from cotyledons of seedlings after the mobilization of the CWSP. The pure exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase was coupled to colloidal gold particles and shown to be a specific probe for (1→4)-β-d-galactan. They were used to localize galactan in ultrathin sections of L. angustifolius cotyledonary mesophyll tissue during CWSP mobilization. • Key Results On comparing the morphologies of isolated cell walls, the post-mobilization ‘ghosts’ did not have the massive wall-thickenings of pre-mobilization walls. Compositional analysis showed that the post-mobilization walls were depleted in galactose and, to a lesser extent, in arabinose. When pre-mobilization ghosts were treated with the pure exo-galactanase, they became morphologically similar to the post-mobilization ghosts. They were depleted of approximately 70% of the galactose residues that would have been mobilized in vivo, and retained all the other sugar residues originally present. Sharply defined electron-transparent wall zones or pockets are associated with CWSP mobilization, being totally free of galactan, whereas wall areas immediately adjacent to them were apparently undepleted. • Conclusions The

  9. LUPIN, a new instrument for pulsed neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Ferrarini, M.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies focused in the last decades on the development of survey meters to be used in pulsed radiation fields. This is a topic attracting widespread interest for applications such as radiation protection and beam diagnostics in accelerators. This paper describes a new instrument specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields (PNF). The detector, called LUPIN, is a rem counter type instrument consisting of a 3He proportional counter placed inside a spherical moderator. It works in current mode with a front-end electronics consisting of a current-voltage logarithmic amplifier, whose output signal is acquired with an ADC and processed on a PC. This alternative signal processing allows the instrument to be used in PNF without being affected by saturation effects. Moreover, it has a measurement capability ranging over many orders of burst intensity. Despite the fact that it works in current mode, it can measure a single neutron interaction. The LUPIN was first calibrated in CERN's calibration laboratory with a PuBe source. Measurements were carried out under various experimental conditions at the Helmholtz-Zentrum in Berlin, in the stray field at various locations of the CERN Proton Synchrotron complex and around a radiotherapy linear accelerator at the S. Raffaele hospital in Milan. The detector can withstand single bursts with values of H*(10) up to 16 nSv/burst without showing any saturation effect. It efficiently works in pulsed stray fields, where a conventional rem-counter underestimates by a factor of 2. It is also able to reject the very intense and pulsed photon contribution that often accompanies the neutron field with good reliability.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Agarivorans albus Strain MKT 106T, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Kai, Wataru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Fukui, Youhei; Satomi, Masataka; Sano, Motohiko

    2013-07-18

    Agarivorans albus is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, and agar-hydrolyzing marine bacterium. We present the draft genome sequence of the A. albus strain MKT 106(T), which is composed of 67 contigs (>500 bp) totaling 4,734,285 bp and containing 4,397 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), four rRNAs, and 64 tRNA sequences.

  12. The potential of blue lupins as a protein source, in the diets of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R F; Parkinson, Sarah; Fleming, Hannah R; Theobald, Vince J; Leemans, Dave K; Burgess, Tony

    2016-12-01

    Layers diets typically contain 15-20% soya due to its high crude protein content (ca. 36%). Reliance on soya for protein can result in large increases in cost of feed due to the law of supply and demand as a global commodity. Lupin grains have high protein content (35-40%) but previous experience with white lupins has shown toxic effects in poultry due to high levels alkaloids and poor performance due to anti-nutritional Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Here blue lupins either processed or whole were trialled for their potential as a protein source. Point of lay chickens (64) at 16 weeks of age were weighed and allocated to 16 coops of four hens. Coops, as the experimental unit, were randomly allocated to four treatments: layers mash with soya (Control); or layers mash with 150 g of lupin/kg diet with the lupin either: whole (Whole); dehulled (Dehulled) or dehulled + a solid state fermentation enzyme extract (SSF; 150 g/tonne DM). All diets were ground and formulated to be balanced for energy, crude protein and essential amino acids using NIRS. No difference in growth rate, final hen weight, DM and water intake, eggs per day, mean egg weight, yellowness of yolk or chroma was found between treatments. There was a trend (P<0.1) for the SSF treatment to produce less heavy shells and a significant effect for the lupin treatments to have redder yolks (P<0.001). Fecal DM and bacterial counts were not different and there was no sign of enteritis or intestinal tissue hyperplasia from hen autopsies. Inclusion of blue lupins in the diet of laying hens at a rate of 150 g/kg DM resulted in no adverse effects in production or hen health and could be used as part of a balanced ration with inclusion of NSP degrading enzymes to reduce reliance on soya protein.

  13. Novel bioactive oxazolomycin isomers produced by Streptomyces albus JA3453.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H; Wada, K; Nitoda, T; Kawazu, K

    1998-03-01

    Two novel oxazolomycin isomers, oxazolomycins B (2) and C (3), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an oxazolomycin-producing strain, Streptomyces albus JA3453. Both compounds are geometrical isomers of oxazolomycin (1), the configurations of their triene moieties being (4'E, 6'E, 8'E) (2) and (4'Z, 6'E, 8'E) (3) while that of oxazolomycin (1) is (4'Z, 6'Z, 8'E). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against crown gall formation with the same MIC (0.8 microgram/disk) as oxazolomycin. Compounds 2 and 3 showed no antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in contrast to oxazolomycin which has specific anti-A. tumefaciens activity.

  14. Effects of extrusion, boiling, autoclaving, and microwave heating on lupine allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alvarez, Javier; Guillamón, Eva; Crespo, Jesús F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Rodríguez, Julia; Fernández, Consuelo; Muzquiz, Mercedes

    2005-02-23

    Lupine flour has been reported as a causative agent of allergic reactions. However, the allergenicity of lupine after thermal processing is not well-known. For this purpose, the allergenic characteristics of lupine seeds after boiling (up to 60 min), autoclaving (121 degrees C, 1.18 atm, up to 20 min and 138 degrees C, 2.56 atm, up to 30 min), microwave heating (30 min), and extrusion cooking were studied. The IgE-binding capacity was analyzed by IgE-immunoblotting and CAP inhibition using a serum pool from 23 patients with lupine-specific IgE. Skin testing was carried out in four patients. An important reduction in allergenicity after autoclaving at 138 degrees C for 20 min was observed. IgE antibodies from two individual sera recognized bands at 23 and 29 kDa in autoclaved samples at 138 degrees C for 20 min. Autoclaving for 30 min abolished the IgE binding to these two components. A previously undetected band at 70 kDa was recognized by an individual serum. Therefore, prolonged autoclaving might have an important effect on the allergenicity of lupine with the majority of patients lacking IgE reactivity to these processed samples.

  15. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 μg/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 μg/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin α+β conglutin.

  16. Cross-allergic reactions to legumes in lupin and fenugreek-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Vinje, N E; Namork, E; Løvik, M

    2012-10-01

    Several legumes may induce allergy, and there is extensive serological cross-reactivity among legumes. This cross-reactivity has traditionally been regarded to have limited clinical relevance. However, the introduction of novel legumes to Western countries may have changed this pattern, and in some studies cross-allergy to lupin has been reported in more than 60% of peanut-allergic patients. We wanted to explore cross-reactions among legumes using two newly established mouse models of food allergy. Mice were immunized perorally with fenugreek or lupin with cholera toxin as adjuvant. The mice were challenged with high doses of fenugreek, lupin, peanut or soy, and signs of anaphylactic reactions were observed. Cross-allergic mechanisms were investigated using serum mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1), antibody responses, immunoblotting and ex vivo production of cytokines by spleen cells. Signs of cross-allergy were observed for all the tested legumes in both models. The cross-allergic symptoms were milder and affected fewer mice than the primary allergic responses. The cross-allergy was reflected to a certain extent in the antibody and T-cell responses, but not in serum MMCP-1 levels. Cross-allergy to peanut, soy, fenugreek and lupin was observed in lupin-sensitized and fenugreek-sensitized mice. Differences in serological responses between primary allergy and cross-allergy might be due to mediation through different immune mechanisms or reflect different epitope affinity to IgE. These differences need to be further investigated.

  17. The Effect of Dry Yeast Fermentation on Chemical Composition and Protein Characteristics of Blue Lupin Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Borowczyk, Paulina; Zaworska, Anita; Nowak, Włodzimierz; Frankiewicz, Andrzej; Gulewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Summary The effect of 24-hour fermentation of lupin seeds by different yeast strains on their chemical composition was determined. After fermentation, the mass fraction of proteins increased and their in vitro digestibility and biological activity significantly improved. The amino acid profile of fermented products was similar to that of raw lupin seeds. The significant reduction in the mass fraction of oligosaccharides and phytate, but not of alkaloids was found. The pH level of fermented products decreased as a consequence of the increase of lactic and propionic acid mass fractions. The most favourable changes in the chemical composition of blue lupin seeds were obtained in fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast and Fermivin 7013 strain. PMID:27956868

  18. The Nutritional Value and Physiological Properties of Diets with Raw and Candida utilis-Fermented Lupin Seeds in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaworska, Anita; Frankiewicz, Andrzej; Nowak, Włodzimierz; Gulewicz, Piotr; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Summary The growth and physiological responses of the rats to diet supplemented with raw and Candida utilis-fermented yellow and blue lupin seeds were determined. The diets containing soya bean meal, raw and fermented blue and yellow lupin were administered to eight rats in each diet group for four weeks. Yellow lupin seeds in the diets of rats improved significantly (p<0.05) feed intake, protein digestibility, body mass gain and protein efficiency ratio in comparison with blue lupin seeds. On the contrary, blue lupin seeds affected significantly (p<0.05) gastrointestinal fermentation processes in comparison with yellow lupin seeds. Fermentation of lupin seeds increased crude protein content and reduced phytate and oligosaccharide content. In the fermented products, a higher number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts but reduced number of coliform bacteria was found. Fermentation by Candida utilis positively (p<0.05) affected protein digestibility of feed, body mass gain and protein efficiency ratio of rats, as well as the activity of some bacterial enzymes and cholesterol concentrations in the blood serum. PMID:27904360

  19. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is colloquially termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and angular limb malformations which are fo...

  20. First report of Colletotrichum lupini on Lupinus hartwegii and L. mutabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 2013 winter cut flower production season, a severe anthracnose epidemic was observed on Lupinus mutabilis (syn L. cruckshanksii) on a commercial flower farm in Martin County, FL. Approximately 50% of the crop was lost to the disease. Symptoms included mild leaf spots, but more typically...

  1. Potential of the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for control of building molds.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Julien; Jiménez, Jorge I

    2007-03-01

    The possibility of using the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for biofumigation against building molds was investigated. Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium as well as fungi belonging to nine other genera were inhibited or killed in vitro by volatiles produced by potato dextrose agar or rye grain cultures of M. albus. Trichoderma viride was the only fungus that was not inhibited by M. albus volatiles. To test biofumigation as a preventative treatment against fungal colonization of building material, dry pieces of gypsum drywall were fumigated with grain cultures of M. albus in closed boxes. After a simulated water damage and incubation under saturated humidity for 2 weeks, untreated drywall developed natural fungal populations of about 10(5)-10(6) cfu/cm2, while drywall fumigated with M. albus culture (20 g/11 L) had nondetectable fungal populations. To test for curative ability, moist pieces of drywall heavily colonized with Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger, or Stachybotrys chartarum were fumigated for 48 h with grain cultures of M. albus. Cladosporium cladosporioides was eliminated within 48 h, while A. niger and S. chartarum were usually more resistant. However, a longer curative fumigation of 96 h was effective in reducing A. niger or naturally occurring mold populations by about 5 log values. The production of volatile organic compounds from 20 g of rye grain culture in 11 L containers was monitored by solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography. Concentrations of isobutyric acid, the most abundant volatile, increased gradually in the headspace until it reached 25 microg/L (m/v) within 96 h. The second and third most abundant compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol, peaked at about 10 and 5 microg/L (m/v), respectively, within the first 24 h and declined gradually afterwards.

  2. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (P<0·05), whereas no cholesterol changes were observed in the subjects consuming the bars containing casein+cellulose, casein+oat fibre or pea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  3. Fiber, protein, and lupin-enriched foods: role for improving cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Belski, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally (World Health Organisation, 2011). Many of the risk factors for CVD are modifiable, including overweight and obesity. Numerous strategies have been proposed to fight CVD, with a special focus being placed on dietary interventions for weight management. The literature suggests that two nutrients, fiber and protein, may play significant roles in weight control and hence cardiovascular health. Increasing both protein and fiber in the diet can be difficult because popular low-carbohydrate and high-protein diets tend to have considerably low-fiber intakes (Slavin, 2005). One approach to obtain both is to develop functional foods using unique ingredients. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient derived from the endosperm of lupin. It contains 40-45% protein, 25-30% fiber, and negligible sugar and starch (Petterson and Crosbie, 1990). Research conducted to date reveals that lupin-enriched foods, which are naturally high in protein and fiber, may have a significant effect on CVD risk factors. This review explores whether there is a role for fiber-, protein-, and lupin-enriched foods in improving cardiovascular health.

  4. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C F; Phillips, N D; La, T; Hernandez, A; Mansfield, J; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Hampson, D J; Pluske, J R

    2010-10-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae that colonizes and induces inflammation of the cecum and colon. It has been reported that a diet containing chicory root and sweet lupin can prevent swine dysentery. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inulin in the chicory root rather than galactans in lupins was responsible for protective effects. An experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was undertaken using pigs fed barley- and triticale-based diets, with the main effects being protein source [185 g/kg of canola meal (decreased galactans) or 220 g/kg of lupins (greater galactans)] and inulin supplementation (0 or 80 g/kg). Forty Large White × Landrace pigs weighing 21 ± 3 kg, with 10 pigs per diet, were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 wk, and then each pig was challenged orally 4 times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Pigs were killed when they showed clinical signs of dysentery or 6 wk postchallenge. Pigs fed diets without inulin had 8.3 times greater risk (P = 0.017) of developing swine dysentery and were 16 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have colon contents that were culture-positive for B. hyodysenteriae, compared with the pigs fed a diet with 80 g/kg of inulin. Diets containing lupins did not prevent pigs from developing clinical swine dysentery; however, inclusion of lupins or inulin or both in the diets delayed the onset of disease compared with the diet based mainly on canola meal (P < 0.05). Diet did not influence the total concentration of organic acids in the ileum, cecum, or upper and lower colon; however, the molar proportions of the organic acids were influenced (P < 0.05). Consequently the pH values in the cecum, and upper and lower colon were not influenced (P > 0.05) by diet. However the pH values of the ileal digesta were decreased in pigs fed the diet with both lupins and

  5. The Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum: Two Eary Models of Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1989-01-01

    The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

  6. Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hangxian; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Xiu; Li, Qinyuan; Jiang, Chenglin; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Xiaomin

    2017-01-10

    A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated AFM 10258T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% NaCl and did not grow without NaCl. The isolate formed white aerial mycelium and long spore chains, and two spores were separated by sterile mycelium. The spores were non-motile, spherical and rugose-surfaced. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose and arabinose as the major whole-cell sugars. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and three unknown phospholipids. Major fatty acids were anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone and the DNA G+C content was 62.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AFM 10258T shared low sequence similarity with the closely related representatives of the families Pseudonocardiaceae (below 94.47%) and Actinopolysporaceae (below 93.76%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AFM 10258T formed a robust clade with members of the family Actinopolysporaceae. On the basis of analysis of phenotypic, chemical and molecular characteristics, strain AFM 10258T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus , for which the name Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is AFM 10258T (=DSM 45977T = CGMCC 4.7115T).

  7. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  8. Multiple cellobiohydrolases and cellobiose phosphorylases cooperate in the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 to degrade cellooligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Devendran, Saravanan; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M.; Evans, Anton F.; Iakiviak, Michael; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components. The mechanisms by which R. albus 8 employs to degrade these recalcitrant materials are, however, not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that R. albus 8 elaborates multiple cellobiohydrolases with multi-modular architectures that overall enhance the catalytic activity and versatility of the enzymes. Furthermore, our analyses show that two cellobiose phosphorylases encoded by R. albus 8 can function synergistically with a cognate cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase to completely release, from a cellulosic substrate, glucose which can then be fermented by the bacterium for production of energy and cellular building blocks. We further use transcriptomic analysis to confirm the over-expression of the biochemically characterized enzymes during growth of the bacterium on cellulosic substrates compared to cellobiose. PMID:27748409

  9. Multiple cellobiohydrolases and cellobiose phosphorylases cooperate in the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 to degrade cellooligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendran, Saravanan; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M.; Evans, Anton F.; Iakiviak, Michael; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components. The mechanisms by which R. albus 8 employs to degrade these recalcitrant materials are, however, not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that R. albus 8 elaborates multiple cellobiohydrolases with multi-modular architectures that overall enhance the catalytic activity and versatility of the enzymes. Furthermore, our analyses show that two cellobiose phosphorylases encoded by R. albus 8 can function synergistically with a cognate cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase to completely release, from a cellulosic substrate, glucose which can then be fermented by the bacterium for production of energy and cellular building blocks. We further use transcriptomic analysis to confirm the over-expression of the biochemically characterized enzymes during growth of the bacterium on cellulosic substrates compared to cellobiose.

  10. Evidence of nickel (Ni) efflux in Ni-tolerant ectomycorhizal Pisolithus albus isolated from ultramafic soil.

    PubMed

    Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Nickel (Ni)-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus was isolated from extreme ultramafic soils that are naturally rich in heavy metals. This study aimed to identify the specific molecular mechanisms associated with the response of P. albus to nickel. In presence of high concentration of nickel, P. albus Ni-tolerant isolate showed a low basal accumulation of nickel in its fungal tissues and was able to perform a metal efflux mechanism. Three genes putatively involved in metal efflux were identified from the P. albus transcriptome, and their overexpression was confirmed in the mycelium that was cultivated in vitro in the presence of nickel and in fungal tissues that were sampled in situ. Cloning these genes in yeast provided significant advantages in terms of nickel tolerance (+ 31% Ni EC50) and growth (+ 83% μ) compared with controls. Furthermore, nickel efflux was also detected in the transformed yeast cells. Protein sequence analysis indicated that the genes encoded a P-type-ATPase, an ABC transporter and a major facilitator superfamily permease (MFS). This study sheds light on a global mechanism of metal efflux by P. albus cells that supports nickel tolerance. These specific responses to nickel might contribute to the fungal adaptation in ultramafic soil.

  11. Phytoremediation of soils co-contaminated by organic compounds and heavy metals: bioassays with Lupinus luteus L. and associated endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Ginés, M J; Hernández, A J; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Pastor, J; Vangronsveld, J

    2014-10-01

    In the central part of the Iberian Peninsula there are old sealed landfills containing soils co-contaminated by several heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Cr, Fe, Al, Mn) and organic pollutants of different families (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and other organochlorinated compounds, phenols and volatile compounds), which this work will address. We have focused on phytoremedial plants that are able to deal with this type of complex pollution, not only species that tolerate the joint effect of heavy metals in the soil, but also those that can take advantage of associated bacteria to efficiently break down organic compounds. This study was carried out with Lupinus luteus and its endophytes in two greenhouse experiments: A) growing in a substrate artificially contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and B) using real co-contaminated landfill soils. Endophytes of roots and shoots were isolated in both bioassays. Plant growth-promotion tests and organic pollutant tolerance and degradation tests were conducted on all strains isolated in bioassay A), and on those proving to be pure cultures from bioassay B). The selected landfill is described as are isolation and test procedures. Results indicate that plants did not show toxicity symptoms when exposed to BaP but did when grown in landfill soil. Some endophytes demonstrated plant growth-promotion capacity and tolerance to BaP and other organic compounds (diesel and PCB commercial mixtures). A few strains may even have the capacity to metabolize those organic pollutants. The overall decline in plant growth-promotion capacity in those strains isolated from the landfill soil experiment, compared with those from the bioassay with BaP, may indicate that lupin endophytes are not adapted to metal concentration in roots and shoots and fail to grow. As a result, most isolated root endophytes must have colonized root tissues from the soil. While preliminary degradation tests

  12. Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Katie V; Schneller, Laura C; Mulder, Christa P H; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of abundantly flowered, highly rewarding non-native plant species is expected to have strong consequences for native plants through altered pollination services, particularly in boreal forest where the flowering season is short and the pollinator pool is small. In 18 boreal forest sites, we added flowering Melilotus albus to some sites and left some sites as controls in 2 different years to test if the invasive plant influences the pollination and reproductive success of two co-flowering ericaceous species: Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Rhododendron groenlandicum. We found that M. albus increased the pollinator diversity and tended to increase visitation rates to the focal native plant species compared to control sites. Melilotus albus facilitated greater seed production per berry in V. vitis-idaea when we added 120 plants compared to when we added 40 plants or in control sites. In R. groenlandicum, increasing numbers of M. albus inflorescences lowered conspecific pollen loads and percentage of flowers pollinated; however, no differences in fruit set were detected. The number of M. albus inflorescences had greater importance in explaining R. groenlandicum pollination compared to other environmental variables such as weather and number of native flowers, and had greater importance in lower quality black spruce sites than in mixed deciduous and white spruce sites for explaining the percentage of V. vitis-idaea flowers pollinated. Our data suggest that the identity of new pollinators attracted to the invaded sites, degree of shared pollinators between invasive and native species, and variation in resource limitation among sites are likely determining factors in the reproductive responses of boreal native plants in the presence of an invasive.

  13. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  14. Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica

    2014-09-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization.

  15. Mitigation of Cu stress by legume-Rhizobium symbiosis in white lupin and soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Zornoza, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    The effect of Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis on plant growth, toxicological variables and Cu bioaccumulation was studied in white lupin and soybean plants treated with 1.6, 48, 96 and 192 μM Cu. In both species, those plants grown in the presence of root nodule-forming symbiotic Bradyrhizobium showed less root and shoot growth reduction, plus greater translocation of Cu to the shoot, than those grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. The effective added concentrations of Cu that reduced shoot and root dry weight by 50% (EC50), and the critical toxic concentration that caused a 10% reduction in plant growth (CTC10%), were higher in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, and were in general higher in the roots whether the plants were grown with or without these bacteria. The production of malondialdehyde and total thiols was stimulated by Cu excess in the shoots and roots of white lupin grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, but mainly in those without the symbionts. In contrast, in soybean, the increases in malondialdehyde and total thiols associated with rising Cu concentration were a little higher (1.2-5.0 and 1.0-1.6 times respectively) in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium than without. Finally, the organ most sensitive to Cu excess was generally the shoot, both in white lupin and soybean grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Further, Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis appears to increase the tolerance to Cu excess in both legumes, but mainly in white lupin; plant growth was less reduced and CTC10% and EC50 values increased compared to plants grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Bradyrhizobium N2 fixation in both legumes would therefore seem to increase the phytoremediation potential of these plants when growing on Cu-contaminated sites.

  16. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during 6 or 40 days of estivation in mud.

    PubMed

    Chew, S F; Gan, J; Ip, Y K

    2005-01-01

    Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields, where it can burrow into the moist earth, and it survives for long periods during the dry summer season. However, it had been reported previously that mortality increased when M. albus was exposed to air for 8 d or more. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the strategies adopted by M. albus to defend against ammonia toxicity during 6 or 40 d of estivation in mud and to evaluate whether these strategies were different from those adopted by fish to survive 6 d of aerial exposure. Ammonia and glutamine accumulations occurred in the muscle and liver of fish exposed to air (normoxia) for 6 d, indicating that ammonia was detoxified to glutamine under such conditions. In contrast, ammonia accumulation occurred only in the muscle, with no increases in glutamine or glutamate contents in all tissues, of fish estivated in mud for 6 d. Similar results were obtained from fish estivated in mud for 40 d. While estivating in mud prevented excessive water loss through evaporation, M. albus was exposed to hypoxia, as indicated by significant decreases in blood P(O(2)), muscle energy charge, and ATP content in fish estivated in mud for 6 d. Glutamine synthesis is energy intensive, and that could be the reason why M. albus did not depend on glutamine synthesis to defend against ammonia toxicity when a decrease in ATP supply occurred. Instead, suppression of endogenous ammonia production was adopted as the major strategy to ameliorate ammonia toxicity when M. albus estivated in mud. Our results suggest that a decrease in O(2) level in the mud could be a more effective signal than an increase in internal ammonia level during aerial exposure to induce a suppression of ammonia production in M. albus. This might explain why M. albus is able to estivate in mud for long periods (40 d) but can survive in air for only <10 d.

  17. The effects of a lupin-enriched diet on oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular function in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbin; Croft, Kevin D; Lee, Ya P; Mori, Trevor A; Puddey, Ian B; Sipsas, Sofia; Barden, Anne; Swinny, Ewald; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2010-11-15

    A diet enriched in lupin kernel flour can lower blood pressure, but mechanisms responsible are unclear. Lupin is a source of polyphenols, protein, and L-arginine, factors that may influence blood pressure via effects on oxidative stress and vascular function. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of a lupin-enriched diet on oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular function as potential mechanisms for demonstrated benefits on blood pressure. Overweight men and women (n = 88) were recruited to a 16-week parallel-design study. Participants were randomly assigned to replace 15%-20% of their usual daily energy intake with white bread (control) or lupin kernel flour-enriched bread (lupin). All measurements were taken at baseline and 16 weeks. At baseline, plasma F₂-isoprostanes and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) were positively associated with blood pressure, and plasma nitrite was negatively associated with blood pressure (p < 0.05). For lupin relative to control, the estimated differences in plasma F₂-isoprostanes (45 pmol/L; 95%CI: -68, 158), urinary F₂-isoprostanes (17 pmol/mmol creatinine; 95%CI: -43, 76), plasma 20-HETE (75 pmol/L; 95%CI: -91, 241), and plasma nitrite (-0.3 μmol/L; 95%CI: -1.1, 0.4) were not significant. Although regular consumption of lupin-enriched bread can lower blood pressure, these results do not support for the hypothesis that this is via effects on oxidative stress or vascular function.

  18. Cell wall glycopolymers of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces albidoflavus and Streptomyces pathocidini.

    PubMed

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Streshinskaya, Galina M; Tul'skaya, Elena M; Senchenkova, Sophia N; Baryshnikova, Lidia M; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Ostash, Bohdan E; Fedorenko, Victor A

    2016-07-01

    The cell wall glycopolymers of three strains of Streptomyces albus and the type strain of Streptomyces pathocidini were investigated. The structures of the glycopolymers were established using a combination of chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The cell wall of S. albus subsp. albus VKM Ac-35(T) was found to be comprised of three glycopolymers, viz. unsubstituted 1,5-poly(ribitol phosphate), 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) substituted with β-D-glucopyranose, and the major polymer, a 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid (Kdn)-teichulosonic acid: β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-α-Kdnp-(2[(→6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-α-Kdnp-(2 →] n 6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-β-Kdnp-(2-OH, where n ≥ 3. The cell walls of 'S. albus' J1074 and 'S. albus' R1-100 were found to contain three glycopolymers of identical structures, viz. unsubstituted 1,3- and 2,3-poly(glycerol phosphates), and the major polymer, a Kdn-teichulosonic acid with an unusual structure that has not been previously described: β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-α-Kdnp-(2[(→3)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-α-Kdnp-(2 →] n 3)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-β-Kdnp-(2-OH, where n ~ 7-8. The cell wall of S. pathocidini (formerly S. albus subsp. pathocidicus) VKM Ac-598(T) was found to contain two glycopolymers, viz. 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) partially O-glycosylated with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose and/or O-acylated with L-lysine, and a poly(diglycosyl 1-phosphate) of hitherto unknown structure: -6)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → 6)-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1-P-.

  19. Rhizostabilization of metals in soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with the metal resistant rhizobacterium Serratia sp. MSMC541.

    PubMed

    El Aafi, N; Brhada, F; Dary, M; Maltouf, A Filali; Pajuelo, E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to test Lupinus luteus plants, inoculated with metal resistant rhizobacteria, in order to phytostabilise metals in contaminated soils. The resistance to heavy metals of strains isolated from nodules of Lupinus plants was evaluated. The strain MSMC541 showed multi-resistance to several metals (up to 13.3 mM As, 2.2 mM Cd, 2.3 mM Cu, 9 mM Pb and 30 mM Zn), and it was selected for further characterization. Furthermore, this strain was able to biosorb great amounts of metals in cell biomass. 16S rDNA sequencing positioned this strain within the genus Serratia. The presence of arsenic resistance genes was confirmed by southern blot and PCR amplification. A rhizoremediation pot experiment was conducted using Lupinus luteus grown on sand supplemented with heavy metals and inoculated with MSMC541. Plant growth parameters and metal accumulation were determined in inoculated vs. non-inoculated Lupinus luteus plants. The results showed that inoculation with MSMC541 improved the plant tolerance to metals. At the same time, metal translocation to the shoot was significantly reduced upon inoculation. These results suggest that Lupinus luteus plants, inoculated with the metal resistant strain Serratia sp. MSMC541, have a great potential for phytostabilization of metal contaminated soils.

  20. First evidence of bioflocculant from Shinella albus with flocculation activity on harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2016-10-01

    Bioflocculant from Shinella albus xn-1 could be used to harvest energy-producing microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass for the first time. In this study, we investigated the flocculation activity and mode of strain xn-1, the characteristics of bioflocculant, the effect of flocculation conditions and optimized the flocculation efficiency. The results indicated that strain xn-1 exhibited flocculation activity through secreting bioflocculant; the bioflocculant with high thermal stability, pH stability and low molecular weight was proved to be not protein and polysaccharide, and flocculation active component was confirmed to contain triple bond and cumulated double bonds; algal pH, temperature and metal ions showed great impacts on the flocculation efficiency of bioflocculant; the maximum flocculation activity of bioflocculant reached 85.65% after the response surface optimization. According to the results, the bioflocculant from S. albus xn-1 could be a good potential in applications for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae.

  1. Structure of a Ruminococcus albus endo-1,4-beta-glucanase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmiya, K; Kajino, T; Kato, A; Shimizu, S

    1989-01-01

    A chromosomal DNA fragment encoding an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase I (Eg I) gene from Ruminococcus albus cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with pUC18 was fully sequenced by the dideoxy-chain termination method. The sequence contained a consensus promoter sequence and a structural amino acid sequence. The initial 43 amino acids of the protein were deduced to be a signal sequence, since they are missing in the mature protein (Eg I). High homology was found when the amino acid sequence of the Eg I was compared with that of endoglucanase E from Clostridium thermocellum. Codon usage of the gene was not biased. These results suggested that the properties of the Eg I gene from R. albus was specified from the known beta-glucanase genes of the other organisms. Images PMID:2687251

  2. SlnR is a positive pathway-specific regulator for salinomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenhong; Li, Han; Yu, Pin; Guo, Yuanyang; Luo, Shuai; Chen, Zhongbin; Mao, Xuming; Guan, Wenjun; Li, Yongquan

    2017-02-01

    Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic produced by Streptomyces albus, is widely used in animal husbandry as an anticoccidial drug and growth promoter. Situated within the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster, slnR encodes a LAL-family transcriptional regulator. The role of slnR in salinomycin production in S. albus was investigated by gene deletion, complementation, and overexpression. Gene replacement of slnR from S. albus chromosome results in almost loss of salinomycin production. Complementation of slnR restored salinomycin production, suggesting that SlnR is a positive regulator of salinomycin biosynthesis. Overexpression of slnR in S. albus led to about 25 % increase in salinomycin production compared to wild type. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of most sal structural genes was downregulated in the ΔslnR mutant but upregulated in the slnR overexpression strain. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSAs) also revealed that SlnR(DBD) binds directly to the three intergenic regions of slnQ-slnA1, slnF-slnT1, and slnC-slnB3. The SlnR binding sites within the three intergenic regions were determined by footprinting analysis and identified a consensus-directed repeat sequence 5'-ACCCCT-3'. These results indicated that SlnR modulated salinomycin biosynthesis as an enhancer via interaction with the promoters of slnA1, slnQ, slnF, slnT1, slnC, and slnB3 and activates the transcription of most of the genes belonging to the salinomycin gene cluster but not its own transcription.

  3. [Sinorhizobium meliloti strains screening for efficient bactarization of Melilotus albus Medik].

    PubMed

    Patyka, V P; Ovsiienko, O L; Kalinichenko, A V

    2014-01-01

    The data presents about analytical selection of root nodule bacteria of Melilotus to obtain bacterial fertilizer under sweet clover, presowing inoculation of it seeds and form a legume-rhizobial effective symbiosis. From natural melilot population a number of new strains had been allocated, inoculation of them was contributed to an increase of height. biomass Melilotus albus Medik., and nitrogenase activity in comparison to the influence of the existing production strains. The identification of most effective strains Sinorhizobium meliloti had been determined.

  4. Heat induction of hsp18 gene expression in Streptomyces albus G: transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Servant, P; Mazodier, P

    1996-01-01

    In Streptomyces albus G, HSP18, a protein belonging to the small heat shock protein family, could be detected only at high temperature. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA region upstream from hsp18 contains an open reading frame (orfY) which is in the opposite orientation and 150 bp upstream. This open reading frame encodes a basic protein of 225 amino acids showing no significant similarity to any proteins found in data banks. Disruption of this gene in the S. albus chromosome generated mutants that synthesized hsp18 RNA at 30 degrees C, suggesting that orfY plays either a direct or indirect role in the transcriptional regulation of the hsp18 gene. In addition, thermally induced expression of the hsp18 gene is subject to posttranscriptional regulation. In the orfY mutant, although hsp18 RNA was synthesized at a high level at 30 degrees C, the HSP18 protein could not be detected except after heat shock. Synthesis of the HSP18 protein in the orfY mutant was also heat inducible when transcription was inhibited by rifampin. Furthermore, when wild-type cultures of S. albus were shifted from high temperature to 30 degrees C, synthesis of the gene product could no longer be detected, even though large amounts of hsp18 RNA were present. PMID:8955381

  5. Longitudinal study of circulating immune complexes in a patient with Staphylococcus albus-induced shunt nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Harkiss, G D; Brown, D L; Evans, D B

    1979-01-01

    The direct measurement and partial characterization of circulating immune complexes has been performed in a longitudinal study of a patient with Staphylococcus albus-induced shunt nephritis. The high levels of immune complexes were associated with cryoglobulinaemia and hypocomplementaemia. The activation of complement was found to be via the classical pathway, but the functioning of the alternative pathway may have been impaired in vivo due to very low levels of C3. The host response to the infection was also characterized by the production of a marked macroglobulinaemia, high titres of rheumatoid factor and a typical acute phase increase in the C-reactive protein level. Immune complex levels were persistently elevated many months after the removal of the focus of the infection. A possible explanation for this surprising finding may lie in the nature of the antigens in the immune complexes. It was found that the immune complexes contained both antibodies to and antigens from Staphlococcus albus. In particular, glycerol teichoic acid and staphylococcal nuclease were identified as components of the immune complexes present during the acute phase. Glycerol teichoic acid was also identified in the immune complexes found later although other Staphylococcus albus antigens as yet unidentified were also present and persisted in the circulation for several months. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:115626

  6. Micro-PIXE studies of Lupinus angustifolius L. after treatment of seeds with molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Wouters, K.; Vlassak, K.; Combrink, N. J. J.

    1997-02-01

    An example of nuclear microprobe application in agriculture is presented. The NAC nuclear microprobe was used to determine quantitative elemental distribution of major, minor and trace elements in Lupinus angustifolius L. (Leguminosae) after treatment of seeds with molybdenum. Experiments were performed in order to establish safe concentration levels and sources of Mo in seed treatments. Elemental distributions in Mo-treated plants and in the non-treated control plants were studied in order to explain how Mo causes toxicity. Some specific regions of Mo and other main and trace elements enrichment were identified.

  7. [Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA in white char Salvelinus albus and northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2010-03-01

    Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in white char Salvelinus albus and in its putative ancestor species, northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma. Highly statistically significant differentiation of S. albus and S. m. malma in the areas of sympatric (Kamchatka River basin) and allopatric (Kronotskoe Lake and Kronotskaya River) residence was demonstrated. The mtDNA divergence between S. albus and S. m. malma did not exceed the range ofintraspecific variation in the populations of northern Dolly Varden char. At the same time, clusterization pattern of the Salvelinus chars provides hypothesis on the common origin of two allopatric populations of white char. Genealogical analysis of haplotypes indicates that S. albus and S. m. malma currently demonstrate incomplete radiation of mitochondrial lineages. The low nucleotide divergence estimates between S. albus and S. m. malma reflect the short time period since the beginning of the radiation of ancestral lineages. These estimates are determined by ancestral polymorphism and haplotype exchange between the diverged phylogenetic groups as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  8. [Genetic Connectivity Between Sympatric Populations of Closely Related Char Species, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma and White Char Salvelinus albus].

    PubMed

    Salmenkova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The closely related chars Salvelinus malma and Salvelinus albus, which sympatrically inhabit the Kamchatka River basin and Kronotsky Lake (Kamchatka), attract the attention of the researchers because of their debated origin and taxonomic status. Previous studies of sympatric populations of these chars revealed small but statistically significant genetic differences between these species at a number of molecular markers, suggesting the presence of the genetic exchange and hybridization. In this study, based on genotypic characterization of nine microsatellite loci, a considerable level of historical and contemporary genetic migration between sympatric populations of these chars was demonstrated. At the individual level a high degree of hybridization was observed, mainly among the Dolly Varden individuals from the studied populations. The obtained evidence on the genetic connectivity between sympatric S. malma and S. albus do not support the separate species status of S. albus.

  9. Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6(T), a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-06-15

    Microvirga lupini LUT6(T) is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6(T) was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6(T) forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project.

  10. The Unique Biosynthetic Route from Lupinus β-Conglutin Gene to Blad

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Sara; Freitas, Regina; Rajasekhar, Baru T.; Teixeira, Artur R.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.

    2010-01-01

    Background During seed germination, β-conglutin undergoes a major cycle of limited proteolysis in which many of its constituent subunits are processed into a 20 kDa polypeptide termed blad. Blad is the main component of a glycooligomer, accumulating exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Principal Findings The sequence of the gene encoding β-conglutin precursor (1791 nucleotides) is reported. This gene, which shares 44 to 57% similarity and 20 to 37% identity with other vicilin-like protein genes, includes several features in common with these globulins, but also specific hallmarks. Most notable is the presence of an ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM), which possibly links the unique catabolic route of β-conglutin to the ubiquitin/proteasome proteolytic pathway. Significance Blad forms through a unique route from and is a stable intermediary product of its precursor, β-conglutin, the major Lupinus seed storage protein. It is composed of 173 amino acid residues, is encoded by an intron-containing, internal fragment of the gene that codes for β-conglutin precursor (nucleotides 394 to 913) and exhibits an isoelectric point of 9.6 and a molecular mass of 20,404.85 Da. Consistent with its role as a storage protein, blad contains an extremely high proportion of the nitrogen-rich amino acids. PMID:20066045

  11. Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6T, a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Microvirga lupini LUT6T is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6T was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6T forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project. PMID:25197490

  12. A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Caresana, M.; Varoli, V.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Mayer, S.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.

    2014-06-15

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

  13. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Alenkina, I. V.; Zakharova, A. P.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The 57Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)-O 2 bond.

  14. Purification and characterization of a novel alkaline α-L-rhamnosidase produced by Acrostalagmus luteo albus.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Natalia Lorena; Voget, Claudio Enrique; Hours, Roque Alberto; Cavalitto, Sebastián Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Rhamnosidases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal nonreducing L-rhamnose for the bioconversion of natural or synthetic rhamnosides. They are of great significance in the current biotechnological area, with applications in food and pharmaceutical industrial processes. In this study we isolated and characterized a novel alkaline rhamnosidase from Acrostalagmus luteo albus, an alkali-tolerant soil fungus from Argentina. We also present an efficient, simple, and inexpensive method for purifying the A. luteo albus rhamnosidase and describe the characteristics of the purified enzyme. In the presence of rhamnose as the sole carbon source, this fungus produces a rhamnosidase with a molecular weight of 109 kDa and a pI value of 4.6, as determined by SDS-PAGE and analytical isoelectric focusing, respectively. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques. Using p-nitrofenil-α-L-rhamnopiranoside as substrate, the enzyme activity showed pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 55°C, respectively. The enzyme exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with K (M) and V (max) values of 3.38 mmol l(-1) and 68.5 mmol l(-1) min(-1), respectively. Neither divalent cations such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Co(2+) nor reducing agents such as β-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol showed any effect on enzyme activity, whereas this activity was completely inhibited by Zn(2+) at a concentration of 0.2 mM. This enzyme showed the capacity to hydrolyze some natural rhamnoglucosides such as hesperidin, naringin and quercitrin under alkaline conditions. Based on these results, and mainly due to the high activity of the A. luteo albus rhamnosidase under alkaline conditions, this enzyme should be considered a potential new biocatalyst for industrial applications.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1 - Definitions and interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... would render it unfit for consumption. Examples are cocoa beans, coffee beans, field-dried beans, field... these. Banana Banana, plantain. Bean Cicer arietinum (chickpea, garbanzo bean); Lupinus spp. (including sweet lupine, white sweet lupine, white lupine, and grain lupine). Phaseolus spp. (including kidney...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1 - Definitions and interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... would render it unfit for consumption. Examples are cocoa beans, coffee beans, field-dried beans, field... these. Banana Banana, plantain. Bean Cicer arietinum (chickpea, garbanzo bean); Lupinus spp. (including sweet lupine, white sweet lupine, white lupine, and grain lupine). Phaseolus spp. (including kidney...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1 - Definitions and interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... would render it unfit for consumption. Examples are cocoa beans, coffee beans, field-dried beans, field... these. Banana Banana, plantain. Bean Cicer arietinum (chickpea, garbanzo bean); Lupinus spp. (including sweet lupine, white sweet lupine, white lupine, and grain lupine). Phaseolus spp. (including kidney...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1 - Definitions and interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... would render it unfit for consumption. Examples are cocoa beans, coffee beans, field-dried beans, field... these. Banana Banana, plantain. Bean Cicer arietinum (chickpea, garbanzo bean); Lupinus spp. (including sweet lupine, white sweet lupine, white lupine, and grain lupine). Phaseolus spp. (including kidney...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1 - Definitions and interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... would render it unfit for consumption. Examples are cocoa beans, coffee beans, field-dried beans, field... these. Banana Banana, plantain. Bean Cicer arietinum (chickpea, garbanzo bean); Lupinus spp. (including sweet lupine, white sweet lupine, white lupine, and grain lupine). Phaseolus spp. (including kidney...

  20. Enhanced salinomycin production by adjusting the supply of polyketide extender units in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Bai, Linquan

    2016-05-01

    The anticoccidial salinomycin is a polyketide produced by Streptomyces albus and requires malonyl-CoAs, methylmalonyl-CoAs, and ethylmalonyl-CoAs for the backbone assembly. Genome sequencing of S. albus DSM 41398 revealed a high percentage of genes involved in lipid metabolism, supporting the high salinomycin yield in oil-rich media. Seven PKS/PKS-NRPS gene clusters in the genome were found to be actively transcribed and had been individually deleted, which resulted in significantly improved salinomycin production. However, a combined deletion of PKS-NRPS-2 and PKS-6 showed no further improvement. Whereas the concentrations of malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA were increased, the concentration of ethylmalonyl-CoA remained low in the mutants. An endogenous crotonyl-CoA reductase gene (ccr) was overexpressed in the ΔPKS-NRPS-2/ΔPKS-6 mutant, resulting in improved production. Combination of cluster deletions and over-expression of ccr gene led to an overall titer improvement of salinomycin from 0.60 to 6.60g/L. This engineering strategy can be implemented for various natural polyketides production.

  1. Functional insights into the testis transcriptome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Sánchez, Roland; Bruning, Paulina; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2016-11-02

    The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates. Using a high-throughput sequencing technology, we explored the male gonad transcriptome of this highly fecund sea urchin. Through a de novo assembly approach we obtained 42,530 transcripts of which 15,544 (36.6%) had significant alignments to known proteins in public databases. From these transcripts, approximately 73% were functionally annotated allowing the identification of several candidate genes that are likely to play a central role in developmental processes, nutrient reservoir activity, sexual reproduction, gamete generation, meiosis, sex differentiation, sperm motility, male courtship behavior and fertilization. Additionally, comparisons with the male gonad transcriptomes of other echinoderms revealed several conserved orthologous genes, suggesting that similar functional and structural pathways underlie the reproductive development in this group and other marine invertebrates.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin: Loxechinus albus (Camarodonta, Parechinidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Gila; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species of the genus Loxechinus, is determined. The circular mitogenome is 15,709 bp in length containing 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes as well as the control region. The gene order is identical to those of described Camarodonta species. There are 24 bp gene overlaps at 6 locations and 124 bp intergenic spacers at 17 boundaries. The nucleotide composition of the genome is 31.2% A, 22.3% C, 29.7% T, and 16.8% G. The A+T bias (60.9%) is similar to that of P. lividus (60.3%) but slightly higher than those of strongylocentrotid species (58.8-59.8%). The mitogenome sequence of L. albus will provide valuable information on the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Loxechinus in relation to other Camarodonta sea urchins.

  3. Functional insights into the testis transcriptome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Sánchez, Roland; Bruning, Paulina; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates. Using a high-throughput sequencing technology, we explored the male gonad transcriptome of this highly fecund sea urchin. Through a de novo assembly approach we obtained 42,530 transcripts of which 15,544 (36.6%) had significant alignments to known proteins in public databases. From these transcripts, approximately 73% were functionally annotated allowing the identification of several candidate genes that are likely to play a central role in developmental processes, nutrient reservoir activity, sexual reproduction, gamete generation, meiosis, sex differentiation, sperm motility, male courtship behavior and fertilization. Additionally, comparisons with the male gonad transcriptomes of other echinoderms revealed several conserved orthologous genes, suggesting that similar functional and structural pathways underlie the reproductive development in this group and other marine invertebrates. PMID:27805042

  4. Mycofumigation by the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Induces Bacterial Cell Death through DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Alpha, Cambria J.; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

  5. Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.

    2009-03-01

    The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38°C in autumn to 35.9-36.7°C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

  6. Unique aspects of fiber degradation by the ruminal ethanologen Ruminococcus albus 7 revealed by physiological and transcriptomic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus are important and ubiquitous members of mammalian guts. In particular, ruminococci are key contributors to the rumen ecosystem because they are capable of digesting a wide range of plant cell wall polysaccharides. In bovines, Ruminococcus albus 7 is a primary cellu...

  7. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the estrogen receptor α gene during different reproductive phases in Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Weidong; Cao, Liping; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of estrogen and to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor in mediating estrogen action, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor α (ERα) was cloned from Monopterus albus, and its expression pattern and distribution were investigated. The ERα cDNA of M. albus includes an open reading frame of 1863 bp, a 140-bp 5’-untranslated region and a 797-bp 3’-untranslated region. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that the Monopterus albus ERα has a moderate degree of similarity with Sebastes schlegelii, Zoarces viviparus and Haplochromis burtoni (81.1%, 80.7% and 80.4%, respectively). Quantitative PCR results showed that the highest level of ERα expression was in the liver; the next highest level of expression was observed in the gonads, where it was expressed at high levels particularly in the ovary in developmental stages IV and V and in the testis in developmental stage II/III. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ERα was present as slender particles distributed mainly in the membranes of spermatocytes and oocytes in the testis and ovary, whereas no positive signal was observed in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. This report describes the first molecular characterization of full-length ERα and its tissue-specific distribution in M. albus. PMID:27295422

  8. Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.

    PubMed

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D₂O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 × 25 × 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D₂O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D₂O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers.

  9. Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976882

  10. Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-12-20

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program.

  11. Hypoglycemic effect of cooked Lupinus mutabilis and its purified alkaloids in subjects with type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Baldeón, M E; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Fornasini, M

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing an epidemic of chronic non-communicable chronic diseases with high socio-economic costs. Studies of traditional foods with beneficial health properties could contribute to diminish these problems. Legumes rich in proteins like Lupinus mutabilis decreases blood glucose and improves insulin sensitivity in animals and humans. We report the results of a phase II clinical trial conducted to assess the role of cooked L. mutabilis and its purified alkaloids on blood glucose and insulin in volunteers with diabetes. Results indicate that consumption of cooked L. mutabilis or its purified alkaloids decreased blood glucose and insulin levels. The decreases in serum glucose concentrations from base line to 90 minutes were statistically significant within both treatment groups; however, there were not differences between groups. Serum insulin levels were also decreased in both groups however the differences were not statistically significant. None of the volunteers in either group presented side effects.

  12. [Methods of eliminating alkaloids from the seeds of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet].

    PubMed

    Torres Tello, F; Nagata, A; Dreifuss Spiegel, W

    1980-06-01

    The basic purpose of this work was to find a simple and economic method to control and eliminate the presence of alkaloids, as detected by organoleptic or toxicity tests, in Lupinus mutabilis, S. (tarhui) seeds. Taking advantage of the physical and chemical properties of the seeds, they were subjected to four methods of extraction; b) chemical treatment; c) extraction with two solvents, and d) treatment with a modified water-heat process. The results indicated that the most adequate method was the water-heat modified treatment, which showed a yield of 85% and a debittering efficiency of 98.6%, figures which were above those obtained with any of the other treatments studied. The final product had a bland taste without traces of bitterness and a 32% concentration of protein in the kayra line. Amino acid content showed this product to have an unusual high lysine content.

  13. Isolation and properties of the main isoleucine trnas from lupinus luteus seeds.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, H; Pawełkiewicz, J

    1978-01-01

    RPC-5 chromatography of [14C]isoleucyl-tRNA shows the presence of 5 tRNAIle species in lupin seeds. The two major species have been isolated using RPC-5 and Sepharose 4B chromatography. The acceptor activity of the purified tRNAs ranges from 1350 pmoles (tRNA2Ile) to 1510 pmoles (tRNA1Ile) of isoleucine per one A260 unit of tRNA. The two tRNAs have similar thermal denaturation profiles but differ in the composition of the major and minor bases, 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences, and the titration curves with MgCl2. It is concluded that the two major tRNAIle species are coded for by different genes.

  14. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  15. Proteolytic Cleavage at Twin Arginine Residues Affects Structural and Functional Transitions of Lupin Seed 11S Storage Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R. D.; Duranti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed. PMID:25658355

  16. Proteolytic cleavage at twin arginine residues affects structural and functional transitions of lupin seed 11S storage globulin.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Croy, Ron R D; Duranti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The 11S storage globulin of white lupin seeds binds to a metal affinity chromatography matrix. Two unusual stretches of contiguous histidine residues, reminiscent of the multiple histidines forming metal binding motifs, at the C-terminal end of 11S globulin acidic chains were hypothesized as candidate elements responsible for the binding capacity. To prove this, the protein was incubated with a lupin seed endopeptidase previously shown to cleave at twin arginine motifs, recurrent in the sequence region of interest. Upon incubation with this enzyme, the loss of metal binding capacity paralleled that of the anti-his-tag reactive polypeptides. The recovered small proteolytic fragment was analyzed by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and found to correspond to the 24-mer region cleaved off at twin arginine residues and containing the natural his-tag-like region. Similarly, when lupin seeds were germinated for a few days, the his-tag containing 11S globulin chain was converted to a form devoid of such region, suggesting that this mechanism is a part of the natural degradatory process of the protein. The hypothesis that the ordered and controlled dismantling of storage proteins may generate peptide fragments with potential functional roles in plant ontogenesis is presented and discussed.

  17. Seasonal and annual variations in the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L.

    PubMed

    Fisogni, A; Rossi, M; Sgolastra, F; Bortolotti, L; Bogo, G; de Manincor, N; Quaranta, M; Galloni, M

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between insect and plant traits outlines the patterns of pollen transfer and the subsequent plant reproductive fitness. We studied the factors that affect the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L. by evaluating insect behaviour and morphological characteristics in relation to flowering phenology. In order to extrapolate the pollinator importance of single taxa and of the whole pollinator guild, we calculated an index distinguishing between potential (PPI) and realized (RPI) pollinator importance. Although the pollinator species spectrum appeared rather constant, we found high intra- and inter-annual variability of pollinator frequency and importance within the insect community. Flower visitation rate strictly depended on insect abundance and on the overlap between their flying period and flower blooming. All the pollinators visited flowers from the bottom to the top of the racemes, excluding intra-plant geitonogamous pollination, and most of them showed high pollen fidelity. Only medium large-sized bees could contact the upward bending stiles while feeding on nectar, highlighting a specialisation of the plant towards bigger pollinators. Moreover, we found evidence of functional specialisation, since all pollinators were restricted to a single taxonomic group (order: Hymenoptera; superfamily: Apoidea). Both the PPI and RPI indices indicate Habropoda tarsata as the most important pollinator of D. albus. Following hand cross-pollination experiments we revealed the presence of pollination limitation in 1 of the 3 years of field study. We discuss this result in relation to flowering abundance and to possible mismatches of phenological periods between plants and insects.

  18. Putrescine N-Methyltransferase in Cultured Roots of Hyoscyamus albus1

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, Naruhiro; Fujita, Toshihiro; Hatano, Mika; Hashimoto, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuyuki

    1992-01-01

    Biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids is thought to proceed by way of the diamine putrescine, followed by its methylation by putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT; EC 2.1.1.53). High PMT activities were found in branch roots and/or cultured roots of several solanaceous plants. PMT was partially purified and characterized from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus albus that contain hyoscyamine as the main alkaloid. Initial velocity studies and product inhibition patterns of PMT are consistent with an ordered bi-bi mechanism, in which the Km values for putrescine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine are 277 and 203 μm, respectively, and the Ki value for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine is 110 μm. PMT efficiently N-methylated amines that have at least two amino groups separated by three or four methylene groups. Monoamines were good competitive inhibitors of PMT, among which n-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, and exo-2-aminonorbornane were most inhibitory, with respective Ki values of 11.0, 9.1, and 10.0 μm. When n-butylamine was fed to root cultures of H. albus, the alkamine intermediates (tropinone, tropine, and pseudotropine) drastically decreased at 1 mm of the exogenous monoamine, and the hyoscyamine content decreased by 52% at 6 mm, whereas the contents of 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine and scopolamine did not change. Free and conjugated forms of polyamines were also measured. The n-butylamine treatment caused a large increase in the putrescine content (especially in the conjugated pool), and the spermine content also increased slightly, whereas the spermidine content decreased slightly. The increase in the putrescine pool size (approximately 40 nmol/mg dry weight) was large enough to account for the decrease in the total alkaloid pool size. Similar results were also obtained in root cultures of Datura stramonium. These studies further support the role of PMT as the first committed enzyme specific to alkaloid biosynthesis. Images Figure 8 PMID:16653064

  19. Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin γ, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P < 0.05). Analysis of faeces revealed a higher output of cholesterol in pigs that were fed lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of intestinal sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B, type 1) were lower in pigs fed lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P < 0.05). In vitro data showed that phytate was capable of reducing the uptake of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol into the Caco-2 cells to the same extend as ezetimibe when compared to control (−20.5% vs. −21.1%; P < 0.05). Conclusions Data reveal that the cholesterol-lowering effect of lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a

  20. Production and characterization of vaginal suppositories with propolis wax as active agent to prevent and treat Fluor albus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farida, Siti; Azizah, Nurul; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Based on the content contained in propolis wax especially antimicrobial function, it can be analyzed that propolis wax had superiority for Fluor albus. This research was conducted on two formulation of vaginal suppositories with base, supplementary and active agent as a fixed variable: 2% propolis wax (% w/w). Evaluation of this research were weight variation, melting time, consistency, irritation effect test and physical and chemical stability test (organoleptic, pH and polyphenol content).

  1. Apparent competition with an invasive plant hastens the extinction of an endangered lupine.

    PubMed

    Dangremond, Emily M; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M

    2010-08-01

    Invasive plants may compete with native plants by increasing the pressure of native consumers, a mechanism known as "apparent competition." Apparent competition can be as strong as or stronger than direct competition, but the role of apparent competition has rarely been examined in biological invasions. We used four years of demographic data and seed-removal experiments to determine if introduced grasses caused elevated levels of seed consumption on native plant species in a coastal dune system in California, USA. We show that the endangered, coastal dune plant Lupinus tidestromii experiences high levels of pre-dispersal seed consumption by the native rodent Peromyscus maniculatus due to its proximity to the invasive grass, Ammophila arenaria. We use stage-structured, stochastic population models to project that two of three study populations will decline toward extinction under ambient levels of consumption. For one of these declining populations, a relatively small decrease in consumption pressure should allow for persistence. We show that apparent competition with an invasive species significantly decreases the population growth rate and persistence of a native species. We expect that apparent competition is an important mechanism in other ecosystems because invasive plants often change habitat structure and plant-consumer interactions. Possible implications of the apparent-competition mechanism include selective extinction of species preferred by seed consumers in the presence of an invasive species and biological homogenization of communities toward non-preferred native plant species.

  2. Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

  3. The neotropical shrub Lupinus elegans, fromtemperate forests, may not adapt to climate change.

    PubMed

    Soto-Correa, J C; Sáenz-Romero, C; Lindig-Cisneros, R; de la Barrera, E

    2013-05-01

    Considering that their distribution is limited to altitudinal gradients along mountains that are likely to become warmer and drier, climate change poses an increased threat to temperate forest species from tropical regions. We studied whether the understorey shrub Lupinus elegans, endemic to temperate forests of west-central Mexico, will be able to withstand the projected temperature increase under seven climate change scenarios. Seeds were collected along an altitudinal gradient and grown in a shade-house over 7 months before determining their temperature tolerance as electrolyte leakage. The plants from colder sites tolerated lower temperatures, i.e. the temperature at which half of the maximum electrolyte leakage occurred (LT50), ranged from −6.4 ± 0.7 to −2.4 ± 0.3 °C. In contrast, no pattern was found for tolerance to high temperature (LT50 average 42.8 ± 0.3 °C). The climate change scenarios considered here consistently estimated an increase in air temperature during the present century that was higher for the maximum air temperature than for the mean or minimum. In particular, the anomaly from the normal maximum air temperature at the study region ranged from 2.8 °C by 2030 to 5.8 °C by 2090. In this respect, the inability of L. elegans to adapt to increasingly higher temperatures found here, in addition to a possible inhibition of reproduction caused by warmer winters, may limit its future distribution.

  4. Protein profile of Lupinus texensis phloem sap exudates: searching for Fe- and Zn-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Andaluz, Sofía; Matros, Andrea; Calvete, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phloem sap protein profile of Lupinus texensis, with a special focus on proteins binding Fe and Zn. L. texensis was chosen as model plant given the simplicity to obtain exudates from sieve elements. Protein profiling by 2DE revealed 249 spots, and 54 of them were unambiguously identified by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The largest number of identified protein species belongs to protein modification/turnover and general metabolism (19-21%), followed by redox homeostasis (9%) and defense and cell structural components (7%). This protein profile is similar to that reported in other plant species, suggesting that the phloem sap proteome is quite conserved. Staining of 2DE gels for Fe-containing proteins and affinity chromatography experiments revealed the presence of two low molecular weight Fe-binding proteins in phloem sap: a metallothionein-like protein type 2B identified in the Fe-affinity chromatography, and a second protein identified with both Fe staining methods. This protein species had a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, a pI of 5.6 and 51% homology to a phloem-specific protein from Medicago truncatula. Zinc affinity chromatography revealed four Zn-binding proteins in phloem sap, one belonging to the dehydrin family and three Zn finger proteins.

  5. Does the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus increase pollinator visitation to a native herb through effects on pollinator population sizes?

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Anna; Padrón, Benigno

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants may compete with native species for abiotic factors as light, space and nutrients, and have also been shown to affect native pollination interactions. Studies have mainly focused on how invasive plants affect pollinator behaviour, i.e. attraction of pollinators to or away from native flowers. However, when an invasive plant provides resources utilized by native pollinators this could increase pollinator population sizes and thereby pollination success in natives. Effects mediated through changes in pollinator population sizes have been largely ignored in previous studies, and the dominance of negative interactions suggested by meta-analyses may therefore be biased. We investigated the impact of the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus on pollination in the native Lotus corniculatus using a study design comparing invaded and uninvaded sites before and after the flowering period of the invasive. We monitored wild bee abundance in transects, and visit rate and seed production of potted Lotus plants. Bumblebee abundance increased 3.9 times in invaded sites during the study period, whereas it was unaltered in uninvaded sites. Total visit rate per Lotus plant increased 2.1 times in invaded sites and decreased 4.4 times in uninvaded sites. No corresponding change in seed production of Lotus was found. The increase in visit rate to Lotus was driven by an increase in solitary bee visitation, whereas mainly bumblebees were observed to visit the invasive Lupinus. The mechanism by which the invasive increases pollinator visit rates to Lotus could be increased availability of other flower resources for solitary bees when bumblebees forage on Lupinus.

  6. Cloning and characterization of the polyether salinomycin biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Hougen; Kang, Qianjin; Liu, Jing; Bai, Linquan

    2012-02-01

    Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity.

  7. Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, William E.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Selch, T.M.; Klumb, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by two Missouri River predators under different flow regimes, and in combination with alternative prey. To document vulnerability, age-0 pallid sturgeon (<100 mm) were offered to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in laboratory experiments. Selection of pallid sturgeon by both predators was measured by offering pallid sturgeon and an alternative prey, fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, in varying prey densities. Smallmouth bass consumed more age-0 pallid sturgeon (0.95 h-1) than did channel catfish (0.13 h-1), and predation rates did not differ between water velocities supporting sustained (0 m s-1) or prolonged swimming speeds (0.15 m s-1). Neither predator positively selected pallid sturgeon when alternative prey was available. Both predator species consumed more fathead minnows than pallid sturgeon across all prey density combinations. Results indicate that the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by channel catfish and smallmouth bass is low, especially in the presence of an alternative fish prey. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  9. Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Williams, G.E. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1 to 10.2 cm). Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of first-hatched great egret nestlings sampled during 1994 averaged 1.2 {micro}g/g (range = 0.07--3.9) wet weight and 16 {micro}g/g (4.5--40) dry weight, respectively. During 1995, first-hatched chicks had blood and feather Hg concentrations that averaged 0.8 {micro}g/g (0.2--1.7) and 9.7 {micro}g/g (2.3--26), respectively. In both years, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers were significantly correlated, and a significant correlation also was found between Hg in blood and age of the chicks. Blood and feather Hg concentrations differed significantly between years, with higher concentrations during 1994. Birds from JW1 and L67 colonies had the highest concentrations of Hg in blood and feathers. Mercury concentrations did not differ between chicks of different hatch order Mercury in feathers of great egret nestlings from southern Florida are approximately six times higher than when compared to feather Hg concentrations of nestlings wading birds sampled elsewhere.

  10. The reallocation of carbon in P deficient lupins affects biological nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Aleysia; Venter, Mauritz; Kossmann, Jens; Valentine, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    It is not known how phosphate (P) deficiency affects the allocation of carbon (C) to biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes. The alteration of the respiratory and photosynthetic C costs of BNF was investigated under P deficiency. Although BNF can impose considerable sink stimulation on host respiratory and photosynthetic C, it is not known how the change in the C and energy allocation during P deficiency may affect BNF. Nodulated Lupinus luteus plants were grown in sand culture, using a modified Long Ashton nutrient solution containing no nitrogen (N) for ca. four weeks, after which one set was exposed to a P-deficient nutrient medium, while the other set continued growing on a P-sufficient nutrient medium. Phosphorus stress was measured at 20 days after onset of P-starvation. During P stress the decline in nodular P levels was associated with lower BNF and nodule growth. There was also a shift in the balance of photosynthetic and respiratory C toward a loss of C during P stress. Below-ground respiration declined under limiting P conditions. However, during this decline there was also a shift in the proportion of respiratory energy from maintenance toward growth respiration. Under P stress, there was an increased allocation of C toward root growth, thereby decreasing the amount of C available for maintenance respiration. It is therefore possible that the decline in BNF under P deficiency may be due to this change in resource allocation away from respiration associated with direct nutrient uptake, but rather toward a long term nutrient acquisition strategy of increased root growth.

  11. Phloem Glutamine and the Regulation of O2 Diffusion in Legume Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Neo, H. H.; Layzell, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the N content or the composition of the phloem sap that supplies nodulated roots may play a role in the feedback regulation of nitrogenase activity by increasing nodule resistance to O2 diffusion. Treating shoots of lupin (Lupinus albus cv Manitoba) or soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Maple Arrow) with 100 [mu]L L-1 NH3 caused a 1.3-fold (lupin) and 2.6-fold (soybean) increase in the total N content of phloem sap without altering its C content. The increase in phloem N was due primarily to a 4.8-fold (lupin) and 10.5-fold (soybean) increase in the concentration of glutamine N. In addition, there was a decline in both the apparent nitrogenase activity and total nitrogenase activity that began within 4 h and reached about 54% of its initial activity within 6 h of the start of the NH3 treatment. However, the potential nitrogenase activity values in the treated plants were not significantly different from those of the control plants. These results provide evidence that changes in the N composition of the phloem sap, particularly the glutamine content, may increase nodule resistance to O2 diffusion and, thereby, down-regulate nodule metabolism and nitrogenase activity by controlling the supply of O2 to the bacteria-infected cells. PMID:12223605

  12. Kinship rivalry does not trigger specific allocation strategies in Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; del Burgo, Ainhoa Vélez; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Research on the ability of plants to recognize kin and modify plant development to ameliorate competition with coexisting relatives is an area of very active current exploration. Empirical evidence, however, is insufficient to provide a sound picture of this phenomenon. Methods An experiment was designed to assess multi-trait phenotypic expression in response to competition with conspecifics of varied degrees of genealogical relatedness. Groups of siblings, cousins and strangers of Lupinus angustifolius were set in competition in a pots assay. Several whole-plant and organ-level traits, directly related to competition for above- and below-ground resources, were measured. In addition, group-level root proliferation was measured as a key response trait to relatedness to neighbours, as identified in previous work. Key Results No major significant phenotypic differences were found between individuals and groups that could be assigned to the gradient of relatedness used here. This occurred in univariate models, and also when multi-trait interactions were evaluated through multi-group comparisons of Structural Equation Models. Root proliferation was higher in phenotypically more heterogeneous groups, but phenotypic heterogeneity was independent of the relatedness treatments of the experiment, and root proliferation was alike in the neighbourhoods of siblings, cousins and strangers. Conclusions In contrast to recent findings in other species, genealogical relatedness to competing neighbours has a negligible impact on the phenotypic expression of individuals and groups of L. angustifolius. This suggests that kin recognition needs further exploration to assess its generality, the ecological scenarios where it might have been favoured or penalized by natural selection, and its preponderance in different plant lineages. PMID:22562807

  13. Paths of water entry and structures involved in the breaking of seed dormancy of Lupinus.

    PubMed

    Robles-Díaz, Erika; Flores, Joel; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura

    2016-03-15

    Physical dormancy is the water impermeability of the seed coat caused by one or more palisade cell layer(s) called macrosclereids. The specialised structure for water entry sites is the water gap, which serves as a detector of environmental cues for germination. In Fabaceae, the water gap is the lens, although another seed structure for water entry could exist. In this study, we identified the initial site of water entry, observed the hydration of a cushion-like structure near the radicle, described the anatomy of the water gap, and analysed the association of anatomical seed traits with the initial site of water entry and the imbibition velocity of six species of Lupinus from the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Dye tracking with a toluidine blue solution was used to identify the initial site of water entry. The anatomical description was performed using conventional microtechnique and a light microscope. The entry of the toluidine solution into seeds of L. montanus was observed after 6h, followed by L. exaltatus and L. mexicanus after 18h and L. elegans, L. reflexus and L. rotundiflorus after 48h. The site of water entry was the lens in L. elegans, L. exaltatus, L. reflexus and L. rotundiflorus and the micropyle in L. mexicanus and L. montanus. The cushion-like structure was responsible for water accumulation in embryo imbibition. Significant differences among anatomical seed traits such as thickness in the hilar region, the counter-palisade layer, cushion-like structure, epidermis, hypodermis, and innermost parenchyma layer were found among the species.

  14. Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in the host plant.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Gary A; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, Wilford M; Sears, Joe; Ezra, David; Vargas, Percy N

    2007-08-01

    Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing in a dry tropical forest in SW Ecuador. This unique organism produces many VOCs not previously observed in other M. albus isolates, including butanoic acid, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-; 2-butenal, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester; 3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl; guaiol; 1-octene, 3-ethyl-; formamide, N-(1-methylpropyl); and certain azulene and naphthalene derivatives. Some compounds usually seen in other M. albus isolates also appeared in the VOCs of isolate E-6, including caryophyllene; phenylethyl alcohol; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; bulnesene; and various propanoic acid, 2-methyl- derivatives. The biological activity of the VOCs of E-6 appears different from the original isolate of this fungus, CZ-620, since a Gram-positive bacterium was killed, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani were not. Scanning electron micrographs of the mycelium of isolate E-6 showed substantial intertwining of the hyphal strands. These strands seemed to be held together by an extracellular matrix accounting for the strong mat-like nature of the mycelium, which easily lifts off the agar surface upon transfer, unlike any other isolate of this fungus. The ITS-5.8S rDNA partial sequence data showed 99 % similarity to the original M. albus strain CZ-620. For the first time, successful establishment of M. albus into its natural host, followed by recovery of the fungus, was accomplished in seedlings of G. ulmifolia. Overall, isolates of M. albus, including E-6, have chemical, biological and structural characteristics that make them potentially useful in

  15. Strigolactones, host recognition signals for root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, from Fabaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Ogasawara, Shin; Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2008-07-01

    Both root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi take advantage of strigolactones, released from plant roots as signal molecules in the initial communication with host plants, in order to commence parasitism and mutualism, respectively. In this study, strigolactones in root exudates from 12 Fabaceae plants, including hydroponically grown white lupin (Lupinus albus), a nonhost of AM fungi, were characterized by comparing retention times of germination stimulants on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with those of standards and by using tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). All the plant species examined were found to exude known strigolactones, such as orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and 5-deoxystrigol, suggesting that these strigolactones are widely distributed in the Fabaceae. It should be noted that even the nonmycotrophic L. albus exuded orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, 5-deoxystrigol, and novel germination stimulants. By contrast to the mycotrophic Fabaceae plant Trifolium pratense, in which phosphorus deficiency promoted strigolactone exudation, neither phosphorus nor nitrogen deficiency increased exudation of these strigolactones in L. albus. Therefore, the regulation of strigolactone production and/or exudation seems to be closely related to the nutrient acquisition strategy of the plants.

  16. Oocyte maturation and embryo survival in nulliparous female pigs (gilts) is improved by feeding a lupin-based high-fibre diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A C; Kelly, J M; Kind, K L; Gatford, K L; Kennaway, D J; Herde, P J; van Wettere, W H E J

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion of high levels of the high-fibre ingredient sugar-beet pulp in pre-mating diets has been shown to increase gonadotrophin concentrations and improve oocyte quality in nulliparous pigs (gilts). This study evaluated the effects of two alternative fibre sources on reproductive performance in gilts. Gilts received one of three diets from 3 weeks before puberty stimulation until Day 19 of the first oestrous cycle: control (39 g kg⁻¹ fibre), bran (500 g kg⁻¹ wheat bran, 65 g kg⁻¹ fibre) or lupin (350 g kg⁻¹ lupin, 118 g kg⁻¹ crude fibre). Diet did not affect circulating LH concentrations or ovarian follicle size. However, a higher percentage of oocytes collected from lupin-supplemented gilts reached metaphase II in vitro compared with those collected from bran-fed or control gilts (89±5% versus 72±5% and 66±5%, respectively; P<0.05). Furthermore, in a second experiment, gilts fed the same lupin-based diet before mating had improved embryo survival (92±5%) on Day 28 after mating compared with control gilts (76±4%; P<0.05). Therefore, feeding a high-fibre diet before mating can improve oocyte quality in gilts without changes in circulating LH, but this effect is dependent on the fibre source.

  17. Functional Analyses of Multiple Lichenin-Degrading Enzymes from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8▿†

    PubMed Central

    Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in β-1,3 and β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a β-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a β-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber. PMID:21890664

  18. Properties and Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-Subunit Isoforms in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Which Has Unusually High Brain Ammonia Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu L.; Wee, Nicklaus L. J. E.; Hiong, Kum C.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2013-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l−1) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (∼4.5 µmol g−1). Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4+ can substitute for K+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities over a range of K+/NH4+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l−1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na+/K+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4+/K+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nkaα2 expression, (2) high K+ specificity of K+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

  19. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Peter C; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Sepalveda, Maria S.; Williams, Gary E.; Nico, Leo G.; Robins, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish (>95% of biomass), though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and we found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. We estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. We estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish (4-year mean = 0.41 mg/kg). We estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. We estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledging mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  20. Rhizobium albus sp. nov., Isolated from Lake Water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Lei, Xueqian; Xu, Yanting; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Meiying; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Jinli; Zheng, Tianling

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain, designated Y21(T), was isolated from surface lake water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 37 °C, at salinities from 0 to 7.0 % and at pH from 6.0 to 10.0. Optimum growth was observed at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 1.5-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The highest similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Y21(T) and the other strains was 96.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Rhizobium, forming a distinct lineage with R. subbaraonis KCTC 23614(T). The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl, which accounted for 78.1 %. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 60.9 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The polar lipids of strain Y21(T) were found to consist of five unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, strain Y21(T) should be regarded as a new species of the genus Rhizobium, for which Rhizobium albus sp. nov. is proposed (type strain Y21(T) = MCCC 1F01210(T) = KCTC 42252(T)).

  1. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.

    1999-09-01

    The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  2. Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization libraries for the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Shang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Cui; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

    2014-04-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate gene transcription profiles of the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) in an attempt to uncover genes involved in sex reversal and gonad development. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using mRNA from the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis. In total 100 positive clones from the libraries were selected at random and sequenced, and then expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to search against sequences in the GenBank database using the BLASTn and BLASTx search algorithms. High quality SSH cDNA libraries and 90 ESTs were obtained. Of these ESTs, 43 showed high homology with genes of known function and these are associated with energy metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation and so on. The remaining 47 ESTs shared no homology with any genes in GenBank and are thus considered to be hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the four genes F11, F63, R11, and R47 from the forward and reverse libraries were analyzed in gonad, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. The results showed that the transcription of the F11 and F63 genes was significantly increased while the expression of the R11 and R47 genes was significantly decreased from IV or V ovary. In addition, the results also indicated that the four genes' expression was not gonad-tissue specific. This results strongly suggested that they may be involved in the rice field eel gonad development and/or sex reversal.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and residue depletion of praziquantel in rice field eels Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Dong, Jing; Yang, Yibin; Ai, Xiaohui

    2016-04-12

    We investigated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of praziquantel (PZQ) in rice field eels Monopterus albus. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following a single intravenous administration (5 mg kg(-1) body weight [bw]) and a single oral administration (10 mg kg(-1) bw) at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. We also evaluated residue depletion in tissues following daily administration of PZQ (10 mg kg(-1) bw) that was given orally for 3 consecutive days at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. Following intravenous treatment, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 3-compartment open model, with distribution half-life (t(1/2α)), elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 0.54 h, 17.10 h, and 14505.12 h µg l(-1), respectively. After oral administration, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 1-compartment open model with first-order absorption, with absorption half-life (t(1/2Ka)), elimination half-life (t(1/2Ke)), peak concentration (C(max)), time-to-peak concentration (T(max)), and AUC estimated to be 2.28 h, 6.66 h, 361.29 µg l(-1), 5.36 h, and 6065.46 h µg l(-1), respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) was 20.9%. With respect to residue depletion of PZQ, the t(1/2β) values of muscle, skin, liver, and kidney were 20.2, 28.4, 14.9, and 54.1 h, respectively. Our results indicated rapid absorption, rapid elimination, and low bioavailability of PZQ in rice field eels at the tested dosing conditions.

  4. Effect of yellow lupine (L. luteus) on the egg yolk fatty acid profile, the physicochemical and sensory properties of eggs, and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena; Przywitowski, Marcin; Mikulski, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary inclusion of raw yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on laying hen performance, the fatty acid (FA) profile, physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. A total of 224 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 32 wk age were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for 16 wk. The control diet contained soybean meal (SBM), and in study diets SBM was replaced with YLM at 100, 200, or 300 g/kg. In comparison with soybean, lupine seeds had a higher content of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) (29.5 vs. 14.0 and 8.56 vs. 5.91% DM). The dietary 300 g/kg lupine seeds increased the content of NSP and RFO in the ration, from 9.34 to 13.39 and 1.36 to 2.54%, respectively. The YLM inclusion level had no adverse effect on laying performance, including feed intake, FCR, egg production, and egg weight. The final BW of hens fed lupine-based diets were significantly higher compared with the control (P=0.039). Throughout the study, dietary treatments had no effect on eggshell and albumen quality. An increase in the inclusion rate of YLM was followed by a linear increase (P<0.001) in yolk color intensity. Dietary treatments had no influence on the aroma, taste, and texture of eggs evaluated in laying hens at 46 wk age. The inclusion of lupine seeds in experimental diets caused a linear increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content and the n-6/n-3 ratio (all P<0.001), but it had no influence on the atherogenic and the thrombogenic indices of egg yolk lipids. The results of this study indicate that YLM can be included at 300 g/kg in layer diets as a partial substitute for soybean meal without compromising laying performance, the physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs.

  5. Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Onstott, Tullis; McGown, Daniel; Bakermans, Corien; Ruskeeniemi, T; Ahonen, L; Telling, J; Soffientino, B; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Frape, S; Stotler, R; Johnson, E; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Rothmel, Randi; Pratt, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient

  6. Calcium bodies of Titanethes albus (Crustacea: Isopoda): molt-related structural dynamics and calcified matrix-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Kostanjšek, Rok; Znidaršič, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

    2012-10-01

    Crustaceans form a variety of calcium deposits in which they store calcium necessary for the mineralization of their exoskeletons. Calcium bodies, organs containing large amounts of calcium, have been reported in some terrestrial isopod crustaceans, but have not yet been extensively studied. We analyzed the architecture of these organs during the molt cycle in the isopod Titanethes albus. Two pairs of calcium bodies are positioned ventrolaterally in posterior pereonites of T. albus. Individual organs are epithelial sacs that contain material arranged in concentric layers delimited by thin laminae. As demonstrated by electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization, abundant bacteria are present within the calcium bodies. Regardless of the molt cycle stage, crystalline concretions are present in the central areas of the calcium bodies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the concretions demonstrated that they are composed predominantly of calcium and phosphorus and selected area electron diffraction indicated the presence of hydroxyapatite. In molting animals, a glassy layer of mineralized matrix is formed between the envelope and the outermost lamina of the calcium body. This layer consists of an amorphous calcium mineral which contains less phosphorus than the central concretions and is resorbed after molt. Since changes in the mineralized matrix are synchronized with the molt cycle, the calcium bodies likely function as a storage compartment that complements sternal deposits as a source of calcium for the mineralization of the exoskeleton. Bacteria associated with the mineralized matrix of calcium bodies are evidently involved in calcium dynamics.

  7. Ultrastructure and mineral distribution in the tergal cuticle of the terrestrial isopod Titanethes albus. Adaptations to a karst cave biotope.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Neues, Frank; Znidarsic, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Epple, Matthias; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Composition and spatial distribution of organic and inorganic materials within the cuticle of isopods vary between species. These variations are related to the behaviour and habitat of the animal. The troglobiotic isopod Titanethes albus lives in the complete darkness of caves in the Slovenian Karst. This habitat provides constant temperature and saturated humidity throughout the year and inconsistent food supply. These conditions should have lead to functional adaptations of arthropod cuticles. However, studies on structure and composition of cave arthropod cuticles are rare and lacking for terrestrial isopods. We therefore analysed the tergite cuticle of T. albus using transmission and field-emission electron microscopy, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopic imaging, quantitative X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ultrastructure of the epicuticle suggests a poor resistance against water loss. A weak interconnection between the organic and mineral phase within the endo- and exocuticle, a comparatively thin apical calcite layer, and almost lack of magnesium within the calcite crystal lattice suggest that the mechanical strength of the cuticle is low in the cave isopod. This may possibly be of advantage in maintaining high cuticle flexibility and reducing metabolic expenditures.

  8. Metal induction of a Pisolithus albus metallothionein and its potential involvement in heavy metal tolerance during mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Sudhakara; Kour, Manpreet; Aggarwal, Sipla; Ahuja, Shanky; Marmeisse, Roland; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich peptides involved in intracellular sequestration of heavy metals in eukaryotes. We examined the role in metal homeostasis and detoxification of an MT from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus albus (PaMT1). PaMT1 encodes a 35 amino acid-long polypeptide, with 7 cysteine residues; most of them part of a C-x-C motif found in other known basidiomycete MTs. The expression levels of PaMT1 increased as a function of increased external Cu and Cd concentrations and were higher with Cu than with Cd. Heterologous complementation assays in metal-sensitive yeast mutants indicated that PaMT1 encodes a polypeptide capable of conferring higher tolerance to both Cu and Cd. Eucalyptus tereticornis plantlets colonized with P. albus grown in the presence of Cu and Cd showed better growth compared with those with non-mycorrhizal plants. Higher PaMT1 expression levels were recorded in mycorrhizal plants grown in the presence of Cu and Cd compared with those in control mycorrhizal plants not exposed to heavy metals. These data provide the first evidence to our knowledge that fungal MTs could protect ectomycorrhizal fungi from heavy metal stress and in turn help the plants to establish in metal-contaminated sites.

  9. Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis—Integrative report 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; James, Daniel A.; Welker, Timothy L.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2016-07-15

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis was designed to carry out three components of an assessment of how Missouri River management has affected, and will affect, population dynamics of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon): (1) collection of reliable scientific information, (2) critical assessment and synthesis of available data and analyses, and (3) analysis of the effects of actions on listed species and their habitats. This report is a synthesis of the three components emphasizing development of lines of evidence relating potential future management actions to pallid sturgeon population dynamics. We address 21 working management hypotheses that emerged from an expert opinion-based filtering process.The ability to quantify linkages from abiotic changes to pallid sturgeon population dynamics is compromised by fundamental information gaps. Although a substantial foundation of pallid sturgeon science has been developed during the past 20 years, our efforts attempt to push beyond that understanding to provide predictions of how future management actions may affect pallid sturgeon responses. For some of the 21 hypotheses, lines of evidence are limited to theoretical deduction, inference from sparse empirical datasets, or expert opinion. Useful simulation models have been developed to predict the effects of management actions on survival of drifting pallid sturgeon free embryos in the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri River complex (hereafter referred to as the “upper river”), and to assess the effects of flow and channel reconfigurations on habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River, tributaries, and Mississippi River downstream of Gavins Point Dam (hereafter referred to as the “lower river”). A population model also has been developed that can be used to assess sensitivity of the population to survival of specific life stages, assess some hypotheses related to stocking decisions, and explore a limited number of management

  10. Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Christopher S; Eastwood, Ruth J; Miotto, Silvia T S; Hughes, Colin E

    2012-05-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth-death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18-0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48-1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89-3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36-1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for "replicate adaptive radiations" in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these

  11. Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P < 0.05). The qPCR analysis showed that feeding with lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). T-RFLP analysis showed that four of the most abundant bacteria with terminal restriction fragment values >5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study showed that even a short

  12. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels.

  13. M aritrema corai n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the white ibis Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus) (Aves: Threskiornithidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; García-Varela, Martín; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    M aritrema corai n. sp. is described based on material from the intestine of the white ibis Eudocimus albus (L.) (Threskiornithidae) in Mexico. The new species can be distinguished morphologically from all congeners by the unique combination of the following morphological features: a very long cirrus sac attenuated distally [cirrus sac to body length ratio 1:0.90-1.29 (mean 1:1.07)]; a large, elongate-oval seminal receptacle, located dorsally between the cirrus sac and ovary; and long, filiform, unarmed, evaginable cirrus. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for the new species and for Maritrema spp. and Microphallus spp. depicted strong support for the two genera (excluding Microphallus fusiformis) and revealed close relationships between Ma. corai n. sp. and the clade formed by Maritrema novaezealandense Martorelli, Fredensborg, Mouritsen & Poulin, 2004, Maritrema heardi (Kinsella & Deblock, 1994) and Maritrema cf. eroliae.

  14. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH

    PubMed Central

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-01-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4–10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment. PMID:25493199

  15. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of γ-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa; Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed γ-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether γ-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, γ-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of γ-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, γ-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that γ-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin γ-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

  16. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  17. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae.

  18. Effect of water activity on the production of volatile organic compounds by Muscodor albus and their effect on three pathogens in stored potato.

    PubMed

    Corcuff, Ronan; Mercier, Julien; Tweddell, Russell; Arul, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Muscodor albus (Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes) isolate CZ-620 produces antimicrobial volatile organic compounds (VOC), which appear to have potential for the control of various postharvest diseases. The effect of water activity (Aw) on the production of VOC by M. albus culture, and their inhibitory effects on the growth of three pathogens of potato tuber (Fusarium sambucinum, Helminthosporium solani, and Pectobacterium atrosepticum) and the development of diseases caused by the three pathogens (dry rot, silver scurf, and bacterial soft rot, respectively) were investigated. Rye grain culture of the fungus produced six alcohols, three aldehydes, five acids or esters, and two terpenoids. The most abundant VOC were: isobutyric acid; bulnesene, a sesquiterpene; an unidentified terpene; 2 and 3-methyl-1-butanol; and ethanol. However, the level of each of those VOC varied with Aw of the culture. Emission activity occurred mainly at Aw above 0.75 and high emission of most VOC occurred only at Aw above 0.90. The aldehydes (2-methyl-propanal and 3-methyl-butanal) were the only VOC produced in quantities below an Aw of 0.90. An Aw value of 0.96 favored maximum emission of acids, esters, and terpenoids. There was a higher production of alcohols and a decrease in aldehydes with increase in Aw. Isobutyric acid, which has been the main M. albus VOC monitored in previous studies as an indicator of antifungal activity, had a rather narrow optimum, peaking at Aw of 0.96 and declining sharply above 0.98. Results showed that substrate Aw affects the production dynamics of each group of VOC by the fungus, and suggest that VOC production can be prolonged by maintaining M. albus culture at a constant optimum Aw. The VOC was inhibitory to F. sambucinum, H. solani, and P. atrosepticum; and biofumigation with M. albus significantly reduced dry rot and soft rot development, and completely controlled silver scurf in inoculated tubers incubated at both 8°C and 22°C. The results show that Aw

  19. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blamey, F. Pax C.; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Cheng, Miaomiao; Tang, Caixian; Paterson, David J.; Lombi, Enzo; Wang, Wei Hong; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Kopittke, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µm Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albus), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupin angustifolius), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grew well at 100 µm Mn. Differences in species’ tolerance to high Mn could not be explained simply by differences in root, stem, or leaf Mn status, being 8.6, 17.1, 6.8, and 9.5 mmol kg–1 leaf fresh mass at 100 µm Mn. Furthermore, x-ray absorption near edge structure analyses identified the predominance of Mn(II), bound mostly to malate or citrate, in roots and stems of all four species. Rather, differences in tolerance were due to variations in Mn distribution and speciation within leaves. In Mn-sensitive soybean, in situ analysis of fresh leaves using x-ray fluorescence microscopy combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure showed high Mn in the veins, and manganite [Mn(III)] accumulated in necrotic lesions apparently through low Mn sequestration in vacuoles or other vesicles. In the two lupin species, most Mn accumulated in vacuoles as either soluble Mn(II) malate or citrate. In sunflower, Mn was sequestered as manganite at the base of nonglandular trichomes. Hence, tolerance to high Mn was ascribed to effective sinks for Mn in leaves, as Mn(II) within vacuoles or through oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III) in trichomes. These two mechanisms prevented Mn accumulation in the cytoplasm and apoplast, thereby ensuring tolerance to high Mn in the root environment. PMID:26395840

  20. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N = 140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N = 15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9 cm to 12.2 cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51 days old (N = 13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2 cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild.

  1. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, J.M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N=140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N=15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9cm to 12.2cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51days old (N=13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  3. Increased temperature tolerance of the air-breathing Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus after high-temperature acclimation is not explained by improved cardiorespiratory performance.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Findorf, I; Bayley, M; Huong, D T T; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that in the Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, an air-breathing fish from south-east Asia that uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for oxygen uptake, the upper critical temperature (TU) is increased by acclimation to higher temperature, and that the increased TU is associated with improved cardiovascular and respiratory function. Monopterus albus were therefore acclimated to 27° C (current average) and 32° C (current maximum temperature as well as projected average within 100-200 years), and both the effect of acclimation and acute temperature increments on cardiovascular and respiratory functions were investigated. Two weeks of heat acclimation increased upper tolerated temperature (TU ) by 2° C from 36·9 ± 0·1° C to 38·9 ± 0·1° C (mean ± s.e.). Oxygen uptake (M˙O2) increased with acclimation temperature, accommodated by increases in both aerial and aquatic respiration. Overall, M˙O2 from air (M˙O2a ) was predominant, representing 85% in 27° C acclimated fish and 80% in 32° C acclimated fish. M˙O2 increased with acute increments in temperature and this increase was entirely accommodated by an increase in air-breathing frequency and M˙O2a . Monopterus albus failed to upregulate stroke volume; rather, cardiac output was maintained through increased heart rate with rising temperature. Overall, acclimation of M. albus to 32° C did not improve its cardiovascular and respiratory performance at higher temperatures, and cardiovascular adaptations, therefore, do not appear to contribute to the observed increase in TU.

  4. Biochemical Analyses of Multiple Endoxylanases from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 and Their Synergistic Activities with Accessory Hemicellulose-Degrading Enzymes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Hwan; Iakiviak, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a ruminal bacterium capable of metabolizing hemicellulose and cellulose, the major components of the plant cell wall. The enzymes that allow this bacterium to capture energy from the two polysaccharides, therefore, have potential application in plant cell wall depolymerization, a process critical to biofuel production. For this purpose, a partial genome sequence of R. albus 8 was generated. The genomic data depicted a bacterium endowed with multiple forms of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The endoxylanases of R. albus 8 exhibited diverse modular architectures, including incorporation of a catalytic module, a carbohydrate binding module, and a carbohydrate esterase module in a single polypeptide. The accessory enzymes of xylan degradation were a β-xylosidase, an α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and an α-glucuronidase. We hypothesized that due to the chemical complexity of the hemicellulose encountered in the rumen, the bacterium uses multiple endoxylanases, with subtle differences in substrate specificities, to attack the substrate, while the accessory enzymes hydrolyze the products to simple sugars for metabolism. To test this hypothesis, the genes encoding the predicted endoxylanases were expressed, and the proteins were biochemically characterized either alone or in combination with accessory enzymes. The different endoxylanase families exhibited different patterns of product release, with the family 11 endoxylanases releasing more products in synergy with the accessory enzymes from the more complex substrates. Aside from the insights into hemicellulose degradation by R. albus 8, this report should enhance our knowledge on designing effective enzyme cocktails for release of fermentable sugars in the biofuel industry. PMID:21666020

  5. Glutamine accumulation and up-regulation of glutamine synthetase activity in the swamp eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), exposed to brackish water.

    PubMed

    Tok, Chia Y; Chew, Shit F; Peh, Wendy Y X; Loong, Ai M; Wong, Wai P; Ip, Yuen K

    2009-05-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an air-breathing teleost which typically lives in freshwater but can also be found in estuaries, where it has to deal with ambient salinity fluctuations. Unlike other teleosts, its gills are highly degenerate. Hence, it may have uncommon osmoregulatory adaptations, but no information is available on its osmoregulatory capacity and mechanisms at present. In this study M. albus was exposed to a 5 day progressive increase in salinity from freshwater (1 per thousand) to brackish water (25 per thousand) and subsequently kept in 25 per thousand water for a total of 4 days. The results indicate that M. albus switched from hyperosmotic hyperionic regulation in freshwater to a combination of osmoconforming and hypoosmotic hypoionic regulation in 25 per thousand water. Exposure to 25 per thousand water resulted in relatively large increases in plasma osmolality, [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)]. Consequently, fish exposed to 25 per thousand water had to undergo cell volume regulation through accumulation of organic osmolytes and inorganic ions. Increases in tissue free amino acid content were apparently the result of increased protein degradation, decreased amino acid catabolism, and increased synthesis of certain non-essential amino acids. Here we report for the first time that glutamine is the major organic osmolyte in M. albus. Glutamine content increased to a phenomenal level of > 12 micromol g(-1) and > 30 micromol g(-1) in the muscle and liver, respectively, of fish exposed to 25 per thousand water. There were significant increases in glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in muscle and liver of these fish. In addition, exposure to 25 per thousand water for 4 days led to significant increases in GS protein abundance in both muscle and liver, indicating that increases in the expression of GS mRNA could have occurred.

  6. Activation and silencing of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces lividans after transformation with cosmids containing the thienamycin gene cluster from Streptomyces cattleya.

    PubMed

    Braña, Alfredo F; Rodríguez, Miriam; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jurgen; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2014-05-01

    Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-β-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as β-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  7. Expression, purification and catalytic activity of Lupinus luteus asparagine beta-amidohydrolase and its Escherichia coli homolog.

    PubMed

    Borek, Dominika; Michalska, Karolina; Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Kisiel, Agnieszka; Podkowinski, Jan; Bonthron, David T; Krowarsch, Daniel; Otlewski, Jacek; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2004-08-01

    We describe the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of two homologous enzymes, with amidohydrolase activities, of plant (Lupinus luteus potassium-independent asparaginase, LlA) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, ybiK/spt/iaaA gene product, EcAIII) origin. Both enzymes were expressed in E. coli cells, with (LlA) or without (EcAIII) a His-tag sequence. The proteins were purified, yielding 6 or 30 mg.L(-1) of culture, respectively. The enzymes are heat-stable up to 60 degrees C and show both isoaspartyl dipeptidase and l-asparaginase activities. Kinetic parameters for both enzymatic reactions have been determined, showing that the isoaspartyl peptidase activity is the dominating one. Despite sequence similarity to aspartylglucosaminidases, no aspartylglucosaminidase activity could be detected. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the relationship of these proteins to other asparaginases and aspartylglucosaminidases and suggested their classification as N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases. This is consistent with the observed autocatalytic breakdown of the immature proteins into two subunits, with liberation of an N-terminal threonine as a potential catalytic residue.

  8. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  9. Use of perlite in cadmium plant studies: an approach to polluted soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Saúl; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón

    2005-12-01

    Two different types of hydroponic cultures, "water culture" and "perlite system", were compared using white lupin plants (Lupinus albus L., cv. Marta) under different Cd treatments: 0, 0.2, 0.6, 2, 4, 6, 13, 20, 40 and 60 microM (water culture) and 0.2, 2, 20, 60 and 150 microM (moistened perlite). Fresh weight, shoot and root length, and total Cd concentration in the plants were measured. Moreover, a batch experiment was carried out to study the ability of perlite to adsorb and desorb Cd from nutrient solution. Lupin plants under Cd treatments in "water culture" showed a higher growth inhibition than those grown on perlite. A high positive correlation between Cd concentration in the plant and Cd supply was obtained regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, a high positive correlation between Cd doses with the "perlite system" and their equivalent Cd doses estimated for the "water culture" system was observed. Thus, the "water culture-equivalent" Cd doses were 14 times lower than the Cd doses in the perlite system. On the other hand, desorbed Cd concentrations were calculated giving values 12 times lower than the tested Cd doses.

  10. Kinetics of Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger Spores and Staphylococcus albus on Paper by Chlorine Dioxide Gas in an Enclosed Space

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wu, Jinhui; Hao, Limei; Yi, Ying; Zhang, Zongxing

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger spore and Staphylococcus albus are typical biological indicators for the inactivation of airborne pathogens. The present study characterized and compared the behaviors of B. subtilis subsp. niger spores and S. albus in regard to inactivation by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas under different gas concentrations and relative humidity (RH) conditions. The inactivation kinetics under different ClO2 gas concentrations (1 to 5 mg/liter) were determined by first-order and Weibull models. A new model (the Weibull-H model) was established to reveal the inactivation tendency and kinetics for ClO2 gas under different RH conditions (30 to 90%). The results showed that both the gas concentration and RH were significantly (P < 0.05) and positively correlated with the inactivation of the two chosen indicators. There was a rapid improvement in the inactivation efficiency under high RH (>70%). Compared with the first-order model, the Weibull and Weibull-H models demonstrated a better fit for the experimental data, indicating nonlinear inactivation behaviors of the vegetative bacteria and spores following exposure to ClO2 gas. The times to achieve a six-log reduction of B. subtilis subsp. niger spore and S. albus were calculated based on the established models. Clarifying the kinetics of inactivation of B. subtilis subsp. niger spores and S. albus by ClO2 gas will allow the development of ClO2 gas treatments that provide an effective disinfection method. IMPORTANCE Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is a novel and effective fumigation agent with strong oxidization ability and a broad biocidal spectrum. The antimicrobial efficacy of ClO2 gas has been evaluated in many previous studies. However, there are presently no published models that can be used to describe the kinetics of inactivation of airborne pathogens by ClO2 gas under different gas concentrations and RH conditions. The first-order and Weibull (Weibull-H) models established in this study can

  11. Frigidibacter albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from lake water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Three Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, SP32(T) ( = SLM-1(T)), SR68 ( = SLM-3) and SP95 ( = SLM-2), were isolated from two water samples of a cold-water lake in Xinjiang province, China. Growth was observed at 4-25 °C and pH 6.0-9.0, and optimum growth occurred at 18-20 °C and at pH 7.0-7.5. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these isolates belonged to the family Rhodobacteraceae , but formed an evolutionary lineage distinct from other species of this family with validly published names. Strain SP32(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.7%) to Rhodobacter veldkampii ATCC 35703(T), and the similarity to members of the genera Defluviimonas , Haematobacter and Pseudorhodobacter was respectively 95.8-96.4, 96.0-96.1 and 95.3-96.1%. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SP32(T) was 67.6 mol%. The major fatty acids (>5%) were summed feature 8 (C(18 : 1)ω7c/C(18 : 1)ω6c) and11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified polar lipid were the main polar lipids. Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. Strain SP32(T) did not produce photosynthetic pigments and did not contain the gene pufM, by which it differed from the phototrophic species of the family Rhodobacteraceae . Based on its distinct phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain SP32(T) represents a novel species in a novel genus within the family Rhodobacteraceae , for which we propose the name Frigidibacter albus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Frigidibacter albus is strain SP32(T) ( = SLM-1(T) = CGMCC 1.13995(T) = NBRC 109671(T)).

  12. High-resolution structures of complexes of plant S-­adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) catalyzes the reversible breakdown of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and homocysteine. SAH is formed in methylation reactions that utilize S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. By removing the SAH byproduct, SAHase serves as a major regulator of SAM-dependent biological methylation reactions. Here, the first crystal structure of SAHase of plant origin, that from the legume yellow lupin (LlSAHase), is presented. Structures have been determined at high resolution for three complexes of the enzyme: those with a reaction byproduct/substrate (adenosine), with its nonoxidizable analog (cordycepin) and with a product of inhibitor cleavage (adenine). In all three cases the enzyme has a closed conformation. A sodium cation is found near the active site, coordinated by residues from a conserved loop that hinges domain movement upon reactant binding. An insertion segment that is present in all plant SAHases is located near a substrate-pocket access channel and participates in its formation. In contrast to mammalian and bacterial SAHases, the channel is open when adenosine or cordycepin is bound and is closed in the adenine complex. In contrast to SAHases from other organisms, which are active as tetramers, the plant enzyme functions as a homodimer in solution. PMID:22349223

  13. Physical mapping of 18S-25S rDNA and 5S rDNA in Lupinus via fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Naganowska, Barbara; Zielińska, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Double-target fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes in five Lupinus species: L. cosentinii (2n=32), L. pilosus (2n=42), L. angustifolius (2n=40), L. luteus (2n=52) and L. mutabilis (2n=48). 18S-25S rDNA and 5S rDNA were used as probes. Some interspecific variation was observed in the number and size of the 18S-25S rDNA loci. All the studied species had one chromosome pair carrying 5S rDNA.

  14. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7–16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L−1) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L−1) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2. Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. PMID:27519912

  15. Bacteria associated with yellow lupine grown on a metal-contaminated soil: in vitro screening and in vivo evaluation for their potential to enhance Cd phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Weyens, N; Gielen, M; Beckers, B; Boulet, J; van der Lelie, D; Taghavi, S; Carleer, R; Vangronsveld, J

    2014-09-01

    In order to stimulate selection for plant-associated bacteria with the potential to improve Cd phytoextraction, yellow lupine plants were grown on a metal-contaminated field soil. It was hypothesised that growing these plants on this contaminated soil, which is a source of bacteria possessing different traits to cope with Cd, could enhance colonisation of lupine with potential plant-associated bacteria that could then be inoculated in Cd-exposed plants to reduce Cd phytotoxicity and enhance Cd uptake. All cultivable bacteria from rhizosphere, root and stem were isolated and genotypically and phenotypically characterised. Many of the rhizobacteria and root endophytes produce siderophores, organic acids, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, as well as being resistant to Cd and Zn. Most of the stem endophytes could produce organic acids (73.8%) and IAA (74.3%), however, only a minor fraction (up to 0.7%) were Cd or Zn resistant or could produce siderophores or ACC deaminase. A siderophore- and ACC deaminase-producing, highly Cd-resistant Rhizobium sp. from the rhizosphere, a siderophore-, organic acid-, IAA- and ACC deaminase-producing highly Cd-resistant Pseudomonas sp. colonising the roots, a highly Cd- and Zn-resistant organic acid and IAA-producing Clavibacter sp. present in the stem, and a consortium composed of these three strains were inoculated into non-exposed and Cd-exposed yellow lupine plants. Although all selected strains possessed promising in vitro characteristics to improve Cd phytoextraction, inoculation of none of the strains (i) reduced Cd phytotoxicity nor (ii) strongly affected plant Cd uptake. This work highlights that in vitro characterisation of bacteria is not sufficient to predict the in vivo behaviour of bacteria in interaction with their host plants.

  16. Increasing capture efficiency of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (Forbes and Richardson, 1905) and the reliability of catch rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVries, R. J.; Hann, D. A.; Schramm, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental parameters on the probability of capturing endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) using trotlines in the lower Mississippi River. Pallid sturgeon were sampled by trotlines year round from 2008 to 2011. A logistic regression model indicated water temperature (T; P < 0.01) and depth (D; P = 0.03) had significant effects on capture probability (Y = −1.75 − 0.06T + 0.10D). Habitat type, surface current velocity, river stage, stage change and non-sturgeon bycatch were not significant predictors (P = 0.26–0.63). Although pallid sturgeon were caught throughout the year, the model predicted that sampling should focus on times when the water temperature is less than 12°C and in deeper water to maximize capture probability; these water temperature conditions commonly occur during November to March in the lower Mississippi River. Further, the significant effect of water temperature which varies widely over time, as well as water depth indicate that any efforts to use the catch rate to infer population trends will require the consideration of temperature and depth in standardized sampling efforts or adjustment of estimates.

  17. Test of a foraging-bioenergetics model to evaluate growth dynamics of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deslauriers, David; Heironimus, Laura B.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Factors affecting feeding and growth of early life stages of the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) are not fully understood, owing to their scarcity in the wild. In this study was we evaluated the performance of a combined foraging-bioenergetics model as a tool for assessing growth of age-0 pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River. In the laboratory, three size classes of sturgeon larvae (18–44 mm; 0.027–0.329 g) were grown for 7 to 14 days under differing temperature (14–24 °C) and prey density (0–9 Chironomidae larvae/d) regimes. After accounting for effects of water temperature and prey density on fish activity, we compared observed final weight, final length, and number of prey consumed to values generated from the foraging-bioenergetics model. When confronted with an independent dataset, the combined model provided reliable estimates (within 13% of observations) of fish growth and prey consumption, underscoring the usefulness of the modeling approach for evaluating growth dynamics of larval fish when empirical data are lacking.

  18. Purification and characterization of pepsinogens and pepsins from the stomach of rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew).

    PubMed

    Weng, Wu-Yin; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wei-Qin; Liu, Guang-Ming; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Three pepsinogens (PG1, PG2, and PG3) were highly purified from the stomach of freshwater fish rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographies on DEAE-Sephacel, Sephacryl S-200 HR. The molecular masses of the three purified PGs were all estimated as 36 kDa using SDS-PAGE. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) showed that pI values of the three PGs were 5.1, 4.8, and 4.6, respectively. All the PGs converted into corresponding pepsins quickly at pH 2.0, and their activities could be specifically inhibited by aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin A. Optimum pH and temperature of the enzymes for hydrolyzing hemoglobin were 3.0-3.5 and 40-45 °C. The K (m) values of them were 1.2 × 10⁻⁴ M, 8.7 × 10⁻⁵ M, and 6.9 × 10⁻⁵ M, respectively. The turnover numbers (k(cat)) of them were 23.2, 24.0, and 42.6 s⁻¹. Purified pepsins were effective in the degradation of fish muscular proteins, suggesting their digestive functions physiologically.

  19. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Jang Songhun; Zhou Fang; Xia Laixin; Zhao Wei; Cheng Hanhua . E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia . E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

  20. Use of plant growth promoting bacterial strains to improve Cytisus striatus and Lupinus luteus development for potential application in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Kidd, Petra S; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Weyens, Nele; Monterroso, Carmen; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2017-03-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterial strains possess different mechanisms to improve plant development under common environmental stresses, and are therefore often used as inoculants in soil phytoremediation processes. The aims of the present work were to study the effects of a collection of plant growth promoting bacterial strains on plant development, antioxidant enzyme activities and nutritional status of Cytisus striatus and/or Lupinus luteus plants a) growing in perlite under non-stress conditions and b) growing in diesel-contaminated soil. For this, two greenhouse experiments were designed. Firstly, C. striatus and L. luteus plants were grown from seeds in perlite, and periodically inoculated with 6 PGP strains, either individually or in pairs. Secondly, L. luteus seedlings were grown in soil samples of the A and B horizons of a Cambisol contaminated with 1.25% (w/w) of diesel and inoculated with best PGP inoculant selected from the first experiment. The results indicated that the PGP strains tested in perlite significantly improved plant growth. Combination treatments provoked better growth of L. luteus than the respective individual strains, while individual inoculation treatments were more effective for C. striatus. L. luteus growth in diesel-contaminated soil was significantly improved in the presence of PGP strains, presenting a 2-fold or higher increase in plant biomass. Inoculants did not provoke significant changes in plant nutritional status, with the exception of a subset of siderophore-producing and P-solubilising bacterial strains that resulted in significantly modification of Fe or P concentrations in leaf tissues. Inoculants did not cause significant changes in enzyme activities in perlite experiments, however they significantly reduced oxidative stress in contaminated soils suggesting an improvement in plant tolerance to diesel. Some strains were applied to non-host plants, indicating a non-specific performance of their plant growth promotion

  1. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  2. Identification of Host Fruit Volatiles from Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), Attractive to Rhagoletis zephyria Flies from the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Olsson, Shannon B; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Mattsson, Monte; Schwarz, Dietmar; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests. In other flight tunnel assays, snowberry flies from two sites in Washington state, USA, displayed significantly greater levels of upwind oriented flight to sources with the snowberry volatile blend compared with previously identified volatile blends from domestic apple (Malus domestica) and downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) fruit from the eastern USA, and domestic apple, black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) from Washington state. Selected subtraction assays showed that whereas removal of DMNT or 1-octen-3-ol significantly reduced the level of upwind flight, removal of myrcene and β-caryophyllene, or dimethyl trisulfide alone did not significantly affect the proportion of upwind flights. Our findings add to previous studies showing that populations of Rhagoletis flies infesting different host fruit are attracted to unique mixtures of volatile compounds specific to their respective host plants. Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that differences among flies in their behavioral responses to host fruit odors represent key adaptations involved in sympatric host plant shifts, contributing to host specific mating and generating prezygotic reproductive isolation among members of the R. pomonella sibling species complex.

  3. Effects of methylmercury and spatial complexity on foraging behavior and foraging efficiency in juvenile white ibises (Eudocimus albus).

    PubMed

    Adams, Evan M; Frederick, Peter C

    2008-08-01

    Methylmercury is a globally distributed neurotoxin, endocrine disruptor, and teratogen, the effects of which on wildlife at environmentally relevant levels are largely unknown. In birds, foraging efficiency and learning may be sensitive endpoints for sublethal methylmercury toxicity, and these endpoints also may be biologically relevant at the population level. In the present study, groups of wild-caught, prefledgling white ibises (Eudocimus albus) were raised in a free-flight, open-air aviary on diets that approximated the measured range of methylmercury exposure in the Everglades ecosystem (0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg/d). The effect of methylmercury exposure on group foraging efficiency was examined by allowing birds to forage on 200 fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in artificial ponds for 15 min by straining the arenas' contents through a seine net and counting all remaining prey. Additionally, we varied the difficulty of foraging by these tactile feeding birds by adding multiple levels of structural complexity (e.g., increased vegetation and prey refugia) to the pond. Structural complexity affected both foraging efficiency and the rate of increase in efficiency over time (improvement). Methylmercury exposure affected foraging efficiency (p = 0.03). It did not affect foraging improvement in the face of increasingly challenging environments, however, and the dose-response relationship was nonlinear (e.g., the control and high-exposure groups were the least efficient foragers). Evidence for an effect of methylmercury on foraging efficiency therefore was inconclusive because of unpredicted results and no interaction with time or habitat complexity. These data suggest a nonlinear dose-response relationship at low levels of methylmercury exposure; future research is needed to verify this hypothesis. This appears to be the first experimental demonstration of the effects of habitat complexity on foraging efficiency in long-legged wading birds.

  4. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  5. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  6. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon.

  7. Direct cloning and heterologous expression of the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces albus DSM41398 in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Hoffmann, Michael; Bian, Xiaoying; Tu, Qiang; Yan, Fu; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Stewart, A Francis; Müller, Rolf; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Youming

    2015-10-13

    Linear plus linear homologous recombination-mediated recombineering (LLHR) is ideal for obtaining natural product biosynthetic gene clusters from pre-digested bacterial genomic DNA in one or two steps of recombineering. The natural product salinomycin has a potent and selective activity against cancer stem cells and is therefore a potential anti-cancer drug. Herein, we separately isolated three fragments of the salinomycin gene cluster (salO-orf18) from Streptomyces albus (S. albus) DSM41398 using LLHR and assembled them into intact gene cluster (106 kb) by Red/ET and expressed it in the heterologous host Streptomyces coelicolor (S. coelicolor) A3(2). We are the first to report a large genomic region from a Gram-positive strain has been cloned using LLHR. The successful reconstitution and heterologous expression of the salinomycin gene cluster offer an attractive system for studying the function of the individual genes and identifying novel and potential analogues of complex natural products in the recipient strain.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient status, and total antioxidant activity of Melilotus albus during phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated substrate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ortega, Herminia Alejandra; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda Araceli; López-Delgado, Humberto Antonio; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios

    2012-03-01

    This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants.

  9. Using the Hephaistos orthotic device to study countermeasure effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary lupin protein supplementation, a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schopen, Kathrin; Albracht, Kirsten; Gerlach, Darius A.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation for 20 min twice a day with an electrode placed over the soleus muscle and nutritional supplementation with 19 g of protein rich lupin seeds can reduce the loss in volume and strength of the human calf musculature during long term unloading by wearing an orthotic unloading device. Methods Thirteen healthy male subjects (age of 26.4 ± 3.7 years) wore a Hephaistos orthosis one leg for 60 days during all habitual activities. The leg side was randomly chosen for every subject. Six subjects only wore the orthosis as control group, and 7 subjects additionally received the countermeasure consisting of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles and lupin protein supplementation. Twenty-eight days before and on the penultimate day of the intervention cross-sectional images of the calf muscles were taken by magnetic resonance imaging (controls n = 5), and maximum voluntary torque (controls n = 6) of foot plantar flexion was estimated under isometric (extended knee, 90° knee flexion) and isokinetic conditions (extended knee), respectively. Results After 58 days of wearing the orthosis the percentage loss of volume in the entire triceps surae muscle of the control subjects (-11.9 ± 4.4%, mean ± standard deviation) was reduced by the countermeasure (-3.5 ± 7.2%, p = 0.032). Wearing the orthosis generally reduced plantar flexion torques values, however, only when testing isometric contraction at 90° knee ankle the countermeasure effected a significantly lower percentage decrease of torque (-9.7 ± 7.2%, mean ± SD) in comparison with controls (-22.3 ± 11.2%, p = 0.032). Conclusion Unloading of calf musculature by an orthotic device resulted in the expected loss of muscle volume and maximum of plantar flexion torque. Neuromuscular electrical muscle stimulation and lupin protein supplementation could significantly reduce the process of atrophy. Trial

  10. Urbanized White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) as Carriers of Salmonella enterica of Significance to Public Health and Wildlife.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Welch, Catharine N; Peters, Valerie E; Lipp, Erin K; Curry, Shannon; Yabsley, Michael J; Sanchez, Susan; Presotto, Andrea; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hise, Kelley B; Hammond, Elizabeth; Kistler, Whitney M; Madden, Marguerite; Conway, April L; Kwan, Tiffany; Maurer, John J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed. We examined the prevalence of Salmonella shedding by ibises to determine the role of landscape characteristics where ibis forage and their behavior, on shedding rates. We also compared Salmonella isolated from ibises to human isolates to better understand non-foodborne human salmonellosis. From 2010-2013, 13% (n = 261) adult/subadult ibises and 35% (n = 72) nestlings sampled were shedding Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella shedding by ibises significantly decreased as the percent of Palustrine emergent wetlands and herbaceous grasslands increased, and increased as the proportion of open-developed land types (e.g. parks, lawns, golf courses) increased, suggesting that natural ecosystem land cover types supported birds with a lower prevalence of infection. A high diversity of Salmonella serotypes (n = 24) and strain types (43 PFGE types) were shed by ibises, of which 33% of the serotypes ranked in the top 20 of high significance for people in the years of the study. Importantly, 44% of the Salmonella Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis patterns for ibis isolates (n = 43) matched profiles in the CDC PulseNet USA database. Of these, 20% came from Florida in the same three years we sampled ibis. Importantly, there was a negative relationship between the amount of Palustrine emergent wetland and the number of Salmonella isolates from ibises that matched human cases in the PulseNet database (p = 0.056). Together, our results

  11. Urbanized White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) as Carriers of Salmonella enterica of Significance to Public Health and Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Sonia M.; Welch, Catharine N.; Peters, Valerie E.; Lipp, Erin K.; Curry, Shannon; Yabsley, Michael J.; Sanchez, Susan; Presotto, Andrea; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hise, Kelley B.; Hammond, Elizabeth; Kistler, Whitney M.; Madden, Marguerite; Conway, April L.; Kwan, Tiffany; Maurer, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed. We examined the prevalence of Salmonella shedding by ibises to determine the role of landscape characteristics where ibis forage and their behavior, on shedding rates. We also compared Salmonella isolated from ibises to human isolates to better understand non-foodborne human salmonellosis. From 2010–2013, 13% (n = 261) adult/subadult ibises and 35% (n = 72) nestlings sampled were shedding Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella shedding by ibises significantly decreased as the percent of Palustrine emergent wetlands and herbaceous grasslands increased, and increased as the proportion of open-developed land types (e.g. parks, lawns, golf courses) increased, suggesting that natural ecosystem land cover types supported birds with a lower prevalence of infection. A high diversity of Salmonella serotypes (n = 24) and strain types (43 PFGE types) were shed by ibises, of which 33% of the serotypes ranked in the top 20 of high significance for people in the years of the study. Importantly, 44% of the Salmonella Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis patterns for ibis isolates (n = 43) matched profiles in the CDC PulseNet USA database. Of these, 20% came from Florida in the same three years we sampled ibis. Importantly, there was a negative relationship between the amount of Palustrine emergent wetland and the number of Salmonella isolates from ibises that matched human cases in the PulseNet database (p = 0.056). Together, our

  12. [A new lupin alkaloid, (-)-leontalbinine N-oxide, in Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia seeds and its synthesis by biomimetic transformation from (+)-matrine N-oxide].

    PubMed

    Sekine, T; Saito, K; Minami, R; Arai, N; Suzuki, H; Koike, Y; Murakoshi, I

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of the biomimetic transformation of (+)-matrine N-oxide, a main alkaloid in Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia, under various oxidative conditions was examined by the use of several metallic ions. When (+)-matrine N-oxide was warmed with FeSO4, or Fe(COOH)2 in MeOH-H2O at 40 degrees C, (-)-7, 11-didehydromatrine [(-)-leontalbinine], a minor alkaloid in the same plant, was obtained along with (+)-matrine. This selective formation of (-)-leontalbinine seems to be specific to the reaction of (+)-matrine N-oxide with ferrous reagents. In addition, the structure of the newly isolated minor lupin alkaloid from the seeds of S. flavescens. was determined as (-)-leontalbinine N-oxide from its spectral comparison with the authentic sample.

  13. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the perirenal fat of bulls fattened on grass silage and maize silage supplemented with tannins, garlic, maca and lupines.

    PubMed

    Staerfl, S M; Soliva, C R; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M

    2011-09-01

    Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The perirenal fat of 6×6 bulls fed these six diets was analysed for fatty acid profile and shelf life. The n-6/ n-3 ratio was always higher than 11 with the maize silage treatments and 2 with grass silage. The supplements did not affect the occurrence of biohydrogenation intermediates, including rumenic acid. Shelf life, being twice as long with maize compared to grass silage, was either unaffected or tended to be impaired, especially with supplementary garlic. Overall, supplementation was not efficient in improving carcass fat properties of maize-silage fed bulls.

  14. The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.M. )

    1993-06-01

    Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen levels. These species coexist in a generally nitrogen-limited coastal grassland reserve besieged with alien species. The relative competitive ability of the lupin increased with CO[sub 2] for all treatments, with the largest difference occurring at low nitrogen in competition with the introduced annual. This study provides a global change perspective for those interested in conserving native Californian grassland species, as well as the first data on the competitive response of nitrogen-fixers to high CO[sub 2].

  15. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium

  16. Inhibitory effects of furoquinoline alkaloids from Melicope confusa and Dictamnus albus against human phosphodiesterase 5 (hPDE5A) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kung-Woo; Je, Kang-Hoon; Shin, Young-Jun; Kang, Sam Sik; Mar, Woongchon

    2005-06-01

    Eight furoquinoline alkaloids were purified from two plants belonging to the Rutaceae family. Kokusaginine, skimmianine, evolitrine, and confusameline were purified from Melicope confusa, and haplopine, robustine, dictamine, and gamma-fagarine from Dictamnus albus. In this study, the eight furoquinoline alkaloids were examined for inhibitory potency against human phosphodiesterase 5 (hPDE5A) in vitro. DNA encoding the catalytic domain of human PDE5A was amplified from the mRNA of T24 cells by RT-PCR and was fused to GST in an expression vector. GST-tagged PDE5A was then purified by glutathione affinity chromatography and used in inhibition assays. Of the eight alkaloids, gamma-fagarine was the most potent inhibitor of PDE5A, and its single methoxy group at the C-8 position was shown to be critical for inhibitory activity. These results clearly illustrate the relationship between PDE5A inhibition and the methoxy group position in furoquinoline alkaloids.

  17. Changes in cell size and number and in rhizodermal development contribute to root tip swelling of Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yuki; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2015-04-01

    Root tip swelling is a common phenomenon observed when plant roots are subjected to Fe deficiency. We analysed whether an increase in cell number or an enlargement of cell width was involved in this phenomenon. Root tips of Hyoscyamus albus cultured with or without Fe were stained with fluorescent SYTO14 and analysed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Time-course and position-based examination revealed that the inhibition of longitudinal cell elongation and acceleration of transverse cell enlargement under Fe deficiency started from the tips and then extended towards the base during the time-course period. An increase in cell number also occurred behind the tips. In addition, the development of rhizodermal protrusions was observed on the surface of roots subjected to Fe deficiency. These results indicated that changes in cell size and number and in root hair development were all involved in root tip swelling.

  18. A small-scale proteomic approach reveals a survival strategy, including a reduction in alkaloid biosynthesis, in Hyoscyamus albus roots subjected to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Haraguchi, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Hyoscyamus albus is a well-known source of the tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are biosynthesized in the roots. To assess the major biochemical adaptations that occur in the roots of this plant in response to iron deficiency, we used a small-scale proteomic approach in which 100 mg of root tips were treated with and without Fe, respectively, for 5 days. Two-dimensional mini gels showed that 48 spots were differentially accumulated between the two conditions of Fe availability and a further 36 proteins were identified from these spots using MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins that showed elevated levels in the roots lacking Fe were found to be associated variously with carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation, secondary metabolism, and oxidative defense. Most of the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were increased in abundance, but mitochondrial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was decreased, possibly resulting in malate secretion. Otherwise, all the proteins showing diminished levels in the roots were identified as either Fe-containing or ATP-requiring. For example, a significant decrease was observed in the levels of hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H), which requires Fe and is involved in the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. To investigate the effects of Fe deficiency on alkaloid biosynthesis, gene expression studies were undertaken both for H6H and for another Fe-dependent protein, Cyp80F1, which is involved in the final stage of hyoscyamine biosynthesis. In addition, tropane alkaloid contents were determined. Reduced gene expression was observed in the case of both of these proteins and was accompanied by a decrease in the content of both hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Finally, we have discussed energetic and Fe-conservation strategies that might be adopted by the roots of H. albus to maintain iron homeostasis under Fe-limiting conditions. PMID:24009619

  19. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  20. Age estimations of wild pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus, Forbes & Richardson 1905) based on pectoral fin spines, otoliths and bomb radiocarbon: inferences on recruitment in the dam-fragmented Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Campana, S. E.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Bruch, R. M.; Jordan, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    An extant stock of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus persists in the fragmented upper Missouri River basin of Montana and North Dakota. Although successful spawning and hatch of embryos has been verified, long-term catch records suggest that recruitment has not occurred for several decades as the extant stock lacks juvenile size classes and is comprised exclusively of large, presumably old individuals. Ages of 11 deceased (death years 1997–2007) wild S. albus (136–166 cm fork length) were estimated based on pectoral fin spines, sagittal otoliths and bomb radiocarbon (14C) assays of otoliths to test the hypothesis that members of this stock are old and to provide inferences on recruitment years that produced the extant stock. Age estimations based on counts of presumed annuli were about 2 years greater for otoliths (mean = 51 years, range = 43–57 years) than spines (mean = 49 years, range = 37–59 years). Based on 14C assays, confirmed birth years for all individuals occurred prior to 1957, thus establishing known longevity of at least 50 years. Estimated age based on presumed otolith annuli for one S. albus was validated to at least age 49. Although 14C assays confirmed pre-1957 birth years for all S. albus, only 56% of estimated ages from spines and 91% of estimated ages from otoliths depicted pre-1957 birth years. Both ageing structures were subject to under-ageing error (up to 15 years). Lack of or severe curtailment of S. albus recruitment in the upper Missouri River basin since the mid-1950s closely parallels the 1953–1957 timeframe when a mainstem reservoir was constructed and started to fill. This reservoir may function as a system-wide stressor to diminish recruitment success of S. albus in the upper Missouri River basin.

  1. Microclimatic variation in UV perception and related disparity in tropane and quinolizidine alkaloid composition of Atropa acuminata, Lupinus polyphyllus and Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Jan, Sumira; Kamili, Azra N; Parray, Javid A; Bedi, Yashbir S; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-08-01

    The aim of current research was to evaluate the physiological adjustment in three medicinal herbs viz., Atropa acuminata, Lupinus polyphyllus and Hyoscyamus niger to the winter period characterised by intense UV flux in Kashmir valley across the North Western Himalaya. Quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) concentrations were analysed in these herbs thriving at two different altitudes via GC-MS and correlated by PCA analysis. This study investigated the hypothesis that UV reflectance and absorbance at low temperatures are directly related to disparity in alkaloid accumulation. Among QAs in L. polyphyllus, ammodendrine and lupanine accumulated at higher concentration and exhibited significant variation of 186.36% and 95.91% in ammodendrine and lupanine respectively in both sites. Tetrahydrohombifoline displayed non-significant variation of about 9.60% irrespective of sites. Among tropane alkaloid (TA), hyoscyamine was recorded as the most abundant constituent irrespective of the plant and site while apotropine accumulated in lesser quantity in A. acuminata than H. niger. However, apotropine demonstrated significant variation of 175% among both sites. The final concentration of quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) reflects the interplay between reflectance and absorbance of UV radiation response field. These findings suggest that spectral response of UV light contributes directly to alkaloid biosynthesis.

  2. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment.

  3. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment. PMID:27424515

  4. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone.

  5. A Novel Image-Analysis Toolbox Enabling Quantitative Analysis of Root System Architecture1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pagès, Loïc; Draye, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel, semiautomated image-analysis software to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of complex root systems. The software combines a vectorial representation of root objects with a powerful tracing algorithm that accommodates a wide range of image sources and quality. The root system is treated as a collection of roots (possibly connected) that are individually represented as parsimonious sets of connected segments. Pixel coordinates and gray level are therefore turned into intuitive biological attributes such as segment diameter and orientation as well as distance to any other segment or topological position. As a consequence, user interaction and data analysis directly operate on biological entities (roots) and are not hampered by the spatially discrete, pixel-based nature of the original image. The software supports a sampling-based analysis of root system images, in which detailed information is collected on a limited number of roots selected by the user according to specific research requirements. The use of the software is illustrated with a time-lapse analysis of cluster root formation in lupin (Lupinus albus) and an architectural analysis of the maize (Zea mays) root system. The software, SmartRoot, is an operating system-independent freeware based on ImageJ and relies on cross-platform standards for communication with data-analysis software. PMID:21771915

  6. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  7. An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean = 0.66–0.70 m s−1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m s−1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day−1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

  8. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  9. Palladium-mediated hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons with hydrogen gas released during anaerobic cellulose degradation. [Neocallimastix frontalis; Ruminococcus albus; methanospirillum hungatei

    SciTech Connect

    Mountfort, D.O.; Kaspar, H.F.

    1986-10-01

    Among five hydrogenation catalysts, palladium on charcoal was the most reactive one when suspended in anaerobic culture medium, and Lindlar catalyst (Pd on CaCO/sub 3/) was the most reactive one when suspended in the gas phase of culture tubes. Palladium on charcoal in the culture medium (40 to 200 mg 10 ml/sup -1/) completely inhibited growth of Neocallimastix frontalis and partly inhibited Ruminococcus albus. Lindlar catalyst (40 to 200 mg per tube) suspended in a glass pouch above the culture medium did not affect the rate of cellulose degradation or the ration of fermentation products by these organisms. Acetylene added to tubes containing Lindlar catalyst in pouches, and either of the two organisms in monoculture or coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei, was reduced to ethylene and then ethane, followed by hydrogen production. Similar results were obtained with 1-pentene. Neither acetylene nor 1-pentene affected cellulose degradation but both inhibited methanogenesis. In the presence of Lindlar catalyst and propylene or 1-butene, fermenter-methanogen cocultures continued to produce methane at the same rate as controls and no olefin reduction occurred. Upon addition of bromoethanesulfonic acid, methanogenesis stopped and olefin reduction took place followed by hydrogen evolution. In a gas mixture consisting of propylene, 1-butene, and 1-pentene, the olefins were reduced at rates which decreased with increasing molecular size.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of amh and dax1 genes and their expression during sex inversion in rice-field eel Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNAs of amh and dax1 in the hermaphrodite, rice-field eel (Monopterus albus), were cloned and characterized in this study. Multiple sequence alignment revealed Dax1 was well conserved among vertebrates, whereas Amh had a low degree of similarity between different vertebrates. Their expression profiles in gonads during the course of sex inversion and tissues were investigated. The tissue distribution indicated amh was expressed mostly in gonads and was scarcely detectable in other tissues, whereas the expression of dax1 was widespread among the different tissues, especially liver and gonads. amh was scarcely detectable in ovaries whereas it was abundantly expressed in both ovotestis and testis. By contrast, dax1 was highly expressed in ovaries, especially in ♀IV (ovaries in IV stage), but it was decreased significantly in ♀/♂I (ovotestis in I stage). Its expression was increased again in ♀/♂III (ovotestis in III stage), and then decreased to a low level in testis. These significant different expression patterns of amh and dax1 suggest the increase of amh expression and the decline of dax1 expression are important for the activation of testis development, and the high level of amh and a low level of dax1 expression are necessary for maintenance of testis function. PMID:26578091

  11. New Deferoxamine Glycoconjugates Produced upon Overexpression of Pathway-Specific Regulatory Gene in the Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07.

    PubMed

    Sekurova, Olga N; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; Degnes, Kristin F; Sletta, Håvard; Reyes, Fernando; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2016-08-27

    Activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces bacteria via overexpression of cluster-specific regulatory genes is a promising strategy for the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites. This approach was used in an attempt to activate a cryptic gene cluster in a marine sponge-derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07 presumably governing the biosynthesis of peptide-based secondary metabolites. While no new peptide-based metabolites were detected in the recombinant strain, it was shown to produce at least four new analogues of deferoxamine with additional acyl and sugar moieties, for which chemical structures were fully elucidated. Biological activity tests of two of the new deferoxamine analogues revealed weak activity against Escherichia coli. The gene knockout experiment in the gene cluster targeted for activation, as well as overexpression of certain genes from this cluster did not have an effect on the production of these compounds by the strain overexpressing the regulator. It seems plausible that the production of such compounds is a response to stress imposed by the production of an as-yet unidentified metabolite specified by the cryptic cluster.

  12. Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish.

  13. Effects of the aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds on the growth and development of Hypothenemus hampei: an inhibitor showing high homology with storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Molina, Diana; Patiño, Luisa; Quintero, Mónica; Cortes, José; Bastos, Sara

    2014-02-01

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei is a pest that causes great economic damage to coffee grains worldwide. Because the proteins consumed are digested by aspartic proteases in the insect's midgut, the inhibition of these proteases by transferring a gene encoding an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis Benth. to coffee plants could provide a promising strategy to control this pest. Five aspartic protease inhibitors from L. bogotensis (LbAPI) were accordingly purified and characterized. The gene encoding the L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI), with the highest inhibitory activity against H. hampei, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein (rLbAPI), with a molecular mass of 15 kDa, was subsequently assessed for its ability to inhibit the aspartic protease activity present in the H. hampei midgut in vitro, as well as its effects on the growth and development of H. hampei in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that rLbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.9 μg. The in vivo experiments showed that the concentration of rLbAPI (w/w) in the artificial diet necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of the larvae was 0.91%. The amino acid sequence of LbAPI had high homology (52-80%) to the seed storage proteins, vicilin and β-conglutin, suggesting that this protein was generated by evolutionary events from a β-conglutin precursor. Based on these results, LbAPI may have a dual function as storage protein, and as defense protein against H. hampei. These results provide a promising alternative to obtain a coffee plant resistant to H. hampei.

  14. Response of purely symbiotic and NO3-fed nodulated plants of Lupinus luteus and Vicia atropurpurea to ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Chimphango, Samson B M; Musil, Charles F; Dakora, Felix D

    2003-07-01

    The effects of elevated UV-B radiation on growth, symbiotic function and concentration of metabolites were assessed in purely symbiotic and NO3-fed nodulated plants of Lupinus luteus and Vicia atropurpurea grown outdoors either on tables under supplemental UV-B radiation or in chambers covered with different types of plexi-glass to attenuate solar ultraviolet radiation. Moderately and highly elevated UV-B exposures simulating 15% and 25% ozone depletion as well as sub- ambient UV-B did not alter organ growth, plant total dry matter and N content per plant in both L. luteus and V. atropurpurea. In contrast, elevated UV-B increased (P <0.05) flavonoid and anthocyanin concentrations in roots and leaves of L. luteus, but not of V. atropurpurea. Feeding nodulated plants of L. luteus under elevated UV-B radiation with 2 mM NO3 increased (P <0.05) nodule, leaf and total dry matter, and whole plant N content. With V. atropurpurea, NO3 reduced (P <0.05) nodule activity, root %N and concentrations of flavonoids, anthocyanins in roots and leaves and soluble sugars in roots, in contrast to an observed increase (P <0.05) in nodule dry matter per plant. Similarly, supplying 2 mM NO3 to L. luteus plants exposed to sub-ambient UV-B radiation significantly reduced individual organ growth, plant total biomass, nodule dry matter, nodule %N, and whole plant N content, as well as root concentrations of flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble sugars, and starch of L. luteus, but not V. atropurpurea plants. These results show no adverse effect of elevated UV-B radiation on growth and symbiotic function of L. luteus and V. atropurpurea plants. However, NO3 supply promoted growth in L. luteus plants exposed to the highly elevated UV-B radiation.

  15. The effect of canopy cover and seasonal change on host plant quality for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    1998-01-01

    Larvae of the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, feed solely on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis, from the emergence to summer senescence of the plant. Wild lupine is most abundant in open areas but Karner blue females oviposit more frequently on lupines growing in moderate shade. Can differences in lupine quality between open and shaded areas help explain this disparity in resource use? Furthermore, many lupines are senescent before the second larval brood completes development. How does lupine senescence affect larval growth? We addressed these questions by measuring growth rates of larvae fed lupines of different phenological stages and lupines growing under different shade conditions. The habitat conditions under which lupines grew and plant phenological stage did not generally affect final larval or pupal weight but did significantly affect duration of the larval period. Duration was shortest for larvae fed leaves from flowering lupines and was negatively correlated with leaf nitrogen concentration. Ovipositing in areas of moderate shade should increase second-brood larval exposure to flowering lupines. In addition, larval growth was significantly faster on shade-grown lupines that were in seed than on similar sun-grown lupines. These are possible advantages of the higher-than-expected oviposition rate on shade-grown lupines. Given the canopy-related trade-off between lupine abundance and quality, maintenance of canopy heterogeneity is an important conservation management goal. Larvae were also fed leaves growing in poor soil conditions and leaves with mildew infection. These and other feeding treatments that we anticipated would inhibit larval growth often did not. In particular, ant-tended larvae exhibited the highest weight gain per amount of lupine eaten and a relatively fast growth rate. This represents an advantage of ant tending to Karner blue larvae.

  16. Hydrogen Formation and Its Regulation in Ruminococcus albus: Involvement of an Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, of a Non-Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, and of a Putative Hydrogen-Sensing [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanning; Kahnt, Jörg; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 has played a key role in the development of the concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer. The rumen bacterium ferments glucose to 1.3 acetate, 0.7 ethanol, 2 CO2, and 2.6 H2 when growing in batch culture and to 2 acetate, 2 CO2, and 4 H2 when growing in continuous culture in syntrophic association with H2-consuming microorganisms that keep the H2 partial pressure low. The organism uses NAD+ and ferredoxin for glucose oxidation to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and CO2, NADH for the reduction of acetyl-CoA to ethanol, and NADH and reduced ferredoxin for the reduction of protons to H2. Of all the enzymes involved, only the enzyme catalyzing the formation of H2 from NADH remained unknown. Here, we report that R. albus 7 grown in batch culture on glucose contained, besides a ferredoxin-dependent [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA2), a ferredoxin- and NAD-dependent electron-bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydABC) that couples the endergonic formation of H2 from NADH to the exergonic formation of H2 from reduced ferredoxin. Interestingly, hydA2 is adjacent to the hydS gene, which is predicted to encode an [FeFe]-hydrogenase with a C-terminal PAS domain. We showed that hydS and hydA2 are part of a larger transcriptional unit also harboring putative genes for a bifunctional acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase (Aad), serine/threonine protein kinase, serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and a redox-sensing transcriptional repressor. Since HydA2 and Aad are required only when R. albus grows at high H2 partial pressures, HydS could be a H2-sensing [FeFe]-hydrogenase involved in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:25157086

  17. Isotherms and kinetic study of dihydrogen and hydrogen phosphate ions (H{2}PO{4}- and HPO{4}2-) adsorption onto crushed plant matter of the semi-arid zones of Morocco: Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus and Senecio anthophorbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiban, M.; Benhima, H.; Saadi, B.; Nounah, A.; Sinan, F.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work H{2}PO4- and HPO42- ions adsorption onto organic matter (OM) obtained from ground dried three plants growing in arid zones of Morocco has been studied. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, particle size and initial concentration of phosphate solution (Ci ≤ 30 mg/l). The uptake of both ions is increased by increasing the concentration of them selves. The retention of phosphate ions by Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus are well defined by several isotherms such as the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stéphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

    2014-01-15

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities.

  19. Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Staphylococcaceae isolated from marine sediment of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Xiao, Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Khan, Inam-Ullah; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous, coccoid shaped bacterium, designated YIM M12140(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM M12140(T) forms a separate clade within the family Staphylococcaceae. Strain YIM M12140(T) shares high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Macrococcus brunensis DSM 19358(T) (92.9 %). The isolate was found to grow at 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and temperature 5-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as anteiso-C15:0, -C17:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C19:0 and C20:0. The respiratory menaquinones were found to be MK-6 (94 %) and MK-7 (6 %). The cell wall amino acids were found to contain Lys, Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp, Ser and Thr. Whole cell sugars were identified as mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM M12140(T) was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain YIM M12140(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Staphylococcaceae, for which the name Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M12140(T) (= DSM 29158(T) = CCTCC AB 2014213(T)).

  20. Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: a comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, William E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, Steven R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r² ≥ 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both δ15N and δ13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day−1) using stable δ15N and δ13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue δ15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but δ13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species.

  1. Characterization and differential expression patterns of conserved microRNAs and mRNAs in three genders of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Guo, Wei; Hu, Qing; Zou, Ming; Tang, Rong; Chi, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that can regulate target mRNAs by binding to their sequences in the 3' untranslated region. The expression of miRNAs and their biogenetic pathway are involved in sexual differentiation and in the regulation of the development of germ cells and gonadal somatic cells. The rice field eel (Monopterus albus) undergoes a natural sexual transformation from female to male via an intersex stage during its life cycle. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of this sexual transformation, miRNAs present in the different sexual stages of the rice field eel were identified by high-throughput sequencing technology. A significantly differential expression among the 3 genders (p < 0.001) was observed for 48 unique miRNAs and 3 miRNAs*. Only 9 unique miRNAs showed a more than 8-fold change in their expression among the 3 genders, including mal-miR-430a and mal-miR-430c which were higher in females than in males. However, mal-miR-430b was only detected in males. Several potential miRNA target genes (cyp19a, cyp19b, nr5a1b, foxl2 amh, and vasa) were also investigated. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated highly specific expression patterns of these genes in the 3 genders of the rice field eel. Many of these genes are targets of mal-miR-430b according to the TargetScan and miRTarBase. These results suggest that the miR-430 family may be involved in the sexual transformation of the rice field eel.

  2. Seasonal population dynamics of Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) in the intestine of the rice-field eel Monopterus albus in China.

    PubMed

    Boping, Zeng; Wenbin, Wang

    2007-12-01

    Studies on the seasonal population dynamics of Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) in the intestine of the rice-field eel Monopterus albus from the paddies and ditches in the Dong-ting Lake basin of China, were carried out with samples taken from June 2002 to May 2003. Prevalences were above 21% in all seasons sampled and with a distinct seasonal trend, which was highest (45.81%) in the spring and decreased by degrees. The mean intensity of infection was above 4.0 worms per fish. The maximum intensity of worms recovered from a single fish was 86 in the autumn of 2002. No significant seasonal differences were found in mean intensities, and differences in the mean abundance between winter and spring, winter and autumn were significant. Over-dispersed distributions of P. (N.) celatus in the host population, due to heterogeneity and feeding habits, were observed in all seasons. The size composition of both sexes of P. (N.) celatus showed males between 2.0 mm and 14.0 mm and females between 2.2 mm and 22.2 mm, with the main recruitment phase in the worm populations occurring in the summer and autumn, especially in the autumn, with the lowest recruitment occurring in the winter. The maturation and copulation of worms were mainly focused in the spring season. The sex ratio of female to male was both high in summer (1.09:1) and autumn (1.08:1). The higher proportion of females and the change in the worm sex ratio in summer can be attributed to the reduced longevity of male worms. As immature male worms exhibit a higher proportion of the worm population than females in all seasons, further studies are needed to determine if such a situation compensates for the shorter life span of males.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of brain and gonad transcripts reveals changes of key sex reversal-related genes expression and signaling pathways in three stages of Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    Background The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male) from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process. Results Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes). These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes’ expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary. Conclusion This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms. PMID:28319194

  4. [Cloning and expression analysis of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and its receptor, IL-1R2, in the Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus].

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Xu, P; Zhou, J W; Pan, T S; Tuo, R; Ai, K; Yang, D Q

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is the prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine, whose functions are mediated through interaction with its receptors (IL-1R1 and IL-1R2). Herein, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of IL-1β and IL-1R2 in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus). The eel IL-1β cDNA encodes a putative polypeptide of 246 amino acids. The protein sequence includes a typical IL-1 family signature, but lacked an interleukin-converting enzyme cleavage site. The genomic DNA of eel IL-1β was 2520 bp and comprised five exons and four introns. The eel IL-1R2 cDNA encoded a putative propeptide of 423 amino acid residues, comprising a signal peptide, a transmembrane region and two Ig-like domains in the extracellular region. Similar to other vertebrates, the genomic DNA of the eel IL-1R2 has nine exons and eight introns. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that IL-1β and IL-1R2 were constitutively expressed in all tissues, especially in the liver and immune-related organs. After infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcript levels of IL-1β and IL-1R2 were induced in the head kidney and spleen, reaching their highest levels at 6 h post injection. In vitro, IL-1β and IL-1R2 mRNA levels were also upregulated rapidly at 1h post infection with A. hydrophila. Furthermore, acanthocephalan Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus could induce the expression of both genes in the head kidney and intestine. In infected intestines, the transcript levels of IL-1β and IL-1R2 were increased by 21.4-fold and 20.8-fold, respectively, relative to the control. The present study indicated that IL-1β and IL-1R2 play an important role in inflammation and host defense, especially in the antiacanthocephalan response.

  5. 75 FR 60802 - Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Habitat Conservation Plan, and Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...: Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides fenderi) (endangered), Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus...) (threatened). The permit would also cover one candidate species for listing--Taylor's checkerspot butterfly... the permit on county-owned lands. The Fender's blue butterfly and the five plant species will...

  6. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µM Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albu...

  7. Legumes are valuable sources of tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Arnoldi, Anna

    2011-08-01

    Grain legumes contain numerous phytochemicals useful for their nutritional or nutraceutical properties, such as tocopherols, involved in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and eye pathologies. In this work, tocopherols were quantified in soybean, chickpea, lentil, pea, common bean, broad bean, and three lupin species. In all samples, the gamma congener was the most abundant tocopherol, followed by minor quantities of alpha-tocopherol (with the exception of common bean lacking in this congener) and delta-tocopherol (with the exception of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus mutabilis). Beta-tocopherol and tocotrienols were never detected. Some samples of soybean, pea, white lupin and chickpea contained over 10mg/100g seeds of total tocopherols. In order to estimate the nutritional value, the vitamin E activity was calculated. Chickpea, soybean and, to a lesser extent, lupin, broad bean and pea may contribute in a relevant way to the daily intake of this vitamin.

  8. [Topography of the metabolic cycle of 4-aminobutyrate].

    PubMed

    Santos-Ruiz, A

    1982-01-01

    This work describes, with some detail the intervention of 4-aminobutyrate as protagonist of a derivation of tricarboxylic cycle. Its vicarial mission is emphasized in connection with its existence in microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens), plants (Helianthus tuberosus. Lupinus albus and Agave americana), neoplasic cells (ascitic tumor of Ehrlich and HeLa cells) and animal tissues (adrenal medulla and brain.

  9. Binding of quinolizidine alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmeller, T; Sauerwein, M; Sporer, F; Wink, M; Müller, W E

    1994-09-01

    Fourteen quinolizidine alkaloids, isolated from Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, and Anagyris foetida, were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Of the compounds tested, the alpha-pyridones, N-methylcytisine and cytisine, showed the highest affinities at the nicotinic receptor, while several quinolizidine alkaloid types were especially active at the muscarinic receptor.

  10. Enhanced phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements - a rhizosphere-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that have become an integral part of our modern high tech society. While most of these elements are not actually rare in terms of general amounts in the earth's crust, they are rarely found in sufficient abundances in single locations for their mining to be economically viable. The average concentration of Ge in soils is estimated at 1.6 μg g-1. The REEs comprise a group of 16 elements including La, the group of lanthanides and Y that are abundant in the earth crust with concentrations varying from 35 μg g-1 (La), 40 μg g-1 (Nd), 6 μg g-1 (Gd) and 3.5 μg g-1 (Er) to 0.5 μg g-1 in Tm. Thus, a promising chance to improve supply of these elements could be phytomining. Unfortunately, bioavailability of Ge and REEs in soils appears to be low, in particular in neutral or alkaline soils. A sequential dissolution analysis of 120 soil samples taken from the A-horizons of soils in the area of Freiberg (Saxony, Germany) revealed that only 0.2% of total Ge and about 0.5% of La, Nd, Gd and Er of bulk concentrations were easily accessible by leaching with NH4-acetate (pH 7). Most of the investigated elements were bound to Fe-/Mn-oxides and silicates and were therefore only poorly available for plant uptake. Here we report an environmentally friendly approach for enhanced phytoextraction of Ge and REEs from soils using mixed cultures of plant species with efficient mechanisms for the acquisition of nutrients in the rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is characterized as the zone in soil sourrounding a plant root that consists of a gradient in chemical, physical and biological soil properties driven by rhizodeposits like carboxylates and protons. Some species like white lupin (Lupinus albus) are able to excrete large amounts of organic acid anions(predominantly citrate and malate) and show a particularly high potential for the acidification of the rhizosphere. In our experiments, mixed cultures

  11. A multi-imaging approach to study the root–soil interface

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph-Mohr, Nicole; Vontobel, Peter; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dynamic processes occurring at the soil–root interface crucially influence soil physical, chemical and biological properties at a local scale around the roots, and are technically challenging to capture in situ. This study presents a novel multi-imaging approach combining fluorescence and neutron radiography that is able to simultaneously monitor root growth, water content distribution, root respiration and root exudation. Methods Germinated seeds of white lupins (Lupinus albus) were planted in boron-free glass rhizotrons. After 11 d, the rhizotrons were wetted from the bottom and time series of fluorescence and neutron images were taken during the subsequent day and night cycles for 13 d. The following day (i.e. 25 d after planting) the rhizotrons were again wetted from the bottom and the measurements were repeated. Fluorescence sensor foils were attached to the inner sides of the glass and measurements of oxygen and pH were made on the basis of fluorescence intensity. The experimental set-up allowed for simultaneous fluorescence imaging and neutron radiography. Key Results The interrelated patterns of root growth and distribution in the soil, root respiration, exudation and water uptake could all be studied non-destructively and at high temporal and spatial resolution. The older parts of the root system with greater root-length density were associated with fast decreases of water content and rapid changes in oxygen concentration. pH values around the roots located in areas with low soil water content were significantly lower than the rest of the root system. Conclusions The results suggest that the combined imaging set-up developed here, incorporating fluorescence intensity measurements, is able to map important biogeochemical parameters in the soil around living plants with a spatial resolution that is sufficiently high enough to relate the patterns observed to the root system. PMID:25344936

  12. Compositional variations for alpha-galactosides in different species of leguminosae, brassicaceae, and barley: a chemotaxonomic study based on chemometrics and high-performance capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Keld Ejdrup; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer

    2005-07-13

    The contents of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) and sucrose in Brassica, Lupinus, Pisum, and Hordeum species were investigated by chemometric principal component analysis (PCA). Hordeum samples contained sucrose and raffinose, and Brassica samples all contained sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose. In addition to these, the Pisum samples contained verbascose and the Lupinus samples also contained ajugose. High stachyose and low ajugose contents were found in Lupinus albus in contrast to Lupinus angustifolius, having low stachyose and high ajugose contents. Lupinus luteus had average stachyose and ajugose contents, whereas large amounts of verbascose were accumulated in these seeds. Lupinus mutabilis had high stachyose and low ajugose contents, similar to the composition in L. albus but showing higher raffinose content. The Brassica samples also showed compositional RFO variations within the species, and subgroup formations were discovered within the investigated Brassica napus varieties. PCA results indicated compositional variations between the investigated genera and within the various species of value as chemotaxonomic defined parameters and as tools in evaluations of authenticity/falsifications when RFO-containing plants are used as, for example, feed and food additives.

  13. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S; McKee, Michael J; Papoulias, Diana M; Tillitt, Donald E; Galat, David L

    2015-06-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188-203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122-199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11-15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10-14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  14. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/ g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  15. Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics. PMID:19321713

  16. Habitat use by the endangered Karner blue butterfly in oak woodlands: The influence of canopy cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    1998-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly Lycaeides melissa samuelis is an endangered species residing in the Great Lakes and northeastern regions of the United States. Increased canopy cover is a major factor implicated in the decline of the Karner blue at many locales. Therefore, we examined how the butterfly's behavior varied with canopy cover. Adult males at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore used habitat under canopy openings for nearly 90% of their activities; females used openings and shaded areas more equally. The frequency of oviposition on the sole host plant, wild lupine Lupinus perennis, was highest under 30–60% canopy cover even though lupine was more abundant in more open areas. Larvae fed preferentially on larger lupine plants and on lupines in denser patches. However, lupines were generally larger in the shade. Therefore, shade-related trade-offs existed between lupine abundance and distribution of larval feeding and oviposition. Also, heterogeneity of shading by sub-canopy woody vegetation was greater at oviposition sites than at sites where lupine did not grow. Given the importance of shade heterogeneity, a mixture of canopy openings and shade, on a scale similar to daily adult movement range, should be beneficial for this butterfly.

  17. Plant facilitation of a belowground predator.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Evan L; Dugaw, Christopher J; Dennis, Brian; Strong, Donald R

    2006-05-01

    Interest in facilitative predator plant interactions has focused upon above-ground systems. Underground physical conditions are distinctive, however, and we provide evidence that bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus, facilitates the survival of the predatory nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus. Because H. marelatus is prone to desiccation and lupines maintain a zone of moist soil around their taproots even during dry periods, we hypothesized that dry-season nematode survival under lupines might be higher than in the surrounding grasslands. We performed field surveys and measured nematode survival in lupine and grassland rhizospheres under wet- and dry-season conditions. Nematodes survived the crucial summer period better under lupines than in grasslands; however, this advantage disappeared in wet, winter soils. Modeling the probability of nematode population extinction showed that, while even large nematode cohorts were likely to go extinct in grasslands, even small cohorts in lupine rhizospheres were likely to survive until the arrival of the next prey generation. Because this nematode predator has a strong top-down effect on lupine survival via its effect on root-boring larvae of the ghost moth Hepialus californicus, this facilitative interaction may enable a belowground trophic cascade. Similar cases of predator facilitation in seasonally stressful environments are probably common in nature.

  18. Messages from the Other Side: Parasites Receive Damage Cues from their Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Tjiurutue, Muvari Connie; Stevenson, Philip C; Adler, Lynn S

    2016-08-01

    As sessile organisms, plants rely on their environment for cues indicating imminent herbivory. These cues can originate from tissues on the same plant or from different individuals. Since parasitic plants form vascular connections with their host, parasites have the potential to receive cues from hosts that allow them to adjust defenses against future herbivory. However, the role of plant communication between hosts and parasites for herbivore defense remains poorly investigated. Here, we examined the effects of damage to lupine hosts (Lupinus texensis) on responses of the attached hemiparasite (Castilleja indivisa), and indirectly, on a specialist herbivore of the parasite, buckeyes (Junonia coenia). Lupines produce alkaloids that act as defenses against herbivores that can be taken up by the parasite. We found that damage to lupine host plants by beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) significantly increased jasmonic acid (JA) levels in both the lupine host and parasite, suggesting uptake of phytohormones or priming of parasite defenses by using host cues. However, lupine host damage did not induce changes in alkaloid levels in the hosts or parasites. Interestingly, the parasite had substantially higher concentrations of JA and alkaloids compared to lupine host plants. Buckeye herbivores consumed more parasite tissue when attached to damaged compared to undamaged hosts. We hypothesize that increased JA due to lupine host damage induced higher iridoid glycosides in the parasite, which are feeding stimulants for this specialist herbivore. Our results demonstrate that damage to hosts may affect both parasites and associated herbivores, indicating cascading effects of host damage on multiple trophic levels.

  19. Archaeological Investigations at Four Sites in the Abiquiu Multiple Resource Area New Mexico,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    scapula fragment; rq 3 medial long bone shaft fragments; medial rib fragment; 2 unidentified fragments 225 4 % APPENDIX E (Cont’d) F.S. # Taxon...nauseosus), four- winged saltbush (Atriplex canascens), cockle- , bur Xanthium sacaratum), sagebrush (Artemesia spp.), lupine (Lupinus:aaduncus)i flwer...fragment 24 Artiodactyl medial hyoid 27 Mammalia, large unidentified fragment Floral Remains Four pollen samples, collected in a vertical column in

  20. Trophic Interactions during Primary Succession: Herbivores Slow a Plant Reinvasion at Mount St. Helens.

    PubMed

    Fagan; Bishop

    2000-02-01

    Lupines (Lupinus lepidus var. lobbii), the earliest plant colonists of primary successional habitats at Mount St. Helens, were expected to strongly affect successional trajectories through facilitative effects. However, their effects remain localized because initially high rates of reinvasive spread were short lived, despite widespread habitat availability. We experimentally tested whether insect herbivores, by reducing plant growth and fecundity at the edge of the expanding lupine population, could curtail the rate of reinvasion and whether those herbivores had comparable impacts in the older, more successionally advanced core region. We found that removing insect herbivores increased both the areal growth of individual lupine plants and the production of new plants in the edge region, thereby accelerating the lupine's intrinsic rate of increase at the front of the lupine reinvasion. We found no such impacts of herbivory in the core region, where low plant quality or a complex of recently arrived natural enemies may hold herbivores in check. In the context of invasion theory, herbivore-mediated decreases in lupine population growth rate in the edge region translate into decreased rates of lupine spread, which we quantify here using diffusion models. In the Mount St. Helens system, decreased rate of lupine reinvasion will result in reductions in rates of soil formation, nitrogen input, and entrapment of seeds and detritus that are likely to postpone or alter trajectories of primary succession. If the type of spatial subtleties in herbivore effects we found here are common, with herbivory focused on the edge of an expanding plant population and suppressed or ineffective in the larger, denser central region (where the plants might be more readily noticed and studied), then insect herbivores may have stronger impacts on the dynamics of primary succession and plant invasions than previously recognized.

  1. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of δN-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence

  2. Stimulation by potassium ions of the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus during liquid-and solid-substrate fermentations.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, W; Davey, C L; Hedger, J N; Kell, D B

    1991-03-01

    Soya beans and several other beans and cereals have been used as substrates for tempe fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus Saito. Except for the presence of alkaloids, the chemical composition of lupins (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) is similar to that of soya beans. Therefore the potential of lupins for tempe production in regions with a long tradition of lupin consumption is promising. The preparation of the fermentation substrate when using bitter lupins (which contain significan quantities of alkaloids) as starting material includes a debittering stage to remove the alkaloids. However, we found that the debittering process yielded lupins that did not support the mycelial growth required in the tempe fermentation. We discovered that potassium is preferentially leached out during the debittering process. The effect of potassium on fungal biomass formation was monitored using a computerized system that determines biomass accretion by measurement of the electrical capacitance at radio frequencies. The importance of potassium for the growth of R. oligosporus was confirmed in liquid cultures. A linear relationship was found between biomass yield and K(+) concentration in the range of 1 to 10 mg/l. The present report represents one of the few demonstrations of a mineral deficiency during the growth of a fungus on a natural, solid substrate.

  3. Roles of morphology, anatomy, and aquaporins in determining contrasting hydraulic behavior of roots.

    PubMed

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C; Turner, David W; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (L(ax)) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater L(ax) than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. L(ax) and root hydraulic conductance (L(r)) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. L(ax) and L(r) were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lp(c)) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lp(c) was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lp(c) by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced L(r). This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics.

  4. A plant-derived edible vaccine against hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, J; Modelska, A; Figlerowicz, M; Pniewski, T; Letellier, M; Lisowa, O; Yusibov, V; Koprowski, H; Plucienniczak, A; Legocki, A B

    1999-10-01

    The infectious hepatitis B virus represents 42 nm spherical double-shelled particles. However, analysis of blood from hepatitis B virus carriers revealed the presence of smaller 22 nm particles consisting of a viral envelope surface protein. These particles are highly immunogenic and have been used in the design of hepatitis B virus vaccine produced in yeast. Upon expression in yeast, these proteins form virus-like particles that are used for parenteral immunization. Therefore, the DNA fragment encoding hepatitis B virus surface antigen was introduced into Agrobacterium tumerifacience LBA4404 and used to obtain transgenic lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Burpee Bibb expressing envelope surface protein. Mice that were fed the transgenic lupin tissue developed significant levels of hepatitis B virus-specific antibodies. Human volunteers, fed with transgenic lettuce plants expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen, developed specific serum-IgG response to plant produced protein.

  5. Climate affects predator control of an herbivore outbreak.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Evan L; Strong, Donald R

    2004-05-01

    Herbivore outbreaks and the accompanying devastation of plant biomass can have enormous ecological effects. Climate directly affects such outbreaks through plant stress or alterations in herbivore life-history traits. Large-scale variation in climate can indirectly affect outbreaks through trophic interactions, but the magnitude of such effects is unknown. On the California coast, rainfall in years during and immediately previous to mass lupine mortality was two-thirds that of years without such mortality. However, neither mature lupines nor their root-feeding herbivores are directly affected by annual variation in rainfall. By increasing soil moisture to levels characteristic of summers following El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, we increased persistence of a predator (the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus). This led to suppression of an outbreak of the herbivorous moth Hepialus californicus, indirectly protecting bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus). Our results are consistent with the marine-oriented Menge-Sutherland hypothesis (Menge and Sutherland 1987) that abiotic stress has greater effects on higher than on lower trophic levels. The mechanisms producing these results differ from those proposed by Menge-Sutherland, however, highlighting differences between trophic processes in underground and terrestrial/marine food webs. Our evidence suggests that herbivore outbreaks and mass lupine mortality are indirectly affected by ENSO's facilitation of top-down control in this food web.

  6. Major Crop Species Show Differential Balance between Root Morphological and Physiological Responses to Variable Phosphorus Supply

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yang; Tang, Hongliang; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R.; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between root morphological and physiological responses to variable P supply in different plant species is poorly understood. We compared root morphological and physiological responses to P supply in seven crop species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus, Lupinus albus, Glycine max, Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum) treated with or without 100 mg P kg-1 in two soils (acidic and calcareous). Phosphorus deficiency decreased root length more in fibrous root species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus) than legumes. Zea mays and Triticum aestivum had higher root/shoot biomass ratio and Brassica napus had higher specific root length compared to legumes, whereas legumes (except soybean) had higher carboxylate exudation than fibrous root species. Lupinus albus exhibited the highest P-acquisition efficiency due to high exudation of carboxylates and acid phosphatases. Lupinus albus and Cicer arietinum depended mostly on root exudation (i.e., physiological response) to enhance P acquisition, whereas Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus had higher root morphology dependence, with Glycine max and Vicia faba in between. Principal component analysis using six morphological and six physiological responses identified root size and diameter as the most important morphological traits, whereas important physiological responses included carboxylate exudation, and P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency followed by rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, plant species can be grouped on the basis of their response to soil P being primarily via root architectural or exudation plasticity, suggesting a potential benefit of crop-specific root-trait-based management to cope with variable soil P supply in sustainable grain production. PMID:28066491

  7. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Tavares, Silvio; Muraoka, Takashi; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Salgado, Gabriela; Otsuk, Ivani

    2016-04-01

    The use of alternative fertilizers may reduce costs and promote sustainability to the family-based agro ecological production system. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of the green manure to the quality of the soil and the transference of the nitrogen to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method (FAPESP 11/05648-3). The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, using a randomized-blocks design with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of green manure crops intercropped or not with cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one with and another without corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part from the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in a forced air oven and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a Wiley mill and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for δN-15 analysis. It measured the percentage of the transference of N from the green manure to the tomato; the tomato plants grown in monocropping were considered a control. It was found that 27 % of the N present in the fruit and 23% of the N present in the leaves came from the green manure. These results show that dur¬ing the development of the fruit of the tomato there is a greater translocation and consequently, a higher use of the N from the green manure in the fruits than in the leaves. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in non-intercropped treatments caused some soil

  8. Cyanide metabolism in higher plants: cyanoalanine hydratase is a NIT4 homolog.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Markus; Volmer, Julia Jutta

    2006-05-01

    Cyanoalanine hydratase (E.C. 4.2.1.65) is an enzyme involved in the cyanide detoxification pathway of higher plants and catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-cyano-L-alanine to asparagine. We have isolated the enzyme from seedlings of blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) to obtain protein sequence information for molecular cloning. In contrast to earlier reports, extracts of blue lupine cotyledons were found also to contain cyanoalanine-nitrilase (E.C. 3.5.5.4) activity, resulting in aspartic acid production. Both activities co-elute during isolation of cyanoalanine hydratase and are co-precipitated by an antibody directed against Arabidopsis thaliana nitrilase 4 (NIT4). The isolated cyanoalanine hydratase was sequenced by nanospray-MS/MS and shown to be a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum NIT4. Full-length cDNA sequences for two NIT4 homologs from blue lupine were obtained by PCR using degenerate primers and RACE-experiments. The recombinant LaNIT4 enzymes, like Arabidopsis NIT4, hydrolyze cyanoalanine to asparagine and aspartic acid but show a much higher cyanoalanine-hydratase activity. The two nitrilase genes displayed differential but overlapping expression. Taken together these data show that the so-called 'cyanoalanine hydratase' of plants is not a bacterial type nitrile hydratase enzyme but a nitrilase enzyme which can have a remarkably high nitrile-hydratase activity.

  9. Phytochemicals: the good, the bad and the ugly?

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Russell J; Lee, Stephen T; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; James, Lynn F

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemicals are constitutive metabolites that enable plants to overcome temporary or continuous threats integral to their environment, while also controlling essential functions of growth and reproduction. All of these roles are generally advantageous to the producing organisms but the inherent biological activity of such constituents often causes dramatic adverse consequences in other organisms that may be exposed to them. Nevertheless, such effects may be the essential indicator of desirable properties, such as therapeutic potential, especially when the mechanism of bioactivity can be delineated. Careful observation of cause and effect, followed by a coordinated approach to identify the responsible entities, has proved extremely fruitful in discovering roles for phytochemical constituents. The process is illustrated by selected examples of plants poisonous to animals and include the steroidal alkaloid toxin of Veratrum californicum (Western false hellebore), piperidine alkaloids of Lupinus species (lupines), and polyhydroxy indolizidine, pyrrolizidine and nortropane alkaloids of Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds), Castanospermum australe (Moreton Bay chestnut) and Ipomoea species (morning glories).

  10. Genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. WSM1253; a microsymbiont of Ornithopus compressus from the Greek Island of Sifnos.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ron; Tian, Rui; Held, Britanny; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. WSM1253 is a novel N2-fixing bacterium isolated from a root nodule of the herbaceous annual legume Ornithopus compressus that was growing on the Greek Island of Sifnos. WSM1253 emerged as a strain of interest in an Australian program that was selecting inoculant quality bradyrhizobial strains for inoculation of Mediterranean species of lupins (Lupinus angustifolius, L. princei, L. atlanticus, L. pilosus). In this report we describe, for the first time, the genome sequence information and annotation of this legume microsymbiont. The 8,719,808 bp genome has a G + C content of 63.09 % with 71 contigs arranged into two scaffolds. The assembled genome contains 8,432 protein-coding genes, 66 RNA genes and a single rRNA operon. This improved-high-quality draft rhizobial genome is one of 20 sequenced through a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project.

  11. Genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. WSM1253; a microsymbiont of Ornithopus compressus from the Greek Island of Sifnos

    DOE PAGES

    Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ron; ...

    2015-11-30

    Bradyrhizobium sp. WSM1253 is a novel N2-fixing bacterium isolated from a root nodule of the herbaceous annual legume Ornithopus compressus that was growing on the Greek Island of Sifnos. WSM1253 emerged as a strain of interest in an Australian program that was selecting inoculant quality bradyrhizobial strains for inoculation of Mediterranean species of lupins ( Lupinus angustifolius, L. princei, L. atlanticus, L. pilosus ). In this report we describe, for the first time, the genome sequence information and annotation of this legume microsymbiont. The 8,719,808 bp genome has a G + C content of 63.09 % with 71 contigs arrangedmore » into two scaffolds. The assembled genome contains 8,432 protein-coding genes, 66 RNA genes and a single rRNA operon. In conclusion, this improved-high-quality draft rhizobial genome is one of 20 sequenced through a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project.« less

  12. Genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. WSM1253; a microsymbiont of Ornithopus compressus from the Greek Island of Sifnos

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ron; Tian, Rui; Held, Britanny; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-11-30

    Bradyrhizobium sp. WSM1253 is a novel N2-fixing bacterium isolated from a root nodule of the herbaceous annual legume Ornithopus compressus that was growing on the Greek Island of Sifnos. WSM1253 emerged as a strain of interest in an Australian program that was selecting inoculant quality bradyrhizobial strains for inoculation of Mediterranean species of lupins ( Lupinus angustifolius, L. princei, L. atlanticus, L. pilosus ). In this report we describe, for the first time, the genome sequence information and annotation of this legume microsymbiont. The 8,719,808 bp genome has a G + C content of 63.09 % with 71 contigs arranged into two scaffolds. The assembled genome contains 8,432 protein-coding genes, 66 RNA genes and a single rRNA operon. In conclusion, this improved-high-quality draft rhizobial genome is one of 20 sequenced through a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project.

  13. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones.

  14. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia

    2005-01-15

    In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk).

  15. Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of which aspects of habitat quality and habitat spatial arrangement best account for variation in a species’ distribution can guide management for organisms such as the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), a federally endangered subspecies inhabiting savannas of Midwest and Eastern United States. We examined the extent to which three sets of predictors, (1) larval host plant (Lupinus perennis, wild lupine) availability, (2) characteristics of the matrix surrounding host plant patches, and (3) factors affecting a patch’s thermal environment, accounted for variation in lupine patch use by Karner blues at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana and Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Each predictor set accounted for 7–13% of variation in patch occupancy by Karner blues at both sites and in larval feeding activity among patches at Indiana Dunes. Patch area, an indicator of host plant availability, was an exception, accounting for 30% of variation in patch occupancy at Indiana Dunes. Spatially structured patterns of patch use across the landscape accounted for 9–16% of variation in patch use and explained more variation in larval feeding activity than did spatial autocorrelation between neighboring patches. Because of this broader spatial trend across sites, a given management action may be more effective in promoting patch use in some portions of the landscape than in others. Spatial trend, resource availability, matrix quality, and microclimate, in general, accounted for similar amounts of variation in patch use and each should be incorporated into habitat management planning for the Karner blue butterfly.

  16. Phytostabilization of gold mine tailings, New Zealand. Part 1: Plant establishment in alkaline saline substrate.

    PubMed

    Mains, D; Craw, D; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C M S

    2006-01-01

    Tailings from the Macraes mine, southern New Zealand, are prone to wind erosion. Use of a vegetation cover for physical stabilization is one potential solution to this environmental problem. This study used field trials contained in lysimeters to 1), test the ability of different plant species to grow in un/amended tailings and 2), provide background information on the nutrient and chemical content of waters in tailings. Barley (Hordeum vulgare), blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and rye corn (Secale cereale) were trialed, using Superphosphate fertilizer and sewage sludge as amendments. Rye corn grew well in fertilizer-amended tailings, but poorly in unamended tailings; barley growth was similar in amended and unamended tailings; blue lupins grew poorly overall The tailings had alkaline pH (7-8.5) and water rapidly (< 1 mo) interacted with the tailings to become strongly saline. Minor acid generation was neutralized by calcite, with associated release of calcium and carbonate ions. Leachate waters were supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Dissolved sodium concentrations were up to 1000 mg L(-1), but elevated Ca2+ calcium and Mg2+ ensured that sodicity was lower than plant-toxic levels. Rye corn is a potentially useful plant for rapid phytostabilization of tailings, with only minor phosphate amendment required.

  17. Phytoremediation of pharmaceuticals--preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kotyza, Jan; Soudek, Petr; Kafka, Zdenĕk; Vanĕk, Toás

    2010-03-01

    Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the media during eight days. Total removal of ibuprofen and diclofenac was achieved using a Linum usitatissimum suspension culture after one and six days, respectively. In the hydroponic arrangement, the best results were achieved for Lupinus, where acetaminophen was totally removed from media during two or four days in concentrations of 0.1 or 0.2 mM, respectively. The best effectiveness of ibuprofen removal (50% of starting amount) was found in case of Phragmites. Effectiveness of all tested plants for diclofenac removal was low. The best removal was achieved using Phragmites in the case of 0.2 mM concentration-67% of the starting amount and Hordeum for 0.1 mM starting concentration, 56%.

  18. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  19. INBREEDING EFFECTS IN WILD LUPINE (FABACEAE): DOES POPULATION SIZE MATTER? (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Health benefits of legumes and pulses with a focus on Australian sweet lupins.

    PubMed

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    背景和目的:第68 屆聯合國大會宣布2016 年為國際豆類年。這是一個好時機 來查證豆科植物,特別是澳洲甜羽扇豆,對人體健康的現有證據。方法與研 究設計:搜尋Medline、Pubmed、Cochrane 圖書館資料庫以找出橫斷性/流行 病學研究、隨機控制試驗(RCTs)以及系統性回顧文獻。結果:最強的證據 是食用豆類與降低大腸直腸癌,以及食用黃豆食物與降低低密度脂蛋白膽固 醇的關聯性。再者,流行病學研究及RCT 建議每週以豆類取代幾餐以肉為主 的餐食,透過腸道菌相潛在有益作用,對於延壽、糖尿病、心血管疾病及體 重控制有正面影響。甜羽扇豆在豆類中的獨特性是它們有合併最高量的可消 化植物性蛋白(38%)及膳食纖維(30%)。不同於其它豆類,他們的抗營養 因子低,所以不需要浸泡/烹調,即可生食。甜羽扇豆可降低血壓、改善血脂 及胰島素敏感性,並對腸道菌相有利。越來越多對豆類的興趣,特別是甜羽 扇豆,如作為改善烘焙食物(特別是無麩質)營養價值的成分,及取代肉類 的創新產品。結論:豆類是最傳統飲食中的一部份。豆類,包括甜羽扇豆, 可在健康維持上扮演有用的角色。.

  1. Impact of Lupinus leucophyllous on the nitrogen budgets of semi-arid plant communities

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, W.T.; Hinds, N.R.

    1982-10-01

    In the semi-arid grassland on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, three legume flushes occurred in the past decade. Estimates of leguminous nitrogen in both native and disturbed vegetation after a flush showed that nitrogen in the legume (above-ground) doubled the amount of nitrogen associated with vascular plant tissues. 21 references, 2 tables.

  2. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Availability on Nitrogen Contribution by the Legume, Lupinus argenteus Pursh.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentr...

  3. Status of knowledge of the Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, G. R.; Heist, E.J.; Braaten, Patrick; Delonay, Aaron J.; Hartfield, P.; Herzog, D.P.; Kappenman, K.M.; Web, M.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Pallid Sturgeon is listed as federally endangered under the Endangered Species Act in the United States. When the species was listed in 1990 it was considered extremely rare and was poorly understood. Habitat alteration, commercial harvest, environmental contaminants, and other factors were identified as threats. Today our scientific understanding of the species and its life history requirements have increased greatly as summarized below.

  4. White Sweetclover (Melilotus albus) and Narrowleaf Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum) Seed Germination after Passing Through Moose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

  5. Expression and ontogeny of growth hormone (Gh) in the protogynous hermaphroditic ricefield eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiang; Chen, Wanping; Shi, Shuxia; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a single-chain polypeptide hormone mainly secreted by somatotropes of the anterior pituitary gland and is an important regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates including teleosts. In this study, a polyclonal antiserum against ricefield eel Gh was generated and the expression of Gh at the mRNA and protein levels was analyzed. Both RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that Gh was predominantly expressed in the pituitary glands of ricefield eels. The immunoreactive Gh signals were localized to the multicellular layers of the adenohypophysis adjacent to the neurohypophysis in ricefield eels. Ontogenetic analysis showed that immunoreactive Gh signals could be detected in the pituitary glands of ricefield eel embryos as early as 3 days post-fertilization. During the sex change from female to male, the levels of the immunoreactive Gh signals in the pituitary glands of the ricefield eels peaked at the intersexual stage. These results suggest that Gh in the pituitary glands may be associated with embryonic development before hatching, as well as with the sex change in the adult ricefield eels, possibly via the classical endocrine manner.

  6. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons.

  7. Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Colin; Eastwood, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Species radiations provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species diversification and patterns of biodiversity. To compare plant diversification over a similar time period to the recent cichlid fish radiations, which are an order of magnitude faster than documented bird, arthropod, and plant radiations, we focus on the high-altitude flora of the Andes, which is the most species-rich of any tropical mountains. Because of the recent uplift of the northern Andes, the upland environments where much of this rich endemic flora is found have been available for colonization only since the late Pliocene or Pleistocene, 2–4 million years (Myr) ago. Using DNA sequence data we identify a monophyletic group within the genus Lupinus representing 81 species endemic to the Andes. The age of this clade is estimated to be 1.18–1.76 Myr, implying a diversification rate of 2.49–3.72 species per Myr. This exceeds previous estimates for plants, providing the most spectacular example of explosive plant species diversification documented to date. Furthermore, it suggests that the high cichlid diversification rates are not unique. Lack of key innovations associated with the Andean Lupinus clade suggests that diversification was driven by ecological opportunities afforded by the emergence of island-like habitats after Andean uplift. Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification. PMID:16801546

  8. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Nematode Population Levels in North Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P ≤ 0.05), but no treatment differences were observed in year 2. Wheat was a good host to Paratrichodorus minor, whereas vetch was a poor host, but numbers of P. minor were not lower in vetch-planted plots after corn was grown. The second experiment used a split-plot design in which rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P ≤ 0.05) but not by the winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida. PMID:19262833

  9. Blad-Containing Oligomer Fungicidal Activity on Human Pathogenic Yeasts. From the Outside to the Inside of the Target Cell

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana M.; Carreira, Alexandra; Rollo, Filipe; Fernandes, Rui; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Monteiro, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Blad polypeptide comprises residues 109–281 of Lupinus albus β-conglutin precursor. It occurs naturally as a major subunit of an edible, 210 kDa oligomer which accumulates to high levels, exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus seedlings between the 4th and 14th day after the onset of germination. Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) exhibits a potent and broad spectrum fungicide activity toward plant pathogens and is now on sale in the US under the tradename FractureTM. In this work we demonstrate its antifungal activity toward human pathogens and provide some insights on its mode of action. BCO bioactivity was evaluated in eight yeast species and compared to that of amphotericin B (AMB). BCO behaved similarly to AMB in what concerns both cellular inhibition and cellular death. As a lectin, BCO binds strongly to chitin. In addition, BCO is known to possess ‘exochitinase’ and ‘endochitosanase’ activities. However, no clear disruption was visualized at the cell wall after exposure to a lethal BCO concentration, except in cell buds. Immunofluorescent and immunogold labeling clearly indicate that BCO enters the cell, and membrane destabilization was also demonstrated. The absence of haemolytic activity, its biological origin, and its extraordinary antifungal activity are the major outcomes of this work, and provide a solid background for a future application as a new antifungal therapeutic drug. Furthermore, its predictable multisite mode of action suggests a low risk of inducing resistance mechanisms, which are now a major problem with other currently available antifungal drugs. PMID:27933037

  10. Mount St. Helens ash: recreating its effects on the steppe environment and ecophysiology. [Artemisia tridentata; Lupinus sulphureus

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.A.; Mack, R.N.

    1986-10-01

    The 18 May 1980 ash fall from Mount St. Helens was experimentally reproduced in May 1982 by applying silt-sized ash to a stand of the Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum association in south-central Washington. Compared to the adjacent control site, ash caused an immediate increase in albedo from 13% to 28%, while other parameters of the energy budget were simultaneously lowered: net radiation by approx. = 20%, soil surface temperatures by as much as 10/sup 0/C, and soil heat flux by as much as 50%. The ash's mulching action initially increased water availability and delayed leaf abscission in Artemisia tridentata (Big sagebrush) by 2 wk in summer 1982. But after summer 1982 water availability declined, while water use increased, illustrating the diverse effects of the ash. Increased reflection from the ash-covered surface increased the radiation load on plant canopies. In turn, air temperature at 0.5 m increased, latent heat flux often doubled in summer, and xylem pressure potentials decreased. Available water at the -1 m soil depth eventually decreased as much as 40%. This decrease was the result of the increase in latent heat flux and the decline in infiltration through the stratified layer created by the ash cap. In addition to allowing assessment of the effects of the 18 May 1980 ash fall on arid steppe, application of ash provided an unexpected level of precision in detecting the often subtle effects that occur when some microenvironmental parameters change while the overall macroclimate remains the same.

  11. Accumulation of quinolizidine alkaloids in plants and cell suspension cultures: genera lupinus, cytisus, baptisia, genista, laburnum, and sophora.

    PubMed

    Wink, M; Witte, L; Hartmann, T; Theuring, C; Volz, V

    1983-08-01

    The patterns of quinolizidine alkaloids in cell cultures of 10 species of Fabaceae were analyzed by high-resolution GLC and GLC-MS and compared with the alkaloids present in the leaves of the respective plants. Lupanine was produced in all 10 cell suspension cultures as the main alkaloid. It was accompanied by sparteine, tetrahydrorhombifoline, 17-oxosparteine, 13-hydroxylupanine, 4-hydroxylupanine, 17-oxolupanine, and 13-hydroxylupanine esters as minor alkaloids in some species. The alkaloid patterns of the plants differed markedly in that alpha-pyridone alkaloids were the major alkaloids in the genera Cytisus, Genista, Laburnum and Sophora but were not accumulated in the cell cultures. These data further support the assumption that the pathway leading to lupanine is the basic pathway of quinolizidine alkaloids biosynthesis and that the other alkaloids are derived from lupanine.

  12. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  13. Characteristics and phylogenetic studies of complete mitochondrial DNA based on the ricefield eel (Monopterus albus) from four different areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dunxue; Chu, Wuying; He, Yan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Mai, Kangsen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of ricefield eel populations from four different areas (Guizhou province, Guangxi province, Hunan province, and Guangdong province) in China. The mitochondrial genome was 16,622 bp in length and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers KP779622-KP779625. The organizations of the complete mitogenomes of the four ricefield eel were similar to those of other teleost species which contained 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes, as well as a putative control region (CR). Most of these genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the H-strand. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the ricefield eel was clustered with Mastacembelus armatus (KJ184553) and they belong to Synbranchiformes. The four ricefield eel populations could be divided into two groups: Guangxi province and the other population cluster together.

  14. Development of working hypotheses linking management of the Missouri River to population dynamics of Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-20

    The initial set of candidate hypotheses provides a useful starting point for quantitative modeling and adaptive management of the river and species. We anticipate that hypotheses will change from the set of working management hypotheses as adaptive management progresses. More importantly, hypotheses that have been filtered out of our multistep process are still being considered. These filtered hypotheses are archived and if existing hypotheses are determined to be inadequate to explain observed population dynamics, new hypotheses can be created or filtered hypotheses can be reinstated.

  15. Water-quality requirements, tolerances, and preferences of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Additional research could be used to characterize and quantify the requirements, tolerance, and preferences of pallid sturgeon to these water-quality characteristics, especially during the egg and larval life stages. Enhancements to existing water-sampling programs are needed to quantify the exposure of pallid sturgeon to many of these water-quality stressors.

  16. Consumers limit the abundance and dynamics of a perennial shrub with a seed bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, M.J.; Maron, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, ecologists have argued that predators of seeds and seedlings seldom have population-level effects on plants with persistent seed banks and density-dependent seedling survival. We parameterized stage-based population models that incorporated density dependence and seed dormancy with data from a 5.5-year experiment that quantified how granivorous mice and herbivorous voles influence bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) demography. We asked how seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival mediate the impacts of these consumers in dune and grassland habitats. In dune habitat, mice reduced analytical ?? (the intrinsic rate of population growth) by 39%, the equilibrium number of above-ground plants by 90%, and the seed bank by 98%; voles had minimal effects. In adjacent grasslands, mice had minimal effects, but seedling herbivory by voles reduced analytical ?? by 15% and reduced both the equilibrium number of aboveground plants and dormant seeds by 63%. A bootstrap analysis demonstrated that these consumer effects were robust to parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that the quantitative strengths of seed dormancy and density-dependent seedling survival-not their mere existence-critically mediate consumer effects. This study suggests that plant population dynamics and distribution may be more strongly influenced by consumers of seeds and seedlings than is currently recognized. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago.

  17. Genetically engineered plants, endangered species, and risk: a temporal and spatial exposure assessment for Karner blue butterfly larvae and Bt maize pollen.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robert K D; Meyer, Steven J; Wolf, Amy T; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Davis, Paula M

    2006-06-01

    Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays) containing insecticidal endotoxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin proteins has been adopted widely in the Midwestern United States. The proteins are toxic to several lepidopteran species and because a variety of maize tissues, including pollen, may express the endotoxins, the probability of exposure to nontarget species, including endangered species, needs to be understood. The objective of this study was to assess the potential temporal and spatial exposure of endangered Karner blue butterfly larvae (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) to Bt maize pollen in Wisconsin using probabilistic exposure techniques and geographic information systems analysis. Based on degree-day modeling of butterfly phenology and maize pollen shed, there is some potential for temporal exposure of larvae to maize pollen. However, in the majority of years and locations, maize pollen shed most likely will occur after the majority of larval feeding on wild lupine (Lupinus perennis). The spatial analysis indicates that some Karner blue butterfly populations occur in close proximity to maize fields, but in the vast majority of cases the butterfly's host plant and maize fields are separated by more than 500 m. A small number of potential or existing Karner blue butterfly sites are located near maize fields, including sites in two of the four counties where temporal overlap is most likely. The exposure assessment indicates that these two counties should receive the highest priority to determine if Karner blue butterfly larvae are actually at risk and then, if needed, to reduce or prevent exposure.

  18. 15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

    1982-01-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  19. N abundance of nodules as an indicator of N metabolism in n(2)-fixing plants.

    PubMed

    Shearer, G; Feldman, L; Bryan, B A; Skeeters, J L; Kohl, D H; Amarger, N; Mariotti, F; Mariotti, A

    1982-08-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of (15)N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N(2)-fixing plants. N(2)-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in (15)N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N(2)-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in (15)N. Thus, (15)N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N(2)-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of (15)N enrichment in N(2)-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N(2) and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit (15)N enrichment.

  20. Enzymes of the Glyoxylate Cycle in Rhizobia and Nodules of Legumes 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Gordon V.; Evans, Harold J.; Ching, Temay

    1966-01-01

    The relatively high level of fatty acids in soybean nodules and rhizobia from soybean nodules suggested that the glyoxylate cycle might have a role in nodule metabolism. Several species of rhizobia in pure culture were found to have malate synthetase activity when grown on a number of different carbon sources. Significant isocitrate lyase activity was induced when oleate, which presumably may act as an acetyl CoA precursor, was utilized as the principle carbon source. Malate synthetase was active in extracts of rhizobia from nodules of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Activity of malate synthetase was, however, barely detectable in rhizobia from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) nodules. Appreciable isocitrate lyase activity was not detected in rhizobia from nodules nor was it induced by depletion of endogenous substrates by incubation of excised bush bean nodules. Although rhizobia has the potential for the formation of the key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, the absence of isocitrate lyase activity in bacteria isolated from nodules indicated that the glyoxylate cycle does not operate in the symbiotic growth of rhizobia and that the observed high content of fatty acids in nodules and nodule bacteria probably is related to a structural role. PMID:16656404

  1. Quantitation of Cytokinins in Biological Samples Using Antibodies Against Zeatin Riboside

    PubMed Central

    Badenoch-Jones, Jane; Letham, David S.; Parker, Charles W.; Rolfe, Barry G.

    1984-01-01

    The cross-reactivity of antibodies elicited in rabbits against zeatin riboside, to a wide range of naturally occurring cytokinins, was examined. As well as to zeatin riboside, the antisera cross-reacted to a considerable extent with zeatin, lupinic acid, zeatin-9-glucoside, zeatin riboside 5′-monophosphate and to a much lesser, but measurable extent, with dihydrozeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin. Chromatographic methods were devised which allowed separation of all these cross-reactive compounds. Four biological samples, extracts of immature Zea mays kernels, immature seeds of Lupinus luteus, and Datura innoxia crown gall tumor tissue, and a sample of Agrobacterium tumefaciens culture supernatant, were purified by these chromatographic methods, using [3H]zeatin riboside as a recovery marker, and at each stage of the purification process, were subjected to radioimmunoassay over a range of dilutions. At each stage of sample purification, sample dilution curves were found to be parallel to the standard curve. Sample cytokinin levels estimated by radioimmunoassay were in close agreement to those available in the literature for similar samples assayed by alternative methods. However, in some samples, unknown cross-reacting compounds were detected. PMID:16663745

  2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy elucidation of the micromorphology of the leaf cuticle and analysis of its chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Nadiminti, Pavani P; Rookes, James E; Boyd, Ben J; Cahill, David M

    2015-11-01

    Electron microscopy techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been invaluable tools for the study of the micromorphology of plant cuticles. However, for electron microscopy, the preparation techniques required may invariably introduce artefacts in cuticle preservation. Further, there are a limited number of methods available for quantifying the image data obtained through electron microscopy. Therefore, in this study, optical microscopy techniques were coupled with staining procedures and, along with SEM were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the ultrastructure of plant leaf cuticles. Leaf cryosections of Triticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), and Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) were stained with either fat-soluble azo stain Sudan IV or fluorescent, diarylmethane Auramine O and were observed under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). For all the plant species tested, the cuticle on the leaf surfaces could be clearly resolved in many cases into cuticular proper (CP), external cuticular layer (ECL), and internal cuticular layer (ICL). Novel image data analysis procedures for quantifying the epicuticular wax micromorphology were developed, and epicuticular waxes of L. angustifolius were described here for the first time. Together, application of a multifaceted approach involving the use of a range of techniques to study the plant cuticle has led to a better understanding of cuticular structure and provides new insights into leaf surface architecture.

  3. The importance of host plant limitation for caterpillars of an arctiid moth (Platyprepia virginalis) varies spatially.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Grof-Tisza, Patrick; Maron, John L; Holyoak, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Spatial dynamic theories such as source-sink models frequently describe habitat-specific demographies, yet there are surprisingly few field studies that have examined how and why interacting species vary in their dynamics across multiple habitat types. We studied the spatial pattern of interaction between a chewing herbivore and its primary larval host plant in two habitat types. We found that the interaction between an arctiid caterpillar (Platyprepia virginalis) and its host (Lupinus arboreus) differed in wet vs. upland dry habitats, as did yearly population dynamics for the caterpillar. In upland sites, there was a strong positive relationship between lupine cover and the abundance of caterpillars although this relationship was not apparent in wet sites. Additionally, in wet sites, caterpillar populations were larger and less variable across years. Caterpillars appeared to exhibit source-sink dynamics, with the time-averaged finite growth rate lamda > 1 in wet sites (sources), lamda < 1 in upland dry sites (sinks), and predominant source-to-sink movement of late-instar caterpillars. Populations in upland dry sites also went locally extinct in years of low regional abundance. Emigration from wet sites could potentially explain the lack of coupling of herbivore and host plant dynamics in these sites. These results indicate that movement and other factors affecting demography are habitat-specific and have important implications for trophic control. Acknowledging such complexity makes simple models of trophic control seem overly general but may allow us to formulate more broadly applicable ecological models.

  4. Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island Song Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Michael D.; Sogge, Mark K.; Kern, Robert B.; Van Riper, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island (SMI) Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia micronyx) are described; nests are compared with those of 16 other races of Song Sparrows. Bush lupins (Lupinus albifrons), coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) and golden bush (Haplopappus venetus) were the shrubs used most commonly as nest sites by Song Sparrows on SMI. As a result of its location, the nest was effectively concealed from gray foxes (Urocyon littoralis), the major predator of this sparrow. Nest and nest site also moderated the combined chilling effects of cool air temperatures and strong northwesterly winds on the eggs and nestlings. Even in the absence of these moderating effects of the nest site, the energetic cost of incubation, estimated at 41-53% of the sparrow's resting metabolic rate, was modest. Twenty-nine percent of the canopy above the nest was open and as much as 73% of the nest cup was in the sun at midday, a time when surface temperatures of foliage, nest and nestlings sometimes exceeded 40 C. Whereas this exposure did not apparently reduce fledging success, it may explain why the incidence of addled eggs was so high in this population of Song Sparrows compared to others. Significant differences existed among races of Song Sparrows in the size, porosity and insulation of the nest. In most cases, these differences were not related to the latitude of the races' nesting areas.

  5. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  6. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  7. Root colonization of different plants by plant-growth-promoting Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 studied with monospecific polyclonal antisera.

    PubMed Central

    Schloter, M; Wiehe, W; Assmus, B; Steindl, H; Becke, H; Höflich, G; Hartmann, A

    1997-01-01

    Monospecific polyclonal antisera raised against Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39, a bacterium which was isolated originally from red clover nodules, were used to study the colonization of roots of leguminous and nonleguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Lupinus albus, Triticúm aestivum, and Zea mays) after inoculation. Eight weeks after inoculation of soil-grown plants, between 0.1 and 1% of the total bacterial population in the rhizospheres of all inoculated plants were identified as R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39. To characterize the associative colonization of the nonleguminous plants by R.leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 in more detail, a time course study was performed with inoculated roots of Z. mays. R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 was found almost exclusively in the rhizosphere soil and on the rhizoplane 4 weeks after inoculation. Colonization of inner root tissues was detected only occasionally at this time. During the process of attachment of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 to the rhizoplane, bacterial lipopolysaccharides were overexpressed, and this may be important for plant-microbe interaction. Fourteen weeks after inoculation, microcolonies of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 were detected in lysed cells of the root cortex as well as in intracellular space of central root cylinder cells. At the beginning of flowering (18 weeks after inoculation), the number of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 organisms decreased in the rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and inner root tissue. PMID:9143133

  8. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    PubMed

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations <900 mg kg(-1) only <10% of the poplar leaf area showed signs of toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.

  9. The occurrence of dauciform roots amongst Western Australian reeds, rushes and sedges, and the impact of phosphorus supply on dauciform-root development in Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Shane, Michael W; Dixon, Kingsley W; Lambers, Hans

    2005-03-01

    * The incidence of species that develop specialised 'dauciform' lateral roots, which are hypothesised to be important for phosphorus (P) acquisition, is uncertain. We investigated their occurrence in Australian reed, rush and sedge species, grown at low P concentration in nutrient solution, and studied the response of Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae) to a range of P concentrations. * We assessed the fraction of root biomass invested in dauciform roots, their respiration and net P-uptake rate, and the P status of roots and leaves. * Dauciform-root development occurred only in particular genera of Cyperaceae when grown at low P supply. Increased P supply was associated with increased growth of S. unispiculatus and increased leaf [P]. Dauciform-root growth was reduced by increased P supply, and reduced P uptake co-occurred with the complete suppression of dauciform roots. * The P-induced suppression of dauciform roots in Cyperaceae is similar to that observed for proteoid roots in members of Proteaceae and Lupinus albus. The response of dauciform roots to altered P supply and their absence from root systems of some sedge species are discussed in terms of managed and natural systems.

  10. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep).

  11. Storage proteins from Lathyrus sativus seeds.

    PubMed

    Rosa, M J; Ferreira, R B; Teixeira, A R

    2000-11-01

    The proteins from Lathyrus sativus Linn. (chickling vetch or grass pea) seeds were investigated. Protein constitutes approximately 20% of the seed dry weight, >60% of which is composed by globulins and 30% by albumins. A single, 24 kDa polypeptide comprises more than half of the protein present in the albumin fraction. The globulins may be fractionated into three main components, which were named alpha-lathyrin (the major globulin), beta-lathyrin, and gamma-lathyrin. alpha-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 18S, is composed of three main types of unglycosylated subunits (50-66 kDa), each of which produce, upon reduction, a heavy and a light polypeptide chain, by analogy with 11S. beta-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of 13S, is composed by a relatively large number of subunits (8-66 kDa). Two major polypeptides are glycosylated and exhibit structural similarity with beta-conglutin from Lupinus albus. One of these possesses an internal disulfide bond. gamma-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 5S, contains two interacting, unglycosylated polypeptides, with no disulfide bonds: the major 24 kDa albumin and the heavier (20 kDa) polypeptide chain of La. sativus lectin.

  12. A comparison of different legume seeds as protein supplement to optimise the use of low quality forages by ruminants.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Martín-García, Antonio I; Weisbjerg, Martin R; Hvelplund, Torben; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda

    2009-02-01

    The potential of different legume seeds species, including recently new developed varieties (Vicia faba: a commercial variety and varieties Alameda, Palacio and Baraka; Lupinus angustifolius; Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum: varieties Fardon and Zegri) as protein supplements to low quality forages was evaluated. First, the chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, in situ degradability and in vitro/in situ intestinal digestibility of legume seeds were determined. The chemical composition was rather similar within genus. Vicia faba beans contained more condensed tannins (35.8-56.4 g/kg DM) and less ether extract (12.8-9.5 g/kg DM) than the other legumes. The rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of the undegraded protein in the rumen was very similar among the seeds, with exception of lupins, having a much higher degradation rate than the rest. Second, the fermentation characteristics of diets, which were based on two low quality forages (olive leaves and barley straw) and feed blocks without or with supplementation of legume seeds or soybean meal, were investigated by using single-flow continuous culture fermenters. In this trial, the fermentation parameters (ammonia, pH and volatile fatty acids), the microbial protein synthesis and the degradation of olive leaves and barley straw promoted by the different diets were studied. Compared to soybean meal, beans and peas showed similar suitability as protein supplements for sustaining in vitro fermentation of low-quality forages. However, our results suggest a significant interaction between the type of legume used as supplement and the type of forage used, which need to be further studied in vivo.

  13. The cactus effect: an alternative to the lupin effect for increasing ovulation rate in sheep reared in semi-arid regions?

    PubMed

    Rekik, M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Lassoued, N; Ben Salem, H; Tounsi, A; Ben Salem, I

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of supplementation with cactus cladodes on follicular dynamics and ovulatory response of sheep reared in semi-arid areas. A total of 76 ewes were distributed into two equal groups supplemented with either concentrated feed or cactus cladodes. After 30 days of supplementation, no differences were found between feeding regimens on the final live weight (LW; 41.5 ± 0.6 and 42.1 ± 0.7 kg in the Concentrate and Cactus groups respectively) and body condition score (BCS; 1.8 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.4 for Concentrate and Cactus group respectively). Moreover, no differences were found between the initial and the final values of both LW and BCS; thus, there were no effects of supplementation on any of both parameters. Analysis of follicular population showed that, during the follicular phase induced by ram effect, the number of follicles reaching ovulatory size increased in both groups. However, the number was always higher in Cactus ewes and, at oestrus, Cactus ewes had 1.6 ± 0.2 and Concentrate sheep had 1.2 ± 0.2 large follicles (p < 0.05). Thereafter, ovulation rate was affected by duration of supplementation; being higher in sheep fed with cactus for 6-10 days (1.7 ± 0.1) than in ewes supplied with cactus for more than 11 days (1.3 ± 0.1; p < 0.05), in sheep fed with concentrate for 6-10 days (1.2 ± 0.1; p < 0.01) and even than in individuals subjected to classical flushing with concentrate (1.3 ± 0.1; p < 0.05).

  14. PATTERNS OF GENETIC VARIATION IN LUPINUS PERENNIS REVEALED BY MICROSATELLITE LOCI ISOLATED WITH A NOVEL CHROMOSOME-WALKING APPROACH. (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Testicular Dnmt3 expression and global DNA methylation are down-regulated by gonadotropin releasing hormones in the ricefield eel Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yize; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    In vertebrates, DNA methyltransferase 3 (Dnmt3) homologues are responsible for de novo DNA methylation and play important roles in germ cell development. In the present study, four dnmt3 genes, dnmt3aa, dnmt3ab, dnmt3ba and dnmt3bb.1, were identified in ricefield eels. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that all four dnmt3 mRNAs were detected broadly in tissues examined, with testicular expression at relatively high levels. In the testis, immunostaining for all four Dnmt3 forms was mainly localized to spermatocytes, which also contained highly methylated DNA. All three forms of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) in the ricefield eel were shown to decrease the expression of dnmt3 genes in the in vitro incubated testicular fragments through cAMP and IP3/Ca2+ pathways. Moreover, in vivo treatment of male fish with three forms of Gnrh decreased significantly the testicular Dnmt3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, and the global DNA methylation levels. These results suggest that the expression of Dnmt3 and global DNA methylation in the testis of ricefield eels are potentially down-regulated by Gnrh, and reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of testicular Dnmt3 expression in vertebrates. PMID:28225069

  16. [Karyological differences of the Northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma malma and the white char Salvelinus albus from the Kamchatka River basin].

    PubMed

    Frolov, S V

    2001-03-01

    The karyotypes of northern Dolly Varden and white char, sympathrically inhabiting the Kamchatka River basin, were studied. The karyotype of Dolly Varden was stable: 2n = 78 and NF = 98 + 2, while in white char, polymorphism and mosaicism for the chromosome number were revealed: 2n = 76-79, NF = 98 + 2. Using a routine chromosome staining technique, the karyotype of white char (2n = 78) was shown to be identical to that of Dolly Varden. In both karyotypes, similar sets of marker chromosomes were present: two pairs of submetacentric (SM), one pair of submeta-subtelocentric (SM-ST), one pair of large acrocentric (A), and one pair of large sub-telocentric (ST) chromosomes. However, the karyotypes of Dolly Varden and white char differed in the number and location of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). In Dolly Varden, single NORs located in the telomeric regions of the marker SM-ST chromosomes were observed. In white char, NORs were multiple and located both in the telomeric regions of the marker SM-ST chromosomes and on the short and long arms of large ST chromosomes. The identical marker chromosomes indicate considerable phylogenetic relatedness between Dolly Varden and white char from the Kamchatka River basin. Variation in NORs provides evidence for the reproductive isolation of these chars and their species status.

  17. Molecular cloning, genomic structure, polymorphism analysis and recombinant expression of a α1-antitrypsin like gene from swamp eel, Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Quanhe; Li, Shaobin; Jiang, Ao; Sun, Wenxiu

    2017-03-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a highly polymorphic glycoprotein antiprotease, involved in the regulation of human immune response. Beyond some genomic characterization and a few protein characterizations, the function of teleost AAT remains uncertain. In this study we cloned an AAT-like gene from a swamp eel liver identifying four exons and three introns, and the full-length cDNA. The elucidated swamp eel AAT amino acid sequence showed high homology with known AATs from other teleosts. The swamp eel AAT was examined both in ten healthy tissues and in four bacterially-stimulated tissues resulting in up-regulation of swamp eel AAT at different times. Swamp eel AAT transcripts were ubiquitously but unevenly expressed in ten tissues. Further, the mature peptide sequence of swamp eel AAT was subcloned and transformed into E. coli with the recombinant proteins successfully inhibiting bovine trypsin activity. Analysis of recombinant AAT showed equimolar formation of irreversible complexes with proteinases, high stability at pH 7.0-10.0 and temperatures below 55 °C. Serum AAT protein level significantly increased in response to inflammation with AAT anti-sera, and, NF-κB, apolipoprotein A1 and transferrin gene expression were dramatically decreased over 72 h post recombinant AAT injection. Lastly, examination of swamp eel AAT allelic polymorphism identified all alleles in both healthy and diseased stock except allele*g, found only in diseased stock, but without statistical difference between the distribution frequency of allele*g in the two stocks. These results are crucial to our ongoing study of the role of teleost AAT in the innate immune system.

  18. Epigenetic modifications during sex change repress gonadotropin stimulation of cyp19a1a in a teleost ricefield eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Zhixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2013-08-01

    In vertebrates, cytochrome P450 aromatase, encoded by cyp19a1, converts androgens to estrogens and plays important roles in gonadal differentiation and development. The present study examines whether epigenetic mechanisms are involved in cyp19a1a expression and subsequent gonadal development in the hermaphroditic ricefield eel. The expression of the ricefield eel cyp19a1a was stimulated by gonadotropin via the cAMP pathway in the ovary but not the ovotestis or testis. The CpG within the cAMP response element (CRE) of the cyp19a1a promoter was hypermethylated in the ovotestis and testis compared with the ovary. The methylation levels of CpG sites around CRE in the distal region (region II) and around steroidogenic factor 1/adrenal 4 binding protein sites and TATA box in the proximal region (region I) were inversely correlated with cyp19a1a expression during the natural sex change from female to male. In vitro DNA methylation decreased the basal and forskolin-induced activities of cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that histone 3 (Lys9) in both regions I and II of the cyp19a1a promoter were deacetylated and trimethylated in the testis, and in contrast to the ovary, phosphorylated CRE-binding protein failed to bind to these regions. Lastly, the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the natural sex change of ricefield eels. These results suggested that epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation and histone deacetylation and methylation may abrogate the stimulation of cyp19a1a by gonadotropins in a male-specific fashion. This may be a mechanism widely used to drive natural sex change in teleosts as well as gonadal differentiation in other vertebrates.

  19. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  20. Growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) was localized in the female as well as male germ cells in a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost fish, ricefield eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Wu, Yangsheng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Taixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) superfamily. As an oocyte-derived growth factor, GDF9 plays key roles in regulating follicle development. In the present study, we identified a gdf9 homologue from the ovary of ricefield eel, and analyzed its expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Ricefield eel Gdf9 showed high homologies with those of other teleosts, especially perciformes fish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ricefield eel gdf9 was expressed exclusively in the ovary and testis. The mRNA levels of gdf9 in the ovary were increased significantly at the pre-vitellogenic (PV) stage and then decreased significantly along with vitellogenesis. During the natural sex change, expression of ricefield eel gdf9 was peaked at the intersexual stages. The immunoreactivity for Gdf9 was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm of the oocytes in the ovary, particularly the oocytes at early stages, but not in the oogonia. Interestingly, strong immunoreactive signals were also detected in the degenerating oocytes in the intersexual gonad. Furthermore, the Gdf9 immunoreactivity was demonstrated for the first time to be localized in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes of ricefield eel, a teleost fish. Taken together, the results of present study suggested that Gdf9 may play important roles in the folliculogenesis as well as spermatogenesis in ricefield eels.

  1. Identification of a gonad-expression differential gene insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) in the swamp eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Mei, Jie; Yan, Wei; Fang, Jie; Yuan, Gailing; Chen, Nan; He, Yan

    2014-08-01

    In vertebrate species, the biopotential embryonic gonad differentiation is affected by many key genes and key steroidogenic enzymes. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) has been considered as an important sex-differentiation gene in mammals and could mediate the biological action of Igf1, an important regulator of key steroidogenic enzymes. However, Igf1r gene is still unknown in the swamp eel, an economically important fish. In our study, we identified Igf1r gene in the swamp eel, which was a 2,148-bp open-reading frame encoding a protein of 716 amino acids. The alignment and the phylogenetic tree showed that Igf1r of the swamp eel had a conservative sequence with other vertebrates, especial fishes. Western blotting of Igf1r showed that Igf1r expressed much more in ovotestis and testis than in ovary, indicating an important role of Igf1r during gonad differentiation. We analyzed ubiquitination of Igf1r by co-immunoprecipitation and found the amount of ubiquitinated Igf1r was increased from ovary, ovotestis to testis, which was reversely to the trend of Hsp10 expression during gonadal transformation. It was possible that Hsp10 could suppress Igf1r ubiquitination during gonadal development of the swamp eel.

  2. Nutrition and colostrum production in sheep. 2. Metabolic and hormonal responses to different energy sources in the final stages of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Martin, G B; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R

    2004-01-01

    Lupins and maize, with similar concentrations of metabolisable energy, should produce similar responses in colostrum production at parturition when fed during the last week of pregnancy, but, in the present study, we tested the proposal that the physical form of whole lupins would restrict intake and, therefore, the response compared with cracked lupins or maize. Fifty-five twin-bearing ewes were divided into four groups: in the last 15 days of pregnancy, 14 were fed whole lupins, 13 were fed cracked lupins, 14 were fed cracked maize and 14 received no supplement. The cracked supplements were fed in increasing amounts for 6 days to avoid acidosis. The whole lupins were fed only from Day -8. All supplementary grains increased the intake of metabolisable energy by >35%, but only ewes eating maize accumulated significantly more colostrum at parturition: control, 207 g; cracked maize, 452 g; cracked lupins, 206 g; whole lupins, 231 g (P < 0.05). Plasma urea concentrations were extremely high (approximately 10 mmol L(-1)) for both groups eating lupins and approximately double those of control ewes or those receiving maize ( P < 0.05). We conclude that gut distention is not a cause of a poor response to lupins, but the ammonia associated with near-toxic concentrations of plasma urea may be affecting the production of colostrum.

  3. Response of butterflies to structural and resource boundaries.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Cheryl B; Franco, Aldina M A; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2012-05-01

    1. Two aspects of landscape composition shape the behavioural response of animals to habitat heterogeneity: physical habitat structure and abundance of key resources. In general, within-habitat movement behaviour has been investigated in relation to resources, and preference at boundaries has been quantified in response to physical structure. 2. Habitat preference studies suggest that responses to resources vs. structure should differ, e.g. between male and female animals, and effects of responses to structure and resources may also interact. However, most studies of animal movement combine various aspects of behavioural responses to 'habitat', implicitly assuming that resources and structure are broadly equivalent. 3. We conducted a large-scale experiment of the movement of Fender's blue (Icaricia icarioides fenderi), an endangered butterfly, to investigate butterfly response to physical structure of the landscape (prairie, open woods and dense woods) and to resources [presence or absence of Kincaid's lupine, Lupinus oreganus (larval hostplant patches)]. The experiment included 606 butterfly flight paths across four habitat types and nine ecotones. 4. Responses to physical structure and resource patches were not congruent. Butterflies were attracted to resource patches within both prairies and open woods and moved more slowly when in resource patches. Butterflies tended to prefer prairie at prairie-forest edges but tended to move faster in prairies than in open woods. Physical structure and resources also interacted; butterflies did not respond to physical habitat structure when resource patches spanned prairie - open woods ecotones. 5. Even dense woods were not perfect barriers, in contrast to a large body of literature that assumes insects from open habitats will not enter dense forests. 6. Movement of both males and females responded to resources and structure. However, female butterflies had stronger responses to both resources and structure in most cases

  4. Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10

  5. The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients.

    PubMed

    Otoom, S A; Al-Safi, S A; Kerem, Z K; Alkofahi, A

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. To date, there have been no reports on the frequency of use of herb medicines in the managements of diabetes mellitus in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 310 diabetic patients visiting two medical centers in Jordan: Jordan University of Science & Technology Medical Center and Sarih Medical Center between December 2003 and August 2004. It is found that 31% of interviewed patients have used herbal products (96 patients). The results revealed that the most commonly used herbs by diabetic patients in Jordan were Trigonella foenumgraecum (22.9%), Lupinus albus (14.6%), Allium sativum (11.5%), Allium cepa (5.2%), Nigella sativa (7.3%), Zea mays L. (6.3%), Urtica dioica L. (8.3%), Eucalyptus globules LA (9.4%), Olea europea L. (3.1%), Cumminum cyminum (9.4%), Coriandrum sativum (10.4%), Salvia officinalis L. (3.1%), and Tilia cordata (1%). Furthermore, it is found that 47.9% of the patients used herbs according to advice from their friends on a daily basis. The side effects were reported by 36.5% of the patients and include headache, nausea, dizziness, itching, palpitation, and sweating. Among the patients, 72.9% used the herbs as adjunctive therapy along with their anti-diabetic drugs and 80.2% of the patients informed their physicians about their use. A 79.2% of the sample confirmed their intention to re-use these herbs as 86.5% of them were satisfied with their diabetes control. There was a significant relationship between the use of herbs, the patient's place of residence and his/her level of education. The main conclusion of this survey is that the use of medicinal herbs among diabetic patient in Jordan is common. Therefore, it is essential to increase the level of awareness among diabetic patients and health care providers regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these medicinal herbs.

  6. Dynamics of air gap formation around roots with changing soil water content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetterlein, D.; Carminati, A.; Weller, U.; Oswald, S.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    Most models regarding uptake of water and nutrients from soil assume intimate contact between roots and soil. However, it is known for a long time that roots may shrink under drought conditions. Due to the opaque nature of soil this process could not be observed in situ until recently. Combining tomography of the entire sample (field of view of 16 x 16 cm, pixel side 0.32 mm) with local tomography of the soil region around roots (field of view of 5 x 5 cm, pixel side 0.09 mm), the high spatial resolution required to image root shrinkage and formation of air-filled gaps around roots could be achieved. Applying this technique and combining it with microtensiometer measurements, measurements of plant gas exchange and microscopic assessment of root anatomy, a more detailed study was conducted to elucidate at which soil matric potential roots start to shrink in a sandy soil and which are the consequences for plant water relations. For Lupinus albus grown in a sandy soil tomography of the entire root system and of the interface between taproot and soil was conducted from day 11 to day 31 covering two drying cycles. Soil matric potential decreased from -36 hPa at day 11 after planting to -72, -251, -429 hPa, on day 17, 19, 20 after planting. On day 20 an air gap started to occur around the tap root and extended further on day 21 with matric potential below -429 hPa (equivalent to 5 v/v % soil moisture). From day 11 to day 21 stomatal conductivity decreased from 467 to 84 mmol m-2 s-1, likewise transpiration rate decreased and plants showed strong wilting symptoms on day 21. Plants were watered by capillary rise on day 21 and recovered completely within a day with stomatal conductivity increasing to 647 mmol m-2 s-1. During a second drying cycle, which was shorter as plants continuously increased in size, air gap formed again at the same matric potential. Plant stomatal conductance and transpiration decreased in a similar fashion with decreasing matric potential and

  7. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  8. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  9. Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and clef...

  10. Nutrient Limitation of Native and Invasive N2-Fixing Plants in Northwest Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope δ15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar δ15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar δ15N averaged −0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar δ15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications. PMID

  11. Nutrient limitation of native and invasive N2-fixing plants in northwest prairies.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Andrea S; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope δ(15)N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar δ(15)N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar δ(15)N averaged -0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar δ(15)N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications.

  12. Nutrient limitation of native and invasive N2-fixing plants in northwest prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven S.; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope δ15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar δ15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar δ15N averaged −0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar δ15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications.

  13. European marketable grain legume seeds: Further insight into phenolic compounds profiles.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Sara C Q; Taveira, Marcos; Cabrita, Ana R J; Fonseca, António J M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2017-01-15

    Twenty-nine mature raw varieties of grain legume seeds (chickpeas, field peas, faba beans, common vetch and lupins) produced in Europe were investigated for their phenolic profile by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). To the best of our knowledge, this study reported for the first time the phenolic composition of mature raw seeds of chickpea type Desi, field pea and common vetch. Phenolic acids were predominant compounds in chickpeas, field peas and common vetch compared to flavonoids, whereas the opposite was observed for lupin seeds. Yellow lupins presented the highest levels of total phenolic compounds followed by narrow-leafed lupins (in average 960 and 679mg/kg, dry basis, respectively), whereas Kabuli chickpeas got the lowest ones (in average 47mg/kg, dry basis). Principal component analysis revealed that flavones and total levels of phenolic compounds were responsible for nearly 51% of total data variability.

  14. 26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND DESK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  15. 14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE WOODEN WINDOW FRAMES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  16. 10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE DECK, SHOWING MOST OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. 13. CO'S STATEROOM (CABIN'S QUARTERS), PORT EXTERIOR. NOTE PORTHOLE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CO'S STATEROOM (CABIN'S QUARTERS), PORT EXTERIOR. NOTE PORTHOLE AND WOODEN FRAME WINDOWS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  18. 8. FOCASTLE DECK TOWARDS STERN, WINCHES (EITHER SIDE) ARE REPLACEMENTS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FOCASTLE DECK TOWARDS STERN, WINCHES (EITHER SIDE) ARE REPLACEMENTS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  19. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Privatization and Construction of Single Family Housing in Magnolia Grove, Lowndes County, Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-25

    heron (Nycticorax violaceus), green heron (Butorides striatus), snowy egret ( Egretta thula ), great egret (Casmerodius albus), least bittern...Nerodia fasciata), rough earth snake (Virginia striatula), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), little blue heron ( Egretta caerulea), yellow-crowned night

  1. Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) for Minor Construction Projects at F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-07

    Sterna antillarum), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), piping plover (Charadrius melodus) , western prairie fringed orchid (Piatanthera...fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara), and the whooping crane (Grus americana) and its designated critical habitat. We appreciate your efforts to

  2. Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) for Minor Construction Projects at F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Sterna antillarum), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), piping plover (Charadrius melodus) , western prairie fringed orchid (Piatanthera...fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara), and the whooping crane (Grus americana) and its designated critical habitat. We appreciate your efforts to

  3. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    bromeIBromus mollis soft chess Bromus rigidus ripgut grass Bromus rubens red bromeICalochortus albus var. albus white globe lily Calystegia purpurata ssp... Bromus diandrus Rip-gut Brome Bromus mollis Soft Chess Bromus sp. Brome Grass Cakile maritima Sea Rocket Camissonia cheiranthifolia Beach Evening...Seed for native grass species, primarily Stipa sp., Bromus carinatus, Elymus glaucus, and Danthonia califomica, would be collected within Garland

  4. Medical Entomology Studies - VII. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia. II - The Edwardsi Group of Species. III - The W-Albus Group of Species. (Diptera: Culicidae). VIII: Notes on the Taxonomic Status of Aedes Vittatus (Deptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 14, Number 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...l?, l$ terminalia; (1914, Ludlow), 2?. REMARKS. 1926: 475). I have not seen specimens of gay &&i from Soemba (Brug, TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION. Aedes...Thailand. The Malaysian larvae were obtained from eggs laid by wild caught females in the laboratory. The speci- mens from India were found in plain and

  5. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The imperiled frosted elfin butterfly, Callophrys irus Godart, is restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where its larval host plants, Lupinus perennis L. and Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. occur. C. irus pupae are noted to reside in both leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape dir...

  6. Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants often synthesize secondary metabolites that are enantiomers. Enantiomers can cause very different physiological responses. Ammodendrine (1) and anabasine (2) are teratogens that can cause congenital malformations in livestock and enantiomeric forms of each have been found in Lupinus spp. an...

  7. Vegetation Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Astragalus missouriensis Missouri Milkvetch PF N Gledltsia triacanthos: Honey Locust T I Glycyrrhiza lepidota Wild Licorice ITF N Lupinus argenteus...Compositae Euthamia occidentali~s Western Goldenrod Cornpositae Glycyrrhiza lepidota Wild Licorice Legtiminosae Hippochaete laevigata Scouring Rush...Convolvulaceae E.rysinum cheiranthoides Little Wallflower Cruciferae Euphorbia cyparissias Spurge Euphorbiaceae Glycyrrhiza lepidota Wild Licorice Leguminosae

  8. Cellular localization of quinolizidine alkaloids by laser desorption mass spectrometry (LAMMA 1000).

    PubMed

    Wink, M; Heinen, H J; Vogt, H; Schiebel, H M

    1984-12-01

    Stem sections of Lupinus polyphyllus and Cytisus scoparius have been analyzed for the distribution of quinolizidine alkaloids by laser desorption mass spectrometry, employing a LAMMA 1000 instrument. Sparteine and lupanine could be recorded and were found to be restricted to the epidermis and probably also to the neighbouring 1 or 2 subepidermal cell layers.

  9. Investigation of wind and water level for the Giacomini Wetland Restoration Project, Point Reyes National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, John R.; Anima, Roberto J.

    2007-01-01

    Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS), comprising unique elements of geological, biological, and historical interest, is located on the central California coast approximately 60 km northwest of San Francisco. The National Seashore contains nearly 130 km of exposed and protected shorelines, spectacular coastal cliffs and headlands, lagoons, open grasslands, bushy hillsides, and forested ridges. Approximately 30 km of the shoreline are coastal-dune habitat that supports 11 federally listed species, including the threatened western snowy plover and the endangered plants Tidestrom's lupine (Lupinus tidestromii) and beach layia (Layia carnosa). The San Andreas Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip fault, trends northwest along the northeastern side of the park. Tomales Bay, which is straight, long, narrow, and shallow, runs along the northeastern boundary of PRNS. The Bay, which fills the northwestern end of a rift valley at the intersection of the San Andreas Fault with the coastline, is approximately 20 km long, 2 km wide, and 6 m deep with mountainous terrain to the southwest and rolling hills to the northeast. Tomales Bay is one of the cleanest estuaries on the West Coast. In winter, approximately 17,000 to 20,000 shorebirds inhabit Tomales Bay and Bodega Bay, which lies directly to the north. At the head of Tomales Bay, the Giacomini Ranch comprises 563 acres of pastureland currently being used for grazing dairy cattle. After more than 50 years of operation as a dairy, the National Park Service acquired the Giacomini property with the intention to restore most of it and the nearby Olema Marsh to tidal wetland. Restoration will add approximately 4% to the existing coastal wetlands in California. The project will return the headwaters of Tomales Bay and two major stream intersections to an intertidal marsh environment, enhancing habitat for both wildlife and fish populations and contributing to the long-term health of Tomales Bay. Prior to the establishment of the ranch

  10. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats.

    PubMed

    Welch, K D; Panter, K E; Lee, S T; Gardner, D R

    2015-01-01

    Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as "crooked calf syndrome" that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lupines. Similar malformations are also seen in animals poisoned by Conium maculatum (coniine) and Nicotiana glauca (anabasine). A proposed management strategy to limit these types of birth defects includes utilizing an intermittent grazing schedule to allow short durations of grazing lupine-infested areas interrupted by movement to a lupine-free pasture. The objective of this study was to use a goat model to determine if an intermittent schedule of five continuous days on treatment followed by two days off treatment would be sufficient to decrease, or prevent, the incidence of anabasine-induced malformations. The data from this study suggest that, for N. glauca in goats, the intermittent grazing program of five days exposure with two days of non-exposure is insufficient to prevent significant skeletal malformations from occurring. However, this study did demonstrate an inverse relationship between the amount of serum anabasine in the dam and the extent of fetal movement.

  11. The Relationship Between Ants and Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) at Concord Pine Barrens, NH, USA.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Elizabeth G; Thiet, Rachel K

    2016-04-22

    The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is a federally listed, endangered species that has experienced dramatic decline over its historic range. In surviving populations, Karner blue butterflies have a facultative mutualism with ants that could be critically important to their survival where their populations are threatened by habitat loss or disturbance. In this study, we investigated the effects of ants, wild blue lupine population status (native or restored), and fire on adult Karner blue butterfly abundance at the Concord Pine Barrens, NH, USA. Ant frequency (the number of times we collected each ant species in our pitfall traps) was higher in restored than native lupine treatments regardless of burn status during both Karner blue butterfly broods, and the trend was statistically significant during the second brood. We observed a positive relationship between adult Karner blue butterfly abundance and ant frequency during the first brood, particularly on native lupine, regardless of burn treatment. During the second brood, adult Karner blue butterfly abundance and ant frequency were not significantly correlated in any treatments or their combinations. Our findings suggest that a combination of native and restored lupine is important for supporting both Karner blue butterflies and ants at the Concord Pine Barrens, and that burning does not affect the mutualism. Thus, scientists and managers at the site may wish to target their habitat management activities to best support both Karner blue butterflies and the particular ant species that provide the greatest benefit to their survival.

  12. Sequence variation of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region among isolates of Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a common and highly heterogeneous fungal species. Sub-specific groups have been created based on hyphal anastomosis (AGs). One of the newer AGs described is AG-11 from soybean and rice seedlings or soil in Arkansas and lupine in Australia (Carling et al. Phytopathology 84:1378-...

  13. [Optimization of a spaghetti formula enriched with dietary fiber and micronutrients for elderly people].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; Serrano, Lisis; Bunger, Andrea; Soto, Delia; López, Luis; Hernández, Nieves; Ruales, Jenny

    2002-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated low dietary fiber intake in elderly people, which increases the risk of diseases such as constipation, colon cancer and diverticulosis. A spaghetti formula enriched with lupin fibre was developed to increase the dietary fibre intake in elderly people, as spaghetti are frequently consumed in this age group. Sweet lupin bran (Vitafiber) was used as fibre source and gluten was used as improving additive. Response surface methodology with a two variable composite rotatable design was applied to optimize the formulations. The independent variables were lupin bran (7.14-14.29%) and gluten Vital (0.1-2.0%). The dependent variables were the responses of a trained 10-member sensory panel who evaluated the sensory quality parameters color, shape, aroma, flavor and texture by the Karlsruhe 9-point test. The optimized formula was prepared with 66.7% semoline, 7.14% lupin bran, 1.05% gluten and 24.7% water, enriched with 0.019% of a vitamin premix (A. E, D, B2, B12 and folic acid) and with 0.41% of a mineral premix (Ca, Fe, Zn), in order to meet 30% of the RDA for the elderly per 100 g dry spaghetti. The dietary fibre content of the optimized product was 11.05 g/100 g. The study showed that fibre-enriched spaghetti formula is a good way to increase dietary fibre intake in elderly people, as it is a common food, simple to prepare and easy to eat.

  14. 36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING AT TWO DIESEL ENGINES, STAIRS LEAD UP TO CREW'S BERTHING. THIS IMAGE IS CLOSER TO THE STERN AND MORE ANGLED TOWARDS THE PORT THAN IMAGE 34. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  15. Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratology, as a scientific discipline, is relatively new and recognition of poisonous plants that cause birth defects in livestock only came to the forefront in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The Veratrum-induced “monkey faced” lamb syndrome and lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”, both studied extensive...

  16. Insects associated with winter legume cover crops in a sorghum for Bio-fuel and cotton rotation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of novel crops for bio-fuel production requires evaluating the potential for sound ecological and economical implementation in a particular region. We examined the pest and generalist beneficial insect species associated with various winter cover crops (including narrowleaf lupin, white vetch, ...

  17. Characterization of Plant-derived Dissolved Organic Matter by Multiple Spectroscopic Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from fresh or early-stage decomposing soil amendment materials may play an important role in the process of organic matter accumulation. In this study, eight DOM samples from alfalfa, corn, crimson clover, hairy vetch, lupin, soybean, wheat and dairy manure wer...

  18. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  19. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as “crooked calf syndrome” that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lup...

  20. Rapeseed-legume intercrops: plant growth and nitrogen balance in early stages of growth and development.

    PubMed

    Génard, Thaïs; Etienne, Philippe; Diquélou, Sylvain; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Revellin, Cécile; Laîné, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    In this study we tested whether legumes can improve the growth and N and S nutrition of rapeseed in an intercropping system and compared the effect of mixtures on legume N-fixation and soil N-resources. Rapeseed was cultivated in low N conditions in monocrops using one (R) or two plants (RR) per pot and in mixtures with lupine, clover or vetch. The R monocrop was the most relevant control, intraspecific competition inducing a significant growth delay resulting in a significantly lower leaf number, in RR monocrop compared to R and the three mixtures considered. Plant biomass, and the N and S contents of rapeseed grown in mixtures were the same than those measured in R monocrop. Compared to the monocrop, the proportion of N derived from the atmosphere was increased by 34, 140 and 290% in lupine, clover and vetch, respectively when intercropped with rapeseed. In mixture with clover and lupine, the soil N pool at harvest was higher than in other treatments, while N export by crop was constant. Legumes suffered from competition for soil S resulting in a decrease of 40% in their S content compared to the monocrop. Compared to rapeseeds grown in R monocrop and in mixture with lupine and vetch, rapeseed mixed with clover showed significantly higher SPAD values in old leaves. In our conditions, mixing legumes with rapeseed is relevant to reduce N fertilization and improve nutrition and growth of rapeseed.

  1. Effect of heat treatment on nutritional quality of germinated legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Trugo, L C; Donangelo, C M; Trugo, N M; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2000-06-01

    The effect of heat treatment of germinated soybean, lupin, and black bean on chemical composition and protein utilization in rats was evaluated. Heat treatment caused complete inactivation of trypsin inhibitors whereas it did not affect phytic acid levels. Proximate components, minerals, and amino acids did not change, but low molecular weight sugars were affected by heat treatment differently for each germinated legume. The sugar digestibility ratio (total digestible sugars/total nondigestible sugars) in germinated black beans doubled after heat treatment. True protein digestibility (TD) increased with heat treatment only in germinated soybean. Net protein utilization was markedly improved (20%) with heat treatment in germinated soybean and lupin. Utilizable protein of heat-treated germinated legumes was 289, 236, and 132 g/kg of legume dry weight for soybean, lupin, and black bean, respectively. Supplementation with methio