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Sample records for lupins lupinus albus

  1. Organic Weed Control in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...

  2. Leghemoglobin in Lupin Plants (Lupinus albus cv Multolupa) 1

    PubMed Central

    Vivo, Amparo; Andreu, José Manuel; de la Viña, Sonsoles; de Felipe, María Rosario

    1989-01-01

    Leghemoglobin was localized by immunogold techniques in nodules of Lupinus albus cv Multolupa inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strain ISLU 16. The protein localization was performed in nodules embedded in Spurr's and Araldite epoxy resins and Lowycryl K4M. A very good preservation of both the ultrastructure and antigenicity was obtained with the tissues embedded in Araldite following glutaraldehyde fixation and unpostfixed in osmium tetroxide. Lupin leghemoglobin is a stable and abundant protein which allows a conventional method to be safely used for localization of leghemoglobin. Labeling of leghemoglobin was specifically confined to the cytosol matrix and nuclei. Gold particles were never observed in the peribacteroidal spaces nor in the cytoplasmic organelles of the infected cells. Decrease of leghemoglobin was observed when the plants were grown with 10.7 micromolar and 21.4 micromolar of nitrate. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16666792

  3. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    PubMed

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in protein content of bulgur compared with lupin seeds. Phytic acid losses in bitter and sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  4. Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

    PubMed Central

    Borek, Sławomir; Pukacka, Stanisława; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7–14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (–S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed. PMID:19635747

  5. Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    PubMed

    Borek, Slawomir; Pukacka, Stanisława; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7-14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

  6. Comparison of nutritional and antinutritional traits among different species (Lupinus albus L., Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius L.) and varieties of lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Musco, N; Cutrignelli, M I; Calabrò, S; Tudisco, R; Infascelli, F; Grazioli, R; Lo Presti, V; Gresta, F; Chiofalo, B

    2017-01-30

    In order to promote the use of lupin in pig nutrition, in this research the nutritional characteristics (i.e. dietary fibre, alkaloid and fatty acid profile) and the in vitro gas production of 12 lupin varieties grown in the Mediterranean basin and belonging to three lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus) were assessed. Four varieties of L. albus (Asfer, Lublanc, Lutteur and Multitalia) were grown in South Campania. Three varieties of L. luteus (Dukat, Mister and Taper), three of L. angustifolius (Jindalee, Sonet and Wonga) and two of L. albus (Rosetta and Luxor) were grown in Eastern Sicily. Lupinus albus varieties showed interesting nutritional and dietetic characteristics (i.e. high protein and low fibre content); the lipid fraction, rather elevated, is well represented by monounsaturated fatty acids (544 g/kg), whereas saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are less represented (167 g/kg) and the n-3/n-6 ratio (0.510) is the most favourable. Lupinus luteus varieties presented the most remarkable dietetic aspects, in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content (569 g/kg), n-6 PUFA series (490 g/kg), UFA/SFA (5.24) and PUFA/SFA (3.56) ratios and atherogenic (0.059) and thrombogenic (0.100) indices and very low alkaloid content (1.07 mg per 100 g). Lupinus angustifolius varieties showed the least interesting nutritional and dietetic characteristics: low protein and fat content, high fibre level, high SFA amount (248 g/kg) and the lowest favourable nutritional indices (IA: 0.164 and IT: 0.334). Regarding the fermentation process, in L. albus, the tendency to increase the rate of gas production during the early stages of fermentation suggests that the high presence of alkaloids did not affect the in vitro degradability, production of short-chain fatty acids and fermentation process, probably due to their concentration and/or water solubility. Lupinus angustifolius and L. luteus showed intermediate and slightly worse in

  7. Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Peel, Gregory J; Lei, Zhentian; Aziz, Naveed; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; Watson, Bonnie; Zhao, Patrick X; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy) metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy) metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits. PMID:19123941

  8. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of

  9. Effects of extracts of lupine seed on blood glucose levels in glucose resistant mice: antihyperglycemic effects of Lupinus albus (white lupine, Egypt) and Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine, Mesa Verde National Park).

    PubMed

    Knecht, Kathryn T; Nguyen, Hoa; Auker, Adrienne D; Kinder, David H

    2006-01-01

    Lupine is a medicinal food plant with potential value in the management of diabetes. In white mice, extracts of seeds of the white lupine [Lupinus albus (L. termis L.)] were associated with increased tolerance to an oral glucose bolus. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole seed but not extracts of the seed coat, and was not detected when glucose was administered intraperitoneally rather than orally. However, in contrast to results seen with the prescription drug, acarbose, lupine extract did not appear to increase the bulk or carbohydrate content of the feces. Antihyperglycemic activity was also seen in extracts of the tailcup lupine (L. caudatus) found in the Four Corners Region of the United States.

  10. Hormonal interactions during cluster-root development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Rahman, A B M Moshiur; Wang, Guoying; Ludewig, Uwe; Shen, Jianbo; Neumann, Günter

    2015-04-01

    This study addresses hormonal interactions involved in cluster-root (CR) development of phosphate (Pi)-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus), which represents the most efficient plant strategy for root-induced mobilisation of sparingly soluble soil phosphorus (P) sources. Shoot-to-root translocation of auxin was unaffected by P-limitation, while strong stimulatory effects of external sucrose on CR formation, even in P-sufficient plants, suggest sucrose, rather than auxins, acts as a shoot-borne signal, triggering the induction of CR primordia. Ethylene may act as mediator of the sucrose signal, as indicated by moderately increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis in pre-emergent clusters and by strong inhibitory effects of the ethylene antagonist CoCl2 on CR formation induced by sucrose amendments or P-limitation. As reported in other plants, moderately increased production of brassinosteroids (BRs) and cytokinin, in pre-emergent clusters, may be required for the formation of auxin gradients necessary for induction of CR primordia via interference with auxin biosynthesis and transport. The well-documented inhibition of root elongation by high doses of ethylene may be involved in the growth inhibition of lateral rootlets during CR maturation, indicated by a massive increased expression of gene involved in ethylene production, associated with a declined expression of transcripts with stimulatory effects (BR and auxin-related genes). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J.; Harper, John D.I.; Ash, Gavin J.; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R.; Phan, Huyen T.T.; Raman, Harsh

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies. PMID:24273424

  12. Comparison of the response to phosphorus deficiency in two lupin species, Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius, with contrasting root morphology.

    PubMed

    Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots, an adaptation to low soil phosphorus (P). Cluster roots exude large levels of P-solubilizing compounds such as citrate and malate. In contrast, narrow leaf lupin (L. angustifolius) is closely related to L. albus, but does not produce cluster roots. To examine the different strategies for P acquisition, we compared the growth, biomass allocation, respiratory properties and construction cost between L. albus and L. angustifolius under P-deficient conditions. Both Lupinus species were grown in hydroponic culture with 1 or 100 μM P. Under the P-deficient regime, L. albus produced cluster roots with little change in biomass allocation, while L. angustifolius significantly increased biomass allocation to roots. The rate of cyanide-resistant SHAM (salicylhydroxamic acid)-sensitive respiration was high in cluster roots and very low in roots of L. angustifolius. These results suggest a low alternative oxidase (AOX) activity in L. angustifolius roots, and thus, ATP would be produced efficiently in L. angustifolius roots. The construction cost was highest in cluster roots and lowest in L. angustifolius roots. This study shows that under P deficiency, L. albus produces high-cost cluster roots to increase the P availability, while L. angustifolius produces large quantities of low-cost roots to enhance P uptake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil.

  14. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P.; White, Philip J.; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m–2 s–1 or 600 µmol m–2 s–1 light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  15. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Evaluation of herbicide efficacy, injury and yield in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin is of increasing interest in the southeastern USA as a winter legume cover crop or as mid-winter forage for ruminants. White lupins are poor weed competitors during early establishment which makes effective weed control necessary, however, only three herbicides are currently registered f...

  17. Influence of graded inclusion of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal on performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Hejdysz, M; Kubiś, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal (WLM) addition on the intestinal viscosity, bird performance, nutrient utilisation and villi morphology of growing broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted with 480 broiler chicks divided into 6 dietary treatments, including a maize-soybean meal control diet (CON) and 5 experimental diets containing 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 g/kg WLM. During the period from d 0 to 35, birds fed on 200 or higher WLM/kg were characterised by lower body weight gain and feed intake than CON. The use of 150 g of WLM/kg increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero N balance (AMEN) and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and starch, linearly decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. There was a quadratic effect of WLM dose on sialic acid excretion. A strong negative linear correlation was found between the excretion of sialic acid and AMEN. The viscosity of ileal digesta was linearly increased as WLM increased. The effect of WLM dose on ileum villus height (VH) was linear, while that on ileum villus area (VA) was quadratic. Both parameters decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. In conclusion, the use of over 150 g/kg of WLM in broiler diets depressed performance results. However, depression of nutrient utilisation was only observed when 250 or 300 g/kg of WLM was used.

  18. Dietary micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) in meat-type guinea fowls and its influence on growth performance, carcass traits and meat lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Demauro, R; Laudadio, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with micronized-dehulled white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Multitalia) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass traits, and meat fatty acids composition. A total of 120 one-day-old guinea fowl females were randomly assigned to 2 treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 wk of age. Birds were fed 2 wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (195 g/kg) and a test diet containing micronized-dehulled lupin (240 g/kg) as the main protein source. Replacing SBM with treated lupin had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative to the weight of guinea fowls. A decrease (P < 0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed lupin-diet. Breast muscle from birds fed lupin had higher lightness (L*) (P < 0.01) and redness (a*) (P < 0.05) scores and water-holding capacity (P < 0.05) than the SBM-control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed lupin had less total lipids (P < 0.05) and cholesterol (P < 0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.01). Feeding treated lupin increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in breast meat and decreased saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentrations. Our findings suggest that replacing SBM as protein source with micronized-dehulled lupin in meat-type guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative characteristics, enhancing also meat lipid profile with no effect on growth traits.

  19. Nutritional quality of lupine (Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa) as affected by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C; Marcus, D; Guzmán, E; Campos, R; von Bäer, D; Trugo, L

    1991-12-01

    The effects of selected NRRL strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. buchneri, L. cellobiosus and L. fermentum upon oligosaccharide, phytate and alkaloid contents, as well as on the nutritive value of lupine, were investigated. Lupine was processed to a 12% total solids suspension, inoculated with 1% (v/v) cultures and fermented until a final desired pH of 4.5. L. acidophilus B-2092 and L. buchneri B-1837 growth was related to a significant sucrose breakdown and decreases of phytates, whereas L. acidophilus B-1910 and L. fermentum B-585 reduced the content of flatulence oligosaccharides. The activity of L. acidophilus B-1910 was particularly associated with lowering of alkaloids and increase of riboflavin. Lactic acid fermentation produced slight changes in lysine and methionine contents. No significant differences in net protein ratio values and protein digestibility were found between fermented and unfermented lupine (P less than 0.05). A 1:1 ratio mixture of B-1910 and B-2092 strains of L. acidophilus lead to a final fermented lupine with nutritional advantages to those given by the individual cultures.

  20. The First Genetic and Comparative Map of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.): Identification of QTLs for Anthracnose Resistance and Flowering Time, and a Locus for Alkaloid Content

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Huyen T. T.; Ellwood, Simon R.; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant × P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P < 0.05. Syntenic relationships between Medicago truncatula and L. albus were complex. Forty-five orthologous markers that mapped between M. truncatula and L. albus identified 17 small syntenic blocks, and each M. truncatula chromosome aligned to between one and six syntenic blocks in L. albus. Genetic mapping of three important traits: anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

  1. Purification and characterization of three phytases from germinated lupine seeds (Lupinus albus var. amiga).

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ralf

    2002-11-06

    Three phytases were purified about 14200-fold (LP11), 16000-fold (LP12), and 13100-fold (LP2) from germinated 4-day-old lupine seedlings to apparent homogeneity with recoveries of 13% (LP11), 8% (LP12), and 9% (LP2) referred to the phytase activity in the crude extract. They behave as monomeric proteins of a molecular mass of about 57 kDa (LP11 and LP12) and 64 kDa (LP2), respectively. The purified proteins belong to the acid phytases. They exhibit a single pH optimum at 5.0. Optimal temperature for the degradation of sodium phytate is 50 degrees C. Kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of sodium phytate are K(M) = 80 microM (LP11), 300 microM (LP12), and 130 microM (LP2) and k(cat) = 523 s(-1) (LP11), 589 s(-1) (LP12), and 533 s(-1) (LP2) at pH 5.0 and 35 degrees C. The phytases from lupine seeds exhibit a broad affinity for various phosphorylated compounds and hydrolyze phytate in a stepwise manner.

  2. [Genetic control of protein synthesis of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) seeds].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Knyazeva, I P; Ogulya, A P; Sorokopudova, O A

    2013-06-01

    Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the glycine-acetic acid system (pH 3.2), variants of proteins of white-lupine seeds were revealed. The study of conglutin polymorphism in the culture of the autogamous population F(--> infinity) (var. Dega) revealed two loci, Con A and Con B, which control protein synthesis. The loci were situated in the same linkage group within a distance of 11.48 +/- 3.4% of recombination. Natural selection in favor ofgenotypes that contain Con A1 Con B2 alleles is proposed. It is established that conglutins A and B (CON A and CON B) contain cysteine residues, which form intermolecular disulfide bonds between peptides.

  3. [Possibilities of Lupinus mutabolis and Lupinus albus in the Andean countries].

    PubMed

    Gross, R; von Baer, E

    1977-12-01

    Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis may achieve importance among the andean countries in which soy bean can not grow due to ecological reasons. Both lupin varieties are outstanding because of their high protein and oil content. Its alkaloid content limits the lupins usage; however the bitter substances can be eliminated by means of genetic selection or technological processing. Beside the intoxication caused by alkaloids exists the lupinosis, which is caused by a micotoxin. This disease can be observed when animals pasture forages which suffered under a secundary attack of fungus. According to the results obtained up to date other antimetabolic substances present in the legums have no significant importance. The lupin seed flour is adequate for animal consumption, being used for this effect in different countries. Starting next year there exist the prospects of employing Lupinus mutabilis as an oil source in Peru and Lupinus albus as proteic flour in Chile.

  4. Characterization and effect of year of harvest on the nutritional properties of three varieties of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Serena; Cutrignelli, Monica I; Lo Presti, Vittorio; Tudisco, Raffaella; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Grossi, Micaela; Infascelli, Federico; Chiofalo, Biagina

    2015-12-01

    Three cultivars of Lupinus albus L. (Lutteur, Lublanca and Multitalia) were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acids, alkaloids and in vitro fermentation characteristics over three harvest years. The chemical composition varied greatly during the three harvest years. Crude protein content ranged from 353 to 456 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber content from 209 to 321 g kg(-1) DM and lignin content from 3.0 to 63.9 g kg(-1) DM. Lublanc showed the highest crude protein (417 g kg(-1) DM) and lignin (35 g kg(-1) DM) contents. High levels of lipids (89.9 g kg(-1) DM) and starch (93.3 g kg(-1) DM) were found in all samples. Alkaloid content ranged from 3.63 to 165 mg per 100 g. Lutteur and Lublanc showed more favorable n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios (from 0.44 to 0.73) and lower values of the anti-quality factor 'erucic acid' (from 5.8 to 20.9 g kg(-1) ) than Multitalia. Lutteur showed higher degradability (897 g kg(-1) ), gas production (330 mL g(-1) organic matter (OM)) and volatile fatty acid production (117 mmol g(-1) OM) than the other varieties. The present data suggest L. albus L. cv. Lutteur to be a promising crop as food thanks to its high nutritive traits and most constant yield over time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages

  6. 40 CFR 180.1319 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1319 Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from... catabolism of a seed storage protein (β-conglutin) of sweet lupines (Lupinus albus), in or on all food commodities when applied as a fungicide and used in accordance with label directions and good...

  7. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-11-01

    Lupin is a valuable ancient legume which contains high amount of protein, dietary fiber, oil, minerals and different functional components. Bitter lupin seeds cannot be consumed directly since its high toxic alkaloid content. Cooking and soaking are effective processes for removing these toxic substances and antinutrients as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. In this study, debittering process containing cooking and soaking up to 144 h was applied to lupin seeds. Raw lupin seeds had 3.3 % ash and 41.3 % protein content. Ash and protein content of debittered seeds changed between 2.1 and 2.5 %, 39.5 and 40.9 % respectively. After debittering process, significant (p < 0.05) decreases (between % 5.7 and 75.7) were observed in calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, magnesium and manganese contents of the lupin seeds. Phytic acid was removed from raw lupin seeds up to 71.4 % ratio by debittering processes, and soaking in distilled water at 55 °C and long soaking time (144 h) was found the most effective methods on phytic acid loss. While more lighter (L*) seeds were obtained with soaking in distilled water at 25 °C, soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution gave more yellowish (b*) seed properties compared to other soaking methods. Soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution at 144 h gave the most liked products in terms of sensorial evaluation.

  8. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  9. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    PubMed

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  10. Novel polyclonal-monoclonal-based ELISA utilized to examine lupine (Lupinus species) content in food products.

    PubMed

    Holden, Lise; Moen, Lena Haugland; Sletten, Gaynour B G; Dooper, Maaike M B W

    2007-04-04

    Sweet lupines are increasingly used in food production. Cause for concern has been expressed due to the increase in reported lupine-induced allergic incidents and the association between lupine and peanut allergies. In the current study, a polyclonal-monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of lupine proteins in foods was developed. The assay was sensitive to both native and processed proteins from Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus albus and had a detection limit of 1 mug/g. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were <5 and <17%, respectively. A selection of 112 food samples, both with and without lupine declaration, was evaluated for their content of lupine. The data showed that the majority were in agreement with the respective labeling. However, some inconsistency was seen, typically in bread/rolls and soy flours.

  11. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and applications as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47%) and oil (6-13%). It also has many secondary metabolites that are pote...

  12. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants.

  13. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  14. A re-assessment of sucrose signaling involved in cluster-root formation and function in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Apart from substrate functions, a signaling role of sucrose in root growth regulation is well established. This raised the question whether sucrose signals might also be involved in formation of cluster-roots (CRs) under phosphate (Pi) limitation, mediating exudation of phosphorus (P)-mobilizing root exudates, e.g. in Lupinus albus and members of the Proteaceae. Earlier studies demonstrated that CR formation in L. albus was mimicked to some extent by external application of high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) in the presence of extremely high P supply (1-10 mM), usually suppressing CR formation. In this study, we re-addressed this question using an axenic hydroponic culture system with normal P supply (0.1 mM) and a range of sucrose applications (0.25-25 mM). The 2.5 mM sucrose concentration was comparable with internal sucrose levels in the zone of CR initiation in first-order laterals of P-deficient plants (3.4 mM) and induced the same CR morphology. Similar to earlier studies, high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) resulted in root thickening and inhibition of root elongation, associated with a 10-fold increase of the internal sucrose level. The sucrose analog palatinose and a combination of glucose/fructose failed to stimulate CR formation under P-sufficient conditions, demonstrating a signal function of sucrose and excluding osmotic or carbon source effects. In contrast to earlier findings, sucrose was able to induce CR formation but had no effect on CR functioning with respect to citrate exudation, in vitro activity and expression of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, secretory acid phosphatase and MATE transporters, mediating P-mobilizing functions of CRs.

  15. Growth conditions determine different melatonin levels in Lupinus albus L.

    PubMed

    Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

    2013-09-01

    Melatonin, an indoleamine, which has recently been assigned several roles in plant physiology as a growth promoter, as rooting agent, and as antioxidant in senescence delay and cytoprotection, seems to have a relevant function in plant stress situations. The presence of melatonin increases the resistance of lupin plant tissues (Lupinus albus L.) against natural or artificially induced adverse situations. In this work, we studied the response of lupin plants in controlled stress situations (drought-, anaerobic-, pH-, and cold stress and using ZnSO4 , NaCl, and H2 O2 as chemical stressors) and measured the changes in endogenous melatonin levels in lupin plants. Also, the effect of abscisic acid, ethylene, and natural environmental conditions were evaluated. In general, nearly all stressful factors caused an increase in melatonin in the investigated organs. The chemical stress provoked by ZnSO4 or NaCl caused the most pronounced changes in the endogenous level of melatonin, followed by cold and drought stressors. In some cases, the level of melatonin increased 12-fold with respect to the levels in control plants, indicating that melatonin biosynthesis is upregulated in common stress situations, in which it may serve as a signal molecule and/or as a direct antistress agent due to its well-known antioxidative properties.

  16. Screening of cytoplasmic DNA diversity between and within Lupinus mutabilis Sweet and Lupinus albus sensu lato by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    PubMed

    Olczak, T; Rurek, M; Jańska, H; Augustyniak, H; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, E J

    2001-01-01

    Seven populations and five mutant lines of the Andean lupin and four species from the section Albus were screened for their mitochondrial and chloroplast polymorphisms. For this purpose the RFLP method with EcoRI as a restriction enzyme was used. Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus and Phaseolus vulgaris organellar clones as well as amplified fragments were used as probes. We found that mitochondrial probes were more suitable than chloroplast probes for identification of inter- and intra-specific variations within the examined material. Most mitochondrial probes differentiate the two species investigated. A high level of mitochondrial polymorphism was observed among the populations of L. mutabilis in contrast to monomorphism among the species in the section Albus. A limited polymorphism was detected between the mutant lines of L. mutabilis. We conclude from this study that the mitochondrial RFLP analysis is a valuable tool for identification of variability among Andean lupin populations.

  17. The Development of Potential Screens Based on Shoot Calcium and Iron Concentrations for the Evaluation of Tolerance in Egyptian Genotypes of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to Limed Soils

    PubMed Central

    KERLEY, SIMON J.; NORGAARD, CLAUS; LEACH, JOHN E.; CHRISTIANSEN, JØERGEN L.; HUYGHE, CHRISTIAN; RÖMER, PETER

    2002-01-01

    European cultivars of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grow poorly in limed or calcareous soils. However, Egyptian genotypes are grown successfully in highly calcareous soil and show no stress symptoms. To examine their physiological responses to alkaline soil and develop potential screens for tolerance, three experiments were conducted in limed and non‐limed (neutral pH) soil. Measurements included net CO2 uptake, and the partitioning of Fe2+ and Fe3+ and soluble and insoluble Ca in stem and leaf tissue. Intolerant plants showed clear symptoms of stress, whereas stress in the Egyptian genotypes and in L. pilosus Murr. (a tolerant species) was less marked. Only the intolerant plants became chlorotic and this contributed to their reduced net CO2 uptake in the limed soil. In contrast, Egyptian genotypes and L. pilosus showed no change in net CO2 uptake between the soils. The partitioning of Ca and Fe either resulted from the stress responses, or was itself a stress response. L. pilosus and some Egyptian genotypes differed in soluble Ca concentrations compared with the intolerant cultivars, although no significant difference was apparent in the Ca partitioning of the Egyptian genotype Giza1. In a limed soil, Giza1 maintained its stem Fe3+ concentration at a level comparable with that of plants grown in non‐limed soil, whereas stem [Fe3+] of an intolerant genotype increased. Giza1 increased the percentage of plant Fe that was Fe2+ in its leaf tissue under these conditions; that of the intolerant genotype was reduced. The potential tolerance of the Egyptian genotypes through these mechanisms and the possibility of nutritional‐based screens are discussed. PMID:12096746

  18. New ester alkaloids from lupins (genus lupinus).

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, P; Witte, L; Wink, M

    1988-06-01

    Esters of 13-hydroxylupanine and 4-hydroxylupanine with acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, tiglic, benzoic, and TRANS-cinnamic acid have been synthesized and characterized by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (EI-MS, CI-MS). In LUPINUS POLYPHYLLUS, L. ALBUS, L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS, and L. MUTABILIS we could identify new ester alkaloids (e.g. 13-propyloxylupanine, 13-butyryloxylupanine, 13-isobutyryloxylupanine, and 4-tigloyloxylupanine) besides the known esters, i.e. 13-acetoxylupanine, 13-isovaleroyloxylupanine, 13-angeloyloxylupanine, 13-tigloyloxylupanine, 13-benzoyloxylupanine, 13- CIS-cinnamoyloxylupanine nine, and 13- TRANS-cinnamoyloxylupanine.

  19. Iron Stress and Pyoverdin Production by a Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Rhizosphere of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Marschner, P; Crowley, D E

    1997-01-01

    Induction of high-affinity iron transport during root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) was examined in lupine and barley growing in microcosms. P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) contains a plasmid carrying pvd-inaZ; thus, in this strain, ice nucleation activity is regulated by pyoverdin production. Lupine or barley plants were grown for 18 or 8 days, respectively, in soil amended with 2% calcium carbonate and inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) at a density of 4 x 10(sup8) CFU g (dry weight) of soil(sup-1). A filter paper blotting technique was used to sample cells from the rhizosphere in different root zones, and then the cells were resuspended for enumeration and measurement of ice nucleation activity. The population density of P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere decreased by one order of magnitude in both lupine and barley over time. The ice nucleation activity ranged from -3.4 to -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for lupine and -3.0 to -2.8 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for barley, was similar in all root zones, and did not change over time. An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production in P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). An ice nucleation activity of approximately -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) was measured in the in vitro experiment at 25 to 50 (mu)M FeCl(inf3). By using the regression between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production determined in vitro and assuming a P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) population density of 10(sup8) CFU g of root(sup-1), the maximum possible pyoverdin accumulation by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.5 and 0.8 nmol g of root(sup-1) for lupine and barley, respectively. The low ice nucleation activity measured in the rhizosphere suggests that nutritional competition for iron in the rhizosphere may not be a major factor influencing root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf-5

  20. Iron Stress and Pyoverdin Production by a Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Rhizosphere of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Marschner, P.; Crowley, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Induction of high-affinity iron transport during root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) was examined in lupine and barley growing in microcosms. P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) contains a plasmid carrying pvd-inaZ; thus, in this strain, ice nucleation activity is regulated by pyoverdin production. Lupine or barley plants were grown for 18 or 8 days, respectively, in soil amended with 2% calcium carbonate and inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) at a density of 4 x 10(sup8) CFU g (dry weight) of soil(sup-1). A filter paper blotting technique was used to sample cells from the rhizosphere in different root zones, and then the cells were resuspended for enumeration and measurement of ice nucleation activity. The population density of P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere decreased by one order of magnitude in both lupine and barley over time. The ice nucleation activity ranged from -3.4 to -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for lupine and -3.0 to -2.8 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for barley, was similar in all root zones, and did not change over time. An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production in P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). An ice nucleation activity of approximately -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) was measured in the in vitro experiment at 25 to 50 (mu)M FeCl(inf3). By using the regression between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production determined in vitro and assuming a P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) population density of 10(sup8) CFU g of root(sup-1), the maximum possible pyoverdin accumulation by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.5 and 0.8 nmol g of root(sup-1) for lupine and barley, respectively. The low ice nucleation activity measured in the rhizosphere suggests that nutritional competition for iron in the rhizosphere may not be a major factor influencing root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf-5

  1. The Effect of Lupinus albus on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Satiety Hormones of Male Pigs Immunized against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) have an increased feed intake, growth rate, back fat and fat deposition compared to entire males. A previous experiment found that Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) has the potential to reduce feed intake and fat deposition in IC males. The current experiment aimed to develop a dietary management strategy using albus lupins for either 14 or 28 days pre-slaughter to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in IC males. Abstract Two hundred and ninety four pigs were used with the aim to develop a dietary management strategy using Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) and entire male pigs in the late finishing stage. From day (d) 0 to 28, IC males fed the control diet grew faster (p = 0.009) than entire males fed the control diet but there was no difference in growth rate between sexes for pigs fed albus lupins for 14 days pre-slaughter (Albus 14) or pigs fed albus lupins for 28 days pre-slaughter (Albus 28). From d 15 to 28, IC males receiving the Albus 14 diet grew more slowly (p < 0.001) than entire males receiving the Albus 14 diet. From d 15 to 28 (p < 0.001), IC males fed the control diet ate more feed than entire males fed the control diet, although there was no difference between sexes in feed intake of the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diet. Immunocastrates had a lower backfat when fed either Albus 14 or Albus 28 compared to the control diet, although there was no difference between diets for entire males. There was also a trend for pigs on the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diets to have a higher lean deposition (p = 0.055) and a lower fat deposition (p = 0.056) compared to the pigs on the control diet. Pigs fed the Albus 28 diet had a lower plasma ghrelin concentration compared to pigs

  2. Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis) population cycles with climate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) contains the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine that causes a crooked calf syndrome when a cow ingests lupine between the 40-100 day of gestation. An outbreak of crooked calves occurred in the Scabland region of eastern Washington in 1997 following t...

  3. Evidence of phloem boron transport in response to interrupted boron supply in white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Kiev Mutant) at the reproductive stage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Longbin; Bell, Richard W; Dell, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates whether previously acquired boron (B) in mature leaves in white lupin can be retranslocated into the rapidly growing young reproductive organs, in response to short-term (3 d) interrupted B supply. In a preliminary experiment with white lupin in soil culture, B concentrations in phloem exudates remained at 300-500 microM, which were substantially higher than those in the xylem sap (10-30 microM). The high ratios of B concentrations in phloem exudates to those in the xylem sap were close to values published for potassium in lupin plants. To differentiate 'old' B in the shoot from 'new' B in the root, an experiment was carried out in which the plants were first supplied with 20 microM (11)B (99.34% by weight) in nutrient solution for 48 d after germination (DAG) until early flowering and then transferred into either 0.2 microM or 20 microM (10)B (99.47% by weight) for 3 d. Regardless of the (10)B treatments, significant levels of (11)B were found in the phloem exudates (200-300 microM in 20 microM (10)B and 430 microM in 0.2 microM (10)B treatment) and xylem sap over the three days even without (11)B supply to the root. In response to the 0.2 microM (10)B treatment, the translocation of previously acquired (11)B in the young (the uppermost three leaves), matured, and old leaves was enhanced, coinciding with the rise of (11)B in the xylem sap (to >15 microM) and phloem exudates (430 microM). The evidence supports the hypothesis that previously acquired B in the shoot was recirculated to the root via the phloem, transferred into the xylem in the root, and transported in the xylem to the shoot. In addition, some previously acquired (11)B in the leaves may have been translocated into the rapidly growing inflorescence. Phloem B transport resulted in the continued net increment of (11)B in the flowers over 3 d without (11)B supply. However, it is still uncertain whether the amount of B available for recirculation is adequate to support

  4. Comparison of MRI techniques and modelling with R-SWMS for determining solute distribution patterns and root water uptake of a white lupine plant (Lupinus Albus L.).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Axelle; Schröder, Natalie; Pohlmeier, Andreas; Garré, Sarah; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Measuring water extraction by plant would allow us to better understand root water uptake processes and how soil and plant properties affect them. Yet, direct measurement of root water uptake is still challenging and determining its distribution requires coupling experimentation and modelling. In this study, we investigated how the 3D monitoring of a tracer movement in a sand container with a lupine plant could inform us about root water uptake process. A sand column (10 cm height, 5 cm inner diameter) planted with an 18-day-old white lupine was subject to a tracer experiment with a chemically inert tracer (1 mmol/L Gd-DTPA2-) applied for 6 days. Then the tracer and water fluxes were stopped. The plume was monitored in 3-D for 7 days by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Haber-Pohlmeier et al, unp). In addition the breakthrough curve at the outlet was also measured. We used a biophysical 3-D soil-plant model: R-SWMS (Javaux et al, 2008) to extract information from this experiment. First, we ran a virtual experiment to check the assumption that Gd concentration increase around roots is proportional to the extracted soil water during the same period. We also investigated whether this type of experiment helps discriminate different root hydraulic properties with a sensitivity analysis. Then, we compared the experimental and simulated Gd concentration patterns. A preliminary (qualitative) assessment showed that measured Gd distribution patterns were better represented by the model at day 7, where the main driver of the concentration distribution was root and not soil heterogeneity (which is not taken into account in the model). The main spatial and temporal features of the transport where adequately reproduced by the model in particular during the last day. The distribution of the tracer was shown to be sensitive to the root hydraulic properties. To conclude, information about root water uptake distributions and so about root hydraulic properties could be deduced from Gd

  5. Cytokinin Activity in Lupinus albus L

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Joanne E.; van Staden, Johannes

    1979-01-01

    Endogenous levels of cytokinin activity were examined in Lupinus albus L. seed at intervals of 2 weeks after anthesis using the soybean callus bioassay. High levels of cytokinin activity per gram seed material were present in the seeds at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after anthesis. The cytokinin activity per gram seed material was low at 8 and 10 weeks after anthesis. Cytokinin activity associated with each seed was greatest at 6 weeks after anthesis. The majority of the activity in the seeds at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after anthesis was in the endosperm. Cytokinin activity was also detected in the testas and embryos at 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks, and the suspensors at 4 weeks. Column chromatography of extracts of the different seed fractions on Sephadex LH-20 indicated that the cytokinins present coeluted with zeatin, zeatin riboside, and the glucoside cytokinins. It is suggested that cytokinins are accumulated in the seeds and are stored in the endosperm mainly in the form of ribosides and glucosides of zeatin. The reduction in cytokinin activity in the seed coincides with the reduction in endosperm volume and embryo growth and suggests that these compounds are utilized during the course of seed maturation. PMID:16660829

  6. Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seed from a public germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1319 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1319 Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); exemption from... the residues of Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD), a naturally occurring polypeptide from...

  8. Effect of drought and rewatering on the metabolism of Lupinus albus organs.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carla; Passarinho, José António; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2004-11-01

    Alterations in the metabolism of Lupinus albus organs that result from and subsequently follow a period of severe water deficit (WD) are described. By means of 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), changes in the major metabolites were monitored in several plant organs (leaflets and petiole, roots, stem stele and cortex). During the stress, most of the leaves were lost and the stem functioned as a storage repository of sugars (glucose and sucrose) and amino acids (asparagine and proline). Upon rewatering, lupin plants rapidly re-established the relative water content (RWC) and produced new leaves. However, at the metabolic level, the events seem to be more complex, since proline (a stress related metabolite) disappeared rapidly while sugars and asparagine reached the initial pattern more slowly, particularly in the stem.

  9. Effect of Lupinus albus L. root activities on As and Cu mobility after addition of iron-based soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    Arsenic and Cu mobility was investigated in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus L. grown in an iron-amended contaminated soil. White lupin was grown in rhizobags in contaminated soil either left untreated or amended with iron sulphate plus lime (Fe + lime) or biochar (Fe + BC). Porewater was monitored in rhizosphere and bulk soil throughout the experiment and the extractable fraction of several elements and As and Cu plant uptake was analysed after 48 days. The distribution of As, Cu, P and Fe in the lupin rhizosphere was evaluated with chemical images obtained by laser ablation-ICP-MS analysis of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels. The treatments effectively reduced the soluble and extractable As and Cu fractions in the bulk soil, but they did not affect plant uptake. In all cases, soluble As was slightly enhanced in the rhizosphere. This difference was more pronounced in the Fe + lime-treated rhizosphere soil, where an increase of pH as well as extractable As and Fe concentrations were also observed. Chemical imaging of the lupin rhizosphere also showed slightly higher As- and Fe-DGT fluxes around lupin roots grown in the non-amended soil. Our findings indicate As and Fe co-solubilisation by lupin root exudates, likely as a response to P deficiency. Arsenic mobilisation occurred only in the rhizosphere and was not decreased by the amendments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops).

  11. Characterization of an Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase from Lupinus albus1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guoan; Huhman, David; Lei, Zhentian; Snyder, John; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids possess antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens of plants. However, only a few plant flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferase genes have been identified to date. In this study, an isoflavonoid prenyltransferase gene, designated as LaPT1, was identified from white lupin (Lupinus albus). The deduced protein sequence of LaPT1 shared high homologies with known flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases. The LaPT1 gene was mainly expressed in roots, a major site for constitutive accumulation of prenylated isoflavones in white lupin. LaPT1 is predicted to be a membrane-bound protein with nine transmembrane regions and conserved functional domains similar to other flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases; it has a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and is plastid localized. A microsomal fraction containing recombinant LaPT1 prenylated the isoflavone genistein at the B-ring 3′ position to produce isowighteone. The enzyme is also active with 2′-hydroxygenistein but has no activity with other flavonoid substrates. The apparent Km of recombinant LaPT1 for the dimethylallyl diphosphate prenyl donor is in a similar range to that of other flavonoid prenyltransferases, but the apparent catalytic efficiency with genistein is considerably higher. Removal of the transit peptide increased the apparent overall activity but also increased the Km. Medicago truncatula hairy roots expressing LaPT1 accumulated isowighteone, a compound that is not naturally produced in this species, indicating a strategy for metabolic engineering of novel antimicrobial compounds in legumes. PMID:22430842

  12. Lupinus albus plants acquire mercury tolerance when inoculated with an Hg-resistant Bradyrhizobium strain.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Miguel A; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    One strain of Bradyrhizobium canariense (L-7AH) was selected for its metal-resistance and ability to nodulate white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants, from a collection of rhizobial strains previously created from soils of the Almadén mining district (Spain) with varying levels of Hg contamination. Plants were inoculated with either strain L-7AH (Hg-tolerant) or L-3 (Hg-sensitive, used as control), and watered with nutrient solutions supplemented with various concentrations (0-200 μM) of HgCl2 in a growth chamber. L. albus inoculated with L-7AH were able to nodulate even at the highest concentration of Hg while those inoculated with L-3 had virtually no nodules at Hg concentrations above 25 μM. Plants inoculated with L-7AH, but not those with the control strain, were able to accumulate large amounts of Hg in their roots and nodules. Nodulation with L-7AH allowed plants to maintain constant levels of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in their leaves and a high photosynthetic efficiency, whereas in those inoculated with L-3 both pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly as Hg concentration increased. Nitrogenase activity of plants nodulated with L-7AH remained fairly constant at all concentrations of Hg used. Results suggest that this symbiotic pair may be used for rhizoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils.

  13. Possibilities of chemical weed control in Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus-screening of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Dewitte, K; Latré, J; Haesaert, G

    2006-01-01

    Weed control in sweet lupins is still a problem. Especially the phytotoxicity of herbicides in sweet lupins is not enough studied. Therefore a screening with 16 selected herbicides and 4 lupin varieties has been set up. During the growing season 2005, 10 of the tested herbicides were applied in pre-emergence, 6 in post-emergence. Pre-emergence: Most of the active matters tested in pre-emergence were not phytotoxic for lupins. Pendimethalin (1000 g/ha), linuron (500 g/ha), chlorotoluron (1500 g/ha), prosulfocarb (2400 g/ha), clomazone (72 g/ha), isoxaben (100 g/ha), metamitron (1050 g/ha) and dimethenamid-P (720 g/ha) were applied without causing any significant phytotoxic symptoms. Only the lupins treated with aclonifen (1200 g/ha) showed a significant growth inhibition, 3 weeks after treatment. Significantly more chlorosis was noticed when the lupins were treated with aclonifen or with diflufenican, in preemergence. Post-emergence: In post-emergence, diflufenican (50 g/ha) did not cause any crop damage. Florasulam (5 g/ha) caused almost 100% necrosis in L. albus as well as in L. luteus. Bentazon (652 g/ha), thifensulfuron-methyl (15 g/ha) and metribuzin (175 g/ha) caused obvious necrosis and growth inhibition of the crop. The growth inhibition was significantly more severe for lupins treated with bentazon than if they were treated with thifensulfuron-methyl or metribuzin. Three weeks after treatment, clomazone (90 g/ha) and diflufenican (50 g/ha), did not cause any crop injury at all. The results indicated an interesting range of active matters which can be applied in pre-emergence, but weed control in post-emergence stays difficult.

  14. Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced “crooked calf disease” occur in northern Oregon and e...

  15. Lupine induced "crooked calf disease" in Washington and Oregon: identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulfureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Ralphs, Michael H; Motteram, Ernie S; Pfister, James A; Gay, Clive C

    2007-12-26

    Several lupines (Lupinus spp.) present on western U.S. rangelands contain alkaloids that are teratogenic to livestock and cause congenital birth defects in calves (crooked calf disease). Periodically, large losses of calves due to lupine-induced "crooked calf disease" occur in northern Oregon and eastern Washington state. Five lupine populations from this area representing three species (L. leucophyllus, L. sulfureus, and L. sericeus) were evaluated taxonomically and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the major alkaloids in each lupine species were identified. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine was present in both of the lupine species responsible for the high outbreaks in east-central Washington and northeastern Oregon. However, the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. leucophyllus were dissimilar, as were the alkaloid profiles of the two lupines identified as L. sulfureus. Botanical classification is not sufficient to determine potential teratogenicity, and it must be followed by chemical characterization to determine risk to livestock.

  16. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  17. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrated (IC) males) have an increased feed intake, growth rate, back fat and fat deposition compared to entire males. It is desirable to develop management strategies to limit the increase in feed intake and fat deposition in IC males. This experiment used in-feed ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) to try to suppress the voluntary feed intake of IC male pigs and subsequently fat deposition. Mineral salts decreased feed intake with no effect on fat deposition while albus lupins reduced both feed intake and fat deposition in pigs. Abstract Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0.05) or fat deposition (p > 0.05). Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p < 0.001 for all time periods), lower growth rate (p < 0.001 for all time periods), lower backfat (p < 0.005) and decreased fat deposition (p < 0.001 for all time periods) compared to those fed the control diet or mineral salts. From day (d) 0–28 pigs fed mineral salts had a better feed conversion ratio (p = 0.001) than those fed albus lupins who in turn had an improved feed conversion compared to the control diet. Immunocastrates had thicker backfat than entire males at the end of the experiment (p < 0.001), however, feeding albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01). With the exception of the

  18. Phosphorus Stress-Induced Proteoid Roots Show Altered Metabolism in Lupinus albus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J. F.; Allan, D. L.; Vance, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    Proteoid roots develop in Lupinus albus L. in response to nutrient stress, especially P. Proteoid roots excrete citrate and thus increase the availability of P, Fe, and Mn in the rhizosphere. In an effort to understand citrate synthesis and organic acid metabolism in proteoid roots of lupin, we have evaluated in vitro enzyme activities of citrate synthase (CS), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in proteoid and normal roots of plants grown with or without P. Organic acid concentrations, respiration rates, and dark 14CO2-labeling patterns were also determined. The in vitro specific activities of CS, MDH, and PEPC and in vivo dark 14CO2 fixation were higher in proteoid roots compared to normal roots, particularly under P stress. Western blot analysis showed that PEPC enzyme protein was more highly expressed in -P proteoid roots compared to other tissues. The majority of the fixed 14C was found in organic acids, predominantly malate and citrate. A larger fraction of citrate was labeled in P- stressed proteoid roots compared to other root tissue. Respiration rates of proteoid roots were 31% less than those of normal roots. The data provide evidence for increased synthesis of citrate in proteoid roots compared to normal roots, particularly under P stress. A portion of the carbon for citrate synthesis is derived from nonautotrophic CO2 fixation via PEPC in proteoid roots. PMID:12232116

  19. EDTA and hydrochloric acid effects on mercury accumulation by Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Villaseñor, José; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of white lupine (Lupinus albus) to uptake and accumulate mercury from a soil polluted by mining activities was assessed in a pot experiment with chemically assisted phytoextraction. The mobilizing agents tested were ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Two doses of each amendment were used (0.5 and 1.0 g of amendment per kg of soil), and unamended pots were used as a control. Addition of HCl to the soil did not negatively affect plant biomass, while the use of EDTA led to a significant decrease in plant growth when compared to that found for non-treated pots, with plants visually showing symptoms of toxicity. The addition of hydrochloric acid increased root, shoot and total plant Hg uptake of white lupine by 3.7 times, 3.1 times and 3.5 times, respectively, in relation to non-amended plants. The greatest efficiency was obtained for the highest HCl dose. EDTA led to higher concentrations of total plant Hg than that found with the control, but, due to the aforementioned decrease in plant biomass, the Hg phytoextraction yield was not significantly increased. These results were attributed to the capability of both amendments to form stable Hg complexes. The concentration of Hg in the water of the soil pores after the phytoextraction experiment was very low for all treatments, showing that risks derived from metal leaching could be partially avoided by using doses and chemicals suitable to the concentration of metal in the soil and plant performance.

  20. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor.

    PubMed

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0.05) or fat deposition (p > 0.05). Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p < 0.001 for all time periods), lower growth rate (p < 0.001 for all time periods), lower backfat (p < 0.005) and decreased fat deposition (p < 0.001 for all time periods) compared to those fed the control diet or mineral salts. From day (d) 0-28 pigs fed mineral salts had a better feed conversion ratio (p = 0.001) than those fed albus lupins who in turn had an improved feed conversion compared to the control diet. Immunocastrates had thicker backfat than entire males at the end of the experiment (p < 0.001), however, feeding albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01). With the exception of the increased muscle pH at 45 minutes post-exsanguination in mineral salts and albus lupins compared with the control diet (p = 0.03) there was no effect of diet on objective pork quality. Pork from IC males had a higher ultimate pH (p < 0.001), was lighter (L*; p = 0.003), more yellow (p = 0.008) and had a higher drip loss (p < 0.001) compared to entire males. Albus lupins show potential in reducing the increase in feed intake and backfat associated with immunocastration. Mineral salts may be useful in situations where a reduction in feed intake and an improvement in feed conversion is desired and reducing fat deposition is not the objective.

  1. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    PubMed

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner.

  2. TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF GERMINATING SEEDS OF LUPINUS ALBUS AND ZEA MAYS

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pei-Sung

    1931-01-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption by germinating seeds of Lupinus albus and of Zea mays was studied as a function of temperature (7–26°C.). The Warburg manometer technique was used, with slight modifications. Above and below a critical temperature at 19.5°C. the temperature characteristic for oxygen consumption by Lupinus albus was found to be µ = 11,700± and 16,600 respectively. The same critical temperature was encountered in the case of Zea mays, with temperature characteristics µ = 13,100± above and µ = 21,050 below that temperature. PMID:19872612

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub Lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)

    DOE PAGES

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; ...

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. In conclusion, these loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used tomore » determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.« less

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O.; Lance, Stacey L.; Pruett, Christin L.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. Methods and Results: We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. Conclusions: These loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine. PMID:25909046

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O; Lance, Stacey L; Pruett, Christin L

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. These loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.

  6. Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Igual, José M; Tejedor, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-09-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU15(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus, with its closest relatives being Paenibacillus catalpae D75(T), Paenibacillus glycanilyticus DS-1(T), Paenibacillus endophyticus PECAE04(T) and Paenibacillus xinjiangensis B538(T) with 98.8 %, 98.9 %, 97.4 % and 97.4 % similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed values lower than 45 % between the strain RLAHU15(T) and any of these species. The isolate was a Gram-stain positive, motile and sporulating rod. Catalase activity was weak and oxidase activity was positive. Casein and starch were hydrolysed but gelatin was not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RLAHU15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RLAHU15(T) ( = LMG 27296(T) = CECT 8235(T)).

  7. The nutritional value of narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) for fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz-Potocka, Małgorzata; Zaworska, Anita; Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutrient digestibility of seeds of four varieties of narrow-leafed lupines (Lupinus angustifolius) and the possibility of soya bean meal (SBM) substitution by lupine seeds alone and in combination with rapeseed meal (RSM) in the diets of pigs. The seeds of the lupine varieties Kalif, Sonet, Zeus and Boruta were analysed. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) was determined on 50 cross-bred pigs using the difference method with titanium dioxide as a marker. The substitution of SBM by lupine seeds alone (at 0 - 100%) was tested on 60 pigs (20-105 kg body weight (BW)) and by a combination of lupine seeds and RSM on 180 fattening pigs (35-80 kg BW). The chemical composition of lupine seeds differed considerably, especially in terms of crude protein and mineral content. All seeds contained less than 0.05% alkaloids and 9.3% oligosaccharides in dry matter. The ATTD of protein ranged from 70% to 74%, those of ether extract from 36% to 55% and those of gross energy from 77% to 84%. The entire replacement of SBM by lupine seeds (var. Sonet) did not have a negative effect on the performance of grower and fattener pigs. The substitution of SBM by a combination of lupines and RSM reduced the performance of growing and finishing pigs significantly.

  8. Extraction, isolation, and characterization of globulin proteins from Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Pedro; Canela, Nuria; Katakis, Ioanis; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2011-03-23

    Lupin has recently been added to the list of allergens requiring mandatory advisory labeling on foodstuffs sold in the European Union, and since December 2008, all products containing even trace amounts of lupin must be labeled correctly. Lupin globulins consist of two major globulins called α-conglutin (11S and "legumin-like") and β-conglutin (7S and "vicilin-like") and another additional two globulins, γ-conglutin and δ-conglutin, which are present in lower amounts. We report on a methodology to facilitate the extraction of each of these proteins using centrifugation and isolation by anion-exchange chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. The isolated subunits were characterized using reducing and non-reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and peptide mass fingerprinting, all of which revealed that the individual protein subunits are highly pure and can be used as immunogens for the production of antibodies specific for each of the conglutin fractions, as well as standards, and the extraction protocol can be used for the selective extraction of each of the subunits from foodstuffs, thus facilitating a highly accurate determination of the lupin concentration. Furthermore, the subunits can be used to elucidate information regarding the toxicity of each of the subunits, by looking at their interaction with the IgE antibodies found in the serum of individuals allergic to lupin, providing critical information for the definition of the requirements of analytical assays for the detection of lupin in foodstuffs.

  9. Nutritional value of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for broilers.

    PubMed

    Nalle, C L; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G

    2011-12-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of three cultivars (Wallan, Tanjil and Borre) of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for broilers. 2. In Experiment 1, the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of the three cultivars were determined. The cultivar effects were not significant for AME and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients. In general, amino acids in narrow-leafed lupin were well digested, with the notable exception of methionine. Among the indispensable amino acids, arginine had the highest digestibility coefficient (0·92-0·95), while the lowest was for methionine (0·74-0·83). 3. In Experiment 2, using the energy and digestible amino acid values determined in Experiment 1, diets containing 200 g/kg of the three lupin cultivars were formulated and the effects of feeding these diets on the performance and the digestive tract development of broiler starters were investigated. 4. Weight gain, feed intake and feed per gain of broilers fed narrow-leafed lupins diets were similar to those fed on the maize-soy basal diet. The performance of birds fed on diets containing different cultivars of lupins was also similar. Birds fed on lupin diets had similar excreta scores to those fed on the basal diet. 5. Inclusion of 200 g/kg lupins in broiler diets had no effects on the relative weight and length of the intestinal tract. Broilers fed on lupin diets, however, had higher relative weights of liver. 6. These results suggest that narrow-leafed lupins are good sources of protein, but poor sources of AME and sulphur-containing amino acids. It is concluded that, when diets are properly balanced in terms of AME and digestible amino acids, lupins can be included at 200 g/kg inclusion level in broiler starter diets with no adverse effects on performance.

  10. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Génard, Thaïs; Etienne, Philippe; Laîné, Philippe; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Diquélou, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L.) to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using the split-root (15)N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low (15)N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant (15)N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and (15)N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant(-1), respectively), which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  11. Differential expression of four genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-caroboxylate synthase in Lupinus albus during germination, and in response to indole-3-acetic acid and wounding.

    PubMed

    Bekman, E P; Saibo, N J; Di Cataldo, A; Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P; Rodrigues-Pousada, C

    2000-10-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS; EC 4.4.1.14) is the key regulatory enzyme of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and is encoded by a multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, mung bean and other plants. Southern blot analysis revealed the existence of at least five ACS genes in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) genome. Four complete and one partial sequences representing different ACS genes were cloned from the lupin genomic library. The levels of expression of two of the genes, LA-ACS1 and LA-ACS3, were found to increase after hypocotyl wounding. Apparently, these two genes were up-regulated by exogenous IAA treatment of seedlings. The LA-ACS3 mRNA levels were also elevated in the apical part of hypocotyl, which is reported to contain a high endogenous auxin concentration. This gene may be involved in the auxin- and ethylene-controlled apical hook formation. The expression of the LA-ACS4 gene was found to be almost undetectable. This gene may represent a "silent" twin of LA-ACS5 as these two genes share a considerable level of homology in coding and non-coding regions. The LA-ACS5 mRNA is strongly up-regulated in the embryonic axis of germinating seeds at the time of radicle emergence, and was also found in roots and hypocotyls of lupin seedlings.

  12. Administration of Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (Cγ) to n5 STZ rats augmented Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; García-López, Pedro M; Martínez-Ayala, Alma L; Domínguez-Rosales, José A; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M

    2014-09-01

    Several studies support the health-promoting benefits of lupins, particularly lupin proteins. It has been demonstrated that Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (Cγ) protein lowered blood glucose levels; thus, Cγ showed promise as a new anti-diabetic compound for type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cγ on Ins-1 gene expression and on pancreatic insulin content in streptozotocin-mediated diabetic rats. Cγ was isolated from Lupinus albus seeds. Its identification was confirmed with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native and denaturing conditions. We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce T2D on the 5th day of life of newborn male Wistar rats (n5-STZ). After 20 weeks post-induction, these animals (glycemia > 200 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to three groups that received the following one-week treatments: vehicle, 0.90% w/v NaCl (n5 STZ-Ctrl); glibenclamide, 10 mg/kg (n5 STZ-Glib); or Cγ, 120 mg/kg (n5 STZ-Cγ). Glucose and insulin levels were measured before and after treatment. Ins-1 gene expression was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction and the pancreatic insulin content was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Post-treatment, the n5 STZ-Cγ and n5 STZ-Glib groups showed reductions in glucose, increments in serum insulin, and increases in Ins-1 gene expression and beta cell insulin content compared to the n5 STZ-Ctrl group. The results showed that Cγ had beneficial effects on Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content. These biological effects of Cγ strengthen its promising potential as a nutraceutical and/or new agent for controlling hyperglycemia.

  13. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

  14. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub Lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O.; Lance, Stacey L.; Pruett, Christin L.

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. In conclusion, these loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.

  15. Integration of Lupinus angustifolius L. (narrow-leafed lupin) genome maps and comparative mapping within legumes.

    PubMed

    Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Książkiewicz, Michał; Szczepaniak, Anna; Susek, Karolina; Podkowiński, Jan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) has recently been considered a reference genome for the Lupinus genus. In the present work, genetic and cytogenetic maps of L. angustifolius were supplemented with 30 new molecular markers representing lupin genome regions, harboring genes involved in nitrogen fixation during the symbiotic interaction of legumes and soil bacteria (Rhizobiaceae). Our studies resulted in the precise localization of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) carrying sequence variants for early nodulin 40, nodulin 26, nodulin 45, aspartate aminotransferase P2, asparagine synthetase, cytosolic glutamine synthetase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Together with previously mapped chromosomes, the integrated L. angustifolius map encompasses 73 chromosome markers, including 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 45S rDNA, and anchors 20 L. angustifolius linkage groups to corresponding chromosomes. Chromosomal identification using BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization identified two BAC clones as narrow-leafed lupin centromere-specific markers, which served as templates for preliminary studies of centromere composition within the genus. Bioinformatic analysis of these two BACs revealed that centromeric/pericentromeric regions of narrow-leafed lupin chromosomes consisted of simple sequence repeats ordered into tandem repeats containing the trinucleotide and pentanucleotide simple sequence repeats AGG and GATAC, structured into long arrays. Moreover, cross-genus microsynteny analysis revealed syntenic patterns of 31 single-locus BAC clones among several legume species. The gene and chromosome level findings provide evidence of ancient duplication events that must have occurred very early in the divergence of papilionoid lineages. This work provides a strong foundation for future comparative mapping among legumes and may facilitate understanding of mechanisms involved in shaping legume chromosomes.

  16. Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster root development and citrate exudation in white lupin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, we evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation in white lupin. Plants were treated with NO ...

  17. Cluster Roots of Leucadendron laureolum (Proteaceae) and Lupinus albus (Fabaceae) Take Up Glycine Intact: An Adaptive Strategy to Low Mineral Nitrogen in Soils?

    PubMed Central

    HAWKINS, HEIDI-JAYNE; WOLF, GABRIELLE; STOCK, WILLIAM DAVID

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims South African soils are not only low in phosphorus (P) but most nitrogen (N) is in organic form, and soil amino acid concentrations can reach 2·6 g kg−1 soil. The Proteaceae (a main component of the South African Fynbos vegetation) and some Fabaceae produce cluster roots in response to low soil phosphorus. The ability of these roots to acquire the amino acid glycine (Gly) was assessed. • Methods Uptake of organic N as 13C–15N-Gly was determined in cluster roots and non-cluster roots of Leucadendron laureolum (Proteaceae) and Lupinus albus (Fabaceae) in hydroponic culture, taking account of respiratory loss of 13CO2. • Key Results Both plant species acquired doubly labelled (intact) Gly, and respiratory losses of 13CO2 were small. Lupin (but not leucadendron) acquired more intact Gly when cluster roots were supplied with 13C–15N-Gly than when non-cluster roots were supplied. After treatment with labelled Gly (13C : 15N ratio = 1), lupin cluster roots had a 13C : 15N ratio of about 0·85 compared with 0·59 in labelled non-cluster roots. Rates of uptake of label from Gly did not differ between cluster and non-cluster roots of either species. The ratio of C : N and 13C : 15N in the plant increased in the order: labelled roots < rest of the root < shoot in both species, owing to an increasing proportion of 13C translocation. • Conclusions Cluster roots of lupin specifically acquired more intact Gly than non-cluster roots, whereas Gly uptake by the cluster and non-cluster roots of leucadendron was comparable. The uptake capacities of cluster roots are discussed in relation to spatial and morphological characteristics in the natural environment. PMID:16223736

  18. A comprehensive draft genome sequence for lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), an emerging health food: Insights into plant-microbe interactions and legume evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lupins are important grain legume crops that form a critical part of sustainable farming systems, by reducing the need for fertilizer and providing disease breaks. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is gaining popularity as a human health food, as a non-GM alternative to soybean with the...

  19. The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly “crooked calf disease” in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primari...

  20. LC-MSMS profiling of flavonoid conjugates in wild Mexican lupine, Lupinus reflexus.

    PubMed

    Stobiecki, Maciej; Staszków, Anna; Piasecka, Anna; Garcia-Lopez, Pedro M; Zamora-Natera, Francisco; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2010-07-23

    Profiles of flavonoid conjugates present in the root and leaf tissues of the Mexican wild lupine, Lupinus reflexus, were established using two LC-MSMS systems in the positive and negative ion modes. The ion trap mass spectrometer and quadrupole time-of flight instrument provided sequential MS(n) spectra and MSMS spectra with accurate m/z values of [M + H](+) and [M - H] (-) ions, respectively. Sixty-two flavone and isoflavone glycoconjugates were found and tentatively identified. Numerous isomeric or isobaric compounds with the same molecular mass could be differentiated. Isomeric di- and mono glucosides of biochanin A, genistein, 2'-hydroxygenistein, luteone, and 2,3-didehydrokievitone were distinguished on the basis of relative abundances of product ions. The studied flavonoid glycoconjugates were acylated with dicarboxylic aliphatic acids and their methyl esters at either the aglycone or glycosidic moiety.

  1. 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus): molecular characterization and mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Bretes, Ewa; Guranowski, Andrzej; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2011-08-01

    This is report of mutational analysis of higher plant 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN). We identified and characterized the gene encoding yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus) MTAN (LlMTAN). The role of active site amino acids residues Glu24, Phe134, Glu188 and Asp211 was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. The Glu24Gln and Asp211Asn substitutions completely abolished the enzyme activity. The Glu188Gln mutant showed only trace activity toward 5'-methylthioadenosine. These results indicate that these three amino acid residues are necessary for enzyme activity. Furthermore, as the result of replacement of Phe134 by less bulky leucine, LlMTAN acquired the ability to bind and hydrolyze S-adenosylhomocysteine. We also analyzed the sequence of the LlMTAN promoter region. It appeared that there may be a direct link between LlMTAN expression regulation and sulfate metabolism.

  2. Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J.; Ash, Gavin J.; Harper, John D.I.; Vipin, Cina A.; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

  3. Protein distribution in lupin protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. prepared by various isolation techniques.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Volke, Daniela; Hoffmann, Ralf; Eisner, Peter; Herfellner, Thomas; Brunnbauer, Markus; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-09-15

    Differences in the protein distribution of various protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor were identified as affected by the isolation procedure (alkaline and/or salt-induced extraction followed by isoelectric and/or dilutive precipitation). Protein isolates extracted in alkaline solution showed higher protein yields (26.4-31.7%) compared to salt-induced extraction (19.8-30.0%) or combined alkaline and salt-induced extraction (23.3-25.6%). Chemical variations among the protein isolates especially occurred within the albumins. Protein isolates precipitated isoelectrically showed the highest contents, whereas protein isolates precipitated by dilutive showed the lowest contents of conglutin δ. Furthermore, the alkaline subunits of conglutin α and conglutin γ decreased during alkaline extraction compared to salt-induced extraction. A decrease in protein-bound polar and basic amino acids was shown after protein isolation. In contrast, the amounts of nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, hydroxylated and sulfur-rich amino acids were higher in the lupin protein isolates compared to the lupin flakes. However, the functional side chains could not be related to the specific molecular arrangements of the protein isolates, as a similar amino acid composition was found among the protein isolates.

  4. Identification of chromosome regions controlling seed storage proteins of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Islam, Shahidul; Yang, Huaan; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun

    2013-05-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a valuable legume crop for animal feed and human health food because of its high proteins content. However, the genetics of seed storage proteins is unclear, limiting further improvement of protein quantity and quality. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used for the first time to analyze lupin seed storage proteins and the spectra generated was treated as markers to investigate the chromosome locations controlling seed storage proteins in the narrow-leafed lupin. In a recombinant inbred line population of 89 individuals, 48 polymorphic protein peaks were identified and seven of which were successfully mapped onto four existing linkage groups: two on NLL-04, three on NLL-05, one on NLL-07 and one on NLL-14, with LOD values ranging from 2.6 to 7.7 confirming a significant linkage. Most protein-based markers showed distorted segregation and were failed to be integrated into the reference map. Among them, 31 were grouped into six clusters and the other ten were totally unlinked. This study provides a significant clue to study the comparative genomics/proteomics among legumes as well as for protein marker-assisted breeding. The distribution pattern of genes controlling seed storage protein revealed in this study probably exists universally among legumes or even all plants and animals. Whether genes controlling seed storage protein share the same gene expression pattern controlling other enzymes and what is the mechanism behind it are the questions which remain to be answered in the future.

  5. Real-time RT-PCR profiling of transcription factors including 34 MYBs and signaling components in white lupin reveals their P status dependent and organ-specific expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting macronutrient because of its low availability in soils. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants are well adapted to growth under P-deficient conditions. White lupin acclimation to P-deficiency includes changes in root architecture and enhanced expression of numerous ...

  6. Characterization and mapping of LanrBo: a locus conferring anthracnose resistance in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kristin; Dieterich, Regine; Nelson, Matthew N; Kamphuis, Lars G; Singh, Karam B; Rotter, Björn; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Winter, Peter; Wehling, Peter; Ruge-Wehling, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    A novel and highly effective source of anthracnose resistance in narrow-leafed lupin was identified. Resistance was shown to be governed by a single dominant locus. Molecular markers have been developed, which can be used for selecting resistant genotypes in lupin breeding. A screening for anthracnose resistance of a set of plant genetic resources of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) identified the breeding line Bo7212 as being highly resistant to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lupini). Segregation analysis indicated that the resistance of Bo7212 is inherited by a single dominant locus. The corresponding resistance gene was given the designation LanrBo. Previously published molecular anchor markers allowed us to locate LanrBo on linkage group NLL-11 of narrow-leafed lupin. Using information from RNAseq data obtained with inoculated resistant vs. susceptible lupin entries as well as EST-sequence information from the model genome Lotus japonicus, additional SNP and EST markers linked to LanrBo were derived. A bracket of two LanrBo-flanking markers allows for precise marker-assisted selection of the novel resistance gene in narrow-leafed lupin breeding programs.

  7. Development of microsatellite markers in Lupinus luteus (Fabaceae) and cross-species amplification in other lupine species.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Lorena B Parra; Straub, Shannon C K; Doyle, Jeff J; Ortega, Paula E Mora; Garrido, Haroldo E Salvo; Butler, Iván J Maureira

    2010-08-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Lupinus luteus L., an emerging temperate protein crop, to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and to facilitate the generation of better yellow lupine varieties. • Thirteen polymorphic primer sets were evaluated in a European and Eastern European accession collection of L. luteus. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with 2-4 alleles per locus. These revealed a moderate to low level of genetic variation, as indicated by an average observed heterozygosity of 0.0126. Select loci also amplified successfully in the closely related species L. hispanicus Boiss. & Reut. and in the New World species L. mutabilis Sweet. • These results indicate the utility of primers for the study of genetic diversity across L. luteus populations and related lupine species. The use of these microsatellite markers will facilitate the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies in yellow lupine.

  8. Time and substrate dependent exudation of carboxylates by Lupinus albus L. and Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Mimmo, Tanja; Hann, Stephan; Jaitz, Leonhard; Cesco, Stefano; Gessa, Carlo Emanuele; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Root exudates influence significantly physical, chemical and biological characteristics of rhizosphere soil. Their qualitative and quantitative composition is affected by environmental factors such as pH, soil type, oxygen status, light intensity, soil temperature, plant growth, nutrient availability and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of growth substrate and plant age on the release of carboxylates from Lupinus albus L. and Brassica napus L. Both plant species were studied in continuously percolated microcosms filled with either sand, soil or sand + soil (1:1) mixture. Soil solution was collected every week at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after planting (DAP). Carboxylate concentrations were determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOFMS). Oxalate, citrate, succinate, malate and maleate were detected in soil solutions of both plant species. Their concentrations were correlated with the physiological status of the plant and the growth substrate. Oxalate was the predominant carboxylate detected within the soil solution of B. napus plants while oxalate and citrate were the predominant ones found in the soil solutions of L. albus plants. The sampling determination of carboxylates released by plant roots with continuous percolation systems seems to be promising as it is a non-destructive method and allows sampling and determination of soluble low molecular weight organic compounds derived from root exudation as well as the concentration of soluble nutrients, which both might reflect the nutritional status of plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Alkaloid profiles, concentration, and pools in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) over the growing season.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Ralphs, Michael H; Panter, Kip E; Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R

    2007-01-01

    Lupinus leucophyllus is one of many lupine species known to contain toxic and/or teratogenic alkaloids that can cause congenital birth defects. The concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual major alkaloids were measured in three different years from different plant parts over the phenological development of the plant. All of the alkaloids were found in the different plant tissues throughout the growing season, although their levels varied in different tissues. Concentrations of total alkaloids and the individual alkaloids varied on an annual basis and in their distribution in the different tissues. Anagyrine levels were highest in the floral tissue, lupanine and unknown F accumulated to the greatest level in the vegetative tissue, and 5,6-dehydrolupanine accumulated to the highest level in the stem. These alkaloids appear to be in a metabolically active state with the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine accumulating to its highest level in the developing seed. The latter is, thus, the phenological stage posing the greatest danger to grazing livestock.

  10. White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

  11. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  12. Plant nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; simple purification from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds and properties of homogeneous enzyme.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna M; Rydzik, Anna M; Stepiński, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH₂-pA) is an uncommon natural nucleotide of poorly understood biochemistry and function. We studied a plant enzyme potentially involved in the catabolism of NH₂-pA. A fast and simple method comprising extraction of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seed-meal with a low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionations, removal of contaminating proteins by heat denaturation, and affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose, yielded homogenous nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the lupin hydrolase exhibits closest similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana Hint1 protein. The substrate specificity of the lupin enzyme, in particular its ability to split the P-S bond in adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate, is typical of known Hint1 proteins. Adenosine 5'-phosphofluoride and various derivatives of guanosine 5'-phosphoramidate were also substrates. Neither common divalent metal cations nor 10 mM EDTA or EGTA affected the hydrolysis of NH₂-pA. The enzyme functions as a homodimer (2 x 15,800 Da). At the optimum pH of 7.0, the K(m) for NH₂-pA was 0.5 µM and k(cat) 0.8 s⁻¹ (per monomer active site). The properties of the lupin nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase are compared with those of its counterparts from other organisms.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in the Carbon Economy of Developing Seeds of Lupinus albus (L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Craig A.; Flinn, Alastair M.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of CO2 concentration and illumination on net gas exchange and the pathway of 14CO2 fixation in detached seeds from developing fruits of Lupinus albus (L.) have been studied. Increasing the CO2 concentration in the surrounding atmosphere (from 0.03 to 3.0% [v/v] in air) decreased CO2 efflux by detached seeds either exposed to the light flux equivalent to that transmitted by the pod wall (500 to 600 micro-Einsteins per square meter per second) in full sunlight or held in darkness. Above 1% CO2 detached seeds made a net gain of CO2 in the light (up to 0.4 milligrams of CO2 fixed per gram fresh weight per hour) but 14CO2 injected into the gas space of intact fruits (containing around 1.5% CO2 naturally) was fixed mainly by the pod and little by the seeds. Throughout development seeds contained ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity (EC 4.1.1.39), especially in the embryo (up to 99 micromoles of CO2 fixed per gram fresh weight per hour) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) in both testa (up to 280 micromoles of CO2 fixed per gram fresh weight per hour) and embryo (up to 355 micromoles of CO2 fixed per gram fresh weight per hour). In kinetic experiments the most significant early formed product of 14CO2 fixation in both light and dark was malate but in the light phosphoglyceric acid and sugar phosphates were also rapidly labeled. 14CO2 fixation in the light was linked to the synthesis of sugars and amino acids but in the dark labeled sugars were not formed. PMID:16660544

  14. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205 Mb and 530 Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64 L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome

  15. Lupin nad9 and nad6 genes and their expression: 5' termini of the nad9 gene transcripts differentiate lupin species.

    PubMed

    Rurek, Michał; Nuc, Katarzyna; Raczyńska, Katarzyna Dorota; Augustyniak, Halina

    2003-10-02

    The mitochondrial nad9 and nad6 genes were analyzed in four lupin species: Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis. The nucleotide sequence of these genes confirmed their high conservation, however, higher number of nucleotide substitution was observed in the L. albus genes. Southern hybridizations confirmed the presence of single copy number of these genes in L. luteus, L. albus and L. angustifolius. The expression of nad9 and nad6 genes was analyzed by Northern in different tissue types of analyzed lupin species. Transcription analyses of the two nad genes displayed single predominant mRNA species of about 0.6 kb in L. luteus and L. angustifolius. The L. albus transcripts were larger in size. The nad9 and nad6 transcripts were modified by RNA editing at 8 and 11 positions, in L. luteus and L. angustifolius, respectively. The gene order, rps3-rpl16-nad9, found in Arabidopsis thaliana is also conserved in L. luteus and L. angustifolius mitochondria. L. luteus and L. angustifolius showed some variability in the sequence of the nad9 promoter region. The last feature along with the differences observed in nad9 mRNA 5' termini of two lupins differentiate L. luteus and L. angustifolius species.

  16. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  17. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS(n). The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germination, with the total content and composition of isoflavonoids more affected than those of flavonoids. Glycosylated isoflavones were the most predominant compounds found in lupine seedlings. Lesser amounts of isoflavone aglycones, including prenylated ones, were also accumulated. Elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae, in addition to germination, raised the content of isoflavonoids further: the total content of 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives was increased considerably, without increasing that of genistein derivatives. Elicitation by fungus triggered prenylation of isoflavonoids, especially of the 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives. The preferred positions of prenylation differed among the three lupine species. The change in isoflavone composition increased the agonistic activity of the extracts towards the human estrogen receptors, whereas no antagonistic activity was observed.

  18. Study of the intercellular fluid of healthy Lupinus albus organs. Presence of a chitinase and a thaumatin-like protein.

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, A P; Ricardo, C P

    1996-01-01

    Proteins in the intercellular fluid (IF) of healthy Lupinus albus leaves were characterized. Silver staining of the proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed more than 30 polypeptides, with the major ones having a molecular mass lower than 36 kD. After amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, one of the major polypeptides, IF4, was shown to have no identity with any of the proteins present in the data bases. Two others, IF1 and IF3, showed identity with previously reported pathogenesis-related proteins, IF1 with an antifungal protein from Hordeum vulgare that belongs to the thaumatin family (PR-5 family), and IF3 with class III chitinase-lysozymes. IF3 was also present in the IF of stem and root and it represents the major polypeptide in the medium of L. albus cell-suspension cultures. The ubiquitous presence of this enzyme in healthy, nonstressed tissues of L. albus cannot be explained. PMID:8587984

  19. Quantitative sandwich ELISA for the determination of lupine (Lupinus spp.) in foods.

    PubMed

    Holden, Lise; Faeste, Christiane K; Egaas, Eliann

    2005-07-27

    The use of lupine in foods has increased considerably during the past decade, reflected by a corresponding increase in reported lupine-induced allergic incidents. Lupine allergy may arise either by primary sensitization or by clinical cross-reactivity in peanut-allergic persons. Detection of lupine proteins in food has previously been based on the use of patient serum. A novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of lupine in processed foods was developed, using a polyclonal rabbit antilupine capture antibody and a biotinylated conjugate of the same antibody for detection. The antibody was highly specific for lupine, apart from minor cross-reactivities to other legumes. The assay had a detection limit of 1 mug/g and was successfully used to quantify lupine protein in various food matrixes. Recoveries ranged from 60 to 116%, while the intra-and interassay coefficients of variation were <6% and <21%, respectively.

  20. Detectability of lupine seeds by ELISA and PCR may be strongly influenced by potential differences between cultivars.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Kleiner, Kornelia; Sachs, Andrea; Keil, Nicole; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2013-06-26

    Accurate methods for allergen detection are needed for the verification of allergen labeling and the avoidance of hidden allergens. But systematic data on the influence of different cultivars of allergenic crop species on their detectability in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are lacking. As one example, seeds of 14 different cultivars of lupine (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) were investigated for total protein according to a Kjeldahl method, and for their relative quantitative detectability in three commercial lupine-specific ELISA tests and four lupine-specific PCR methods. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen allowed an accurate quantification of total protein. Relative differences in quantitative response between cultivars of 390-5050% and 480-13,600% were observed between ELISA kits and PCR methods, respectively. Hence, quantitative results of selected ELISA and PCR methods may be strongly influenced by the examined lupine cultivar.

  1. The effect of body condition on disposition of alkaloids from silvery lupine (Lupinus argenteus pursh) in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ortiz, S; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Launchbaugh, K L

    2004-09-01

    Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are poisonous to livestock, producing death in sheep and "crooked calf disease" in cattle. Range livestock cope with poisonous plants through learned foraging strategies or mechanisms affecting toxicant disposition. When a toxic plant is eaten, toxicant clearance may be influenced by the animal's nutritional and/or physiological status. This research was conducted to determine whether differences in body condition or short-term nutritional supplementation of sheep altered the disposition of lupine alkaloids given as a single oral dose of ground silvery lupine (Lupinus argenteus) seed. Ewes in average body condition (ABC, n = 9) and low body condition (LBC, n = 10) received a single dose of ground lupine seeds including pods (8.5 g/kg BW) via gavage on the first day of the experiment, and were then randomly assigned to one of two nutritional supplement treatments. Blood samples were taken 0 to 60 h after dosing to compare blood alkaloid concentration and to evaluate alkaloid absorption and elimination profiles. Concentrations of total alkaloid and anagyrine, 5,6 dehydrolupanine, lupanine, and alkaloid E were measured in serum. These four alkaloids constituted 78 and 75% of the total alkaloid concentration in serum for LBC vs. ABC groups, respectively. Initial analysis indicated that short-term supplementation had no effect on alkaloid disposition, and supplementation was removed from the statistical model. The highest concentration of total alkaloids was observed 2 h after dosing. Overall, serum total alkaloid and anagyrine levels (area under the curve) were higher (P < 0.01) for sheep in the LBC group. Serum peak concentrations of total alkaloid and anagyrine were higher in LBC vs. ABC groups (P < 0.05). Serum elimination of anagyrine, unknown alkaloid E, and lupanine was decreased in LBC vs. ABC treatments (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that body condition is important in the disposition of lupine alkaloids; however

  2. Identification of genes induced in proteoid roots of white lupin under nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with functional characterization of a formamidase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is considered a model system for understanding plant acclimation to nutrient deficiency. It acclimates to phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) deficiency by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots; proteoid-root development ...

  3. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  4. Metabolic analysis revealed altered amino acid profiles in Lupinus albus organs as a result of boron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marta; Chicau, Paula; Matias, Helena; Passarinho, José; Pinheiro, Carla; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2011-07-01

    We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs.

  5. Impact of biochar and root-induced changes on metal dynamics in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris and Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Houben, David; Sonnet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Rhizosphere interactions are deemed to play a key role in the success of phytoremediation technologies. Here, the effects of biochar and root-induced changes in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris L. and Lupinus albus L. on metal (Cd, Pb and Zn) dynamics were investigated using a biotest on a 2mm soil layer and a sequential extraction procedure (Tessier's scheme). In the bulk soil, the application of 5% biochar significantly reduced the exchangeable pool of metals primarily due to a liming effect which subsequently promoted the metal shift into the carbonate-bound pool. However, metals were re-mobilized in the rhizosphere of both A. capillaris and L. albus due to root-induced acidification which counteracted the liming effect of biochar. As a result, the concentrations of metals in roots and shoots of both plants were not significantly reduced by the application of biochar. Although the study should be considered a worst-case scenario because experimental conditions induced the intensification of rhizosphere processes, the results highlight that changes in rhizosphere pH can impact the effectiveness of biochar to immobilize metals in soil. Biochar has thus a potential as amendment for reducing metal uptake by plants, provided the acidification of the rhizosphere is minimized.

  6. Differential expression of a novel gene during seed triacylglycerol accumulation in lupin species ( Lupinus angustifolius L. and L. mutabilis L.).

    PubMed

    Francki, Michael G; Whitaker, Peta; Smith, Penelope M; Atkins, Craig A

    2002-11-01

    Seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) are stored as energy reserves and extracted for various end-product uses. In lupins, seed oil content varies from 16% in Lupinus mutabilisto 8% in L. angustifolius. We have shown that TAGs rapidly accumulate during mid-stages of seed development in L. mutabilis compared to the lower seed oil species, L. angustifolius. In this study, we have targeted the key enzymes of the lipid biosynthetic pathway, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DAGAT), to determine factors regulating TAG accumulation between two lupin species. A twofold increase in ACCase activity was observed in L. mutabilis relative to L. angustifolius and correlated with rapid TAG accumulation. No difference in DAGAT activity was detected. We have identified, cloned and partially characterised a novel gene differentially expressed during TAG accumulation between L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis. The gene has some identity to the glucose dehydrogenase family previously described in barley and bacteria and the significance of its expression levels during seed development in relation to TAG accumulation is discussed. DNA sequence analysis of the promoter in both L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis identified putative matrix attachment regions and recognition sequences for transcription binding sites similar to those found in the Adh1 gene from Arabidopsis. The identical promoter regions between species indicate that differential gene expression is controlled by alternative transcription factors, accessibility to binding sites or a combination of both.

  7. A comprehensive draft genome sequence for lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), an emerging health food: insights into plant-microbe interactions and legume evolution.

    PubMed

    Hane, James K; Ming, Yao; Kamphuis, Lars G; Nelson, Matthew N; Garg, Gagan; Atkins, Craig A; Bayer, Philipp E; Bravo, Armando; Bringans, Scott; Cannon, Steven; Edwards, David; Foley, Rhonda; Gao, Ling-Ling; Harrison, Maria J; Huang, Wei; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Li, Sean; Liu, Cheng-Wu; McGrath, Annette; Morahan, Grant; Murray, Jeremy; Weller, James; Jian, Jianbo; Singh, Karam B

    2017-03-01

    Lupins are important grain legume crops that form a critical part of sustainable farming systems, reducing fertilizer use and providing disease breaks. It has a basal phylogenetic position relative to other crop and model legumes and a high speciation rate. Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is gaining popularity as a health food, which is high in protein and dietary fibre but low in starch and gluten-free. We report the draft genome assembly (609 Mb) of NLL cultivar Tanjil, which has captured >98% of the gene content, sequences of additional lines and a dense genetic map. Lupins are unique among legumes and differ from most other land plants in that they do not form mycorrhizal associations. Remarkably, we find that NLL has lost all mycorrhiza-specific genes, but has retained genes commonly required for mycorrhization and nodulation. In addition, the genome also provided candidate genes for key disease resistance and domestication traits. We also find evidence of a whole-genome triplication at around 25 million years ago in the genistoid lineage leading to Lupinus. Our results will support detailed studies of legume evolution and accelerate lupin breeding programmes.

  8. Calcium, Iron, and Zinc Bioaccessibilities of Australian Sweet Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Karnpanit, Weeraya; Coorey, Ranil; Clements, Jon; Benjapong, Wenika; Jayasena, Vijay

    2017-06-14

    In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of the cultivar and dehulling on calcium, iron, and zinc bioaccessibilities of Australian sweet lupin (ASL). Ten ASL cultivars grown in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Western Australia were used for the study. The bioaccessibilities of calcium, iron, and zinc in whole seed and dehulled lupin samples were determined using a dialysability method. The cultivar had significant effects on calcium, iron, and zinc contents and their bioaccessibilities. Average bioaccessibilities of 6% for calcium, 17% for iron, and 9% for zinc were found for whole seeds. Dehulled ASL had average calcium, iron, and zinc bioaccessibilities of 11%, 21%, and 12%, respectively. Compared to some other pulses, ASL had better iron bioaccessibility and poorer calcium and zinc bioaccessibilities. Dehulling increased calcium bioaccessibilities of almost all lupin cultivars. The effect of dehulling on iron and zinc bioaccessibilities depends on the ASL cultivar.

  9. The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from lupines (Lupinus species) that cause crooked calf disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, S T; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Welch, K D

    2008-10-01

    Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly crooked calf disease in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primarily responsible for crooked calf disease. Lupines also contain teratogenic piperidine alkaloids including ammodendrine. Previous work in sheep has shown that lupine alkaloid clearance may be influenced by the animal's physiological status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if differences in body condition of cattle would alter the absorption and elimination of anagyrine or ammodendrine given in a single oral dose as Lupinus leucophyllus or Lupinus sulphureus, respectively. Mature non-lactating cows in low body condition (LBC, n = 4) and high body condition (HBC, n = 4) received a single dose of dry ground lupine plant (2.0 g/kg of BW) via oral gavage. Lupinus leucophyllus (anagyrine) was dosed first; then after 21 d the same animals were dosed with L. sulphureus (ammodendrine). Blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture 0 to 60 h after dosing. Serum anagyrine and ammodendrine concentrations were evaluated. The concentration of anagyrine was greater (P = 0.001) in the HBC group and peaked 2 h after dosing versus 12 h in LBC cows. Similarly for ammodendrine, the alkaloid concentration peaked at 3 h after dosing for the HBC group compared with 6 h for the LBC group (P = 0.001). Area under the curve tended to differ (P

  10. Conservation of the structure and organization of lupin mitochondrial nad3 and rps12 genes.

    PubMed

    Rurek, M; Oczkowski, M; Augustyniak, H

    1998-01-01

    A high level of the nucleotide sequence conservation of mitochondrial nad3 and rps12 genes was found in four lupin species. The only differences concern three nucleotides in the Lupinus albus rps12 gene and three nucleotides insertion in the L. mutabilis spacer. Northern blot analysis as well as RT-PCR confirmed cotranscription of the L. luteus genes because the transcripts detected were long enough.

  11. Sequence determination and analysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus).

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, K; Janowski, R; Podkowiński, J; Jaskólski, M

    2001-01-01

    The coding sequences of two S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolases (SAHases) were identified in yellow lupine by screenig of a cDNA library. One of them, corresponding to the complete protein, was sequenced and compared with 52 other SAHase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins identified three groups of the enzymes. Group A comprises only bacterial sequences. Group B is subdivided into two subgroups, one of which (B1) is formed by animal sequences. Subgroup B2 consist of two distinct clusters, B2a and B2b. Cluster B2b comprises all known plant sequences, including the yellow lupine enzyme, which are distinguished by a 50-residue insert. Group C is heterogeneous and contains SAHases from Archaea as well as a new class of animal enzymes, distinctly different from those in group B1.

  12. Significant reduction of fungal disease symptoms in transgenic lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) expressing the anti-apoptotic baculovirus gene p35.

    PubMed

    Wijayanto, Teguh; Barker, Susan J; Wylie, Stephen J; Gilchrist, David G; Cowling, Wallace A

    2009-10-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius) is a recently domesticated but anciently propagated crop with significant value in rotation with cereals in Mediterranean climates. However, several fungal pathogens, traditionally termed necrotrophs, severely affect broad-acre production and there is limited genetic resistance in the NLL germplasm pool. Symptoms of many of these diseases appear as localized areas of dead cells exhibiting markers of programmed cell death. Based on our previous research, we hypothesized that engineered expression of the baculovirus anti-apoptotic p35 gene might reduce symptoms of these diseases. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of a cultivar highly susceptible to several pathogens, 14 independent NLL lines containing both the p35 and bar genes were obtained (p35-NLL). Integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), progeny testing, Southern blot, Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses. Fecundity and nodulation were not altered in these lines. Third or fourth generation p35-NLL lines were challenged with necrotrophic fungal pathogens (anthracnose in stem and leaf, and Pleiochaeta root rot and leaf brown spot) in controlled environment conditions. Several p35-NLL lines had significantly reduced disease symptoms. Interestingly, as with natural resistance, no single line was improved for all three diseases which possibly reflecting spatial variation of p35 expression in planta. These data support an alternative molecular definition for 'necrotrophic disease' in plants and suggest new routes for achieving resistance against a range of pathogens.

  13. Nodulation of Lupinus albus by Strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Martha E.; Willems, Anne; Abril, Adriana; Planchuelo, Ana-María; Rivas, Raúl; Ludeña, Dolores; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-01-01

    The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the α-Proteobacteria. However, in the last 3 years four nonrhizobial species, belonging to α and β subclasses of the Proteobacteria, have been described as legume-nodulating bacteria. In the present study, two fast-growing strains, LUP21 and LUP23, were isolated from nodules of Lupinus honoratus. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belong to the genus Ochrobactrum. The strains were able to reinfect Lupinus plants. A plasmid profile analysis showed the presence of three plasmids. The nodD and nifH genes were located on these plasmids, and their sequences were obtained. These sequences showed a close resemblance to the nodD and nifH genes of rhizobial species, suggesting that the nodD and nifH genes carried by strain LUP21T were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. A polyphasic study including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular features of the strains isolated in this study showed that they belong to a new species of the genus Ochrobactrum for which we propose the name Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov. Strain LUP21T (LMG 20667T) is the type strain. PMID:15746334

  14. Lupinus albus Conglutin Gamma Modifies the Gene Expressions of Enzymes Involved in Glucose Hepatic Production In Vivo.

    PubMed

    González-Santiago, Ana E; Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; García-López, Pedro M; Martínez-Ayala, Alma L; Domínguez-Rosales, José A; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M

    2017-01-18

    Lupinus albus seeds contain conglutin gamma (Cγ) protein, which exerts a hypoglycemic effect and positively modifies proteins involved in glucose homeostasis. Cγ could potentially be used to manage patients with impaired glucose metabolism, but there remains a need to evaluate its effects on hepatic glucose production. The present study aimed to analyze G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions in two experimental animal models of impaired glucose metabolism. We also evaluated hepatic and renal tissue integrity following Cγ treatment. To generate an insulin resistance model, male Wistar rats were provided 30% sucrose solution ad libitum for 20 weeks. To generate a type 2 diabetes model (STZ), five-day-old rats were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). Each animal model was randomized into three subgroups that received the following oral treatments daily for one week: 0.9% w/v NaCl (vehicle; IR-Ctrl and STZ-Ctrl); metformin 300 mg/kg (IR-Met and STZ-Met); and Cγ 150 mg/kg (IR-Cγ and STZ-Cγ). Biochemical parameters were assessed pre- and post-treatment using colorimetric or enzymatic methods. We also performed histological analysis of hepatic and renal tissue. G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions were quantified using real-time PCR. No histological changes were observed in any group. Post-treatment G6pc gene expression was decreased in the IR-Cγ and STZ-Cγ groups. Post-treatment Fbp1 and Pck1 gene expressions were reduced in the IR-Cγ group but increased in STZ-Cγ animals. Overall, these findings suggest that Cγ is involved in reducing hepatic glucose production, mainly through G6pc inhibition in impaired glucose metabolism disorders.

  15. Elevational variation of quinolizidine alkaloid contents in a lupine (Lupinus argenteus) of the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Carey, D B; Wink, M

    1994-04-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloid contents of leaves and seeds ofLupinus argenteus (Fabaceae) collected from seven different localities near Gothic, Colorado were determined by capillary GLC. Differences in alkaloid levels between sites are substantial and alkaloid quantity decreases as elevation increases. Leaves at the lowest elevation, for example, contain six times the alkaloid levels of leaves at the highest elevation. Seeds from plants of low-and high-elevation sites were grown under identical conditions in the green-house. Alkaloid levels of leaves of seedlings were significantly higher in those seedlings derived from populations of low elevations than those of high elevations, indicating that the observed differences in the field are at least partly genetic and not environmental. To determine whether predation rates were responsible for these genetic differences, data on seed predation rates and observations on herbivory were collected.

  16. [Quality evaluation of a dehydrated product based on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) and eggs].

    PubMed

    Glorio Paulet, P; Reynoso Zárate, Z

    1993-03-01

    After a mathematical evaluation of 20 mixtures containing different proportions of potato (P), lupin (L) and whole egg (E) on dry basis and kept the latter component in a constant amount of 6 per cent, a mixture of 60:34:6 (P:L:E) was chosen for a further experimental work at a lab level because of his better nutritional value for the pre-school children feeding. When an eighteen percent suspension of the mixture mentioned above was dehydrated in a drum drier an adecuate yield of flakes was obtained with an appropriate water absorption. The sensory evaluation test of the dehydrated product as a sauce indicated a higher acceptance than purées. On the other hand, during a 90 days period storage test of the product as flakes, it did not show microbiological problems, although after 45 days rancidity appeared in the dehydrated product.

  17. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    Przysiecka, Łucja; Książkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI), a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL), and fatty acid-binding (FAP) proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1) main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis, and Glycine

  18. Application of the High Resolution Melting analysis for genetic mapping of Sequence Tagged Site markers in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Kamel, Katarzyna A; Kroc, Magdalena; Święcicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Sequence tagged site (STS) markers are valuable tools for genetic and physical mapping that can be successfully used in comparative analyses among related species. Current challenges for molecular markers genotyping in plants include the lack of fast, sensitive and inexpensive methods suitable for sequence variant detection. In contrast, high resolution melting (HRM) is a simple and high-throughput assay, which has been widely applied in sequence polymorphism identification as well as in the studies of genetic variability and genotyping. The present study is the first attempt to use the HRM analysis to genotype STS markers in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The sensitivity and utility of this method was confirmed by the sequence polymorphism detection based on melting curve profiles in the parental genotypes and progeny of the narrow-leafed lupin mapping population. Application of different approaches, including amplicon size and a simulated heterozygote analysis, has allowed for successful genetic mapping of 16 new STS markers in the narrow-leafed lupin genome.

  19. Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress.

    PubMed

    Rurek, Michal

    2010-08-18

    Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls--from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously in maize, wheat and rye

  20. Diverse accumulation of several dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dehydrins represent hydrophilic proteins acting mainly during cell dehydration and stress response. Dehydrins are generally thermostable; however, the so-called dehydrin-like (dehydrin-related) proteins show variable thermolability. Both groups immunoreact with antibodies directed against the K-segment of dehydrins. Plant mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to extend previous reports on plant dehydrins by comparing the level of immunoprecipitated dehydrin-like proteins in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Arabidopsis thaliana and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) mitochondria under cold and heat stress. Results All the analyzed plant species showed constitutive accumulation of thermostable mitochondrial putative dehydrins ranging from 50 to 70 kDa. The mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins observed in cauliflower and Arabidopsis ranged from 10 to 100 kDa and in lupin imbibed seeds and hypocotyls - from 20 to 90 kDa. Cold treatment increased mainly the accumulation of 10-100 kDa cauliflower and Arabidopsis dehydrin-like proteins, in the patterns different in cauliflower leaf and inflorescence mitochondria. However, in lupin mitochondria, cold affected mainly 25-50 kDa proteins and seemed to induce the appearance of some novel dehydrin-like proteins. The influence of frost stress on cauliflower leaf mitochondrial dehydrin- like proteins was less significant. The impact of heat stress was less significant in lupin and Arabidopsis than in cauliflower inflorescence mitochondria. Cauliflower mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins are localized mostly in the mitochondrial matrix; it seems that some of them may interact with mitochondrial membranes. Conclusions All the results reveal an unexpectedly broad spectrum of dehydrin-like proteins accumulated during some abiotic stress in the mitochondria of the plant species analyzed. They display only limited similarity in size to those reported previously

  1. Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Lupins and Prospects for Grain Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Karen M.; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Singh, Karam B.; Foley, Rhonda C.

    2017-01-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites found within the genus Lupinus, some species of which are commercially important grain legume crops including Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, NLL), L. luteus (yellow lupin), L. albus (white lupin), and L. mutabilis (pearl lupin), with NLL grain being the most largely produced of the four species in Australia and worldwide. While QAs offer the plants protection against insect pests, the accumulation of QAs in lupin grain complicates its use for food purposes as QA levels must remain below the industry threshold (0.02%), which is often exceeded. It is not well understood what factors cause grain QA levels to exceed this threshold. Much of the early work on QA biosynthesis began in the 1970–1980s, with many QA chemical structures well-characterized and lupin cell cultures and enzyme assays employed to identify some biosynthetic enzymes and pathway intermediates. More recently, two genes associated with these enzymes have been characterized, however, the QA biosynthetic pathway remains only partially elucidated. Here, we review the research accomplished thus far concerning QAs in lupin and consider some possibilities for further elucidation and manipulation of the QA pathway in lupin crops, drawing on examples from model alkaloid species. One breeding strategy for lupin is to produce plants with high QAs in vegetative tissues while low in the grain in order to confer insect resistance to plants while keeping grain QA levels within industry regulations. With the knowledge achieved on alkaloid biosynthesis in other plant species in recent years, and the recent development of genomic and transcriptomic resources for NLL, there is considerable scope to facilitate advances in our knowledge of QAs, leading to the production of improved lupin crops. PMID:28197163

  2. Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Lupins and Prospects for Grain Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Frick, Karen M; Kamphuis, Lars G; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Singh, Karam B; Foley, Rhonda C

    2017-01-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites found within the genus Lupinus, some species of which are commercially important grain legume crops including Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, NLL), L. luteus (yellow lupin), L. albus (white lupin), and L. mutabilis (pearl lupin), with NLL grain being the most largely produced of the four species in Australia and worldwide. While QAs offer the plants protection against insect pests, the accumulation of QAs in lupin grain complicates its use for food purposes as QA levels must remain below the industry threshold (0.02%), which is often exceeded. It is not well understood what factors cause grain QA levels to exceed this threshold. Much of the early work on QA biosynthesis began in the 1970-1980s, with many QA chemical structures well-characterized and lupin cell cultures and enzyme assays employed to identify some biosynthetic enzymes and pathway intermediates. More recently, two genes associated with these enzymes have been characterized, however, the QA biosynthetic pathway remains only partially elucidated. Here, we review the research accomplished thus far concerning QAs in lupin and consider some possibilities for further elucidation and manipulation of the QA pathway in lupin crops, drawing on examples from model alkaloid species. One breeding strategy for lupin is to produce plants with high QAs in vegetative tissues while low in the grain in order to confer insect resistance to plants while keeping grain QA levels within industry regulations. With the knowledge achieved on alkaloid biosynthesis in other plant species in recent years, and the recent development of genomic and transcriptomic resources for NLL, there is considerable scope to facilitate advances in our knowledge of QAs, leading to the production of improved lupin crops.

  3. Variability in plant-microbe interaction between Lupinus lines and Bradyrhizobium strains.

    PubMed

    Robinson; Beyene; van Berkum P; Knight-Mason; Bhardwaj

    2000-11-06

    Even though lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is known to potentially fix 150-200 kg/ha nitrogen for the use of a succeeding crop, precise information about lupinxBradyrhizobium strain interaction under the climatic conditions prevalent in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is unknown. We conducted two greenhouse experiments with the objective of characterizing this symbiotic relationship and to evaluate potential interaction between Bradyrhizobium strains and lupin lines. In the first experiment, performance of 60 bradyrhizobial strains was evaluated by inoculating three lupin cultivars and using combined score, which consisted of an arithmetic total of plant vigor, nodulation scores from crown root, nodulation scores from fibrous roots, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. In the second experiment, performance of 80 lupin lines was evaluated by inoculating with three selected Bradyrhizobial strains and using the combined score, which consisted of an arithmetic total of plant vigor, acetylene reduction activity, nodule number per plant, nodule weight per plant, and dry shoot weight. Significant variation existed for all traits in both experiments except for nodule number in the second experiment. Significant Bradyrhizobial strain by lupin line interaction existed for nodulation score, shoot and root dry weights, and the combined scores. Comparison of relative ranks indicated that nodulation effectiveness was dependent on specific strain and lupin line combinations. It was concluded that specific Bradyrhizobial strain and lupin line combinations would need to be identified for successful utilization of lupin's capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen for use in low-input and sustainable agriculture.

  4. Asparagine slows down the breakdown of storage lipid and degradation of autophagic bodies in sugar-starved embryo axes of germinating lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Pukacka, Stanisława; Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Ratajczak, Lech

    2017-02-01

    The research was conducted on embryo axes of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet), which were isolated from imbibed seeds and cultured for 96h in vitro under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Isolated embryo axes were fed with 60mM sucrose or were sugar-starved. The effect of 35mM asparagine (a central amino acid in the metabolism of germinating lupin seeds) and 35mM nitrate (used as an inorganic kind of nitrogen) on growth, storage lipid breakdown and autophagy was investigated. The sugar-starved isolated embryo axes contained more total lipid than axes fed with sucrose, and the content of this storage compound was even higher in sugar-starved isolated embryo axes fed with asparagine. Ultrastructural observations showed that asparagine significantly slowed down decomposition of autophagic bodies, and this allowed detailed analysis of their content. We found peroxisomes inside autophagic bodies in cells of sugar-starved Andean lupin embryo axes fed with asparagine, which led us to conclude that peroxisomes may be degraded during autophagy in sugar-starved isolated lupin embryo axes. One reason for the slower degradation of autophagic bodies was the markedly lower lipolytic activity in axes fed with asparagine. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of lupine residues in foods.

    PubMed

    Kaw, C H; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

    2008-10-01

    Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, lupine provokes allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. The presence of undeclared lupine residues in foods can pose a serious health risk to lupine-allergic individuals. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of lupine residues in foods. Lupine flour derived from Lupinus albus was used to immunize 3 rabbits and a sheep. Pooled lupine-specific antibodies were partially purified from the sera by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A sandwich lupine ELISA with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 ppm was developed by utilizing the rabbit antisera as the capture reagent and the sheep antiserum as the detector reagent. The binding of the antigen-antibody complex was visualized by the addition of commercial rabbit antisheep IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase with subsequent addition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate to produce a colored product for quantification. Minor cross-reactivity was observed with soy (Glycine max) and black bean (Castanospermum australe). The performance of the lupine ELISA was evaluated in reference food standards (beef frankfurter and apple cinnamon muffin) and laboratory-prepared cooked frankfurters and corn muffins. The mean percent recovery for lupine spiked-frankfurters and corn muffins were 108.4%+/- 8.8% and 103.1%+/- 11.5%, respectively. The sandwich-type lupine ELISA developed in this study provides food manufacturers and regulatory agencies with an effective analytical tool to detect and quantify lupine residues in processed foods.

  6. Development of genomic resources for the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius): construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius L, also known as narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), is becoming an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognised as a potential human health food. Recent interest is being directed at NLL to improve grain production, disease and pest management and health benefits of the grain. However, studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Results A NLL BAC library was constructed consisting of 111,360 clones with an average insert size of 99.7 Kbp from cv Tanjil. The library has approximately 12 × genome coverage. Both ends of 9600 randomly selected BAC clones were sequenced to generate 13985 BAC end-sequences (BESs), covering approximately 1% of the NLL genome. These BESs permitted a preliminary characterisation of the NLL genome such as organisation and composition, with the BESs having approximately 39% G:C content, 16.6% repetitive DNA and 5.4% putative gene-encoding regions. From the BESs 9966 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified and some of these are shown to be potential markers. Conclusions The NLL BAC library and BAC-end sequences are powerful resources for genetic and genomic research on lupin. These resources will provide a robust platform for future high-resolution mapping, map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole-genome sequencing data for the species. PMID:22014081

  7. Structural analysis and profiling of phenolic secondary metabolites of Mexican lupine species using LC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Wojakowska, Anna; Piasecka, Anna; García-López, Pedro M; Zamora-Natera, Francisco; Krajewski, Paweł; Marczak, Łukasz; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2013-08-01

    Flavonoid glycoconjugates from roots and leaves of eight North America lupine species (Lupinus elegans, Lupinus exaltatus, Lupinus hintonii, Lupinus mexicanus, Lupinus montanus, Lupinus rotundiflorus, Lupinus stipulatus, Lupinus sp.), three Mediterranean species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) and one species from South America domesticated in Europe (Lupinus mutabilis) were analyzed using two LC/MS systems: low-resolution ion trap instrument and high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight spectrometer. As a result of the LC/MS profiling using the CID/MS(n) experiments structures of 175 flavonoid glycoconjugates found in 12 lupine species were identified at three confidence levels according to the Metabolomic Standard Initiative, mainly at level 2 and 3, some of them were classified to the level 1. Among the flavonoid derivatives recognized in the plant extracts were isomeric or isobaric compounds, differing in the degree of hydroxylation of the aglycones and the presence of glycosidic, acyl or alkyl groups in the molecules. The elemental composition of the glycoconjugate molecules was established from the exact m/z values of the protonated/deprotonated molecules ([M+H](+)/[M-H](-)) measured with the accuracy better than 5 ppm. Information concerning structures of the aglycones, the type of sugar moieties (hexose, deoxyhexose or pentose) and, in some cases, their placement on the aglycones as well as the acyl substituents of the flavonoid glycoconjugates was achieved in experiments, in which collision-induced dissociation was applied. Flavonoid aglycones present in the studied O-glycoconjugates were unambiguously identified after the comparison of the pseudo-MS(3) spectra with the spectra registered for the standards. Isomers of flavonoid glycoconjugates, in which one or two sugar moieties were attached to 4'- or 7-hydroxyl groups or directly to the C-6 or C-8 of the aglycones, could be distinguished on the basis of the MS(2) spectra. However

  8. Development of a real-time PCR for the detection of lupine DNA (lupinus species) in foods.

    PubMed

    Demmel, Anja; Hupfer, Christine; Ilg Hampe, Evelyn; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2008-06-25

    Lupine flour, protein, and fiber have become common ingredients in food products. The association of lupine-related allergic incidents with peanut allergy is a cause for concern as the latter may bring about severe reactions. In this study, a hybridization probe-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of lupine DNA in foods was developed. Particular attention was paid to the specificity of the method, which was verified by analysis of DNA extracts from more than 50 potential food ingredients such as legumes, cereals, seeds, nuts, spices, fruits, and meat. The limit of detection of the method was determined as 0.1 mg/kg. The successful detection of the presence/absence of lupine DNA in 20 samples proved the suitability of the assay for the analysis of frequently encountered food matrices.

  9. Sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seed as a substitute for concentrate mix supplement in the diets of yearling washera rams fed on natural pasture hay as basal diet in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yeheyis, Likawent; Kijora, Claudia; Tegegne, Firew; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-08-01

    In the mixed crop-livestock farming system of Ethiopia where crop residues are the major feed resources and concentrate supplement feeds are not common, home-grown legume protein sources can help to minimise the feed problem. A 69-day feeding experiment on sheep was conducted to evaluate the potential of sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) cultivar Sanabor seed as a substitute for commercial concentrate supplement. Thirty yearling male intact Washera sheep with initial body weight of 21 ± 1.38 kg (mean ± SD) were used. The design was a randomised complete block design with six replications. The five experimental supplement feeds were 453 g concentrate (T1), 342 g concentrate + 74 g lupin seed (T2), 228 g concentrate + 147 g lupin seed (T3), 116 g concentrate + 219 g lupin seed (T4) and 290 g lupin seed (T5) in dry matter basis to supplement around 100 g crude protein per day per animal. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in total dry matter, crude protein, ash and organic matter intakes among treatments. The average daily body weight gain for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was 91, 79, 79, 87 and 74 g/day, respectively, and this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). It was concluded that blue lupin seed has a potential to substitute the commercial concentrate supplement feed in Ethiopia.

  10. De novo Transcriptome Profiling of Flowers, Flower Pedicels and Pods of Lupinus luteus (Yellow Lupine) Reveals Complex Expression Changes during Organ Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Glazinska, Paulina; Wojciechowski, Waldemar; Kulasek, Milena; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Klajn, Natalia; Kesy, Jacek; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L., Taper c.), a member of the legume family (Fabaceae L.), has an enormous practical importance. Its excessive flower and pod abscission represents an economic drawback, as proper flower and seed formation and development is crucial for the plant's productivity. Generative organ detachment takes place at the basis of the pedicels, within a specialized group of cells collectively known as the abscission zone (AZ). During plant growth these cells become competent to respond to specific signals that trigger separation and lead to the abolition of cell wall adhesion. Little is known about the molecular network controlling the yellow lupine organ abscission. The aim of our study was to establish the divergences and similarities in transcriptional networks in the pods, flowers and flower pedicels abscised or maintained on the plant, and to identify genes playing key roles in generative organ abscission in yellow lupine. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, we identified 166,473 unigenes representing 219,514 assembled unique transcripts from flowers, flower pedicels and pods undergoing abscission and from control organs. Comparison of the cDNA libraries from dropped and control organs helped in identifying 1,343, 2,933 and 1,491 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the flowers, flower pedicels and pods, respectively. In DEG analyses, we focused on genes involved in phytohormonal regulation, cell wall functioning and metabolic pathways. Our results indicate that auxin, ethylene and gibberellins are some of the main factors engaged in generative organ abscission. Identified 28 DEGs common for all library comparisons are involved in cell wall functioning, protein metabolism, water homeostasis and stress response. Interestingly, among the common DEGs we also found an miR169 precursor, which is the first evidence of micro RNA engaged in abscission. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the identified DEGs were predominantly

  11. De novo Transcriptome Profiling of Flowers, Flower Pedicels and Pods of Lupinus luteus (Yellow Lupine) Reveals Complex Expression Changes during Organ Abscission.

    PubMed

    Glazinska, Paulina; Wojciechowski, Waldemar; Kulasek, Milena; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Klajn, Natalia; Kesy, Jacek; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L., Taper c.), a member of the legume family (Fabaceae L.), has an enormous practical importance. Its excessive flower and pod abscission represents an economic drawback, as proper flower and seed formation and development is crucial for the plant's productivity. Generative organ detachment takes place at the basis of the pedicels, within a specialized group of cells collectively known as the abscission zone (AZ). During plant growth these cells become competent to respond to specific signals that trigger separation and lead to the abolition of cell wall adhesion. Little is known about the molecular network controlling the yellow lupine organ abscission. The aim of our study was to establish the divergences and similarities in transcriptional networks in the pods, flowers and flower pedicels abscised or maintained on the plant, and to identify genes playing key roles in generative organ abscission in yellow lupine. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, we identified 166,473 unigenes representing 219,514 assembled unique transcripts from flowers, flower pedicels and pods undergoing abscission and from control organs. Comparison of the cDNA libraries from dropped and control organs helped in identifying 1,343, 2,933 and 1,491 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the flowers, flower pedicels and pods, respectively. In DEG analyses, we focused on genes involved in phytohormonal regulation, cell wall functioning and metabolic pathways. Our results indicate that auxin, ethylene and gibberellins are some of the main factors engaged in generative organ abscission. Identified 28 DEGs common for all library comparisons are involved in cell wall functioning, protein metabolism, water homeostasis and stress response. Interestingly, among the common DEGs we also found an miR169 precursor, which is the first evidence of micro RNA engaged in abscission. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the identified DEGs were predominantly

  12. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Candy M; Jost, Ricarda; Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more

  13. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more

  14. Phylogenetic examination of two chemotypes of Lupinus leucophyllus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lupines (Lupinus spp.) are a common legume found on western U.S. rangelands. Lupinus spp. may contain quinolizidine and or piperidine alkaloids that could be toxic and or teratogenic to grazing livestock. Lupinus leucohyllus and Lupinus polyphyllus represent important species in the rangelands of ...

  15. The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). One such lupine, Lupinus sulphureus, occurs in parts of Oregon, Washington, and British ...

  16. Consequences of transforming narrow leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L.]) with an ipt gene under control of a flower-specific promoter.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Craig A; Emery, R J Neil; Smith, Penelope M C

    2011-12-01

    Phenotypes of five transgenic lines of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius [L] cv Merrit) stably transformed with the isopentenyl pyrophosphate transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens coupled to a flower-specific promoter (TP12) from Nicotiana tabacum [L.] are described. Expression of the transgene was detected in floral tissues and in shoot apical meristems on all orders of inflorescence. In each transgenic line there was significant axillary bud outgrowth at all nodes on the main stem with pronounced branch development from the more basal nodes in three of the lines. The lowest basal branches developed in a manner similar to the upper stem axillary branches on cv Merrit and bore fruits, which, in two lines, contained a significant yield of filled seeds at maturity. Senescence of the cotyledons was delayed in all lines with green cotyledons persisting beyond anthesis in one case. IPT expression increased cytokinin (CK) levels in flowers, meristem tissues and phloem exudates in a form specific manner, which was suggestive of localized flower and meristem production with significant long-distance re-distribution in phloem. The total number of fruits formed (pod set) on some transgenic lines was increased compared to cv Merrit. Grain size compared to cv Merrit was not significantly altered in transgenic lines.

  17. Enhanced methionine levels and increased nutritive value of seeds of transgenic lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene

    PubMed Central

    Molvig, Lisa; Tabe, Linda M.; Eggum, Bjorn O.; Moore, Andrew E.; Craig, Stuart; Spencer, Donald; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds contained less sulfate and more total amino acid sulfur than the nontransgenic parent line. This was associated with a 94% increase in methionine content and a 12% reduction in cysteine content. There was no statistically significant change in other amino acids or in total nitrogen or total sulfur contents of the seeds. In feeding trials with rats, the transgenic seeds gave statistically significant increases in live weight gain, true protein digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization, compared with wild-type seeds. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using genetic engineering to improve the nutritive value of grain crops. PMID:9237987

  18. A transfer of carbon atoms from fatty acids to sugars and amino acids in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Ratajczak, Wiktoria; Ratajczak, Lech

    2003-05-01

    The metabolism of 14C-acetate was investigated during the in vitro germination of yellow lupine seeds. Carbon atoms (14C) from the C-2 position of acetate were incorporated mainly into amino acids: aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine and into sugars: glucose, sucrose, and fructose. In contrast to this, 14C from the C-1 position of acetate was released mainly as 14CO2. Incorporation of 1-14C and 2-14C from acetate into amino acids and sugars in seedling axes was more intense when sucrose was added to the medium. However, in cotyledons where lipids are converted to carbohydrates, this process was inhibited by exogenous sucrose. Since acetate is the product of fatty acid beta-oxidation, our results indicate that, at least in lupine, seed storage lipids can be converted not only to sucrose, but mainly to amino acids. Inhibitory effects of sucrose on the incorporation of 14C from acetate into amino acids and sugars in cotyledons of lupine seedlings may be explained as the effect of regulation of the glyoxylate cycle by sugars.

  19. Do rhizospheric processes linked to P nutrition participate in U absorption by Lupinus albus grown in hydroponics?

    PubMed

    Tailliez, Antoine; Pierrisnard, Sylvie; Camilleri, Virginie; Keller, Catherine; Henner, Pascale

    2013-10-01

    Phosphate (P) is an essential element for plant development but is generally present in limiting amount in the soil solution. Plant species have developed different mechanisms promoting the solubilization of this element in soils to ensure a sufficient supply for their growth. One of these mechanisms is based on the ability of certain species such as L. albus to exude large amounts of citrate through specific tertiary roots called cluster-roots. Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous contaminant known firstly for its chemical toxicity and secondly for its high affinity for P with which it forms low-soluble complexes in soils. We highlight the effects of P-U interaction on the physiology of L. albus and particularly on citrate exudation, and the impact of this root process on the phytoavailability of U and its accumulation in plants in a hydroponic study. Different levels of P (1 and 100 μM) and U (0 and 20 μM) have been tested. Our results show no toxicity of U on the development of L. albus with an adequate P supply, whereas the effects of P starvation are amplified by the presence of U in the growth medium, except for the production of cluster-roots. Citrate exudation is totally inhibited by U in a low-P environment whereas it increases in the presence of U when its toxicity is lowered by the addition of P. The differences observed in terms of toxicity and accumulation are partly explained by the microphotographs obtained by electron microscopy (TEM-EDX): in the absence of P, U penetrates deep into the roots and causes lethal damages, whereas in presence of P, we observe the formation of U-P complexes which limit the internalization of the pollutant and so its toxicity.

  20. Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway in legume plants exposed to heavy metals. Part II. Profiling of isoflavonoids and their glycoconjugates induced in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus) seedlings treated with cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Pawlak-Sprada, Sylwia; Stobiecki, Maciej; Deckert, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    We examined changes in profiles of isoflavonoids in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) seedlings in response to treatment with two heavy metals: cadmium (at 10 mg/l) and lead (at 150 mg/l). Overall, 21 flavonoid conjugates were identified in root extracts, some of them with up to six positional isomers. The total amount of all isoflavonoids increased by about 15 % in cadmium-treated plants and by 46 % in lead-treated ones. Heavy metals markedly increased the content of two compounds: 2'-hydroxygenistein glucoside and 2'-hydroxygenistein 7-O-glucoside malonylated. Possible functions of the identified isoflavonoids in yellow lupine exposed to heavy metal stress are discussed.

  1. Sucrose controls storage lipid breakdown on gene expression level in germinating yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2011-10-15

    This study revealed that cytosolic aconitase (ACO, EC 4.2.1.3) and isocitrate lyase (ICL, EC 4.1.3.1, marker of the glyoxylate cycle) are active in germinating protein seeds of yellow lupine. The glyoxylate cycle seems to function not only in the storage tissues of food-storage organs, but also in embryonic tissue of growing embryo axes. Sucrose (60mM) added to the medium of in vitro culture of embryo axes and cotyledons decreased activity of lipase (LIP, EC 3.1.1.3) and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH, EC 1.4.1.2). The opposite effect was caused by sucrose on activity of cytosolic ACO, ICL as well as NADP(+)-dependent (EC 1.1.1.42) and NAD(+)-dependent (EC 1.1.1.41) isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH and NAD-IDH, respectively); activity of these enzymes was clearly stimulated by sucrose. Changes in the activity of LIP, ACO, NADP-IDH, and NAD-IDH caused by sucrose were based on modifications in gene expression because corresponding changes in the enzyme activities and in the mRNA levels were observed. The significance of cytosolic ACO and NADP-IDH in carbon flow from storage lipid to amino acids, as well as the peculiar features of storage lipid breakdown during germination of lupine seeds are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Lupine-induced anaphylaxis in a child without known food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Hofer, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Lupine allergy is caused by ingestion of the flour of a plant called Lupinus albus, a member of the Leguminosae family. Lupine allergy has been described in adult patients previously known to have peanut allergy (cross-reactivity). To describe the first case of an anaphylactic reaction caused by ingestion of lupine flour in a pediatric patient without a known peanut allergy. Symptom assessment, nutritional history, and skin and blood tests. An otherwise healthy 8-year-old boy had nose and eye discharge followed by facial edema and difficulty breathing 30 minutes after eating an industrially prepared waffle containing eggs, sugar, and lupine flour. He had no history of food allergy and was eating a normal diet, including peanuts and other legumes. Results of skin prick tests using commercial extracts were positive to peanuts and negative to eggs, soy, and nuts; results of a prick-to-prick test using lupine flour were strongly positive (+ + + +). His total IgE level was 1,237 UI/mL. Specific IgE antibodies were positive to lupine seeds (20.8 kU/L) and peanuts (> 100 kU/L). To our knowledge, we describe the first case of an anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of lupine flour in a child without known allergy. In the case of peanut allergy or any anaphylactic reaction without evident cause, especially after industrially prepared food ingestion, lupine should be considered in the list of allergens tested. Lupine is increasingly used in industrially prepared food but is not regularly declared in the composition, leading to difficulties in allergen avoidance.

  3. [Phenotypic and technological influences of the Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) seed on its methionine availability and sulfur content].

    PubMed

    Oliveros, M; Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R; Reynoso, Z

    1983-09-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the content of available methionine and sulphur in seed cultivars of Lupinus mutabilis from different Andean regions, and to study the influence of processing on methionine and sulphur contents. An additional objective was to evaluate interrelationships among these chemical characteristics and protein quality, as measured by the protein efficiency ratio (PER) method. Results revealed a high variability in the content of available methionine and sulphur between the different ecotypes and varieties of Lupinus mutabilis. Fertilization with CaSO4 (200 kg/ha) did alter the content of available methionine and sulphur in Lupinus albus seeds. Traditional water-debittering of lupines did not affect the methionine content of the seeds, whereas oil-extraction and alcohol-debittering led to a decrease in available methionine (14 and 23% reduction, respectively). Production of a protein isolate further reduced the methionine content (54%). Regression analysis revealed a high correlation between available methionine and sulphur (r = 0.83), between sulphur and PER (r = 0.98) in the processed lupine samples, and lupine mixtures with other protein sources.

  4. Storage lipids as a source of carbon skeletons for asparagine synthesis in germinating seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.).

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Ratajczak, Lech

    2010-06-15

    The (14)C-acetate metabolism and regulatory functions of sucrose and sodium fluoride (NaF) were examined in embryo axes and cotyledons isolated from yellow lupine seeds and grown in vitro. After 15 min of incubating organs in solutions of labeled acetate, more radioactivity was found in amino acids (particularly in glutamate, asparagine and glutamine) than in sugars. After 120 min of incubation, (14)C was still localized mainly in amino acids (particularly in asparagine and glutamate). The (14)C atoms from position C-1 of acetate were mostly localized in the liberated (14)CO(2), whereas those from position C-2 were incorporated chiefly into amino acids, sugars and the insoluble fraction of the studied organs. The addition of NaF caused a decrease in the amount of (14)C incorporated into amino acids and in the insoluble fraction. The influence of NaF on incorporation of (14)C into sugars differed between organs. In embryo axes, NaF inhibited this process, but in cotyledons it stimulated (14)C incorporation into glucose. The release of (14)CO(2) with the C-1 and C-2 carbon atoms from acetate was more intensive in embryo axes and cotyledons grown on a medium without sucrose. This process was markedly limited by NaF, which inhibits glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Alternative pathways of carbon flow from fatty acids to asparagine are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carla; António, Carla; Ortuño, Maria Fernanda; Dobrev, Petre I; Hartung, Wolfram; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Vanková, Radomira; Chaves, M Manuela; Wilson, Julie C

    2011-10-01

    The early (2-4 d) effects of slowly imposed soil water deficit on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance in different organs (leaf blade, stem stele, stem cortex, and root) were evaluated on 23-d-old plants (growth chamber assay). Our work shows that several metabolic adjustments occurred prior to alteration of the plant water status, implying that water deficit is perceived before the change in plant water status. The slow, progressive decline in soil water content started to be visible 3 d after withholding water (3 DAW). The earliest plant changes were associated with organ-specific metabolic responses (particularly in the leaves) and with leaf conductance and only later with plant water status and photosynthetic rate (4 DAW) or photosynthetic capacity (according to the Farquhar model; 6 DAW). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the physiological parameters, the carbohydrate and the hormone levels and their relative values, as well as leaf water-soluble metabolites full scan data (LC-MS/MS), showed separation of the different sampling dates. At 6 DAW classically described stress responses are observed, with plant water status, ABA level, and root hormonal balance contributing to the separation of these samples. Discrimination of earlier stress stages (3 and 4 DAW) is only achieved when the relative levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (Cks), and carbon metabolism (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch levels) are taken into account. Our working hypothesis is that, in addition to single responses (e.g. ABA increase), the combined alterations in hormone and carbohydrate levels play an important role in the stress response mechanism. Response to more advanced stress appears to be associated with a combination of cumulative changes, occurring in several plant organs. The carbohydrate and hormonal balance in the leaf (IAA to bioactive-Cks; soluble sugars to IAA and starch to IAA; relative abundances of the

  6. Bradyrhizobium valentinum sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Lupinus mariae-josephae, a lupine endemic of basic-lime soils in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Navarro, Albert; Busquets, Antonio; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial strains isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules of Lupinus mariae-josephae have been characterized following genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic approaches. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes placed them in a group together with Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76(T), B. pachyrhizi PAC48(T), B. jicamae PAC68(T), 'B. retamae' Ro19(T) and B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T) with over 99.0% identity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes, recA, atpD and glnII, suggested that L. mariae-josephae strains represent a new Bradyrhizobium species, closely related to B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T), B. jicamae PAC68(T) and 'B. retamae' Ro19(T) with 92.1, 91.9 and 90.8% identity, respectively. These results are consistent with overall genomic identities calculated as Average Nucleotide Identity (ANIm) using draft genomic sequences obtained for relevant strains. While L. mariae-josephae strains LmjM3(T)/LmjM6 exhibited a 99.2% ANIm value, they were significantly distant (<93% ANIm) from type strains of their closest species ('B. retamae' Ro19(T), B. lablabi CCBAU 23086(T) and B. jicamae PAC68(T)). Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WC-MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of proteomic patterns of the same strains was consistent with these results. The symbiosis-related genes nodC, nodA and nifH genes from strains nodulating L. mariae-josephae were phylogenetically related to those from 'B. retamae' Ro19(T), but divergent from those of strains that nodulate other lupine species. Based on genetic, genomic, proteomic and phenotypic data presented in this study, L. mariae-josephae nodulating strains LmjM3(T), LmjM6 and LmjM2 should be grouped within a new species for which the name Bradyrhizobium valentinum sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LmjM3(T)=CECT 8364(T), LMG 2761(T)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular markers for genetics and plant breeding: the MFLP marker system and its application in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Shahidul, Islam; Yang, Huaan; Yan, Guijun

    2013-01-01

    Since the development of molecular markers to tag genes of agronomic traits of interests, molecular markers have played an increasingly significant role in breeding programs. Molecular markers have been implemented for large-scale marker-assisted selection in the breeding program of many important crops including lupin. So far, more than a dozen molecular markers for disease resistance genes and for other agronomic traits of interest have been developed in lupin. The DNA fingerprinting method, "MFLP" has played a pivotal role in the success of lupin breeding program in Australia. Here, we describe the MFLP technique used in lupin breeding which could be easily transferable to other crop species.

  8. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Scabland region of eastern Washington is dominated by annual grasses and in some areas by Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine). The purpose of these trials was to document the consumption of velvet lupine and relate the amount of lupine eaten by pregnant cows with the incidence of crooked calv...

  9. Effects of phosphorus supply on growth, phosphate concentration and cluster-root formation in three Lupinus species

    PubMed Central

    Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Wang, Xing; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims In some lupin species, phosphate deficiency induces cluster-root formation, which enhances P uptake by increasing root surface area and, more importantly, the release of root exudates which enhances P availability. Methods Three species of Lupinus, L. albus, L. atlanticus and L. micranthus, with inherently different relative growth rates were cultivated under hydroponics in a greenhouse at four phosphate concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 150 µm) to compare the role of internal P in regulating cluster-root formation. Key Results The highest growth rate was observed in L. atlanticus, followed by L. albus and L. micranthus. At 1 µm P, cluster-root formation was markedly induced in all three species. The highest P uptake and accumulation was observed in L. micranthus, followed by L. atlanticus and then L. albus. Inhibition of cluster-root formation was severe at 10 µm P in L. atlanticus, but occurred stepwise with increasing P concentration in the root medium in L. albus. Conclusions In L. atlanticus and L. albus cluster-root formation was suppressed by P treatments above 10 µm, indicating a P-inducible regulating system for cluster-root formation, as expected. By contrast, production of cluster roots in L. micranthus, in spite of a high internal P concentration, indicated a lower sensitivity to P status, which allowed P-toxicity symptoms to develop. PMID:20037142

  10. Occurrence of H2-Uptake Hydrogenases in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Their Expression in Nodules of Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus compressus1

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Jesús; Villa, Ana; Chamber, Manuel; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-four strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) from worldwide collections were screened by a colony hybridization method for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the structural genes of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase. Twelve strains exhibited strong colony hybridization signals, and subsequent Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that they fell into two different groups on the basis of the pattern of EcoRI fragments containing the homology to the hup probe. All strains in the first group (UPM860, UPM861, and 750) expressed uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, and Ornithopus compressus, but both the rate of H2 uptake by bacteroids and the relative efficiency of N2 fixation (RE = 1 - [H2 evolved in air/acetylene reduced]) by nodules were markedly affected by the legume host. L. angustifolius was the less permissive host for hydrogenase expression in symbiosis with the three strains (average RE = 0.76), and O. compressus was the more permissive (average RE = 1.0). None of the strains in the second group expressed hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules, and only one exhibited low H2-uptake activity in symbiosis with O. compressus. The inability of these putative Hup+ strains to induce hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules is discussed on the basis of the legume host effect. Among the 42 strains showing no homology to the B. japonicum hup-specific probe in the colony hybridization assay, 10 were examined in symbiosis with L. angustifolius. The average RE for these strains was 0.51. However, one strain, IM43B, exhibited high RE values (higher than 0.80) and high levels of hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with L. angustifolius, L. albus, and L. luteus. In Southern blot hybridization experiments, no homology was detected between the B. japonicum hup-specific DNA probe and total DNA from vegetative cells or bacteroids from strain IM43B even under low stringency hybridization

  11. Effect of jasmonic acid-methyl ester on the composition of carbohydrates and germination of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Kazimierz; Nitkiewicz, Bartosz; Lahuta, Lesław B; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Socha, Aleksander; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2010-08-15

    Mature seeds of yellow lupine contained sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and galactosyl cyclitols as major soluble carbohydrates. The study showed that RFOs dominated in lupine seeds (16% DW). The disappearance of both types of alpha-d-galactosides in germinating lupine seeds was strongly inhibited by the presence of jasmonic acid-methyl ester (JA-Me) at a concentration of 10(-3)M in the incubation medium. JA-Me inhibited the activity of alpha-D-galactosidase (fraction I) during seed germination. Anatomical studies of lupine roots have shown certain cell structure differences between control and JA-Me-treated seedlings. The cross-sections of plant roots treated with JA-Me showed a characteristic folding of the cell walls in all root tissues, starting from the rhyzodermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. In water-treated (control) plants, the cell walls were rounded with no folding.

  12. The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of some bitter and sweet selections of lupin species used as food.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Gross, R

    1980-01-01

    The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of bitter and sweet Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus, Lupinus mutabilis, Lupinus polyphyllus, and Lupinus perennis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. No anagyrine was detected in any of the samples. The GC peak in some of the samples which corresponded to anagyrine in retention of time seems to be identical to 17-oxolupanine. The alkaloid content of samples ranged from 3.17 to 0.003 percent.

  13. Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction – Many species in the Lupinus genus are poorly defined resulting in improper taxonomic identification. Lupine species may contain quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids that can be acutely toxic and/or teratogenic resulting in crooked calf disease. Objective – To identify any char...

  14. An RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of orthophosphate-deficient white lupin reveals novel insights into phosphorus acclimation in plants.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Jamie A; Yang, S Samuel; Miller, Susan S; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W; Vance, Carroll P

    2013-02-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (P(i)), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to P(i) deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in P(i)-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to P(i) supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ≥ 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to P(i) deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ≤ 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to P(i) deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the P(i) status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in P(i) deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to P(i) deficiency.

  15. Endosymbiotic bacteria nodulating a new endemic lupine Lupinus mariae-josephi from alkaline soils in Eastern Spain represent a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cañizares, Carmen; Rey, Luis; Durán, David; Temprano, Francisco; Sánchez-Jiménez, Paloma; Navarro, Albert; Polajnar, Mira; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2011-05-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephi is a recently described endemic Lupinus species from a small area in Eastern Spain where it thrives in soils with active lime and high pH. The L. mariae-josephi root symbionts were shown to be very slow-growing bacteria with different phenotypic and symbiotic characteristics from those of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating other Lupinus. Their phylogenetic status was examined by multilocus sequence analyses of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, glnII, recA, and atpD) and showed the existence of a distinct evolutionary lineage for L. mariae-josephi that also included Bradyrhizobium jicamae. Within this lineage, the tested isolates clustered in three different sub-groups that might correspond to novel sister Bradyrhizobium species. These core gene analyses consistently showed that all the endosymbiotic bacteria isolated from other Lupinus species of the Iberian Peninsula were related to strains of the B. canariense or B. japonicum lineages and were separate from the L. mariae-josephi isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on nodC symbiotic gene sequences showed that L. mariae-josephi bacteria also constituted a new symbiotic lineage distant from those previously defined in the genus Bradyrhizobium. In contrast, the nodC genes of isolates from other Lupinus spp. from the Iberian Peninsula were again clearly related to the B. canariense and B. japonicum bv. genistearum lineages. Speciation of L. mariae-josephi bradyrhizobia may result from the colonization of a singular habitat by their unique legume host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Control of Acid Phosphatase Secretion into the Rhizosphere of Proteoid Roots from Phosphorus-Stressed White Lupin1

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Susan Stade; Liu, Junqi; Allan, Deborah L.; Menzhuber, Christopher J.; Fedorova, Maria; Vance, Carroll P.

    2001-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) grown under P deficiency displays a suite of highly coordinated adaptive responses. Included among these is secretion of copious amounts of acid phosphatase (APase). Although numerous reports document that plants secrete APases in response to P deficiency, little is known of the biochemical and molecular events involved in this process. Here we characterize the secreted APase protein, cDNA, and gene from white lupin. The secreted APase enzyme is a glycoprotein with broad substrate specificity. It is synthesized as a preprotein with a deduced Mr of 52,000 containing a 31-amino acid presequence. Analysis of the presequence predicts that the protein is targeted to outside the cell. The processed protein has a predicted Mr of 49,000 but migrates as a protein with Mr of 70,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. This is likely due to glycosylation. Enhanced expression is fairly specific to proteoid roots of P-stressed plants and involves enhanced synthesis of both enzyme protein and mRNA. Secreted APase appears to be encoded by a single gene containing seven exons interrupted by six introns. The 5′-upstream putative promoter of the white lupin-secreted APase contains a 50-base pair region having 72% identity to an Arabidopsis APase promoter that is responsive to P deficiency. The white lupin-secreted APase promoter and targeting sequence may be useful tools for genetically engineering important proteins from plant roots. PMID:11598233

  17. A First Glimpse of Wild Lupin Karyotype Variation As Revealed by Comparative Cytogenetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Susek, Karolina; Bielski, Wojciech K.; Hasterok, Robert; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Insight into plant genomes at the cytomolecular level provides useful information about their karyotype structure, enabling inferences about taxonomic relationships and evolutionary origins. The Old World lupins (OWL) demonstrate a high level of genomic diversification involving variation in chromosome numbers (2n = 32–52), basic chromosome numbers (x = 5–7, 9, 13) and in nuclear genome size (2C DNA = 0.97–2.68 pg). Lupins comprise both crop and wild species and provide an intriguing system to study karyotype evolution. In order to investigate lupin chromosome structure, heterologous FISH was used. Sixteen BACs that had been generated as chromosome markers for the reference species, Lupinus angustifolius, were used to identify chromosomes in the wild species and explore karyotype variation. While all “single-locus” in L. angustifolius, in the wild lupins these clones proved to be “single-locus,” “single-locus” with additional signals, “repetitive” or had no detectable BAC-FISH signal. The diverse distribution of the clones in the targeted genomes suggests a complex evolution history, which possibly involved multiple chromosomal changes such as fusions/fissions and repetitive sequence amplification. Twelve BACs were sequenced and we found numerous transposable elements including DNA transposons as well as LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons with varying quantity and composition among the different lupin species. However, at this preliminary stage, no correlation was observed between the pattern of BAC-FISH signals and the repeat content in particular BACs. Here, we describe the first BAC-based chromosome-specific markers for the wild species: L. cosentinii, L. cryptanthus, L. pilosus, L. micranthus and one New World lupin, L. multiflorus. These BACs could constitute the basis for an assignment of the chromosomal and genetic maps of other lupins, e.g., L. albus and L. luteus. Moreover, we identified karyotype variation that helps illustrate the

  18. Interaction between beet vinasse and iron fertilisers in the prevention of iron deficiency in lupins.

    PubMed

    de Santiago, Ana; Delgado, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Recycling of organic byproducts for use as soil amendments or fertilisers may enhance the productivity of soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of sugar beet vinasse to correct iron chlorosis in crops when applied in conjunction with Fe fertilisers such as vivianite and ferrous sulfate (FS). An experiment involving two factors (Fe source and dialysed sugar beet vinasse (DBV) rate) was performed using white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and calcareous sand as growing medium. Although vivianite provided lower chlorophyll contents than Fe-chelate, dry matter production was not significantly different between the two Fe sources. Vivianite was more effective than FS in preventing iron chlorosis in white lupin, but not when DBV was applied. DBV significantly increased chlorophyll content in plants treated with FS after 3 weeks of growth. DBV increased the effect of FS in preventing iron deficiency chlorosis in white lupin. This was due, at least in part, to the inhibition of the precipitation of Fe oxides by organic compounds and to the increase in the content of Fe complexed by organic compounds in the growing medium, as revealed by sequential Fe fractionation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Cadmium in white lupin nodules: impact on nitrogen and carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Carpena, Ramón O; Zornoza, Pilar

    2013-02-15

    The aims of this work were to investigate the microlocalisation of cadmium (Cd) in Lupinus albus L. cv. Multolupa nodules, and to determine its effects on carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Nodulated white lupin plants were grown in a growth chamber with or without Cd (150 μM). Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the walls of the outer nodule cortex cells to be the main area of Cd retention, helping to reduce the harmful effect Cd might have on the amount of N(2) fixed by the bacteroids. Sucrose synthase activity declined by 33% in the nodules of the Cd-treated plants, and smaller reductions were recorded in glutamine synthetase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline invertase and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activities. The Cd treatment also sharply reduced nodule concentrations of malate, succinate and citrate, while that of starch doubled, but that of sucrose experienced no significant change. In summary, the present results show that white lupins accumulate significant amounts of Cd in their root nodules. However, the activity of some enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation did decline, promoting a reduction in the plant N content. The downregulation of sucrose synthase limits the availability of carbon to the bacteroids, which might interfere with their respiration. Carbon metabolism therefore plays a primary role in the impaired function of the white lupin root nodule caused by Cd, while N metabolism appears to have a more secondary involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of USDA Lupinus sp. collection for seed-borne potyviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant viruses pose a threat to the acquisition, maintenance, and distribution of lupin germplasm (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). The availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from maintained lupin collections is mandatory for conducting lupin research. The objective of t...

  1. Emulsifying and Foaming Properties of Different Protein Fractions Obtained from a Novel Lupin Variety AluProt-CGNA(®) (Lupinus luteus).

    PubMed

    Burgos-Díaz, César; Piornos, José A; Wandersleben, Traudy; Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Xaviera; Rubilar, Mónica

    2016-07-01

    The use of vegetable proteins as food ingredient is becoming increasingly important due to their high versatility and environmental acceptability. This work describes a chemical characterization and techno-functional properties (emulsifying and foaming properties) of 3 protein fractions obtained from a protein-rich novel lupin variety, AluProt-CGNA(®) . This nongenetically modified variety have a great protein content in dehulled seeds (60.6 g protein/100 g, dry matter), which is higher than soybean and other lupin varieties. A simple procedure was utilized to obtain 3 different fractions by using alkali solubilization and isoelectric precipitation. Fractions 1 and 3 were mainly composed of protein and polysaccharides (NNE), whereas fraction 2 was mainly composed by protein (97%, w/w). Fraction 3 presented interesting and potential foaming properties in comparison to the other fractions evaluated in the study. Besides, its solubility, foaming and emulsifying capacity were practically not affected by pH variations. The 3 fractions also presented good emulsion stability, reaching values above a 95%. SDS-PAGE showed that fractions 1 and 2 contained mainly conglutin α, β, and δ, but in different ratios, whereas fraction 3 contained mainly conglutin γ and albumins. The results of this work will provide better understanding for the utilization of each protein fractions as potential ingredients in food industry.

  2. Reproductive Strategies in Mediterranean Legumes: Trade-Offs between Phenology, Seed Size and Vigor within and between Wild and Domesticated Lupinus Species Collected along Aridity Gradients.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jens D; Shrestha, Damber; Ludwig, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    To investigate wild and domesticated Mediterranean annual reproductive strategies, common garden comparisons of Old World lupins collected along aridity gradients were initiated. These are excellent candidates for ecophysiology, being widely distributed across contrasting environments, having distinct domestication histories, from ancient Lupinus albus to recently domesticated Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, facilitating the study of both natural and human selection. Strong trade-offs between seed size, early vigor and phenology were observed: vigor increasing, and flowering becoming earlier with increasing seed size. Despite large specific differences in all these traits, natural and human selection have operated in very similar ways in all 3 species. In wild material, as collection environments became drier and hotter, phenology became earlier, while seed size, early vigor and reproductive investment increased. Wild and domesticated germplasm separated along similar lines. Within similar habitats, domesticated material was consistently earlier, with larger seeds, greater early vigor and higher reproductive investment than wild, suggesting selection for both early establishment and timely maturity/drought escape in both domesticated and wild low rainfall ecotypes. Species differences reflected their distribution. Small and soft-seeded, low vigor L. luteus had a late, rainfall-responsive phenology specifically adapted to long season environments, and a narrow coastal distribution. L. angustifolius was much more conservative; more hard-seeded, flowering and maturing much earlier, with a wide Mediterranean distribution. L. albus flowered earlier but matured much later, with longer reproductive phases supporting much larger seed sizes and early vigor than either L. luteus or L. angustifolius. This ruderal/competitive combination appears to give L. albus a broad adaptive capacity, reflected in its relatively wider Mediterranean/North African distribution.

  3. Reproductive Strategies in Mediterranean Legumes: Trade-Offs between Phenology, Seed Size and Vigor within and between Wild and Domesticated Lupinus Species Collected along Aridity Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jens D.; Shrestha, Damber; Ludwig, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    To investigate wild and domesticated Mediterranean annual reproductive strategies, common garden comparisons of Old World lupins collected along aridity gradients were initiated. These are excellent candidates for ecophysiology, being widely distributed across contrasting environments, having distinct domestication histories, from ancient Lupinus albus to recently domesticated Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, facilitating the study of both natural and human selection. Strong trade-offs between seed size, early vigor and phenology were observed: vigor increasing, and flowering becoming earlier with increasing seed size. Despite large specific differences in all these traits, natural and human selection have operated in very similar ways in all 3 species. In wild material, as collection environments became drier and hotter, phenology became earlier, while seed size, early vigor and reproductive investment increased. Wild and domesticated germplasm separated along similar lines. Within similar habitats, domesticated material was consistently earlier, with larger seeds, greater early vigor and higher reproductive investment than wild, suggesting selection for both early establishment and timely maturity/drought escape in both domesticated and wild low rainfall ecotypes. Species differences reflected their distribution. Small and soft-seeded, low vigor L. luteus had a late, rainfall-responsive phenology specifically adapted to long season environments, and a narrow coastal distribution. L. angustifolius was much more conservative; more hard-seeded, flowering and maturing much earlier, with a wide Mediterranean distribution. L. albus flowered earlier but matured much later, with longer reproductive phases supporting much larger seed sizes and early vigor than either L. luteus or L. angustifolius. This ruderal/competitive combination appears to give L. albus a broad adaptive capacity, reflected in its relatively wider Mediterranean/North African distribution

  4. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  5. Nylon Filter Arrays Reveal Differential Gene Expression in Proteoid Roots of White Lupin in Response to Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Zinn, Kelly E.; Ramirez-Yáñez, Mario; Li, Aiguo; Vance, Carroll P.; Allan, Deborah L.

    2003-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) adapts to phosphorus deficiency (−P) by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots. In an effort to better understand the molecular events mediating these adaptive responses, we have isolated and sequenced 2,102 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cDNA libraries prepared with RNA isolated at different stages of proteoid root development. Determination of overlapping regions revealed 322 contigs (redundant copy transcripts) and 1,126 singletons (single-copy transcripts) that compile to a total of 1,448 unique genes (unigenes). Nylon filter arrays with these 2,102 ESTs from proteoid roots were performed to evaluate global aspects of gene expression in response to −P stress. ESTs differentially expressed in P-deficient proteoid roots compared with +P and −P normal roots include genes involved in carbon metabolism, secondary metabolism, P scavenging and remobilization, plant hormone metabolism, and signal transduction. PMID:12644659

  6. Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

  7. White Lupin Cluster Root Acclimation to Phosphorus Deficiency and Root Hair Development Involve Unique Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterases1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lingyun; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Zinn, Kelly; Miller, Susan; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Allan, Deborah; Shen, Jianbo; Vance, Carroll P.

    2011-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a legume that is very efficient in accessing unavailable phosphorus (Pi). It develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report, we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2) from white lupin and propose a role for these two GPX-PDEs in root hair growth and development and in a Pi stress-induced phospholipid degradation pathway in cluster roots. Both GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are highly expressed in Pi-deficient cluster roots, particularly in root hairs, epidermal cells, and vascular bundles. Expression of both genes is a function of both Pi availability and photosynthate. GPX-PDE1 Pi deficiency-induced expression is attenuated as photosynthate is deprived, while that of GPX-PDE2 is strikingly enhanced. Yeast complementation assays and in vitro enzyme assays revealed that GPX-PDE1 shows catalytic activity with glycerophosphocholine while GPX-PDE2 shows highest activity with glycerophosphoinositol. Cell-free protein extracts from Pi-deficient cluster roots display GPX-PDE enzyme activity for both glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoinositol. Knockdown of expression of GPX-PDE through RNA interference resulted in impaired root hair development and density. We propose that white lupin GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are involved in the acclimation to Pi limitation by enhancing glycerophosphodiester degradation and mediating root hair development. PMID:21464471

  8. Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) β1- and β6-Conglutin Proteins Exhibit Antifungal Activity, Protecting Plants against Necrotrophic Pathogen Induced Damage from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora nicotianae

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C.; Melser, Su; DeBoer, Kathleen; Thatcher, Louise F.; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Foley, Rhonda C.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Vicilins (7S globulins) are seed storage proteins and constitute the main protein family in legume seeds, particularly in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.; NLL), where seven vicilin genes, called β1- to β7-conglutin have been identified. Vicilins are involved in germination processes supplying amino acids for seedling growth and plant development, as well as in some cases roles in plant defense and protection against pathogens. The roles of NLL β-conglutins in plant defense are unknown. Here the potential role of five NLL β-conglutin family members in protection against necrotrophic fungal pathogens was investigated and it was demonstrated that recombinant purified 6xHis-tagged β1- and β6-conglutin proteins exhibited the strongest in vitro growth inhibitory activity against a range of necrotrophic fungal pathogens compared to β2, β3, and β4 conglutins. To examine activity in vivo, two representative necrotrophic pathogens, the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae were used. Transient expression of β1- and β6-conglutin proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated in vivo growth suppression of both of these pathogens, resulting in low percentages of hyphal growth and elongation in comparison to control treated leaves. Cellular studies using β1- and β6-GFP fusion proteins showed these conglutins localized to the cell surface including plasmodesmata. Analysis of cellular death following S. sclerotiorum or P. nicotianae revealed both β1- and β6-conglutins suppressed pathogen induced cell death in planta and prevented pathogen induced suppression of the plant oxidative burst as determined by protein oxidation in infected compared to mock-inoculated leaves. PMID:28018392

  9. The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.

    PubMed

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-03-01

    The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens.

  10. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  11. Interactions among cluster-root investment, leaf phosphorus concentration, and relative growth rate in two Lupinus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Veneklaas, Erik J; Pearse, Stuart J; Lambers, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Cluster-root (CR) formation is a desirable trait to improve phosphorus (P) acquisition as global P resources are dwindling. CRs in some lupine species are suppressed at higher P status. Whether increased growth rate enhances CR formation due to a "dilution" of leaf P concentration is unknown. We investigated interactive effects of leaf P status and relative growth rate (RGR) on CR formation in two Lupinus species, which differ in their CR biomass investment. Variation in RGR was imposed by varying day length. Lupinus albus and L. pilosus were grown hydroponically with KH2PO4 at a day length of 6, 10, or 14 h. We used a slightly higher P supply at longer day lengths to avoid a decline in leaf P concentration, which would induce CRs. Cluster-root percentage, leaf P concentrations, and RGR were determined at 22, 38, and 52 d after sowing. Lupinus species grown at similar root P availability, but with a faster growth rate, as dependent on day length, showed a greater CR percentage. Because our aim to achieve exactly the same leaf P concentrations at different day lengths was only partially achieved, we carried out a multiple regression analysis. This analysis showed the CR percentage was strongly and negatively correlated with plant P status and only marginally and positively correlated with RGR. The two Lupinus species invariably formed fewer cluster roots at higher leaf P status, irrespective of RGR. Differences in RGR or leaf P concentration cannot explain the species-specific variation in cluster-root investment. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  12. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes during Infection of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) by Phytophthora parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Leila M.; Cullerne, Darren P.; Torreña, Pernelyn; Taylor, Jen; Hardham, Adrienne R.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis has shown that over 60% (12,962) of the predicted transcripts in the Phytophthora parasitica genome are expressed during the first 60 h of lupin root infection. The infection transcriptomes included 278 of the 431 genes encoding P. parasitica cell wall degrading enzymes. The transcriptome data provide strong evidence of global transcriptional cascades of genes whose encoded proteins target the main categories of plant cell wall components. A major cohort of pectinases is predominantly expressed early but as infection progresses, the transcriptome becomes increasingly dominated by transcripts encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycoproteins. The most highly expressed P. parasitica carbohydrate active enzyme gene contains two CBM1 cellulose binding modules and no catalytic domains. The top 200 differentially expressed genes include β-1,4-glucosidases, β-1,4-glucanases, β-1,4-galactanases, a β-1,3-glucanase, an α-1,4-polygalacturonase, a pectin deacetylase and a pectin methylesterase. Detailed analysis of gene expression profiles provides clues as to the order in which linkages within the complex carbohydrates may come under attack. The gene expression profiles suggest that (i) demethylation of pectic homogalacturonan occurs before its deacetylation; (ii) cleavage of the backbone of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I precedes digestion of its side chains; (iii) early attack on cellulose microfibrils by non-catalytic cellulose-binding proteins and enzymes with auxiliary activities may facilitate subsequent attack by glycosyl hydrolases and enzymes containing CBM1 cellulose-binding modules; (iv) terminal hemicellulose backbone residues are targeted after extensive internal backbone cleavage has occurred; and (v) the carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins are degraded late in infection. A notable feature of the P. parasitica infection transcriptome is the high level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes that degrade β-1

  13. Contribution of heavy metals and As-loaded lupin root mineralization to the availability of the pollutants in multi-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, S; Carpena, R O; Bernal, M P

    2008-03-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an annual crop that has been used for phytostabilization of acidified multi-contaminated soils. Once the culture cycle is over, after shoot harvesting, a progressive transference of contaminants from roots to soil may take place as decomposition of roots occurs. An incubation experiment with Cu, Zn, Cd, and As-loaded roots of white lupin and soils with different pH values and concentrations of these contaminants from the area affected by a mine spill at Aznalcóllar (near Seville, Spain) was performed in order to assess the effect of the decomposition of the roots to the pH and (NH4)2SO4-extractable levels of these pollutants in the soils. Pollutants loaded-roots were mineralized (56 d) at a ratio similar to animal manures (15.8-19.4% of total organic carbon) in soil. The estimated root inputs of contaminants in comparison to their extractable concentrations in soil were high, especially in the control, non-contaminated and neutral contaminated soils. However, the extractable concentrations of the toxic elements in the soil were mainly governed by soil pH. Hence, the correction and maintenance of the soil pH within the range 5-6 after lupin culture is essential for long-time phytostabilization of acidified multi-contaminated soils.

  14. Prick by Prick Induced Anaphylaxis in a Patient with Peanuts and Lupine Allergy: Awareness of Risks and Role of Component Resolved Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabrò, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the “hidden allergens” issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

  15. First Report of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus from Diseased Lupinus luteus L. in Eastern Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA, ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, in Pullman, Washington is responsible for the acquisition, maintenance, storage, and distribution of lupine (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). Availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from lupine collections is ma...

  16. Citrate-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of cluster roots from white lupin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Ryan, Peter R; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2004-11-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is well adapted to phosphorus deficiency by developing cluster roots that release large amounts of citrate into the rhizosphere to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphorus. To determine the mechanism underlying citrate release from cluster roots, we isolated protoplasts from different types of roots of white lupin plants grown in phosphorus-replete (+P) and phosphorus-deficient (-P) conditions and used the patch-clamp technique to measure the whole-cell currents flowing across plasma membrane of these protoplasts. Two main types of anion conductance were observed in protoplasts prepared from cluster root tissue: (1) an inwardly rectifying anion conductance (IRAC) activated by membrane hyperpolarization, and (2) an outwardly rectifying anion conductance (ORAC) that became more activated with membrane depolarization. Although ORAC was an outward rectifier, it did allow substantial inward current (anion efflux) to occur. Both conductances showed citrate permeability, with IRAC being more selective for citrate3- than Cl- (PCit/PCl = 26.3), while ORAC was selective for Cl- over citrate (PCl/PCit = 3.7). Both IRAC and ORAC were sensitive to the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These currents were also detected in protoplasts derived from noncluster roots of -P plants, as well as from normal (noncluster) roots of plants grown with 25 microm phosphorus (+P). No differences were observed in the magnitude or frequency of IRAC and ORAC currents between the cluster roots and noncluster roots of -P plants. However, the IRAC current from +P plants occurred less frequently than in the -P plants. IRAC was unaffected by external phosphate, but ORAC had reduced inward current (anion efflux) when phosphate was present in the external medium. Our data suggest that IRAC is the main pathway for citrate efflux from white lupin roots, but ORAC may also contribute to citrate efflux.

  17. Evaluation of thermal, chemical, and mechanical seed scarification methods for 4 Great Basin lupine species

    Treesearch

    Covy D. Jones; Mikel R. Stevens; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Scott L. Jensen; Dave Turner; Jason M. Stettler

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most Great Basin lupine (Lupinus spp. [Fabaceae]) species are physically dormant and thus, difficult to establish in uniform stands in seed production fields. We designed this study to examine 5 seed scarification techniques, each with 11 levels of application (including a non-scarified control), to reduce the physical seed dormancy of longspur lupine...

  18. Sensitization to lupine flour: is it clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    de Jong, N W; van Maaren, M S; Vlieg-Boersta, B J; Dubois, A E J; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2010-10-01

    Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical relevance of sensitization to lupine flour. From October 2004 until October 2005, we performed skin prick tests (SPT) with lupine flour, peanut and soy extracts in consecutive patients attending our allergy clinic with a suspected food allergy. In patients sensitized to lupine flour, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) were performed and specific IgE was measured. We tested 372 patients. SPTs with peanut, soy and lupine flour were positive in 135, 58 and 22 patients, respectively. Nine patients with sensitization to lupine flour underwent DBPCFC, which was negative in eight cases. In contrast, one patient experienced significant symptoms. Four of these nine patients suspected lupine by history. Two other patients with a positive history to lupine declined from challenges. In these patients, a 3-day dietary record showed that they could consume lupine without symptoms. Specific IgE in the serum was positive for L. angustifolius, peanut and soy in all nine patients. These results demonstrate that clinical lupine allergy is very uncommon, even in the presence of sensitization to lupine flour. The estimated prevalence of lupine allergy, among patients with a suspected food allergy, referred to a tertiary allergy centre in the Netherlands is 0.27-0.81%. In most, although not all cases, sensitization is not clinically relevant and is most likely caused by cross-sensitization to peanut. In selected cases, eliciting doses are low, making significant reactions possible. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and other elements in seeds of Lupinus mutabilis and of other legumes.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Auslitz, J; Schramel, P; Payer, H D

    1987-01-01

    Several species of legumes and varieties of lupins were examined for their heavy metal content in the seeds. Atomic absorption spectrometry was the main analytical tool. Validity and reproducibility of the results was checked by analyzing the same materials at two different laboratories performing the same technique. Additionally, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy was applied. In grains of Lupinus mutabilis which constitute a traditional food in Andean populations, the following contents of heavy metals were determined: 0.10-0.25 microgram/g Cd; 0.5-1.6 microgram/g Pb; 0.10-0.15 microgram/g Hg. Seeds of other legumes contained 0.05-0.35 microgram/g Cd; 0.1-0.2 microgram/g Pb; 0.01-0.04 microgram/g Hg. The high lead content of lupins is easily reduced to one tenth by traditional extraction with boiling water. The mercury content, too, is decreased by this technique. The high manganese content of 1 300-1,400 micrograms/g of Lupinus albus compared to other legumes (25-37 micrograms/g) seems to be characteristic for this species and may be of nutritional significance. The comparison of the heavy metal contents of legume seeds of different origin and variety indicates a complex pattern of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the specific metal contents of individual harvests. On the level of varieties the environmental factors (climate, soil, geology, agricultural techniques) seem to exhibit more important influences on the specific accumulation of heavy metals than genetic factors. In contrast, on the level of species or genera, the accumulation of heavy metals seems to be dominated by genetic factors rather than by environmental influences.

  20. Nutrient supply to dairy cows from processed white lupines.

    PubMed

    Yu, P; Egan, A R; Leury, B J; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the DVE/OEB system (DVE = truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB = degraded protein balance (DPB) in Dutch) and the NRC-2001 model in the prediction of supply of protein to dairy cows from processed white lupines (Lupinus albus L.). Comparisons were made in terms of (1) ruminally synthesized microbial CP, (2) truly absorbed protein in the small intestine, and (3) degraded protein balance. In addition, the systematic investigation of roasting of the white lupines at various temperatures (110, 130, or 150 degrees C) and times (15, 30 or 45 min) on manipulation of digestive behaviour and the potential nutrient supply to dairy cows were also carried out, to obtain information on best processing conditions as intestinal protein sources (to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine while holding any N loss in the rumen to a low level). The results showed that the predicted values from the DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model had significant correlations with high R ( > 0.83) values. However, using the DVE/OEB system, the overall average microbial protein supply based on available energy was 11% higher and the truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was 7% higher than that predicted by the NRC-2001 model. The difference was also found in the prediction of the degraded protein balances (DPB), which was 8% higher based on data from the NRC-2001 model. These differences are due to considerably different factors used in calculations in the two models, although both are based on similar principles. This indicates that a further refinement is needed for a modern protein evaluation and prediction system. In addition, this study showed that the roasting at higher temperature and time was effective in shifting protein degradation from rumen to intestines and it increased the DVE or MP values without reaching the negative degraded protein balance. The processing at 15 degrees

  1. α-Galactosides present in lupin flour affect several metabolic parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Palacio, María I; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Ángela; Etcheverría, Analía I; Manrique, Guillermo D

    2016-12-07

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of α-galactosides present in a lupin diet on metabolic parameters in growing Wistar rats. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is a rich source of non-digestible carbohydrates called α-galactosides whose beneficial health effects have been widely reported. For our investigation, twenty male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets: control (C) and lupin flour (L) for a 60-day period. The fermentation of these α-galactosides was monitored by measuring the following indicators: changes in the dynamic lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae population, cecal content pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), Ca and P absorption, and serum lipid (triglycerides and cholesterol) contents. The body weight was lower in the L diet than that in the control with significant differences (p < 0.05). The microbial analyses showed an increase of total lactobacilli counts and a decrease of enterobacteriaceae counts in the L diet when compared to the control, with significant differences (p < 0.05). The fermentations of α-galactosides were also confirmed by decrease in pH levels and the formation of relevant SCFA in the cecal content. The total content of SCFA (μmol per g) at the end of the assay period reached values of 13.58 and 3.64 for L and C rats, respectively. This significant increase of total SCFA in the L diet is responsible for a low pH of the cecal content that in turn prevents the growth and development of potentially pathogenic bacteria (p < 0.05). Regarding lipids, serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in the case of animals fed with lupin flour with respect to C animals (p < 0.05). Finally, the L rats showed higher values of an apparent Ca absorption percentage and bone volume percentage with respect to the C animals (p < 0.05). All these results confirm that lupin flour which contains α-galactosides could possibly be considered as a functional ingredient with health promoting

  2. Identification and characterisation of seed storage protein transcripts from Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L.), also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL) is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in fat and starch. Results Genes encoding the seed storage proteins of NLL were characterised by sequencing cDNA clones derived from developing seeds. Four families of seed storage proteins were identified and comprised three unique α, seven β, two γ and four δ conglutins. This study added eleven new expressed storage protein genes for the species. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of NLL conglutins with those available for the storage proteins of Lupinus albus (L.), Pisum sativum (L.), Medicago truncatula (L.), Arachis hypogaea (L.) and Glycine max (L.) permitted the analysis of a phylogenetic relationships between proteins and demonstrated, in general, that the strongest conservation occurred within species. In the case of 7S globulin (β conglutins) and 2S sulphur-rich albumin (δ conglutins), the analysis suggests that gene duplication occurred after legume speciation. This contrasted with 11S globulin (α conglutin) and basic 7S (γ conglutin) sequences where some of these sequences appear to have diverged prior to speciation. The most abundant NLL conglutin family was β (56%), followed by α (24%), δ (15%) and γ (6%) and the transcript levels of these genes increased 103 to 106 fold during seed development. We used the 16 NLL conglutin sequences identified here to determine that for individuals specifically allergic to lupin, all seven members of the β conglutin family were potential allergens. Conclusion This study has characterised 16 seed storage protein genes in NLL including 11 newly-identified members. It has helped lay the foundation for efforts to use molecular

  3. Cattle preference for forage kochia, crested wheatgrass, and velvet lupine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alkaloids in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) cause a crooked calf syndrome if the dam consumes the plant between day 40 to 100 of gestation. In spring calving operations, this coincides with late summer when annual grasses are mature and senescent in the Scabland Region of east...

  4. Alkaloid Profiling as an Approach to Differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus and Lupinus sericeus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Pfister, James A; Stonecipher, Clint A; Welch, Kevin D; Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E

    2012-01-01

    Many species in the Lupinus genus are poorly defined morphologically, potentially resulting in improper taxonomic identification. Lupine species may contain quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids that can be acutely toxic and/or teratogenic, the latter resulting in crooked calf disease. To identify characteristic alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sabinianus, L. garfieldensis and L. sericeus which would aid in discriminating these species from each other and from L. sulphureus. Quinolizidine and piperidine alkaloids were extracted from herbarium specimens and recent field collections of L. sabinianus, L. garfieldensis and L. sericeus. The alkaloid composition of each species was defined using GC-FID and GC-MS and compared using multivariate statistics. Each of the three species investigated contained a diagnostic chemical fingerprint composed of quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids. The alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sabinianus, L. garfieldensis and L. sericeus can be used as a tool to discriminate these species from each other and L. sulphureus as long as one considers locality of the collection in the case of L. sabinianus. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. The Forms and Sources of Cytokinins in Developing White Lupine Seeds and Fruits1

    PubMed Central

    Emery, R.J. Neil; Ma, Qifu; Atkins, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive range of cytokinins (CK) was identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tissues of and in xylem and phloem serving developing white lupine (Lupinus albus) fruits. Analyses were initiated at anthesis and included stages of podset, embryogenesis, and seed filling up to physiological maturation 77 d post anthesis (DPA). In the first 10 DPA, fertilized ovaries destined to set pods accumulated CK. The proportion of cis-CK:trans-CK isomers was initially 10:1 but declined to less than 1:1. In ovaries destined to abort, the ratio of cis-isomers to trans-isomers remained high. During early podset, accumulation of CK (30–40 pmol ovary−1) was accounted for by xylem and phloem translocation, both containing more than 90% cis-isomers. During embryogenesis and early seed filling (40–46 DPA), translocation accounted for 1% to 14% of the increases of CK in endosperm (20 nmol fruit−1) and seed coat (15 nmol fruit−1), indicating synthesis in situ. High CK concentrations in seeds (0.6 μmol g−1 fresh weight) were transient, declining rapidly to less than 1% of maximum levels by physiological maturity. These data pose new questions about the localization and timing of CK synthesis, the significance of translocation, and the role(s) of CK forms in reproductive development. PMID:10938375

  6. Modification by Ethylene of the Cell Growth Pattern in Different Tissues of Etiolated Lupine Hypocotyls 1

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Bravo, José; Ortuño, Ana M.; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Acosta, Manuel; Sabater, Francisco

    1992-01-01

    The influence of ethylene on growth in etiolated lupine (Lupinus albus L.) hypocotyls was studied in ethephon-treated plants. Ethephon reduced the length and increased the diameter of hypocotyls. At the end of the hypocotyl growth period (14 days), the fresh weight was reduced by 53%, and the dry weight was reduced by 16%. Thus, ethylene reduced water uptake in the tissues to a greater extent than the incorporation of new materials. Light microscopic measurements showed that the thickness of tissues was stimulated by ethylene, the vascular cylinder and cortex exhibiting greater increases (55 and 45%, respectively) than pith (26%) or epidermis (12%). Ethephon modified the cell growth pattern, stimulating lateral cell expansion and cell wall thickness, while reducing cell elongation. The response to ethylene varied in the different tissues and was higher in cortex and pith cells than in the epidermis cells. The ethylene-induced cell expansion in the cortex varied according to the localization of cells in the tissue: the central and subepidermal layers showed little change, whereas the innermost layers exhibited the greatest increase. Electron microscopy revealed that ethylene increased both the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dictyosomes, suggesting that ethylene stimulated the secretion of cell wall materials. In untreated seedlings, the pattern of cell growth was similar in cells from the epidermis, cortex, and pith. The final cell size varied along the hypocotyl, the cells becoming shorter and broader the closer to the basal zones of the organ. ImagesFigure 1Figure 5 PMID:16668735

  7. RNA-seq analysis identifies an intricate regulatory network controlling cluster root development in white lupin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly adapted plant species are able to alter their root architecture to improve nutrient uptake and thrive in environments with limited nutrient supply. Cluster roots (CRs) are specialised structures of dense lateral roots formed by several plant species for the effective mining of nutrient rich soil patches through a combination of increased surface area and exudation of carboxylates. White lupin is becoming a model-species allowing for the discovery of gene networks involved in CR development. A greater understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms driving these developmental processes is important for the generation of smarter plants for a world with diminishing resources to improve food security. Results RNA-seq analyses for three developmental stages of the CR formed under phosphorus-limited conditions and two of non-cluster roots have been performed for white lupin. In total 133,045,174 high-quality paired-end reads were used for a de novo assembly of the root transcriptome and merged with LAGI01 (Lupinus albus gene index) to generate an improved LAGI02 with 65,097 functionally annotated contigs. This was followed by comparative gene expression analysis. We show marked differences in the transcriptional response across the various cluster root stages to adjust to phosphate limitation by increasing uptake capacity and adjusting metabolic pathways. Several transcription factors such as PLT, SCR, PHB, PHV or AUX/IAA with a known role in the control of meristem activity and developmental processes show an increased expression in the tip of the CR. Genes involved in hormonal responses (PIN, LAX, YUC) and cell cycle control (CYCA/B, CDK) are also differentially expressed. In addition, we identify primary transcripts of miRNAs with established function in the root meristem. Conclusions Our gene expression analysis shows an intricate network of transcription factors and plant hormones controlling CR initiation and formation. In addition

  8. Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg−1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release. PMID:20150198

  9. Identification of a Low Digestibility δ-Conglutin in Yellow Lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Seed Meal for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Coupling 2D-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein. PMID:24278278

  10. Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models.

  11. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  12. Influence of plant secondary metabolites on in vitro oxidation of methyl ferulate with cell wall peroxidases from lupine apoplast.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Łukasz; Wojtaszek, Przemysław; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Ionically bound cell wall peroxidases (POXs) were liberated to intercellular washing fluids (IWFs) and isolated together with other proteins and metabolites present in the apoplast of white lupine (Lupinus albus L. var. Bac) root. After separation of proteins from low molecular weight compounds, activity of peroxidases was monitored in in vitro experiments. Oxidation of methyl ferulate with H2O2 was studied in multi-component mixtures of plant metabolites. Secondary metabolites identified in IWFs or other natural products playing important roles in different physiological processes were applied as modifiers of the dehydrodimerization process during oxidation reactions performed in vitro. These were isoflavones and their conjugates, lupanine representing quinolizidine alkaloids synthesized in lupine, or other natural products such as quercetin, ascorbic, and salicylic acid. The influence of these substances on the oxidation kinetics of methyl ferulate was monitored with liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC/UV), and identification of compounds was confirmed with the liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) system. On the basis of data collected, it was possible to reveal changes in the activities of cell wall POXs. Application of the LC system permitted us to monitor, independently, quantitative changes of two or more reaction products in the mixtures. In multi-component combinations, oxidation yields of methyl ferulate by POXs were modified depending on the actual composition of the reaction mixture. We conclude that various classes of plant secondary metabolites can modify the yield of methyl ferulate oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of POX, due to interactions with the enzyme's active site (genistein) or radical scavenging properties of metabolites present in the reaction mixture.

  13. Lupine, a source of new as well as hidden food allergens.

    PubMed

    Jappe, Uta; Vieths, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The present review summarizes current knowledge about lupine allergy, potential sensitization routes, cross-reactions between lupine and other legumes, and the respective IgE-binding proteins. Since the 1990 s, lupine flour is used as a substitute for or additive to other flours, mostly wheat flour, in several countries of the EU. In 1994, the first case of an immediate-type allergy after ingestion of lupine flour-containing pasta was reported. Since then, the number of published incidents following ingestion or inhalation of lupine flour is rising. So far, the Lupinus angustifolius beta-conglutin has been designated as the allergen Lup an 1 by the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. Initially, publications focussed on the fact that peanut-allergic patients were at risk to develop anaphylaxis to lupine due to cross-reactivity between peanut and lupine. At present, however, the ratio between cases of pre-existing legume allergy (mostly peanut allergy) to de novo sensitization to lupine seed is nearly 1:1. Although in December 2006, lupine and products thereof were included in the EU foodstuff allergen list according to the Commission Directive 2006/142/EC amending Annex IIIA of Directive 2000/13/EC in order to prevent severe reactions caused by "hidden food allergens", the majority of patients and medical personnel are still not aware of raw lupine seed as potentially dangerous food allergen.

  14. Proteomics for exploiting diversity of lupin seed storage proteins and their use as nutraceuticals for health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Keller, Jean; Ley, José; Sanchez-Lucas, Rosa; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2016-06-30

    Lupins have a variety of both traditional and modern uses. In the last decade, reports assessing the benefits of lupin seed proteins have proliferated and, nowadays, the pharmaceutical industry is interested in lupin proteins for human health. Modern genomics and proteomics have hugely contributed to describing the diversity of lupin storage genes and, above all, proteins. Most of these studies have been centered on few edible lupin species. However, Lupinus genus comprises hundreds of species spread throughout the Old and New Worlds, and these resources have been scarcely explored and exploited. We present here a detailed review of the literature on the potential of lupin seed proteins as nutraceuticals, and the use of -omic tools to analyze seed storage polypeptides in main edible lupins and their diversity at the Lupinus inter- and intra-species level. In this sense, proteomics, more than any other, has been a key approach. Proteomics has shown that lupin seed protein diversity, where post-translational modifications yield a large number of peptide variants with a potential concern in bioactivity, goes far beyond gene diversity. The future extended use of second and third generation proteomics should definitely help to go deeper into coverage and characterization of lupin seed proteome. Some important topics concerning storage proteins from lupin seeds are presented and analyzed in an integrated way in this review. Proteomic approaches have been essential in characterizing lupin seed protein diversity, which goes far beyond gene diversity since the protein level adds to the latter differential proteolytic cleavage of conglutin pro-proteins and a diverse array of glycosylation forms and sites. Proteomics has also proved helpful for screening and studying Lupinus germplasm with the future aim of exploiting and improving food production, quality, and nutritional values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Larenas, F E; Linnemann, A R; Nout, M J R; Koziol, M; van Boekel, M A J S

    2016-07-03

    Lupinus mutabilis has protein (32.0-52.6 g/100 g dry weight) and lipid (13.0-24.6 g/100 g dry weight) contents similar to soya bean (Glycine max). The Ω3, Ω6, and Ω9 contents are 1.9-3.0, 26.5-39.6, and 41.2-56.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively. Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of pasta, bread, biscuits, salads, hamburgers, sausages, and can substitute milk and soya bean. Specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display protein solubility (>90%), water-absorption capacity (4.5 g/g dry weight), oil-absorption capacity (3.98 g/g), emulsifying capacity (2000 mL of oil/g), emulsifying stability (100%, 60 hours), foaming capacity (2083%), foaming stability (78.8%, 36 hours), and least gelation concentration (6%), which are of industrial interest. Lupins contain bitter alkaloids. Preliminary studies on their toxicity suggest as lethal acute dose for infants and children 10 mg/kg bw and for adults 25 mg/kg bw. However, alkaloids can also have medical use for their hypocholesterolemic, antiarrhythmic, and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins can be detoxified by biological, chemical, or aqueous processes. The shortest debittering process requires one hour. This review presents the nutritional composition of lupins, their uses (as food, medicine, and functional protein isolates), toxicology, and debittering process scenarios. It critically evaluates the data, infers conclusions, and makes suggestions for future research.

  16. Germinated and Ungerminated Seeds Extract from Two Lupinus Species: Biological Compounds Characterization and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Andor, Bogdan; Alexa, Ersilia; Hogea, Elena; Coricovac, Dorina; Pătrașcu, Jenel Marian; Mioc, Marius; Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, nutraceuticals attracted a great amount of attention in the biomedical research due to their significant contribution as natural agents for prevention of various health issues. Ethanolic extracts from the ungerminated and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. were analyzed for the content in isoflavones (genistein) and cinnamic acid derivatives. Additionally, the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties, using in vitro and in vivo tests. Germination proved to be a method of choice in increasing the amount of genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives in both Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. Biological evaluation of all vegetal extracts revealed a weak therapeutic potential for both ungerminated and germinated seeds. PMID:28090213

  17. Crude protein supplementation to reduce lupine consumption by pregnant cattle in the scablands of eastern Washington.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine) is prevalent in eastern Washington, and when consumed by pregnant cows, can cause “crooked calf disease.” Rangelands in this region are dominated by poor quality annual grasses. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding supplemental crude protein...

  18. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause significant losses to the cattle industry. Previous research has suggested that Holstein cattle clear toxic Delphinium alkaloids from their serum at a greater rate than beef cattle. The toxicokinetics of lupine alkaloids in Holsteins are not known...

  19. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Michx.) Nash Bluestem, sand—Andropogon hallii Hack. Bluestem, yellow—Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.... sativa Indiangrass, yellow—Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash Indigo, hairy—Indigofera hirsuta L. Japanese...—Lupinus angustifolius L. Lupine, white—Lupinus albus L. Lupine, yellow—Lupinus luteus L....

  20. Protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis: metabolic studies in children.

    PubMed

    Lopez de Romaãna, G; Graham, G G; Morales, E; Massa, E; MacLean, W C

    1983-04-01

    The nutritional quality of lupins (Lupinus mutabilis) for infants and children was evaluated in two sets of balance studies. In the first the digestibility and protein quality of diets based on lupin flour, with and without methionine supplementation, were compared with those of a control diet consisting of casein, sucrose and vegetable oil. Apparent nitrogen absorption from lupin flour (81.8 and 84.3% of intake) was slightly but significantly less than that during casein control periods (87.2 and 86.8% of intake, P less than 0.05 and less than 0.001). Apparent nitrogen retention from unsupplemented lupin (15.6 +/- 5.8% of intake) was significantly less than that from casein in the corresponding control periods (29.8 +/- 4.9%, P less than 0.001); a small but significant (P less than 0.05) increase in nitrogen retention was observed during the control period following the lupin diet when compared with that preceding it. Methionine supplementation of lupin produced a marked improvement in apparent nitrogen retention (to 22.2 +/- 6.9%, P less than 0.05). In the second set of studies the digestibility of lupin oil was compared with that of a blend of soybean and cottonseed oils (50:50). Excretion of fecal fat (9.8 +/- 3.0% of intake) and fecal energy (6.7 +/- 1.2% of intake) with the diet containing lupin oil were similar to those observed with the control diet. Both the protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis are very similar to those from soybeans processed in a similar manner. For certain countries the lupin could be a valuable source of protein and edible oil for human consumption.

  1. Linking Development and Determinacy with Organic Acid Efflux from Proteoid Roots of White Lupin Grown with Low Phosphorus and Ambient or Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentration1

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Michelle; Evans, John R.

    1999-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 μm phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals (proteoid rootlets) emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length (4 mm), citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. We suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated (700 μL L−1) atmospheric [CO2] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO2]. PMID:10398705

  2. Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

  3. Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

  4. Putative porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) bacteroids induced by glyphosate.

    PubMed

    de María, Nuria; Guevara, Angeles; Serra, M Teresa; García-Luque, Isabel; González-Sama, Alfonso; García de Lacoba, Mario; de Felipe, M Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2007-08-01

    Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed.

  5. Positive responses of coastal dune plants to soil conditioning by the invasive Lupinus nootkatensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanslin, Hans Martin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Invasive nitrogen-fixing plants drive vegetation dynamics and may cause irreversible changes in nutrient-limited ecosystems through increased soil resources. We studied how soil conditioning by the invasive alien Lupinus nootkatensis affected the seedling growth of co-occurring native plant species in coastal dunes, and whether responses to lupin-conditioned soil could be explained by fertilisation effects interacting with specific ecological strategies of the native dune species. Seedling performance of dune species was compared in a greenhouse experiment using field-collected soil from within or outside coastal lupin stands. In associated experiments, we quantified the response to nutrient supply of each species and tested how addition of specific nutrients affected growth of the native grass Festuca arundinacea in control and lupin-conditioned soil. We found that lupin-conditioned soil increased seedling biomass in 30 out of 32 native species; the conditioned soil also had a positive effect on seedling biomass of the invasive lupin itself. Increased phosphorus mobilisation by lupins was the major factor driving these positive seedling responses, based both on growth responses to addition of specific elements and analyses of plant available soil nutrients. There were large differences in growth responses to lupin-conditioned soil among species, but they were unrelated to selected autecological indicators or plant strategies. We conclude that Lupinus nootkatensis removes the phosphorus limitation for growth of native plants in coastal dunes, and that it increases cycling of other nutrients, promoting the growth of its own seedlings and a wide range of dune species. Finally, our study indicates that there are no negative soil legacies that prevent re-establishment of native plant species after removal of lupins.

  6. Isolation, phylogeny and evolution of the SymRK gene in the legume genus Lupinus L.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Frédéric; Markova, Dragomira; Pasquet, Rémy; Misset, Marie-Thérèse; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2011-07-01

    SymRK is one of the key genes involved in initial steps of legume symbiotic association with fungi (mycorrhization) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (nodulation). A large portion of the sequence encoding the extracellular domain of SYMRK was obtained for 38 lupine accessions and 2 outgroups in order to characterize this region, to evaluate its phylogenetic utility, and to examine whether its molecular evolutionary pattern is correlated with rhizobial diversity and specificity in Lupinus. The data suggested that, in Lupinus, SymRK is a single copy gene that shows good phylogenetic potential. Accordingly, SymRK provided additional support to previous molecular phylogenies, and shed additional light on relationships within the Old World group of Lupinus, especially among the African species. Similar to results of other studies, analyses of SymRK sequences were unable to resolve placement of the Florida unifoliolate lineage, whose relationship was weakly supported to either the Old or the New World lupines. Our data are consistent with strong purifying selection operating on SymRK in Lupinus, preserving rather than diversifying its function. Thus, although SymRK was demonstrated to be a vital gene in the early stages of the root-bacterial symbiotic associations, no evidence from present analyses indicate that this gene is involved in changes in rhizobial specificity in Lupinus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intermittent grazing: A management tool to reduce the impact of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Lupinus genus is a large group of legumes, some of which cause a congenital condition in cattle referred to as “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS). Only Lupines that contain the alkaloids anagyrine or ammodendrine are problematic to cattle producers. The syndrome is manifest by a series of multiple ...

  8. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  9. Composition and protein quality of Lupinus mutabilis.

    PubMed

    Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R; Cremer, H D; Elmadfa, I

    1982-01-01

    The chemical composition and the protein quality of three samples of Lupinus mutabilis (a raw, semi-sweet variety; cooked, water-extracted seeds; and alcohol-extracted oil cake) were studied. The protein content varied from 47.7% dry weight (raw seeds) to 65.3% (oil-cake). Compared to the FAO reference pattern sulfur- containing amino acids are first limiting. The water-extracted sample contained 26.9% oil and the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of 30 seed samples was 5.3. Alkaloid content of raw seed was high (3.3%), but could be reduced or nearly eliminated by water-and-alcohol extraction or plant breeding. Other anti-nutritive substances were present only in trace quantities. Protein quality measured as protein efficiency ratio (PER) gave low values for the non-supplemented lupin proteins (1.34 semi-sweet variety; 1.53 water-extracted seeds; 1.19 oil-cake; 3.09 casein), but the PER's were improved by the addition of 0.2% DL-methionine to the diets (3.05, 2.69, 2,81, respectively). Raw as well as processed lupin protein showed an excellent apparent digestibility (80.0-85.8%, casein 87.1%). Studies of net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) confirmed the importance of methionine supplementation, The true digestibility of 92% was equivalent to that of casein.

  10. Spatial distribution and expression of intracellular and extracellular acid phosphatases of cluster roots at different developmental stages in white lupin.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongliang; Li, Xiaoqing; Zu, Chao; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2013-09-15

    Acid phosphatases (APases) play a key role in phosphorus (P) acquisition and recycling in plants. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) forms cluster roots (CRs) and produces large amounts of APases under P deficiency. However, the relationships between the activity of intracellular and extracellular APases (EC 3.1.3.2) and CR development are not fully understood. Here, comparative studies were conducted to examine the spatial variation pattern of APase activity during CR development using the enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) and the p-nitrophenyl phosphate methods. The activity of intracellular and extracellular APases was significantly enhanced under P deficiency in the non-CRs and CRs at different developmental stages. These two APases exhibited different spatial distribution patterns during CR development, and these distribution patterns were highly modified by P deficiency. The activity of extracellular APase increased steadily with CR development from meristematic, juvenile, mature to senescent stages under P deficiency. In comparison, P deficiency-induced increase in the activity of intracellular APase remained relatively constant during CR development. Increased activity of intracellular and extracellular APases was associated with enhanced expression of LaSAP1 encoding intracellular APase and LaSAP2 encoding extracellular APase. The expression levels of these two genes were significantly higher at transcriptional level in both mature and senescent CRs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that both activity and gene expression of intracellular or extracellular APases exhibit a differential response pattern during CR development, depending on root types, CR developmental stages and P supply. Simultaneous in situ determination of intracellular and extracellular APase activity has proved to be an effective approach for studying spatial variation of APases during CR development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Electron transport, Photosystem-2 reaction centers and chlorophyll-protein complexes of thylakoids of drought resistant and sensitive Lupin piants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; de Kouchkovsky, Y

    1993-07-01

    Two genotypes ofLupinus albus L., resistant and susceptible to drought, were subjected to water deficiency for up to two weeks. Such treatment progressively lowered the leaf water content from about 85% to about 60% (water potential from -0.8 to -4.3 MPa). Light-saturation curves of the uncoupled electron transport were analyzed according to a simple kinetic model of separated or connected reversible photoreactions. It gives an extrapolated maximum rate (Vmax) and the efficiency for capturing light (Im, which is the light intensity at Vmax/2). For Photosystem 2, Vmax and, less markedly, Im, declined with increasing severity of drought treatment; the artificial donor, diphenylcarbazide, could not restore the activity. One cause of this Photosystem 2 inhibition could be the loss of active Photosystem 2 centers. Indeed, their concentration relative to chlorophyll, estimated by flash-induced reduction of dimethylquinone, was halved by a medium stress. To the extent that it was still not restored by diphenylcarbazide, the site of Photosystem 2 inactivation must have been close to the photochemical trap, after water oxidation and before or at plastoquinone pool. By relating electron transport rate to active centers instead of chlorophyll, no inhibition by drought was detected. Therefore, water stress inactivates specifically Photosystem 2, without impairing a downhill thermal step of electron transport. On the other hand, the decrease of Im suggests that antennae connected to inactive centers may transfer their excitation energy to active neighbors, which implies that antenna network remains essentially intact. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the apoproteins of the pigment complexes were well conserved. In conclusion, the inactivation of Photosystem 2 may not be a physical loss of its centers and core antennae but probably reflects protein alterations or conformational changes. These may result from the massive decrease of lipids induced by drought (Meyer et al. 1992

  12. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96 h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  14. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  15. Organ-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) subunits in yellow lupine.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Dabert, Mirosława; Nowak, Witold

    2011-07-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.2-4) is present in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus cv. Juno) in many isoforms. The number and banding pattern of isoenzymes varies with respect to plant organ and developmental stage. To better understand the complex nature of GDH regulation in plants, the levels of GDH transcripts, enzyme activity and isoenzyme patterns in germinating seeds and roots of yellow lupine were examined. The analysis of GDH cDNA sequences in lupine revealed three mRNA types, of which two encoded the β-GDH subunit and one encoded the α-GDH subunit (corresponding to the GDH1(GDH3) and GDH2 genes, respectively). The relative expression of GDH1 and GDH2 genes was analyzed in various lupine organs by using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that different mRNA types were differently regulated depending on organ type. Although both genes appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in all lupine tissues, the GDH1 transcripts evidently predominated over those of GDH2. Immunochemical analyses confirmed that, during embryo development, varied expression of two GDH subunits takes place. The α-GDH subunit (43kDa) predominated in the early stages of germinating seeds, while the β-GDH subunit (44kDa) was the only GDH polypeptide present in lupine roots. These results firmly support the hypothesis that isoenzyme variability of GDH in yellow lupine is associated with the varied expression of α and β subunits into the complexes of hexameric GDH forms. The presence of several isogenes of GDH in yellow lupine may explain the high number (over 20) of its molecular forms in germinating lupine.

  16. Putative Porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) Bacteroids Induced by Glyphosate▿

    PubMed Central

    de María, Nuria; Guevara, Ángeles; Serra, M. Teresa; García-Luque, Isabel; González-Sama, Alfonso; de Lacoba, Mario García; de Felipe, M. Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed. PMID:17557843

  17. Evolution of soluble carbohydrates during the development of pea, faba bean and lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Frias, J; Vidal-Valverde, C; Kozlowska, H; Gorecki, R; Honke, J; Hedley, C L

    1996-07-01

    Seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Ergo), faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor Harz., cv. Tibo) and yellow pea lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) were sampled at different days after flowering (DAF) and their content of soluble carbohydrates was determined. Analysis of samples showed that myo-inositol, fructose, glucose, galactose and sucrose were found in high abundance early in development and their content decreased gradually during maturation. alpha-Galactosides, which includes the content of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, started to appear later in seed development, at 37 DAF in peas, 40 DAF in faba beans and 45 DAF in lupins. Their accumulation increased considerably during seed growth, and the maximum content was obtained in mature seeds; 3.8% in peas, 4.5% in faba beans and 10.4% in lupins. Results obtained for these sugars during seed development were fitted to modelling curves in order to predict sugar content at different development stages.

  18. Widespread adaptive evolution during repeated evolutionary radiations in New World lupins

    PubMed Central

    Nevado, Bruno; Atchison, Guy W.; Hughes, Colin E.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed. Furthermore, widespread shifts in optimal gene expression coincided with shifts to high rates of diversification and evolution of perenniality, a putative key adaptation trait thought to have triggered the evolutionary radiations in New World lupins. Our results reconcile long-standing debate about the relative importance of protein-coding and regulatory evolution, and represent the first unambiguous evidence for the rapid onset of lineage- and genome-wide accelerated Darwinian evolution during rapid species diversification. PMID:27498896

  19. Identification in lupin seed of a serine-endopeptidase activity cleaving between twin arginine pairs and causing limited proteolysis of seed storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Sessa, Fabio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Scarafoni, Alessio; Consonni, Alessandro; Duranti, Marcello

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of twin-arginine motifs (-R-R-) in the amino acid sequences of animal pro-proteins frequently defines the cleavage site(s) for their structural/functional maturation. No information is available on the presence and possible biological meaning of these motifs in the seed storage proteins. In this work, a novel endopeptidase activity with cleavage specificity to twin-arginine pairs has been detected in mature dry Lupinus albus seeds. The endopeptidase was tested with a number of endogenous and exogenous protein substrates, which were selected according to the presence of one or more twin-arginine residue motifs in their amino acid sequences. The observed hydrolysis patterns were limited and highly specific. Partial proteolysis led to stable polypeptide fragments that were characterized by 1- and 2-D electrophoresis. Selected polypeptides were submitted to N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry analyses. These approaches, supported by bioinformatic analysis of the available sequences, allowed the conclusion that the polypeptide cleavage events had occurred at the peptide bonds comprised between twin-arginine residue pairs with all tested protein substrates. The endopeptidase activity was inhibited by 4-(2-AminoEthyl)Benzene-Sulphonyl Fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF), leupeptin, and serine proteinase protein inhibitors, while it was not affected by pepstatin, trans-Epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane (E64), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), thus qualifying the Arg-Arg cleaving enzyme as a serine endopeptidase. The structural features of storage proteins from lupin and other legume seeds strongly support the hypothesis that the occurrence of an endopeptidase activity cleaving -R-R- bonds may be functional to facilitate their degradation at germination and possibly generate polypeptide fragments with specific biological activity.

  20. Anaphylactic reaction to lupine flour.

    PubMed

    Brennecke, Sabine; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Lepp, Ute; Jappe, Uta

    2007-09-01

    Roasted lupine seeds have been used as snack food in Mediterranean countries for years. Since the 1990s, lupine flour has been used as a substitute for or additive to other flours in countries of the European Union; usually the amount is so low that no declaration is required. Since 1994, a number of cases of immediate-type allergy to lupine flour-containing products have been published. A 52-year-old woman developed facial and mucosal edema, followed by dizziness and shortness of breath a few minutes after ingestion of a nut croissant containing lupine flour; she required emergency care. Allergy diagnostic tests revealed a total IgE of 116 kU/l, a highly elevated concentration of IgE specific for lupine seed (42.9 kU/l) and birch pollen IgE of 2.57 kU/l. Skin prick test with native lupine flour was strongly positive. Allergy against lupine seeds may develop de novo or via cross-reactivity to legumes, particularly peanuts, the latter being detectable in up to 88% of cases, founded on a strong sequence similarity between lupine and peanut allergens. In our patient, no cross-reactivity could be detected via immunoblotting, indicating a rare monovalent sensitization to lupine flour. Treatment consists of avoidance of lupine flour-containing products. Patients with proven peanut allergy should also avoid lupine flour because of the major risk of cross-reaction.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship Between Bovine Congenital Lathyrism Induced by Aminoacetonitrile and the Lupine Induced Crooked Calf Disease

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, R. F.; Binns, W.; James, L. F.; Shupe, J. L.

    1969-01-01

    Maternal feeding of the lathyrogen aminoacetonitrile, the range plant Lupinus caudatus, and an extract of this plant — expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant — all produced clinically similar congenital defects in calves. The defects included excessive flexure, malpositioning, malalignment and rotation of the front limbs. The results suggest a possible relationship between lathyrism and lupine-induced crooked calf disease. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4238569

  2. The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Turner, Monica G; Rusch, Donald H

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training.

  3. The Effect of Military Training Activity on Eastern Lupine and the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.; Turner, Monica G.; Rusch, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) manages over 10.1 million ha of land, much of which is used for training military personnel. However, vast sections receive little or no use, and military lands have become refuges for many species. At Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA, populations of the endangered Karner blue butterfly ( Lycaeides melissa samuelis) are found in oak and pine barren communities where wild lupine ( Lupinus perennis), a perennial forb required by Karner blue butterfly larvae, still occurs. Oak and pine barren communities are disturbance-dependent, and the barrens ecosystems in the Midwest have declined in extent by 98% because of fire suppression, succession, and habitat fragmentation. We studied the effects of disturbance by military manuever training on the density of lupine and Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy. We also wanted to determine whether military training activity could enhance Karner blue butterfly habitat. At locations where tracked vehicles had driven through lupine patches, the abundance of lupine and nectar-producing plants was greater in the median strip between vehicle ruts than in vehicle ruts or 5 m outside the vehicle ruts. The proportion of lupine stems with Karner blue butterfly larvae feeding sign (the ratio of stems fed upon to stems examined) was greater in areas where military vehicles had traveled than where they had not. The proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign and lupine stem density was also positively related to the occurrence of prior bivouacs and fires caused by military munitions. Shrub and forest canopy abundance were lower in areas traveled by tracked vehicles. At the scale of the lupine patch, lupine abundance and the proportion of lupine stems with feeding sign were positively correlated with military training activities, suggesting that maintenance of lupine habitat can be achieved in concert with military training.

  4. A comparative study of the effects of sparteine, lupanine and lupin extract on the central nervous system of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Pothier, J; Cheav, S L; Galand, N; Dormeau, C; Viel, C

    1998-08-01

    Lupin is toxic because of its alkaloid content, sparteine and lupanine in particular. Although the pharmacological properties of sparteine are well known those of lupanine have not been much studied. This paper reports procedures for extraction, purification and crystallization of lupanine, and methods for the preparation of an extract for injection of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet, and for the determination of the acute toxicity and maximum non-lethal dose (DL0) of lupanine, sparteine and lupin extract in the mouse. The three substances were tested on the central nervous system (CNS) for locomotor activity, for interaction with specific drugs used for treatment of the CNS (the stimulant drugs amphetamine and pentetrazol and the depressant drugs pentobarbital and chlorpromazine) and for analgesic activity. The results indicate that lupanine and lupin extract are less toxic than sparteine and that at the doses studied the three products have a weak sedative effect on the CNS.

  5. Nuclear DNA Content Variation and Species Relationships in the Genus Lupinus (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    NAGANOWSKA, BARBARA; WOLKO, BOGDAN; ŚLIWIŃSKA, ELWIRA; KACZMAREK, ZYGMUNT

    2003-01-01

    The 2C nuclear DNA content has been estimated by flow cytometry in 18 species and botanical forms of the genus Lupinus (family Fabaceae), using propidium iodide as a fluorescent dye. They represented distinct infrageneric taxonomic groups and differed in somatic chromosome numbers. Estimated 2C DNA values ranged from 0·97 pg in L. princei to 2·44 pg in L. luteus, which gives a more than 2·5-fold variation. Statistical analysis of the data obtained resulted in a grouping that supports the generally accepted taxonomic classification of the Old World lupins. The rough-seeded L. princei turned out to be an interesting exception, getting closer to smooth-seeded species. Results of DNA content analyses are discussed with regards to the phylogenetic relationships among the Old World lupins and some aspects of the evolution of the genus. PMID:12853281

  6. Cluster-root formation and carboxylate release in three Lupinus species as dependent on phosphorus supply, internal phosphorus concentration and relative growth rate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Pearse, Stuart J; Lambers, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status. Three cluster-root-forming Lupinus species, L. albus, L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, were grown in washed river sand at 0, 7·5, 15 or 40 mg P kg(-1) dry sand. Plants were harvested at 34, 42 or 62 d after sowing, and fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, cluster roots and non-cluster roots of different ages were measured. The percentage of cluster roots, tissue P concentrations, root exudates and plant RGR were determined. Phosphorus treatments had major effects on cluster-root allocation, with a significant but incomplete suppression in L. albus and L. pilosus when P supply exceeded 15 mg P kg(-1) sand. Complete suppression was found in L. atlanticus at the highest P supply; this species never invested more than 20 % of its root weight in cluster roots. For L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, cluster-root formation was decreased at high internal P concentration, irrespective of RGR. For L. albus, there was a trend in the same direction, but this was not significant. Cluster-root formation in all three Lupinus species was suppressed at high leaf P concentration, irrespective of RGR. Variation in cluster-root formation among the three species cannot be explained by species-specific variation in RGR or leaf P concentration.

  7. Cluster-root formation and carboxylate release in three Lupinus species as dependent on phosphorus supply, internal phosphorus concentration and relative growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Pearse, Stuart J.; Lambers, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status. Methods Three cluster-root-forming Lupinus species, L. albus, L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, were grown in washed river sand at 0, 7·5, 15 or 40 mg P kg−1 dry sand. Plants were harvested at 34, 42 or 62 d after sowing, and fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, cluster roots and non-cluster roots of different ages were measured. The percentage of cluster roots, tissue P concentrations, root exudates and plant RGR were determined. Key Results Phosphorus treatments had major effects on cluster-root allocation, with a significant but incomplete suppression in L. albus and L. pilosus when P supply exceeded 15 mg P kg−1 sand. Complete suppression was found in L. atlanticus at the highest P supply; this species never invested more than 20 % of its root weight in cluster roots. For L. pilosus and L. atlanticus, cluster-root formation was decreased at high internal P concentration, irrespective of RGR. For L. albus, there was a trend in the same direction, but this was not significant. Conclusions Cluster-root formation in all three Lupinus species was suppressed at high leaf P concentration, irrespective of RGR. Variation in cluster-root formation among the three species cannot be explained by species-specific variation in RGR or leaf P concentration. PMID:24061491

  8. Sulfur Assimilation in Developing Lupin Cotyledons Could Contribute Significantly to the Accumulation of Organic Sulfur Reserves in the Seed

    PubMed Central

    Tabe, Linda Marie; Droux, Michel

    2001-01-01

    It is currently assumed that the assimilation of sulfur into reduced forms occurs predominantly in the leaves of plants. However, developing seeds have a strong requirement for sulfur amino acids for storage protein synthesis. We have assessed the capacity of developing seeds of narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for sulfur assimilation. Cotyledons of developing lupin seeds were able to transfer the sulfur atom from 35S-labeled sulfate into seed proteins in vitro, demonstrating the ability of the developing cotyledons to perform all the steps of sulfur reduction and sulfur amino acid biosynthesis. Oxidized sulfur constituted approximately 30% of the sulfur in mature seeds of lupins grown in the field and almost all of the sulfur detected in phloem exuded from developing pods. The activities of three enzymes of the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway were found in developing cotyledons in quantities theoretically sufficient to account for all of the sulfur amino acids that accumulate in the protein of mature lupin seeds. We conclude that sulfur assimilation by developing cotyledons is likely to be an important source of sulfur amino acids for the synthesis of storage proteins during lupin seed maturation. PMID:11351081

  9. Cloning and expression of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed Central

    Maksel, D; Guranowski, A; Ilgoutz, S C; Moir, A; Blackburn, M G; Gayler, K R

    1998-01-01

    The first isolation, cloning and expression of cDNA encoding an asymmetric diadenosine 5',5'''P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (Ap4A hydrolase) from a higher plant is described. Ap4A hydrolase protein was purified from seeds of both Lupinus luteus and Lupinus angustifolius and partially sequenced. The Ap4A hydrolase cDNA was cloned from L. angustifolius cotyledonary polyadenylated RNA using reverse transcription and PCR with primers based on the amino acid sequence. The cDNA encoded a protein of 199 amino acids, molecular mass 22982Da. When expressed in Escherichia coli fused to a maltose-binding protein, the enzyme catalysed asymmetric cleavage of Ap4A to AMP and ATP which was inhibited at concentrations of F- as low as 3 microM. These are properties characteristic of Ap4A hydrolase (asymmetrical) (EC 3.6.1. 17). Comparison of the Ap4A hydrolase sequences derived from the four known cDNAs from pig, human, lupin and fission yeast showed that, like the mammalian hydrolase, the lupin enzyme possesses a Mut T motif but no other significant similarities. No sequence similarity to the human fragile histidine triad protein, as found in the Ap4A hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was detected in the Ap4A hydrolase from lupin. PMID:9425114

  10. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds.

  11. Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976884

  12. Genome sequence of the lupin-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-12-20

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen (N2) fixing root nodule of Lupinus sp. collected in Papudo, Chile, in 1995. However, this microsymbiont is a poorly effective N2 fixer with the legume host Lupinus angustifolius L.; a lupin species of considerable economic importance in both Chile and Australia. The symbiosis formed with L. angustifolius produces less than half of the dry matter achieved by the symbioses with commercial inoculant strains such as Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471. Therefore, WSM1417 is an important candidate strain with which to investigate the genetics of effective N2 fixation in the lupin-bradyrhizobia symbioses. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM1417, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,048,963 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a single scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,695 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program.

  13. Influence of germination with different selenium solutions on nutritional value and cytotoxicity of lupin seeds.

    PubMed

    Frias, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Pilarski, Radosław; Blazquez, Enrique; Jiménez, Begoña; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2009-02-25

    The effect of different selenium solutions during germination of lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius L. cv. Zapaton) on the content of total selenium, protein, amino acids, soluble carbohydrates, total antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity on HL-60 human leukemic cell line has been studied. Seeds were germinated in the presence of selenite (Na2SeO3) or selenate (Na2SeO4) solutions at different concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/L) for 5 days at either 20 or 25 degrees C. The addition of inorganic Se forms significantly increased Se content in lupin sprouts in a dose-dependent manner. The highest Se content in lupin sprouts was observed when germination was carried out with selenate solutions at 20 degrees C (11 microg/g of dw) or 25 degrees C (14 microg/g of dw). The Se-enriched sprouts presented an improvement in antioxidant activity (up to 117.8 and 103.5 micromol of Trolox/g of dw) as well as in essential amino acid content, and no cytotoxicity was observed on HL-60 human leukemic cells. Lupin seeds germinated with 8 mg/L selenate solutions for 5 days at 20 degrees C exhibited a higher germination rate (>90%) and a higher concentration of some essential amino acids than those obtained in selenite solutions in the same germination conditions. Therefore, the employment of selenate solutions at a concentration of 8 mg/L and germination for 5 days at 20 degrees C may be suggested for the production of Se-enriched lupin sprouts.

  14. The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

    2013-08-01

    The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (p<0.05). The results of the research revealed a decrease in the concentrations of antinutritional factors in the sprouts of yellow and blue lupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Influence of the Isolation Method on the Technofunctional Properties of Protein Isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Otto, Clemens; Pickardt, Claudia; Osen, Raffael; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-10-05

    The technofunctional properties of 2 protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor isolated by different procedures were investigated. The lupin protein isolate prepared by aqueous alkaline extraction with subsequent isoelectric precipitation (ILP) showed a significantly higher degree of protein denaturation and lower denaturation temperatures than the one obtained by aqueous salt-induced extraction followed by dilutive precipitation (MLP) as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Rheological investigations revealed higher firmness and a viscoelastic solid-like behavior of ILP, in contrast to MLP that showed viscoelastic, liquid-like properties. Protein solubility of MLP was higher compared to ILP and solubility minima were slightly different for both lupin protein isolates. The protein isolates exhibited different technofunctional properties with ILP showing higher water binding capacity, lower oil binding capacity and lower emulsifying capacity than MLP. This reflects the different putative application of both lupin protein isolates as food ingredients, for example for ILP as a moisture enhancer and for MLP as a "natural" emulsifier in mixed food systems.

  16. Phenylpropanoid pathway metabolites promote tolerance response of lupine roots to lead stress.

    PubMed

    Izbiańska, Karolina; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Deckert, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the role of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids in plants in response to heavy metal stress. In this study, it was found that treatment of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) with Pb (150mg/l Pb(NO3)2) increased flavonoid contents in both cotyledons (by ca. 67%) and roots (by ca. 54%). Moreover, seedling roots preincubated with flavonoid extracts, derived from Pb-treated lupine cotyledons, exhibited enhanced tolerance to the heavy metal. Flavonoid preincubated lupine seedlings, growing for 48h in the presence of Pb(NO3)2, showed mitigated symptoms of lead stress, which was manifested by a significant increase in the root length and its biomass. Additionally, in seedlings pretreated with the natural flavonoid preparations an impressive rise of the antioxidant capacity was observed. Simultaneously, root cells exhibited reduced accumulation of both H2O2 and O2(-), which was associated with the decreased TBARS content and the number of dying cells under Pb stress. Taken together, accumulation of flavonoids could be an effective event in the plant׳s spectrum of defense responses to heavy metal stress, and the protective role of flavonoids against heavy metals might be associated with their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species overproduced under lead stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens

    PubMed Central

    Apple, Jennifer L.; Wink, Michael; Wills, Shannon E.; Bishop, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N∶P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C), but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs). Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf N∶P and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession

  18. Diversification of Lupine Bradyrhizobium Strains: Evidence from Nodulation Gene Trees▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Hughes, Colin E.; Law, Ian J.; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Gurda, Dorota; Chlebicka, Agnieszka; Moulin, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Europe from Genisteae and serradella legumes form a distinct lineage, designated clade II, on nodulation gene trees. Clade II bradyrhizobia appear to prevail also in the soils of Western Australia and South Africa following probably accidental introduction with seeds of their lupine and serradella hosts. Given this potential for dispersal, we investigated Bradyrhizobium isolates originating from a range of native New World lupines, based on phylogenetic analyses of nodulation (nodA, nodZ, noeI) and housekeeping (atpD, dnaK, glnII, recA) genes. The housekeeping gene trees revealed considerable diversity among lupine bradyrhizobia, with most isolates placed in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum lineage, while some European strains were closely related to Bradyrhizobium canariense. The nodA gene tree resolved seven strongly supported groups (clades I to VII) that correlated with strain geographical origins and to some extent with major Lupinus clades. All European strains were placed in clade II, whereas only a minority of New World strains was placed in this clade. This work, as well as our previous studies, suggests that clade II diversified predominately in the Old World, possibly in the Mediterranean. Most New World isolates formed subclade III.2, nested in a large “pantropical” clade III, which appears to be New World in origin, although it also includes strains originating from nonlupine legumes. Trees generated using nodZ and noeI gene sequences accorded well with the nodA tree, but evidence is presented that the noeI gene may not be required for nodulation of lupine and that loss of this gene is occurring. PMID:17400786

  19. Draft genome sequence, and a sequence-defined genetic linkage map of the legume crop species Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W; Howieson, John G; Li, Chengdao

    2013-01-01

    Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence, and a Sequence-Defined Genetic Linkage Map of the Legume Crop Species Lupinus angustifolius L

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W.; Howieson, John G.; Li, Chengdao

    2013-01-01

    Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species. PMID:23734219

  1. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  2. Gluten-free food as source of hidden allergen (lupine).

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; Amato, S; Mistrello, G

    2009-08-01

    A woman, 68 yrs, developed an anaphylactic reaction after tasting a few pieces of gluten-free pasta. She was not celiac but was preparing a meal for her celiac nephew. The culprit pasta contained lupine flour and lupine proteins. Prick test with lupine extract was positive. ELISA and immunoblot analysis showed the presence of specific IgE to lupine in patient's serum.

  3. Lost crops of the Incas: Origins of domestication of the Andean pulse crop tarwi, Lupinus mutabilis.

    PubMed

    Atchison, Guy W; Nevado, Bruno; Eastwood, Ruth J; Contreras-Ortiz, Natalia; Reynel, Carlos; Madriñán, Santiago; Filatov, Dmitry A; Hughes, Colin E

    2016-09-01

    The Andean highlands are a hotspot of domestication, yet our understanding of the origins of early Andean agriculture remains fragmentary. Key questions of where, when, how many times, and from what progenitors many Andean crops were domesticated remain unanswered. The Andean lupine crop tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) is a regionally important pulse crop with exceptionally high seed protein and oil content and is the focus of modern breeding efforts, but its origins remain obscure. A large genome-wide DNA polymorphism data set was generated using nextRADseq to infer relationships among more than 200 accessions of Andean Lupinus species, including 24 accessions of L. mutabilis and close relatives. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses were used to identify the likely progenitor of tarwi and elucidate the area and timing of domestication in combination with archaeological evidence. We infer that tarwi was domesticated once in northern Peru, most likely in the Cajamarca region within, or adjacent to the extant distribution of L. piurensis, which is the most likely wild progenitor. Demographic analyses suggest that tarwi split from L. piurensis around 2600 BP and suffered a classical domestication bottleneck. The earliest unequivocal archaeological evidence of domesticated tarwi seeds is from the Mantaro Valley, central Peru ca. 1800 BP. A single origin of tarwi from L. piurensis in northern Peru provides a robust working hypothesis for the domestication of this regionally important crop and is one of the first clear-cut examples of a crop originating in the highlands of northern Peru. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Nitric oxide implication in cadmium-induced programmed cell death in roots and signaling response of yellow lupine plants.

    PubMed

    Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Deckert, Joanna; Rucińska-Sobkowiak, Renata; Gzyl, Jarosław; Pawlak-Sprada, Sylwia; Abramowski, Dariusz; Jelonek, Tomasz; Gwóźdź, Edward A

    2012-09-01

    The sequence of events leading to the programmed cell death (PCD) induced by heavy metals in plants is still the object of extensive investigation. In this study we showed that roots of 3-day old yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seedlings exposed to cadmium (Cd, 89μM CdCl(2)) resulted in PCD starting from 24h of stress duration, which was evidenced by TUNEL-positive reaction. Cd-induced PCD was preceded by a relatively early burst of nitric oxide (NO) localized mainly in the root tips. Above changes were accompanied by the NADPH-oxidase-dependent superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)) production. However, the concomitant high level of both NO and O(2)(·-) at the 24th h of Cd exposure did not provoke an enhanced peroxynitrite formation. The treatment with the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor and NO-scavenger significantly reduced O(2)(·-) and NO production, respectively, as well as diminished the pool of cells undergoing PCD. The obtained data indicate that boosted NO and O(2)(·-) production is required for Cd-induced PCD in lupine roots. Moreover, we found that in roots of 14-day old lupine plants the NO-dependent Cd-induced PCD was correlated with the enhanced level of the post-stress signals in leaves, including distal NO cross-talk with hydrogen peroxide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus mariae-josephae: a unique symbiosis endemic of a basic soil in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, D.; Sánchez-Cañizares, C.; Navarro, A.; Rey, L.; Imperial, J.; Ruiz-Argüeso, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mahé et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Cañizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the

  6. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers... drinking water and in residential settings but does not include occupational exposure. Pursuant to FFDCA..., drinking water, and through other exposures that occur as a result of pesticide use in residential settings...

  7. Causes and consequences of herbivory on prairie lupine (Lupinus lepidus) in early primary succession

    Treesearch

    John G. Bishop; William F. Fagan; John G. Schade; Charles M. Crisafulli

    2005-01-01

    Primary succession, the formation and change of ecological communities in locations initially lacking organisms or other biological materials, has been an important research focus for at least a century (Cowles 1899; Griggs 1933; Eggler 1941; Crocker and Major 1955; Eggler 1959; Miles and Walton 1993; Waker and del Moral 2003). At approximately 60 km2...

  8. [Establishment of optimal conditions at laboratory and pilot plant levels for the preparation of a protein isolated from Lupinus mutabilis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Pacheco, T; Aliaga, T; Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R

    1981-12-01

    Laboratory conditions were first investigated to determine are optimum processing parameters for the preparation of a protein isolate from the ground, defatted, commercial flakes of Lupinus mutabilis. The extraction variables were: pH (2-10); solvent to lupine ratio (5:1 to 40:1); temperature (28 degrees C - 60 degrees C) and time (10-50 min). The isoelectric point of the lupine protein was found to be pH 4.5 with a protein solubility higher than 80% above pH 8.0. Using 70-100 mesh, ground defatted flakes, and extracting at pH 8.7 for 60 min, a protein isolate was obtained on acidification to pH 4.5 which was 99.8 protein (dry basis), compared to 55.25% protein for the original material. This protein isolate represented 32% of the initial material and 57.6% of the initial nitrogen. When making pilot plant assays we found that the yield of protein isolate decreased to 20.4% of the original material and 36.4% of the initial nitrogen. The protein efficiency ratio for the protein isolate was 2.15 when supplemented with methionine, and had a digestibility of 89.33

  9. Characterization of active-site residues in diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed Central

    Maksel, D; Gooley, P R; Swarbrick, J D; Guranowski, A; Gange, C; Blackburn, G M; Gayler, K R

    2001-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to characterize the functions of key amino acid residues in the catalytic site of the 'nudix' hydrolase, (asymmetrical) diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.17) from Lupinus angustifolius, the three-dimensional solution structure of which has recently been solved. Residues within the nudix motif, Gly-(Xaa)5-Glu-(Xaa)7-Arg-Glu-Uaa-Xaa-(Glu)2-Xaa-Gly (where Xaa represents unspecified amino acids and Uaa represents the bulky aliphatic amino acids Ile, Leu or Val) conserved in 'nudix enzymes', and residues important for catalysis from elsewhere in the molecule, were mutated and the expressed proteins characterized. The results reveal a high degree of functional conservation between lupin asymmetric Ap4A hydrolase and the 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolase from Escherichia coli. Charged residues in positions equivalent to those that ligate an enzyme-bound metal ion in the E. coli 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolase [Harris, Wu, Massiah and Mildvan (2000) Biochemistry 39, 1655-1674] were shown to contribute to catalysis to similar extents in the lupin enzyme. Mutations E55Q, E59Q and E125Q all reduced kcat markedly, whereas mutations R54Q, E58Q and E122Q had smaller effects. None of the mutations produced a substantial change in the Km)for Ap4A, but several extensively modified the pH-dependence and fluoride-sensitivities of the hydrolase. It was concluded that the precisely positioned glutamate residues Glu-55, Glu-59 and Glu-125 are conserved as functionally significant components of the hydrolytic mechanism in both of these members of the nudix family of hydrolases. PMID:11439089

  10. An inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds effective against aspartic proteases from Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Molina, Diana; Zamora, Humberto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro

    2010-06-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), is one of the most devastating coffee pests (Coffea arabica L.) worldwide. Digestion in the midgut of H. hampei is facilitated by aspartic proteases. This is the first report of an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis. The L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI) exhibited a molecular mass of 12.84kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF, and consists of a single polypeptide chain with an isoelectric point of 4.5. In thermal activity experiments, stability was retained at pH 2.5 after heating the protein at 70 degrees C for 30 min, but was unstable at 100 degrees C. The protein was also stable over a broad range of pH, from 2 to 11, at 30 degrees C. In in vitro assays, LbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 2.9 microg. LbAPI inhibits pepsin in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. LbAPI inhibition of pepsin was competitive, with a K(i) of 3.1 microM, using hemoglobin as substrate. Its amino-terminal sequence had 76% homology with the seed storage proteins vicilin and beta-conglutin. The homology of LbAPI to vicilins from Lupinus albus L. suggests that they may also serve as storage proteins in the seed. LbAPI could be a promising tool to make genetically modified coffee with resistance to H. hampei. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Yellow lupine cyclophilin interacts with nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Nuc, Katarzyna; Leśniewicz, Krzysztof; Nuc, Przemysław; Słomski, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    To investigate properties of yellow lupine cytosolic cyclophilin, an expression vector pET15CYP was constructed. The CyP cDNA (GenBank accession no.Y16088) reveals an open reading frame of 172 amino acids with the conserved tryptophan residue at position 128 and an insertion of seven amino acids spanning positions 48-54. Yellow lupine cyclophilin, purified after expression in E. coli cells, exhibits peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity when assayed with a synthetic oligopeptide. We have demonstrated that the recombinant cyclophilin is able to interact with nucleic acids, both single and double stranded DNA fragments as well as RNA.

  12. Root trait diversity, molecular marker diversity, and trait-marker associations in a core collection of Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yinglong; Shan, Fucheng; Nelson, Matthew N; Siddique, Kadambot HM; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the predominant grain legume crop in southern Australia, contributing half of the total grain legume production of Australia. Its yield in Australia is hampered by a range of subsoil constraints. The adaptation of lupin genotypes to subsoil constraints may be improved by selecting for optimal root traits from new and exotic germplasm sources. We assessed root trait diversity and genetic diversity of a core collection of narrow-leafed lupin (111 accessions) using 191 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. The genetic relationship among accessions was determined using the admixture model in STRUCTURE. Thirty-eight root-associated traits were characterized, with 21 having coefficient of variation values >0.5. Principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis of the DArT markers revealed broad diversity among the accessions. An ad hoc statistics calculation resulted in 10 distinct populations with significant differences among and within them (P < 0.001). The mixed linear model test in TASSEL showed a significant association between all root traits and some DArT markers, with the numbers of markers associated with an individual trait ranging from 2 to 13. The percentage of phenotypic variation explained by any one marker ranged from 6.4 to 21.8%, with 15 associations explaining >10% of phenotypic variation. The genetic variation values ranged from 0 to 7994, with 23 associations having values >240. Root traits such as deeper roots and lateral root proliferation at depth would be useful for this species for improved adaptation to drier soil conditions. This study offers opportunities for discovering useful root traits that can be used to increase the yield of Australian cultivars across variable environmental conditions. PMID:27049020

  13. Root trait diversity, molecular marker diversity, and trait-marker associations in a core collection of Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinglong; Shan, Fucheng; Nelson, Matthew N; Siddique, Kadambot Hm; Rengel, Zed

    2016-06-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the predominant grain legume crop in southern Australia, contributing half of the total grain legume production of Australia. Its yield in Australia is hampered by a range of subsoil constraints. The adaptation of lupin genotypes to subsoil constraints may be improved by selecting for optimal root traits from new and exotic germplasm sources. We assessed root trait diversity and genetic diversity of a core collection of narrow-leafed lupin (111 accessions) using 191 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. The genetic relationship among accessions was determined using the admixture model in STRUCTURE. Thirty-eight root-associated traits were characterized, with 21 having coefficient of variation values >0.5. Principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis of the DArT markers revealed broad diversity among the accessions. An ad hoc statistics calculation resulted in 10 distinct populations with significant differences among and within them (P < 0.001). The mixed linear model test in TASSEL showed a significant association between all root traits and some DArT markers, with the numbers of markers associated with an individual trait ranging from 2 to 13. The percentage of phenotypic variation explained by any one marker ranged from 6.4 to 21.8%, with 15 associations explaining >10% of phenotypic variation. The genetic variation values ranged from 0 to 7994, with 23 associations having values >240. Root traits such as deeper roots and lateral root proliferation at depth would be useful for this species for improved adaptation to drier soil conditions. This study offers opportunities for discovering useful root traits that can be used to increase the yield of Australian cultivars across variable environmental conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Comparative genomics of Lupinus angustifolius gene-rich regions: BAC library exploration, genetic mapping and cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The narrow-leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., is a grain legume species with a relatively compact genome. The species has 2n = 40 chromosomes and its genome size is 960 Mbp/1C. During the last decade, L. angustifolius genomic studies have achieved several milestones, such as molecular-marker development, linkage maps, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Here, these resources were integratively used to identify and sequence two gene-rich regions (GRRs) of the genome. Results The genome was screened with a probe representing the sequence of a microsatellite fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) marker linked to Phomopsis stem blight resistance. BAC clones selected by hybridization were subjected to restriction fingerprinting and contig assembly, and 232 BAC-ends were sequenced and annotated. BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) identified eight single-locus clones. Based on physical mapping, cytogenetic localization, and BAC-end annotation, five clones were chosen for sequencing. Within the sequences of clones that hybridized in FISH to a single-locus, two large GRRs were identified. The GRRs showed strong and conserved synteny to Glycine max duplicated genome regions, illustrated by both identical gene order and parallel orientation. In contrast, in the clones with dispersed FISH signals, more than one-third of sequences were transposable elements. Sequenced, single-locus clones were used to develop 12 genetic markers, increasing the number of L. angustifolius chromosomes linked to appropriate linkage groups by five pairs. Conclusions In general, probes originating from MFLP sequences can assist genome screening and gene discovery. However, such probes are not useful for positional cloning, because they tend to hybridize to numerous loci. GRRs identified in L. angustifolius contained a low number of interspersed repeats and had a high level of synteny to the genome of the model legume G. max. Our results showed that

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  16. Ability of lupine seeds to germinate and to tolerate desiccation as related to changes in free radical level and antioxidants in freshly harvested seeds.

    PubMed

    Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar; Jancelewicz, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) were collected throughout their development on the mother plant to determine whether the ability to germinate and to tolerate desiccation is related to the level of free radicals and the changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione as well as the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based analyses showed that development of lupine seed was accompanied by generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0049+/-0.0004 and 2.0029+/-0.0003, respectively. Free radical level increased significantly 25 DAF and decreased thereafter. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was high in fresh immature seeds and decreased during maturation drying. Ascorbate accumulated in lupine embryos during early seed filling stage whereas glutathione content increased during late seed filling phase. During maturation drying the redox state of both ascorbate and glutathione pools shifted towards the oxidized forms. While superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) activities remained high at the early seed filling stage the activities of both dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and that of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) increased before seeds reached physiological maturity and decreased thereafter. The changes of isoform patterns of antioxidative enzymes were observed during seed maturation. Immature lupine seeds tested immediately after harvest acquired the ability to germinate when less than half-filled and reached high tolerance to desiccation just after physiological maturity. The physiological implications of the changes in antioxidative machinery for the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and seeds germinability are discussed.

  17. Purification of apyrase from yellow lupin cotyledons after extraction with perchloric acid.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, A; Starzyńska, E; Rataj-Guranowska, M; Günther Sillero, M A

    1991-08-01

    Neutralized 1 M perchloric acid (PCA) extracts of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seedling cotyledons contain considerable amounts of apyrase (EC 3.6.1.5). Investigators who use PCA extraction for the estimation of nucleotide levels, particularly in plant tissues, should be aware of this danger. Only when the material is treated with 1.8-2 M PCA are the extracts obtained free of apyrase activity. Chromatography of neutralized 1 M extracts obtained from 7-day-old seedling cotyledons on DEAE-Sephacel and Sephadex G-100 yields almost homogeneous apyrase that shows a band of M(r) 51,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. The molecular weight of the native enzyme is also about 51,000. The apyrase preparation is free of nonspecific phosphatases, nucleotidases, and adenosine nucleosidase, as well as dinucleoside polyphosphate-degrading enzymes. The apyrase exhibits a broad pH optimum between 6 and 8. Mg2+ and Ca2+ are required for maximum activity; Zn2+ and Mn2+ are less effective and Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ are without effect. The Km values for ATP and ADP are about 20 microM. All common 5'-nucleoside tri- and diphosphates as well as adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate are substrates.

  18. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  19. Genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobial symbionts of the Lupinus mariae-josephae endemism from alkaline-limed soils within its area of distribution in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Durán, David; Rey, L; Sánchez-Cañizares, C; Navarro, A; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argueso, T

    2013-03-01

    The genomic diversity of a collection of 103 indigenous rhizobia isolates from Lupinus mariae-josephae (Lmj), a recently described Lupinus species endemic to alkaline-limed soils from a restricted habitat in Eastern Spain, was investigated by molecular methods. Isolates were obtained from soils of four geographic locations in the Valencia province that harbored the known Lmj plant populations. Using an M13 RAPD fingerprinting technique, 19 distinct RAPD profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA and the housekeeping genes glnII, recA and atpD showed a high diversity of native Bradyrhizobium strains that were able to establish symbiosis with Lmj. All the strains grouped in a clade unrelated to strains of the B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages that establish symbioses with lupines in acid soils of the Mediterranean area. The phylogenetic tree based on concatenated glnII, recA and atpD gene sequences grouped the Lmj isolates in six different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 93% similarity level. These OTUs were not associated to any specific geographical location, and their observed divergence predicted the existence of different Bradyrhizobium genomic species. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic genes based on nodC and nodA gene sequences, defined only two distinct clusters among the Lmj strains. These two Lmj nod gene types were largely distinct from nod genes of bradyrhizobia nodulating other Old World lupine species. The singularity and large diversity of these strains in such a small geographical area makes this an attractive system for studying the evolution and adaptation of the rhizobial symbiont to the plant host. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity between lupine conglutins and peanut allergens in serum of lupine-allergic individuals.

    PubMed

    Dooper, M M B W; Plassen, C; Holden, L; Lindvik, H; Faeste, C K

    2009-01-01

    Lupine is used increasingly in food products. The development of lupine allergy in peanut-allergic patients is believed to occur as a result of cross-reactivity between lupine and peanut proteins. To investigate the degree of immunoglobulin (Ig) E cross-reactivity between allergens in lupine and peanut. We investigated IgE cross-reactivity between lupine alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-conglutins and the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with sera from patients with coexisting peanut and lupine allergy. Peanut proteins inhibited IgE binding towards alpha- conglutins, delta-conglutins, and, to a lesser degree, beta-conglutins, while no IgE cross-reaction with delta-conglutin was observed. Ara h 2 most potently inhibited IgE binding to lupine and delta-conglutins, while Ara h 1 most potently cross-reacted with beta-conglutin. Ara h 3 was apparently not involved in these mechanisms. The present study reveals IgE cross-reactivity between the 2S albumins Ara h 2 and delta-conglutin, and the 7S vicilin-like Ara h 1 and beta-conglutin, which are possibly based on homologies between phylogenetically related proteins. Ara h 2 was the most potent inhibitor of IgE binding to lupine conglutins.

  1. Lupin and soya reduce glycaemia acutely in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dove, Emma R; Mori, Trevor A; Chew, Gerard T; Barden, Anne E; Woodman, Richard J; Puddey, Ian B; Sipsas, Sofia; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2011-10-01

    Addition of fibre or protein to carbohydrate-rich foods can reduce the glycaemic response to those foods. This may assist with glycaemic management in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Lupin is a legume rich in fibre and protein. We assessed the acute effects of lupin- and soya-based beverages on glucose and insulin responses in type 2 diabetic individuals. We hypothesised that the lupin and soya beverages would lower the acute glycaemic response compared with a control beverage containing no protein or fibre, and that lupin would reduce the postprandial glucose more than soya. In a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial, twenty-four diabetic adults (nineteen men and five women) attended three testing sessions, each 1 week apart. At each session, participants consumed a beverage containing 50 g glucose (control), 50 g glucose plus lupin kernel flour with 12·5 g fibre and 22 g protein (lupin), or 50 g glucose plus 12·5 g fibre and 22 g protein from soya isolates (soya). Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide were measured periodically for 4 h following beverage consumption. Compared with the control beverage, the 4 h post-beverage glucose response was lower (P < 0·001), and the 4 h post-beverage insulin and C-peptide responses were higher (P < 0·001) for lupin and soya. Glucose (P = 0·25) and C-peptide (P = 0·07) responses did not differ significantly between lupin and soya, but lupin resulted in a lower insulin response compared with soya (P = 0·013). Adding lupin or soya to a carbohydrate-rich beverage reduces glycaemia acutely in type 2 diabetic individuals. This may have a beneficial role in glycaemic management.

  2. A novel O-tigloyltransferase for alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. Purification, characterization, and distribution in Lupinus plants.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Murakoshi, I; Saito, K

    1994-06-03

    A novel acyltransferase for alkaloid metabolism, tigloyl-CoA: (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine/(+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine O-tigloyltransferase (HMT/HLTase), a monomeric 50-kDa protein, was purified to homogeneity from 10-day-old Lupinus termis seedlings. There were two isoforms of this acyltransferase with the same molecular mass (50 kDa) but slightly different isoelectric points (pI 7.8 and 7.6). These two isoforms showed the same catalytic activity of tigloyl transfer from tigloyl-CoA to (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine and (+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine, which belong to the same (7S, 9S) enantiomeric series of tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloids; whereas no activity was detected toward an antipodal (7R, 9R) alkaloid, (-)-baptifoline, or to bicyclic quinolizidine alkaloids, (+)-epilupinine and (-)-lupinine. The Km values for HMTase activity were determined to be 21 microM and 46 microM for (-)-13 alpha-hydroxymultiflorine and tigloyl-CoA, respectively; and for HLTase activity, 27 microM and 52 microM for (+)-13 alpha-hydroxylupanine and tigloyl-CoA, respectively. The activity was inhibited by CoASH in a competitive manner, and by (+)-lupanine and (+)-epilupinine in a partially noncompetitive manner. The enzyme showed the highest activity around pH 8.0 and was inactivated by heat treatment and by the addition of sulfhydryl blocking reagents. Such tigloyltransferases for quinolizidine alkaloid metabolism are distributed in some Lupinus species and Cytisus scoparius, in which tigloyl alkaloids are accumulated in addition to non-ester-type alkaloids, but not in other lupin plants, in which only non-ester-type alkaloids are present.

  3. Conservation of Endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in Its Natural Habitat by Inoculation with Selected, Native Bradyrhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in “terra rossa” soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other “terra rossa” or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive. PMID:25019379

  4. Members of Microvirga and Bradyrhizobium genera are native endosymbiotic bacteria nodulating Lupinus luteus in Northern Tunisian soils.

    PubMed

    Msaddak, Abdelhakim; Rejili, Mokhtar; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Imperial, Juan; Palacios, Jose Manuel; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomas; Mars, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus luteus (yellow lupine) in Northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 isolates based on recA and gyrB partial sequences grouped them in three clusters, two of which belong to genus Bradyrhizobium (41 isolates) and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (2 isolates), a genus never previously described as microsymbiont of this lupine species. Representatives of the three clusters were analysed in-depth by multilocus sequence analysis of five housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, glnII, gyrB and dnaK). Surprisingly, the Bradyrhizobium cluster with the two isolates LluI4 and LluTb2 may constitute a new species defined by a separate position between Bradyrhizobium manausense and B. denitrificans. A nodC-based phylogeny identified only two groups: one formed by Bradyrhizobium strains included in the symbiovar genistearum and the other by the Microvirga strains. Symbiotic behaviour of representative isolates was tested, and among the seven legumes inoculated only a difference was observed i.e. the Bradyrhizobium strains nodulated Ornithopus compressus unlike the two strains of Microvirga. On the basis of these data, we conclude that L. luteus root nodule symbionts in Northern Tunisia are mostly strains within the B. canariense/B. lupini lineages, and the remaining strains belong to two groups not previously identified as L. luteus endosymbionts: one corresponding to a new clade of Bradyrhizobium and the other to the genus Microvirga. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Conservation of endangered Lupinus mariae-josephae in its natural habitat by inoculation with selected, native Bradyrhizobium strains.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Albert; Fos, Simón; Laguna, Emilio; Durán, David; Rey, Luis; Rubio-Sanz, Laura; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is a recently discovered endemism that is only found in alkaline-limed soils, a unique habitat for lupines, from a small area in Valencia region (Spain). In these soils, L. mariae-josephae grows in just a few defined patches, and previous conservation efforts directed towards controlled plant reproduction have been unsuccessful. We have previously shown that L. mariae-josephae plants establish a specific root nodule symbiosis with bradyrhizobia present in those soils, and we reasoned that the paucity of these bacteria in soils might contribute to the lack of success in reproducing plants for conservation purposes. Greenhouse experiments using L. mariae-josephae trap-plants showed the absence or near absence of L. mariae-josephae-nodulating bacteria in "terra rossa" soils of Valencia outside of L. mariae-josephae plant patches, and in other "terra rossa" or alkaline red soils of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands outside of the Valencia L. mariae-josephae endemism region. Among the bradyrhizobia able to establish an efficient symbiosis with L. mariae-josephae plants, two strains, LmjC and LmjM3 were selected as inoculum for seed coating. Two planting experiments were carried out in consecutive years under natural conditions in areas with edapho-climatic characteristics identical to those sustaining natural L. mariae-josephae populations, and successful reproduction of the plant was achieved. Interestingly, the successful reproductive cycle was absolutely dependent on seedling inoculation with effective bradyrhizobia, and optimal performance was observed in plants inoculated with LmjC, a strain that had previously shown the most efficient behavior under controlled conditions. Our results define conditions for L. mariae-josephae conservation and for extension to alkaline-limed soil habitats, where no other known lupine can thrive.

  6. The loss of vernalization requirement in narrow-leafed lupin is associated with a deletion in the promoter and de-repressed expression of a Flowering Locus T (FT) homologue.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Książkiewicz, Michał; Rychel, Sandra; Besharat, Naghmeh; Taylor, Candy M; Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Jost, Ricarda; Erskine, William; Cowling, Wallace A; Berger, Jens D; Batley, Jacqueline; Weller, James L; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) to cropping in southern Australian and northern Europe was transformed by a dominant mutation (Ku) that removed vernalization requirement for flowering. The Ku mutation is now widely used in lupin breeding to confer early flowering and maturity. We report here the identity of the Ku mutation. We used a range of genetic, genomic and gene expression approaches to determine whether Flowering Locus T (FT) homologues are associated with the Ku locus. One of four FT homologues present in the narrow-leafed lupin genome, LanFTc1, perfectly co-segregated with the Ku locus in a reference mapping population. Expression of LanFTc1 in the ku (late-flowering) parent was strongly induced by vernalization, in contrast to the Ku (early-flowering) parent, which showed constitutively high LanFTc1 expression. Co-segregation of this expression phenotype with the LanFTc1 genotype indicated that the Ku mutation impairs cis-regulation of LanFTc1. Sequencing of LanFTc1 revealed a 1.4-kb deletion in the promoter region, which was perfectly predictive of vernalization response in 216 wild and domesticated accessions. Linkage disequilibrium rapidly decayed around LanFTc1, suggesting that this deletion caused the loss of vernalization response. This is the first time a legume FTc subclade gene has been implicated in the vernalization response.

  7. Albus 1: A Very Bright White Dwarf Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, José Antonio; Solano, Enrique

    2007-08-01

    We have serendipitously discovered a previously unknown, bright source (BT=11.75+/-0.07 mag) with a very blue VT-Ks color, which we have named Albus 1. A photometric and astrometric study using Virtual Observatory tools has shown that it possesses an appreciable proper motion and magnitudes and colors very similar to those of the well-known white dwarf G191-B2B. We consider Albus 1 as a DA-type white dwarf located at about 40 pc. If its nature is confirmed, Albus 1 would be the sixth brightest isolated white dwarf in the sky, which would make it an excellent spectrophotometric standard.

  8. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M; Pueyo, José J

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen's expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe.

  9. The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, M. Mercedes; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Annicchiarico, Paolo; Frías, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Sussmann, Daniela; Duranti, Marcello; Seger, Alice; Zander, Peter M.; Pueyo, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe has become heavily dependent on soya bean imports, entailing trade agreements and quality standards that do not satisfy the European citizen’s expectations. White, yellow, and narrow-leafed lupins are native European legumes that can become true alternatives to soya bean, given their elevated and high-quality protein content, potential health benefits, suitability for sustainable production, and acceptability to consumers. Nevertheless, lupin cultivation in Europe remains largely insufficient to guarantee a steady supply to the food industry, which in turn must innovate to produce attractive lupin-based protein-rich foods. Here, we address different aspects of the food supply chain that should be considered for lupin exploitation as a high-value protein source. Advanced breeding techniques are needed to provide new lupin varieties for socio-economically and environmentally sustainable cultivation. Novel processes should be optimized to obtain high-quality, safe lupin protein ingredients, and marketable foods need to be developed and offered to consumers. With such an integrated strategy, lupins can be established as an alternative protein crop, capable of promoting socio-economic growth and environmental benefits in Europe. PMID:26442020

  10. Diverse Bacteria Affiliated with the Genera Microvirga, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium Nodulate Lupinus micranthus Growing in Soils of Northern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Msaddak, Abdelhakim; Durán, David; Rejili, Mokhtar; Mars, Mohamed; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Imperial, Juan; Palacios, José

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus micranthus in five geographical sites from northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of 50 isolates based on partial sequences of recA and gyrB grouped strains into seven clusters, five of which belong to the genus Bradyrhizobium (28 isolates), one to Phyllobacterium (2 isolates), and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (20 isolates). The largest Bradyrhizobium cluster (17 isolates) grouped with the B. lupini species, and the other five clusters were close to different recently defined Bradyrhizobium species. Isolates close to Microvirga were obtained from nodules of plants from four of the five sites sampled. We carried out an in-depth phylogenetic study with representatives of the seven clusters using sequences from housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, glnII, gyrB, and dnaK) and obtained consistent results. A phylogeny based on the sequence of the symbiotic gene nodC identified four groups, three formed by Bradyrhizobium isolates and one by the Microvirga and Phyllobacterium isolates. Symbiotic behaviors of the representative strains were tested, and some congruence between symbiovars and symbiotic performance was observed. These data indicate a remarkable diversity of L. micranthus root nodule symbionts in northern Tunisia, including strains from the Bradyrhizobiaceae, Methylobacteriaceae, and Phyllobacteriaceae families, in contrast with those of the rhizobial populations nodulating lupines in the Old World, including L. micranthus from other Mediterranean areas, which are nodulated mostly by Bradyrhizobium strains. IMPORTANCE Lupinus micranthus is a legume broadly distributed in the Mediterranean region and plays an important role in soil fertility and vegetation coverage by fixing nitrogen and solubilizing phosphate in semiarid areas. Direct sowing to extend the distribution of this indigenous legume can contribute to the prevention of soil erosion in pre-Saharan lands of Tunisia

  11. Removal of carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin by Lupinus angustifolius under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Garcinuño, R M; Fernandez Hernando, P; Camara, C

    2006-07-12

    The metabolism of organic pollutants by plants normally requires contaminant direct uptake by cells. Factors affecting this uptake and the later distribution of chemicals within the plant include the physicochemical properties of the compounds (concentration, structure, solubility, log k(ow), diffusion rate) and the biochemical characteristics of the plant. This paper reports the tolerance, uptake, and effects of the pesticides carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin on Lupinus angustifolius germination and growth as well as contaminant intraplant distribution and possible degradation. Lupine plants were grown in hydroponic culture containing either 1 or 5 mg of the individual pesticides, or combinations of these (1, 5, or 10 mg of each), in 100 mL nutrient and water solutions. Analysis of the remaining solutions 8 days post-germination showed the water solutions to have higher remaining pesticide concentrations than nutrient solutions. Furthermore, in the presence of pesticides, germination was more frequent in the water solutions. After 16 days of growth, the plants were harvested, and their tissues were microwaved digested and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Although only minor quantities of each pesticide were detected in plant tissues, their amount in the roots was higher than in the stems. No accumulation was noted in the cotyledons, and only 2% of linuron was detected in the leaves. Mass recovery at the end of the experiment showed that 57, 53, and 55% of carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin, respectively, were degraded and/or bound in an irreversible manner to plant material. The results suggest that L. angustifolius could be useful for the cleaning/remediation of pesticide-contaminated water.

  12. Stress-induced changes in glutamate dehydrogenase activity imply its role in adaptation to C and N metabolism in lupine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Skrok, Albert; Dabert, Mirosława

    2010-01-01

    The modifying effect of sucrose on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity and isoenzyme pattern was investigated in isolated embryos of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), cultured in vitro in a medium with sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S) and exposed to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) stress. Sucrose starvation of lupine embryos led to a rapid increase in the specific activity of GDH, immunoreactive beta-polypeptide and it was accompanied by appearance of new cathodal isoforms of enzyme. This suggests that isoenzymes induced in lupine embryos by sucrose starvation combine into GDH hexamers with the predominance of beta-GDH subunits synthetized under GDH1 gene control. The addition of sucrose to the medium caused an opposite effect. Along with upregulation of catabolic activity of GDH by sucrose starvation, activity of proteolytic enzymes was also induced. These data can point to regulatory mechanism implying a sucrose dependent repression of the GDH1 gene according to the mechanism of catabolic repression. Treatment of embryos with Cd(2+) or Pb(2+) resulted in ammonium accumulation in the tissues, accompanied by an increase in anabolic activity of GDH and activity of anodal isoenzymes, in both (+S) and (-S) embryos without new de novo synthesis of alpha subunit proteins. Thus, GDH isoenzyme profiles may reflect the physiological function of GDH, which appears to be an important link of metabolic adaptation in cells, aimed at using carbon sources other than sugar during carbohydrate starvation (catabolic activity of GDH) and protecting plant tissues against ammonium accumulated because of heavy metal stress (anabolic activity of GDH).

  13. [Anticholinergic syndrome after intoxication by lupine seeds (Tourmos)].

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Atallah, David; Zoghbi, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Yellow lupine seeds (Tourmos) are frequently used as snack in Lebanon but their potential toxicity is extremely rare (five published cases) and often undiagnosed. Two patients presented with anticholinergic syndrome (mydriasis, mouth dryness, palpitations, general malaise) after ingestion of 200-500 g of bitter lupine seeds (not soaked enough in water). No other cause of intoxication was found, and symptoms disappeared spontaneously in 24-36h. Yellow lupine seeds need a long preparation (boiling then soaking with several changes of water) to debitter before consumption. The spontaneous bitter taste is mainly due to the presence of a toxic substance with anticholinergic properties, lupanine. An insufficient preparation or a preference for bitter lupin can result in intoxication.

  14. Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

    2010-10-01

    Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability.

  15. Cellulase from Ruminococcus albus and Mixed Rumen Microorganisms1

    PubMed Central

    Leatherwood, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    Cellulase in the cultural filtrates of Ruminococcus albus and cellulase extracted from mixed rumen microorganisms were investigated with acid-swollen cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose as substrates. Maximal activity occurred at approximately pH 5.8 and 47 C. Apparent Michaelis constants (Km) varied between 0.53 and 0.02% carboxymethylcellulose, depending on the level of activity and the method of assay. R. albus cellulase has a lower Km value than the enzyme extracted from mixed rumen microorganisms. Antisera from rabbits immunized with a cellulase preparation from R. albus inhibited the cellulolytic activity of both systems. Based on the relative degree of inhibition, approximately 20% of the cellulase of the mixed rumen microorganisms was immunologically similar to R. albus cellulase. Ratios of activity in different assay techniques showed the two sources of activity to be similar in the mechanisms of degradation. However, glucose is the main product of cellulose degradation by mixed rumen microorganisms, and cellobiose is the product of degradation by R. albus. PMID:5893806

  16. Clinical relevance of sensitization to lupine in peanut-sensitized adults.

    PubMed

    Peeters, K A B M; Koppelman, S J; Penninks, A H; Lebens, A; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L; van Hoffen, E; Knulst, A C

    2009-04-01

    The use of lupine in food has been increasing during the last decade and allergic reactions to lupine have been reported, especially in peanut-allergic patients. The frequency and the degree of cross-reactivity to other legumes are not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of sensitization to lupine, and in addition to pea and soy, and its clinical relevance, in peanut-sensitized patients. Furthermore, to determine the eliciting dose (ED) for lupine using double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). Thirty-nine unselected peanut-sensitized patients were evaluated by skin prick tests (SPT) and ImmunoCAP to lupine, pea, and soy. Clinical reactivity was measured by DBPCFC for lupine, and by history for pea and soy. Eighty-two percent of the study population was sensitized to lupine, 55% to pea, and 87% to soy. Clinically relevant sensitization to lupine, pea, or soy occurred in 35%, 29%, and 33% respectively of the study population. None of the patients was aware of the use of lupine in food. The lowest ED for lupine, inducing mild subjective symptoms, was 0.5 mg, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 0.1 mg. No predictive factors for lupine allergy were found. In peanut-sensitized patients, clinically relevant sensitization to either lupine or to pea or soy occurs frequently. The ED for lupine is low (0.5 mg), which is only fivefold higher than for peanut. Patients are not aware of lupine allergy and the presence of lupine in food, indicating that education is important to build awareness.

  17. Lupine allergy: not simply cross-reactivity with peanut or soy.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Kim A B M; Nordlee, Julie A; Penninks, André H; Chen, Lingyun; Goodman, Richard E; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Hefle, Sue L; Taylor, Steve L; Knulst, André C

    2007-09-01

    Reports of lupine allergy are increasing as its use in food products increases. Lupine allergy might be the consequence of cross-reactivity after sensitization to peanut or other legumes or de novo sensitization. Lupine allergens have not been completely characterized. We sought to identify allergens associated with lupine allergy, evaluate potential cross-reactivity with peanut, and determine eliciting doses (EDs) for lupine allergy by using double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges. Six patients with a history of allergic reactions to lupine flour were evaluated by using skin prick tests, CAP tests, and double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges. Three of these patients were also allergic to peanut. Lupine allergens were characterized by means of IgE immunoblotting and peptide sequencing. In all 6 patients the ED for lupine flour was 3 mg or less for subjective symptoms and 300 mg or more for objective symptoms. The low ED and moderate-to-severe historical symptoms indicate significant allergenicity of lupine flour. Two patients allergic to lupine but not to peanut displayed IgE binding predominantly to approximately 66-kd proteins and weak binding to 14- and 24-kd proteins, whereas patients with peanut allergy and lupine allergy showed weak binding to lupine proteins of about 14 to 21 or 66 kd. Inhibition of binding was primarily species specific. Lupine allergy can occur either separately or together with peanut allergy, as demonstrated by 3 patients who are cosensitized to peanut and lupine. Lupine flour is allergenic and potentially cross-reactive with peanut allergen, thus posing some risk if used as a replacement for soy flour.

  18. Nitrogen Utilization and Metabolism in Ruminococcus albus 8

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Nam; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2014-01-01

    The model rumen Firmicutes organism Ruminococcus albus 8 was grown using ammonia, urea, or peptides as the sole nitrogen source; growth was not observed with amino acids as the sole nitrogen source. Growth of R. albus 8 on ammonia and urea showed the same growth rate (0.08 h−1) and similar maximum cell densities (for ammonia, the optical density at 600 nm [OD600] was 1.01; and for urea, the OD600 was 0.99); however, growth on peptides resulted in a nearly identical growth rate (0.09 h−1) and a lower maximum cell density (OD600 = 0.58). To identify differences in gene expression and enzyme activities, the transcript abundances of 10 different genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and specific enzyme activities were analyzed by harvesting mRNA and crude protein from cells at the mid- and late exponential phases of growth on the different N sources. Transcript abundances and enzyme activities varied according to nitrogen source, ammonia concentration, and growth phase. Growth of R. albus 8 on ammonia and urea was similar, with the only observed difference being an increase in urease transcript abundance and enzyme activity in urea-grown cultures. Growth of R. albus 8 on peptides showed a different nitrogen metabolism pattern, with higher gene transcript abundance levels of gdhA, glnA, gltB, amtB, glnK, and ureC, as well as higher activities of glutamate dehydrogenase and urease. These results demonstrate that ammonia, urea, and peptides can all serve as nitrogen sources for R. albus and that nitrogen metabolism genes and enzyme activities of R. albus 8 are regulated by nitrogen source and the level of ammonia in the growth medium. PMID:24610852

  19. Nitrogen utilization and metabolism in Ruminococcus albus 8.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Nam; Henriksen, Emily Decrescenzo; Cann, Isaac K O; Mackie, Roderick I

    2014-05-01

    The model rumen Firmicutes organism Ruminococcus albus 8 was grown using ammonia, urea, or peptides as the sole nitrogen source; growth was not observed with amino acids as the sole nitrogen source. Growth of R. albus 8 on ammonia and urea showed the same growth rate (0.08 h(-1)) and similar maximum cell densities (for ammonia, the optical density at 600 nm [OD600] was 1.01; and for urea, the OD600 was 0.99); however, growth on peptides resulted in a nearly identical growth rate (0.09 h(-1)) and a lower maximum cell density (OD600 = 0.58). To identify differences in gene expression and enzyme activities, the transcript abundances of 10 different genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and specific enzyme activities were analyzed by harvesting mRNA and crude protein from cells at the mid- and late exponential phases of growth on the different N sources. Transcript abundances and enzyme activities varied according to nitrogen source, ammonia concentration, and growth phase. Growth of R. albus 8 on ammonia and urea was similar, with the only observed difference being an increase in urease transcript abundance and enzyme activity in urea-grown cultures. Growth of R. albus 8 on peptides showed a different nitrogen metabolism pattern, with higher gene transcript abundance levels of gdhA, glnA, gltB, amtB, glnK, and ureC, as well as higher activities of glutamate dehydrogenase and urease. These results demonstrate that ammonia, urea, and peptides can all serve as nitrogen sources for R. albus and that nitrogen metabolism genes and enzyme activities of R. albus 8 are regulated by nitrogen source and the level of ammonia in the growth medium.

  20. Characterisation of different digestion susceptibility of lupin seed globulins.

    PubMed

    Czubinski, Jaroslaw; Dwiecki, Krzysztof; Siger, Aleksander; Neunert, Grazyna; Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora

    2014-01-15

    This study describes in vitro digestion of lupin seed globulins by pancreatin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Lupin seed globulins turned out to be almost totally susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion. When panceratin or trypsin were used for digestion of lupin seed globulins, γ-conglutin appeared to be resistant to proteolysis. Different fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence quenching measurements were used for detailed characterisation of this phenomenon. A potential reason for γ-conglutin insensitivity to digestion may be related to the fact that lysine, as well as arginine, are positively charged at cell physiological pH. Simultaneously, flavonoids at this pH are partially ionised, which may lead to the occurrence of ionic interactions between these molecules at pH 7.5. The confirmation of this explanation may be the fact that γ-conglutin and vitexin form a static complex, which was observed using fluorescence quenching measurements.

  1. Multilocus sequence analysis reveals taxonomic differences among Bradyrhizobium sp. symbionts of Lupinus albescens plants growing in arenized and non-arenized areas.

    PubMed

    Granada, Camille E; Beneduzi, Anelise; Lisboa, Bruno B; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Vargas, Luciano K; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-07-01

    Lupinus albescens is a leguminous plant that belongs to "New World" lupine species, which is native to southern Brazil. This Brazilian region is characterized by poor degraded soils with low organic matter and is designated as an arenized area. The symbiosis between Lupinus plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus may help the plant establish itself in these areas. To characterize the bradyrhizobial population symbionts of L. albescens plants grown in arenized and non-arenized areas, a multilocus phylogenetic analysis allied to genetic diversity indices were conducted. Seventy-four bradyrhizobial isolates were analyzed, 38 coming from L. albescens plants growing in an arenized area and 36 from a non-arenized area. Isolates were different between arenized and non-arenized areas. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, dnaK, atpD, recA, glnII, rpoB, gyrB, nodA, nodB, and nodZ genes resulted in three supported clades, which were most likely to be three different new Bradyrhizobium species: one species from the arenized area and two from the non-arenized area. Estimates of genetic diversity, which decreased in arenized areas, were positively correlated with habitat variability. These results suggested that a few resistant and efficient Bradyrhizobium sp. strains were capable of forming nodules on L. albescens plants growing in an arenized area. An in vivo inoculation experiment with L. albescens plants showed that Bradyrhizobium ssp. isolated from this extreme environment were more efficient at promoting plant growth than those from the non-arenized area. This result suggested that the environment affected the selection of more efficient plant growth promoters in order to sustain plant growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Diverse Bacteria Affiliated with the Genera Microvirga, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium Nodulate Lupinus micranthus Growing in Soils of Northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Msaddak, Abdelhakim; Durán, David; Rejili, Mokhtar; Mars, Mohamed; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Imperial, Juan; Palacios, José; Rey, Luis

    2017-03-15

    The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus micranthus in five geographical sites from northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of 50 isolates based on partial sequences of recA and gyrB grouped strains into seven clusters, five of which belong to the genus Bradyrhizobium (28 isolates), one to Phyllobacterium (2 isolates), and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (20 isolates). The largest Bradyrhizobium cluster (17 isolates) grouped with the B. lupini species, and the other five clusters were close to different recently defined Bradyrhizobium species. Isolates close to Microvirga were obtained from nodules of plants from four of the five sites sampled. We carried out an in-depth phylogenetic study with representatives of the seven clusters using sequences from housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, glnII, gyrB, and dnaK) and obtained consistent results. A phylogeny based on the sequence of the symbiotic gene nodC identified four groups, three formed by Bradyrhizobium isolates and one by the Microvirga and Phyllobacterium isolates. Symbiotic behaviors of the representative strains were tested, and some congruence between symbiovars and symbiotic performance was observed. These data indicate a remarkable diversity of L. micranthus root nodule symbionts in northern Tunisia, including strains from the Bradyrhizobiaceae, Methylobacteriaceae, and Phyllobacteriaceae families, in contrast with those of the rhizobial populations nodulating lupines in the Old World, including L. micranthus from other Mediterranean areas, which are nodulated mostly by Bradyrhizobium strains.IMPORTANCELupinus micranthus is a legume broadly distributed in the Mediterranean region and plays an important role in soil fertility and vegetation coverage by fixing nitrogen and solubilizing phosphate in semiarid areas. Direct sowing to extend the distribution of this indigenous legume can contribute to the prevention of soil erosion in pre-Saharan lands of Tunisia. However

  3. Remnants of the Legume Ancestral Genome Preserved in Gene-Rich Regions: Insights from Lupinus angustifolius Physical, Genetic, and Comparative Mapping.

    PubMed

    Książkiewicz, Michał; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Szczepaniak, Anna; Rychel, Sandra; Karlowski, Wojciech; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    The narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) was recently considered as a legume reference species. Genetic resources have been developed, including a draft genome sequence, linkage maps, nuclear DNA libraries, and cytogenetic chromosome-specific landmarks. Here, we used a complex approach, involving DNA fingerprinting, sequencing, genetic mapping, and molecular cytogenetics, to localize and analyze L. angustifolius gene-rich regions (GRRs). A L. angustifolius genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with short sequence repeat (SSR)-based probes. Selected BACs were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs. BAC-end sequence (BES) annotation allowed us to choose clones for sequencing, targeting GRRs. Additionally, BESs were aligned to the scaffolds of the genome sequence. The genetic map was supplemented with 35 BES-derived markers, distributed in 14 linkage groups and tagging 37 scaffolds. The identified GRRs had an average gene density of 19.6 genes/100 kb and physical-to-genetic distance ratios of 11 to 109 kb/cM. Physical and genetic mapping was supported by multi-BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and five new linkage groups were assigned to the chromosomes. Syntenic links to the genome sequences of five legume species (Medicago truncatula, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cajanus cajan) were identified. The comparative mapping of the two largest lupin GRRs provides novel evidence for ancient duplications in all of the studied species. These regions are conserved among representatives of the main clades of Papilionoideae. Furthermore, despite the complex evolution of legumes, some segments of the nuclear genome were not substantially modified and retained their quasi-ancestral structures. Cytogenetic markers anchored in these regions constitute a platform for heterologous mapping of legume genomes.

  4. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  5. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M.; Bruce, David C.; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Detter, Chris; Detter, John C.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff S.; Hauser, Loren J.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Land, Miriam L.; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol. PMID:21914885

  6. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  7. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    PubMed

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David C; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Detter, Chris; Detter, John C; Goodwin, Lynne A; Han, Cliff S; Hauser, Loren J; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  8. Insights into naturally minimised Streptomyces albus J1074 genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Streptomyces albus J1074 strain is one of the most widely used chassis for the heterologous production of bioactive natural products. The fast growth and an efficient genetic system make this strain an attractive model for expressing cryptic biosynthetic pathways to aid drug discovery. Results To improve its capabilities for the heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters, the complete genomic sequence of S. albus J1074 was obtained. With a size of 6,841,649 bp, coding for 5,832 genes, its genome is the smallest within the genus streptomycetes. Genome analysis revealed a strong tendency to reduce the number of genetic duplicates. The whole transcriptomes were sequenced at different time points to identify the early metabolic switch from the exponential to the stationary phase in S. albus J1074. Conclusions S. albus J1074 carries the smallest genome among the completely sequenced species of the genus Streptomyces. The detailed genome and transcriptome analysis discloses its capability to serve as a premium host for the heterologous production of natural products. Moreover, the genome revealed 22 additional putative secondary metabolite gene clusters that reinforce the strain’s potential for natural product synthesis. PMID:24495463

  9. [Chemical, sensory and clinical characterization of lupin marmalades].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Larenas, G; Wittig, E; Díaz, V; Muñoz, Y

    1996-09-01

    Legumes are characterized as showing interesting hypoglicemic properties. Their presence in the diet is very useful in controlling the level of blood glucose in diabetic people. Taking in mind this property different formulations of prune marmalades were developed using 5, -7.5, 10 and 15% of full fat sweet lupin flour (FFLF). These samples were submitted to chemical, physical, sensory and clinical analysis. The protein content increased from 0.6 to 5.2% in direct proportion to lupin flour concentration. Energy content remained relatively constant in all formulations. The incorporation of FFLF did not affect the natural dark red prune color and pH, acidity and soluble solids values remained under the limits of Chilean food regulation laws. The samples were analyzed by a Rank preference test. Reported data showed a significative preference for the prune marmalade with 10% HEL (p < 0.05). A facial Hedonic test was used to compare the degree of acceptability between this formula and a control marmalade with fructose as edulcorant. Statistical analysis using the student test did not show significant difference (p < 0.05) between them. The hypoglycemic effect of the lupin flour was tested in seven adult non insulin dependent diabetic patients using the glucose tolerance test. Postprandial blood glucose concentration data was lower in individuals after a test meal of lupin marmalade compared to fructose marmalade. This result would allow diabetic people to eat foods such as marmalades which are known to contain a large amount of carbohydrates.

  10. Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Crooked calf disease” is used to describe a number of skeletal malformations in newborn calves, including a twisted spine, neck, and one or both forelimbs. These malformations develop when the pregnant cow eats toxic lupines containing the alkaloids anagyrine, ammodendrine, and N-methyl ammodendri...

  11. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...

  12. Diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating Lupinus micranthus on both sides of the Western Mediterranean: Algeria and Spain.

    PubMed

    Bourebaba, Yasmina; Durán, David; Boulila, Farida; Ahnia, Hadjira; Boulila, Abdelghani; Temprano, Francisco; Palacios, José M; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Rey, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Lupinus micranthus is a lupine distributed in the Mediterranean basin whose nitrogen fixing symbiosis has not been described in detail. In this study, 101 slow-growing nodule isolates were obtained from L. micranthus thriving in soils on both sides of the Western Mediterranean. The diversity of the isolates, 60 from Algeria and 41 from Spain, was addressed by multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, atpD, glnII and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodC). Using genomic fingerprints from BOX elements, 37 different profiles were obtained (22 from Algeria and 15 from Spain). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and concatenated atpD, glnII and recA sequences of a representative isolate of each BOX profile displayed a homogeneous distribution of profiles in six different phylogenetic clusters. All isolates were taxonomically ascribed to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Three clusters comprising 24, 6, and 4 isolates, respectively, accounted for most of the profiles. The largest cluster was close to the Bradyrhizobium canariense lineage, while the other two were related to B. cytisi/B. rifense. The three remaining clusters included only one isolate each, and were close to B. canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii species, respectively. In contrast, phylogenetic clustering of BOX profiles based on nodC sequences yielded only two phylogenetic groups. One of them included all the profiles except one, and belonged to symbiovar genistearum. The remaining profile, constituted by a strain related to B. elkanii, was not related to any well-defined symbiotic lineage, and may constitute both a new symbiovar and a new genospecies.

  13. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases.

  14. The first gene-based map of Lupinus angustifolius L.-location of domestication genes and conserved synteny with Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Phan, Huyen T T; Ellwood, Simon R; Moolhuijzen, Paula M; Hane, James; Williams, Angela; O'Lone, Clare E; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Scobie, Marie; Cakir, Mehmet; Jones, Michael G K; Bellgard, Matthew; Ksiazkiewicz, Michał; Wolko, Bogdan; Barker, Susan J; Oliver, Richard P; Cowling, Wallace A

    2006-07-01

    We report the first gene-based linkage map of Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) and its comparison to the partially sequenced genome of Medicago truncatula. The map comprises 382 loci in 20 major linkage groups, two triplets, three pairs and 11 unlinked loci and is 1,846 cM in length. The map was generated from the segregation of 163 RFLP markers, 135 gene-based PCR markers, 75 AFLP and 4 AFLP-derived SCAR markers in a mapping population of 93 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between domesticated and wild-type parents. This enabled the mapping of five major genes controlling key domestication traits in L. angustifolius. Using marker sequence data, the L. angustifolius genetic map was compared to the partially completed M. truncatula genome sequence. We found evidence of conserved synteny in some regions of the genome despite the wide evolutionary distance between these legume species. We also found new evidence of widespread duplication within the L. angustifolius genome.

  15. Diversity of Selected Lupinus angustifolius L. Genotypes at the Phenotypic and DNA Level with Respect to Microscopic Seed Coat Structure and Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Jon; Galek, Renata; Kozak, Bartosz; Michalczyk, Dariusz Jan; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka Iwona; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa; Stawiński, Stanislaw; Zalewski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates seed coat characteristics (as a percentage of overall seed diameter) in Lupinus angustifolius L., a potential forage crop. In the study ten L. angustifolius genotypes, including three Polish cultivars, two Australian cultivars, three mutants originated from cv. ‘Emir’, and one Belarusian and one Australian breeding line were evaluated. The highest seed coat percentage was recorded in cultivars ‘Sonet’ and ‘Emir’. The lowest seed coat thickness percentage (below 20%) was noted for breeding lines 11257-19, LAG24 and cultivar ‘Zeus’ (17.87%, 18.91% 19.60%, respectively). Despite having low seed weight, the Australian line no. 11257-19 was characterized by a desirable proportion of seed coat to the weight of seeds. In general, estimation of the correlation coefficient indicated a tendency that larger seeds had thinner coats. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed low variation of seed coat sculpture and the top of seeds covered with a cuticle. Most of the studied genotypes were characterized by a cristatepapillate seed coat surface, formed by elongated polygonal cells. Only breeding line no. 11267-19 had a different shape of the cells building the surface layer of the coat. In order to illustrate genetic diversity among the genotypes tested, 24 ISSR primers were used. They generated a total of 161 polymorphic amplification products in 10 evaluated narrow-leaved lupin genotypes. PMID:25119983

  16. POLYSACCHARIDE STORAGE AND GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN RUMINOCOCCUS ALBUS

    PubMed Central

    Hungate, R. E.

    1963-01-01

    Hungate, R. E. (University of California, Davis). Polysaccharide storage and growth efficiency in Ruminococcus albus. J. Bacteriol. 86:848–854. 1963.—Ruminococcus albus strain RAM requires biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid, pyridoxamine, isovalerate, isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and either cysteine or sulfide. Rumen fluid and casein hydrolysate improve growth but are not essential. Up to 35% iodophilic polysaccharide is stored in cells from batch cultures and 17% in a continuous culture on a 10-hr cycle. The storage product is a polymer of glucose resembling starch. The yield of cells in continuous culture, corrected for stored starch, averaged 102 mg per mmole of cellobiose fermented to waste products. It is postulated that nine high-energy phosphates are derived from each cellobiose molecule. Conversions providing this number are discussed. PMID:14066484

  17. POLYSACCHARIDE STORAGE AND GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN RUMINOCOCCUS ALBUS.

    PubMed

    HUNGATE, R E

    1963-10-01

    Hungate, R. E. (University of California, Davis). Polysaccharide storage and growth efficiency in Ruminococcus albus. J. Bacteriol. 86:848-854. 1963.-Ruminococcus albus strain RAM requires biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid, pyridoxamine, isovalerate, isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and either cysteine or sulfide. Rumen fluid and casein hydrolysate improve growth but are not essential. Up to 35% iodophilic polysaccharide is stored in cells from batch cultures and 17% in a continuous culture on a 10-hr cycle. The storage product is a polymer of glucose resembling starch. The yield of cells in continuous culture, corrected for stored starch, averaged 102 mg per mmole of cellobiose fermented to waste products. It is postulated that nine high-energy phosphates are derived from each cellobiose molecule. Conversions providing this number are discussed.

  18. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  19. Characterization of the cellulolytic complex (cellulosome) from Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Ohara, H; Karita, S; Kimura, T; Sakka, K; Ohmiya, K

    2000-02-01

    The cellulolytic complex was isolated from the culture supernatant of Ruminococcus albus strain F-40 grown on cellulose by a Sephacryl S-300HR column chromatography. The molecular mass of the cellulolytic complex was found to be larger than 1.5 x 10(6) Da. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that the cellulolytic complex contained at least 15 proteins with molecular weights from 40kDa to 250 kDa. Among them, 11 proteins showed endoglucanase and/or xylanase activities on the zymograms. Immunological analysis using an antiserum raised against the dockerin domain of endoglucanase VII of R. albus (DocVII) suggested that at least 7 proteins in the cellulolytic complex contained a dockerin domain immunoreactive with the anti-Doc-VII antiserum. Furthermore, DocVII was shown to specifically interact with a 40-kDa protein of the cellulolytic complex by Far-Western blot analysis. These results strongly suggest that the cellulolytic complex produced by R. albus resembles the cellulosome specified for the cellulolytic complex of several clostridia such as Clostridium thermocellum and respective components are assembled into the cellulosome by the mechanism common in all of the cellulolytic clostridia, i.e., the cellulosome is formed by the interaction between a dockerin domain of catalytic components and a cohesin domain of a scaffolding protein.

  20. Strain-level diversity of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Seipke, Ryan F

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty.

  1. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  2. Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Marczak, Łukasz; Nowak, Witold; Narożna, Dorota; Bednarski, Waldemar; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Morkunas, Iwona

    2014-08-29

    The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of β-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization.

  3. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. © 2014 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lupine leghemoglobin I: expression in transgenic Lotus and tobacco tissues.

    PubMed

    Strózycki, P M; Karłowski, W M; Dessaux, Y; Petit, A; Legocki, A B

    2000-03-01

    The proximal parts of the promoters of the genes for symbiotic-type hemoglobins are generally conserved, but the promoter of the lbI gene of lupine (LulbI) shows some unusual structural features. It lacks typical organ-specific elements characteristic of all the leghemoglobin gene promoters described thus far. We have analysed its functional activity in transgenic Lotus corniculatus. A fusion construct between the lbI promoter and the GUS reporter gene was expressed mainly in the central zone of the root nodule, but the product was also detected in the non-nodule root zone and in roots in tissue culture. In roots of transgenic tobacco, the activity of the promoter was only 24% lower than in Lotus nodules. LulbI promoter activity was also detected in tobacco leaves. Lupine hemoglobin I has a higher sequence identity to symbiotic-type hemoglobins and thus it groups within the "Class II" hemoglobins.

  5. Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

  6. Molecular and biochemical characterization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Narito; Yoshizawa, Kimio; Kanada, Kazuhiro; Hino, Tsuneo

    2009-05-01

    Molecular properties and transcriptional control of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK; EC 4.1.1.32) in Ruminococcus albus were examined. The putative 537-amino acid PCK polypeptide has a predicted mass of 59.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.82. RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses of pck mRNA suggest that the transcript is monocistronic and that pck transcription is not affected by changes in sugar sources present in growth medium. PCK enzymatic activity requires either Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and an optimal pH of 7.0. R. albus PCK phosphorylated ADP more readily than GDP. Apparent K ( m ) values of PCK for PEP and ADP were considerably lower than those for OAA and ATP, suggesting that the reaction from PEP to OAA is favored in R. albus. The enzyme properties of PCK in R. albus appear to be more similar to Selenomonas ruminantium PCK than to Ruminococcus flavefacience, although R. albus and R. flavefacience belong to the same genus. The specific activity of PCK, representing the amount of enzyme per cell, in R. albus was much lower than that in S. ruminantium. The amount of succinate produced in R. albus from one unit of cellobiose was also much lower than the sum of succinate and propionate produced in S. ruminantium. Based on these results, we propose enhancement of PCK activity by stimulating PCK transcription as a method to decrease R. albus H(2) production without suppressing growth.

  7. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...

  8. Composition and functional properties of Lupinus campestris protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Martínez-Ayala, A L; Millán, F; Dávila-Ortíz, G

    2005-09-01

    Protein isolates from L. campestris and soybean seeds were prepared using isoelectric precipitation (PI) and micellization (MI) procedures. The amount of protein recovered was considerably higher with the isoelectric precipitation than with the micellization procedure (60% and 30%, respectively). Protein contents were higher than 90% in protein isolates. Antinutritional factors content (alkaloids, lectins, and tannins) were reduced to innocuous levels after protein isolate preparation. Minimum protein solubility for the precipitated lupin protein isolate (LPI) was at pH 4.0, and between pH 4 and 6 for the micellized lupin protein isolate (LMI), increasing at both extremes of the pH scale. Water absorption for the LMI was 1.3 ml/g of protein and its oil absorption 2.2 ml/g of protein. The LPI had 1.7 ml/g of protein in both water and oil absorption. Foaming capacity and stability was pH-dependent. Foaming capacity was higher at pH 2 and lower near the protein isoelectric points. Minimum protein concentration for gelation in LMI was 8% w/v at pH 4, while for LPI was 6% at pH 4 and 6. Amino acid composition in L. campestris flour and protein isolates was high in lysine and low in methionine. Most of the essential amino acids in lupin protein isolates were at acceptable levels compared to a reference pattern for infants and adults. The electrophoretic pattern of both protein isolates showed three bands with different mobilities, suggesting that the protein fractions belong to alpha-conglutin (11S-like protein), beta-conglutin (7S-like protein) and gamma-conglutin. It is proven that some of the functional properties of L. campestris protein isolates are similar to those soybean protein isolates recovered under equal conditions.

  9. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  10. Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lupine species may contain teratogenic alkaloids that cause birth defects called crooked calf syndrome. If pregnant cows ingest toxic lupine between days 40 and 100 of gestation, fetal movement is impaired and irreversible skeletal defects occur. There is a need to determine the time and condition...

  11. Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.

    PubMed Central

    Chater, K F; Wilde, L C

    1976-01-01

    The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images PMID:977549

  12. Variably severe systemic allergic reactions after consuming foods with unlabelled lupin flour: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lupin allergy remains a significant cause of food-induced allergic reactivity and anaphylaxis. Previous work suggests a strong association with legume allergy and peanut allergy in particular. Both doctors and the public have little awareness of lupin as an allergen. Case presentation Case 1 was a 41-year-old Caucasian woman without previous atopy who developed facial swelling, widespread urticaria with asthma and hypotension within minutes of eating a quiche. Her lupin allergy was confirmed by both blood and skin tests. Her lupin sensitivity was so severe that even the miniscule amount of lupin allergen in the skin testing reagent produced a mild reaction. Case 2 was a 42-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with three episodes of worsening urticaria and asthma symptoms over 6 years occurring after the consumption of foods containing lupin flour. Blood and skin tests were positive for lupin allergy. Case 3 was a 38-year-old Caucasian woman with known oral allergy syndrome who had two reactions associated with urticaria and vomiting after consuming foods containing lupin flour. Skin testing confirmed significant responses to a lupin flour extract and to one of the foods inducing her reaction. Case 4 was a 54-year-old mildly atopic Caucasian woman with a 7 year history of three to four episodes each year of unpredictable oral tingling followed by urticaria after consuming a variety of foods. The most recent episode had been associated with vomiting. She had developed oral tingling with lentil and chickpeas over the previous year. Skin and blood tests confirmed lupin allergy with associated sensitivity to several legumes. Conclusions Lupin allergy can occur for the first time in adults without previous atopy or legume sensitivity. Although asymptomatic sensitisation is frequent, clinical reactivity can vary in severity from severe anaphylaxis to urticaria and vomiting. Lupin allergy may be confirmed by skin and specific immunoglobulin E estimation

  13. Assessment of the tolerance to lupine-enriched pasta in peanut-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, A; Sarratud, P; Terracciano, L; Vacca, E; Bernardini, R; Fuggetta, D; Ballabio, C; Duranti, M; Magni, C; Restani, P

    2009-07-01

    Reports of allergy to lupine derivatives (as de novo sensitization or cross-reactivity in subjects allergic to peanut) are increasing as their use in food products increases. The aim of this study was to assess: (1) lupine tolerance in a group of children allergic to peanut, using lupine enriched-pasta instead of raw flour as has been done in previous clinical studies; (2) whether technological treatments of lupine modify its cross-reactivity or co-sensitization with peanut; (3) the role of lupine seed proteins in sensitization, and (4) to identify the eliciting doses (EDs) by using double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). Twelve patients with a history of clinical allergic reactions to peanut were evaluated by skin prick tests (SPTs), the ImmunoCAP test, immunoblotting, and DBPCFC. The 12 selected subjects were included in a trial where lupine-enriched pasta and placebo pasta were administered in a DBPCFC protocol. Positive clinical reactions were observed in two children, the EDs being 0.2 and 6.4 g of pasta, corresponding to 50 mg and 1.6 g of lupine proteins, respectively. Beta-conglutin was the protein most involved in SPT positivity. Lupine-enriched pasta can be tolerated by most subjects suffering from peanut allergy, but a sizeable minority (2/12 of them in this case) can develop potentially dangerous clinical reactions. Information about possible reactions to lupine derivatives by those allergic to peanuts must be included in the labelling of lupine-enriched products to protect consumers at risk.

  14. The Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-08-05

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was designed to assess how Missouri River management has affected—and may affect—the endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population. The EA emerged from the recognition that the direction and focus of the Missouri River Recovery Program would benefit from an updated, thorough evaluation of what is known, what is not known, and what needs to be known for effective actions. This fact sheet documents the steps in the EA process and the four core reports, culminating in the 2016 integrative report.

  15. Gas plant (Dictamnus albus) phytophotodermatitis simulating poison ivy.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. A.; DesGroseilliers, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with an itchy rash that resembled superficial burns or cane marks on his left forearm; similar lesions had appeared every summer for 5 years. Poison ivy dermatitis had been the initial diagnosis, but the patient knew that this plant was absent from his well tended garden. A visit to the garden revealed the gas plant Dictamnus albus, and occlusive patch testing with leaf cuttings produced a reaction after the skin was exposed to sunlight. Gas plant phytophotodermatitis was diagnosed. Images p889-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6231089

  16. Differential recovery of lupin proteins from the gluten matrix in lupin-wheat bread as revealed by mass spectrometry and two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shahidul; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun; Gao, Liyan; Appels, Rudi

    2011-06-22

    Bread made from a mixture of wheat and lupin flour possesses a number of health benefits. The addition of lupin flour to wheat flour during breadmaking has major effects on bread properties. The present study investigated the lupin and wheat flour protein interactions during the breadmaking process including dough formation and baking by using proteomics research technologies including MS/MS to identify the proteins. Results revealed that qualitatively most proteins from both lupin and wheat flour remained unchanged after baking as per electrophoretic behavior, whereas some were incorporated into the bread gluten matrix and became unextractable. Most of the lupin α-conglutins could be readily extracted from the lupin-wheat bread even at low salt and nonreducing/nondenaturing extraction conditions. In contrast, most of the β-conglutins lost extractability, suggesting that they were trapped in the bread gluten matrix. The higher thermal stability of α-conglutins compared to β-conglutins is speculated to account for this difference.

  17. Degradation of quinolizidine alkaloids of lupin by Rhizopus oligosporus.

    PubMed

    Ortega-David, Eduar; Rodríguez-Stouvenel, Aida

    2013-06-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus has proven beneficial in the detoxification of lupin seeds. The fermentation process is mainly affected by the initial pH in the medium. In the range of growth of mold, there are maximum enzymatic activities in pH of 3.5 and 5.5. Metabolism change occurs at these pH levels; therefore, we studied the growth, pH changes, dry matter intake, and alkaloid degradation within 48 h of fermentation. Cultures of lupin agar (LA) with pH of 3.5 and 5.5 were made in Petri dishes with lupin flour. Results showed pH directly affects the degradation of alkaloids and fungal growth. Detoxification levels achieved were 16.58 and 63.23 % in treatments LA 3.5 and LA 5.5, respectively. Fungal growth was 0.919 mg/cm(2) in LA 3.5 and 1.081 mg/cm(2) in LA 5.5. Maximum degradation rate in LA 5.5 was given between 16 and 20 h, which coincided with maximum fungal growth. Despite having similar dry matter intake in both treatments, a pH of 3.5 did not show the same degree of detoxification. The analysis with exponential, yield of growth, yield of dry matter intake and luedeking and piret equations, confirm the relation between intake and growth with detoxification. Dry matter intake equation predicts with R (2) of 0.94 the detoxification in LA 5.5. A pH of 5.5 is directly related with detoxification and fungal development.

  18. Adhesion to cellulose of the Gram-positive bacterium Ruminococcus albus involves type IV pili.

    PubMed

    Rakotoarivonina, Harivony; Jubelin, Grégory; Hebraud, Michel; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Forano, Evelyne; Mosoni, Pascale

    2002-06-01

    This study was aimed at characterizing a cell-surface 25 kDa glycoprotein (GP25) that was previously shown to be underproduced by a spontaneous adhesion-defective mutant D5 of Ruminococcus albus 20. An antiserum against wild-type strain 20 was adsorbed with the mutant D5 to enrich it in antibodies 'specific' to adhesion structures of R. albus 20. The resulting antiserum, called anti-Adh serum, blocked adhesion of R. albus 20 and reacted mainly with GP25 in bacterial and extracellular protein fractions of R. albus 20. The N-terminal sequence of purified GP25 was identical to that of CbpC, a 21 kDa cellulose-binding protein (CBP) of R. albus 8. The nucleotide sequence of the gp25 gene was determined by PCR and genomic walking procedures. The gp25 gene encoded a protein of 165 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 16940 Da that showed 72.9% identity with CbpC and presented homologies with type IV pilins of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Negative-staining electron microscopy revealed fine and flexible pili surrounding R. albus 20 cells while mutant cells were not piliated. In addition, immunoelectron microscopy showed that the anti-Adh serum probing mainly GP25, completely decorated the pili surrounding R. albus 20, thereby showing that GP25 was a major pilus subunit. This study shows for the first time the presence of pili at the surface of R. albus and identifies GP25 as their major protein subunit. Though GP25 was not identified as a CBP, isolated pili were shown to bind cellulose. In conclusion, these pili, which belong to the family of type IV pili, mediate adhesion of R. albus 20 to cellulose.

  19. Cellobiose and cellodextrin metabolism by the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Lou, J; Dawson, K A; Strobel, H J

    1997-10-01

    Ruminococcus albus is an important fibrolytic bacterium in the rumen. Cellobiose is metabolized by this organism via hydrolytic and well as phosphorylytic enzymes, but the relative contributions of each pathway were not clear. The cellobiose consumption rate by exponentially growing cells was less than that of crude extracts (75 versus 243 nmol/min/mg protein). Cellobiose phosphorolytic cleavage was much greater than hydrolytic activity (179 versus 19 nmol/min/mg protein) indicating that phosphorylases were key enzymes in the initial metabolism of the soluble products of cellulose degradation. Cellodextrin phosphorylase appeared to be active against substrates as large as cellohexaose. Phosphorylase activities were cytoplasmic, but hydrolytic activities were associated with both the membrane and cytoplasmic fractions. Free glucose was phosphorylated with a GTP-dependent glucokinase, and this enzyme showed 20-fold higher activity with GTP or ITP (>324 nmol/min/mg protein) than with ATP, UTP, CTP, GDP, or PEP. The activity was decreased at least 57% when mannose, 2-deoxyglucose, or fructose was used as substrate compared with glucose. The Kms for glucose and GTP were 321 and 247 microM, respectively. Since phosphorolytic cleavage conserves more metabolic energy than simple hydrolysis, it is likely that such pathways provide for more efficient growth of R. albus in substrate-limiting conditions like those found in the rumen.

  20. Induce systemic resistance in lupine against root rot diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abeer A; Ghoneem, K M; El-Metwally, M A; Abd El-Hai, K M

    2009-02-01

    Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: chitosan (CHI), Salicylic Acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L(-1) and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L(-1) and HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L(-1) was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L(-1) proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L(-1) or HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment.

  1. The Role of Exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase in the Mobilization of Polysaccharides from the Cotyledon Cell Walls of Lupinus angustifolius Following Germination

    PubMed Central

    BUCKERIDGE, MARCOS S.; HUTCHEON, IAN S.; REID, J. S. GRANT

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The cotyledons of Lupinus angustifolius contain large amounts of cell wall storage polysaccharide (CWSP) composed mainly of (1→4)-β-linked d-galactose residues in the form of branches attached to a rhamnogalacturonan core molecule. An exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase with a very high specificity towards (1→4)-β-linked d-galactan has been isolated from L. angustifolius cotyledons, and shown to vary (activity and specific protein) in step with CWSP mobilization. This work aimed to confirm the hypothesis that galactan is the main polymer retrieved from the wall during mobilization at the ultrastructural level, using the purified exo-galactanase as a probe. • Methods Storage mesophyll cell walls (‘ghosts’) were isolated from the cotyledons of imbibed but ungerminated lupin seeds, and also from cotyledons of seedlings after the mobilization of the CWSP. The pure exo-(1→4)-β-galactanase was coupled to colloidal gold particles and shown to be a specific probe for (1→4)-β-d-galactan. They were used to localize galactan in ultrathin sections of L. angustifolius cotyledonary mesophyll tissue during CWSP mobilization. • Key Results On comparing the morphologies of isolated cell walls, the post-mobilization ‘ghosts’ did not have the massive wall-thickenings of pre-mobilization walls. Compositional analysis showed that the post-mobilization walls were depleted in galactose and, to a lesser extent, in arabinose. When pre-mobilization ghosts were treated with the pure exo-galactanase, they became morphologically similar to the post-mobilization ghosts. They were depleted of approximately 70% of the galactose residues that would have been mobilized in vivo, and retained all the other sugar residues originally present. Sharply defined electron-transparent wall zones or pockets are associated with CWSP mobilization, being totally free of galactan, whereas wall areas immediately adjacent to them were apparently undepleted. • Conclusions The

  2. Bitter lupine beans ingestion in a child: a disregarded cause of acute anticholinergic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Daverio, Marco; Cavicchiolo, Maria Elena; Grotto, Paolo; Lonati, Davide; Cananzi, Mara; Da Dalt, Liviana

    2014-12-01

    We describe the case of a 6-year-old girl brought to the emergency department for the sudden onset of anticholinergic syndrome after the ingestion of a few home-made partially debittered lupine beans. She complained of blurry vision, headache, photophobia and nausea. No specific treatment was needed, and the symptoms resolved about 12 h after the exposure. Lupine beans are a popular and worldwide-diffused food. The bitter variety is rich in alkaloids harbouring anticholinergic activity and thus requires a debittering process before lupines can be eaten. Only four cases of acute toxicity, due to the ingestion of incompletely detoxified bitter lupines, have been reported in children so far; notwithstanding the small amount of lupines ingested, three of these cases were lethal. Acute anticholinergic syndrome can arise after the consumption of a wide range of exogenous substances including partially debittered lupine beans. Paediatricians should be aware of bitter lupine toxicity, recognize possible cases of intoxication, ensure a prompt and appropriate supportive treatment and provide appropriate information about their danger.

  3. Lupines, manganese, and devil-sickness: an Anglo-Saxon medical response to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dendle, P

    2001-01-01

    The most frequently prescribed herb for "devil-sickness" in the vernacular medical books from Anglo-Saxon England, the lupine, is exceptionally high in manganese. Since manganese depletion has been linked with recurring seizures in both clinical and experimental studies, it is possible that lupine administration responded to the particular pathophysiology of epilepsy. Lupine is not prescribed for seizures in classical Mediterranean medical sources, implying that the Northern European peoples (if not the Anglo-Saxons themselves) discovered whatever anticonvulsive properties the herb may exhibit.

  4. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  5. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein.

  6. Lupine protein hydrolysates inhibit enzymes involved in the inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Yust, María del Mar; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2014-05-15

    Lupine protein hydrolysates (LPHs) were obtained from a lupine protein isolate (LPI) by enzymatic hydrolysis using two proteases, Izyme AL and Alcalase 2.4 L, and their potential anti-inflammatory capacities were studied by determining their in vitro inhibition of the following enzymes that are involved in the inflammatory process: phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), thrombin, and transglutaminase (TG). The strongest inhibitory activities toward PLA2 and TG were found in the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with Izyme and subsequently with Alcalase, with more than 70% inhibition obtained in some cases. All of the hydrolysates tested inhibited more than 60% of the COX-2 activity. In no case did the percentage of thrombin activity inhibition exceed 40%. The best inhibitory activities were found in the LPH obtained after 15 min of hydrolysis with Alcalase and in the LPH obtained after 60 min of hydrolysis with Izyme followed by 15 min of hydrolysis with Alcalase. Enzyme kinetic analyses were conducted to determine the Km and Vmax parameters of these two hydrolysates using the Lineweaver-Burk equation. Both hydrolysates competitively inhibited the thrombin and PLA2 activities. In the case of COX-2 and TG, the inhibition appeared to be the mixed type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-talk interactions of sucrose and Fusarium oxysporum in the phenylpropanoid pathway and the accumulation and localization of flavonoids in embryo axes of yellow lupine.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Narożna, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Remlein-Starosta, Dorota

    2011-03-15

    This study investigated the effects of cross-talk interactions of sucrose and infection caused by a pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway, i.e. the level of expression of genes encoding enzymes participating in flavonoid biosynthesis, as well as cell location and accumulation of these compounds in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Polo. Embryo axes, both non-inoculated and inoculated, were cultured for 96h on Heller medium with 60mM sucrose (+Sn and +Si) or without it (-Sn and -Si). Real-time RT-PCR to assess expression levels of the flavonoid biosynthetic genes, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) were used. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated the expression of these genes. There was a very high expression level of these genes in +Si embryo axes in the early phase of infection. Signal amplification by sucrose and the infection was most intense in the 48-h +Si axes, resulting in the highest level of expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. In -Si tissues, the expression level of these genes increased at 48 and 72h after inoculation relative to 24h; however, the relative level of expression was much lower than in +Si axes, except at 72h for PAL and CHS.Moreover, at 48h of culture, considerably higher activity of CHI (EC 5.5.1.6) was observed in axes with a high level of sucrose than in those with a sucrose deficit. CHI activity in +Si axes at 48 and 96h post-inoculation was over 1.5 and 2 times higher than that in +Sn axes, as well as higher than in -Si axes.Observations of yellow lupine embryo axes under a confocal microscope showed an increased post-infection accumulation of flavonoids, particularly in cells of embryo axes infected with F. oxysporum and cultured on a medium containing sucrose (+Si). Up to 48h post-infection in +Si axes, a very intensive emission of green fluorescence was observed, indicating high

  8. Effects of seed density and proximity to refuge habitat on seed predation rates for a rare and a common Lupinus species.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Patten, Melissa V; Knight, Tiffany M

    2017-03-01

    Biotic interactions such as seed predation can play a role in explaining patterns of abundance among plant species. The effect of seed predation will depend on how the strength of predation differs across species and environments, and on the degree to which seed loss at one life-cycle phase increases fitness at another phase. Few studies have simultaneously quantified predispersal and postdispersal predation in co-occurring rare and common congeners, despite the value of estimating both for understanding causes of rarity. We quantified predispersal seed predation on the rare, herbaceous species Lupinus tidestromii (Fabaceae) and its common, shrubby congener L. chamissonis across multiple years in the same community. We experimentally measured postdispersal seed predation at two seed densities and locations near or far from an exotic grass housing high densities of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), their primary, native seed predator. The common L. chamissonis had the lowest predispersal seed predation of the two lupine species, potentially because of its height: its high racemes received less predation than those low to the ground. By contrast, the same species experienced higher postdispersal seed predation, and at predators traveled long distances away from refuge habitat to consume their seeds. Across both plant species, mice preferentially predated high-density seed sources. Our results show differences in the magnitude and direction of seed predation between the species across different life-cycle phases. We demonstrated possible roles of proximity to refuge habitat, seed density, and seed size in these patterns. Congeneric comparisons would benefit from a comprehensive framework that considers seed predation across different life-cycle phases and the environmental context of predation. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids do not affect xylan degradation by Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Reveneau, Carine; Adams, Sarah E; Cotta, M A; Morrison, M

    2003-11-01

    Since the addition of either ruminal fluid or a combination of phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids (PAA/PPA) has previously been shown to dramatically improve cellulose degradation and growth of Ruminococcus albus, it was of interest to determine the effects of these additives on xylan-grown cultures. Although cell-bound xylanase activity increased when either PAA/PPA or ruminal fluid was added to the growth medium, total xylanase did not change, and neither of these supplements affected the growth or xylan-degrading capacity of R. albus 8. Similarly, neither PAA/PPA nor ruminal fluid affected xylan degradation by multiple strains of R. albus when xylan prepared from oat spelts was used as a carbohydrate source. These results show that the xylanolytic potential of R. albus is not conditional on the availability of PAA/PPA or other components of ruminal fluid.

  10. Phenylacetic and Phenylpropionic Acids Do Not Affect Xylan Degradation by Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Reveneau, Carine; Adams, Sarah E.; Cotta, M. A.; Morrison, M.

    2003-01-01

    Since the addition of either ruminal fluid or a combination of phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids (PAA/PPA) has previously been shown to dramatically improve cellulose degradation and growth of Ruminococcus albus, it was of interest to determine the effects of these additives on xylan-grown cultures. Although cell-bound xylanase activity increased when either PAA/PPA or ruminal fluid was added to the growth medium, total xylanase did not change, and neither of these supplements affected the growth or xylan-degrading capacity of R. albus 8. Similarly, neither PAA/PPA nor ruminal fluid affected xylan degradation by multiple strains of R. albus when xylan prepared from oat spelts was used as a carbohydrate source. These results show that the xylanolytic potential of R. albus is not conditional on the availability of PAA/PPA or other components of ruminal fluid. PMID:14602663

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Agarivorans albus Strain MKT 106T, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Kai, Wataru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Fukui, Youhei; Satomi, Masataka; Sano, Motohiko

    2013-07-18

    Agarivorans albus is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, and agar-hydrolyzing marine bacterium. We present the draft genome sequence of the A. albus strain MKT 106(T), which is composed of 67 contigs (>500 bp) totaling 4,734,285 bp and containing 4,397 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), four rRNAs, and 64 tRNA sequences.

  12. Effect of enzyme addition on the performance and gastrointestinal tract size of chicks fed lupin seed and their fractions.

    PubMed

    Brenes, A; Marquardt, R R; Guenter, W; Viveros, A

    2002-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effects of adding a crude enzyme preparation to diets containing whole, dehulled lupins and lupin hulls on performance, dry matter retention (DMR), AME, apparent protein digestibility (APD), and size of gastrointestinal tract of Leghorn and broiler chicks. In the first experiment, Leghorn chicks fed diets containing up to 70% whole lupins showed a depression in the performance. Progressive decreases in DMR (up to 30.2%), AME (up to 6.5%), and APD (up to 6.5%) and an increase in the relative gizzard weight (18.8%) were observed with increasing concentration of lupins (23.1, 46.9, and 70%) in the diet. Enzyme supplementation of diets containing lupins significantly improved the performance of the chicks. DMR and AME were improved by 4.2 and 3.1, respectively, and gizzard size was reduced (7.1%) by addition of the enzymes. In the second experiment, addition of 11.2 and 22.4% of lupin hulls to a dehulled lupin diet resulted in a dramatic depression in chick performance, with values ranging from 6.3% for feed consumption to 60.5% for fed to gain ratio, and an increase in the relative organ weight (up to 29.9%) and length (35.6%). These effects were partially counteracted by the action of enzymes. In the third experiment, increasing concentration of whole lupins (15, 35, and 45%) in broiler chicken diets caused a depression in the performance of birds fed 35 and 45% whole lupins as compared to those fed the wheat-soy diet. In contrast, 15% lupins improved weight gains compared to that obtained with the nonlupin diets. The lower content of lupins in the diet also had no or little effect on other performance values compared to the control group, whereas 35 and 45% dietary lupins tended to have negative effects. Likewise, increasing lupin content in the diet produced an enlargement in the relative size of several sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Enzyme supplementation of lupin diets improved weight gain (5.5%) and feed

  13. [Effects of starvation on digestive enzyme activities of Monopterus albus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dai-qin; Chen, Fang; Ruan, Guo-liang; Hu, Cheng-wen; Cao, Sheng-huan

    2007-05-01

    Starvation is a major environmental stress, which has a broad effect on the physiology and ecology of aquatic animals. In this study, Monopterus albus was starved for 30 days at (20 +/- 0.5) degrees C, and the activities of protease, trypsin, amylase and lipase in its digestive organs were measured on the 0, 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, and 30th day of starvation. The results showed that starvation had definite effects on the activities of all test enzymes. With the prolongation of starvation, the activities of test enzymes decreased, which was most significant when the fish was starved for 5-10 days. After 10 days of starvation, the decreasing trend of the enzyme activities became less obvious.

  14. Novel bioactive oxazolomycin isomers produced by Streptomyces albus JA3453.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H; Wada, K; Nitoda, T; Kawazu, K

    1998-03-01

    Two novel oxazolomycin isomers, oxazolomycins B (2) and C (3), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an oxazolomycin-producing strain, Streptomyces albus JA3453. Both compounds are geometrical isomers of oxazolomycin (1), the configurations of their triene moieties being (4'E, 6'E, 8'E) (2) and (4'Z, 6'E, 8'E) (3) while that of oxazolomycin (1) is (4'Z, 6'Z, 8'E). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against crown gall formation with the same MIC (0.8 microgram/disk) as oxazolomycin. Compounds 2 and 3 showed no antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in contrast to oxazolomycin which has specific anti-A. tumefaciens activity.

  15. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Doroghazi, J. R.; Ju, K.-S.; Metcalf, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685T, Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465T, Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335T and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378T are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100 % bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465T, exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465T still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811T as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces

  16. Nitrogen Fixation by White Lupin under Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    SCHULZE, JOACHIM; TEMPLE, GLENA; TEMPLE, STEPHEN J.; BESCHOW, HEIDRUN; VANCE, CARROLL P.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims White lupin is highly adapted to growth in a low-P environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether white lupin grown under P-stress has adaptations in nodulation and N2 fixation that facilitate continued functioning. • Methods Nodulated plants were grown in silica sand supplied with N-free nutrient solution containing 0 to 0·5 mm P. At 21 and 37 d after inoculation (DAI) growth, nodulation, P and N concentration, N2 fixation (15N2 uptake and H2 evolution), root/nodule net CO2 evolution and CO2 fixation (14CO2 uptake) were measured. Furthermore, at 21 DAI in-vitro activities and transcript abundance of key enzymes of the C and N metabolism in nodules were determined. Moreover, nodulation in cluster root zones was evaluated. • Key Results Treatment without P led to a lower P concentration in shoots, roots, and nodules. In both treatments, with or without P, the P concentration in nodules was greater than that in the other organs. At 21 DAI nitrogen fixation rates did not differ between treatments and the plants displayed no symptoms of P or N deficiency on their shoots. Although nodule number at 21 DAI increased in response to P-deficiency, total nodule mass remained constant. Increased nodule number in P-deficient plants was associated with cluster root formation. A higher root/nodule CO2 fixation in the treatment without P led to a lower net CO2 release per unit fixed N, although the total CO2 released per unit fixed N was higher in the treatment without P. The higher CO2 fixation was correlated with increased transcript abundance and enzyme activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase in nodules. Between 21 and 37 DAI, shoots of plants grown without P developed symptoms of N- and P-deficiency. By 37 DAI the P concentration had decreased in all organs of the plants treated with no P. At 37 DAI, nitrogen fixation in the treatment without P had almost ceased. • Conclusions Enhanced

  17. IgE sensitization to lupine in bakers - cross-reactivity or co-sensitization to wheat flour?

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Vera; Sander, Ingrid; Quirce, Santiago; Brüning, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Raulf, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy to lupine has frequently been reported in patients allergic to peanut or soy, and cross-reactivity between these legumes is known. Moreover, respiratory allergy to lupine has been described after inhalation, mostly at workplaces. Our aim was to study the frequency of lupine sensitization in European bakers with suspected bakers' allergy. Furthermore, associations between sensitizations to lupine and other plant allergens were investigated. One hundred and sixteen bakers with work-related allergic symptoms but without known food allergies were examined. Specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to wheat flour, rye flour, lupine, peanut, soy and the recombinant single birch protein rBet v 1 were quantified. Selected sera were tested for cross-reactivity using ImmunoCAP inhibition and ISAC microarrays. Whereas 67% of bakers were sensitized to wheat and/or rye flour, 35% showed sIgE to peanut and 33% to lupine. All lupine-positive bakers also had sIgE to either wheat flour (89%) and/or peanut (92%), and lupine sIgE correlated significantly with sIgE to peanut, soy, wheat and rye flour. Used as an inhibitor, wheat flour inhibited IgE binding to lupine in 4 out of 8 sera, indicating cross-reactivity. In microarrays, these sera showed IgE binding to lipid transfer proteins, profilins and/or cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Further inhibition experiments suggest that these single allergens are involved in cross-reactivity. One third of 116 symptomatic bakers showed sIgE to lupine. At least some of these sensitizations were based on cross-reactivity between lupine and wheat flour. However, the considerable sensitization rate could also be a sign that the use of lupine flour in bakeries may be of occupational relevance. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Li, Chengdao; Sweetingham, Mark W; Howieson, John G

    2012-07-17

    In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible) in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM), and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA fingerprinting method for marker

  19. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible) in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM), and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA fingerprinting method for

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. LUPIN, a new instrument for pulsed neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Ferrarini, M.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies focused in the last decades on the development of survey meters to be used in pulsed radiation fields. This is a topic attracting widespread interest for applications such as radiation protection and beam diagnostics in accelerators. This paper describes a new instrument specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields (PNF). The detector, called LUPIN, is a rem counter type instrument consisting of a 3He proportional counter placed inside a spherical moderator. It works in current mode with a front-end electronics consisting of a current-voltage logarithmic amplifier, whose output signal is acquired with an ADC and processed on a PC. This alternative signal processing allows the instrument to be used in PNF without being affected by saturation effects. Moreover, it has a measurement capability ranging over many orders of burst intensity. Despite the fact that it works in current mode, it can measure a single neutron interaction. The LUPIN was first calibrated in CERN's calibration laboratory with a PuBe source. Measurements were carried out under various experimental conditions at the Helmholtz-Zentrum in Berlin, in the stray field at various locations of the CERN Proton Synchrotron complex and around a radiotherapy linear accelerator at the S. Raffaele hospital in Milan. The detector can withstand single bursts with values of H*(10) up to 16 nSv/burst without showing any saturation effect. It efficiently works in pulsed stray fields, where a conventional rem-counter underestimates by a factor of 2. It is also able to reject the very intense and pulsed photon contribution that often accompanies the neutron field with good reliability.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Lupin Root Nodules: II. Studies with C-labeled Glucose, the Pathway of Glucose Catabolism, and the Effects of Some Treatments That Inhibit Nitrogen Fixation.

    PubMed

    Laing, W A; Christeller, J T; Sutton, W D

    1979-03-01

    Labeling studies using detached lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) nodules showed that over times of less than 3 minutes, label from [3,4-(14)C]glucose was incorporated into amino acids, predominantly aspartic acid, to a much greater extent than into organic acids. Only a slight preferential incorporation was observed with [1-(14)C]- and [6-(14)C]glucose, while with [U-(14)C]-glucose more label was incorporated into organic acids than into amino acids at all labeling times. These results are consistent with a scheme whereby the "carbon skeletons" for amino acid synthesis are provided by the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase reaction.A comparison of (14)CO(2) release from nodules supplied with [1-(14)C]- and [6-(14)C]glucose indicated that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway accounted for less than 6% of glucose metabolism. Several enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways were assayed in vitro using the 12,000g supernatant fraction from nodule homogenates. In all cases, the specific activities were adequate to account for the calculated in vivo fluxes.Three out of four diverse treatments that inhibited nodule nitrogen fixation also inhibited nodule CO(2) fixation, and in the case of the fourth treatment, replacement of N(2) with He, it was shown that the normal entry of label from exogenous (14)CO(2) into the nodule amino acid pool was strongly inhibited.

  4. The potential of blue lupins as a protein source, in the diets of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R F; Parkinson, Sarah; Fleming, Hannah R; Theobald, Vince J; Leemans, Dave K; Burgess, Tony

    2016-12-01

    Layers diets typically contain 15-20% soya due to its high crude protein content (ca. 36%). Reliance on soya for protein can result in large increases in cost of feed due to the law of supply and demand as a global commodity. Lupin grains have high protein content (35-40%) but previous experience with white lupins has shown toxic effects in poultry due to high levels alkaloids and poor performance due to anti-nutritional Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Here blue lupins either processed or whole were trialled for their potential as a protein source. Point of lay chickens (64) at 16 weeks of age were weighed and allocated to 16 coops of four hens. Coops, as the experimental unit, were randomly allocated to four treatments: layers mash with soya (Control); or layers mash with 150 g of lupin/kg diet with the lupin either: whole (Whole); dehulled (Dehulled) or dehulled + a solid state fermentation enzyme extract (SSF; 150 g/tonne DM). All diets were ground and formulated to be balanced for energy, crude protein and essential amino acids using NIRS. No difference in growth rate, final hen weight, DM and water intake, eggs per day, mean egg weight, yellowness of yolk or chroma was found between treatments. There was a trend (P<0.1) for the SSF treatment to produce less heavy shells and a significant effect for the lupin treatments to have redder yolks (P<0.001). Fecal DM and bacterial counts were not different and there was no sign of enteritis or intestinal tissue hyperplasia from hen autopsies. Inclusion of blue lupins in the diet of laying hens at a rate of 150 g/kg DM resulted in no adverse effects in production or hen health and could be used as part of a balanced ration with inclusion of NSP degrading enzymes to reduce reliance on soya protein.

  5. Functional phylotyping approach for assessing intraspecific diversity of Ruminococcus albus within the rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Rozman Grinberg, Inna; Yin, Guohua; Borovok, Ilya; Berg Miller, Margret E; Yeoman, Carl J; Dassa, Bareket; Yu, Zhongtang; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Flint, Harry J; Bayer, Edward A; White, Bryan A; Lamed, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic bacterium, is a critical member of the rumen community. Ruminococcus albus lacks a classical cellulosome complex, but it possesses a unique family 37 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM37), which is integrated into a variety of carbohydrate-active enzymes. We developed a potential molecular tool for functional phylotyping of the R. albus population in the rumen, based on a variable region in the cel48A gene. cel48A encodes a single copy of the CBM37-associated family 48 glycoside hydrolase in all known strains of this bacterium. A segment of the cel48A gene was amplified from rumen metagenomic samples of four bovines, and its abundance and diversity were evaluated. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed the co-existence of multiple functional phylotypes of cel48A in all four animals. These included sequences identical or similar to those of R. albus isolates (reference strains), as well as several novel sequences. The dominant cel48A type varied among animals. This method can be used for detection of intraspecific diversity of R. albus in metagenomic samples. Together with scaC, a previously reported gene marker for R. flavefaciens, we present a set of two species-specific markers for phylotyping of Ruminococci in the herbivore rumen. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Identification of butenolide regulatory system controlling secondary metabolism in Streptomyces albus J1074.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Yousra; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Brötz, Elke; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-08-29

    A large majority of genome-encrypted chemical diversity in actinobacteria remains to be discovered, which is related to the low level of secondary metabolism genes expression. Here, we report the application of a reporter-guided screening strategy to activate cryptic polycyclic tetramate macrolactam gene clusters in Streptomyces albus J1074. The analysis of the S. albus transcriptome revealed an overall low level of secondary metabolism genes transcription. Combined with transposon mutagenesis, reporter-guided screening resulted in the selection of two S. albus strains with altered secondary metabolites production. Transposon insertion in the most prominent strain, S. albus ATGSal2P2::TN14, was mapped to the XNR_3174 gene encoding an unclassified transcriptional regulator. The mutant strain was found to produce the avenolide-like compound butenolide 4. The deletion of the gene encoding a putative acyl-CoA oxidase, an orthologue of the Streptomyces avermitilis avenolide biosynthesis enzyme, in the S. albus XNR_3174 mutant caused silencing of secondary metabolism. The homologues of XNR_3174 and the butenolide biosynthesis genes were found in the genomes of multiple Streptomyces species. This result leads us to believe that the discovered regulatory elements comprise a new condition-dependent system that controls secondary metabolism in actinobacteria and can be manipulated to activate cryptic biosynthetic pathways.

  7. Phenylacetic acid stimulation of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, R.J.; Hungate, R.E.; Opsahl, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The rate of cellulose digestion by Ruminococcus albus 8 grown on a defined medium could be increased by adding a minimum of 6.6% (vol/vol) rumen fluid. Strain 8 was grown on half this concentration, and the culture medium before and after growth was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine which components of the rumen fluid were used. Phenylacetic acid was identified as the component needed to make the defined medium nutritionally equivalent to one supplemented with rumen fluid. (/sup 14/C)phenylacetic acid fed to cultures of strain 8 was primarily incorporated into protein. Hydrolysis of protein samples and separation of the resulting amino acids showed that only phenylalanine was labeled. The results indicate that cellulose digestion by strain 8 was probably limited by phenylalanine biosynthesis in our previously reported medium. The data obtained on the utilization of other rumen fluid components, as well as on the production of metabolites, illustrate the potential usefulness of this method in formulating defined media to simulate those in nature. 14 references.

  8. Genome Sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08, Isolated from Root Nodules of Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Normand, Philippe; Bacigalupe, Rodrigo; Pujic, Petar; Lajus, Aurelie; Vallenet, David; Carro, Lorena; Coll, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Micromonospora strains have been isolated from diverse niches, including soil, water, and marine sediments and root nodules of diverse symbiotic plants. In this work, we report the genome sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08 isolated from root nodules of the wild legume Lupinus angustifolious. PMID:22815450

  9. First report of Colletotrichum lupini on Lupinus hartwegii and L. mutabilis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the 2013 winter cut flower production season, a severe anthracnose epidemic was observed on Lupinus mutabilis (syn L. cruckshanksii) on a commercial flower farm in Martin County, FL. Approximately 50% of the crop was lost to the disease. Symptoms included mild leaf spots, but more typically...

  10. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is colloquially termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and angular limb malformations which are fo...

  11. Effects of extrusion, boiling, autoclaving, and microwave heating on lupine allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alvarez, Javier; Guillamón, Eva; Crespo, Jesús F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Rodríguez, Julia; Fernández, Consuelo; Muzquiz, Mercedes

    2005-02-23

    Lupine flour has been reported as a causative agent of allergic reactions. However, the allergenicity of lupine after thermal processing is not well-known. For this purpose, the allergenic characteristics of lupine seeds after boiling (up to 60 min), autoclaving (121 degrees C, 1.18 atm, up to 20 min and 138 degrees C, 2.56 atm, up to 30 min), microwave heating (30 min), and extrusion cooking were studied. The IgE-binding capacity was analyzed by IgE-immunoblotting and CAP inhibition using a serum pool from 23 patients with lupine-specific IgE. Skin testing was carried out in four patients. An important reduction in allergenicity after autoclaving at 138 degrees C for 20 min was observed. IgE antibodies from two individual sera recognized bands at 23 and 29 kDa in autoclaved samples at 138 degrees C for 20 min. Autoclaving for 30 min abolished the IgE binding to these two components. A previously undetected band at 70 kDa was recognized by an individual serum. Therefore, prolonged autoclaving might have an important effect on the allergenicity of lupine with the majority of patients lacking IgE reactivity to these processed samples.

  12. Cross-allergic reactions to legumes in lupin and fenugreek-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Vinje, N E; Namork, E; Løvik, M

    2012-10-01

    Several legumes may induce allergy, and there is extensive serological cross-reactivity among legumes. This cross-reactivity has traditionally been regarded to have limited clinical relevance. However, the introduction of novel legumes to Western countries may have changed this pattern, and in some studies cross-allergy to lupin has been reported in more than 60% of peanut-allergic patients. We wanted to explore cross-reactions among legumes using two newly established mouse models of food allergy. Mice were immunized perorally with fenugreek or lupin with cholera toxin as adjuvant. The mice were challenged with high doses of fenugreek, lupin, peanut or soy, and signs of anaphylactic reactions were observed. Cross-allergic mechanisms were investigated using serum mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1), antibody responses, immunoblotting and ex vivo production of cytokines by spleen cells. Signs of cross-allergy were observed for all the tested legumes in both models. The cross-allergic symptoms were milder and affected fewer mice than the primary allergic responses. The cross-allergy was reflected to a certain extent in the antibody and T-cell responses, but not in serum MMCP-1 levels. Cross-allergy to peanut, soy, fenugreek and lupin was observed in lupin-sensitized and fenugreek-sensitized mice. Differences in serological responses between primary allergy and cross-allergy might be due to mediation through different immune mechanisms or reflect different epitope affinity to IgE. These differences need to be further investigated.

  13. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 μg/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 μg/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin α+β conglutin.

  14. Potential of the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for control of building molds.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Julien; Jiménez, Jorge I

    2007-03-01

    The possibility of using the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for biofumigation against building molds was investigated. Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium as well as fungi belonging to nine other genera were inhibited or killed in vitro by volatiles produced by potato dextrose agar or rye grain cultures of M. albus. Trichoderma viride was the only fungus that was not inhibited by M. albus volatiles. To test biofumigation as a preventative treatment against fungal colonization of building material, dry pieces of gypsum drywall were fumigated with grain cultures of M. albus in closed boxes. After a simulated water damage and incubation under saturated humidity for 2 weeks, untreated drywall developed natural fungal populations of about 10(5)-10(6) cfu/cm2, while drywall fumigated with M. albus culture (20 g/11 L) had nondetectable fungal populations. To test for curative ability, moist pieces of drywall heavily colonized with Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger, or Stachybotrys chartarum were fumigated for 48 h with grain cultures of M. albus. Cladosporium cladosporioides was eliminated within 48 h, while A. niger and S. chartarum were usually more resistant. However, a longer curative fumigation of 96 h was effective in reducing A. niger or naturally occurring mold populations by about 5 log values. The production of volatile organic compounds from 20 g of rye grain culture in 11 L containers was monitored by solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography. Concentrations of isobutyric acid, the most abundant volatile, increased gradually in the headspace until it reached 25 microg/L (m/v) within 96 h. The second and third most abundant compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol, peaked at about 10 and 5 microg/L (m/v), respectively, within the first 24 h and declined gradually afterwards.

  15. Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Nagashima, K.; Kajino, T.; Ohmiya, K.; Shimizu, S.

    1988-05-01

    Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic, gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium (Pc/sup s/ Sm/sup r/ Km/sup s/), and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7 (Pc/sup r/ Sm/sup s/ Km/sup r/), having lignin-related compound-degrading activities, was performed under strictly anaerobic conditions to introduce cellulase genes into strain FE7. One of the two fusants named FE7R2, showed 45 to 47% of the ..beta..-glucosidase and cellobiosidase activities of its parent R. albus and still maintained a level of degradation activity against dehydrodivanillin, a lignin-related compound, of up to 87% of that of the parent strain FE7. To verify that the cellulolytic activities expressed in the fusant FE7R2 originated from R. albus cellulase genes, the ..beta..-glucosidase gene of R. albus was cloned into Escherichia coli HB101 with plasmid pBR322. Cells bearing are recombinant plasmid, pRAII, produced high enzyme activities against both p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-glucoside and p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-cellobioside and could degrade cellobiose to glucose. Southern blot results showed that the cloned DNA fragment could hybridize with chromosomal DNAs of both R. albus and FE7R2, but did not with the chromosomal DNA of FE7, indicating that the ..beta..-glucosidase gene fragment was introduced into the chromosome of FE7R2 from R. albus via the protoplast fusion. The fusant FE7R2 could utilize simultaneously both cellobiose and dehydrodivanillin.

  16. Degradation of barley straw, ryegrass, and alfalfa cell walls by Clostridium longisporum and Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Richardson, A J; Stewart, C S

    1989-12-01

    The recently isolated ruminal sporeforming cellulolytic anaerobe Clostridium longisporum B6405 was examined for its ability to degrade barley straw, nonlignified cell walls (mesophyll and epidermis) and lignified cell walls (fiber) of ryegrass, and alfalfa cell walls in comparison with strains of Ruminococcus albus. R. albus strains degraded 20 to 28% of the dry matter in barley straw in 10 days, while the clostridium degraded less than 2%. A combined inoculum of R. albus SY3 and strain B6405 was no more efficient than SY3 alone, and the presence of Methanobacterium smithii PS did not increase the amount of dry matter degraded. In contrast, with alfalfa cell walls as the substrate, the clostridium was twice as active (28% weight loss) as R. albus SY3 (15%). The percentages of dry matter degraded from ryegrass cell walls of mesophyll, epidermis, and fiber for the clostridium were 50, 47, and 32%, respectively, and for R. albus SY3 they were 77, 73, and 63%, respectively. Analyses of the predominant neutral sugars (arabinose, xylose, and glucose) in the plant residues after bacterial attack were consistent with the values for dry matter weight loss. Measurements of the amount of carbon appearing in the fermentation products indicated that R. albus SY3 degraded ryegrass mesophyll cell walls most rapidly, with epidermis and fiber cell walls being degraded at similar rates. Strain B6405 attacked alfalfa cell walls at a rate greater than that of any of the ryegrass substrates. These results indicate an unexpected degree of substrate specificity in the ability of C. longisporum to degrade plant cell wall material.

  17. The Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum: Two Eary Models of Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1989-01-01

    The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

  18. The Effect of Dry Yeast Fermentation on Chemical Composition and Protein Characteristics of Blue Lupin Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Borowczyk, Paulina; Zaworska, Anita; Nowak, Włodzimierz; Frankiewicz, Andrzej; Gulewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Summary The effect of 24-hour fermentation of lupin seeds by different yeast strains on their chemical composition was determined. After fermentation, the mass fraction of proteins increased and their in vitro digestibility and biological activity significantly improved. The amino acid profile of fermented products was similar to that of raw lupin seeds. The significant reduction in the mass fraction of oligosaccharides and phytate, but not of alkaloids was found. The pH level of fermented products decreased as a consequence of the increase of lactic and propionic acid mass fractions. The most favourable changes in the chemical composition of blue lupin seeds were obtained in fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast and Fermivin 7013 strain. PMID:27956868

  19. Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hull using subcritical water technology.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Deniz; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2015-10-01

    Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hulls was conducted in this study using subcritical water technology. Effects of process parameters, such as pressure (50-200 bar), temperature (160-220°C), flow rate (2-10 mL/min), and pH (2-12), were studied to optimize maximum hemicellulose sugars recovery in the extracts. Extracts were analyzed for total hemicellulose sugars, phenolics and organic carbon contents and solid residues left after treatments were also characterized. Temperature, flow rate, and pH had a significant effect on hemicellulose sugar removal; however, the effect of pressure was not significant. The highest yield of hemicellulose sugars in the extracts (85.5%) was found at 180°C, 50 bar, 5 mL/min and pH 6.2. The thermal stability of the solid residue obtained at optimum conditions improved after treatment and the crystallinity index increased from 11.5% to 58.6%. The results suggest that subcritical water treatment is a promising technology for hemicellulose sugars removal from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hangxian; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Xiu; Li, Qinyuan; Jiang, Chenglin; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Xiaomin

    2017-01-10

    A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated AFM 10258T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% NaCl and did not grow without NaCl. The isolate formed white aerial mycelium and long spore chains, and two spores were separated by sterile mycelium. The spores were non-motile, spherical and rugose-surfaced. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose and arabinose as the major whole-cell sugars. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and three unknown phospholipids. Major fatty acids were anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone and the DNA G+C content was 62.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AFM 10258T shared low sequence similarity with the closely related representatives of the families Pseudonocardiaceae (below 94.47%) and Actinopolysporaceae (below 93.76%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AFM 10258T formed a robust clade with members of the family Actinopolysporaceae. On the basis of analysis of phenotypic, chemical and molecular characteristics, strain AFM 10258T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus , for which the name Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is AFM 10258T (=DSM 45977T = CGMCC 4.7115T).

  1. The Nutritional Value and Physiological Properties of Diets with Raw and Candida utilis-Fermented Lupin Seeds in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaworska, Anita; Frankiewicz, Andrzej; Nowak, Włodzimierz; Gulewicz, Piotr; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Summary The growth and physiological responses of the rats to diet supplemented with raw and Candida utilis-fermented yellow and blue lupin seeds were determined. The diets containing soya bean meal, raw and fermented blue and yellow lupin were administered to eight rats in each diet group for four weeks. Yellow lupin seeds in the diets of rats improved significantly (p<0.05) feed intake, protein digestibility, body mass gain and protein efficiency ratio in comparison with blue lupin seeds. On the contrary, blue lupin seeds affected significantly (p<0.05) gastrointestinal fermentation processes in comparison with yellow lupin seeds. Fermentation of lupin seeds increased crude protein content and reduced phytate and oligosaccharide content. In the fermented products, a higher number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts but reduced number of coliform bacteria was found. Fermentation by Candida utilis positively (p<0.05) affected protein digestibility of feed, body mass gain and protein efficiency ratio of rats, as well as the activity of some bacterial enzymes and cholesterol concentrations in the blood serum. PMID:27904360

  2. The first complete chloroplast genome of the Genistoid legume Lupinus luteus: evidence for a novel major lineage-specific rearrangement and new insights regarding plastome evolution in the legume family.

    PubMed

    Martin, Guillaume E; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Cordonnier, Solenn; Lima, Oscar; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Naquin, Delphine; de Carvalho, Julie Ferreira; Aïnouche, Malika; Salmon, Armel; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2014-06-01

    To date chloroplast genomes are available only for members of the non-protein amino acid-accumulating clade (NPAAA) Papilionoid lineages in the legume family (i.e. Millettioids, Robinoids and the 'inverted repeat-lacking clade', IRLC). It is thus very important to sequence plastomes from other lineages in order to better understand the unusual evolution observed in this model flowering plant family. To this end, the plastome of a lupine species, Lupinus luteus, was sequenced to represent the Genistoid lineage, a noteworthy but poorly studied legume group. The plastome of L. luteus was reconstructed using Roche-454 and Illumina next-generation sequencing. Its structure, repetitive sequences, gene content and sequence divergence were compared with those of other Fabaceae plastomes. PCR screening and sequencing were performed in other allied legumes in order to determine the origin of a large inversion identified in L. luteus. The first sequenced Genistoid plastome (L. luteus: 155 894 bp) resulted in the discovery of a 36-kb inversion, embedded within the already known 50-kb inversion in the large single-copy (LSC) region of the Papilionoideae. This inversion occurs at the base or soon after the Genistoid emergence, and most probably resulted from a flip-flop recombination between identical 29-bp inverted repeats within two trnS genes. Comparative analyses of the chloroplast gene content of L. luteus vs. Fabaceae and extra-Fabales plastomes revealed the loss of the plastid rpl22 gene, and its functional relocation to the nucleus was verified using lupine transcriptomic data. An investigation into the evolutionary rate of coding and non-coding sequences among legume plastomes resulted in the identification of remarkably variable regions. This study resulted in the discovery of a novel, major 36-kb inversion, specific to the Genistoids. Chloroplast mutational hotspots were also identified, which contain novel and potentially informative regions for molecular

  3. The first complete chloroplast genome of the Genistoid legume Lupinus luteus: evidence for a novel major lineage-specific rearrangement and new insights regarding plastome evolution in the legume family

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Guillaume E.; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Cordonnier, Solenn; Lima, Oscar; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Naquin, Delphine; de Carvalho, Julie Ferreira; Aïnouche, Malika; Salmon, Armel; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims To date chloroplast genomes are available only for members of the non-protein amino acid-accumulating clade (NPAAA) Papilionoid lineages in the legume family (i.e. Millettioids, Robinoids and the ‘inverted repeat-lacking clade’, IRLC). It is thus very important to sequence plastomes from other lineages in order to better understand the unusual evolution observed in this model flowering plant family. To this end, the plastome of a lupine species, Lupinus luteus, was sequenced to represent the Genistoid lineage, a noteworthy but poorly studied legume group. Methods The plastome of L. luteus was reconstructed using Roche-454 and Illumina next-generation sequencing. Its structure, repetitive sequences, gene content and sequence divergence were compared with those of other Fabaceae plastomes. PCR screening and sequencing were performed in other allied legumes in order to determine the origin of a large inversion identified in L. luteus. Key Results The first sequenced Genistoid plastome (L. luteus: 155 894 bp) resulted in the discovery of a 36-kb inversion, embedded within the already known 50-kb inversion in the large single-copy (LSC) region of the Papilionoideae. This inversion occurs at the base or soon after the Genistoid emergence, and most probably resulted from a flip–flop recombination between identical 29-bp inverted repeats within two trnS genes. Comparative analyses of the chloroplast gene content of L. luteus vs. Fabaceae and extra-Fabales plastomes revealed the loss of the plastid rpl22 gene, and its functional relocation to the nucleus was verified using lupine transcriptomic data. An investigation into the evolutionary rate of coding and non-coding sequences among legume plastomes resulted in the identification of remarkably variable regions. Conclusions This study resulted in the discovery of a novel, major 36-kb inversion, specific to the Genistoids. Chloroplast mutational hotspots were also identified, which contain novel and

  4. Expansion of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family in legumes: a case study of Lupinus angustifolius L. FLOWERING LOCUS T homologs, LanFTc1 and LanFTc2.

    PubMed

    Książkiewicz, Michał; Rychel, Sandra; Nelson, Matthew N; Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan

    2016-10-21

    The Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) family, is a major controller of flowering in response to photoperiod, vernalization and light quality. In legumes, FT evolved into three, functionally diversified clades, FTa, FTb and FTc. A milestone achievement in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) domestication was the loss of vernalization responsiveness at the Ku locus. Recently, one of two existing L. angustifolius homologs of FTc, LanFTc1, was revealed to be the gene underlying Ku. It is the first recorded involvement of an FTc homologue in vernalization. The evolutionary basis of this phenomenon in lupin has not yet been deciphered. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones carrying LanFTc1 and LanFTc2 genes were localized in different mitotic chromosomes and constituted sequence-specific landmarks for linkage groups NLL-10 and NLL-17. BAC-derived superscaffolds containing LanFTc genes revealed clear microsyntenic patterns to genome sequences of nine legume species. Superscaffold-1 carrying LanFTc1 aligned to regions encoding one or more FT-like genes whereas superscaffold-2 mapped to a region lacking such a homolog. Comparative mapping of the L. angustifolius genome assembly anchored to linkage map localized superscaffold-1 in the middle of a 15 cM conserved, collinear region. In contrast, superscaffold-2 was found at the edge of a 20 cM syntenic block containing highly disrupted collinearity at the LanFTc2 locus. 118 PEBP-family full-length homologs were identified in 10 legume genomes. Bayesian phylogenetic inference provided novel evidence supporting the hypothesis that whole-genome and tandem duplications contributed to expansion of PEBP-family genes in legumes. Duplicated genes were subjected to strong purifying selection. Promoter analysis of FT genes revealed no statistically significant sequence similarity between duplicated copies; only RE-alpha and CCAAT-box motifs were

  5. Multiple cellobiohydrolases and cellobiose phosphorylases cooperate in the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 to degrade cellooligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Devendran, Saravanan; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M.; Evans, Anton F.; Iakiviak, Michael; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components. The mechanisms by which R. albus 8 employs to degrade these recalcitrant materials are, however, not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that R. albus 8 elaborates multiple cellobiohydrolases with multi-modular architectures that overall enhance the catalytic activity and versatility of the enzymes. Furthermore, our analyses show that two cellobiose phosphorylases encoded by R. albus 8 can function synergistically with a cognate cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase to completely release, from a cellulosic substrate, glucose which can then be fermented by the bacterium for production of energy and cellular building blocks. We further use transcriptomic analysis to confirm the over-expression of the biochemically characterized enzymes during growth of the bacterium on cellulosic substrates compared to cellobiose. PMID:27748409

  6. Multiple cellobiohydrolases and cellobiose phosphorylases cooperate in the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 to degrade cellooligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendran, Saravanan; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M.; Evans, Anton F.; Iakiviak, Michael; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components. The mechanisms by which R. albus 8 employs to degrade these recalcitrant materials are, however, not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that R. albus 8 elaborates multiple cellobiohydrolases with multi-modular architectures that overall enhance the catalytic activity and versatility of the enzymes. Furthermore, our analyses show that two cellobiose phosphorylases encoded by R. albus 8 can function synergistically with a cognate cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase to completely release, from a cellulosic substrate, glucose which can then be fermented by the bacterium for production of energy and cellular building blocks. We further use transcriptomic analysis to confirm the over-expression of the biochemically characterized enzymes during growth of the bacterium on cellulosic substrates compared to cellobiose.

  7. NMR study of cellulose and wheat straw degradation by Ruminococcus albus 20.

    PubMed

    Matulova, Maria; Nouaille, Régis; Capek, Peter; Péan, Michel; Delort, Anne-Marie; Forano, Evelyne

    2008-07-01

    Cellulose and wheat straw degradation by Ruminococcus albus was monitored using NMR spectroscopy. In situ solid-state (13)C-cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR was used to monitor the modification of the composition and structure of cellulose and (13)C-enriched wheat straw during the growth of the bacterium on these substrates. In cellulose, amorphous regions were not preferentially degraded relative to crystalline areas by R. albus. Cellulose and hemicelluloses were also degraded at the same rate in wheat straw. Liquid state two-dimensional NMR experiments were used to analyse in detail the sugars released in the culture medium, and the integration of NMR signals enabled their quantification at various times of culture. The results showed glucose and cellodextrin accumulation in the medium of cellulose cultures; the cellodextrins were mainly cellotriose and accumulated to up to 2 mm after 4 days. In the wheat straw cultures, xylose was the main soluble sugar detected (1.4 mm); arabinose and glucose were also found, together with some oligosaccharides liberated from hemicellulose hydrolysis, but to a much lesser extent. No cellodextrins were detected. The results indicate that this strain of R. albus is unable to use glucose, xylose and arabinose for growth, but utilizes efficiently xylooligosaccharides. R. albus 20 appears to be less efficient than Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 for the degradation of wheat straw.

  8. Multiple cellobiohydrolases and cellobiose phosphorylases cooperate in the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 to degrade cellooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Devendran, Saravanan; Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M; Evans, Anton F; Iakiviak, Michael; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2016-10-17

    Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components. The mechanisms by which R. albus 8 employs to degrade these recalcitrant materials are, however, not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that R. albus 8 elaborates multiple cellobiohydrolases with multi-modular architectures that overall enhance the catalytic activity and versatility of the enzymes. Furthermore, our analyses show that two cellobiose phosphorylases encoded by R. albus 8 can function synergistically with a cognate cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase to completely release, from a cellulosic substrate, glucose which can then be fermented by the bacterium for production of energy and cellular building blocks. We further use transcriptomic analysis to confirm the over-expression of the biochemically characterized enzymes during growth of the bacterium on cellulosic substrates compared to cellobiose.

  9. Wood adhesives prepared from lucerne fiber fermentation residues of Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium thermocellum

    Treesearch

    P. J. Weimer; R. G. Koegel; Linda F. Lorenz; Charles R. Frihart; William R. Kenealy

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation residues (consisting of incompletely fermented fiber, adherent bacterial cells, and a glycocalyx material that enhanced bacterial adherence) were obtained by growing the anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus albus 7 or Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 on a fibrous fraction derived from lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). The dried residue was able to...

  10. Evidence of nickel (Ni) efflux in Ni-tolerant ectomycorhizal Pisolithus albus isolated from ultramafic soil.

    PubMed

    Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Nickel (Ni)-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus was isolated from extreme ultramafic soils that are naturally rich in heavy metals. This study aimed to identify the specific molecular mechanisms associated with the response of P. albus to nickel. In presence of high concentration of nickel, P. albus Ni-tolerant isolate showed a low basal accumulation of nickel in its fungal tissues and was able to perform a metal efflux mechanism. Three genes putatively involved in metal efflux were identified from the P. albus transcriptome, and their overexpression was confirmed in the mycelium that was cultivated in vitro in the presence of nickel and in fungal tissues that were sampled in situ. Cloning these genes in yeast provided significant advantages in terms of nickel tolerance (+ 31% Ni EC50) and growth (+ 83% μ) compared with controls. Furthermore, nickel efflux was also detected in the transformed yeast cells. Protein sequence analysis indicated that the genes encoded a P-type-ATPase, an ABC transporter and a major facilitator superfamily permease (MFS). This study sheds light on a global mechanism of metal efflux by P. albus cells that supports nickel tolerance. These specific responses to nickel might contribute to the fungal adaptation in ultramafic soil.

  11. Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion between Ruminococcus albus and an Anaerobic Recombinant, FE7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Nagashima, Kyo; Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohmiya, Kunio; Shimizu, Shoichi

    1988-01-01

    Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic, gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium (Pcs Smr Kms), and an anaerobic recombinant, FE7 (Pcr Sms Kmr), having lignin-related compound-degrading activities, was performed under strictly anaerobic conditions to introduce cellulase genes into strain FE7. The fusion frequency varied with different selected markers from 3.0 × 10−6 to 3.3 × 10−7. Two fusants, obtained from a synthetic medium with selective pressures of penicillin and streptomycin and with cellooli-gomer as the sole carbon source, were gram-negative rods. One of them, named FE7R2, showed 45 to 47% of the β-glucosidase and cellobiosidase activities of its parent R. albus and still maintained a level of degradation activity against dehydrodivanillin, a lignin-related compound, of up to 87% of that of the parent strain FE7. To verify that the cellulolytic activities expressed in the fusant FE7R2 originated from R. albus cellulase genes, the β-glucosidase gene of R. albus was cloned into Escherichia coli HB101 with plasmid pBR322. Cells bearing a recombinant plasmid, pRAII, produced high enzyme activities against both p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucoside and p-nitrophenyl-β-d-cellobioside and could degrade cellobiose to glucose. Southern blot results showed that the cloned DNA fragment could hybridize with chromosomal DNAs of both R. albus and FE7R2, but did not with the chromosomal DNA of FE7, indicating that the β-glucosidase gene fragment was introduced into the chromosome of FE7R2 from R. albus via the protoplast fusion. The fusant FE7R2 could utilize simultaneously both cellobiose and dehydrodivanillin. These results gave evidence that the fusion product FE7R2 is a recombinant strain between its parents R. albus and FE7. This recombinant has stably kept the above properties for about 2 years. Images PMID:16347634

  12. Phytoremediation of soils co-contaminated by organic compounds and heavy metals: bioassays with Lupinus luteus L. and associated endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Ginés, M J; Hernández, A J; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Pastor, J; Vangronsveld, J

    2014-10-01

    In the central part of the Iberian Peninsula there are old sealed landfills containing soils co-contaminated by several heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Cr, Fe, Al, Mn) and organic pollutants of different families (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and other organochlorinated compounds, phenols and volatile compounds), which this work will address. We have focused on phytoremedial plants that are able to deal with this type of complex pollution, not only species that tolerate the joint effect of heavy metals in the soil, but also those that can take advantage of associated bacteria to efficiently break down organic compounds. This study was carried out with Lupinus luteus and its endophytes in two greenhouse experiments: A) growing in a substrate artificially contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and B) using real co-contaminated landfill soils. Endophytes of roots and shoots were isolated in both bioassays. Plant growth-promotion tests and organic pollutant tolerance and degradation tests were conducted on all strains isolated in bioassay A), and on those proving to be pure cultures from bioassay B). The selected landfill is described as are isolation and test procedures. Results indicate that plants did not show toxicity symptoms when exposed to BaP but did when grown in landfill soil. Some endophytes demonstrated plant growth-promotion capacity and tolerance to BaP and other organic compounds (diesel and PCB commercial mixtures). A few strains may even have the capacity to metabolize those organic pollutants. The overall decline in plant growth-promotion capacity in those strains isolated from the landfill soil experiment, compared with those from the bioassay with BaP, may indicate that lupin endophytes are not adapted to metal concentration in roots and shoots and fail to grow. As a result, most isolated root endophytes must have colonized root tissues from the soil. While preliminary degradation tests

  13. Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Katie V; Schneller, Laura C; Mulder, Christa P H; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of abundantly flowered, highly rewarding non-native plant species is expected to have strong consequences for native plants through altered pollination services, particularly in boreal forest where the flowering season is short and the pollinator pool is small. In 18 boreal forest sites, we added flowering Melilotus albus to some sites and left some sites as controls in 2 different years to test if the invasive plant influences the pollination and reproductive success of two co-flowering ericaceous species: Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Rhododendron groenlandicum. We found that M. albus increased the pollinator diversity and tended to increase visitation rates to the focal native plant species compared to control sites. Melilotus albus facilitated greater seed production per berry in V. vitis-idaea when we added 120 plants compared to when we added 40 plants or in control sites. In R. groenlandicum, increasing numbers of M. albus inflorescences lowered conspecific pollen loads and percentage of flowers pollinated; however, no differences in fruit set were detected. The number of M. albus inflorescences had greater importance in explaining R. groenlandicum pollination compared to other environmental variables such as weather and number of native flowers, and had greater importance in lower quality black spruce sites than in mixed deciduous and white spruce sites for explaining the percentage of V. vitis-idaea flowers pollinated. Our data suggest that the identity of new pollinators attracted to the invaded sites, degree of shared pollinators between invasive and native species, and variation in resource limitation among sites are likely determining factors in the reproductive responses of boreal native plants in the presence of an invasive.

  14. Fiber, protein, and lupin-enriched foods: role for improving cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Belski, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally (World Health Organisation, 2011). Many of the risk factors for CVD are modifiable, including overweight and obesity. Numerous strategies have been proposed to fight CVD, with a special focus being placed on dietary interventions for weight management. The literature suggests that two nutrients, fiber and protein, may play significant roles in weight control and hence cardiovascular health. Increasing both protein and fiber in the diet can be difficult because popular low-carbohydrate and high-protein diets tend to have considerably low-fiber intakes (Slavin, 2005). One approach to obtain both is to develop functional foods using unique ingredients. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient derived from the endosperm of lupin. It contains 40-45% protein, 25-30% fiber, and negligible sugar and starch (Petterson and Crosbie, 1990). Research conducted to date reveals that lupin-enriched foods, which are naturally high in protein and fiber, may have a significant effect on CVD risk factors. This review explores whether there is a role for fiber-, protein-, and lupin-enriched foods in improving cardiovascular health.

  15. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (P<0·05), whereas no cholesterol changes were observed in the subjects consuming the bars containing casein+cellulose, casein+oat fibre or pea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  16. Lupin peptone as a replacement for animal-derived peptone in rich culture media for yeast.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Melissa; Mariano, Krichelle; Macreadie, Ian

    2015-02-01

    Lupin peptone was shown to be a suitable replacement for traditional bacteriological peptone in the culture of Candida glabrata, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This new medium formulation allows yeast researchers to increase safety and to eliminate the use of animal products for the culture of yeast in rich medium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of arsenate toxicity in nodulated white lupine in a long-term culture.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Saúl; Esteban, Elvira; Carpena, Ramón O

    2008-09-24

    White lupine is an As-resistant legume that is of interest for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. To achieve successful phytoremediation, monitoring of the nutritional status of the selected plant species during the entire culture cycle is required to maintain a plant cover with high biomass production. A long-term pot experiment was carried out with nodulated lupine grown on perlite with 10 and 100 microM As concentrations. The reproductive period (from 10 weeks) was the most sensitive phenologic stage of white lupine to long-term As exposure. The 10 microM As treatment increased the uptake and translocation of micronutrients, except for Cu, mainly at flowering with As levels in pods below the statutory limit (1 mg kg (-1) fresh weight). However, the 100 microM As treatment induced significant differences compared to the control. These findings confirm the relatively high resistance of white lupine to arsenate and support the use of this species in phytoremediation and/or revegetation of As-contaminated sites, with special attention on P and Cu nutrition at flowering.

  18. Glucose Fermentation Products of Ruminococcus albus Grown in Continuous Culture with Vibrio succinogenes: Changes Caused by Interspecies Transfer of H2

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, E. L.; Kafkewitz, D.; Wolin, M. J.; Bryant, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of a H2-utilizing organism, Vibrio succinogenes, on the fermentation of limiting amounts of glucose by a carbohydrate-fermenting, H2-producing organism, Ruminococcus albus, was studied in continuous cultures. Growth of V. succinogenes depended on the production of H2 from glucose by R. albus. V. succinogenes used the H2 produced by R. albus to obtain energy for growth by reducing fumarate in the medium. Fumarate was not metabolized by R. albus alone. The only products detected in continuous cultures of R. albus alone were acetate, ethanol, and H2. CO2 was not measured. The only products detected in the mixed cultures were acetate and succinate. No free H2 was produced. No formate or any other volatile fatty acid, no succinate or other dicarboxylic acids, lactate, alcohols other than ethanol, pyruvate, or other keto-acids, acetoin, or diacetyl were detected in cultures of R. albus alone or in mixed cultures. The moles of product per 100 mol of glucose fermented were approximately 69 for ethanol, 74 for acetate, 237 for H2 for R. albus alone and 147 for acetate and 384 for succinate for the mixed culture. Each mole of succinate is equivalent to the production of 1 mol of H2 by R. albus. Thus, in the mixed cultures, ethanol production by R. albus is eliminated with a corresponding increase in acetate and H2 formation. The mixed-culture pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form), formed during glycolysis by R. albus, is reoxidized during ethanol formation when R. albus is grown alone and is reoxidized by conversion to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and H2 when R. albus is grown with V. succinogenes. The ecological significance of this interspecies transfer of H2 gas and the theoretical basis for its causing changes in fermentation patterns of R. albus are discussed. PMID:4351387

  19. Diets containing inulin but not lupins help to prevent swine dysentery in experimentally challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C F; Phillips, N D; La, T; Hernandez, A; Mansfield, J; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Hampson, D J; Pluske, J R

    2010-10-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae that colonizes and induces inflammation of the cecum and colon. It has been reported that a diet containing chicory root and sweet lupin can prevent swine dysentery. This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inulin in the chicory root rather than galactans in lupins was responsible for protective effects. An experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was undertaken using pigs fed barley- and triticale-based diets, with the main effects being protein source [185 g/kg of canola meal (decreased galactans) or 220 g/kg of lupins (greater galactans)] and inulin supplementation (0 or 80 g/kg). Forty Large White × Landrace pigs weighing 21 ± 3 kg, with 10 pigs per diet, were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 wk, and then each pig was challenged orally 4 times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Pigs were killed when they showed clinical signs of dysentery or 6 wk postchallenge. Pigs fed diets without inulin had 8.3 times greater risk (P = 0.017) of developing swine dysentery and were 16 times more likely (P = 0.004) to have colon contents that were culture-positive for B. hyodysenteriae, compared with the pigs fed a diet with 80 g/kg of inulin. Diets containing lupins did not prevent pigs from developing clinical swine dysentery; however, inclusion of lupins or inulin or both in the diets delayed the onset of disease compared with the diet based mainly on canola meal (P < 0.05). Diet did not influence the total concentration of organic acids in the ileum, cecum, or upper and lower colon; however, the molar proportions of the organic acids were influenced (P < 0.05). Consequently the pH values in the cecum, and upper and lower colon were not influenced (P > 0.05) by diet. However the pH values of the ileal digesta were decreased in pigs fed the diet with both lupins and

  20. Efficiency of white lupin in the removal of mercury from contaminated soils: soil and hydroponic experiments.

    PubMed

    Zornoza, Pilar; Millán, Rocío; Sierra, M José; Seco, Almudena; Esteban, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the ability of the white lupin to remove mercury (Hg) from a hydroponic system (Hg concentrations 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 micromol/L) and from soil in pots and lysimeters (total Hg concentration (19.2 +/- 1.9) mg/kg availability 0.07%, and (28.9 +/- 0.4) mg/kg availability 0.09%, respectively), and investigated the accumulation and distribution of Hg in different parts of the plant. White lupin roots efficiently took up Hg, but its translocation to the harvestable parts of the plant was low. The Hg concentration in the seeds posed no risk to human health according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, but the shoots should not be used as fodder for livestock, at least when unmixed with other fodder crops. The accumulation of Hg in the hydroponically-grown plants was linear over the concentration range tested. The amount of Hg retained in the roots, relative to the shoots, was almost constant irrespective of Hg dose (90%). In the soil experiments, Hg accumulation increased with exposure time and was the greater in the lysimeter than in the pot experiments. Although Hg removal was the greater in the hydroponic system, revealing the potential of the white lupin to extract Hg, bioaccumulation was the greatest in the lysimeter-grown plants; the latter system more likely reflects the true behaviour of white lupin in the field when Hg availability is a factor that limits Hg removal. The present results suggest that the white lupin could be used in long-term soil reclamation strategies that include the goal of profitable land use in Hg-polluted areas.

  1. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  2. Unique aspects of fiber degradation by the ruminal ethanologen Ruminococcus albus 7 revealed by physiological and transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Christopherson, Melissa R; Dawson, John A; Stevenson, David M; Cunningham, Andrew C; Bramhacharya, Shanti; Weimer, Paul J; Kendziorski, Christina; Suen, Garret

    2014-12-04

    Bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus are ubiquitous members of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. In particular, they are important in ruminants where they digest a wide range of plant cell wall polysaccharides. For example, Ruminococcus albus 7 is a primary cellulose degrader that produces acetate usable by its bovine host. Moreover, it is one of the few organisms that ferments cellulose to form ethanol at mesophilic temperatures in vitro. The mechanism of cellulose degradation by R. albus 7 is not well-defined and is thought to involve pilin-like proteins, unique carbohydrate-binding domains, a glycocalyx, and cellulosomes. Here, we used a combination of comparative genomics, fermentation analyses, and transcriptomics to further clarify the cellulolytic and fermentative potential of R. albus 7. A comparison of the R. albus 7 genome sequence against the genome sequences of related bacteria that either encode or do not encode cellulosomes revealed that R. albus 7 does not encode for most canonical cellulosomal components. Fermentation analysis of R. albus 7 revealed the ability to produce ethanol and acetate on a wide range of fibrous substrates in vitro. Global transcriptomic analysis of R. albus 7 grown at identical dilution rates on cellulose and cellobiose in a chemostat showed that this bacterium, when growing on cellulose, utilizes a carbohydrate-degrading strategy that involves increased transcription of the rare carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) family 37 domain and the tryptophan biosynthetic operon. Our data suggest that R. albus 7 does not use canonical cellulosomal components to degrade cellulose, but rather up-regulates the expression of CBM37-containing enzymes and tryptophan biosynthesis. This study contributes to a revised model of carbohydrate degradation by this key member of the rumen ecosystem.

  3. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during 6 or 40 days of estivation in mud.

    PubMed

    Chew, S F; Gan, J; Ip, Y K

    2005-01-01

    Monopterus albus inhabits muddy ponds, swamps, canals, and rice fields, where it can burrow into the moist earth, and it survives for long periods during the dry summer season. However, it had been reported previously that mortality increased when M. albus was exposed to air for 8 d or more. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the strategies adopted by M. albus to defend against ammonia toxicity during 6 or 40 d of estivation in mud and to evaluate whether these strategies were different from those adopted by fish to survive 6 d of aerial exposure. Ammonia and glutamine accumulations occurred in the muscle and liver of fish exposed to air (normoxia) for 6 d, indicating that ammonia was detoxified to glutamine under such conditions. In contrast, ammonia accumulation occurred only in the muscle, with no increases in glutamine or glutamate contents in all tissues, of fish estivated in mud for 6 d. Similar results were obtained from fish estivated in mud for 40 d. While estivating in mud prevented excessive water loss through evaporation, M. albus was exposed to hypoxia, as indicated by significant decreases in blood P(O(2)), muscle energy charge, and ATP content in fish estivated in mud for 6 d. Glutamine synthesis is energy intensive, and that could be the reason why M. albus did not depend on glutamine synthesis to defend against ammonia toxicity when a decrease in ATP supply occurred. Instead, suppression of endogenous ammonia production was adopted as the major strategy to ameliorate ammonia toxicity when M. albus estivated in mud. Our results suggest that a decrease in O(2) level in the mud could be a more effective signal than an increase in internal ammonia level during aerial exposure to induce a suppression of ammonia production in M. albus. This might explain why M. albus is able to estivate in mud for long periods (40 d) but can survive in air for only <10 d.

  4. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  5. Rhizostabilization of metals in soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with the metal resistant rhizobacterium Serratia sp. MSMC541.

    PubMed

    El Aafi, N; Brhada, F; Dary, M; Maltouf, A Filali; Pajuelo, E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to test Lupinus luteus plants, inoculated with metal resistant rhizobacteria, in order to phytostabilise metals in contaminated soils. The resistance to heavy metals of strains isolated from nodules of Lupinus plants was evaluated. The strain MSMC541 showed multi-resistance to several metals (up to 13.3 mM As, 2.2 mM Cd, 2.3 mM Cu, 9 mM Pb and 30 mM Zn), and it was selected for further characterization. Furthermore, this strain was able to biosorb great amounts of metals in cell biomass. 16S rDNA sequencing positioned this strain within the genus Serratia. The presence of arsenic resistance genes was confirmed by southern blot and PCR amplification. A rhizoremediation pot experiment was conducted using Lupinus luteus grown on sand supplemented with heavy metals and inoculated with MSMC541. Plant growth parameters and metal accumulation were determined in inoculated vs. non-inoculated Lupinus luteus plants. The results showed that inoculation with MSMC541 improved the plant tolerance to metals. At the same time, metal translocation to the shoot was significantly reduced upon inoculation. These results suggest that Lupinus luteus plants, inoculated with the metal resistant strain Serratia sp. MSMC541, have a great potential for phytostabilization of metal contaminated soils.

  6. Cell wall glycopolymers of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces albidoflavus and Streptomyces pathocidini.

    PubMed

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Streshinskaya, Galina M; Tul'skaya, Elena M; Senchenkova, Sophia N; Baryshnikova, Lidia M; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Ostash, Bohdan E; Fedorenko, Victor A

    2016-07-01

    The cell wall glycopolymers of three strains of Streptomyces albus and the type strain of Streptomyces pathocidini were investigated. The structures of the glycopolymers were established using a combination of chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The cell wall of S. albus subsp. albus VKM Ac-35(T) was found to be comprised of three glycopolymers, viz. unsubstituted 1,5-poly(ribitol phosphate), 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) substituted with β-D-glucopyranose, and the major polymer, a 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid (Kdn)-teichulosonic acid: β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-α-Kdnp-(2[(→6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-α-Kdnp-(2 →] n 6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-β-Kdnp-(2-OH, where n ≥ 3. The cell walls of 'S. albus' J1074 and 'S. albus' R1-100 were found to contain three glycopolymers of identical structures, viz. unsubstituted 1,3- and 2,3-poly(glycerol phosphates), and the major polymer, a Kdn-teichulosonic acid with an unusual structure that has not been previously described: β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-α-Kdnp-(2[(→3)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-α-Kdnp-(2 →] n 3)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-β-Kdnp-(2-OH, where n ~ 7-8. The cell wall of S. pathocidini (formerly S. albus subsp. pathocidicus) VKM Ac-598(T) was found to contain two glycopolymers, viz. 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) partially O-glycosylated with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose and/or O-acylated with L-lysine, and a poly(diglycosyl 1-phosphate) of hitherto unknown structure: -6)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → 6)-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1-P-.

  7. Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Krungleviciute, Vita; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Maknickiene, Zita

    2015-04-01

    The ability of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to degrade biogenic amines as well as to produce L(+) and D(-)-lactic acid during solid state fermentation (SSF) of lupin and soya bean was investigated. In addition, the protein digestibility and formation of organic acids during SSF of legume were investigated. Protein digestibility of fermented lupin and soya bean was found higher on average by 18.3% and 15.9%, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Tested LAB produced mainly L-lactic acid in soya bean and lupin (D/L ratio 0.38-0.42 and 0.35-0.54, respectively), while spontaneous fermentation gave almost equal amounts of both lactic acid isomers (D/L ratio 0.82-0.98 and 0.92, respectively). Tested LAB strains were able to degrade phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine, whereas they were able to produce putrescine, histamine and tyramine. SSF improved lupin and soya bean protein digestibility. BLIS-producing LAB in lupin and soya bean medium produced a mixture of D- and L-lactic acid with a major excess of the latter isomer. Most toxic histamine and tyramine in fermented lupin and soya bean were found at levels lower those causing adverse health effects. Selection of biogenic amines non-producing bacteria is essential in the food industry to avoid the risk of amine formation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Higa, Ataru; Miyamoto, Erika; ur Rahman, Laiq; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2008-04-01

    Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development. By studying effects of proton-pump inhibitors, medium acidification with external organic acid, and riboflavin addition upon pH change and riboflavin productivity, we indicate that riboflavin efflux is not directly connected to active pH reduction, and more significantly active riboflavin secretion occurs as a response to an internal requirement in H. albus hairy roots under iron deficiency.

  9. Bacteriophages that infect the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus AR67.

    PubMed

    Klieve, A V; Bain, P A; Yokoyama, M T; Ouwerkerk, D; Forster, R J; Turner, A F

    2004-01-01

    To isolate bacterial viruses that infect the ruminal cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus. Four phages infecting R. albus AR67 were isolated under anaerobic conditions using the soft-agar overlay technique. The phages were characterized on morphology, solvent stability, nucleic acid type and digestion characteristics. Two phages, phiRa02 and phiRa04 comprised icosahedral virions with linear double-stranded DNA and appeared to belong to the family Podoviridae [corrected] The other two phages are most likely filamentous phages with circular single-stranded DNA of the family Inoviridae. Viruses of the family Inoviridae [corrected] have not previously been isolated from rumen bacteria. The phages isolated in this study are the first phages shown to infect the cellulolytic bacteria of the rumen. This suggests that the cellulolytic populations of the rumen are subject to lytic events that may impact on the ability of these bacteria to degrade plant fibre and on the nutrition of the animal.

  10. First evidence of bioflocculant from Shinella albus with flocculation activity on harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2016-10-01

    Bioflocculant from Shinella albus xn-1 could be used to harvest energy-producing microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass for the first time. In this study, we investigated the flocculation activity and mode of strain xn-1, the characteristics of bioflocculant, the effect of flocculation conditions and optimized the flocculation efficiency. The results indicated that strain xn-1 exhibited flocculation activity through secreting bioflocculant; the bioflocculant with high thermal stability, pH stability and low molecular weight was proved to be not protein and polysaccharide, and flocculation active component was confirmed to contain triple bond and cumulated double bonds; algal pH, temperature and metal ions showed great impacts on the flocculation efficiency of bioflocculant; the maximum flocculation activity of bioflocculant reached 85.65% after the response surface optimization. According to the results, the bioflocculant from S. albus xn-1 could be a good potential in applications for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae.

  11. Structure of a Ruminococcus albus endo-1,4-beta-glucanase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmiya, K; Kajino, T; Kato, A; Shimizu, S

    1989-01-01

    A chromosomal DNA fragment encoding an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase I (Eg I) gene from Ruminococcus albus cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with pUC18 was fully sequenced by the dideoxy-chain termination method. The sequence contained a consensus promoter sequence and a structural amino acid sequence. The initial 43 amino acids of the protein were deduced to be a signal sequence, since they are missing in the mature protein (Eg I). High homology was found when the amino acid sequence of the Eg I was compared with that of endoglucanase E from Clostridium thermocellum. Codon usage of the gene was not biased. These results suggested that the properties of the Eg I gene from R. albus was specified from the known beta-glucanase genes of the other organisms. Images PMID:2687251

  12. [Sinorhizobium meliloti strains screening for efficient bactarization of Melilotus albus Medik].

    PubMed

    Patyka, V P; Ovsiienko, O L; Kalinichenko, A V

    2014-01-01

    The data presents about analytical selection of root nodule bacteria of Melilotus to obtain bacterial fertilizer under sweet clover, presowing inoculation of it seeds and form a legume-rhizobial effective symbiosis. From natural melilot population a number of new strains had been allocated, inoculation of them was contributed to an increase of height. biomass Melilotus albus Medik., and nitrogenase activity in comparison to the influence of the existing production strains. The identification of most effective strains Sinorhizobium meliloti had been determined.

  13. Metabolic products of microorganisms. 239. Bacimethrin isolated from Streptomyces albus identification, derivatives, synthesis and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Drautz, H; Messerer, W; Zähner, H; Breiding-Mack, S; Zeeck, A

    1987-10-01

    Bacimethrin (1), known as a thiamine antagonist produced by Bacillus megatherium, was isolated from Streptomyces albus and has been further characterized by NMR spectra and acetylation. A new easy three step synthesis for 1 is described. The biological activity of 1, and its mode of action were discussed. There are indications that bacimethrin inhibits the phosphorylation of 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (Pyr-OH) during thiamine biosynthesis.

  14. Tracking nickel-adaptive biomarkers in Pisolithus albus from New Caledonia using a transcriptomic approach.

    PubMed

    Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Soupe, Marie-Estelle; Carriconde, Fabian; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The fungus Pisolithus albus forms ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations with plants growing on extreme ultramafic soils, which are naturally rich in heavy metals such as nickel. Both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive isolates of P. albus are found in ultramafic soils in New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot in the Southwest Pacific. The aim of this work was to monitor the expression of genes involved in the specific molecular response to nickel in a nickel-tolerant P. albus isolate. We used pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approaches to investigate and compare the transcriptomes of the nickel-tolerant isolate MD06-337 in the presence and absence of nickel. A total of 1,071,375 sequencing reads were assembled to infer expression patterns of 19,518 putative genes. Comparison of expression levels revealed that 30% of the identified genes were modulated by nickel treatment. The genes, for which expression was induced most markedly by nickel, encoded products that were putatively involved in a variety of biological functions, such as the modification of cellular components (53%), regulation of biological processes (27%) and molecular functions (20%). The 10 genes that pyrosequencing analysis indicated were induced the most by nickel were characterized further by qPCR analysis of both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive P. albus isolates. Five of these genes were expressed exclusively in nickel-tolerant isolates as well as in ECM samples in situ, which identified them as potential biomarkers for nickel tolerance in this species. These results clearly suggest a positive transcriptomic response of the fungus to nickel-rich environments. The presence of both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive fungal phenotypes in ultramafic soils might reflect environment-dependent phenotypic responses to variations in the effective concentrations of nickel in heterogeneous ultramafic habitats. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. SlnR is a positive pathway-specific regulator for salinomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenhong; Li, Han; Yu, Pin; Guo, Yuanyang; Luo, Shuai; Chen, Zhongbin; Mao, Xuming; Guan, Wenjun; Li, Yongquan

    2017-02-01

    Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic produced by Streptomyces albus, is widely used in animal husbandry as an anticoccidial drug and growth promoter. Situated within the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster, slnR encodes a LAL-family transcriptional regulator. The role of slnR in salinomycin production in S. albus was investigated by gene deletion, complementation, and overexpression. Gene replacement of slnR from S. albus chromosome results in almost loss of salinomycin production. Complementation of slnR restored salinomycin production, suggesting that SlnR is a positive regulator of salinomycin biosynthesis. Overexpression of slnR in S. albus led to about 25 % increase in salinomycin production compared to wild type. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of most sal structural genes was downregulated in the ΔslnR mutant but upregulated in the slnR overexpression strain. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSAs) also revealed that SlnR(DBD) binds directly to the three intergenic regions of slnQ-slnA1, slnF-slnT1, and slnC-slnB3. The SlnR binding sites within the three intergenic regions were determined by footprinting analysis and identified a consensus-directed repeat sequence 5'-ACCCCT-3'. These results indicated that SlnR modulated salinomycin biosynthesis as an enhancer via interaction with the promoters of slnA1, slnQ, slnF, slnT1, slnC, and slnB3 and activates the transcription of most of the genes belonging to the salinomycin gene cluster but not its own transcription.

  16. Biochemical and mutational analysis of glutamine synthetase type III from the rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus albus 8.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Kensey R; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana A; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2005-11-01

    Two different genes encoding glutamine synthetase type I (GSI) and GSIII were identified in the genome sequence of R. albus 8. The identity of the GSIII protein was confirmed by the presence of its associated conserved motifs. The glnN gene, encoding the GSIII, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. The recombinant protein was purified and subjected to biochemical and physical analyses. Subunit organization suggested a protein present in solution as both monomers and oligomers. Kinetic studies using the forward and the gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) assays were carried out. Mutations that changed conserved glutamic acid residues to alanine in the four GSIII motifs resulted in drastic decreases in GS activity using both assays, except for an E380A mutation, which rather resulted in an increase in activity in the forward assay compared to the wild-type protein. Reduced GSIII activity was also exhibited by mutating, individually, two lysines (K308 and K318) located in the putative nucleotide-binding site to alanine. Most importantly, the presence of mRNA transcripts of the glnN gene in R. albus 8 cells grown under ammonia limiting conditions, whereas little or no transcript was detected in cells grown under ammonia sufficient conditions, suggested an important role for the GSIII in the nitrogen metabolism of R. albus 8. Furthermore, the mutational studies on the conserved GSIII motifs demonstrated, for the first time, their importance in the structure and/or function of a GSIII protein.

  17. Production and characterization of a bacteriocin from ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Tsung; Chen, I-Hung; Hsu, Jih-Tay

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of a bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 and its potential as an antibiotic alternative were examined in this study. The addition of 3 µM 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) and 0.2% Tween 80 to the culturing medium improved bacteriocin production by 2.5-fold. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the antagonistically active gel filtration fraction established that the molecular weight of the R. albus 7 bacteriocin was approximately 36 kDa. The bacteriocin was sensitive to pepsin, protease, and pancreatin, and was inactivated by heating at 65 °C for 1 h. Simulating in vitro avian digestion decreased the antagonistic activity by 74.7%, but the addition of 1% bovin serum albumin restored 13% of the lost antagonistic activity. Following ion-exchange purification, the bacteriocin had sufficient antagonistic activity against five tested pathogenic strains, but the addition of a protectant is necessary for utilization of bacteriocin of R. albus 7 as an antibiotic alternative in animal feed.

  18. Functional analyses of multiple lichenin-degrading enzymes from the rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8.

    PubMed

    Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2011-11-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in β-1,3 and β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a β-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a β-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber.

  19. Longitudinal study of circulating immune complexes in a patient with Staphylococcus albus-induced shunt nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Harkiss, G D; Brown, D L; Evans, D B

    1979-01-01

    The direct measurement and partial characterization of circulating immune complexes has been performed in a longitudinal study of a patient with Staphylococcus albus-induced shunt nephritis. The high levels of immune complexes were associated with cryoglobulinaemia and hypocomplementaemia. The activation of complement was found to be via the classical pathway, but the functioning of the alternative pathway may have been impaired in vivo due to very low levels of C3. The host response to the infection was also characterized by the production of a marked macroglobulinaemia, high titres of rheumatoid factor and a typical acute phase increase in the C-reactive protein level. Immune complex levels were persistently elevated many months after the removal of the focus of the infection. A possible explanation for this surprising finding may lie in the nature of the antigens in the immune complexes. It was found that the immune complexes contained both antibodies to and antigens from Staphlococcus albus. In particular, glycerol teichoic acid and staphylococcal nuclease were identified as components of the immune complexes present during the acute phase. Glycerol teichoic acid was also identified in the immune complexes found later although other Staphylococcus albus antigens as yet unidentified were also present and persisted in the circulation for several months. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:115626

  20. Heat induction of hsp18 gene expression in Streptomyces albus G: transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Servant, P; Mazodier, P

    1996-01-01

    In Streptomyces albus G, HSP18, a protein belonging to the small heat shock protein family, could be detected only at high temperature. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA region upstream from hsp18 contains an open reading frame (orfY) which is in the opposite orientation and 150 bp upstream. This open reading frame encodes a basic protein of 225 amino acids showing no significant similarity to any proteins found in data banks. Disruption of this gene in the S. albus chromosome generated mutants that synthesized hsp18 RNA at 30 degrees C, suggesting that orfY plays either a direct or indirect role in the transcriptional regulation of the hsp18 gene. In addition, thermally induced expression of the hsp18 gene is subject to posttranscriptional regulation. In the orfY mutant, although hsp18 RNA was synthesized at a high level at 30 degrees C, the HSP18 protein could not be detected except after heat shock. Synthesis of the HSP18 protein in the orfY mutant was also heat inducible when transcription was inhibited by rifampin. Furthermore, when wild-type cultures of S. albus were shifted from high temperature to 30 degrees C, synthesis of the gene product could no longer be detected, even though large amounts of hsp18 RNA were present. PMID:8955381

  1. Mitigation of Cu stress by legume-Rhizobium symbiosis in white lupin and soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Zornoza, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    The effect of Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis on plant growth, toxicological variables and Cu bioaccumulation was studied in white lupin and soybean plants treated with 1.6, 48, 96 and 192 μM Cu. In both species, those plants grown in the presence of root nodule-forming symbiotic Bradyrhizobium showed less root and shoot growth reduction, plus greater translocation of Cu to the shoot, than those grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. The effective added concentrations of Cu that reduced shoot and root dry weight by 50% (EC50), and the critical toxic concentration that caused a 10% reduction in plant growth (CTC10%), were higher in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, and were in general higher in the roots whether the plants were grown with or without these bacteria. The production of malondialdehyde and total thiols was stimulated by Cu excess in the shoots and roots of white lupin grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, but mainly in those without the symbionts. In contrast, in soybean, the increases in malondialdehyde and total thiols associated with rising Cu concentration were a little higher (1.2-5.0 and 1.0-1.6 times respectively) in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium than without. Finally, the organ most sensitive to Cu excess was generally the shoot, both in white lupin and soybean grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Further, Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis appears to increase the tolerance to Cu excess in both legumes, but mainly in white lupin; plant growth was less reduced and CTC10% and EC50 values increased compared to plants grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Bradyrhizobium N2 fixation in both legumes would therefore seem to increase the phytoremediation potential of these plants when growing on Cu-contaminated sites.

  2. Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica

    2014-09-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization.

  3. Effect of colloidal metals on the induced chlorophyll fluorescence at the different lupin state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son'ko, R. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Trach, V. V.; Lopat'ko, K. G.

    2013-11-01

    The results of studies about the effects of colloidal solutions of Fe and Zn on the photosynthetic activity of plants of yellow lupine affected by carbonate chlorosis are given. It is shown that the impression of plants by carbonate chlorosis causes a decrease in the efficiency of photosystem II and in result of that the affected plants lag in a weight. Processing plants by the colloidal solutions of iron and zinc creates conditions for improvement of function of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants.

  4. The effects of a lupin-enriched diet on oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular function in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbin; Croft, Kevin D; Lee, Ya P; Mori, Trevor A; Puddey, Ian B; Sipsas, Sofia; Barden, Anne; Swinny, Ewald; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2010-11-15

    A diet enriched in lupin kernel flour can lower blood pressure, but mechanisms responsible are unclear. Lupin is a source of polyphenols, protein, and L-arginine, factors that may influence blood pressure via effects on oxidative stress and vascular function. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of a lupin-enriched diet on oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular function as potential mechanisms for demonstrated benefits on blood pressure. Overweight men and women (n = 88) were recruited to a 16-week parallel-design study. Participants were randomly assigned to replace 15%-20% of their usual daily energy intake with white bread (control) or lupin kernel flour-enriched bread (lupin). All measurements were taken at baseline and 16 weeks. At baseline, plasma F₂-isoprostanes and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) were positively associated with blood pressure, and plasma nitrite was negatively associated with blood pressure (p < 0.05). For lupin relative to control, the estimated differences in plasma F₂-isoprostanes (45 pmol/L; 95%CI: -68, 158), urinary F₂-isoprostanes (17 pmol/mmol creatinine; 95%CI: -43, 76), plasma 20-HETE (75 pmol/L; 95%CI: -91, 241), and plasma nitrite (-0.3 μmol/L; 95%CI: -1.1, 0.4) were not significant. Although regular consumption of lupin-enriched bread can lower blood pressure, these results do not support for the hypothesis that this is via effects on oxidative stress or vascular function.

  5. Numerical modelling of agricultural products on the example of bean and yellow lupine seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Andrzej; Kaliniewicz, Zdzisław; Markowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Numerical models of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno were generated with the use of a 3D scanner, the geometric parameters of seeds were determined based on the models developed, and compared with the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. Measurements of seed length, width and thickness performed with the use of a micrometer, 3D scanner and digital image analysis produced similar results that did not differ significantly at α = 0.05. The micrometer delivered the simplest and fastest measurements. The mean surface area of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno, calculated with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of micrometer measurements and digital image analysis, differed significantly from the mean surface area determined with a 3D scanner. No significant differences in seed volume were observed when this parameter was measured with a 3D scanner and determined with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. The only differences were noted when the volume of yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno was measured in a 25 ml liquid pycnometer.

  6. Micro-PIXE studies of Lupinus angustifolius L. after treatment of seeds with molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Wouters, K.; Vlassak, K.; Combrink, N. J. J.

    1997-02-01

    An example of nuclear microprobe application in agriculture is presented. The NAC nuclear microprobe was used to determine quantitative elemental distribution of major, minor and trace elements in Lupinus angustifolius L. (Leguminosae) after treatment of seeds with molybdenum. Experiments were performed in order to establish safe concentration levels and sources of Mo in seed treatments. Elemental distributions in Mo-treated plants and in the non-treated control plants were studied in order to explain how Mo causes toxicity. Some specific regions of Mo and other main and trace elements enrichment were identified.

  7. [Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA in white char Salvelinus albus and northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2010-03-01

    Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in white char Salvelinus albus and in its putative ancestor species, northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma. Highly statistically significant differentiation of S. albus and S. m. malma in the areas of sympatric (Kamchatka River basin) and allopatric (Kronotskoe Lake and Kronotskaya River) residence was demonstrated. The mtDNA divergence between S. albus and S. m. malma did not exceed the range ofintraspecific variation in the populations of northern Dolly Varden char. At the same time, clusterization pattern of the Salvelinus chars provides hypothesis on the common origin of two allopatric populations of white char. Genealogical analysis of haplotypes indicates that S. albus and S. m. malma currently demonstrate incomplete radiation of mitochondrial lineages. The low nucleotide divergence estimates between S. albus and S. m. malma reflect the short time period since the beginning of the radiation of ancestral lineages. These estimates are determined by ancestral polymorphism and haplotype exchange between the diverged phylogenetic groups as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  8. Assessing the genotoxicities of sparteine and compounds isolated from Lupinus mexicanus and L. montanus seeds by using comet assay.

    PubMed

    Silva, M R; Alvarez, C M; García, P M; Ruiz, M A

    2014-12-12

    The genus Lupinus is widely distributed. Its seeds are used for animal and human food, and Lupinus possesses pharmacological potential because of its high content of quinolizidine alkaloids and flavonoids; however, there is little available information about its genotoxicity. We used the comet assay and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (clone 4430) to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity of 4 concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) of alkaloid extracts of Lupinus mexicanus and Lupinus montanus, flavonoids of L. mexicanus, and commercial sparteine; nitrosodiethylamine was used as a positive control and untreated nuclei were used as a negative control. All concentrations of L. mexicanus and L. montanus showed significant genotoxic activity (P ≤ 0.05). A similar behavior was observed for flavonoid extracts of L. montanus except the 1.0 mM concentration. Sparteine showed genotoxic activity only at 0.5 mM. The order of genotoxicity of the compounds studied was as follows: L. mexicanus > L. montanus > flavonoids of L. montanus > sparteine. There is evident genotoxic activity in the compounds that were studied, particularly at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 mM). Given the limited information about the genotoxicity of the compounds of L. mexicanus and L. montanus, further studies are necessary.

  9. Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6T, a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Microvirga lupini LUT6T is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6T was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6T forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project. PMID:25197490

  10. Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6(T), a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-06-15

    Microvirga lupini LUT6(T) is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6(T) was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6(T) forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project.

  11. The Unique Biosynthetic Route from Lupinus β-Conglutin Gene to Blad

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Sara; Freitas, Regina; Rajasekhar, Baru T.; Teixeira, Artur R.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.

    2010-01-01

    Background During seed germination, β-conglutin undergoes a major cycle of limited proteolysis in which many of its constituent subunits are processed into a 20 kDa polypeptide termed blad. Blad is the main component of a glycooligomer, accumulating exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Principal Findings The sequence of the gene encoding β-conglutin precursor (1791 nucleotides) is reported. This gene, which shares 44 to 57% similarity and 20 to 37% identity with other vicilin-like protein genes, includes several features in common with these globulins, but also specific hallmarks. Most notable is the presence of an ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM), which possibly links the unique catabolic route of β-conglutin to the ubiquitin/proteasome proteolytic pathway. Significance Blad forms through a unique route from and is a stable intermediary product of its precursor, β-conglutin, the major Lupinus seed storage protein. It is composed of 173 amino acid residues, is encoded by an intron-containing, internal fragment of the gene that codes for β-conglutin precursor (nucleotides 394 to 913) and exhibits an isoelectric point of 9.6 and a molecular mass of 20,404.85 Da. Consistent with its role as a storage protein, blad contains an extremely high proportion of the nitrogen-rich amino acids. PMID:20066045

  12. [Genetic Connectivity Between Sympatric Populations of Closely Related Char Species, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma and White Char Salvelinus albus].

    PubMed

    Salmenkova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The closely related chars Salvelinus malma and Salvelinus albus, which sympatrically inhabit the Kamchatka River basin and Kronotsky Lake (Kamchatka), attract the attention of the researchers because of their debated origin and taxonomic status. Previous studies of sympatric populations of these chars revealed small but statistically significant genetic differences between these species at a number of molecular markers, suggesting the presence of the genetic exchange and hybridization. In this study, based on genotypic characterization of nine microsatellite loci, a considerable level of historical and contemporary genetic migration between sympatric populations of these chars was demonstrated. At the individual level a high degree of hybridization was observed, mainly among the Dolly Varden individuals from the studied populations. The obtained evidence on the genetic connectivity between sympatric S. malma and S. albus do not support the separate species status of S. albus.

  13. Albusin B, a Bacteriocin from the Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7 That Inhibits Growth of Ruminococcus flavefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junqin; Stevenson, David M.; Weimer, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    An ∼32-kDa protein (albusin B) that inhibited growth of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 was isolated from culture supernatants of Ruminococcus albus 7. Traditional cloning and gene-walking PCR techniques revealed an open reading frame (albB) encoding a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 32,168 Da. A BLAST search revealed two homologs of AlbB from the unfinished genome of R. albus 8 and moderate similarity to LlpA, a recently described 30-kDa bacteriocin from Pseudomonas sp. strain BW11M1. PMID:15128585

  14. Albusin B, a bacteriocin from the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7 that inhibits growth of Ruminococcus flavefaciens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junqin; Stevenson, David M; Weimer, Paul J

    2004-05-01

    An approximately 32-kDa protein (albusin B) that inhibited growth of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 was isolated from culture supernatants of Ruminococcus albus 7. Traditional cloning and gene-walking PCR techniques revealed an open reading frame (albB) encoding a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 32,168 Da. A BLAST search revealed two homologs of AlbB from the unfinished genome of R. albus 8 and moderate similarity to LlpA, a recently described 30-kDa bacteriocin from Pseudomonas sp. strain BW11M1.

  15. Biochemical and Mutational Analysis of Glutamine Synthetase Type III from the Rumen Anaerobe Ruminococcus albus 8

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Kensey R.; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana A.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2005-01-01

    Two different genes encoding glutamine synthetase type I (GSI) and GSIII were identified in the genome sequence of R. albus 8. The identity of the GSIII protein was confirmed by the presence of its associated conserved motifs. The glnN gene, encoding the GSIII, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. The recombinant protein was purified and subjected to biochemical and physical analyses. Subunit organization suggested a protein present in solution as both monomers and oligomers. Kinetic studies using the forward and the γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) assays were carried out. Mutations that changed conserved glutamic acid residues to alanine in the four GSIII motifs resulted in drastic decreases in GS activity using both assays, except for an E380A mutation, which rather resulted in an increase in activity in the forward assay compared to the wild-type protein. Reduced GSIII activity was also exhibited by mutating, individually, two lysines (K308 and K318) located in the putative nucleotide-binding site to alanine. Most importantly, the presence of mRNA transcripts of the glnN gene in R. albus 8 cells grown under ammonia limiting conditions, whereas little or no transcript was detected in cells grown under ammonia sufficient conditions, suggested an important role for the GSIII in the nitrogen metabolism of R. albus 8. Furthermore, the mutational studies on the conserved GSIII motifs demonstrated, for the first time, their importance in the structure and/or function of a GSIII protein. PMID:16237031

  16. Purification and characterization of a novel alkaline α-L-rhamnosidase produced by Acrostalagmus luteo albus.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Natalia Lorena; Voget, Claudio Enrique; Hours, Roque Alberto; Cavalitto, Sebastián Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Rhamnosidases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal nonreducing L-rhamnose for the bioconversion of natural or synthetic rhamnosides. They are of great significance in the current biotechnological area, with applications in food and pharmaceutical industrial processes. In this study we isolated and characterized a novel alkaline rhamnosidase from Acrostalagmus luteo albus, an alkali-tolerant soil fungus from Argentina. We also present an efficient, simple, and inexpensive method for purifying the A. luteo albus rhamnosidase and describe the characteristics of the purified enzyme. In the presence of rhamnose as the sole carbon source, this fungus produces a rhamnosidase with a molecular weight of 109 kDa and a pI value of 4.6, as determined by SDS-PAGE and analytical isoelectric focusing, respectively. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques. Using p-nitrofenil-α-L-rhamnopiranoside as substrate, the enzyme activity showed pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and 55°C, respectively. The enzyme exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with K (M) and V (max) values of 3.38 mmol l(-1) and 68.5 mmol l(-1) min(-1), respectively. Neither divalent cations such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Co(2+) nor reducing agents such as β-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol showed any effect on enzyme activity, whereas this activity was completely inhibited by Zn(2+) at a concentration of 0.2 mM. This enzyme showed the capacity to hydrolyze some natural rhamnoglucosides such as hesperidin, naringin and quercitrin under alkaline conditions. Based on these results, and mainly due to the high activity of the A. luteo albus rhamnosidase under alkaline conditions, this enzyme should be considered a potential new biocatalyst for industrial applications.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin: Loxechinus albus (Camarodonta, Parechinidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Gila; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species of the genus Loxechinus, is determined. The circular mitogenome is 15,709 bp in length containing 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes as well as the control region. The gene order is identical to those of described Camarodonta species. There are 24 bp gene overlaps at 6 locations and 124 bp intergenic spacers at 17 boundaries. The nucleotide composition of the genome is 31.2% A, 22.3% C, 29.7% T, and 16.8% G. The A+T bias (60.9%) is similar to that of P. lividus (60.3%) but slightly higher than those of strongylocentrotid species (58.8-59.8%). The mitogenome sequence of L. albus will provide valuable information on the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Loxechinus in relation to other Camarodonta sea urchins.

  18. Functional insights into the testis transcriptome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Sánchez, Roland; Bruning, Paulina; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2016-11-02

    The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates. Using a high-throughput sequencing technology, we explored the male gonad transcriptome of this highly fecund sea urchin. Through a de novo assembly approach we obtained 42,530 transcripts of which 15,544 (36.6%) had significant alignments to known proteins in public databases. From these transcripts, approximately 73% were functionally annotated allowing the identification of several candidate genes that are likely to play a central role in developmental processes, nutrient reservoir activity, sexual reproduction, gamete generation, meiosis, sex differentiation, sperm motility, male courtship behavior and fertilization. Additionally, comparisons with the male gonad transcriptomes of other echinoderms revealed several conserved orthologous genes, suggesting that similar functional and structural pathways underlie the reproductive development in this group and other marine invertebrates.

  19. Functional insights into the testis transcriptome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Sánchez, Roland; Bruning, Paulina; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates. Using a high-throughput sequencing technology, we explored the male gonad transcriptome of this highly fecund sea urchin. Through a de novo assembly approach we obtained 42,530 transcripts of which 15,544 (36.6%) had significant alignments to known proteins in public databases. From these transcripts, approximately 73% were functionally annotated allowing the identification of several candidate genes that are likely to play a central role in developmental processes, nutrient reservoir activity, sexual reproduction, gamete generation, meiosis, sex differentiation, sperm motility, male courtship behavior and fertilization. Additionally, comparisons with the male gonad transcriptomes of other echinoderms revealed several conserved orthologous genes, suggesting that similar functional and structural pathways underlie the reproductive development in this group and other marine invertebrates. PMID:27805042

  20. A novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules identified with Ruminococcus albus proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Morrison, Mark; Nelson, Karen E; Bayer, Edward A; Atamna, Nof; Lamed, Raphael

    2004-05-21

    We recently showed that some of the enzymes underpinning cellulose solubilization by Ruminococcus albus 8 lack the conventional type of dockerin module characteristic of cellulosomal proteins and instead, bear an "X" domain of unknown function at their C-termini. We have now subcloned and expressed six X domains and showed that five of them bind to xylan, chitin, microcrystalline and phosphoric-acid swollen cellulose, as well as more heterogenous substrates such as alfalfa cell walls, banana stem and wheat straw. The X domain that did not bind to these substrates was derived from a family-5 glycoside hydrolase (Cel5G), which possesses two X domains in tandem. Whereas the internal X domain failed to bind to the substrates, the recombinant dyad exhibited markedly enhanced binding relative to that observed for the C-terminal X domain alone. The evidence supports a distinctive carbohydrate-binding role of broad specificity for this type of domain, and we propose a novel family (designated family 37) of carbohydrate-binding modules that appear to be peculiar to R. albus.

  1. Anaerobic bioconversion of cellulose by Ruminococcus albus, Methanobrevibacter smithii, and Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Currenti, E; Wolin, M J

    2000-10-01

    A system is described that combines the fermentation of cellulose to acetate, CH4, and CO2 by Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter smithii with the fermentation of acetate to CH4 and CO2 by Methanosarcina barkeri to convert cellulose to CH4 and CO2. A cellulose-containing medium was pumped into a co-culture of the cellulolytic R. albus and the H2-using methanogen, Mb. smithii. The effluent was fed into a holding reservoir, adjusted to pH 4.5, and then pumped into a culture of Ms. barkeri maintained at constant volume by pumping out culture contents. Fermentation of 1% cellulose to CH4 and CO2 was accomplished during 132 days of operation with retention times (RTs) of the Ms. barkeri culture of 7.5-3.8 days. Rates of acetate utilization were 9.5-17.3 mmol l(-1) day(-1) and increased with decreasing RT. The Ks for acetate utilization was 6-8 mM. The two-stage system can be used as a model system for studying biological and physical parameters that influence the bioconversion process. Our results suggest that manipulating the different phases of cellulose fermentation separately can effectively balance the pH and ionic requirements of the acid-producing phase with the acid-using phase of the overall fermentation.

  2. Characterization of a spontaneous adhesion-defective mutant of Ruminococcus albus strain 20.

    PubMed

    Mosoni, P; Gaillard-Martinie, B

    2001-07-01

    A spontaneous adhesion-defective mutant (mutant D5) of Ruminococcus albus strain 20 was isolated and compared to the parent to investigate the impact of the mutation on cellulolysis and to identify the adhesion mechanism of R. albus. The comparison of kinetics of cellulose degradation by strain 20 and mutant D5 showed that the mutation delayed and reduced bacterial growth on cellulose and cellulose degradation. These results were partly explained by a twofold lower cellulase activity in the mutant than in the parent. The glycocalyx of strain 20, observed by transmission electron microscopy, was large and homogeneous, and linked cells to cellulose. The mutant glycocalyx was aggregated at its periphery and cells attached loosely to cellulose. A glycoprotein of 25 kDa (GP25), present in the membrane fraction and the extracellular medium of strain 20, was not detected in the same fractions of mutant D5. Though glycoprotein GP25 did not bind to cellulose, it may be involved in adhesion as an intermediate component. Different cell-surface features of mutant D5 (cellulases, glycoprotein GP25, glycocalyx) were thus affected, any or all of which may be involved in its adhesion-defective phenotype. These results suggest that adhesion and cellulolysis are linked and that adhesion is a multifactorial phenomenon that involves at least the extracellular glycocalyx.

  3. 3-Phenylpropanoic Acid Improves the Affinity of Ruminococcus albus for Cellulose in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Mark; Mackie, Roderick I.; Kistner, Albrecht

    1990-01-01

    A continuous-culture device, adapted for use with solid substrates, was used to evaluate the effects of 3-phenylpropanoic acid (PPA) upon the ability of the South African strain Ruminococcus albus Ce63 to ferment cellulose. Steady states of fermentation were established with a dilution rate of 0.17 h−1, and the extent and volumetric rates of cellulose fermentation were determined over four consecutive days. When the growth medium contained no additions (control), 25 μM phenylacetate alone, 25 μM PPA alone, or 25 μM each of phenylacetate and PPA, the extent of cellulose hydrolysis was determined to be 41.1, 35.7, 90.2, and 86.9%, respectively, and the volumetric rate of cellulose hydrolysis was 103.0, 97.9, 215.5, and 230.4 mg liter−1 h−1, respectively. To evaluate the effect of PPA availability on affinity for cellulose, the values for dilution rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis were used in combination with values for maximum specific growth rate determined from previous studies of growth rates and kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis. The findings support the contention that PPA maintains a competitive advantage for R. albus when grown in a dynamic, fiber-rich environment. Images PMID:16348327

  4. Cloning and sequencing of the cellobiose 2-epimerase gene from an obligatory anaerobe, Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shigeaki; Hamada, Shigeki; Yamaguchi, Kozo; Umene, Shingo; Ito, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirokazu; Ozawa, Tadahiro; Taguchi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Jun; Wasaki, Jun; Ito, Susumu

    2007-08-31

    Cellobiose 2-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.11) was first identified in 1967 as an extracellular enzyme that catalyzes the reversible epimerization between cellobiose and 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose in a culture broth of Ruminococcus albus 7 (ATCC 27210(T)). Here, for the first time, we describe the purification of cellobiose 2-epimerase from R. albus NE1. The enzyme was found to 2-epimerize the reducing terminal glucose moieties of cellotriose and cellotetraose in addition to cellobiose. The gene encoding cellobiose 2-epimerase comprises 1170 bp (389 amino acids) and is present as a single copy in the genome. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme contains the possible catalytic residues Arg52, His243, Glu246, and His374. Sequence analysis shows the gene shares a very low level of homology with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases (EC 5.1.3.8), but no significant homology to any other epimerases reported to date.

  5. Valorisation of wastepaper using the fibrolytic/hydrogen producing bacterium Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Ntaikou, I; Koutros, E; Kornaros, M

    2009-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the biotransformation of different kinds of wastepaper to hydrogen by the fibrotylic bacterium Ruminococcus albus. Five different types i.e. paper tissue, office paper, illustrated magazine paper, paperboard and newspaper, were selected as representatives of the most common types of wastepaper found in municipal solid wastes. The percentage of total carbohydrates measured as glucose equivalents, ranged from 50% to 100% (w/w), whereas the bioconversion by R. albus ranged from 18% to 100% of their initial weigh. The only metabolic products detected in all cases were acetate, ethanol, formate, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The hydrogen yields ranged from 46 to 280 L H(2)/kg paper, indicating that wastepaper could be a promising candidate for second generation biohydrogen production. Subsequently, hydrolysis was investigated for paper tissue and paperboard. It was shown that in both cases the degradation process could be satisfactory described by zero order kinetics and it was identified to be the rate limiting step for the whole process, controlling biomass growth and metabolites generation rate.

  6. Enhanced salinomycin production by adjusting the supply of polyketide extender units in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Bai, Linquan

    2016-05-01

    The anticoccidial salinomycin is a polyketide produced by Streptomyces albus and requires malonyl-CoAs, methylmalonyl-CoAs, and ethylmalonyl-CoAs for the backbone assembly. Genome sequencing of S. albus DSM 41398 revealed a high percentage of genes involved in lipid metabolism, supporting the high salinomycin yield in oil-rich media. Seven PKS/PKS-NRPS gene clusters in the genome were found to be actively transcribed and had been individually deleted, which resulted in significantly improved salinomycin production. However, a combined deletion of PKS-NRPS-2 and PKS-6 showed no further improvement. Whereas the concentrations of malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA were increased, the concentration of ethylmalonyl-CoA remained low in the mutants. An endogenous crotonyl-CoA reductase gene (ccr) was overexpressed in the ΔPKS-NRPS-2/ΔPKS-6 mutant, resulting in improved production. Combination of cluster deletions and over-expression of ccr gene led to an overall titer improvement of salinomycin from 0.60 to 6.60g/L. This engineering strategy can be implemented for various natural polyketides production.

  7. Identification of host fruit volatiles from snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), attractive to Rhagoletis zephyria flies from Western United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) was used to identify volatiles from the fruit of Snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, as key attractants for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), ...

  8. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose. PMID:27439730

  9. Subcellular distribution of glycanases and related components in Ruminococcus albus SY3 and their role in cell adhesion to cellulose.

    PubMed

    Miron, J; Jacobovitch, J; Bayer, E A; Lamed, R; Morrison, M; Ben-Ghedalia, D

    2001-10-01

    To compare the subcellular distribution of glycanase-related components between wild-type Ruminococcus albus SY3 and an adhesion-defective mutant, to identify their possible contribution to the adhesion process, and to determine their association with cellulosome-like complexes. Cell fractionation revealed that most of the cellulases and xylanases were associated with capsular and cell-wall fractions. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration indicated that most of the bacterial enzyme activity was not integrated into cellulosome-like complexes. The adhesion-defective mutant produced significantly less (5- to 10-fold) overall glycanase activity, and the 'true cellulase activity' appeared to be entirely confined to the cell membrane fractions. Antibodies specific for the cellulosomal scaffoldin of Clostridium thermocellum recognized a single 240 kDa band in R. albus SY3. The adhesion-defective mutant appeared to be blocked in exocellular transport of enzymes involved in true cellulase activity. A potential cellulosomal scaffoldin candidate was identified in R. albus SY3. Several glycanase-related proteins and more than one mechanism appear to be involved in the adhesion of R. albus SY3 to cellulose.

  10. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2016-07-21

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose.

  11. Cell surface enzyme attachment is mediated by family 37 carbohydrate-binding modules, unique to Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Anat; Matalon, Erez; Jindou, Sadanari; Borovok, Ilya; Atamna, Nof; Yu, Zhongtang; Morrison, Mark; Bayer, Edward A; Lamed, Raphael

    2008-12-01

    The rumen bacterium Ruminococcus albus binds to and degrades crystalline cellulosic substrates via a unique cellulose degradation system. A unique family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM37), located at the C terminus of different glycoside hydrolases, appears to be responsible both for anchoring these enzymes to the bacterial cell surface and for substrate binding.

  12. Effects of the Fusarium spp. mycotoxins fusaric acid and deoxynivalenol on the growth of Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium.

    PubMed

    May, H D; Wu, Q; Blake, C K

    2000-08-01

    The Fusarium spp. mycotoxins fusaric acid and deoxynivalenol (DON) were tested for antimicrobial activity against Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium. The growth of both organisms was inhibited by fusaric acid as low as 15 micrograms/mL (84 microM) but not by DON, at levels as high as 100 micrograms/mL (338 microM). No synergistic inhibitory effect was observed with DON plus fusaric acid. Neither organism was able to adapt to the fusaric acid and responses of each organism to the compound were different. The optical density (OD) maximum for R. albus, but not for M. ruminantium, was diminished after 28 days incubation at concentrations of fusaric acid below 240 micrograms/mL. Inhibition of R. albus started before significant growth had occurred, while M. ruminantium doubled twice before the onset of inhibition. Responses to picolinic acid, an analog of fusaric acid, were also dramatically different between the two microorganisms with M. ruminantium exhibiting a severe lag followed by a complete recovery of growth, while R. albus was only slightly inhibited with no lag. These results suggest that the mechanism of fusaric acid inhibition is specific to each microorganism. This is the first demonstration of the common mycotoxin fusaric acid inhibiting the growth of rumen bacteria.

  13. Unique aspects of fiber degradation by the ruminal ethanologen Ruminococcus albus 7 revealed by physiological and transcriptomic analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus are important and ubiquitous members of mammalian guts. In particular, ruminococci are key contributors to the rumen ecosystem because they are capable of digesting a wide range of plant cell wall polysaccharides. In bovines, Ruminococcus albus 7 is a primary cellu...

  14. Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.

    2009-03-01

    The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38°C in autumn to 35.9-36.7°C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

  15. Mycofumigation by the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Induces Bacterial Cell Death through DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Alpha, Cambria J.; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

  16. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the estrogen receptor α gene during different reproductive phases in Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Weidong; Cao, Liping; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of estrogen and to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor in mediating estrogen action, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor α (ERα) was cloned from Monopterus albus, and its expression pattern and distribution were investigated. The ERα cDNA of M. albus includes an open reading frame of 1863 bp, a 140-bp 5’-untranslated region and a 797-bp 3’-untranslated region. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that the Monopterus albus ERα has a moderate degree of similarity with Sebastes schlegelii, Zoarces viviparus and Haplochromis burtoni (81.1%, 80.7% and 80.4%, respectively). Quantitative PCR results showed that the highest level of ERα expression was in the liver; the next highest level of expression was observed in the gonads, where it was expressed at high levels particularly in the ovary in developmental stages IV and V and in the testis in developmental stage II/III. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ERα was present as slender particles distributed mainly in the membranes of spermatocytes and oocytes in the testis and ovary, whereas no positive signal was observed in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. This report describes the first molecular characterization of full-length ERα and its tissue-specific distribution in M. albus. PMID:27295422

  17. Hypoglycemic effect of cooked Lupinus mutabilis and its purified alkaloids in subjects with type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Baldeón, M E; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Fornasini, M

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing an epidemic of chronic non-communicable chronic diseases with high socio-economic costs. Studies of traditional foods with beneficial health properties could contribute to diminish these problems. Legumes rich in proteins like Lupinus mutabilis decreases blood glucose and improves insulin sensitivity in animals and humans. We report the results of a phase II clinical trial conducted to assess the role of cooked L. mutabilis and its purified alkaloids on blood glucose and insulin in volunteers with diabetes. Results indicate that consumption of cooked L. mutabilis or its purified alkaloids decreased blood glucose and insulin levels. The decreases in serum glucose concentrations from base line to 90 minutes were statistically significant within both treatment groups; however, there were not differences between groups. Serum insulin levels were also decreased in both groups however the differences were not statistically significant. None of the volunteers in either group presented side effects.

  18. [Methods of eliminating alkaloids from the seeds of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet].

    PubMed

    Torres Tello, F; Nagata, A; Dreifuss Spiegel, W

    1980-06-01

    The basic purpose of this work was to find a simple and economic method to control and eliminate the presence of alkaloids, as detected by organoleptic or toxicity tests, in Lupinus mutabilis, S. (tarhui) seeds. Taking advantage of the physical and chemical properties of the seeds, they were subjected to four methods of extraction; b) chemical treatment; c) extraction with two solvents, and d) treatment with a modified water-heat process. The results indicated that the most adequate method was the water-heat modified treatment, which showed a yield of 85% and a debittering efficiency of 98.6%, figures which were above those obtained with any of the other treatments studied. The final product had a bland taste without traces of bitterness and a 32% concentration of protein in the kayra line. Amino acid content showed this product to have an unusual high lysine content.

  19. Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976882

  20. Genome sequence of the Ornithopus/Lupinus-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; De Meyer, Sofie; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-12-20

    Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing root nodule formed on the annual legume Ornithopus pinnatus (Miller) Druce growing at Oyster Harbour, Albany district, Western Australia in 1982. This strain is in commercial production as an inoculant for Lupinus and Ornithopus. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain WSM471, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,784,016 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 1 scaffold of 2 contigs, contains 7,372 protein-coding genes and 58 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program.

  1. Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.

    PubMed

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D₂O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 × 25 × 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D₂O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D₂O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Alenkina, I. V.; Zakharova, A. P.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The 57Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)-O 2 bond.

  3. Structural and functional characteristics of two novel members of pathogensis-related multigene family of class 10 from yellow lupine+.

    PubMed

    Handschuh, Luiza; Femiak, Iwona; Kasperska, Alina; Figlerowicz, Marek; Sikorski, Michał M

    2007-01-01

    PR-10 proteins (pathogensis-related), ubiquitous within the plant kingdom, are usually encoded by multigene families. To date we have identified 10 homologous pr-10 genes in a yellow lupine cDNA library. Here, the structure and expression of two newly identified yellow lupine pr-10 genes (LlYpr10-2b and LlYpr10-2f) are presented. Many potential regulatory sites were found in both gene promoters including common ones as well as those unique for each gene. However, promoter deletion analysis in transgenic tobacco plants revealed similar patterns of reporter gene (gus) expression. Shortened fragments of both gene promoters studied caused high GUS activity in leaves (along vascular bundles), stamen stigma, anthers and pollen grains. When conjugated with longer LlYpr-10.2 promoter fragments, GUS was additionally present in petal edges. Only a long fragment of the LlYpr10-2b gene promoter caused GUS expression in the stem. In yellow lupine the pr-10.2 genes are present in all studied organs, but their level of expression depends on the stage of development and is affected by wounding, oxidative stress and salicylic acid treatment. Silencing of the Llpr-10.2b gene in 4-week-old yellow lupine plants did not lead to any visible symptoms, which suggests that the function of the silenced gene is supplemented by its close homologues, still present in the studied plants.

  4. Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

    2009-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples.

  5. A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Cassell, C.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Manessi, G. P.; Mayer, S.; Silari, M.; Varoli, V.

    2014-06-01

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

  6. A new version of the LUPIN detector: Improvements and latest experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Caresana, M.; Varoli, V.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Mayer, S.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.

    2014-06-15

    LUPIN-II is an upgraded version of LUPIN, a novel rem counter first developed in 2010 specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields (PNFs). The new version introduces some modifications that improve the performance of the detector, in particular extending its upper detection limit in PNFs. This paper discusses the characteristics and the performance of the instrument. Measurements have been carried out in radiation fields characterized by very different conditions: the detector has first been exposed in PNFs with intensity up to 5 μSv per burst, where it could keep the H*(10) underestimation below 20% up to 500 nSv per burst. It has then been tested in operational conditions around particle accelerators, where it has shown performances similar to that of ionization chambers. Its proper functioning has also been verified in high energy mixed fields, where the experimental results matched the Monte Carlo predictions. Its neutron/photon discrimination capability has been tested in a steady-state photon field where, via an innovative technique based on a threshold set on the derivative of the current signal, it was capable of rejecting a photon H*(10) rate of about 25 mSv/h, and in a mixed neutron/photon field, where a time-based discrimination method was employed.

  7. A novel technique for compensation of space charge effects in the LUPIN-II detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassell, C.; Ferrarini, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Caresana, M.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for improving REM counter performance in Pulsed Neutron Fields (PNFs) has been developed. This method uses an analysis of the build-up of space charge in the counter to compensate for an underestimation of Ambient Dose Equivalent (H*(10)) in intense pulsed fields. It was applied to three sets of experimental data acquired using the LUPIN-II REM counter device, which is designed for use in PNFs. The data was acquired using the cyclotron at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), at the HiRadMat facility at CERN and at the 'Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste' (ELETTRA), Italy. A comparison of the data with and without this compensation method is used to highlight its effectiveness. The LUPIN-II performance, which has already been shown to be able to cope with fields of up to hundreds of nSv/burst, is improved by at least one order of magnitude, with further potential for improvement.

  8. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles enhance seedling growth and photosynthesis in wheat and lupin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dequan; Hussain, Hashmath I; Yi, Zhifeng; Rookes, James E; Kong, Lingxue; Cahill, David M

    2016-06-01

    The application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as a smart delivery system to agricultural crops is gaining attention but the release of nanoparticles into the environment may pose a potential threat to biological systems. We investigated the effects of MSNs on the growth and development of wheat and lupin plants grown under controlled conditions. We report a dramatic increase in the growth of wheat and lupin plants exposed to MSNs. We also found that, in leaves, MSNs localised to chloroplasts and that photosynthetic activity was significantly increased. In addition, absorption and cellular distribution of MSNs by the two plant species following root uptake were observed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Following uptake of MSNs at 500 and 1000 mg L(-1), there was enhancement of seed germination, increased plant biomass, total protein and chlorophyll content. Treatment of both species with MSNs at the highest concentration (2000 mg L(-1)) did not result in oxidative stress or cell membrane damage. These findings show that MSNs can be used as novel delivery systems in plants and that over the range of concentrations tested, MSNs do not have any negative impacts on plant growth or development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  10. Isolation and properties of the main isoleucine trnas from lupinus luteus seeds.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, H; Pawełkiewicz, J

    1978-01-01

    RPC-5 chromatography of [14C]isoleucyl-tRNA shows the presence of 5 tRNAIle species in lupin seeds. The two major species have been isolated using RPC-5 and Sepharose 4B chromatography. The acceptor activity of the purified tRNAs ranges from 1350 pmoles (tRNA2Ile) to 1510 pmoles (tRNA1Ile) of isoleucine per one A260 unit of tRNA. The two tRNAs have similar thermal denaturation profiles but differ in the composition of the major and minor bases, 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences, and the titration curves with MgCl2. It is concluded that the two major tRNAIle species are coded for by different genes.

  11. Consuming a mixed diet enriched with lupin protein beneficially affects plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess whether 25 g/d lupin protein, integrated into a mixed diet, might affect cardiovascular risk factors and whether l-arginine was responsible for these effects. Seventy-two hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in the randomized, controlled, double-blind three-phase crossover study. They were assigned to three diets with 25 g/d lupin protein (LP), milk protein (MP) or milk protein plus 1.6 g/d arginine (MPA) each for 28 d in a random order interrupted by 6-week washout periods. Lupin protein and the comparator milk protein were incorporated into complex food products (bread, roll, sausage, and vegetarian spread). Arginine was administered via capsules. Sixty-eight subjects were included in final analyses. Compared with MP, LDL cholesterol was significantly lower after LP. Compared with MP and MPA, homocysteine was significantly lower after LP. Compared with baseline, concentrations of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol significantly decreased after LP and MPA. Triacylglycerols and uric acid significantly decreased after LP. The relative changes in total and LDL cholesterol were significantly greater for subjects with severe hypercholesterolemia (>6.6 mmol/L) than those with moderate hypercholesterolemia (5.2-6.6 mmol/L). The present study showed for the first time that incorporation of 25 g/d of lupin protein into a variety of complex food products lowers total and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, homocysteine, and uric acid in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The hypocholesterolemic effect is stronger in subjects with severe hypercholesterolemia. Arginine might be responsible for some, but not all of the beneficial effects of lupin protein. This trial was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (study ID number NCT01598649). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of Ruminococcus albus xylanase gene ( xynA) in Streptococcus bovis 12-U-1.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mutsumi; Nagamine, Takafumi; Harada, Chisato; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hiroki; Benno, Yoshimi

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to ligate the xylanase gene A ( xynA) isolated from Ruminococcus albus 7 into the promoter and signal-peptide region of the lichenase [beta-(1,3-1,4)-glucanase] gene of Streptococcus bovis JB1. This fusion gene was inserted into the pSBE11 vector, and the resulting recombinant, plasmid pXA, was used to transform S. bovis 12-U-1 cells. The transformant, S. bovis 12UXA, secreted the xylanase, which was stable against freeze-thaw treatment and long-time incubation at 37 degrees C. The introduction of pXA and production of xylanase did not affect cell growth, and the xylanase produced degraded xylan from oat-spelt and birchwood.

  13. Wood adhesives prepared from lucerne fiber fermentation residues of Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Koegel, R G; Lorenz, L F; Frihart, C R; Kenealy, W R

    2005-03-01

    Fermentation residues (consisting of incompletely fermented fiber, adherent bacterial cells, and a glycocalyx material that enhanced bacterial adherence) were obtained by growing the anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus albus 7 or Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 on a fibrous fraction derived from lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). The dried residue was able to serve as an effective co-adhesive for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) bonding of aspen veneer sheets to one another. Testing of the resulting plywood panels revealed that the adhesive, formulated to contain 30% of its total dry weight as fermentation residue, displayed shear strength and wood failure values under both wet and dry conditions that were comparable with those of industry standards for PF that contained much smaller amounts of fillers or extenders. By contrast, PF adhesives prepared with 30% of dry weight as either unfermented lucerne fiber or conventional fillers or extenders rather than as fermentation residues, displayed poor performance, particularly under wet conditions.

  14. Site-directed mutagenesis of possible catalytic residues of cellobiose 2-epimerase from Ruminococcus albus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shigeaki; Hamada, Shigeki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirokazu; Ozawa, Tadahiro; Taguchi, Hidenori; Ito, Susumu

    2009-07-01

    The cellobiose 2-epimerase from Ruminococcus albus (RaCE) catalyzes the epimerization of cellobiose and lactose to 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose and 4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-mannose (epilactose). Based on the sequence alignment with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases of known structure and on a homology-modeled structure of RaCE, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of possible catalytic residues in the enzyme, and the mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli cells. We found that R52, H243, E246, W249, W304, E308, and H374 were absolutely required for the activity of RaCE. F114 and W303 also contributed to catalysis. These residues protruded into the active-site cleft in the model (alpha/alpha)(6) core barrel structure.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Thermocrinis albus type strain (HI 11/12T)

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Reinhard; Sikorski, Johannes; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Misra, Monica; Lapidus, Alla L.; Copeland, A; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tice, Hope; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Pati, Amrita; Anderson, Iain; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Bilek, Yvonne; Hader, Thomas; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Tindall, Brian; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Thermocrinis albus Eder and Huber 2002 is one of three species in the genus Thermocrinis in the family Aquificaceae. Members of this family have become of significant interest because of their involvement in global biogeochemical cycles in high-temperature ecosystems. This interest had already spurred several genome sequencing projects for members of the family. We here report the first completed genome sequence a member of the genus Thermocrinis and the first type strain genome from a member of the family Aquificaceae. The 1,500,577 bp long genome with its 1,603 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyc-lopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  16. CPD -20 1123 (Albus 1) Is a Bright He-B Subdwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennes, Stéphane; Kawka, Adéla; Smith, J. Allyn

    2007-10-01

    Based on photometric and astrometric data it has been proposed that Albus 1 (also known as CPD -20 1123) might be a hot white dwarf similar to G191-B2B or, alternatively, a hot subdwarf. We obtained a series of optical spectra showing that CPD -20 1123 is a bright He-B subdwarf. We analyzed the H I Balmer and He I line spectra and measured Teff = 19,800 +/- 400 K, logg=4.55+/-0.10, and logN(He)/N(H)=0.15+/-0.15. This peculiar object belongs to a family of evolved helium-rich stars that may be the products of double-degenerate mergers, or, alternatively, the products of post horizontal- or giant-branch evolution.

  17. Partial purification of ferredoxin from Ruminococcus albus and its role in pyruvate metabolism and reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by H2.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, T L; Bryant, M P; Wolin, M J

    1977-01-01

    Extracts of Ruminococcus albus were not able to convert pyruvate to acetyl phosphate, CO2, and H2 after passage through a diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose column. Activity was restored by a brown protein fraction eluted from the column with 0.4 M Cl-. The protein was partially purified and shown to have the spectral and biological characteristics of ferredoxin. R. albus ferredoxin, Clostridium pasteurianum ferredoxin, and methyl viologen restored activity for pyruvate decomposition by DEAE-cellulose-treated R. albus extracts. R. albus or C. pasteurianum ferredoxin restored the ability of DEAE-cellulose-treated C. pasteurianum extracts to form H2 and acetyl phosphate from pyruvate. Ferredoxin-free extracts of R. albus reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) when supplemented with R. albus or C. pasteurianum ferredoxin or with methyl viologen. These extracts reduced NADP with H2 poorly unless both ferredoxin and NAD were added, which indicates the presence of an NADH:NADP transhydrogenase. Flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide were rapidly reduced by H2 by ferredoxin-free extracts in the absence of ferredoxin. PMID:195928

  18. Isolation and identification of a lethal rhabdovirus from farmed rice field eels Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Ou, Tong; Zhu, Ruo-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2013-11-06

    We provide the first description of a virus responsible for a systemic hemorrhagic disease causing high mortality in farmed rice field eels Monopterus albus in China. Typical signs exhibited by the diseased fish were extensive hemorrhages in the skin and viscera and some neurological signs, such as loss of equilibrium and disorganized swimming. Histopathological examination revealed various degrees of necrosis within the spleen and liver. Virus isolation was attempted from visceral tissues of diseased fish by inoculation on 6 fish cell lines. Typical cytopathic effects (CPE) were produced in bluegill fry (BF2) cells, so this cell line was chosen for further isolation and propagation of the virus. Electron microscopy observation showed that the negative stained viral particles had the characteristic bullet shape of rhabdoviruses and an estimated size of 60 × 120 nm. We therefore tentatively refer to this virus as Monopterus albus rhabdovirus (MoARV). Molecular characterization of MoARV, including sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and glycoprotein (G) genes, revealed 94.5 to 97.3% amino acid similarity to that of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences of N and G proteins indicated that MoARV should be a member of the genus Vesiculovirus. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by infecting healthy rice field eels with MoARV, which produced an acute infection. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MoARV RNA could be detected in both naturally and experimentally infected fish. The data suggest that MoARV was the causative pathogen of the disease.

  19. Seasonal and annual variations in the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L.

    PubMed

    Fisogni, A; Rossi, M; Sgolastra, F; Bortolotti, L; Bogo, G; de Manincor, N; Quaranta, M; Galloni, M

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between insect and plant traits outlines the patterns of pollen transfer and the subsequent plant reproductive fitness. We studied the factors that affect the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L. by evaluating insect behaviour and morphological characteristics in relation to flowering phenology. In order to extrapolate the pollinator importance of single taxa and of the whole pollinator guild, we calculated an index distinguishing between potential (PPI) and realized (RPI) pollinator importance. Although the pollinator species spectrum appeared rather constant, we found high intra- and inter-annual variability of pollinator frequency and importance within the insect community. Flower visitation rate strictly depended on insect abundance and on the overlap between their flying period and flower blooming. All the pollinators visited flowers from the bottom to the top of the racemes, excluding intra-plant geitonogamous pollination, and most of them showed high pollen fidelity. Only medium large-sized bees could contact the upward bending stiles while feeding on nectar, highlighting a specialisation of the plant towards bigger pollinators. Moreover, we found evidence of functional specialisation, since all pollinators were restricted to a single taxonomic group (order: Hymenoptera; superfamily: Apoidea). Both the PPI and RPI indices indicate Habropoda tarsata as the most important pollinator of D. albus. Following hand cross-pollination experiments we revealed the presence of pollination limitation in 1 of the 3 years of field study. We discuss this result in relation to flowering abundance and to possible mismatches of phenological periods between plants and insects.

  20. Putrescine N-Methyltransferase in Cultured Roots of Hyoscyamus albus1

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, Naruhiro; Fujita, Toshihiro; Hatano, Mika; Hashimoto, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuyuki

    1992-01-01

    Biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids is thought to proceed by way of the diamine putrescine, followed by its methylation by putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT; EC 2.1.1.53). High PMT activities were found in branch roots and/or cultured roots of several solanaceous plants. PMT was partially purified and characterized from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus albus that contain hyoscyamine as the main alkaloid. Initial velocity studies and product inhibition patterns of PMT are consistent with an ordered bi-bi mechanism, in which the Km values for putrescine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine are 277 and 203 μm, respectively, and the Ki value for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine is 110 μm. PMT efficiently N-methylated amines that have at least two amino groups separated by three or four methylene groups. Monoamines were good competitive inhibitors of PMT, among which n-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, and exo-2-aminonorbornane were most inhibitory, with respective Ki values of 11.0, 9.1, and 10.0 μm. When n-butylamine was fed to root cultures of H. albus, the alkamine intermediates (tropinone, tropine, and pseudotropine) drastically decreased at 1 mm of the exogenous monoamine, and the hyoscyamine content decreased by 52% at 6 mm, whereas the contents of 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine and scopolamine did not change. Free and conjugated forms of polyamines were also measured. The n-butylamine treatment caused a large increase in the putrescine content (especially in the conjugated pool), and the spermine content also increased slightly, whereas the spermidine content decreased slightly. The increase in the putrescine pool size (approximately 40 nmol/mg dry weight) was large enough to account for the decrease in the total alkaloid pool size. Similar results were also obtained in root cultures of Datura stramonium. These studies further support the role of PMT as the first committed enzyme specific to alkaloid biosynthesis. Images Figure 8 PMID:16653064

  1. Triportheus albus Cope, 1872 in the Blackwater, Clearwater, and Whitewater of the Amazon: A Case of Phenotypic Plasticity?

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, José D. A.; Ghelfi, Andrea; Val, Adalberto L.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon basin includes 1000s of bodies of water, that are sorted according to their color in three types: blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater, which significantly differ in terms of their physicochemical parameters. More than 3,000 species of fish live in the rivers of the Amazon, among them, the sardine, Triportheus albus, which is one of the few species that inhabit all three types of water. The purpose of our study was to analyze if the gene expression of T. albus is determined by the different types of water, that is, if the species presents phenotypic plasticity to live in blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater. Gills of T. albus were collected at well-characterized sites for each type of water. Nine cDNA libraries were constructed, three biological replicates of each condition and the RNA was sequenced (RNA-Seq) on the MiSeq® Platform (Illumina®). A total of 51.6 million of paired-end reads, and 285,456 transcripts were assembled. Considering the FDR ≤ 0.05 and fold change ≥ 2, 13,754 differentially expressed genes were detected in the three water types. Two mechanisms related to homeostasis were detected in T. albus that live in blackwater, when compared to the ones in clearwater and whitewater. The acidic blackwater is a challenging environment for many types of aquatic organisms. The first mechanism is related to the decrease in cellular permeability, highlighting the genes coding for claudin proteins, actn4, itgb3b, DSP, Gap junction protein, and Ca2+-ATPase. The second with ionic and acid-base regulation [rhcg1, slc9a6a (NHE), ATP6V0A2, Na+/K+-ATPase, slc26a4 (pedrin) and slc4a4b]. We suggest T. albus is a good species of fish for future studies involving the ionic and acid-base regulation of Amazonian species. We also concluded that, T. albus, shows well defined phenotypic plasticity for each water type in the Amazon basin. PMID:28912799

  2. Production and characterization of vaginal suppositories with propolis wax as active agent to prevent and treat Fluor albus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farida, Siti; Azizah, Nurul; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Based on the content contained in propolis wax especially antimicrobial function, it can be analyzed that propolis wax had superiority for Fluor albus. This research was conducted on two formulation of vaginal suppositories with base, supplementary and active agent as a fixed variable: 2% propolis wax (% w/w). Evaluation of this research were weight variation, melting time, consistency, irritation effect test and physical and chemical stability test (organoleptic, pH and polyphenol content).

  3. Chromosomal position effect influences the heterologous expression of genes and biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces albus J1074.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Bohdan; Horbal, Liliya; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-01-04

    Efforts to construct the Streptomyces host strain with enhanced yields of heterologous product have focussed mostly on engineering of primary metabolism and/or the deletion of endogenous biosynthetic gene clusters. However, other factors, such as chromosome compactization, have been shown to have a significant influence on gene expression levels in bacteria and fungi. The expression of genes and biosynthetic gene clusters may vary significantly depending on their location within the chromosome. Little is known about the position effect in actinomycetes, which are important producers of various industrially relevant bioactive molecules. To demonstrate an impact of the chromosomal position effect on the heterologous expression of genes and gene clusters in Streptomyces albus J1074, a transposon mutant library with randomly distributed transposon that includes a β-glucuronidase reporter gene was generated. Reporter gene expression levels have been shown to depend on the position on the chromosome. Using a combination of the transposon system and a φC31-based vector, the aranciamycin biosynthetic cluster was introduced randomly into the S. albus genome. The production levels of aranciamycin varied up to eightfold depending on the location of the gene cluster within the chromosome of S. albus J1074. One of the isolated mutant strains with an artificially introduced attachment site produced approximately 50% more aranciamycin than strains with endogenous attBs. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of the reporter gene and aranciamycin biosynthetic cluster in Streptomyces albus J1074 varies up to eightfold depending on its position on the chromosome. The integration of the heterologous cluster into different locations on the chromosome may significantly influence the titre of the produced substance. This knowledge can be used for the more efficient engineering of Actinobacteria via the relocation of the biosynthetic gene clusters and insertion of additional

  4. Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2014-11-03

    We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus.

  5. Investigation of the biosorption characteristics of lead(II) ions onto Symphoricarpus albus: Batch and dynamic flow studies.

    PubMed

    Akar, Sibel Tunali; Gorgulu, Asli; Anilan, Burcu; Kaynak, Zerrin; Akar, Tamer

    2009-06-15

    This work reports the results of the study for lead(II) binding by the natural and low cost biosorbent Symphoricarpus albus. Batch biosorption experiments demonstrated the high rate of lead(II) biosorption and the kinetic data were successfully described by a pseudo-second-order model. Biosorption of lead(II) onto S. albus biomass showed a pH-dependent profile and lead(II) biosorption was higher when pH or temperature was increased. As much as 88.5% removal of lead(II) is also possible in the multi-metal mixture. The Langmuir isotherm better fits the biosorption data and the monolayer biosorption capacity was 3.00 x 10(-4) mol g(-1) at 45 C. The biomass was characterized with FTIR and SEM analysis. Desorption studies revealed that the natural biomass could be regenerated using 10mM HNO(3) solution with about 99% recovery and reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles. Therefore, S. albus which is cheap, highly selective and easily regenerable seems to be a promising substrate to entrap lead(II) ions in aqueous solutions.

  6. Bioconversion of Cellulose to Acetate with Pure Cultures of Ruminococcus albus and a Hydrogen-Using Acetogen.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Wolin, M J

    1995-11-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose to acetate was accomplished with cocultures of two organisms. One was the cellulolytic species Ruminococcus albus. It ferments crystalline cellulose (Avicel) to acetate, ethanol, CO(inf2), and H(inf2). The other organism (HA) obtains energy for growth by using H(inf2) to reduce CO(inf2) to acetate. HA is a gram-negative coccobacillus that was isolated from horse feces. Coculture of R. albus with HA in batch or continuous culture alters the fermentation products formed from crystalline cellulose by the ruminococcus via interspecies H(inf2) transfer. The major product of the fermentation by R. albus and HA coculture is acetate. High concentrations of acetate (333 mM) were obtained when batch cocultures grown on 5% cellulose were neutralized with Ca(OH)(inf2). Continuous cocultures grown at retention times of 2 and 3.1 days produced 109 and 102 mM acetate, respectively, when fed 1% cellulose with utilization of 84% of the substrate.

  7. Effect of soluble carbohydrates on digestion of cellulose by pure cultures of rumen bacteria. [Ruminococcus flavefaciens, R. albus, Bacteroides succinogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Hiltner, P.; Dehority, B.A.

    1983-09-01

    The rate of cellulose digestion in the presence of either glucose or cellobiose was studied for the three predominant species of cellulolytic rumen bacteria: Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Bacteroides succinogenes. When a soluble carbohydrate was added to cellulose broth, the lag phase of cellulose digestion was shortened. Presumably, this was due to greater numbers of bacteria, because increasing the size of the inoculum had a similar effect. Cellulose digestion occurred simultaneously with utilization of the soluble carbohydrate. The rate of cellulose digestion slowed markedly for B. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens and slowed less for R. albus after the cellobiose or glucose had been utilized, and was accompanied by a decrease in pH. Both the rate and the extent of cellulose digestion were partially inhibited when the initial pH of the medium was 6.3 or below. R. albus appeared to be less affected by a low-pH medium than were B. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens. When a soluble carbohydrate was added to the fermentation during the maximum-rate phase of cellulose digestion, the rate of cellulose digestion was not affected until after the soluble carbohydrate had been depleted and the pH had decreased markedly. Prolonged exposure of the bacteria to a low pH had little if any effect on their subsequent ability to digest cellulose. Cellulase activity of intact bacterial cells appeared to be constitutive in nature for these three species of rumen bacteria. 30 references.

  8. Bioconversion of Cellulose to Acetate with Pure Cultures of Ruminococcus albus and a Hydrogen-Using Acetogen

    PubMed Central

    Miller, T. L.; Wolin, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose to acetate was accomplished with cocultures of two organisms. One was the cellulolytic species Ruminococcus albus. It ferments crystalline cellulose (Avicel) to acetate, ethanol, CO(inf2), and H(inf2). The other organism (HA) obtains energy for growth by using H(inf2) to reduce CO(inf2) to acetate. HA is a gram-negative coccobacillus that was isolated from horse feces. Coculture of R. albus with HA in batch or continuous culture alters the fermentation products formed from crystalline cellulose by the ruminococcus via interspecies H(inf2) transfer. The major product of the fermentation by R. albus and HA coculture is acetate. High concentrations of acetate (333 mM) were obtained when batch cocultures grown on 5% cellulose were neutralized with Ca(OH)(inf2). Continuous cocultures grown at retention times of 2 and 3.1 days produced 109 and 102 mM acetate, respectively, when fed 1% cellulose with utilization of 84% of the substrate. PMID:16535158

  9. Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

  10. Protein profile of Lupinus texensis phloem sap exudates: searching for Fe- and Zn-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Andaluz, Sofía; Matros, Andrea; Calvete, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phloem sap protein profile of Lupinus texensis, with a special focus on proteins binding Fe and Zn. L. texensis was chosen as model plant given the simplicity to obtain exudates from sieve elements. Protein profiling by 2DE revealed 249 spots, and 54 of them were unambiguously identified by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The largest number of identified protein species belongs to protein modification/turnover and general metabolism (19-21%), followed by redox homeostasis (9%) and defense and cell structural components (7%). This protein profile is similar to that reported in other plant species, suggesting that the phloem sap proteome is quite conserved. Staining of 2DE gels for Fe-containing proteins and affinity chromatography experiments revealed the presence of two low molecular weight Fe-binding proteins in phloem sap: a metallothionein-like protein type 2B identified in the Fe-affinity chromatography, and a second protein identified with both Fe staining methods. This protein species had a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, a pI of 5.6 and 51% homology to a phloem-specific protein from Medicago truncatula. Zinc affinity chromatography revealed four Zn-binding proteins in phloem sap, one belonging to the dehydrin family and three Zn finger proteins.

  11. Production of Rhizobium Inoculants for Lupinus nootkatensis on Nutrient-Supplemented Pumice

    PubMed Central

    Einarsson, Sigurbjorn; Gudmundsson, Jon; Sverrisson, Halldor; Kristjansson, Jakob K.; Runolfsson, Sveinn

    1993-01-01

    The use of the legume Lupinus nootkatensis as a pioneer plant to fight soil erosion and to reclaim eroded soils in Iceland has been under development for a few years. Production of a robust, low-cost bacterial inoculant was therefore a prerequisite for the extended use of this plant. Volcanic pumice is a naturally expanded mineral which is available in vast amounts in Iceland. It was tested as a carrier for solid fermentation of Rhizobium lupini. Nutrient-supplemented pumice containing a small percentage of peat and diatomaceous earth and kept in sterile plastic bags promoted good growth of the bacteria. Viable-colony counts remained stable at 108 to 109/g for at least 35 weeks when the carrier was stored at 22°C. The pumice-based inoculant had good storage and handling properties and could be mixed directly with the seeds during the sowing process. When seeds of L. nootkatensis were sown manually into nutrient-poor eroded sandy soils, about 56% of the first-year plants were successfully nodulated. PMID:16349083

  12. The neotropical shrub Lupinus elegans, fromtemperate forests, may not adapt to climate change.

    PubMed

    Soto-Correa, J C; Sáenz-Romero, C; Lindig-Cisneros, R; de la Barrera, E

    2013-05-01

    Considering that their distribution is limited to altitudinal gradients along mountains that are likely to become warmer and drier, climate change poses an increased threat to temperate forest species from tropical regions. We studied whether the understorey shrub Lupinus elegans, endemic to temperate forests of west-central Mexico, will be able to withstand the projected temperature increase under seven climate change scenarios. Seeds were collected along an altitudinal gradient and grown in a shade-house over 7 months before determining their temperature tolerance as electrolyte leakage. The plants from colder sites tolerated lower temperatures, i.e. the temperature at which half of the maximum electrolyte leakage occurred (LT50), ranged from −6.4 ± 0.7 to −2.4 ± 0.3 °C. In contrast, no pattern was found for tolerance to high temperature (LT50 average 42.8 ± 0.3 °C). The climate change scenarios considered here consistently estimated an increase in air temperature during the present century that was higher for the maximum air temperature than for the mean or minimum. In particular, the anomaly from the normal maximum air temperature at the study region ranged from 2.8 °C by 2030 to 5.8 °C by 2090. In this respect, the inability of L. elegans to adapt to increasingly higher temperatures found here, in addition to a possible inhibition of reproduction caused by warmer winters, may limit its future distribution.

  13. A pentamer-repeat-containing DNA sequence in Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis Hook.)

    PubMed

    MacRae, A F

    1998-08-01

    A 654-bp EcoRI restriction fragment called Lup4 was shotgun cloned from Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis Hook.) nucle